WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood circulation time

  1. Prolonged in vivo circulation time by zwitterionic modification of magnetite nanoparticles for blood pool contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wangchuan; Lin, Jiang; Li, Mingli; Ma, Yongjie; Chen, Yuxin; Zhang, Chunfu; Li, Dan; Gu, Hongchen

    2012-01-01

    Long circulation time is critical for blood pool contrast agents used in high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. For iron oxide particle contrast agents, size and surface properties significantly influence their in vivo performance. We developed a novel long-circulating blood pool contrast agent by introducing zwitterionic structure onto the particle surface. Zwitterionic structure was fabricated by 3-(diethylamino)propylamine (DEAPA) grafted onto the surface of ployacrylic acid coated magnetite nanoparticles via EDC/NHS [N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbo-diimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide] coupling chemistry. Zwitterionic particles demonstrated five times lower macrophage cell uptake than the original particles and low cell toxicity. Magnetic resonance angiography indicated that zwitterionic nanoparticles had much longer in vivo circulation time than the original particles and were an ideal candidate for blood pool contrast agent. We suppose that zwitterionic modification by DEAPA and EDC/NHS can be used generally for coating nanoparticles with carboxyl surface and to prolong their circulating time.

  2. Systematic assessment of blood circulation time of functionalized upconversion nanoparticles in the chick embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadort, Annemarie; Liang, Liuen; Grebenik, Ekaterina; Guller, Anna; Lu, Yiqing; Qian, Yi; Goldys, Ewa; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs and contrast agents holds great promise in cancer research, because of the increased delivery efficiency compared to `free' drugs and dyes. A versatile platform to investigate nanotechnology is the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane tumour model, due to its availability (easy, cheap) and accessibility (interventions, imaging). In our group, we developed this model using several tumour cell lines (e.g. breast cancer, colon cancer). In addition, we have synthesized in-house silica coated photoluminescent upconversion nanoparticles with several functional groups (COOH, NH2, PEG). In this work we will present the systematic assessment of their in vivo blood circulation times. To this end, we injected chick embryos grown ex ovo with the functionalized UCNPs and obtained a small amount of blood at several time points after injection to create blood smears The UCNP signal from the blood smears was quantified using a modified inverted microscope imaging set-up. The results of this systematic study are valuable to optimize biochemistry protocols and guide nanomedicine advancement in the versatile chick embryo tumour model.

  3. Enhanced conjugation stability and blood circulation time of macromolecular gadolinium-DTPA contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenjob, Ratchapol [Department of New Drug Development, School of Medicine, Inha University, 2F A-dong, Jeongseok Bldg., Sinheung-dong 3-ga, Jung-gu, Incheon 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kun, Na [Department of Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, 43 Jibong-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si, Gyeonggi-do 420-743 (Korea, Republic of); Ghee, Jung Yeon [Utah-Inha DDS and Advanced Therapeutics, B-403 Meet-You-All Tower, SongdoTechnopark, 7–50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Xiaoxia [Division of Functional Materials and Nano-Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Street, Zhenhai District, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Cho, Steve K., E-mail: scho@gist.ac.kr [Division of Liberal Arts and Science, GIST College, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Don Haeng [Utah-Inha DDS and Advanced Therapeutics, B-403 Meet-You-All Tower, SongdoTechnopark, 7–50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon 420-751 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Su-Geun, E-mail: Sugeun.Yang@Inha.ac.kr [Department of New Drug Development, School of Medicine, Inha University, 2F A-dong, Jeongseok Bldg., Sinheung-dong 3-ga, Jung-gu, Incheon 400-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we prepared macromolecular MR T1 contrast agent: pullulan-conjugated Gd diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA-Pullulan) and estimated residual free Gd{sup 3+}, chelation stability in competition with metal ions, plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics, and abdominal MR contrast on rats. Residual free Gd{sup 3+} in Gd-DTPA-Pullulan was measured using colorimetric spectroscopy. The transmetalation of Gd{sup 3+} incubated with Ca{sup 2+} was performed by using a dialysis membrane (MWCO 100–500 Da) and investigated by ICP-OES. The plasma concentration profiles of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan were estimated after intravenous injection at a dose 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd. The coronal-plane abdominal images of normal rats were observed by MR imaging. The content of free Gd{sup 3+}, the toxic residual form, was less than 0.01%. Chelation stability of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan was estimated, and only 0.2% and 0.00045% of Gd{sup 3+} were released from Gd-DTPA-Pullulan after 2 h incubation with Ca{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+}, respectively. Gd-DTPA-Pullulan displayed the extended plasma half-life (t{sub 1/2,α} = 0.43 h, t{sub 1/2,β} = 2.32 h), much longer than 0.11 h and 0.79 h of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Abdominal MR imaging showed Gd-DTPA-Pullulan maintained initial MR contrast for 30 min. The extended plasma half-life of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan probably allows the prolonged MR acquisition time in clinic with enhanced MR contrast. - Highlights: • Macromolecule (pullulan) conjugated Gd contrast agent (Gd-DTPA-Pullulan) showed the extended plasma half-life (t{sub 1/2,α} = 0.43 h, t{sub 1/2,β} = 2.32 h) in comparison with Gd-EOB-DTPA • Gd-DTPA-pullulan T1 contrast agent exhibited strong chelation stability against Gd. • The extended blood circulation attributed the enhanced and prolonged MR contrast on abdominal region of rats. • The extended blood circulation may provide prolonged MR acquisition time window in clinics.

  4. Study on time-based variation of blood circulation index, pulse wave energy, and RAI of healthy adult men after different eating times

    OpenAIRE

    Gyeong-Cheol Kim; Ki-Young Ji; Yi-Soon Kim; Yi-Sub Kwak

    2013-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of different eating times on blood circulation index, pulse wave energy (E), and radial augmentation index (RAI) of healthy adult men. Methods: Blood circulation index, E, and RAI were measured using a three-dimensional (3-D) pulse imaging system (3-D MAC) at before, right after, 30 minutes after, 1 hour after, and 2 hours after eating. Results: In the blood circulation index, heart rate (HR), estimated cardiac output (ECO)...

  5. A blood circulation model for reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Div. of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersal of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravascular injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is to improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The total blood volume is partitioned into the blood contents of 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chambers, left heart chambers, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the systemic tissues (aorta and large arteries), and venous return from the systemic tissues (large veins). As a compromise between physical reality and computational simplicity, the circulation of blood is viewed as a system of first-order transfers between blood pools, with the delay time depending on the mean transit time across the pool. The model allows consideration of incomplete, tissue-dependent extraction of material during passage through the circulation and return of material from tissues to plasma.

  6. Time-evolution of in vivo protein corona onto blood-circulating PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (DOXIL) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidemetriou, Marilena; Al-Ahmady, Zahraa; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are instantly modified once injected in the bloodstream because of their interaction with the blood components. The spontaneous coating of NPs by proteins, once in contact with biological fluids, has been termed the `protein corona' and it is considered to be a determinant factor for the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic profile of NPs. Protein exposure time is thought to greatly influence the composition of protein corona, however the dynamics of protein interactions under realistic, in vivo conditions remain unexplored. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the time evolution of in vivo protein corona, formed onto blood circulating, clinically used, PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Protein adsorption profiles were determined 10 min, 1 h and 3 h post-injection of liposomes into CD-1 mice. The results demonstrated that a complex protein corona was formed as early as 10 min post-injection. Even though the total amount of protein adsorbed did not significantly change over time, the fluctuation of protein abundances observed indicated highly dynamic protein binding kinetics.Nanoparticles (NPs) are instantly modified once injected in the bloodstream because of their interaction with the blood components. The spontaneous coating of NPs by proteins, once in contact with biological fluids, has been termed the `protein corona' and it is considered to be a determinant factor for the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic profile of NPs. Protein exposure time is thought to greatly influence the composition of protein corona, however the dynamics of protein interactions under realistic, in vivo conditions remain unexplored. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the time evolution of in vivo protein corona, formed onto blood circulating, clinically used, PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Protein adsorption profiles were determined 10 min, 1 h and 3 h post

  7. Time-evolution of in vivo protein corona onto blood-circulating PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (DOXIL) nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidemetriou, Marilena; Al-Ahmady, Zahraa; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2016-04-07

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are instantly modified once injected in the bloodstream because of their interaction with the blood components. The spontaneous coating of NPs by proteins, once in contact with biological fluids, has been termed the 'protein corona' and it is considered to be a determinant factor for the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic profile of NPs. Protein exposure time is thought to greatly influence the composition of protein corona, however the dynamics of protein interactions under realistic, in vivo conditions remain unexplored. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the time evolution of in vivo protein corona, formed onto blood circulating, clinically used, PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Protein adsorption profiles were determined 10 min, 1 h and 3 h post-injection of liposomes into CD-1 mice. The results demonstrated that a complex protein corona was formed as early as 10 min post-injection. Even though the total amount of protein adsorbed did not significantly change over time, the fluctuation of protein abundances observed indicated highly dynamic protein binding kinetics.

  8. Accurate measurement of circulating mitochondrial DNA content from human blood samples using real-time quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaz, Saima; Czajka, Anna; Malik, Afshan

    2015-01-01

    We describe a protocol to accurately measure the amount of human mitochondrial DNA (MtDNA) in peripheral blood samples which can be modified to quantify MtDNA from other body fluids, human cells, and tissues. This protocol is based on the use of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify the amount of MtDNA relative to nuclear DNA (designated the Mt/N ratio). In the last decade, there have been increasing numbers of studies describing altered MtDNA or Mt/N in circulation in common nongenetic diseases where mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role (for review see Malik and Czajka, Mitochondrion 13:481-492, 2013). These studies are distinct from those looking at genetic mitochondrial disease and are attempting to identify acquired changes in circulating MtDNA content as an indicator of mitochondrial function. However, the methodology being used is not always specific and reproducible. As more than 95 % of the human mitochondrial genome is duplicated in the human nuclear genome, it is important to avoid co-amplification of nuclear pseudogenes. Furthermore, template preparation protocols can also affect the results because of the size and structural differences between the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes. Here we describe how to (1) prepare DNA from blood samples; (2) pretreat the DNA to prevent dilution bias; (3) prepare dilution standards for absolute quantification using the unique primers human mitochondrial genome forward primer (hMitoF3) and human mitochondrial genome reverse primer(hMitoR3) for the mitochondrial genome, and human nuclear genome forward primer (hB2MF1) and human nuclear genome reverse primer (hB2MR1) primers for the human nuclear genome; (4) carry out qPCR for either relative or absolute quantification from test samples; (5) analyze qPCR data; and (6) calculate the sample size to adequately power studies. The protocol presented here is suitable for high-throughput use.

  9. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    tuna, circulation time is approximately 0.4 min (47 ml kg-1/115 ml min-1 kg- 1) compared with 1.3 min (46 ml kg-1/35 ml min-1 kg-1) in yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and 1.9 min (35 ml kg-1/18 ml min-1 kg-1) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In air-breathing vertebrates, high metabolic rates...... are necessarily correlated with short circulation times. Our data are the first to imply that a similar relationship occurs in fishes....

  10. [William Harvey, discoverer of the blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    v Mühlendahl, K E

    2007-06-01

    William Harvey (1578-1657), living at the turn to modern times, scientifically speaking, was an eminent physician and scientist. He developed the concept of the circulation of the blood and his findings have proved to be correct in nearly all details to this day. He published his physiological findings and interpretations in a small, albeit epoch-making, volume: Exercitatio anatomica de motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus, published in Frankfurt in 1628. On the occasion of the 350th anniversary of his death on June 3, 2007, this essay commemorates the work of this important physician, illustrating his brilliant conception of the blood circulation by quoting passages from De motu cordis et sanguinis.

  11. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  12. Measurement of cerebral circulation time in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celsis, P.; Chan, M.; Marc-Vergnes, J.P.; Leydet, P.; Viallard, G.; Charlet, J.P.; Danet, B.

    1985-05-01

    A simple, inexpensive method for measuring the cerebral circulation time (CCT) was developed. The CCT was considered to be equal to the time that an intravenously injected bolus of sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m took to go from the subclavian artery to the posterior venous confluence. The dilution curves were externally recorded at these two vessels. Particular attention was given to the curve treatment. The computer programmes were specially conceived in order to detect and, if possible, correct the experimental curve defects. Several reliability criteria were also defined in order to test the validity of each measurement. From a physiological point of view, the CCT is equal to the ratio of the global cerebral blood volume to the global cerebral blood flow. Thus, it can be widely applied in clinical research. For example, in a study of the relationship between CCT and age, sex and light cerebrovascular impairment, the technique was sensitive enough to discriminate between healthy subjects and patients suffering from-transient ischemic attack, or regressive stroke, and to show the action of a drug on the cerebral circulation in such patients.

  13. Metabolism of nanomaterials in vivo: blood circulation and organ clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; He, Xiao; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhao, Yuliang; Feng, Weiyue

    2013-03-19

    occurring between NMs and between NMs and the biological milieu after the introduction of NMs into living systems may further influence the blood circulation and clearance profiles of NMs. These interactions can alter properties such as agglomeration, phase transformations, dissolution, degradation, protein adsorption, and surface reactivity. The physicochemical properties of NMs change dynamically in vivo thereby making the metabolism of NMs complex and difficult to predict. The development of in situ, real-time, and quantitative techniques, in vitro assays, and the adaptation of physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QNSAR) modeling for NMs will streamline future in vivo studies.

  14. Optimizing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging of vessel wall inflammation: the impact of {sup 18}F-FDG circulation time, injected dose, uptake parameters, and fasting blood glucose levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Moncrieff, Colin [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Machac, Josef [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fuster, Valentin [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid (Spain); Farkouh, Michael E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Clinical Trials Unit, New York, NY (United States); Tawakol, Ahmed [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [Cambridge University, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data are available on the impact of methodological variables, i.e. prescan fasting glucose, FDG circulation time and injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG PET imaging. Included in the study were 195 patients who underwent vascular FDG PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standardized uptake values ({sub mean}SUV{sub max}), target-to-background ratios ({sub mean}TBR{sub max}) and FDG blood-pool activity in the superior vena cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake values classified according to the tertiles of prescan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l, showing a favorable relationship between arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with aortic{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values as well as SVC and JV FDG blood-pool activity, but positive correlations with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} values. Prescan glucose levels were negatively associated with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} and carotid{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values, but were positively correlated with SVC blood-pool uptake. The injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with vascular FDG uptake. FDG circulation times and prescan blood glucose levels significantly affect FDG uptake in the aortic and carotid walls and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG PET/CT. The injected FDG dose was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels less than 7.0 mmol

  15. Relationships among Ocular Blood Flow Shown by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy, Retinal Arteriosclerotic Change, and Chorioretinal Circulation Time Obtained by Fluorescein Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itokawa, Takashi; Hori, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH) shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA). Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec) obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A), in the tissue (MBR-T), and in the vessels (MBR-V) were analyzed. Results. Patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) showed prolonged early and late phases of RT compared to other ocular diseases. Single and multiple regression analyses showed that the MBR-V and Scheie classification were significantly associated with both the choroidal flush and arm-to-retina times. The incidences of RVO and MVR-V were significantly associated with the early phase of RT, and the incidences of RVO, MBR-V, Scheie classification, and gender were revealed to be factors independently contributing to the late phase of RT. Conclusion. MBR-V in the ONH and retinal arteriosclerosis are important contributing factors for the circulation time of each stage obtained by FA.

  16. Relationships among Ocular Blood Flow Shown by Laser Speckle Flowgraphy, Retinal Arteriosclerotic Change, and Chorioretinal Circulation Time Obtained by Fluorescein Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Osamura

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the correlations among the mean blur rate (MBR in the optic nerve head (ONH shown by laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG, retinal arteriosclerosis, and the circulation time obtained by fluorescein angiography (FA. Method. We evaluated 118 patients and assessed their time of choroidal flush, arm-to-retina time, and early and late phases of retinal circulation time (RT: sec obtained by FA. The severity of retinal arteriosclerosis was classified according to the Scheie classification. The MBR values throughout the ONH (MBR-A, in the tissue (MBR-T, and in the vessels (MBR-V were analyzed. Results. Patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO showed prolonged early and late phases of RT compared to other ocular diseases. Single and multiple regression analyses showed that the MBR-V and Scheie classification were significantly associated with both the choroidal flush and arm-to-retina times. The incidences of RVO and MVR-V were significantly associated with the early phase of RT, and the incidences of RVO, MBR-V, Scheie classification, and gender were revealed to be factors independently contributing to the late phase of RT. Conclusion. MBR-V in the ONH and retinal arteriosclerosis are important contributing factors for the circulation time of each stage obtained by FA.

  17. EXTRACORPOREAL CIRCULATION: EFFECT OF LONG-TERM (24-HOUR) CIRCULATION ON BLOOD COMPONENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Robert Glen

    2010-01-01

    Extracorporeal circulation damages blood and causes harmful side effects such as stroke and/or systemic inflammatory response in patients. Reactions of blood components to extracorporeal circulation include complement and inflammatory reactions, coagulation and thrombogenesis, frank hemolysis, and platelet activation and adhesion to the extracorporeal circuit. Non-physiologic pressure and flow produced by blood pumps contribute to blood injury. Two pump types, roller and centrifugal, are u...

  18. Space-Time radar waveforms: circulating codes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babur, G.; Aubry, P.; Le Chevalier, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a concept of the circulating codes covering the whole class of the space-time codes. The circulating codes do not narrow the radiated pattern of the antenna array, thus providing a wide angular coverage, possibly tunable. In turn, the beam-forming on transmit is achievable by me

  19. Influence of obesity and androgen deficiency on prostatic blood circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Study at 120 Diabetes Mellitus II type men the high frequency Obesity (71,7% and Androgen Deficiency (52,8—64,5% of the patients depending on a degree of the indemnification and them pathogenic authentic communications were shown. The blood level of total testosterone was represented by the critical factor of Prostatic arterial Blood Circulation. Obesity and Androgen Deficiency are seem as independent risk factors to development of ischemic prostatopathy, such as Prostatic blood circulation Disorders can develop earlier than other variants of the diabetic microangiophaty.

  20. [Evaluation of the hypomagnetic environment effects on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure and heart rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Iu I; Vasin, A L; Matveeva, T A; Sasonko, M L

    2014-01-01

    Impact of attenuated magnetic field (MF) on human health is a hard-core issue of present-day cosmonautics. A series of experiments with animals exposed in attenuated MF revealed violent disorders in cardiovascular system development. Purpose of the work was to study effects of the hypomagnetic environment (HME) on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in normal people. Participants (n = 34) were 24 men and 10 women free from cardiovascular symptoms. Mean age was 43.3 +/- 15.4 years. Thirteen participants, i.e. 8 men and 5 women, were randomly selected for a repeated investigation in the usual conditions (imaginary exposure); mean age in the group made up 47.9 +/- 18 years. Cardiac rhythm and heart rate were recorded using cardiac monitor Astrocard (Russia). BP was measured with the help of automatic blood pressure monitor Tonocard (Russia). Capillary circulation was determined using a digital capillaroscope (Russia) with high-speed CMOS-camera (100 frames/s). Time of HME exposure was 60 min. It was demonstrated that in healthy people free from cardiovascular symptoms HME increases capillary circulation rate by 22.4% as compared with records made under the usual conditions. There was a reliable HR reduction by the end of HME exposure with reference to the measurements taken at the onset. At the end of exposure, diastolic BP dropped considerably relative to mid-exposure values and systolic BP, on the contrary, made a significant rise.

  1. Nanostructured Substrates for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Over the past decade, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become an emerging ``biomarker'' for detecting early-stage cancer metastasis, predicting patient prognosis, as well as monitoring disease progression and therapeutic outcomes. However, isolation of CTCs has been technically challenging due to the extremely low abundance (a few to hundreds per ml) of CTCs among a high number of hematologic cells (109 per mL) in the blood. Our joint research team at UCLA has developed a new cell capture technology for quantification of CTCs in whole blood samples. Similar to most of the existing approaches, epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody (anti-EpCAM) was grafted onto the surfaces to distinguish CTCs from the surrounding hematologic cells. The uniqueness of our technology is the use of nanostructured surfaces, which facilitates local topographical interactions between CTCs and substrates at the very first cell/substrate contacting time point. We demonstrated the ability of these nanostructured substrates to capture CTCs in whole blood samples with significantly improved efficiency and selectivity. The successful demonstration of this cell capture technology using brain, breast and prostate cancer cell lines encouraged us to test this approach in clinical setting. We have been able to bond our first validation study with a commercialized technology based on the use of immunomagnetic nanoparticles. A group of clinically well-characterized prostate cancer patients at UCLA hospital have been recruited and tested in parallel by these two technologies.

  2. Ultrasonic Doppler blood flow meter for extracorporeal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Ricardo G.; Costa, Eduardo T.; Maia, Joaquim M.; Nantes Button, Vera L. d. S.

    2000-04-01

    In cardiac surgeries it is frequently necessary to carry out interventions in internal heart structures, and where the blood circulation and oxygenation are made by artificial ways, out of the patient's body, in a procedure known as extracorporeal circulation (EC). During this procedure, one of the most important parameters, and that demands constant monitoring, is the blood flow. In this work, an ultrasonic pulsed Doppler blood flowmeter, to be used in an extracorporeal circulation system, was developed. It was used a 2 MHz ultrasonic transducer, measuring flows from 0 to 5 liters/min, coupled externally to the EC arterial line destined to adults perfusion (diameter of 9.53 mm). The experimental results using the developed flowmeter indicated a maximum deviation of 3.5% of full scale, while the blood flow estimator based in the rotation speed of the peristaltic pump presented deviations greater than 20% of full scale. This ultrasonic flowmeter supplies the results in a continuous and trustworthy way, and it does not present the limitations found in those flowmeters based in other transduction methods. Moreover, due to the fact of not being in contact with the blood, it is not disposable and it does not need sterilization, reducing operational costs and facilitating its use.

  3. Metabolic pathways that correlate with post-transfusion circulation of stored murine red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolski, Karen; Fu, Xiaoyoun; Dumont, Larry J; Roback, John D; Waterman, Hayley; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Howie, Heather L; Zimring, James C

    2016-05-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells is a very common inpatient procedure, with more than 1 in 70 people in the USA receiving a red blood cell transfusion annually. However, stored red blood cells are a non-uniform product, based upon donor-to-donor variation in red blood cell storage biology. While thousands of biological parameters change in red blood cells over storage, it has remained unclear which changes correlate with function of the red blood cells, as opposed to being co-incidental changes. In the current report, a murine model of red blood cell storage/transfusion is applied across 13 genetically distinct mouse strains and combined with high resolution metabolomics to identify metabolic changes that correlated with red blood cell circulation post storage. Oxidation in general, and peroxidation of lipids in particular, emerged as changes that correlated with extreme statistical significance, including generation of dicarboxylic acids and monohydroxy fatty acids. In addition, differences in anti-oxidant pathways known to regulate oxidative stress on lipid membranes were identified. Finally, metabolites were identified that differed at the time the blood was harvested, and predict how the red blood cells perform after storage, allowing the potential to screen donors at time of collection. Together, these findings map out a new landscape in understanding metabolic changes during red blood cell storage as they relate to red blood cell circulation.

  4. [Regulation of innate immunity during xenogenic changes in blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V S

    2001-01-01

    Calcium-dependent innate immune response with participation of the superfamily of immunoglobulins to several intra- and extracorporal xenobiotics were studied at 216 recipients during synthetic cardiac valves implantation or veins transplantation in coronary arteries. It was shown that immediate immune response to xenobiotics was manifested by generation of the antitissue anodical autoprecipitin with specificity to the surface cell membrane component. This reaction initiated and regulated the subsequent dynamics of the two different fibrinogen autoimmune complexes formation, resulting in development of the immunogenic damages of blood circulation. Correction of these rapid innate immune responses is important for prevention and normalisation of the xenogenic damages of blood circulation during trans- and implantation on the heart impaired with endocarditis or aterosclerosis.

  5. Harvey, by Hercules! The hero of the blood's circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke Boyle, Marjorie

    2013-01-01

    This article continues the analyses in Medical History 52 (2008), 73-90, 365-86 of William Harvey's self-understanding as the philosopher and discoverer of the blood's circulation. Harvey brilliantly and subversively assumed the persona of the mythological Hercules to embody his own anatomical labour in De motu cordis et sanguinis (1628). He reprised the role in self-defence against accusations in the College of Physicians, London, of his breach of faith with medical tradition. Harvey sought to usurp the medical epithet 'a second Hercules' by reforming humanist dependence on ancient texts as authoritative medicine. A knowledge of the theory and practice of Renaissance humanism discloses his identification with the Herculean labour of cleansing the Augean stable. He employed anatomical demonstration against Galen's porous cardiac septum, which admitted blood across the ventricles. Harvey's oath mehercule swore against Galen's Dia to assert the necessity of opening an alternate route for the blood flow. His Herculean labour was to dam the cardiac septum and divert the blood flow into a continuous channel through the arteries and veins. His circulation of the blood also imitated Hercules' successful dependence on the force of the water flow to flush the Augean stable. Harvey's copia did not denote a quantitative amount but a powerful supply. Harvey aspired to be, like Hercules, immortal, a term which the College belatedly acknowledged. This cultural analysis exposes Harvey's professional issues and personal ambitions, so to promote a fuller understanding of his historic role in medical discovery.

  6. Effects of the Intermittent Pneumatic Circulator on Blood Pressure during Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Ju Hsu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypotension is frequently reported during hemodialysis. This study aimed to examine the effect of the intermittent pneumatic circulator on blood pressure during hemodialysis. Sixteen subjects with chronic hemodialysis were recruited. Each subject randomly received two test conditions on separate days, hemodialysis with and without the circulator. The circulator was applied to the subject on lower extremities during 0.5–1 hr, 1.5–2 hr, 2.5–3 hr, and 3.5–4 hr of hemodialysis. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP and heart rate (HR were analyzed at pre-dialysis, 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr of hemodialysis. Stroke volume (SV and cardiac output (CO were evaluated between 2.5 and 3.0 hr of hemodialysis. Blood chemicals (sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorous and Kt/V before and after each hemodialysis session were analyzed. The number of episodes of hypotension was also recorded. The circulator intervention significantly improved SBP and DBP across all time points (P = 0.002 for SBP; P = 0.002 for DBP. The frequency of hypotension was significantly decreased (P = 0.028. SV and CO were significantly improved with the circulator intervention (P = 0.017 for SV; P = 0.026 for CO and no statistical significances were found on blood chemicals or Kt/V analyses. The results suggested that the circulator intervention helps stabilize blood pressure and appears to be a practical treatment. Future studies are suggested to develop new circulator innovations with sensor feedback systems to enhance safety and maximize treatment efficiency.

  7. Detection of micrometastasis of gastric carcinoma in peripheral blood circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Mei Chen; Guo-Yu Chen; Zhi-Rong Wang; Feng-Shang Zhu; Xiao-Lei Wang; Xia Zhang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To detect the micrometastasis of gastric carcinoma in peripheral blood circulation using immunomagnetic beads sorting technique and RT-PCR technique, and to discuss its significance and the difference between the two methods. METHODS: Density gradient centrifugation was used to isolate mononuclear cells from peripheral blood, immunomagnetic beads sorting technique and RT-PCR technique were used to detect the disseminated carcinoma cells. HE, immunocytochemical and immunofluorescence staining were also used to identify the characteristics of the cells separated with immunomagnetic beads sorting technique. RESULTS: Cells expressing cytokeratin were separated and enriched from the peripheral blood specimens of patients suffering from gastric carcinoma or chronic gastritis. After HE staining, two kinds of cells with little cytoplasm were found. Majority of these cells had small and round nuclei, even chromatins and the thickness of nuclear membrane was normal. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that there were CD34 and CD45 expression on the cell membrane of this kind of cells and these cells also showed expressed human telomerase reverse transcriptase by immunofluorescence staining, but the expression of carcinoembryonic antigen was absent. So, these cells might hematopoiesis precursors.Another kind of cells had larger and abnormal nuclei with thicker nuclear membranes. Massed chromatins and poly nucleoli were found in the nuclei. These cells expressed human telomerase reverse transcriptase and carcinoembryonic antigen, but CD34 and CD45 were not found on the cell membrane. So, these cells were considered as gastric carcinoma cells escaping from the original focuses and existing in the peripheral blood circulation. Carcinoma cells were found in 25 of 60(41.7%) specimens of peripheral blood from patients with gastric carcinoma, while there were no such cells separated from the blood specimens of chronic gastritis patients. The difference of positive rates of

  8. [The unfolding of the blood circulation doctrine: the correspondence between William Harvey and Caspar Hofmann in May 1636].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebollo, Regina André

    2002-01-01

    The present article analyzes the letters exchanged by Caspar Hofmann and William Harvey in 1636 and the delineation of the main questions and answers on the blood circulation theory. The first part of the article presents concepts about blood circulation according to the time's physiology; the second part presents the changes introduced by Harvey; the third and last part presents the debate between Hofmann and Harvey.

  9. Does Every Cell Get Blood? Young Students' Discussions about Illustrations of Human Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Anna-Karin; Karlsson, Karl-Goran

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of how groups of young students discuss illustrations of human blood circulation. Transparency is not an innate quality of illustrations, visual information is always coded and interpretations are always related to culture and context. Results of this study are discussed with reference to Kress and van Leeuwens'…

  10. [Effect of exercise in water on maternal blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, M; Saegusa, S; Yamada, A; Suzuki, M; Noguchi, M; Niwa, S; Nakanishi, M

    1994-02-01

    To elucidate the effects of exercise in water on the maternal circulation, twenty normal pregnancies were examined under the following three conditions; 1) on the land at rest, 2) during water immersion and 3) after the exercise in water. Their gestational ages were from 25 to 37 weeks (31 +/- 4 weeks, mean +/- S.D., n = 20). We examined the blood pressure, the urine volume throughout the examination, CBC and the levels of vasopressin, plasma renin activity and human atrial natriuretic peptide (hANP). The blood volume calculated from the Hb and Ht were significantly (p water immersion (105.8 +/- 2.5%), even after the exercise (101.6 +/- 2.9%). Vasopressin was decreased during the water immersion and increased after the exercise, but plasma renin activity was decreased in these two conditions. The hANP concentration was significantly (p exercise in water and correlated with the urine volume (ml/hour) during the examination. These results show that the decline in blood pressure and the increase in the urine volume during the maternal swimming were caused by the decreased plasma renin activity and the increased hANP concentration resulted from the blood volume expansion during the exercise in water.

  11. [The analysis of tincture for improvement of blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatoniene, Rūta; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Ramanauskiene, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    The article describes qualitative and quantitative analysis of tincture for improvement of blood circulation. Flavonoids have been qualitatively determined by methods of thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography and color reaction with magnesium powder and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Ferments were identified with ferric ammonium sulphate solution; glycosides--with dimethylaminobenzaldehyde solution in sulphur acid; saponin--with lead subacetate solution; reductive materials - with silver nitrate ammoniacal solution; albumen--with ninhydrin solution; and caffeic acid--by method of thin-layer chromatography. An optimal spectrophotometrical method for determining the quantity of quercetin was applied. The refractive index, relative density, loss of drying and ethanol concentration were determined according to European Pharmacopoeia Requirements.

  12. Hindlimb-unloading suppresses B cell population in the bone marrow and peripheral circulation associated with OPN expression in circulating blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezura, Yoichi; Nagata, Junji; Nagao, Masashi; Hemmi, Hiroaki; Hayata, Tadayoshi; Rittling, Susan; Denhardt, David T; Noda, Masaki

    2015-01-01

    Rodent hindlimb unloading (HU) by tail-suspension is a model to investigate disuse-induced bone loss in vivo. Previously, we have shown that osteopontin (OPN, also known as Spp1) is required for unloading-induced bone loss. However, how unloading affects OPN expression in the body is not fully understood. Here, we examined OPN expression in peripheral blood of mice subjected to HU. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that OPN expression is increased in circulating peripheral blood cells. This HU-induced increase in OPN mRNA expression was specific in circulating peripheral blood cells, as OPN was not increased in the blood cells in bone marrow. HU-induced enhancement in OPN expression in peripheral blood cells was associated with an increase in the fraction of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells in the peripheral blood. In contrast, HU decreased the fraction size of B-lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. We further examined if B-lymphogenesis is affected in the mice deficient for osteopontin subjected to HU. In bone marrow, HU decreased the population of the B-lymphocyte lineage cells significantly, whereas it did not alter the population of monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. HU also increased the cells in T-lymphocyte lineage in bone marrow. Interestingly, these changes were observed similarly both in OPN-deficient and wild-type mice. These results indicate for the first time that HU increases OPN expression in circulating cells and suppresses bone marrow B-lymphogenesis.

  13. Novel function for blood platelets and podoplanin in developmental separation of blood and lymphatic circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrin, Pavel; Zaujec, Jan; Breuss, Johannes M; Olcaydu, Damla; Chrenek, Peter; Stockinger, Hannes; Fuertbauer, Elke; Moser, Markus; Haiko, Paula; Fässler, Reinhard; Alitalo, Kari; Binder, Bernd R; Kerjaschki, Dontscho

    2010-05-13

    During embryonic development, lymph sacs form from the cardinal vein, and sprout centrifugally to form mature lymphatic networks. Separation of the lymphatic from the blood circulation by a hitherto unknown mechanism is essential for the homeostatic function of the lymphatic system. O-glycans on the lymphatic endothelium have recently been suggested to be required for establishment and maintenance of distinct blood and lymphatic systems, primarily by mediating proper function of podoplanin. Here, we show that this separation process critically involves platelet activation by podoplanin. We found that platelet aggregates build up in wild-type embryos at the separation zone of podoplanin(+) lymph sacs and cardinal veins, but not in podoplanin(-/-) embryos. Thus, podoplanin(-/-) mice develop a "nonseparation" phenotype, characterized by a blood-filled lymphatic network after approximately embryonic day 13.5, which, however, partially resolves in postnatal mice. The same embryonic phenotype is also induced by treatment of pregnant mice with acetyl salicylic acid, podoplanin-blocking antibodies, or by inactivation of the kindlin-3 gene required for platelet aggregation. Therefore, interaction of endothelial podoplanin of the developing lymph sac with circulating platelets from the cardinal vein is critical for separating the lymphatic from the blood vascular system.

  14. Changes in EEG, systemic circulation and blood gas parameters following two or six aliquots of porcine surfactant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundstrøm, K E; Greisen, G

    1996-06-01

    Surfactant instillation often causes transient EEG suppression, the cause remaining unknown. To compare the timing of the EEG changes with the timing of the changes in blood gases and systemic circulation we compared two administration modes: 20 preterm infants were randomly assigned to receive the initial dose of surfactant divided into two or six aliquots. Heart rate, blood pressure and transcutaneous blood gases were measured continuously, while left ventricular output was estimated intermittently. No difference in blood gas response was found between the groups, whereas the circulatory changes occurred more gradually with six aliquots. EEG suppression was similar in the two groups and not related to the circulatory or the respiratory changes. Left ventricular output increased in all patients following surfactant instillation. We conclude that the EEG suppression is not directly related to alterations in blood gases or systemic circulation.

  15. Circulating microRNAs as biomarkers for detection of autologous blood transfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Leuenberger

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate various biological processes. Cell-free miRNAs measured in blood plasma have emerged as specific and sensitive markers of physiological processes and disease. In this study, we investigated whether circulating miRNAs can serve as biomarkers for the detection of autologous blood transfusion, a major doping technique that is still undetectable. Plasma miRNA levels were analyzed using high-throughput quantitative real-time PCR. Plasma samples were obtained before and at several time points after autologous blood transfusion (blood bag storage time 42 days in 10 healthy subjects and 10 controls without transfusion. Other serum markers of erythropoiesis were determined in the same samples. Our results revealed a distinct change in the pattern of circulating miRNAs. Ten miRNAs were upregulated in transfusion samples compared with control samples. Among these, miR-30b, miR-30c, and miR-26b increased significantly and showed a 3.9-, 4.0-, and 3.0-fold change, respectively. The origin of these miRNAs was related to pulmonary and liver tissues. Erythropoietin (EPO concentration decreased after blood reinfusion. A combination of miRNAs and EPO measurement in a mathematical model enhanced the efficiency of autologous transfusion detection through miRNA analysis. Therefore, our results lay the foundation for the development of miRNAs as novel blood-based biomarkers to detect autologous transfusion.

  16. A new torsion control mechanism induced by blood circulation in dragonfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Dan; Yin, Yajun; Zhong, Zheng; Zhao, Hongxiao

    2015-02-06

    A new mechanism to generate the torque of flapping dragonfly wings is disclosed in this paper. The concept is inspired by blood circulation in insect wings. The blood flowing in veins induces Coriolis forces in the flapping wings. The Coriolis forces acting on veins are of opposite directions when blood flows in and out. The opposite Coriolis forces generate torsional moment to the wing, especially in the leading-edge part. To estimate the time-varying torque induced by the blood circulation, a simplified U-tube model is designed. A three-dimensional finite element model of the wing is developed to analyze the dynamic behaviors under this torque. The dragonfly wing is in favor of torsional deformation because the corrugated structure is of high flexural rigidity in the spanwise direction but is of low torsional rigidity in the chordwise direction. In both the downstroke and upstroke, the twist of the leading-edge part causes the sections to camber spontaneously. Such a kind of deformation is found to be of great importance to improve aerodynamic efficiency. In addition, it also compensates for the disadvantageous bending deformation caused by air pressure in flapping flight. These results are important for better understanding of the multifunctional structures of dragonfly wings and may give some inspiration to the bionics of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (FMAVs).

  17. A novel liposome surface modification agent that prolongs blood circulation and retains surface ligand reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Atsushi; Yamauchi, Masahiro; Tsuchiya, Tomoko; Mimura, Yukiteru; Tomoda, Yutaka; Katagiri, Ayato; Kamiya, Masaaki; Nemoto, Hisao; Suzawa, Toshiyuki; Yamasaki, Motoo

    2012-01-01

    Liposomes are recognized as potentially useful drug carriers but many problems preclude practical medical application. Liposomes bind with serum proteins (opsonization) and are captured by the reticuloendothelial system cells in the liver and spleen, which limits their ability to deliver drugs to other target sites. Modification of lipids with flexible, hydrophilic polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to yield sterically stabilized liposomes is one approach to improve liposome blood circulation and tissue distribution properties. In this study, we examined liposomes prepared using lipids modified with a new branched oligoglycerol (BGL) moiety for steric stabilization. This novel BGL comprised 14 glycerol units (termed BGL014) connected with flexible ether linkages, resulting in a branched cascade-like structure that is highly expanded in aqueous solution. BGL014 was coupled to 1,2-distearoylphosphatidylethanolamine to yield BGL014-modified lipids. Incorporation of BGL014 into liposomes (BGL014L) resulted in long blood circulation times, despite a much thinner fixed aqueous layer thickness compared to PEG formulations. BGL014 produced a liposome surface coating that appears to function through steric inhibition of non-specific protein binding without strong interference of specific protein-binding reactions. Liposome structure and functionality was maintained following BGL014-modification, as the incorporation ratio of drug remained high. These results suggest that the BGL014 modification of liposomes is a promising approach to produce stable and long circulating drug carriers capable of selective binding to specific proteins.

  18. Night time blood pressure dip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; Bloomfield; Alex; Park

    2015-01-01

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure,called the "dip",is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%,referred to as blunted or absent,have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load,whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon,whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.

  19. Rapid multi-wavelength optical assessment of circulating blood volume without a priori data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, Ekaterina V.; Zhidkova, Tatyana V.; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of circulating blood volume (CBV) is crucial in various medical conditions including surgery, iatrogenic problems, rapid fluid administration, transfusion of red blood cells, or trauma with extensive blood loss including battlefield injuries and other emergencies. Currently, available commercial techniques are invasive and time-consuming for trauma situations. Recently, we have proposed high-speed multi-wavelength photoacoustic/photothermal (PA/PT) flow cytometry for in vivo CBV assessment with multiple dyes as PA contrast agents (labels). As the first step, we have characterized the capability of this technique to monitor the clearance of three dyes (indocyanine green, methylene blue, and trypan blue) in an animal model. However, there are strong demands on improvements in PA/PT flow cytometry. As additional verification of our proof-of-concept of this technique, we performed optical photometric CBV measurements in vitro. Three label dyes—methylene blue, crystal violet and, partially, brilliant green—were selected for simultaneous photometric determination of the components of their two-dye mixtures in the circulating blood in vitro without any extra data (like hemoglobin absorption) known a priori. The tests of single dyes and their mixtures in a flow system simulating a blood transfusion system showed a negligible difference between the sensitivities of the determination of these dyes under batch and flow conditions. For individual dyes, the limits of detection of 3×10-6 M‒3×10-6 M in blood were achieved, which provided their continuous determination at a level of 10-5 M for the CBV assessment without a priori data on the matrix. The CBV assessment with errors no higher than 4% were obtained, and the possibility to apply the developed procedure for optical photometric (flow cytometry) with laser sources was shown.

  20. Action of adrenalin on the circulation of the murine Plasmodium developing stages, in different blood compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertani S.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrenalin was used to investigate in vivo the circulation of the different stages of rodent Plasmodium present in the blood. A single dose of adrenalin injected to mice infected with P. yoelii resulted immediately in i a diminution of the parasitaemia of approximately 50 % in the peripheral large vessels (estimated in tail blood films, as well as in the capillaries (estimated in smears of blood collected from a fed Anopheles, and ii an increased parasitaemia in blood collected by cardiac puncture from the right heart. The numbers of young stages of P. yoelii in the peripheral blood were initially somewhat reduced but, unexpectedly, midterm trophozoites were preferentially expelled from the peripheral blood into major organs like the heart. With P. vinckei, parasitaemia decreased only when midterm trophozoites predominated, and with P. chabaudi no effect was observed at any time. We propose that midterm trophozoites, by their increased surface area, as compared to rings, and their flexibility which contrasts with the rigid schizonts, are particularly susceptible to haemodynamic perturbations.

  1. Biomechanopharmacology in Evaluation of Herbs of Activating Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Fu-long; CAO Jun

    2005-01-01

    Herbs of activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis(ABCRBS) are a category of over 10% in the modern Chinese Pharmacopoeia. A new borderline discipline, biomechanopharmacology, is shaping by the efforts of applying biomechanics in pharmacological studies of ABCRBS herbs. Biomechanics is involved in modeling of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) with mechanical force induced injury and model evaluation by shear stress monitoring for blood coagulation. Investigations showed that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) contained in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort and diallyl trisulfide (DT) extracted from garlic demonstrated inhibiting characteristics on vWF mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation occurring under high shear rates. The effect of TMP on shear-induced platelet aggregation might be due to inhibition of calcium channel activity since it showed significant inhibition on intracellular level of calcium demonstrated by laser confocal microscope. The combined effects of TMP and shear stress on rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cell (rCMEC) were investigated by various doses of TMP incorporated with different levels of shear stress generated by a rotational coneplate rheometer. The results indicated that apoptosis of rCMECs could be restrained by a combination of medial level of shear stress with a suitable dose of TMP. To study the influences of shear stress, pressure and TMP on angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cell, cultured rCMEC was pretreated in a flow chamber with independent adjustment for levels of shear stress and pressure, and then 3D cultured on Matrigel. The results indicate that combined effects of shear stress, pressure and TMP may influence angiogenesis significantly. We believe that research on interactions among blood shear stress, secretion of endothelial cell, and pharmacodynamics will be an interesting area of biomechanopharmacology. Herbs of ABCRBS and their extracts for protecting endothelial cells to maintain their normal functions are

  2. William Harvey and the discovery of the circulation of the blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribatti Domenico

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This Commentary emphasizes the fundamental contribution of William Harvey to the discovery of the circulation of the blood and his scientific and experimental approach to this matter.

  3. [PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS IN CHILDREN, OPERATED ON FOR INBORN HEART FAILURES IN THE ARTIFICIAL BLOOD CIRCULATION ENVIRONMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkivska, L V; Nastenko, E A; Golovenko, O S; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2015-11-01

    The risk factors of pulmonary complications occurrence were analyzed in children, operated on for inborn heart failures in atrificial blood circulation environment. Pulmonary complications rate and the risk factors of their occurrence were analyzed.

  4. Aptamers Selected to Postoperative Lung Adenocarcinoma Detect Circulating Tumor Cells in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamay, Galina S; Kolovskaya, Olga S; Zamay, Tatiana N; Glazyrin, Yury E; Krat, Alexey V; Zubkova, Olga; Spivak, Ekaterina; Wehbe, Mohammed; Gargaun, Ana; Muharemagic, Darija; Komarova, Mariia; Grigorieva, Valentina; Savchenko, Andrey; Modestov, Andrey A; Berezovski, Maxim V; Zamay, Anna S

    2015-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are rare cells and valuable clinical markers of prognosis of metastasis formation and prediction of patient survival. Most CTC analyses are based on the antibody-based detection of a few epithelial markers; therefore miss an important portion of mesenchymal cancer cells circulating in blood. In this work, we selected and identified DNA aptamers as specific affinity probes that bind to lung adenocarcinoma cells derived from postoperative tissues. The unique feature of our selection strategy is that aptamers are produced for lung cancer cell biomarkers in their native state and conformation without previous knowledge of the biomarkers. The aptamers did not bind to normal lung cells and lymphocytes, and had very low affinity to A549 lung adenocarcinoma culture. We applied these aptamers to detect CTCs, apoptotic bodies, and microemboli in clinical samples of peripheral blood of lung cancer and metastatic lung cancer patients. We identified aptamer-associated protein biomarkers for lung cancer such as vimentin, annexin A2, annexin A5, histone 2B, neutrophil defensin, and clusterin. Tumor-specific aptamers can be produced for individual patients and synthesized many times during anticancer therapy, thereby opening up the possibility of personalized diagnostics. PMID:26061649

  5. Arterial blood-pressure change and endogenous circulating substance P in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, J H; Kastrup, J; Schaffalitzky De Muckadell, O B

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a powerful vasodilator and this peptide is today considered to be a chemical messenger. The potential effects on circulating SP of acute changes in arterial blood-pressure was investigated in nine subjects. An increase in arterial mean blood-pressure (+33%, P less than 0.001, ...

  6. [The reaction of the pulpal blood circulation to thermal stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gängler, P

    1976-01-01

    The present paper characterizes the reactions of the systemcirculation and microcirculation of the pulpa to the effects of temperature changes from--30 degrees C to +55 degrees C. In the range between 25 degrees C and 50 degrees C an increase of the blood flow rate can be observed. By long-standing action of temperatures above 40 degrees C and below 25 degrees C a dilatation of the blood vessels and a decrease of the blood flow rate are caused, thus leading to aggregations, capillary stoppage, and finally to thrombosis of entire pulpa sections. In addition to the outline of the critical initial alterations of the microcirculation in the course of inflammation the clinical conclusions towards crown and cavity preparation by means of water spray cooling, concerning thermal sensibility tests, and cryo-surgical operations are discussed.

  7. 3D microfilter device for viable circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment from blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Siyang; Lin, Henry K; Lu, Bo; Williams, Anthony; Datar, Ram; Cote, Richard J; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2011-02-01

    Detection of circulating tumor cells has emerged as a promising minimally invasive diagnostic and prognostic tool for patients with metastatic cancers. We report a novel three dimensional microfilter device that can enrich viable circulating tumor cells from blood. This device consists of two layers of parylene membrane with pores and gap precisely defined with photolithography. The positions of the pores are shifted between the top and bottom membranes. The bottom membrane supports captured cells and minimize the stress concentration on cell membrane and sustain cell viability during filtration. Viable cell capture on device was investigated with scanning electron microscopy, confocal microscopy, and immunofluorescent staining using model systems of cultured tumor cells spiked in blood or saline. The paper presents and validates this new 3D microfiltration concept for circulation tumor cell enrichment application. The device provides a highly valuable tool for assessing and characterizing viable enriched circulating tumor cells in both research and clinical settings.

  8. Determination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in circulating blood: significance of VEGF in various leucocytes and platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    . In corresponding blood samples, automated complete blood count was performed, and the number of each cell type was correlated to VEGF concentrations in plasma, serum and lysed whole blood. Finally, the impact of increasing clotting time on the release of VEGF to serum was analysed. RESULTS: Isolated neutrophils......AIM: The sources of increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in peripheral blood from cancer patients are not known in detail. The aim of the present study was to evaluate correlations between the VEGF content in isolated leucocyte subpopulations and VEGF concentrations...... in plasma, serum and lysed whole blood. METHODS: In 51 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, circulating T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, monocytes, and granulocytes were isolated by means of immunomagnetic separation. Subsequently, the isolated cells were lysed and VEGF contents in the lysates were determined...

  9. Measurement of cardiac output from dynamic pulmonary circulation time CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yee, Seonghwan, E-mail: Seonghwan.Yee@Beaumont.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States); Scalzetti, Ernest M. [Department of Radiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York 13210 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To introduce a method of estimating cardiac output from the dynamic pulmonary circulation time CT that is primarily used to determine the optimal time window of CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Methods: Dynamic pulmonary circulation time CT series, acquired for eight patients, were retrospectively analyzed. The dynamic CT series was acquired, prior to the main CTPA, in cine mode (1 frame/s) for a single slice at the level of the main pulmonary artery covering the cross sections of ascending aorta (AA) and descending aorta (DA) during the infusion of iodinated contrast. The time series of contrast changes obtained for DA, which is the downstream of AA, was assumed to be related to the time series for AA by the convolution with a delay function. The delay time constant in the delay function, representing the average time interval between the cross sections of AA and DA, was determined by least square error fitting between the convoluted AA time series and the DA time series. The cardiac output was then calculated by dividing the volume of the aortic arch between the cross sections of AA and DA (estimated from the single slice CT image) by the average time interval, and multiplying the result by a correction factor. Results: The mean cardiac output value for the six patients was 5.11 (l/min) (with a standard deviation of 1.57 l/min), which is in good agreement with the literature value; the data for the other two patients were too noisy for processing. Conclusions: The dynamic single-slice pulmonary circulation time CT series also can be used to estimate cardiac output.

  10. Thirty-six Cases of Hyperglycemia Treated by Promoting Blood Circulation to Remove Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Thirty-six cases with hyperglycemia were treated with the method of promoting blood circulation and removing stasis in a course of 4 weeks. The treatment was significantly effective in correcting the abnormal viscosity of the blood by reducing the contents of total plasmic cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and apoprotein B (apoB), while the level of the apoprotein A (apoA) was elevated.

  11. Device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovska, Tetyana I.; Sander, Sergii V.; Zlepko, Sergii M.; Vasilenko, Valentina B.; Pavlov, Volodymyr S.; Dumenko, Victoria P.; Klapouschak, Andrii Yu.; Maciejewski, Marcin; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Surtel, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    The paper evaluated the diagnostic value of laser photoplethysmography when examining patients with chronic lower limb ischemia. A statistical analysis of the research results was made, and diagrams of relationship between the degrees of ischemia and blood flow are presented. Development of the device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation was presented. Also additional accessories in the form of optical fibers for different applications were suggested.

  12. Reconstructing Ocean Circulation using Coral (triangle)14C Time Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashgarian, M; Guilderson, T P

    2001-02-23

    We utilize monthly {sup 14}C data derived from coral archives in conjunction with ocean circulation models to address two questions: (1) how does the shallow circulation of the tropical Pacific vary on seasonal to decadal time scales and (2) which dynamic processes determine the mean vertical structure of the equatorial Pacific thermocline. Our results directly impact the understanding of global climate events such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To study changes in ocean circulation and water mass distribution involved in the genesis and evolution of ENSO and decadal climate variability, it is necessary to have records of climate variables several decades in length. Continuous instrumental records are limited because technology for continuous monitoring of ocean currents (e.g. satellites and moored arrays) has only recently been available, and ships of opportunity archives such as COADS contain large spatial and temporal biases. In addition, temperature and salinity in surface waters are not conservative and thus can not be independently relied upon to trace water masses, reducing the utility of historical observations. Radiocarbon in sea water is a quasi-conservative water mass tracer and is incorporated into coral skeletal material, thus coral {sup 14}C records can be used to reconstruct changes in shallow circulation that would be difficult to characterize using instrumental data. High resolution {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as ours, provide a powerful constraint on the rate of surface ocean mixing and hold great promise to augment one time oceanographic surveys. {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as these, not only provide fundamental information about the shallow circulation of the Pacific, but can also be directly used as a benchmark for the next generation of high resolution ocean models used in prognosticating climate. The measurement of {Delta}{sup 14}C in biological archives such as tree rings and coral growth bands is a direct record of

  13. Exploring the Impact of Students' Learning Approach on Collaborative Group Modeling of Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kang, Eunhee; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect on group dynamics of statements associated with deep learning approaches (DLA) and their contribution to cognitive collaboration and model development during group modeling of blood circulation. A group was selected for an in-depth analysis of collaborative group modeling. This group constructed a model in a…

  14. In situ tissue engineering of functional small-diameter blood vessels by host circulating cells only

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talacua, Hanna; Smits, Anthal I P M; Muylaert, Dimitri E P; Van Rijswijk, Jan Willem; Vink, Aryan; Verhaar, Marianne C.; Driessen-Mol, Anita; Van Herwerden, Lex A.; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Kluin, Jolanda; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a natural phase of the wound healing response, which can be harnessed for the in situ tissue engineering of small-diameter blood vessels using instructive, bioresorbable synthetic grafts. This process is dependent on colonization of the graft by host circulating cells and subsequent

  15. Significant reduction in blood loss in patients undergoing minimal extracorporeal circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, W. B.; van Boven, W. J.; Smelt, M.; Morshuis, W. J.; van Dongen, H. P.; Haas, F. J.; Aarts, L. P.

    2006-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown differences in blood loss and allogeneic transfusion requirements between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Recently a new concept, the mini-extracorporeal circulation, was introduced to minimize the side effects of extracorporeal circulat

  16. [Intracellular gold content of circulating blood cells using various gold compounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrlinger, J D; Beress, R; Hecker, U

    1984-01-01

    Evidence on the action mechanisms of gold salts in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis is still inconclusive. The intracellular localization of the place of action is likely. Therefore not only the serum gold levels but also the intracellular concentration of gold are of special interest. We measured the gold concentration in the serum and in the blood cells after in vitro application of aurothiomalate (Tauredon), gold keratinate (Auro-Detoxin) and triethylphosphine-gold (Ridaura) and in blood samples of patients undergoing these gold salts treatments. Cell-bound concentrations were found to vary extensively as a function of the gold compound used. While no or very little gold was present intracellularly after administration of the 2 parenteral drugs, up to 40% of the circulating gold was found to bind to the cells after administration of the triethylphosphine compound for gastro-intestinal absorption. The red cell concentration was more or less the same as that in the extracellular compartment. Gold apparently accumulated in the white cells, because the cell-bound concentration relative to unit volume was up to 20 times higher than the plasma level. The method used did not offer any information on the actual binding site of gold in white cells, i.e. cytoplasm versus nucleus versus cell membrane.

  17. Effect of a deproteinized blood extract on the recovery of blood circulation in an ischaemic skin lesion.

    OpenAIRE

    Smahel, J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental model was used to study the revascularization of an ischaemic skin lesion and the effect on this process of the blood extract Solcoseryl. Under the conditions given in the experiment, restoration of the circulation was by 2 modes--re-flow in the original vessels, and neovascularization. Solcoseryl given daily i.p. encouraged the re-flow phenomenon and therefore, by improving the microcirculation and nutrition, the healing of the ischaemic lesions.

  18. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  19. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Canadilla, Patricia; Rudenick, Paula A; Crispi, Fatima; Cruz-Lemini, Monica; Palau, Georgina; Camara, Oscar; Gratacos, Eduard; Bijnens, Bart H; Bijens, Bart H

    2014-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI) is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral-placental remodeling

  20. Changes in circulating blood volume after infusion of hydroxyethyl starch 6% in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Andersson, J; Rasmussen, S E;

    2001-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to a volume challenge with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (200/0.5) 6% depends on the relation between the volume of HES 6% infused and the expansion of the blood volume in critically ill patients. However, only relatively limited data exist on the plasma expanding effect...... of infusion of HES 6% in critically ill patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variation in the expansion of the circulating blood volume (CBV) in critically ill patients after infusion of 500 ml of colloid (HES (200/0.5) 6%) using the carbon monoxide method....

  1. Augmentation of blood circulation to the fingers by warming distant body areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Leon, G. R.; Paul, S.; Tranchida, D.; Linder, I. V.

    2000-01-01

    Future activities in space will require greater periods of time in extreme environments in which the body periphery will be vulnerable to chilling. Maintaining the hands and fingers in comfortable conditions enhances finger flexibility and dexterity, and thus effects better work performance. We have evaluated the efficacy of promoting heat transfer and release by the extremities by increasing the blood flow to the periphery from more distant parts of the body. The experimental garment paradigm developed by the investigators was used to manipulate the temperature of different body areas. Six subjects, two females and four males, were evaluated in a stage-1 baseline condition, with the inlet temperature of the circulating water in the liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) at 33 degrees C. At stage 2 the total LCWG water inlet temperature was cooled to 8 degrees C, and at stage 3 the inlet water temperature in specific segments of the LCWG was warmed (according to protocol) to 45 degrees C, while the inlet temperature in the rest of the LCWG was maintained at 8 degrees C. The following four body-area-warming conditions were studied in separate sessions: (1) head, (2) upper torso/arm, (3) upper torso/arm/head, and (4) legs/feet. Skin temperature, heat flux and blood perfusion of the fingers, and subjective perception of thermal sensations and overall physical comfort were assessed. Finger temperature (T(fing)) analyses showed a statistically significant condition x stage interaction. Post-hoc comparisons (T(fing)) indicated that at stage 3, the upper torso/arm/head warming condition was significantly different from the head, upper torso/arm and legs/feet conditions, showing an increase in T(fing). There was a significant increase in blood perfusion in the fingers at stage 3 in all conditions. Subjective perception of hand warmth, and overall physical comfort level significantly increased in the stage 3 upper torso/arm/head condition. The findings indicate that

  2. Platelet proteomics and its advanced application for research of blood stasis syndrome and activated blood circulation herbs of Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yue; Yin, Huijun; Chen, Keji

    2013-11-01

    The development of novel and efficient antiplatelet agents that have few adverse effects and methods that improve antiplatelet resistance has long been the focus of international research on the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Recent advances in platelet proteomics have provided a technology platform for high-quality research of platelet pathophysiology and the development of new antiplatelet drugs. The study of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) and activated blood circulation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is one of the most active fields where the integration of TCM and western medicine in China has been successful. Activated blood circulation herbs (ABC herbs) of Chinese medicine are often used in the treatment of BSS. Most ABC herbs have antiplatelet and anti-atherosclerosis activity, but knowledge about their targets is lacking. Coronary heart disease (CHD), BSS, and platelet activation are closely related. By screening and identifying activated platelet proteins that are differentially expressed in BSS of CHD, platelet proteomics has helped researchers interpret the antiplatelet mechanism of action of ABC herbs and provided many potential biomarkers for BSS that could be used to evaluate the clinical curative effect of new antiplatelet drugs. In this article the progress of platelet proteomics and its advanced application for research of BSS and ABC herbs of Chinese medicine are reviewed.

  3. Effect of a deproteinized blood extract on the recovery of blood circulation in an ischaemic skin lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smahel, J.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental model was used to study the revascularization of an ischaemic skin lesion and the effect on this process of the blood extract Solcoseryl. Under the conditions given in the experiment, restoration of the circulation was by 2 modes--re-flow in the original vessels, and neovascularization. Solcoseryl given daily i.p. encouraged the re-flow phenomenon and therefore, by improving the microcirculation and nutrition, the healing of the ischaemic lesions. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 PMID:6176254

  4. From the discovery of the circulation of the blood to the first steps in hemorheology: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins e Silva, J

    2009-12-01

    In the second and last part of this article, the contributions of two more brilliant figures are described in two sections, A and B, respectively Marcello Malpighi and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. Through the originality of their work, both confirmed the pioneer William Harvey's observations and went on to add important details. Malpighi applied the optical microscope, until then used almost exclusively as a mere curiosity, to the in vitro study of the body tissues of various species. Outstanding among these pioneering observations was the visualization, for the first time, of capillary structures and blood corpuscles, on the basis of which he defined the composition of blood and, also for the first time, the concept of its fluidity. Furthermore, Malpighi confirmed the structural and functional continuity of the systemic circulation, which Harvey had been unable to demonstrate. Although van Leeuwenhoek lacked an academic education, he was able to see, through lenses he built himself, the microscopic details of the organic and inorganic world around him. Among numerous detailed observations of all types of substances, particularly important were the insights that he obtained into the nature of blood and red blood cells, to which he attributed the color of arterial and venous blood. He calculated the size of erythrocytes with striking accuracy. He was able to distinguish arterial from venous blood, confirmed the heart's function as the force behind the propulsion of the blood through the arteries and of the rhythmic nature of the pulse, and elucidated the return of the blood to the heart by different vessels, the veins. He visualized the bifurcation of the arteries into increasingly narrow vessels until they gave way to capillary networks, which in turn became successively wider venous channels. Van Leeuwenhoek demonstrated the existence of arterial-venous anastomoses. He discovered erythrocyte sedimentation and deformability (their shape varying from the original

  5. Elimination of young erythrocytes from blood circulation and altered erythropoietic patterns during paraquat induced anemic phase in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Nitin; Saxena, Rajiv K

    2014-01-01

    Paraquat a widely used herbicide causes a variety of toxic effects on humans and animals. The present study is focused on the interaction of paraquat with the mouse erythroid system. Administration of paraquat (10 mg/kg body weight i.p. on alternate days in C57Bl/6 mice) induced a significant fall in blood erythrocyte count on 7, 14, and 21 day time points but the erythrocyte count reverted back to normal by 28th day indicating the emergence of refractoriness to paraquat. A marked surge in the blood reticulocyte count was observed in paraquat treated mice that also subsided by 28th day. Young erythrocytes in circulation were randomly eliminated from blood circulation in paraquat treated mice and a significant elevation in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also observed maximally the erythrocytes of this age group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were identified and enumerated flow cytometrically based on their expression of Ter119 and transferrin (CD71) receptor. Proliferative activity of erythroid cells, their relative proportion as well as their absolute numbers fell significantly in bone marrow of paraquat treated mice but all these parameters were significantly elevated in spleens of paraquat treated mice. These changes were essentially restricted to the cells belonging to the two earliest stages of erythroid differentiation. Taken together our results indicate that paraquat treatment causes a transient anemia in mice resulting from random elimination of young circulating erythrocytes as well as depressed erythropoietic activity in bone marrow. Spleen erythropoietic activity however was elevated in paraquat treated mice.

  6. Detection of Circulating Tumour Cells from Blood of Breast Cancer Patients via RT-qPCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andergassen, Ulrich; Kölbl, Alexandra C.; Hutter, Stefan; Friese, Klaus; Jeschke, Udo, E-mail: udo.jeschke@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Maistrasse 11, D-80337 Munich (Germany)

    2013-09-25

    Breast cancer is still the most frequent cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Often death is not caused only by the primary tumour itself, but also by metastatic lesions. Today it is largely accepted, that these remote metastases arise out of cells, which detach from the primary tumour, enter circulation, settle down at secondary sites in the body and are called Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs). The occurrence of such minimal residual diseases in the blood of breast cancer patients is mostly linked to a worse prognosis for therapy outcome and overall survival. Due to their very low frequency, the detection of CTCs is, still a technical challenge. RT-qPCR as a highly sensitive method could be an approach for CTC-detection from peripheral blood of breast cancer patients. This assumption is based on the fact that CTCs are of epithelial origin and therefore express a different gene panel than surrounding blood cells. For the technical approach it is necessary to identify appropriate marker genes and to correlate their gene expression levels to the number of tumour cells within a sample in an in vitro approach. After that, samples from adjuvant and metastatic patients can be analysed. This approach may lead to new concepts in diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Reduced blood pressure of CFTR-F508del carriers correlates with diminished arterial reactivity rather than circulating blood volume in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica A Peotta

    Full Text Available The F508del mutation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR is the most common cause of cystic fibrosis (CF. Both CF patients and F508del carriers have decreased blood pressure. While this has been attributed to salt depletion, recent studies have shown F508del expression interferes with smooth muscle cell calcium mobilization. We tested the hypothesis that carriers of the F508del mutation have lower adult blood pressures and reduced aortic contractility without a reduction in circulating blood volume. By radiotelemetry, F508del heterozygous mice had significantly lower arterial pressures than wild-type C57BL/6 controls, with the greatest effect seen at the time of dark-to-light cycle transition (mean difference of 10 mmHg. To replicate the vascular effects of sympathetic arousal, isoproterenol and epinephrine were co-infused, and F508del mice again had significantly reduced arterial pressures. Aortas isolated from F508del heterozygous mice had significantly decreased constriction to noradrenaline (0.9 ± 0.2 versus 2.9 ± 0.7 mN. Inhibition of wild-type CFTR or the inositol triphosphate receptor replicated the phenotype of F508del aortas. CFTR carrier status did not alter circulating blood volume. We conclude the CFTR-F508del mutation decreases aortic contractility and lowers arterial pressures. As a cAMP-activated chloride channel that facilitates calcium mobilization, we speculate wild-type CFTR co-activation during adrenergic receptor stimulation buffers the vasodilatory response to catecholamines, and loss of this compensatory vasoconstrictor tone may contribute to the lower arterial pressures seen in heterozygote carriers of a CFTR-F508del mutation.

  8. Diagnostics And Treatment Of Patients With Blood Circulation Insufficiency In Vertebrobasilar Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Khachatryan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available For improvement of treatment results of patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency we have analyzed data of medical examination and treatment of 182 patients stayed in clinics of Hospital Surgery and Nervous System Diseases from the 1st of January of 2005 till the 30th of June of 2009. Method of screening diagnostics, quantitative and qualitative blood flow estimation by means of Doppler ultrasonic investigation and angiography have been performed. The cause of blood circulation insufficiency in the vertebrobasilar bed at 87 patients was vertebral artery syndrome and in 95 cases there were the significant hemodynamical damages of blood flow in aorta arch branches and intracranial arteries. The neuroangiotropic therapy has been made for all patients, but the clinical improvement period was short in most cases, more prolonged effect was observed in addition of conservative therapy with plasmapheresis by indications. In the complex treatment of patients with vertebrobasilar insufficiency accompanied by degenerative diseases of spine chemical sympathectomy of vertebral artery in the III segment in the form of procaine and spirit-procaine blockades was made in 116 and 69 cases accordingly. The surgical sympathectomy was made in 15 patients. The surgical operations were made in 62 of 95 patients with significant hemodynamic pathology of blood flow in the vertebrobasilar region. In most cases isolative and combinative reconstructive surgery on carotid arteries was carried out. It played a significant role in blood flow correction. Favorable postoperative results were observed in most cases (93, 5%

  9. Genetic profiling of tumours using both circulating free DNA and circulating tumour cells isolated from the same preserved whole blood sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Dominic G; Smith, Nigel; Morris, Daniel; Leong, Hui Sun; Li, Yaoyong; Hollebecque, Antoine; Ayub, Mahmood; Carter, Louise; Antonello, Jenny; Franklin, Lynsey; Miller, Crispin; Blackhall, Fiona; Dive, Caroline; Brady, Ged

    2016-04-01

    Molecular information obtained from cancer patients' blood is an emerging and powerful research tool with immense potential as a companion diagnostic for patient stratification and monitoring. Blood, which can be sampled routinely, provides a means of inferring the current genetic status of patients' tumours via analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) or circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). However, accurate assessment of both CTCs and ctDNA requires all blood cells to be maintained intact until samples are processed. This dictates for ctDNA analysis EDTA blood samples must be processed with 4 h of draw, severely limiting the use of ctDNA in multi-site trials. Here we describe a blood collection protocol that is amenable for analysis of both CTCs and ctDNA up to four days after blood collection. We demonstrate that yields of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from whole blood CellSave samples are equivalent to those obtained from conventional EDTA plasma processed within 4 h of blood draw. Targeted and genome-wide NGS revealed comparable DNA quality and resultant sequence information from cfDNA within CellSave and EDTA samples. We also demonstrate that CTCs and ctDNA can be isolated from the same patient blood sample, and give the same patterns of CNA enabling direct analysis of the genetic status of patients' tumours. In summary, our results demonstrate the utility of a simple approach that enabling robust molecular analysis of CTCs and cfDNA for genotype-directed therapies in multi-site clinical trials and represent a significant methodological improvement for clinical benefit.

  10. Changes in blood-brain barrier function modify the neuroendocrine response to circulating substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezová, D; Johansson, B B; Oprsalová, Z; Vigas, M

    1989-04-01

    It is known that various experimental, pathological and even physiological situations may be accompanied by transient increases in blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. The hypothesis that under such conditions the blood-borne substances can reach the active sites in the brain in concentrations high enough to influence central control of hormone release was verified in these studies. A suitable experimental model of BBB opening by protamine sulfate administration in conscious rats was introduced. Using this model it was shown that the dopaminergic blocker domperidone inhibited apomorphine-induced ACTH release if permeability of the BBB was increased, but not under normal conditions. It is suggested that the changes in BBB function can modify the neuroendocrine response also to other circulating substances and this may be an important, until now unconsidered phenomenon in neuroendocrine research.

  11. TCM Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis by Supplementing the Kidney and Invigorating the Blood Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉海旺; 姚淑莲; 罗强; 曹小菊

    2002-01-01

    The therapeutic effects in treating the intermediate and late rheumatoid arthritis by supplementing the kidney and invigorating blood circulation were observed. In the 43 cases of the treatment group, No. 2 Qu Feng Shi Ling capsules (祛风湿灵胶囊2号) and Fenbid (芬必得) were prescribed, while in the 39 cases of the control group Lei Gong Teng Tablets (雷公藤总甙片) and Fenbid were given. The results showed that the total effective rate in the treatment group was more satisfactory than that in the control (P<0.05 or P<0.01). With less toxic effects, the former could better improve the local swelling and lower the blood viscosity.

  12. Arterial blood-pressure change and endogenous circulating substance P in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Kastrup, J; Schaffalitzky De Muckadell, O B

    1985-01-01

    Substance P (SP) is a powerful vasodilator and this peptide is today considered to be a chemical messenger. The potential effects on circulating SP of acute changes in arterial blood-pressure was investigated in nine subjects. An increase in arterial mean blood-pressure (+33%, P less than 0.001, n...... = 9) was obtained by infusion of angiotensin II and a decrease in pressure (-10%, P less than 0.005, n = 6) was obtained by ganglionic blockade. The concentration of SP in plasma, from supine subjects in the normotensive condition, ranged from 3 to 13 pmol/l (with a mean of 5.6 pmol/l). SP was thus...

  13. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    The present study is a theoretical and experimental evaluation of a modification of the carbon monoxide method for estimation of the circulating blood volume (CBV) with respect to the precision of the method. The CBV was determined from measurements of the CO-saturation of hemoglobin before...... and after ventilation with a gas mixture containing 20-50 ml of CO for a period of 10-15 min. A special Water's to and fro system was designed in order to avoid any leakage when measuring during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after......, determination of CBV can be performed with an amount of CO that gives rise to a harmless increase in the carboxyhemoglobin concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  14. Circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and central blood volume (CBV) in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütten, H J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Bendtsen, F

    1986-01-01

    or diuretic treatment. Central blood volume (CBV, i.e. the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and aorta), determined from the mean transit time of 125I-labelled of 125I-labelled albumin and cardiac output, was significantly reduced in cirrhotics compared to controls (1.45 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.83 +/- 0.10 l...

  15. Ethanol Extract of Persimmon Tree Leaves Improves Blood Circulation and Lipid Metabolism in Rats Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Ri; Kim, Hye-Jin; Moon, Byeongseok; Jung, Un Ju; Lee, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Dong Gun; Ryoo, ZaeYoung; Park, Yong Bok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The leaves of the persimmon tree (PL) are known to have beneficial effects on hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. We recently demonstrated that PL had antithrombotic properties in vitro. However, little is known about the antiplatelet and anticoagulant properties of PL in vivo. Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA)-containing fish oil has been widely prescribed to improve blood circulation. This study compared the effects of dietary supplementation with an ethanol extract of PL or n-3 FA on blood coagulation, platelet activation, and lipid levels in vivo. Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet with either PL ethanol extract (0.5% w/w) or n-3 FA (2.5% w/w) for 9 weeks. Coagulation was examined by monitoring the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and prothrombin time. We examined plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2), serotonin, and soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) levels. The aPTT was significantly prolonged in the PL and n-3 FA supplement groups. PL also attenuated the TXB2 level and lowered arterial serotonin transporter mRNA expression, although it did not alter plasma serotonin or sP-selectin levels. C-reactive protein and leptin levels were significantly reduced by PL and n-3 FA supplementation. In addition, PL decreased plasma total- and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, as did n-3 FA treatment. These results indicated that the PL ethanol extract may have the potential to improve circulation by inhibiting blood coagulation and platelet activation and by reducing plasma cholesterol levels. PMID:26061228

  16. Effects of repeated concentric and eccentric contractions on tendon blood circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, K

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that treatment involving eccentric training was effective in the conservative management of chronic tendinosis. However, the mechanisms for these phenomena are unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare changes in blood circulation of the tendons after the repeated concentric and eccentric contractions. 11 healthy males volunteered for this study. Subjects performed the repeated concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions (5 sets of 10 maximal voluntary contractions) of the plantar flexors. During and after repeated contractions, oxyhemoglobin (Oxy), deoxyhemoglobin (Deoxy), total hemoglobin (THb), and oxygen saturation (StO2) of the Achilles tendons were measured using red laser lights. Oxy and THb increased during and after ECC, but not CON. Deoxy decreased during both CON and ECC. Increase in StO2 during and after ECC was greater than that during and after CON. These results suggested that changes in blood circulation of the Achilles tendon during and after repeated eccentric contractions were more remarkable than those during and after repeated concentric contractions.

  17. Histone Methylation Marks on Circulating Nucleosomes as Novel Blood-Based Biomarker in Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ugur Gezer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Circulating nucleic acids (CNAs are under investigation as a liquid biopsy in cancer as potential non-invasive biomarkers, as stable structure in circulation nucleosomes could be valuable sources for detection of cancer-specific alterations in histone modifications. Our interest is in histone methylation marks with a focus on colorectal cancer, one of the leading cancers respective the incidence and mortality. Our previous work included the analysis of trimethylations of lysine 9 on histone 3 (H3K9me3 and of lysine 20 on histone 4 (H4K20me3 by chromatin immuno- precipitation-related PCR in circulating nucleosomes. Here we asked whether global immunologic measurement of histone marks in circulation could be a suitable approach to show their potential as biomarkers. In addition to H3K9me3 and H4K20me3 we also measured H3K27me3 in plasma samples from CRC patients (n = 63 and cancer free individuals (n = 40 by ELISA-based methylation assays. Our results show that of three marks, the amounts of H3K27me3 (p = 0.04 and H4K20me3 (p < 0.001 were significantly lower in CRC patients than in healthy controls. For H3K9me3 similar amounts were measured in both groups. Areas under the curve (AUC in receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves indicating the power of CRC detection were 0.620 for H3K27me3, 0.715 for H4K20me3 and 0.769 for the combination of both markers. In conclusion, findings of this preliminary study reveal the potential of blood-based detection of CRC by quantification of histone methylation marks and the additive effect of the marker combination.

  18. Retro-orbital blood acquisition facilitates circulating microRNA measurement in zebrafish with paracetamol hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliegenthart, Adriaan D B; Starkey Lewis, Philip; Tucker, Carl S; Del Pozo, Jorge; Rider, Sebastein; Antoine, Daniel J; Dubost, Valérie; Westphal, Magdalena; Moulin, Pierre; Bailey, Matthew A; Moggs, Jonathan G; Goldring, Chris E; Park, B Kevin; Dear, James W

    2014-06-01

    Paracetamol is the commonest cause of acute liver failure in the Western world and biomarkers are needed that report early hepatotoxicity. The liver-enriched microRNA (miRNA), miR-122, is a promising biomarker currently being qualified in humans. For biomarker development and drug toxicity screening, the zebrafish has advantages over rodents; however, blood acquisition in this model remains technically challenging. We developed a method for collecting blood from the adult zebrafish by retro-orbital (RO) bleeding and compared it to the commonly used lateral incision method. The RO technique was more reliable in terms of the blood yield and minimum amount per fish. This new RO technique was used in a zebrafish model of paracetamol toxicity. Paracetamol induced dose-dependent increases in liver cell necrosis, serum alanine transaminase activity, and mortality. In situ hybridization localized expression of miR-122 to the cytoplasm of zebrafish hepatocytes. After collection by RO bleeding, serum miR-122 could be measured and this miRNA was substantially increased by paracetamol 24 h after exposure, an increase that was prevented by delayed (3 h poststart of paracetamol exposure) treatment with acetylcysteine. In summary, collection of blood by RO bleeding facilitated measurement of miR-122 in a zebrafish model of paracetamol hepatotoxicity. The zebrafish represents a new species for measurement of circulating miRNA biomarkers that are translational and can bridge between fish and humans.

  19. Advances of Studies on Mechanisms of Drugs for Activating Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treatment of Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Primary liver cancer is mainly characterized by the mass in hypochondriac region, stabbing pain at a fixative region, tenderness, dim complexion,vascular spider, vein exposure, livid tongue,ecchymosis, taut and uneven pulse and other symptoms of blood stasis. Experimental studies have found that the patient with liver cancer is often accompanied with disturbance of microcirculation,increase of blood viscosity and high blood agglutinative state. Therefore, activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis is clinically an important therapy for primary liver cancer. A great number of studies on the mechanisms have been carried out in China and other countries. The follow is a review about the mechanisms.

  20. Amphiphilic vinyl polymers effectively prolong liposome circulation time in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torchilin, V P; Shtilman, M I; Trubetskoy, V S; Whiteman, K; Milstein, A M

    1994-10-12

    Newly synthesized amphiphilic polyacrylamide and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone), single terminus-modified with long-chain fatty acyl groups, are able to incorporate into the liposomal membrane, and similar to poly(ethylene glycol) prolong liposome circulation in vivo and decrease liposome accumulation in the liver. Protective efficacy of modified polymers increases with the increase in the length of acyl moiety and decreases for higher molecular weight polymers. The data on amphiphilic polymer-modified liposome biodistribution are presented.

  1. Evaluation of coronary blood flow velocity during cardiac arrest with circulation maintained through mechanical chest compressions in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Henrik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical chest compressions (CCs have been shown capable of maintaining circulation in humans suffering cardiac arrest for extensive periods of time. Reports have documented a visually normalized coronary blood flow during angiography in such cases (TIMI III flow, but it has never been actually measured. Only indirect measurements of the coronary circulation during cardiac arrest with on-going mechanical CCs have been performed previously through measurement of the coronary perfusion pressure (CPP. In this study our aim was to correlate average peak coronary flow velocity (APV to CPP during mechanical CCs. Methods In a closed chest porcine model, cardiac arrest was established through electrically induced ventricular fibrillation (VF in eleven pigs. After one minute, mechanical chest compressions were initiated and then maintained for 10 minutes upon which the pigs were defibrillated. Measurements of coronary blood flow in the left anterior descending artery were made at baseline and during VF with a catheter based Doppler flow fire measuring APV. Furthermore measurements of central (thoracic venous and arterial pressures were also made in order to calculate the theoretical CPP. Results Average peak coronary flow velocity was significantly higher compared to baseline during mechanical chests compressions and this was observed during the entire period of mechanical chest compressions (12 - 39% above baseline. The APV slowly declined during the 10 min period of mechanical chest compressions, but was still higher than baseline at the end of mechanical chest compressions. CPP was simultaneously maintained at > 20 mmHg during the 10 minute episode of cardiac arrest. Conclusion Our study showed good correlation between CPP and APV which was highly significant, during cardiac arrest with on-going mechanical CCs in a closed chest porcine model. In addition APV was even higher during mechanical CCs compared to baseline. Mechanical

  2. A SYSTEM AND A DEVICE FOR ISOLATING CIRCULATING TUMOR CELLS FROM THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mego

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTC play a crucial role in disseminating tumors and in the metastatic cascade. CTCs are found only in small numbers, and the limited amount of isolated CTCs makes it impossible to characterize them closely. This paper presents a proposal for a new system for isolating CTCs from the peripheral blood in vivo. The system enables CTCs to be isolated from the whole blood volume for further research and applications. The proposed system consists of magnetic nanoparticles covered by monoclonal antibodies against a common epithelial antigen, large supermagnets, which are used to control the position of the nanoparticles within the human body, and a special wire made of a magnetic core wrapped in a non-magnetic shell. The system could be used not only for isolating CTCs, but also for in vivo isolation of other rare cells from the peripheral blood, including hematopoietic and/or mesenchymal stem cells, with applications in regenerative medicine and/or in stem cell transplantation.

  3. Dried-blood spots: a cost-effective field method for the detection of Chikungunya virus circulation in remote areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soa Fy Andriamandimby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2005, there were outbreaks of febrile polyarthritis due to Chikungunya virus (CHIKV in the Comoros Islands. CHIKV then spread to other islands in the Indian Ocean: La Réunion, Mauritius, Seychelles and Madagascar. These outbreaks revealed the lack of surveillance and preparedness of Madagascar and other countries. Thus, it was decided in 2007 to establish a syndrome-based surveillance network to monitor dengue-like illness. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the use of capillary blood samples blotted on filter papers for molecular diagnosis of CHIKV infection. Venous blood samples can be difficult to obtain and the shipment of serum in appropriate temperature conditions is too costly for most developing countries. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Venous blood and dried-blood blotted on filter paper (DBFP were collected during the last CHIKV outbreak in Madagascar (2010 and as part of our routine surveillance of dengue-like illness. All samples were tested by real-time RT-PCR and results with serum and DBFP samples were compared for each patient. The sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with DBFP, relative to those with venous samples (defined as 100% were 93.1% (95% CI:[84.7-97.7] and 94.4% (95% CI:[88.3-97.7], respectively. The Kappa coefficient 0.87 (95% CI:[0.80-0.94] was excellent. CONCLUSION: This study shows that DBFP specimens can be used as a cost-effective alternative sampling method for the surveillance and monitoring of CHIKV circulation and emergence in developing countries, and probably also for other arboviruses. The loss of sensitivity is insignificant and involved a very small number of patients, all with low viral loads. Whether viruses can be isolated from dried blood spots remains to be determined.

  4. Effect of Chinese Herbs for Activating Blood Circulation,Removing Stasis and Supplementing Qi on the Circulating Endothelial Cells in Patients with Unstable Angina Pectoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马丽红; 阮英茆; 焦增绵; 李晓惠

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect and clinical significance of circulating endothelial cells (CEC) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease with unstable angina pectoris (CHD-UAP), and to explore the protective effect of Chinese herbs for activating blood circulation, removing stasis and supplementing Qi (CH) on CHD-UAP patient's CEC. Methods: Sixty patients with diagnosis of CHD-UAP confirmed and differentiated to be Qi-deficiency and blood stasis by TCM were randomly divided into two groups and treatime, with 1 month as one therapeutic course. The number of CEC in patients' blood circulation was counted before and after treatment. Besides, the number of CEC in 30 healthy persons was also counted for control.Results: The number of CEC in CHD-UAP patients was significantly higher than that in the healthy persons (P<0.01). After the patients were treated with CH, either TXL or HXTM, it significantly decreased (P<0.01)with insignificant difference between the two treated groups. Conclusion: CEC in CHD-UAP patients is severely damaged and endothelial function in disorder, Chinese herbs have protective effect on patients' CEC.

  5. [Magnetic field numerical calculation and analysis for magnetic coupling of centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhaoyan; Lu, Lijun; Zhang, Tianyi; Chen, Zhenglong; Zhang, Tao

    2013-12-01

    This paper mainly studies the driving system of centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulation, with the core being disc magnetic coupling. Structure parameters of disc magnetic coupling are related to the ability of transferring magnetic torque. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out disc magnetic coupling permanent magnet pole number (n), air gap length (L(g)), permanent magnet thickness (L(m)), permanent magnet body inside diameter (R(i)) and outside diameter (R(o)), etc. thoroughly. This paper adopts the three-dimensional static magnetic field edge element method of Ansys for numerical calculation, and analyses the relations of magnetic coupling each parameter to transmission magnetic torque. It provides a good theory basis and calculation method for further optimization of the disc magnetic coupling.

  6. Engineered stealth porous silicon nanoparticles via surface encapsulation of bovine serum albumin for prolonging blood circulation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Zhang, Wenyi; Shi, Jisen; Xiao, Shou-jun

    2013-11-27

    Luminescent porous silicon nanoparticles (PSiNPs) have been widely used as drug delivery. However, fast biodegradation and short blood circulation have been major challenges for their biomedical applications. Herein, bovine serum albumin was readily encapsulated onto alkyl-terminated PSiNPs surfaces via hydrophobic interaction, which could significantly improve their water-dispersibility and long-term stability under physiological conditions. Furthermore, compared with PSiNPs alone, PSiNPs coated with bovine serum albumin remarkably reduced nonspecific cellular uptake in vitro and prolonged blood circulation in vivo.

  7. Circulation Organization Innovation:Shorten or Lengthen Circulation Time%流通组织创新:缩短与延长流通时间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔向阳

    2015-01-01

    Based on Marxist circulation time theory,circulation time the one of the important variables having impact on circulation organization. Circulation time plays its role in having impact on innovation in circulation organization from the longitudinal and horizontal aspects,which leads to the integration and convergence of circulation industry. From the longitudinal aspect,the innovation of circulation organization is oriented to shorten the circulation time,which leads to the compression of circulation links,and the reduction of circulation cost;and it includes such four models as the shortening of purchase time,the shortening of selling time,the convergence of purchase and selling,and the convergence of circulation and IT. From the horizontal aspect,the innovation of circulation organization is oriented to lengthen the circulation time,which leads to the extension of industrial chain of circulation industry and the enlargement of scale of circulation industry;it includes such four models as the integration of the function of circulation industry itself,the integration of circulation industry with agricultural industry,the integration of circulation industry with manufacturing industry,and the integration of circulation industry with other service industries.%根据马克思的流通时间理论,流通时间是影响流通组织创新的重要变量。流通时间从纵横两个方面对流通组织创新发挥作用,导致流通业的融合与整合。从纵的方面说,是缩短流通时间导向的,要求压缩流通环节,节约流通费用,包括节约购买时间、节约销售时间、融合购买与销售阶段、融合流通业和信息技术产业等四种模式。从横的方面说,是延长流通时间导向的,要求延伸流通产业链条,扩大流通规模,包括流通业整合自身功能、流通业整合农业、流通业整合制造业、流通业整合其他服务业等四种模式。

  8. Administration of Traditional Chinese Blood Circulation Activating Drugs for Microvascular Complications in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisha He

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM is an important complementary strategy for treating diabetes mellitus (DM in China. Traditional Chinese blood circulation activating drugs are intended to guide an overall approach to the prevention and treatment of microvascular complications of DM. The core mechanism is related to the protection of the vascular endothelium and the basement membrane. Here, we reviewed the scientific evidence underpinning the use of blood circulation activating drugs to prevent and treat DM-induced microvascular complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN, diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN, and diabetic retinopathy (DR. Furthermore, we summarized the effects and mechanism of TCM on improving blood rheology, inhibiting aggregation of platelet, forming advanced glycation end products (AGEs, regulating oxidative stress, reducing blood fat, and improving lipid metabolism. The paper provides a new theoretical basis for the clinical practice of TCM in the prevention and treatment of DM and its microvascular complications.

  9. Homing of circulating blood endothelial progenitor cells after myocardial infarction is mediated by Akt-SDF-1-signal pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵岚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expressions of protein kinase B(Akt) and stromal cell-derived factor-1(SDF-1) and their relations with circulating blood endothelial progenitor cell homing after myocardial infarction(MI). Methods MI was induced in the

  10. Gene expression analysis in pregnant women and their infants identifies unique fetal biomarkers that circulate in maternal blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    The discovery of fetal mRNA transcripts in the maternal circulation holds great promise for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. To identify potential fetal biomarkers, we studied whole blood and plasma gene transcripts that were common to 9 term pregnant women and their newborns but absent or reduced in...

  11. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice.…

  12. Effects of Replenishing Qi, Promoting Blood Circulation and Resolving Phlegm on Vascular Endothelial Function and Blood Coagulation System in Senile Patients with Hyperlipemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huimin; Han Libei; Sheng Tong; He Qiong; Liang Jinpu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the curative effect of the method of replenishing qi, promoting blood circulation and resolving phlegm on senile hyperlipemia and its effects on vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system. Method: 96 patients with senile hyperlipemia were randomly divided into a treatment group and a of blood lipid, vascular endothelial function, blood coagulation system and safety. Results: After treatment,the treatment group was obviously superior to the control group (P<0.05) in reducing plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as in the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α), D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB). Conclusion: Danshen Jueming Granules have the effect of regulating metabolism of blood lipid, and improving vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system in senile patients with hyperlipemia.

  13. Studying circulation times of liver cancer cells by in vivo flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, G; Li, Y; Fan, Z; Guo, J; Tan, X; Wei, X, E-mail: xwei@fudan.edu.cn [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai, 200032 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) may metastasize to lung kidney and many other organs. The survival rate is almost zero for metastatic HCC patients. Molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed. A recently developed 'in vivo flow cytometer' combined with real-time confocal fluorescence imaging are used to assess spreading and the circulation kinetics of liver tumor cells. The in vivo flow cytometer has the capability to detect and quantify continuously the number and flow characteristics of fluorescently labeled cells in vivo in real time without extracting blood sample. We have measured the depletion kinetics of two related human HCC cell lines high-metastatic HCCLM3 cells and low-metastatic HepG2 cells which were from the same origin and obtained by repetitive screenings in mice. >60% HCCLM3 cells are depleted within the first hour. Interestingly the low-metastatic HepG2 cells possess noticeably slower depletion kinetics. In comparison <40% HepG2 cells are depleted within the first hour. The differences in depletion kinetics might provide insights into early metastasis processes.

  14. Pediatric blood culture: time to positivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Ateş; Kanra, Güler; Cengiz, A Bülent; Apiş, Menekşe; Gür, Deniz

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how long it takes blood culture to become positive using a blood culture system that can be monitored continuously in pediatric patients. Data were collected prospectively on 1,000 positive blood culture results from a tertiary pediatric university hospital from April 2000 to May 2002. The laboratory used the BACTEC 9120 fluorescent blood culture system. Patient's age ranged from less than a day to 20 years of age (mean 3 years). Five hundred and four cultures (50.4%) out of 1,000 yielded coagulase negative staphylococcus (CNS), 81 (8.1%) S. aureus, 53 (5.3%). Pseudomonas and 50 (5.0%) Klebsiella species. Of the 504 coagulase negative staphylococcal blood culture isolates, 314 (62.3% of CNS) were regarded as skin contaminants. Of the 1,000 cultures, 9.6% were reported as positive in the first day, 27.8% in the second day, 54.7% in the third day, 77.0% in the fourth and 89.4% in the fifth day. There was no association between previous antibiotic usage and the period required for isolate recovery. The clinician can expect to get results of positive blood cultures with susceptibility data, at a rate of 77.1% by day four and almost 90% by day five of sampling in the bacteriemic patient. Blood cultures yielding coagulase negative staphylococci in the first three days almost always show bacteremia with those microorganisms.

  15. CIRCULATING MICROPARTICLES, BLOOD CELLS, AND ENDOTHELIUM INDUCE PROCOAGULANT ACTIVITY IN SEPSIS THROUGH PHOSPHATIDYLSERINE EXPOSURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Meng, Huan; Ma, Ruishuang; He, Zhangxiu; Wu, Xiaoming; Cao, Muhua; Yao, Zhipeng; Zhao, Lu; Li, Tao; Deng, Ruijuan; Dong, Zengxiang; Tian, Ye; Bi, Yayan; Kou, Junjie; Thatte, Hemant S; Zhou, Jin; Shi, Jialan

    2016-03-01

    Sepsis is invariably accompanied by altered coagulation cascade; however, the precise role of phosphatidylserine (PS) in inflammation-associated coagulopathy in sepsis has not been well elucidated. We explored the possibility of exposed PS on microparticles (MPs), blood cells, as well as on endothelium, and defined its role in procoagulant activity (PCA) in sepsis. PS-positive MPs and cells were detected by flow cytometry, while PCA was assessed with clotting time, purified coagulation complex, and fibrin formation assays. Plasma levels of PS MPs derived from platelets, leukocytes (including neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes), erythrocytes, and endothelial cells were elevated by 1.49-, 1.60-, 2.93-, and 1.53-fold, respectively, in septic patients. Meanwhile, PS exposure on blood cells was markedly higher in septic patients than in controls. Additionally, we found that the endothelial cells (ECs) treated with septic serum in vitro exposed more PS than with healthy serum. Isolated MPs/blood cells from septic patients and cultured ECs treated with septic serum in vitro demonstrated significantly shortened coagulation time, greatly enhanced intrinsic/extrinsic FXa generation, and increased thrombin formation. Importantly, confocal imaging of MPs or septic serum-treated ECs identified binding sites for FVa and FXa to form prothrombinase, and further supported fibrin formation in the area where PS exposure was abundant. Pretreatment with lactadherin blocked PS on MPs/blood cells/ECs, prolonged coagulation time by at least 25%, reduced FXa/thrombin generation, and inhibited fibrin formation by approximately 85%. Our findings suggest a key role for PS exposed on MPs, blood cells, and endothelium in augmenting coagulation in sepsis. Therefore, therapies targeting PS may be of particular importance.

  16. It Is All in the Blood: The Multifaceted Contribution of Circulating Progenitor Cells in Diabetic Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Paolo Fadini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a worldwide growing disease and represents a huge social and healthcare problem owing to the burden of its complications. Micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications arise from excess damage through well-known biochemical pathways. Interestingly, microangiopathy hits the bone marrow (BM microenvironment with features similar to retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy. The BM represents a reservoir of progenitor cells for multiple lineages, not limited to the hematopoietic system and including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, and osteogenic cells. All these multiple progenitor cell lineages are profoundly altered in the setting of diabetes in humans and animal models. Reduction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs along with excess smooth muscle progenitor (SMP and osteoprogenitor cells creates an imbalance that promote the development of micro- and macroangiopathy. Finally, an excess generation of BM-derived fusogenic cells has been found to contribute to diabetic complications in animal models. Taken together, a growing amount of literature attributes to circulating progenitor cells a multi-faceted role in the pathophysiology of DM, setting a novel scenario that puts BM and the blood at the centre of the stage.

  17. Polyethylene glycol-modified arachidyl chitosan-based nanoparticles for prolonged blood circulation of doxorubicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termsarasab, Ubonvan; Yoon, In-Soo; Park, Ju-Hwan; Moon, Hyun Tae; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Dae-Duk

    2014-04-10

    Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded nanoparticles based on polyethylene glycol-conjugated chitosan oligosaccharide-arachidic acid (CSOAA-PEG) were explored for potential application to leukemia therapy. PEG was conjugated with CSOAA backbone via amide bond formation and the final product was verified by (1)H NMR analysis. Using the synthesized CSOAA-PEG, nanoparticles having characteristics of a 166-nm mean diameter, positive zeta potential, and spherical shape were produced for the delivery of DOX. The mean diameter of CSOAA-PEG nanoparticles in the serum solution (50% fetal bovine serum) remained relatively constant over 72 h as compared with CSOAA nanoparticles (changes of 20.92% and 223.16%, respectively). The sustained release pattern of DOX from CSOAA-PEG nanoparticles was displayed at physiological pH, and the release rate increased under the acidic pH conditions. The cytotoxicity of the CSOAA-PEG conjugate was negligible in human leukemia cells (K562) at the concentrations tested (∼ 100 μg/ml). The uptake rate of DOX from the nanoparticles by K562 cells was higher than that from the solution. Judging from the results of pharmacokinetic studies in rats, in vivo clearance rate of DOX from the CSOAA-PEG nanoparticle group was slower than other groups, subsequently extending the circulation period. The PEGylated CSOAA-based nanoparticles could represent an effective nano-sized delivery system for DOX which has been used for the treatment of blood malignancies.

  18. Immunomagnetic Nano-Screening Chip for Circulating Tumor Cells Detection in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, A. P.; Lane, N.; Tam, J.; Sokolov, K.; Garner, H. R.; Uhr, J. W.; Zhang, X. J.

    2010-03-01

    We present a novel method towards diagnose cancer at an early stage via a blood test. Early diagnosis is high on the future agenda of oncologists because of significant evidence that it will result in a higher cure rate. Capture of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which are known to escape from carcinomas at an early stage offers such an opportunity. We design, fabricate and optimize the nanomagnetic-screening chip that captures the CTCs in microfluid, and further integrate the nano-chip with the new multispectral imaging system so that it can quantify different tumor markers and automate the entire instrument. Specifically, hybrid plasmonic (Fe2O3-core Au shell) nanoparticles, conjugated a collection of antibodies especially chosen to target breast cancer CTCs, with high magnetic susceptibility will be used for effective immunomagnetic CTC isolation. Greatly increased sensitivity over previous attempts is demonstrated by decreasing the length scale for interactions between the magnetic-nanoparticle-tagged CTCs and the isolative magnetic field, while increasing the effective cross-sectional area over which this interaction takes place. The screening chip is integrated with a novel hyperspectral microscopic imaging (HMI) platform capable of recording the entire emission spectra in a single pass evaluation. The combined system will precisely quantify up to 10 tumor markers on CTCs.

  19. Genetic Variation in the Natriuretic Peptide System, Circulating Natriuretic Peptide Levels, and Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Nielsen, Søren J; Torp-Pedersen, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundIn a large collaborative study (n > 50,000), common variants in the natriuretic peptide (NP) genes were found to be associated with circulating NP levels and also with blood pressure (BP) levels based on office BP measurements (OBPMs). It is unknown if determining an individual's BP by ...... evidence that the NP system plays an important role in BP regulation.American Journal of Hypertension 2012; doi:10.1038/ajh.2012.96.......-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPMs) will influence the effect of NP gene variations on BP levels.MethodsWe used rs632793 at the NPPB (NP precursor B) locus to investigate the relationship between genetically determined serum N-terminal pro-brain NP (NT-proBNP) concentrations and BP levels......). Office BP decreased across the genotypes from A:A to G:G, but the differences did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.12).ConclusionsThis study suggests that 24-h ABPMs is a better method than OBPMs to detect significant differences in BP levels related to genetic variance and provides further...

  20. Effects of Chinese herbs capable of replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation and their compatibility on differentially expressed genes of ischemic myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN HuiJun; GUO ChunYu; SHI DaZhuo

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Chinese herbs capable of replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation and their compatibility on differentially expressed genes of ischemic myocardium which were selected from differential expression profile we had established before,and to explore the underlying mechanism. The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model was established by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery,then the model rats were randomly divided into the model group,the Metoprolol group,the replenishing qi nourishing yin (RN)group,the activating blood circulation (AB) group,and the replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation (RA) group. In addition,the normal group and the sham group were set up. The rats of medication groups were administered by intragastric gavage with corresponding drugs on the second day after operations,and the rats of the normal group and the sham group were given normal saline as the same time.Then the ischemic hearts were harvested on the 8th day after operation. The myocardial pathomorphological changes were observed under a light microscope. The mRNA changes of target genes such as COX5a and ATP5e were detected using Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Q-PCR),and the activities of related enzymes were detected by colorimetric assay. The main results were as follows:the histological changes were observed by HE staining,and cardiocyte swelling,inflammatory cell infiltration and cytolysis were showed in regional ischemic myocardium of the model group,while the pathomorphological changes in all medication groups did not show obvious changes.Two genes related to energy metabolism,COX5a and ATP5e,were selected as the target genes which were down-regulated at the mRNA level in the medication groups. The activities of correlative functional enzymes also decreased in the RA group compared to that in the model group accordingly (P<0.05). The results indicated

  1. Gas Hold-Up, Mixing Time and Circulation Time in Internal Loop Airlift Bubble Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdul Rahman–Al Ezzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of superficial gas in the riser (Vgr and liquid phase properties on the gas hold-up(ɛg , mixing time (Tm and circulation time (TC were studied in 8 liter internal air lift loop reactor (down comer-to-riser crosssectional area ratio = 0.249. Air was used as a gas phase. Water and four aqueous solutions of 10% concentration methanol, ethanol, (were used to simulate the behavior of non-coalescing organic liquids 50% glycerol and 2% Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC were used to simulate the behavior of coalescing viscous liquids. Polyethylene-non-porous-solid particles with a concentration of (50 Kg/m3 were used as solid phase. Superficial gas velocity varied from 0.01 m/s to 0.1 m/s and air dispersed into the center of the draught tube by using a porous gas distributor. The results showed that (εg increased with increasing gas velocity and coalescence inhibition of liquid, while Tm and Tc decrease with increasing gas velocity. It was found that increasing liquid viscosity and coalescence reduces (εg but increases (Tm and (Tc. The gas holdup was correlated with dimensionless groups and independent parameter with correlation coefficient is 0.967, the following correlation is obtained.

  2. Stealth CD44-targeted hyaluronic acid supramolecular nanoassemblies for doxorubicin delivery: probing the effect of uncovalent pegylation degree on cellular uptake and blood long circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaopeng; Li, Zhenbao; Sun, Jin; Luo, Cong; Li, Lin; Liu, Yuhai; Du, Yuqian; Qiu, Shuhong; Ai, Xiaoyu; Wu, Chunnuan; Lian, He; He, Zhonggui

    2015-01-10

    Stealth active targeting nanoparticles (NPs) usually include two types of ligand sites: ligand anchored on distal ends of the polyethylene glycol (PEG) and ligand buried under pegylated layer. The latter typical case is hyaluronic acid (HA)-based NPs; however, there is little information available for the latter NPs about effect of the optimal density of surface PEG coating on the blood circulation time, cellular uptake and in vivo anticancer activity. Thus, in this study, in order to optimize the anticancer effects of HA-based NPs, we focus on how uncovalent pegylation degree modulates blood circulation time and cellular uptake of HA-based NPs. We firstly designed a new double-hydrophilic copolymer by conjugating HP-β-cyclodextrin with HA, and this carrier was further pegylated with adamantyl-peg (ADA-PEG) to form inclusion complex HA-HPCD/ADA-PEG, termed as HCPs. The supramolecular nanoassemblies were fabricated by host-guest and polar interactions between HCPs and doxorubicin (Dox), with vitamin E succinate (VES) being a nanobridge. Despite the active recognition between HA and CD44 receptor, the cellular uptake and targeting efficiency of HA-NPs decreased with the increasing peg density, demonstrating HA was partly buried by high density peg coating. However, the high density of peg coating was beneficial to long circulation time, tumor biodistribution and anticancer activity in vivo. NPs with 5% peg coating had the optimal cellular targeting efficiency in vitro and anticancer effects in vivo. The findings suggest that balancing long circulation property and cellular uptake is important to achieve the optimal antitumor efficacy for pegylated HA-based NPs, and that PEG coating densities cannot be extended beyond a certain density for shielding effect without compromising the efficacy of hyaluronic acid targeted delivery.

  3. Circulating angiogenic cells can be derived from cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Sofrenovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cell transplantation for regenerative medicine has become an appealing therapeutic method; however, stem and progenitor cells are not always freshly available. Cryopreservation offers a way to freeze cells as they are generated, for storage and transport until required for therapy. This study was performed to assess the feasibility of cryopreserving peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs for the subsequent in vitro generation of their derived therapeutic population, circulating angiogenic cells (CACs. METHODS: PBMCs were isolated from healthy human donors. Freshly isolated cells were either analyzed immediately or cryopreserved in media containing 6% plasma serum and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide. PBMCs were thawed after being frozen for 1 (early thaw or 28 (late thaw days and analyzed, or cultured for 4 days to generate CACs. Analysis of the cells consisted of flow cytometry for viability and phenotype, as well as functional assays for their adhesion and migration potential, cytokine secretion, and in vivo angiogenic potential. RESULTS: The viability of PBMCs and CACs as well as their adhesion and migration properties did not differ greatly after cryopreservation. Phenotypic changes did occur in PBMCs and to a lesser extent in CACs after freezing; however the potent CD34(+VEGFR2(+CD133(+ population remained unaffected. The derived CACs, while exhibiting changes in inflammatory cytokine secretion, showed no changes in the secretion of important regenerative and chemotactic cytokines, nor in their ability to restore perfusion in ischemic muscle. CONCLUSION: Overall, it appears that changes do occur in cryopreserved PBMCs and their generated CACs; however, the CD34(+VEGFR2(+CD133(+ progenitor population, the secretion of pro-vasculogenic factors, and the in vivo angiogenic potential of CACs remain unaffected by cryopreservation.

  4. The regulation of method of tonifying Qi and activating blood circulation in the related gene expressions after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Fan; Li Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a disease of high incidence and low cure rate without any ideal treatment. Among the complex pathological reactions, the post-injury abnormal expressions of many genes may be an important one. Method of tonifying Qi and activating blood circulation, which is one of the most important treatments of spinal cord injury in Traditional Chinese Medicine and has been used extensively in clinic, is proved to be effective in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Recently, many scholars have carried out a lot of studies in this filed and acquired notable achievements. The essay concludes mechanisms of the regulation of method of tonifying Qi and activating blood circulation in the related gene expressions after spinal cord injury to provide new thoughts and new methods for the treatment and study of spinal cord injury.

  5. Circulating MicroRNAs in maternal blood as potential biomarkers for fetal hypoxia in-utero.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare L Whitehead

    Full Text Available Stillbirth affects 1 in 200 pregnancies and commonly arises due to a lack of oxygen supply to the fetus. Current tests to detect fetal hypoxia in-utero lack the sensitivity to identify many babies at risk. Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs derived from the placenta circulate in the maternal blood during pregnancy and may serve as non-invasive biomarkers for pregnancy complications. In this study, we examined the expression of miRs known to be regulated by hypoxia in two clinical settings of significant fetal hypoxia: 1 labour and 2 fetal growth restriction. Six miRs (miR 210, miR 21, miR 424, miR 199a, miR 20b, and miR 373 were differentially expressed in pregnancies complicated by fetal hypoxia. In healthy term pregnancies there was a 4.2 fold increase in miR 210 (p<0.01, 2.7 fold increase in miR 424 (p<0.05, 2.6 fold increase in miR 199a (p<0.01 and 2.3 fold increase in miR 20b (p<0.05 from prior to labour to delivery of the fetus. Furthermore, the combined expression of miR 21 and miR 20b correlated with the degree of fetal hypoxia at birth determined by umbilical cord lactate delivery (r = 0.79, p = 0.03. In pregnancies complicated by severe preterm fetal growth restriction there was upregulation of the hypoxia-regulated miRs compared to gestation-matched controls: 3.6 fold in miR 210 (p<0.01, 3.6 fold in miR 424 (p<0.05, 5.9 fold in miR 21 (p<0.01, 3.8 fold in miR 199a (p<0.01 and 3.7 fold in miR 20b (p<0.01. Interestingly, the expression of miR 373 in gestation matched controls was very low, but was very highly expressed in FGR (p<0.0001. Furthermore, the expression increased in keeping with the degree of in-utero hypoxia estimated by fetal Doppler velocimetry. We conclude quantifying hypoxia-regulated miRs in the maternal blood may identify pregnancies at risk of fetal hypoxia, enabling early intervention to improve perinatal outcomes.

  6. Clinical Observation on Influence of Chinese Medicines for Promoting Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis on FIB and DD in Plasma of Patients with Cerebral Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晖; 陈甦; 陈少芳

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to study the influence of Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis on fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer (DD) in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis. Method: 73 inpatients with acute cerebral thrombosis were randomly divided into a control group of 34 cases and a treatment group of 39 cases. The content of FIB and DD in plasma was detected before treatment and on the 7th and 14th days after treatment. Result: FIB content in plasma after treatment was lower than that before treatment in the control group (P<0.01) and more remarkable in the treatment group (P<0.001). There was an obvious difference in DD content before and after treatment in both groups. DD content on the 7th and 14th days after treatment in the treatment group was obviously higher than that in the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively). Conclusion: Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis can reduce the FIB content in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis, raise the DD content in plasma, cause the peak of DD content appear earlier and obviously improve hypercoagulability of blood in patients with cerebral thrombosis.

  7. Assessment of Blood Flow in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Correlations of Computed Tomography Perfusion Imaging and Circulating Angiogenic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Pin Chou

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a highly vascular tumor through the process of angiogenesis. To evaluate more non-invasive techniques for assessment of blood flow (BF in HCC, this study examined the relationships between BF of HCC measured by computer tomography (CT perfusion imaging and four circulating angiogenic factors in HCC patients. Interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 8 (IL-8, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, and platelet derived growth factor (PDGF in plasma were measured using Bio-Plex multiplex immunoassay in 21 HCC patients and eight healthy controls. Circulating IL-6, IL-8 and VEGF showed higher concentrations in HCC patients than in controls (p < 0.05, and predicted HCC occurrence better than chance (p < 0.01. Twenty-one patients with HCC received 21-phase liver imaging using a 64-slice CT. Total BF, arterial BF, portal BF, arterial fraction (arterial BF/total BF of the HCC and surrounding liver parenchyma, and HCC-parenchyma ratio were measured using a dual-vessel model. After analyzing the correlations between BF in HCC and four circulating angiogenic factors, we found that the HCC-parenchyma ratio of arterial BF showed a significantly positive correlation with the level of circulating IL-8 (p < 0.05. This circulating biomarker, IL-8, provides a non-invasive tool for assessment of BF in HCC.

  8. [The influence of cardiosurgical intervention type and conditions of artificial blood circulation of perioperative dynamics of cardiac biomarkers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement'eva, I I; Morozov, Iu A; Charnaia, M A

    2013-01-01

    125 patients after cardiac surgery operated on with the use of artificial blood circulation (ABC) were followed-up. Blood levels of cardiac protein, binding aliphatic acids and troponin 1 and 3 days after the operation were registered. The study showed that aorta clamping more then 90 minutes and hypothermic perfusion regimen influence cardiomyocites negatively. The state of "surgical trauma" and reperfusional myocardium damage was approximately the same during aortic surgery, myocardium revascularization with the use of aortic clamping and cardioplegia, and correction of the acquired heart disease, according to the dynamics of the studied proteins in blood. The minimal blood level of cardiac protein, binding aliphatic acids after coronary by-pass surgery on the working heart witnesses about negative influence of crystalloid hypothermic cardioplegia on coronary microcirculation.

  9. Circulating micro-RNAs as potential blood-based markers for early stage breast cancer detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Schrauder

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: MicroRNAs (miRNAs, miRs are a class of small, non-coding RNA molecules with relevance as regulators of gene expression thereby affecting crucial processes in cancer development. MiRNAs offer great potential as biomarkers for cancer detection due to their remarkable stability in blood and their characteristic expression in many different diseases. We investigated whether microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood could discriminate between early stage breast cancer patients and healthy controls. METHODS: We performed microarray-based miRNA profiling on whole blood of 48 early stage breast cancer patients at diagnosis along with 57 healthy individuals as controls. This was followed by a real-time semi-quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR validation in a separate cohort of 24 early stage breast cancer patients from a breast cancer screening unit and 24 age matched controls using two differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-202, miR-718. RESULTS: Using the significance level of p<0.05, we found that 59 miRNAs were differentially expressed in whole blood of early stage breast cancer patients compared to healthy controls. 13 significantly up-regulated miRNAs and 46 significantly down-regulated miRNAs in our microarray panel of 1100 miRNAs and miRNA star sequences could be detected. A set of 240 miRNAs that was evaluated by radial basis function kernel support vector machines and 10-fold cross validation yielded a specificity of 78.8%, and a sensitivity of 92.5%, as well as an accuracy of 85.6%. Two miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR in an independent cohort. The relative fold changes of the RT-qPCR validation were in line with the microarray data for both miRNAs, and statistically significant differences in miRNA-expression were found for miR-202. CONCLUSIONS: MiRNA profiling in whole blood has potential as a novel method for early stage breast cancer detection, but there are still challenges that need to be addressed to

  10. Chinese Drugs That Invigorate Spleen to Remove Dampness and Activate Blood Circulation to Eliminate Turbid for Retarding Progression of Chronic Renal Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Chinese drugs (CD) that invigorate Spleen to remove Dampness and activate the blood circulation to eliminate Turbid for retarding progression of chronic renal failure (CRF). Methods: Thirty-nine patients with CRF were divided into two groups at random: the 18 patients in group A (the control group) were treated with low protein diet and controlling blood pressure and 21 patients in group B (the treatment group) were treated similarly with that of the control group and additional CD. Levels of serous creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood albumin (Alb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and hemoglobin (Hb) were checked every two months and the rate of progression of CRF was estimated by slope of the creatinine reciprocal (1/SCr) with time (months). Results: Levels of SCr and BUN in group B were lower and HDL higher than those in group A significantly, P<0.05. Mean slopes of the creatinine reciprocal with time in the two groups were markedly different, P<0.01. Conclusion: Additional CD treatment based upon the low protein diet and controlling blood pressure could retard the rate of progression of CRF evidently.

  11. 冠心巴布膏活血化瘀作用研究%Study of Promoting Blood Circulation for Removing Blood Stasis by Guanxin Cataplasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岚; 杜茂波; 刘淑芝; 梁日欣; 王彦礼; 杨伟鹏; 王怡薇; 殷小杰; 杨庆

    2012-01-01

    myocardial ischemia model was established by sublingual vein injection of 0. 5 U ? kg posterior pituitary, and the electrocardiogram ECGs were recorded by polygraph to determine the incidence of ventricular tachycardia ( VT) and ventricular fibrillation ( VF) , the mean duration and onset time of VT plus VF. Result; Compared with model group, high dosage group of guanxin cataplasm decreased plasma viscosity from (1. 101 ±0.064) mPa-sto (1. 039 ±0. 025) mPa-s, platelet aggregation from (54. 92 ±6. 53)% to (49. 05 ±4. 15)% , and whole blood viscosity under the shear rate of 200 s ' from (3.81 ±0.31) mPa · s to (3.53 ±0.27) mPa'S; meanwhile the delayed duration of VT plus VF from (1 133.75 ±298. 71) s to (881.20 ±115.48)s and onset time of VT plus VF from (20. 90 ± 7. 74) s up to (36. 08 ± 16. 91) s with reduced incidence of VT plus VF from 75% to 37. 5% were observed. Small and middle dosage group led to a reduction in whole blood viscosity under 10 s from (7.14±0.88) mPa-s to (6.38 ±0.69) mPa-s and that under 200 s-1 from (3.81 ±0.31) mPa · s to (3.48 ±0. 15) mPa's shear rate, and in the incidence decreased from 75% to 37.5% and duration decreased from ( 1 133. 75 ± 298. 71 ) s to ( 816. 43 ± 243. 46 ) s for VT plus VF respectively ( P < 0. 05 , P < 0. 01 ). Conclusion; Guanxin cataplasm can obviously improve indexes of hemorheology and afford a protection against occurring of VT plus VF, which may contribute to its function of promoting blood circulation for removing blood stasis.

  12. High-circulating leptin levels are associated with increased blood pressure in uncontrolled resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro Moraes, C; Figueiredo, V N; de Faria, A P C; Barbaro, N R; Sabbatini, A R; Quinaglia, T; Ferreira-Melo, S E; Martins, L C; Demacq, C; Júnior, H M

    2013-04-01

    Leptin and aldosterone have been associated with the pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension. However, despite studies showing the association of leptin with intima-media thickness, arterial distensibility and sympathetic nerve activation, the relationship between leptin and blood pressure (BP) in resistant hypertension (RHTN) is unknown. We aimed to assess the correlation of plasma leptin and aldosterone levels with BP in uncontrolled controlled RHTN (UCRHTN) and CRHTN patients. Plasma leptin and aldosterone levels, office BP, ambulatory BP monitoring and heart rate were measured in 41 UCRHTN, 39 CRHTN and 31 well-controlled HTN patients. No differences were observed between the three groups regarding gender, body mass index and age. The UCRHTN group had increased leptin when compared with CRHTN and well-controlled HTN patients (38.2±21.4, 19.6±8.7 and 20.94±13.9 ng ml(-1), respectively; P<0.05). Aldosterone levels values were also statistically different when comparing RHTN, CRHTN and well-controlled HTN patients (9.6±3.8, 8.1±5.0 and 8.0±4.7 ng dl(-1), respectively; P<0.05). As expected, UCRHTN patients had higher heart rate values compared with CRHTN and well-controlled HTN patients (86.2±7.2, 83.5±6.7 and 83.4±8.5, respectively; P<0.05). Plasma leptin positively correlated with systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), and aldosterone (r=0.43, 0.35 and 0.47, respectively; all P<0.05) in UCRHTN, but neither in the CRHTN nor in the HTN group. Simple linear regression showed that SBP, DBP and aldosterone may be predicted by leptin (r(2)=0.16, 0.15 and 0.19, respectively; all P<0.05) only in the UCRHTN subgroup. In conclusion, UCRHTN patients have higher circulating leptin levels associated with increased plasma aldosterone and BP levels when compared with CRHTN and HTN subjects.

  13. Computed tomography perfusion imaging may predict cognitive impairment in patients with first-time anterior circulation transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Yunming; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Jian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Dan; Li, Yuxia; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI)-derived parameters are associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Patients with first-time anterior circulation TIA (diagnosed within 24 h of onset) and normal cognition, treated between August 2009 and August 2014 at the Department of Neurology of Chengdu Military General Hospital, China, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients underwent whole-brain CTPI within 1 week of TIA to detect cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) in the ischemic region. Based on cognitive function assessment 4 weeks after TIA, using the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and mini mental state examination, the patients were divided into control and VCI groups. CTPI parameters and other clinical data were compared between groups, and Spearman's correlation analysis used to identify associations between cognitive scores and CTPI parameters in the VCI group. 50 patients (25 per group; aged 55-72 years) were included. Patient age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, educational level, time from TIA onset to admission, time from TIA onset to CTPI, and prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and hyperhomocysteinemia did not differ between groups. Both groups showed TTP and MTT prolongation, CBF reduction, but no change in CBV in the ischemic region; these changes were significantly larger in the VCI group (P < 0.05). MTT correlated negatively with MoCA score (r = -0.51, P = 0.009). CTPI could facilitate early diagnosis of VCI in patients with anterior circulation TIA.

  14. Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Choe, Kibaek; Park, Inwon; Kim, Pilhan; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-09-01

    Intravital microscopy is an essential tool that reveals behaviours of live cells under conditions close to natural physiological states. So far, although various approaches for imaging cells in vivo have been proposed, most require the use of labelling and also provide only qualitative imaging information. Holographic imaging approach based on measuring the refractive index distributions of cells, however, circumvent these problems and offer quantitative and label-free imaging capability. Here, we demonstrate in vivo two- and three-dimensional holographic imaging of circulating blood cells in intact microcapillaries of live mice. The measured refractive index distributions of blood cells provide morphological and biochemical properties including three-dimensional cell shape, haemoglobin concentration, and haemoglobin contents at the individual cell level. With the present method, alterations in blood flow dynamics in live healthy and sepsis-model mice were also investigated.

  15. Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, Inwon; Kim, Pilhan; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is an essential tool that reveals behaviours of live cells under conditions close to natural physiological states. So far, although various approaches for imaging cells in vivo have been proposed, most require the use of labelling and also provide only qualitative imaging information. Holographic imaging approach based on measuring the refractive index distributions of cells, however, circumvent these problems and offer quantitative and label-free imaging capability. Here, we demonstrate in vivo two- and three-dimensional holographic imaging of circulating blood cells in intact microcapillaries of live mice. The measured refractive index distributions of blood cells provide morphological and biochemical properties including three-dimensional cell shape, haemoglobin concentration, and haemoglobin contents at the individual cell level. With the present method, alterations in blood flow dynamics in live healthy and sepsis-model mouse were also investigated.

  16. Measurement of anterior and posterior circulation flow contributions to cerebral blood flow. An ultrasound-derived volumetric flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyajian, R A; Schwend, R B; Wolfe, M M; Bickerton, R E; Otis, S M

    1995-01-01

    Ultrasound-derived volumetric flow analysis may be useful in answering questions of basic physiological interest in the cerebrovascular circulation. Using this technique, the authors have sought to describe quantitatively the complete concurrent flow relations among all four arteries supplying the brain. The aim of this study of normal subjects was to determine the relative flow contributions of the anterior (internal carotid arteries) and posterior (vertebral arteries) cerebral circulation. Comparisons between the observed and theoretically expected anterior and posterior flow distribution would provide an opportunity to assess traditional rheological conceptions in vivo. Pulsed color Doppler ultrasonography was used to measure mean flow rates in the internal carotid and vertebral arteries in 21 normal adults. The anterior circulation (internal carotid arteries bilaterally) carried 82% of the brain's blood supply and comprised 67% of the total vascular cross-sectional area. These values demonstrate precise concordance between observations in vivo and the theoretically derived (Hagen-Poiseuille) expected flow distribution. These cerebrovascular findings support the traditional conception of macroscopic blood flow. Further studies using ultrasound-derived volumetric analysis of the brain's arterial flow relations may illuminate the vascular pathophysiology underlying aging, cerebral ischemia, and dementias.

  17. The Effects of Chinese Medicines on Micro-circulation of Nail Folds and Blood Flow Velocity of Limbs in the Patients with Arteriosclerotic Obliteration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛辛; 葛芃; 彭玉清; 陈云翔

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Chinese medicines on micro-circulation and blood flow velocity in arteries of the lower limbs were observed in 33 patients with arteriosclerotic obliteration (ASO). The results showed that the integral values of micro-circulation after treatment were obviously higher than those before treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Blood flow velocity in arteries of the lower limbs determined with the color Doppler ultrasound detecting method after treatment were also obviously higher than those before treatment (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In this series of 33 ASO patients, the markedly effective rate was 36.36%, and the total effective rate was 63.64%. The observation indicates that the recipe prescribed according to the principle of supplementing qi and activating blood circulation can effectively improve micro-circulation in ASO patients, and accelerate blood flow in arteries of the lower limbs.

  18. Deep Ocean Circulation, Heat Transport and the Timing of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, W. B.; Lynch-Stieglitz, J.

    2015-12-01

    Since the 1960s, changes in the production of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) have been invoked as a way to influence climate changes in the southern hemisphere, to synchronize the changes in both hemispheres or to trigger an early climate response in the southern hemisphere. While not the first to document the role of NADW and changes in heat transport in hemispheric linkages, Tom Crowley's 1992 paper "North Atlantic Deep Water Cools the Southern Hemisphere" was an elegant and influential contribution outlining how changes in NADW production may have caused the early southern hemisphere response seen on orbital time scales by Hays, Imbrie and Shackleton (1976) as well as other researchers studying climate variability in marine sediments and polar ice cores. Our understanding of climate change and ocean circulation has improved greatly since the early 1990s. Modern observations have increased our understanding of processes governing deep water production, mixing and circulation. A dedicated community effort to better reconstruct past changes in ocean circulation has resulted in: 1) longer and more highly-resolved time series of deep water production on orbital time scales; 2) reconstructions of the bathymetric and geographic distribution of nutrients that are affected by circulation and water mass geometry; 3) the development of new ways to determine rates of ocean overturning, especially in the Atlantic; and 4) the development of highly-resolved records of ocean circulation that document variability on centennial and millennial time scales. In this presentation we aim to synthesize the current state of understanding of deep water production and climate change on these longer time scales.

  19. [Relationship between regulation effect of salvia miltiorrhiza on AQP2 in kidney and promoting blood circulation and diuresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Jing; Guo, Liang-Feng; Yao, Rui; Xue, Song-Yan; Li, Feng

    2014-08-01

    Partial nature of "promoting blood circulation and dieresis" of Salvia Miltiorrhizain was initially demonstrated by investigating the regulation effect of AQP2 expression in kidney of trauma blood stasis model rats with the Salvia Miltiorrhizain so as to provide guidance for its clinical deployment of administration. Random allocation was taken to averagely divide 30 SD rats into two groups: 10 rats in normal group and 20 rats in blood stasis syndrome group. Trauma blood stasis rat model was established by quantitatively beating. Then the rat model group was divided into model group and salvia group. After 7 days of treatment, the rat kidney AQP2 expression was detected, the content of urine AQP2 was compared and the damaged local muscle and kidney pathological changes were observed by immunohistochemical method and western blot method. Compared with that of the normal group, rats in model group had inflammatory cells infiltration, blood stasis and edema of the injured local muscles and up-regulated AQP2 expression, decreasing urinary output, and kidney tissues blood stasis and edema (P diuresis" as the mechanism for the regulation effect of the salvia on AQP2 expression.

  20. Time course for the recovery of physical performance, blood hemoglobin, and ferritin content after blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Andreas K; Grand, Johannes; Stangerup, Ida;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that blood donation negatively affects endurance performance, but data on physical recovery after a standard blood donation are scarce. This study aimed to elucidate the temporary impact of blood donation on endurance performance, measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO......2peak ) and time trial (TT) performance. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: VO2peak , TT performance, blood, iron, and anthropometric variables were determined before (baseline) and 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after blood donation in 19 healthy men. RESULTS: VO2peak was reduced by 6.5% from 49.7 ± 2 m......L/kg/min at baseline to 46.3 ± 2 mL/kg/min on Day 3 (p blood donation. Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration declined 7.9% from 9.3 ± 0.11 mmol...

  1. Real Time Immunophenotyping of Leukocyte Subsets Early after Double Cord Blood Transplantation Predicts Graft Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianqiang; Nicoud, Ian; Blake, Joseph; Oliver, David; Cox, Emily; Heimfeld, Shelly; Milano, Filippo; Imren, Suzan; Delaney, Colleen

    2017-03-01

    Cord blood transplantation (CBT) recipients are at increased risk for delayed engraftment and primary graft failure, complications that are often indistinguishable early post-transplantation. Current assays fail to accurately identify recipients with slow hematopoietic recovery and distinguish them from those with pending graft failure. To address this, we prospectively examined the kinetics of immune cell subset recovery in the peripheral blood of 39 patients on days +7 and +14 after double-unit CBT (dCBT) by multiparametric flow cytometry analysis, which we term real-time immunophenotyping (RTIP). RTIP analysis at day +14 revealed distinctive patterns of reconstitution and, importantly, identified patients with slow hematopoietic recovery who went on to engraft. Strikingly, higher absolute numbers of circulating monocytes and natural killer cells at day +14 were predictive of engraftment, but only the absolute number of circulating monocytes was significantly correlated with time to engraftment. This is the first evidence that RTIP on patient peripheral blood mononuclear cells early after dCBT is technically feasible and can be used as a "signature" for predicting the kinetics of hematopoietic recovery. Furthermore, RTIP is a time- and cost-efficient methodology that has the potential to become a clinically feasible diagnostic tool to guide therapeutic interventions in high-risk patients; therefore, its utility should be evaluated in a large cohort of patients.

  2. Measurement of cerebral circulation times by means of the analysis of the time-density curve using digital subtraction angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazawa, Toshiaki; Karasawa, Jun; Touho, Hajime; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Nakauchi, Mikio; Kuriyama, Yoshihiro

    1987-04-01

    Five patients who had suffered a transient ischemic attack (TIA) with a normal angiogram were selected as a control group for the study of the internal-carotid-artery system, while 2 patients were selected as the controls in the study of the vertebral-artery system in order to evaluate the effect of cerebrovascular lesions. The cerebral circulation time of the internal carotid artery system was defined as the difference in the arrival times of the intraarterial contrast bolus between Fischer's C1 portion and the middle of the transverse sinus, while that of the vertebral artery system was defined as the difference in arraival times between Krayenbuhl's third or fourth segment and the middle of the transverse sinus. In the internal-carotid-artery system, the circulation time (as the time difference between the two points for the control) was 4.76 +- 0.28 (mean +- SD) sec. in TTP and 4.66 +- 0.11 sec. in MTT. In the vertebral-artery system, it was 3.97 sec. on the average in TTP and 4.16 sec. in MTT. Eleven patients with middle cerebral artery stenosis or occlusion and one patient with ''MoyaMoya'' disease were selected for a study of the ischemic lesions, while one patient with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) was selected for a study of the effect of an arteriovenous shunt. In the symptomatic patients with middle-cerebral-artery occlusion or stenosis, the circulation time was slower than that of the control group both in TTP and in MTT. There was a significant correlation between the values of the circulation time in TTP and that in MTT. The circulation time of the patient with ''MoyaMoya'' disease was significantly slower than that of the control. In the patient with an AVM, the circulation time was much faster than in the control in TTP, while it was normal in MTT. (J.P.N.).

  3. Cancer diagnosis and prognosis decoded by blood-based circulating microRNA signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharanija eMadhavan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, circulating microRNAs (miRNAs have garnered a lot of attention and interest in the field of disease biomarkers. With characteristics such as high stability, low cost, possibility of repeated sampling and minimal invasiveness, circulating miRNAs are ideal for development into diagnostic tests. There have been many studies reported on the potential of circulating miRNAs as early detection, prognostic and predictive biomarkers in cancer. Here, we have reviewed the use of plasma and serum miRNAs as biomarkers for cancer focusing on epithelial carcinomas (prostate, breast, lung, colorectal and gastric cancer and haematological malignancies (leukaemia and lymphoma. We have also addressed the common challenges that need to be overcome to achieve a successful bench to bedside transition.

  4. Decimeter waves in complex treatment of patients with cerebral blood circulation insufficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strelkova, N.I.

    Decimeter waves (DMW) were introduced into the therapeutic armamentarium relatively recently. The effect of DMW on the CNS was studied in the Division of Neurology at the Central Scientific Research Institute of Resort Science and Physiotherapy for a number of years on four groups of patients: (A) Parkinson's Disease Group, (B) patients with sequelae of open and closed craniocerebral injuries, (C) cerebral stroke patients basically of the ischemic type and (D) patients with transitory cerebral circulation disorders. The experience gained showed that the use of DMW improved cerebral circulation and aided in development of collateral circulation. It was found that in cases of tremor Parkinsonism and in epilepsy, DMW therapy should be applied to the collarbone area. Application of DMW in early stages of injury needs further study. Obviously, a single therapeutic intervention cannot provide complete recovery; a combined treatment must be applied, advisably under conditions of a resort spa. 11 references.

  5. Influence of Molecular Structure on O2-Binding Properties and Blood Circulation of Hemoglobin‒Albumin Clusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Yamada

    Full Text Available A hemoglobin wrapped covalently by three human serum albumins, a Hb-HSA3 cluster, is an artificial O2-carrier with the potential to function as a red blood cell substitute. This paper describes the synthesis and O2-binding properties of new hemoglobin‒albumin clusters (i bearing four HSA units at the periphery (Hb-HSA4, large-size variant and (ii containing an intramolecularly crosslinked Hb in the center (XLHb-HSA3, high O2-affinity variant. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the Hb-HSA4 diameter is greater than that of either Hb-HSA3 or XLHb-HSA3. The XLHb-HSA3 showed moderately high O2-affinity compared to the others because of the chemical linkage between the Cys-93(β residues in Hb. Furthermore, the blood circulation behavior of 125I-labeled clusters was investigated by assay of blood retention and tissue distribution after intravenous administration into anesthetized rats. The XLHb-HSA3 was metabolized faster than Hb-HSA3 and Hb-HSA4. Results suggest that the molecular structure of the protein cluster is a factor that can influence in vivo circulation behavior.

  6. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine......Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during.......0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33...

  7. Clinical Observation in 45 Cases of Hemorrhagic Apoplexy of the Acute Stage Treated by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国柱

    2003-01-01

    To explore the therapeutic effects of the method of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on hemorrhagic apoplexy of acute stage, 45 cases were treated by the method and observed for their conscious state and motor function, which were compared with 40 cases treated with regular western drugs. The results showed that the effective rate in the treated group was 82.2% and that in control group 60% with a significant difference (P<0.05) between the two groups. In the treated group, the scores of the conscious state and the motor function after treatment were elevated dramatically (P<0.01), indicating a much better effect in the treated group than in the control group.

  8. Circulation rate of change: A vortex approach for understanding accelerated inhomogeneous flows through intermediate times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Kee; Peng, Gaozhu; Zabusky, Norman J.

    2006-09-01

    We present a new simple diagnostic formula, Eq. (4) in this paper, involving a pressure difference, for determining the rate-of-change of total circulation, Γ˙D (within a domain M =1.3), single-mode, inviscid environment with an initially finite-width interfacial transition layer (ITL), and various postshock Atwood numbers, 0.2≤A*≤0.75. We show that for intermediate times (up to t /tM<8.0), Γ˙D/(Γshock/tM), has several consistent behaviors and scaling laws depending on A*. Here Γshock, is the circulation deposited by the initial shock on the region of finite density gradient and tM is the time at which the single mode interfacial midcontour becomes multivalued.

  9. Integrative assessment of kick boxers’ brain blood circulation and bio-electrical activity in conditions of correction technologies’ application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanov Y.N.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to scientifically substantiate the role of para-vertebral impacts on blood circulation and bio-electrical activity of kick boxers’ cortex. Material: in the research participated kick boxers (main group, n=62 and university students (control group, n=25 of 18-23 years’ age. Assessment of para-vertebral impacts with device Armos and classic massage was fulfilled with the help of the following methodic: trans-cranial dopplerography of head main arteries and cortex EEG of the tested. Results: it was found that with the help of para-vertebral impacts by device Armos linear velocity of cerebral blood flow reduces to normal limits and in- and inter-hemispheres’ interaction strength increases. Conclusions: para-vertebral impacts by device Armos activate integrative processes and inter-hemispheres’ interactions of different cortex areas of kick boxers. It can witness about better formation of functional systems, ensuring sports efficiency.

  10. Real-Time Statistical Modeling of Blood Sugar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoom, Mwaffaq; Alshraideh, Hussam; Almasaeid, Hisham M; López-de-Ipiña, Diego; Bravo, José

    2015-10-01

    Diabetes is considered a chronic disease that incurs various types of cost to the world. One major challenge in the control of Diabetes is the real time determination of the proper insulin dose. In this paper, we develop a prototype for real time blood sugar control, integrated with the cloud. Our system controls blood sugar by observing the blood sugar level and accordingly determining the appropriate insulin dose based on patient's historical data, all in real time and automatically. To determine the appropriate insulin dose, we propose two statistical models for modeling blood sugar profiles, namely ARIMA and Markov-based model. Our experiment used to evaluate the performance of the two models shows that the ARIMA model outperforms the Markov-based model in terms of prediction accuracy.

  11. Ross ice shelf cavity circulation, residence time, and melting: Results from a model of oceanic chlorofluorocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Tasha E.; Holland, David M.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2010-04-01

    Despite their harmful effects in the upper atmosphere, anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons dissolved in seawater are extremely useful for studying ocean circulation and ventilation, particularly in remote locations. Because they behave as a passive tracer in seawater, and their atmospheric concentrations are well-mixed, well-known, and have changed over time, they are ideal for gaining insight into the oceanographic characteristics of the isolated cavities found under Antarctic ice shelves, where direct observations are difficult to obtain. Here we present results from a modeling study of air-sea chlorofluorocarbon exchange and ocean circulation in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. We compare our model estimates of oceanic CFC-12 concentrations along an ice shelf edge transect to field data collected during three cruises spanning 16 yr. Our model produces chlorofluorocarbon concentrations that are quite similar to those measured in the field, both in magnitude and distribution, showing high values near the surface, decreasing with depth, and increasing over time. After validating modeled circulation and air-sea gas exchange through comparison of modeled temperature, salinity, and chlorofluorocarbons with field data, we estimate that the residence time of water in the Ross Ice Shelf cavity is approximately 2.2 yr and that basal melt rates for the ice shelf average 10 cm yr -1. The model predicts a seasonal signature to basal melting, with highest melt rates in the spring and also the fall.

  12. Clinical Analysis of Postpartum Blood Circulation Failure%产后血循环衰竭的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秀文

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the causes and treatment methods of analysis of postpartum blood circulation failure.Methods To study and analyze according to the pregnant women in our hospital received 48 cases of postpartum blood circulation failure occurred in patients with symptoms, discussed the clinical etiology of their treatment, review.ResultsThe production probability circulation failure accounted for 1.01% of the total number of the study, all 48 patients, including 25% patients of the total labor for more than 16 hours, with the second stage of labor 10.4% extension, a huge 20.8% of cases of fetal maternal preeclampsia, 8.3% belong to the hypertension disease - pregnancy early, these patients after treatment, were successfully discharged.Conclusion Perinatal health care, postpartum visits, observation etc. to better prevention effect on postpartum blood circulation failure, clinical should pay attention to the use of these measures, to ensure the safety of delivery.%目的:研究分析产后血循环衰竭的产生原因和治疗方法。方法根据我院接收的分娩孕妇出现产后血循环衰竭症状的48例患者来进行研究分析,对他们的临床病因进行探讨,回顾治疗方法。结果此次发生产后血循环衰竭的几率占研究总数的1.01%,全部共48例患者,其中有25%的患者其总产程超过了16 h,10.4%的患者第二产程延长,有20.8%的胎儿巨大病例,8.3%的产妇属于妊娠期高血压疾病-子痫前期,这些患者在治疗后,均顺利的出院。结论围产期的保健、产后的巡视、病情观察等能够对产后血循环衰竭起到较好的预防作用,临床中应该注意这些措施的使用,确保产妇的安全分娩。

  13. Molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen for the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Yuko; Shigemasa, Yuki; Abe, Yoko; Ohgushi, Ikumi; Ueno, Eriko; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO(2) A) prepared from healthy donors showed a tendency to produce hemichrome, even at close to physiological temperature and pH. Recent studies found that the number of Heinz bodies formed in red cells increased with increasing temperature when freshly drawn venous blood from healthy donors was subjected to mild heating above 37 °C. These findings suggest that Hb molecules control the removal of non-functional erythrocytes from the circulation via hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering. In this review, we discuss the molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen, where hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering within erythrocytes play a key role in the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

  14. Effect of exosome isolation methods on physicochemical properties of exosomes and clearance of exosomes from the blood circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takuma; Takahashi, Yuki; Nishikawa, Makiya; Takakura, Yoshinobu

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes, which are expected to be delivery systems for biomolecules such as nucleic acids, are collected by several methods. However, the effect of exosome isolation methods on the characteristics of exosomes as drug carriers, such as recovery efficiency after sterile filtration and pharmacokinetics, has not been investigated despite the importance of these characteristics for the development of exosome-based delivery systems. In the present study, exosomes collected from murine melanoma B16-BL6 cells by several methods were compared with respect to dispersibility, recovery rate after filtering, and clearance from the blood circulation in mice. The exosomes were collected by three ultracentrifugation-based methods: simple ultracentrifugation/pelleting (pelleting method), ultracentrifugation with an iodixanol cushion (cushion method), and ultracentrifugation on an iodixanol density gradient (gradient method). The isolation methods had little effect on the particle number of exosomes. In contrast, transmission electron microscopy observation and size distribution measurement using tunable resistive pulse sensing indicated that the exosomes of the gradient method were more dispersed than the others. The exosomes were labeled with Gaussia luciferase and intravenously injected into mice. Clearance of injected exosomes from the blood circulation did not significantly change with isolation methods. When the exosomes were filtered using a 0.2-μm filter, the recovery rate was 82% for the exosomes of the gradient method, whereas it was less than 50% for the others. These results indicate that the exosome isolation method markedly affects the dispersibility and filtration efficiency of the exosomes.

  15. [Analysis and comparison of theories of circulation of blood and qi in both eastern and western ancient medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tai

    2014-09-01

    In ancient Egypt, the theory of circulation of blood and qi was preliminarily established on the basis of cadaver dissection, gradually revised and improved following the progress of anatomy and physiology. However, the "Meridian Theory" of circulation of blood and qi in Chinese medicine had never been established on the basis of anatomical and physiological studies. Thus a suspicion was aroused, "whether the meridians really exist, or artificially assumed by imagination"? Therefore, in recent one half of a century, numerous scholars at home and abroad spent countless financial capacities and human power to study the essence of Meridians in order to find their material or substantial evidence, but with no breakthrough obtained. Nevertheless, in the 70th of the last century, studies on mechanisms of acupuncture analgesia and acupuncture anesthesia won an undoubtedly good result. Hence, the therapeutic effect of acupuncture on pain control was admitted by the "Consensus Statement on Acupuncture" at an international meeting held by NIH in Dec. 1997. Then the old Chinese acupuncture won an international acceptance and application. Therefore, the investigation of mechanism of acupuncture analgesia set up a positive model for future scientific researches on acupuncture mechanisms and essence of Meridians, as well as on other Chinese medical theories.

  16. Molecular Biosensing Mechanisms in the Spleen for the Removal of Aged and Damaged Red Cells from the Blood Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Ueno

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO2 A prepared from healthy donors showed a tendency to produce hemichrome, even at close to physiological temperature and pH. Recent studies found that the number of Heinz bodies formed in red cells increased with increasing temperature when freshly drawn venous blood from healthy donors was subjected to mild heating above 37 °C. These findings suggest that Hb molecules control the removal of non-functional erythrocytes from the circulation via hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering. In this review, we discuss the molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen, where hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering within erythrocytes play a key role in the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

  17. The effects of long-term microgravity on autonomic regulation of blood circulation in crewmembers of the international space station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman М. Baevsky

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of space experiment “Pneumocard”. The investigation involved all 25 Russian members of the ISS crew. The total of 226 sessions were made including 130 aboard the ISS, 50 prior to launch and 46 on return from mission. The objective was to study effects of the spaceflight factors on autonomic regulation of blood circulation, respiration and cardiac contractility during long-duration mission. The purpose was to secure new research data that would clarify our present view of adaptation mechanisms. Registered were the following signals: electrocardiogram, impedance cardiogram, seismic cardiogram, pneumotachogram, finger photoplethysmogram. A set of hard- and software was used. Autonomic regulation of blood circulation by HRV analysis was investigated. It was shown that at the onset of a space mission parasympathetic involvement in regulation increases typically with subsequent mobilization of additional functional reserve. It guided the development of a functional states mathematical model incorporating the established types of autonomic regulation. Our data evidence that the combination of HRV analysis, pre-nosology diagnosis and probabilistic estimate of the pathology risk can reinforce the medical care program in space missions.

  18. [Peculiarities of application of a cell saver apparatus in neonathal cardiosurgery using artificial blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuz'menko, S O; Chasovs'kyĭ, K S

    2015-01-01

    Elaborated and introduced into the practice method of the blood preservation, while correction of complex inborn heart failures (IHF) in a newborn babies, was proposed. It assumes application of system for intraoperative reinfusion of own erythrocytes with processing of residual perfusate and their reinfusion in a postperfusion period. Impact of the blood preservation on volume of a donor's blood components, hematological indices and methods of application of washed erythrocytes while correction of complex IHF in a newborn babies were presented. The method was applied in 47 newborn babies, to whom an arterial switch was performed for the main vessels transposition.

  19. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on peripheral blood circulation in people with diabetes: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jiahui; Kwan, Rachel Lai-Chu; Zheng, Yongping; Cheing, Gladys Lai-Ying

    2016-07-01

    Cutaneous blood flow provides nourishment that plays an essential role in maintaining skin health. We examined the effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) on cutaneous circulation of dorsal feet. Twenty-two patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and 21 healthy control subjects were randomly allocated to receive either PEMFs or sham PEMFs (0.5 mT, 12 Hz, 30 min). Blood flow velocity and diameter of the small vein were examined by using ultrasound biomicroscopy; also, microcirculation at skin over the base of the 1st metatarsal bone (Flux1) and distal 1st phalange (Flux2) was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry before and after intervention. Results indicated that PEMFs produced significantly greater changes in blood flow velocity of the smallest observable vein than did sham PEMFs (both P < 0.05) in both types of subjects. However, no significant difference was found in changes of vein diameter, nor in Flux1 and Flux2, between PEMFs and sham PEMFs groups in subjects with or without DM. We hypothesized that PEMFs would increase blood flow velocity of the smallest observable vein in people with or without DM. Bioelectromagnetics. 37:290-297, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Changes of blood circulation of the extremity after external fixation for tibia shaft defect: an experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare two approaches, end to endcompression with lengthening (EECL) and segmental bone transport by lengthening (STBL), for long tubular bone defect and nonunion.Methods: Ten goats were used to establish the bone defect model of the mid-tibia. The bone defect ends were shortened step by step with a sulcated half-ring external fixator. Changes of the blood flow of the distal extremity were measured with pulse-Doppler monitor and angiography.Results: The blood flow in the distal extremity was not affected when bone defect was less than 15% of the original length. Blood circulatory disorder would appear in the distal extremity when bone defect ranged 15%-20% of the original length. The necrosis would appear in the extremity because of the blood circulatory obstacle when bone defect was more than 20% of the original length.Conclusions: EECL is an appropriate alternative of treatments if bone defect is less than 15%; while SBTL may be feasible if bone defect is over 20% of the original length. When bone defect ranges between 15% and 20%, EECL should be applied with great care on condition of keeping watch on the extremity circulation with pulse-Doppler monitor.

  1. FLAIR vascular hyperintensities and dynamic 4D angiograms for the estimation of collateral blood flow in posterior circulation occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Alex; Wenz, Holger; Kerl, Hans Ulrich; Al-Zghloul, Mansour; Habich, Sonia; Groden, Christoph [University of Heidelberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this paper are to assess collateral blood flow in posterior circulation occlusion by MRI-based approaches (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensities (FVHs), collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms) and investigate its relation to ischemic lesion size and growth. In 28 patients with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and 10 patients with basilar artery (BA) occlusion, MRI findings were analyzed, with emphasis on distal FVH and collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms. In PCA occlusion, distal FVH was observed in 18/29 (62.1 %), in BA occlusion, in 8/10 (80 %) cases. Collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms was graded 1 in 8 (27.6 %) patients, 2 in 1 (3.4 %) patient, 3 in 12 (41.4 %) patients, and 4 in 8 (27.6 %) patients with PCA occlusion and 0 in 1 (10 %) patient, 2 in 3 (30 %) patients, 3 in 1 (10 %) patient, and 4 in 5 (50 %) patients with BA occlusion. FVH grade showed neither correlation with initial or follow-up diffusion-weighted image (DWI) lesion size nor DWI-perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) mismatch ratio. Collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms correlated inversely with initial DWI lesion size and moderately with the DWI-(PWI) mismatch ratio. The combination of distal FVH and collateralization grade on dynamic 4D angiograms correlated inversely with initial as well as follow-up DWI lesion size and highly with the DWI-PWI mismatch ratio. In posterior circulation occlusion, FVH is a frequent finding, but its prognostic value is limited. Dynamic 4D angiograms are advantageous to examine and graduate collateral blood flow. The combination of both parameters results in an improved characterization of collateral blood flow and might have prognostic relevance. (orig.)

  2. Study on the change of HPV DNA virus content, circulating blood and tissue miR indexes of patients with cervical cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ru-Qiong Luo; LiangTang; Ping Xie; Yan-Mei Hu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study and observe the change status of HPV DNA virus content, circulating blood and tissue miR indexes of patients with cervical cancer.Methods:A total of 72 patients with cervical cancer in our hospital from February 2014 to September 2015 were selected as the observation group, 72 healthy women at the same period were selected as the control group, then the HPV DNA virus content and constitution, circulating blood and tissue miR indexes of two groups were analyzed and compared, and the detection results of observation group with stageⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ andⅣ of cervical cancer were compared.Results:The rates of HPV DNA virus content and>500 in the observation group were all higher than those of control group, the circulating blood and tissue miR-21 were all higher than those of control group, while the circulating blood and tissue miR-126, miR-143 and miR-145 were all lower than those of control group, and the detection results of observation group with stageⅠ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ andⅣ of cervical cancer all had obvious differences, the differences were all significant.Conclusion:The changes of the status of HPV DNA virus content, circulating blood and tissue miR indexes of patients with cervical cancer are great, and the influence of cervical cancer stage for the detection results are great, so it has active guiding significance for the diagnosis and treatment of disease.

  3. Circulating miRNA-155 is realted to blood pressure monitoring parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ying; HUANG Yu-qing; HUANG Cheng; LI Jie; CAI An-ping; YU Xue-ju; ZHOU Dan

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that miRNA-155 played an important role in the process of development of hypertension.However,there is no date about miRNA-155 and blood pressure monitoring parameters.Therefore,we examined whether in hypertensive patients the expression level of plasma miRNA-155 related to 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) parameters.Methods A cohort of adult patients scheduled to receive physical examination,office and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to evaluate the expression of selected miRNA-155.The miRNA-155 expression level correlation between blood pressure parameters was assessed using the Spearman correlation coefficient.Results Fifty four essential hypertension patients (25 men;mean age,53.28 ± 9.52 years) and thirty healthy volunteers (15 men;mean age,53.03 ± 5.87 years) were included.We observed higher expression level of miRNA-155 (32.31 ± 2.85 vs 27.21 ± 1.59,P < 0.001) in hypertensive patients compared to healthy control individuals.MiRNA-155 expression level showed significant positive correlation with 24 h Daytime SBP (r =0.681,P < 0.001),24 h Daytime DBP (r =0.473,P < 0.001),24 h Daytime PP (r =0.565,P < 0.001) and dipping (r =0.257,P =0.018),respectively.Conclusions Our study showed that miRNA-155 expression level was associated positively with daytime blood pressure monitoring parameters,as well as blood pressure variability,indicating a possible implication of miRNA-155 in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  4. Innovative Strategy in Treating Angina Pectoris with Chinese Patent Medicines by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis: Experience from Combination Therapy in Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Moreover, angina pectoris is one of the most important types of CHD. Therefore, prevention and effective treatment of angina pectoris is of utmost importance in both China and western countries. However, undesirable effects of antianginal therapy do influence treatment adherence to a certain extent. Therefore, it's not surprising that, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including Chinese medicine (CM), are widely welcomed among patients with CHD, hoping that it might complement western medicine. In our previous studies, blood stasis syndrome (BSS) (Xueyu Zheng) was the main syndrome (Zheng-hou) of angina pectoris. Currently, China Food and Drug Administration authoritatively recommended more than 200 Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) as complementary or adjunctive therapies for symptom management and enhancing quality of life along with mainstream care on angina pectoris management in mainland China. This paper reviewed 4 kinds of most frequently-used CPMs by promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in the treatment of angina pectoris. It aims to evaluate the current evidence of CPMs in combination therapy for angina pectoris. This review indicated that CPMs as adjunctive treatment to routine antianginal therapy play an active role in reducing the incidence of primary endpoint events, decreasing anginal attack rate, and improving electrocardiogram. Additionally, CPMs have been proven relatively safe. Further rigorously designed clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the results.

  5. Biochemical assessment of growth factors and circulation of blood components contained in the different fractions obtained by centrifugation of venous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corigiano, M; Ciobanu, G; Baldoni, E; Pompa, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a biochemical marker with different elements of a normal blood serum and centrifuged blood serum after a different rotation system. For this technique, we used five fractions of a blood Concentrated Growth Factors system (bCGF) and a particular device for the different rotation program. Blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers aged between 35 and 55 in the Operative Unit of the “Sapienza” University of Rome with only a fraction of different biochemical elements. Through an individual blood phase separator tube of venous blood, active factions of serum and 4 fractions of red buffy coat were taken. The biochemical markers with 14 elements were examined at times: P1-11 minutes, P2-12minutes, P3-15 minutes. Exclusively biological materials which are normally applied in the regeneration techniques for different defects and lesions were used with this technique. After specific rotation programs, a different result was obtained for each cycle: P1, P2, P3. In test tubes obtained by separated blood, we observed a higher concentration of proteins, ions, and other antigens compared to normal blood plasma. Examining the biochemical results of different elements, we observed an increase (P≤0,01). Since each person’s DNA is different, we could not have the same results in 5 fractions of blood concentration, we did, however, find a good increase in only a fraction of proteins, immunoglobulin and different ions. We obtained five fractions after centrifugation, and we had an increase in different biochemical elements compared to normal blood (P≤0,01) which is significant at different times. These biochemical elements were stimulated by different growth factors, which are used by the immune system, and they induced the formation of hard and soft tissues and good regeneration.

  6. Mobilization of Neural Precursors in the Circulating Blood of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Buck DW (1997) AC133, a novel marker for human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Blood 90:5002-5012. Zanotti C, Chiarini M, Serana F, Capra R...Chiarini M, Serana F, Capra R, Rottoli M, Rovaris M, Cavaletti G, Clerici R, Rezzonico M, Caimi L, Imberti L (2011) Opposite effects of interferon

  7. Enhancement of Capture Sensitivity for Circulating Tumor Cells in a Breast Cancer Patient's Blood by Silicon Nanowire Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Choi, Mun-Ki; Jeong, Jin-Tak; Lim, Jung-Taek; Lee, Han-Byoel; Han, Wonshik; Lee, Sang-Kwon

    2016-04-01

    The separation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the blood of cancer patients with high sensitivity is an essential technique for selecting chemotherapeutic agents at a patient-by-patient level. Recently, various research groups have reported a nanostructure-based platform for rare cell capture due to its high surface area and 3D nanotopographic features. However, evaluation of capture sensitivity based on chemical modification of the nanostructure surface has not yet been performed. Here, we evaluated the capture sensitivity for CTCs from the blood of three patients diagnosed with stage IV metastatic breast cancer by using the following three platforms: streptavidin-conjugated silicon nanowire (STR-SiNW), poly-l-lysine-coated silicon nanowire (PLL-SiNW), and poly-l-lysine-coated glass (PLL-glass). The number of evaluated CTCs on STR-SiNW, PLL-SiNW, and PLL-glass were 16.2 ± 5.5 cells, 7.3 ± 2.9 cells, and 4.7 ± 1.5 cells, respectively, per 0.5 ml. Therefore, we suggest that the STR-SiNW platform is highly adaptable for the quantitative evaluation of CTCs from the blood of cancer patients in the clinical setting.

  8. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a condition of local blood circulation in the bottom extremities showed that the most expressed its compensation is noted at complex application of mechanical pulse traction influence and electrotherapy for patients with a dorsopathy of lumbar and sacral department of a backbone that is confirmed by restoration to normal values of all indicators rheovasogramm. Conclusion. High clinical results of application of the combined medical and rehabilitation complex are based on compensation of local blood circulation that is shown in elimination of deficiency of blood supply due to improvement of a tone of arterial vessels and elimination of venous stagnation, and also due to increase of linear speed of a blood-groove and development of collateral blood circulation. Application of electrical impulse and mechanical traction influences, more at their combination promotes fermentative activity of the systems responsible for a protein exchange that is important for prevention of degenerate and dystrophic process progressing.

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of circulating S100B blood levels in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina Aleksovska

    Full Text Available S100B is a calcium-binding protein secreted in central nervous system from astrocytes and other glia cells. High blood S100B levels have been linked to brain damage and psychiatric disorders. S100B levels have been reported to be higher in schizophrenics than healthy controls. To quantify the relationship between S100B blood levels and schizophrenia a systematic literature review of case-control studies published on this topic within July 3rd 2014 was carried out using three bibliographic databases: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Studies reporting mean and standard deviation of S100B blood levels both in cases and controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-Mean Ratio (mMR of S100B blood levels in cases compared to controls was used as a measure of effect along with its 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. 20 studies were included totaling for 994 cases and 785 controls. Schizophrenia patients showed 76% higher S100B blood levels than controls with mMR = 1.76 95% CI: 1.44-2.15. No difference could be found between drug-free patients with mMR = 1.84 95%CI: 1.24-2.74 and patients on antipsychotic medication with mMR = 1.75 95% CI: 1.41-2.16. Similarly, ethnicity and stage of disease didn't affect results. Although S100B could be regarded as a possible biomarker of schizophrenia, limitations should be accounted when interpreting results, especially because of the high heterogeneity that remained >70%, even after carrying out subgroups analyses. These results point out that approaches based on traditional categorical diagnoses may be too restrictive and new approaches based on the characterization of new complex phenotypes should be considered.

  10. Analysis on Mechanisms of Activating Blood Circulation and Compatible Regularity of Cinnamon Twig%桂枝活血机理及配伍规律探析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慕鸽; 魏凯峰(通讯作者)

    2013-01-01

    This paper states the function of activating blood circulation in Cinnamon Twig, as well as the compatible regularity. The function on activating blood circulation of Cinnamon Twig is resulted from regulating body's blood, Qi and fluid. We should use it flexibly according to rational combination with blood-activating drugs, blood-enriching drugs and Qi-tonifying drugs in clinical practice.%阐述了桂枝功能与活血的关系,以及相关的配伍。认为桂枝的活血功效是通过调节机体血、气、水发挥,根据证候配伍活血药、养血药、温里药、理气药、补气药而在临床灵活使用。

  11. [Detection of fetal nucleated red blood cells in the maternal circulation by Kleihauer test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Yu; Jin, Chun-Lian; Liu, Li-Ying; Lin, Chang-Kun; Wang, Yan; Sun, Kai-Lai

    2007-03-01

    Maternal blood was obtained from 18 pregnant women at 7 to 25 weeks of gestation. After Percoll discontinuous density gradient centifugation, the fetal nucleated red blood cells (NRBCs) were stained with Kleihauer test. Positive fetal cells appeared with an intense red cytoplasmic staining while maternal cells with adult haemoglobin were colourless. Individual positive NRBC was collected by micromanipulator and whole genome amplification was then performed to determine sex and STR status. This allowed the simultaneous verification of the fetal origin of NRBC and prenatal diagnosis of genetic diseases. The non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis of 9 fetuses at high risk of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was completed successfully. The Kleihauer test is a rapid, simple and direct chemical staining method to select fetal cells and can be applied in prenatal diagnosis.

  12. Precision of a new bedside method for estimation of the circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Eriksen, B; Henneberg, S W

    1993-01-01

    and after ventilation with a gas mixture containing 20-50 ml of CO for a period of 10-15 min. A special Water's to and fro system was designed in order to avoid any leakage when measuring during intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after......, determination of CBV can be performed with an amount of CO that gives rise to a harmless increase in the carboxyhemoglobin concentration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  13. Time scales of regional circulation of saline fluids in continental aquifers (Armorican massif, Western France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Armandine Les Landes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, saline fluids have been sampled worldwide at great depths in continental basements. Although some of them have been attributed to marine transgressions the mechanisms allowing their circulation is not understood. In this paper, we describe the horizontal and vertical distribution of moderately saline fluids (60 to 1400 mg L−1 sampled at depths ranging from 41 to 200 m in aquifers at the regional scale of the Armorican Massif (northwestern France. The horizontal and vertical distributions of high chloride concentrations are in good agreement with both the altitudinal and vertical limits and succession of the three major transgressions between the Mio-Pliocene and Pleistocene ages. The mean chloride concentration for each transgression area is exponentially related to the time spanned until present. It defines the potential laws of leaching of marine waters by fresh meteoric waters. The results of the Armorican aquifers provide the first observed constraints for the time scales of seawater circulation in the continental basement and the subsequent leaching by fresh meteoric waters. The general trend of increasing chloride concentration with depth and the time frame for the flushing process provide useful information to develop conceptual models of the paleo-functionning of Armorican aquifers.

  14. Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa V Pham

    Full Text Available We demonstrate a real-time blood testing system that can provide remote diagnosis with minimal human intervention in economically challenged areas. Our instrument combines novel advances in label-free optical imaging with parallel computing. Specifically, we use quantitative phase imaging for extracting red blood cell morphology with nanoscale sensitivity and NVIDIA's CUDA programming language to perform real time cellular-level analysis. While the blood smear is translated through focus, our system is able to segment and analyze all the cells in the one megapixel field of view, at a rate of 40 frames/s. The variety of diagnostic parameters measured from each cell (e.g., surface area, sphericity, and minimum cylindrical diameter are currently not available with current state of the art clinical instruments. In addition, we show that our instrument correctly recovers the red blood cell volume distribution, as evidenced by the excellent agreement with the cell counter results obtained on normal patients and those with microcytic and macrocytic anemia. The final data outputted by our instrument represent arrays of numbers associated with these morphological parameters and not images. Thus, the memory necessary to store these data is of the order of kilobytes, which allows for their remote transmission via, for example, the cellular network. We envision that such a system will dramatically increase access for blood testing and furthermore, may pave the way to digital hematology.

  15. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Johnson, Dayna A.; Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331…

  16. Cuff inflations do not affect night-time blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Emilie H; Theilade, Simone; Hansen, Tine W;

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort related to cuff inflation may bias 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements, especially during night-time. We accessed the impact of cuff inflations by comparing 24 h BP recorded with a cuff-less tonometric wrist device and an upper-arm oscillometric cuff device. Fifty...

  17. Metals in airpollution particles decrease whole blood coagulation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    The mechanism underlying the pro-coagulative effect of air pollution particle exposure is not known. We tested the postulate that 1) the soluble fraction ofan air pollution particle can affect whole blood coagulation time and 2) metals included in the soluble fraction are respons...

  18. A two-time-level split-explicit ocean circulation model (MASNUM) and its validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lei

    2014-01-01

    A two-time-level, three-dimensional numerical ocean circulation model (named MASNUM) was estab-lished with a two-level, single-step Eulerian forward-backward time-differencing scheme. A mathematical model of large-scale oceanic motions was based on the terrain-following coordinated, Boussinesq, Reyn-olds-averaged primitive equations of ocean dynamics. A simple but very practical Eulerian forward-back-ward method was adopted to replace the most preferred leapfrog scheme as the time-differencing method for both barotropic and baroclinic modes. The forward-backward method is of second-order of accuracy, computationally efficient by requiring only one function evaluation per time step, and free of the compu-tational mode inherent in the three-level schemes. This method is superior to the leapfrog scheme in that the maximum time step of stability is twice as large as that of the leapfrog scheme in staggered meshes thus the computational efficiency could be doubled. A spatial smoothing method was introduced to control the nonlinear instability in the numerical integration. An ideal numerical experiment simulating the propa-gation of the equatorial Rossby soliton was performed to test the amplitude and phase error of this new model. The performance of this circulation model was further verified with a regional (northwest Pacific) and a quasi-global (global ocean simulation with the Arctic Ocean excluded) simulation experiments. These two numerical experiments show fairly good agreement with the observations. The maximum time step of stability in these two experiments were also investigated and compared between this model and that model which adopts the leapfrog scheme.

  19. Time-varying changes in the simulated structure of the Brewer-Dobson Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfinkel, Chaim I.; Aquila, Valentina; Waugh, Darryn W.; Oman, Luke D.

    2017-01-01

    A series of simulations using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model are analyzed in order to assess changes in the Brewer-Dobson Circulation (BDC) over the past 55 years. When trends are computed over the past 55 years, the BDC accelerates throughout the stratosphere, consistent with previous modeling results. However, over the second half of the simulations (i.e., since the late 1980s), the model simulates structural changes in the BDC as the temporal evolution of the BDC varies between regions in the stratosphere. In the mid-stratosphere in the midlatitude Northern Hemisphere, the BDC does not accelerate in the ensemble mean of our simulations despite increases in greenhouse gas concentrations and warming sea surface temperatures, and it even decelerates in one ensemble member. This deceleration is reminiscent of changes inferred from satellite instruments and in situ measurements. In contrast, the BDC in the lower stratosphere continues to accelerate. The main forcing agents for the recent slowdown in the mid-stratosphere appear to be declining ozone-depleting substance (ODS) concentrations and the timing of volcanic eruptions. Changes in both mean age of air and the tropical upwelling of the residual circulation indicate a lack of recent acceleration. We therefore clarify that the statement that is often made that climate models simulate a decreasing age throughout the stratosphere only applies over long time periods and is not necessarily the case for the past 25 years, when most tracer measurements were taken.

  20. A STUDY OF THE CIRCULATION, BLOOD PRESSURE, AND RESPIRATION OF SHARKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, E P

    1926-01-04

    The average branchial blood pressure in sand sharks was 32 mm. of mercury. The highest recorded in a resting animal was 43 mm. The average dorsal or systemic pressure was 23.3 mm.; highest 30 mm. The ratio of branchial to systemic pressure is about 3 to 2. The pressure in both systems keeps up well under trauma; but under experimental conditions, with or without manipulation of viscera, slowly falls after several hours. It rises with muscular effort, and a long rise usually follows stoppage of struggling. It rises when sodium carbonate is injected. The adrenalin curve resembles that in a mammal. Spontaneous rises and falls not attributable to the heart occur. Light in some animals increases blood pressure. It is suspected that these fishes have a vasomotor apparatus. The heart rate except after trauma is practically always the same as the respiration rate, and there is some reason for believing that the heart rate is determined by the respiration rate. When not in step with respiration, the heart is slower and often in a simple ratio with respiration. The heart is inhibited by all sorts of stimuli applied practically anywhere (except to the liver?). This effect is abolished by atropin. Respiration is faster in small animals and averages 24 per minute. Respiration slowly decreases in strength with little change in rate. Usually respiration ceases long before the heart stops.

  1. Elderly bioheat modeling: changes in physiology, thermoregulation, and blood flow circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rida, Mohamad; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ghali, Kamel; Hoballah, Jamal

    2014-11-01

    A bioheat model for the elderly was developed focusing on blood flow circulatory changes that influence their thermal response in warm and cold environments to predict skin and core temperatures for different segments of the body especially the fingers. The young adult model of Karaki et al. (Int J Therm Sci 67:41-51, 2013) was modified by incorporation of the physiological thermoregulatory and vasomotor changes based on literature observations of physiological changes in the elderly compared to young adults such as lower metabolism and vasoconstriction diminished ability, skin blood flow and its minimum and maximum values, the sweating values, skin fat thickness, as well as the change in threshold parameter related to core or skin temperatures which triggers thermoregulatory action for sweating, maximum dilatation, and maximum constriction. The developed model was validated with published experimental data for elderly exposure to transient and steady hot and cold environments. Predicted finger skin temperature, mean skin temperature, and core temperature were in agreement with published experimental data at a maximum error less than 0.5 °C in the mean skin temperature. The elderly bioheat model showed an increase in finger skin temperature and a decrease in core temperature in cold exposure while it showed a decrease in finger skin temperature and an increase in core temperature in hot exposure.

  2. Cord blood-circulating endothelial progenitors for treatment of vascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, M; Vanneaux, V; Delmau, C; Gluckman, E; Rodde-Astier, I; Larghero, J; Uzan, G

    2011-04-01

    Adult peripheral blood (PB) endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) are produced in the bone marrow and are able to integrate vascular structures in sites of neoangiogenesis. EPCs thus represent a potential therapeutic tool for ischaemic diseases. However, use of autologous EPCs in cell therapy is limited by their rarity in adult PB. Cord blood (CB) contains more EPCs than PB, and they are functional after expansion. They form primary colonies that give rise to secondary colonies, each yielding more than 10(7) cells after few passages. The number of endothelial cells obtained from one unit of CB is compatible with potential clinical application. EPC colonies can be securely produced, expanded and cryopreserved in close culture devices and endothelial cells produced in these conditions are functional as shown in different in vitro and in vivo assays. As CB EPC-derived endothelial cells would be allogeneic to patients, it would be of interest to prepare them from ready-existing CB banks. We show that not all frozen CB units from a CB bank are able to generate EPC colonies in culture, and when they do so, number of colonies is lower than that obtained with fresh CB units. However, endothelial cells derived from frozen CB have the same phenotypical and functional properties than those derived from fresh CB. This indicates that CB cryopreservation should be improved to preserve integrity of stem cells other than haematopoietic ones. Feasibility of using CB for clinical applications will be validated in porcine models of ischaemia.

  3. The Brewer-Dobson circulation and total ozone from seasonal to decadal time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Weber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the winter Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC on the seasonal and decadal evolution of total ozone in both hemispheres is investigated using satellite total ozone data and outputs from two chemistry-climate models (CCM. Combining data from both hemispheres a linear relationship between the winter cumulative extratropical 100 hPa eddy heat flux and the ozone ratio with respect to fall ozone levels exists and is statistically significant for tropical as well as polar ozone. The high correlation at high latitudes persists well into the summer months until the onset of the next winter season. The anti-correlation of the cumulative eddy heat flux with tropical ozone ratios, however, breaks down in spring as the polar vortex erodes and changes to a weak positive correlation similar to that observed at high latitudes. The inter-annual variability and decadal evolution of ozone in each hemisphere in winter, spring, and summer are therefore driven by the cumulative effect of the previous winter's meridional circulation. This compact linear relationship is also found in two different CCMs (EMAC-FUB, DLR-E39C-A indicating that current models realistically describe the variability in stratospheric circulation and its climate effect on total ozone. Both models show a positive trend in the winter mean eddy heat flux (and winter BDC strength in both hemispheres until year 2050, however the inter-annual variability (peak-to-peak is two to three times larger than the mean change between 1960 and 2050. It is, therefore, possible to detect a shift in this compact linear relationship related to past and future changes in the stratospheric halogen load. A similar shift is difficult to derive from observational data since the satellite era now spanning more than thirty years is still fairly short.

  4. Development of an Automated and Sensitive Microfluidic Device for Capturing and Characterizing Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs from Clinical Blood Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Gogoi

    Full Text Available Current analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs is hindered by sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity of devices or assays as well as lack of capability of characterization of CTCs with clinical biomarkers. Here, we validate a novel technology to enrich and characterize CTCs from blood samples of patients with metastatic breast, prostate and colorectal cancers using a microfluidic chip which is processed by using an automated staining and scanning system from sample preparation to image processing. The Celsee system allowed for the detection of CTCs with apparent high sensitivity and specificity (94% sensitivity and 100% specificity. Moreover, the system facilitated rapid capture of CTCs from blood samples and also allowed for downstream characterization of the captured cells by immunohistochemistry, DNA and mRNA fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH. In a subset of patients with prostate cancer we compared the technology with a FDA-approved CTC device, CellSearch and found a higher degree of sensitivity with the Celsee instrument. In conclusion, the integrated Celsee system represents a promising CTC technology for enumeration and molecular characterization.

  5. Effects of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist rizatriptan on cerebral blood flow and blood volume in normal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazawa, Hidehiko; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Pagani, Marco; Mori, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masato; Tanaka, Fumiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the vasoconstrictor effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B/1D) receptor agonists for migraine treatment, changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood volume induced by rizatriptan were assessed by positron emission tomography (PET). Eleven healthy volunteers underwent PET studies before and after rizatriptan administration. Dynamic PET data were acquired after bolus injection of H2(15)O to analyze CBF and arterial-to-capillary blood volume (V0) images using the three-weighted integral method. After a baseline scan, three further acquisitions were performed at 40 to 50, 60 and 70 to 80 mins after drug administration. Global and regional differences in CBF and V0 between conditions were compared using absolute values in the whole brain and cortical regions, as well as statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. The global and regional values for CBF and V0 decreased significantly after rizatriptan administration compared with the baseline condition. However, both values recovered to baseline within 80 mins after treatment. The maximal reduction in global CBF and V0 was approximately 13% of baseline value. The greatest decrease in CBF was observed approximately 60 mins after drug administration, whereas the maximal reduction in V0 was observed approximately 5 mins earlier. Statistical parametric mapping did not highlight any regional differences between conditions. Thus, in brain circulation, rizatriptan caused significant CBF and V0 decreases, which are consistent with the vasoconstrictor effect of triptans on the large cerebral arteries. The gradual recovery in the late phase from the maximal CBF and V0 decrease suggests that rizatriptan does not affect the cerebral autoregulatory response in small arteries induced by CBF reduction.

  6. A model of the circulating blood for use in radiation dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, T.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a significant increase in the use of radionuclides in leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte imaging procedures. Radiopharmaceutical used in these procedures are confined primarily to the blood, have short half-lives, and irradiate the body as they move through the circulatory system. There is a need for a model, to describe the circulatory system in an adult human, which can be used to provide radiation absorbed dose estimates for these procedures. A simplified model has been designed assuming a static circulatory system and including major organs of the body. The model has been incorporated into the MIRD phantom and calculations have been completed for a number of exposure situations and radionuclides of clinical importance. The model will be discussed in detail and results of calculations using this model will be presented.

  7. A model of the circulating blood for use in radiation dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, T.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.

    1987-12-31

    Over the last few years there has been a significant increase in the use of radionuclides in leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte imaging procedures. Radiopharmaceutical used in these procedures are confined primarily to the blood, have short half-lives, and irradiate the body as they move through the circulatory system. There is a need for a model, to describe the circulatory system in an adult human, which can be used to provide radiation absorbed dose estimates for these procedures. A simplified model has been designed assuming a static circulatory system and including major organs of the body. The model has been incorporated into the MIRD phantom and calculations have been completed for a number of exposure situations and radionuclides of clinical importance. The model will be discussed in detail and results of calculations using this model will be presented.

  8. Circulating tumor cells in breast cancer: A tool whose time has come of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristofanilli Massimo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are isolated tumor cells disseminated from the site of disease in metastatic and/or primary cancers, including breast cancer, that can be identified and measured in the peripheral blood of patients. As recent technical advances have rendered it easier to reproducibly and repeatedly sample this population of cells with a high degree of accuracy, these cells represent an attractive surrogate marker of the site of disease. Currently, CTCs are being integrated into clinical trial design as a surrogate for phenotypic and genotypic markers in correlation with development of molecularly targeted therapies. As CTCs play a crucial role in tumor dissemination, translational research is implicating CTCs in several biological processes, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition. In this mini-review, we review CTCs in metastatic breast cancer, and discuss their clinical utility for assessing prognosis and monitoring response to therapy. We will also introduce their utility in pharmacodynamic monitoring for rational selection of molecularly targeted therapies and briefly address how they can help elucidate the biology of cancer metastasis.

  9. Bioengineering of Improved Biomaterials Coatings for Extracorporeal Circulation Requires Extended Observation of Blood-Biomaterial Interaction under Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris N. J. Stevens

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Extended use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB systems is often hampered by thrombus formation and infection. Part of these problems relates to imperfect hemocompatibility of the CPB circuitry. The engineering of biomaterial surfaces with genuine long-term hemocompatibility is essentially virgin territory in biomaterials science. For example, most experiments with the well-known Chandler loop model, for evaluation of blood-biomaterial interactions under flow, have been described for a maximum duration of 2 hours only. This study reports a systematic evaluation of two commercial CPB tubings, each with a hemocompatible coating, and one uncoated control. The experiments comprised (i testing over 5 hours under flow, with human whole blood from 4 different donors; (ii measurement of essential blood parameters of hemocompatibility; (iii analysis of the luminal surfaces by scanning electron microscopy and thrombin generation time measurements. The dataset indicated differences in hemocompatibility of the tubings. Furthermore, it appeared that discrimination between biomaterial coatings can be made only after several hours of blood-biomaterial contact. Platelet counting, myeloperoxidase quantification, and scanning electron microscopy proved to be the most useful methods. These findings are believed to be relevant with respect to the bioengineering of extracorporeal devices that should function in contact with blood for extended time.

  10. The spatial arrangement of the human large intestinal wall blood circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Stingl, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and depict the spatial arrangement of the colon microcirculatory bed as a whole. Various parts of the large intestine and terminal ileum were harvested from either cadaver or section material or gained peroperatively. Samples were then injected with India ink or methylmetacrylate Mercox resin for microdissection and corrosion casting for scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that extramural vasa recta ramified to form the subserous plexus, some of them passing underneath the colon taeniae. Branches of both short and long vasa recta merged in the colon wall, pierced the muscular layer and spread out as the submucous plexus, which extended throughout the whole intestine without any interruption. The muscular layer received blood via both the centrifugal branches of the submucous plexus and the minor branches sent off by the subserous plexus. The mucosa was supplied by the mucous plexus, which sent capillaries into the walls of intestinal glands. The hexagonal arrangement of the intestinal glands reflected their vascular bed. All three presumptive critical points are only gross anatomical points of no physiological relevance in healthy individuals. Neither microscopic weak points nor regional differences were proven within the wall of the whole large intestine. The corrosion casts showed a huge density of capillaries under the mucosa of the large intestine. A regular hexagonal pattern of the vascular bed on the inner surface was revealed. No microvascular critical point proofs were confirmed and a correlation model to various pathological states was created. PMID:20447248

  11. The spatial arrangement of the human large intestinal wall blood circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlik, David; Baca, Vaclav; Stingl, Josef

    2010-03-01

    The aim of the study was to describe and depict the spatial arrangement of the colon microcirculatory bed as a whole. Various parts of the large intestine and terminal ileum were harvested from either cadaver or section material or gained peroperatively. Samples were then injected with India ink or methylmetacrylate Mercox resin for microdissection and corrosion casting for scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that extramural vasa recta ramified to form the subserous plexus, some of them passing underneath the colon taeniae. Branches of both short and long vasa recta merged in the colon wall, pierced the muscular layer and spread out as the submucous plexus, which extended throughout the whole intestine without any interruption. The muscular layer received blood via both the centrifugal branches of the submucous plexus and the minor branches sent off by the subserous plexus. The mucosa was supplied by the mucous plexus, which sent capillaries into the walls of intestinal glands. The hexagonal arrangement of the intestinal glands reflected their vascular bed. All three presumptive critical points are only gross anatomical points of no physiological relevance in healthy individuals. Neither microscopic weak points nor regional differences were proven within the wall of the whole large intestine. The corrosion casts showed a huge density of capillaries under the mucosa of the large intestine. A regular hexagonal pattern of the vascular bed on the inner surface was revealed. No microvascular critical point proofs were confirmed and a correlation model to various pathological states was created.

  12. Significant biochemical, biophysical and metabolic diversity in circulating human cord blood reticulocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Malleret

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The transition from enucleated reticulocytes to mature normocytes is marked by substantial remodeling of the erythrocytic cytoplasm and membrane. Despite conspicuous changes, most studies describe the maturing reticulocyte as a homogenous erythropoietic cell type. While reticulocyte staging based on fluorescent RNA stains such as thiazole orange have been useful in a clinical setting; these 'sub-vital' stains may confound delicate studies on reticulocyte biology and may preclude their use in heamoparasite invasion studies. DESIGN AND METHODS: Here we use highly purified populations of reticulocytes isolated from cord blood, sorted by flow cytometry into four sequential subpopulations based on transferrin receptor (CD71 expression: CD71high, CD71medium, CD71low and CD71negative. Each of these subgroups was phenotyped in terms of their, morphology, membrane antigens, biomechanical properties and metabolomic profile. RESULTS: Superficially CD71high and CD71medium reticulocytes share a similar gross morphology (large and multilobular when compared to the smaller, smooth and increasingly concave reticulocytes as seen in the in the CD71low and CD71negativesamples. However, between each of the four sample sets we observe significant decreases in shear modulus, cytoadhesive capacity, erythroid receptor expression (CD44, CD55, CD147, CD235R, and CD242 and metabolite concentrations. Interestingly increasing amounts of boric acid was found in the mature reticulocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Reticulocyte maturation is a dynamic and continuous process, confounding efforts to rigidly classify them. Certainly this study does not offer an alternative classification strategy; instead we used a nondestructive sampling method to examine key phenotypic changes of in reticulocytes. Our study emphasizes a need to focus greater attention on reticulocyte biology.

  13. Apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities and high serum levels of circulating nucleosomes and DNA in blood correlate with breast cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasimir-Bauer Sabine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As cell-free circulating DNA exists predominantly as mono- and oligonucleosomes, the focus of the current study was to examine the interplay of circulating nucleosomes, DNA, proteases and caspases in blood of patients with benign and malignant breast diseases. Methods The concentrations of cell-free DNA and nucleosomes as well as the protease and caspase activities were measured in serum of patients with benign breast disease (n = 20, primary breast cancer (M0, n = 31, metastatic breast cancer (M1, n = 32, and healthy individuals (n = 28 by PicoGreen, Cell Death Detection ELISA, Protease Fluorescent Detection Kit and Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay, respectively. Results Patients with benign and malignant tumors had significantly higher levels of circulating nucleic acids in their blood than healthy individuals (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001, whereas these levels could not discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. Our analyses of all serum samples revealed significant correlations of circulating nucleosome with DNA concentrations (p = 0.001, nucleosome concentrations with caspase activities (p = 0.008, and caspase with protease activities (p = 0.0001. High serum levels of protease and caspase activities associated with advanced tumor stages (p = 0.009. Patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer had significantly higher nucleosome levels in their blood than node-negative patients (p = 0.004. The presence of distant metastases associated with a significant increase in serum nucleosome (p = 0.01 and DNA levels (p = 0.04, and protease activities (p = 0.008. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that high circulating nucleic acid concentrations in blood are no indicators of a malignant breast tumor. However, the observed changes in apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities along with the elevated serum levels of nucleosomes and DNA in blood are linked to breast cancer progression.

  14. Bidecadal North Atlantic ocean circulation variability controlled by timing of volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingedouw, Didier; Ortega, Pablo; Mignot, Juliette; Guilyardi, Eric; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Butler, Paul G; Khodri, Myriam; Séférian, Roland

    2015-03-30

    While bidecadal climate variability has been evidenced in several North Atlantic paleoclimate records, its drivers remain poorly understood. Here we show that the subset of CMIP5 historical climate simulations that produce such bidecadal variability exhibits a robust synchronization, with a maximum in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) 15 years after the 1963 Agung eruption. The mechanisms at play involve salinity advection from the Arctic and explain the timing of Great Salinity Anomalies observed in the 1970s and the 1990s. Simulations, as well as Greenland and Iceland paleoclimate records, indicate that coherent bidecadal cycles were excited following five Agung-like volcanic eruptions of the last millennium. Climate simulations and a conceptual model reveal that destructive interference caused by the Pinatubo 1991 eruption may have damped the observed decreasing trend of the AMOC in the 2000s. Our results imply a long-lasting climatic impact and predictability following the next Agung-like eruption.

  15. Mechanisms of adaptation of the hepatic vasculature to the deteriorating conditions of blood circulation in liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dmitry; Victorovich; Garbuzenko; Nikolay; Olegovich; Arefyev; Dmitry; Vladimirovich; Belov

    2016-01-01

    Pub Med, EMBASE, Orphanet, MIDLINE, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between 1983 and 2015. Relevant articles were selected by using the following terms: "Liver cirrhosis", "Endothelial dysfunction", "Sinusoidal remodeling", "Intrahepatic angiogenesis" and "Pathogenesis of portal hypertension". Then the reference lists of identified articles were searched for other relevant publications as well. Besides gross hepatic structural disorders related to diffuse fibrosis and formation of regenerative nodules, the complex morphofunctional rearrangement of the hepatic microvascular bed and intrahepatic angiogenesis also play important roles in hemodynamic disturbances in liver cirrhosis. It is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and impaired paracrine interaction between activated stellate hepatocytes and sinusoidal endotheliocytes, sinusoidal remodeling and capillarization, as well as development of the collateral microcirculation. In spite of the fact that complex morphofunctional rearrangement of the hepatic microvascular bed and intrahepatic angiogenesis in liver cirrhosis are the compensatory-adaptive reaction to the deteriorating conditions of blood circulation, they contribute to progression of disease and development of serious complications, in particular, related to portal hypertension.Pub Med,EMBASE,Orphanet,MIDLINE,Google Scholar and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between 1983 and 2015.Relevant articles were selected by using the following terms:"Liver cirrhosis","Endothelial dysfunction","Sinusoidal remodeling","Intrahepatic angiogenesis"and"Pathogenesis of portal hypertension".Then the reference lists of identified articles were searched for other relevant publications as well.Besides gross hepatic structural disorders related to diffuse fibrosis and formation of regenerative nodules,the complex morphofunctional rearrangement of the hepatic microvascular bed and intrahepatic angiogenesis also

  16. Revisiting the circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: molecular detection methods to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage and the effect of gametocytocidal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawa Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is renewed acknowledgement that targeting gametocytes is essential for malaria control and elimination efforts. Simple mathematical models were fitted to data from clinical trials in order to determine the mean gametocyte circulation time and duration of gametocyte carriage in treated malaria patients. Methods Data were used from clinical trials from East Africa. The first trial compared non-artemisinin combination therapy (non-ACT: sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP plus amodiaquine and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT: SP plus artesunate (AS or artemether-lumefantrine. The second trial compared ACT (SP+AS with ACT in combination with a single dose of primaquine (ACT-PQ: SP+AS+PQ. Mature gametocytes were quantified in peripheral blood samples by nucleic acid sequence based amplification. A simple deterministic compartmental model was fitted to gametocyte densities to estimate the circulation time per gametocyte; a similar model was fitted to gametocyte prevalences to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage after efficacious treatment. Results The mean circulation time of gametocytes was 4.6-6.5 days. After non-ACT treatment, patients were estimated to carry gametocytes for an average of 55 days (95% CI 28.7 - 107.7. ACT reduced the duration of gametocyte carriage fourfold to 13.4 days (95% CI 10.2-17.5. Addition of PQ to ACT resulted in a further fourfold reduction of the duration of gametocyte carriage. Conclusions These findings confirm previous estimates of the circulation time of gametocytes, but indicate a much longer duration of (low density gametocyte carriage after apparently successful clearance of asexual parasites. ACT shortened the period of gametocyte carriage considerably, and had the most pronounced effect on mature gametocytes when combined with PQ.

  17. Decreased time constant of the pulmonary circulation in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie Ross, Robert V; Toshner, Mark R; Soon, Elaine; Naeije, Robert; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna

    2013-07-15

    This study analyzed the relationship between pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary arterial compliance (Ca) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and proximal chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). It has recently been shown that the time constant of the pulmonary circulation (RC time constant), or PVR × Ca, remains unaltered in various forms and severities of pulmonary hypertension, with the exception of left heart failure. We reasoned that increased wave reflection in proximal CTEPH would be another cause of the decreased RC time constant. We conducted a retrospective analysis of invasive pulmonary hemodynamic measurements in IPAH (n = 78), proximal CTEPH (n = 91) before (pre) and after (post) pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA), and distal CTEPH (n = 53). Proximal CTEPH was defined by a postoperative mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) of ≤25 mmHg. Outcome measures were the RC time constant, PVR, Ca, and relationship between systolic and mean PAPs. The RC time constant for pre-PEA CTEPH was 0.49 ± 0.11 s compared with post-PEA-CTEPH (0.37 ± 0.11 s, P time constant was associated with a disproportionate decrease in systolic PAP with respect to mean PAP. We concluded that the pulmonary RC time constant is decreased in proximal CTEPH compared with IPAH, pre- and post-PEA, which may be explained by increased wave reflection but also, importantly, by persistent structural changes after the removal of proximal obstructions. A reduced RC time constant in CTEPH is in accord with a wider pulse pressure and hence greater right ventricular work for a given mean PAP.

  18. Evaluation of blood flow distribution asymmetry and vascular geometry in patients with Fontan circulation using 4-D flow MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Kelly; Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Schnell, Susanne; Barker, Alex J.; Garcia, Julio; Chowdhary, Varun; Carr, James [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Lorenz, Ramona [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rose, Michael [Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Robinson, Joshua D. [Northwestern University, Department of Pediatrics, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Cardiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Asymmetrical caval to pulmonary blood flow is suspected to cause complications in patients with Fontan circulation. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility of 4-D flow MRI for characterizing the relationship between 3-D blood flow distribution and vascular geometry. We hypothesized that both flow distribution and geometry can be calculated with low interobserver variability and will detect a direct relationship between flow distribution and Fontan geometry. Four-dimensional flow MRI was acquired in 10 Fontan patients (age: 16 ± 4 years [mean ± standard deviation], range: 9-21 years). The Fontan connection was isolated by 3-D segmentation to evaluate flow distribution from the inferior vena cava (IVC) and superior vena cava (SVC) to the left and right pulmonary arteries (LPA, RPA) and to characterize geometry (cross-sectional area, caval offset, vessel angle). Flow distribution results indicated SVC flow tended toward the RPA while IVC flow was more evenly distributed (SVC to RPA: 78% ± 28 [9-100], IVC to LPA: 54% ± 28 [4-98]). There was a significant relationship between pulmonary artery cross-sectional area and flow distribution (IVC to RPA: R{sup 2}=0.50, P=0.02; SVC to LPA: R{sup 2}=0.81, P=0.0004). Good agreement was found between observers and for flow distribution when compared to net flow values. Four-dimensional flow MRI was able to detect relationships between flow distribution and vessel geometry. Future studies are warranted to investigate the potential of patient specific hemodynamic analysis to improve diagnostic capability. (orig.)

  19. 活血化瘀法治疗类风湿性关节炎的疗效观察%Therapeutic Effect of Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis on Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨活血化瘀法治疗类风湿性关节炎的疗效。方法:将72例类风湿性关节炎患者按照治疗方法分为治疗组和对照组各36例,治疗组采用活血化瘀法治疗,对照组采用常规西医治疗,观察两组临床疗效、临床症状和体征以及相关实验室指标。结果:治疗组总有效率优于对照组(P<0.05);两组治疗后晨僵时间、关节疼痛评分均下降(P<0.05),握力明显提高(P<0.05),且治疗组改善水平优于对照组(P<0.05);两组治疗后红细胞沉降率(ESR)、C-反应蛋白(CRP)和类风湿因子(RF)均下降(P<0.05),且治疗组下降水平优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:采用活血化瘀法治疗类风湿性关节炎能够有效改善患者的临床症状和体征,缓解关节疼痛。%Objective: To study the effect of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on rheumatoid arthritis. Method: The 72 cases of patients with rheumatoid arthritis were selected and divided into treatment and control groups, ac-cording to the methods of treatment, 36 cases in each. Patients were treated by blood circulation and removing blood stasis therapy in treatment group and conventional western medicine treatment in control group. The clinical efficacy, clinical symp-toms and signs, as well as relevant laboratories indicators were observed in two groups. Results: The total efficiency of the observation group was significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05); the morning stiffness time and joint pain score sig-nificantly decreased after treatment both in two groups (P<0.05), and grip strength significantly increased both in two groups (P<0.05); the improvement levels of the treatment group was significantly better than the control group (P<0.05); the erythro-cyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and c-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factors (RF) decreased significantly after treatment both in two groups (P<0

  20. Effect of Chinese Drugs for Promoting Blood Circulation and Eliminating Blood Stasis on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Rabbits with Glucocorticoid-induced Ischemic Necrosis of Femoral Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhen-xi; CHEN Lei

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the mechanism of Chinese drugs for promoting blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis in the prevention and treatment of glueocorticoid-induced ischemic necrosis of femoral head.Methods: Thirty New Zealand adult white rabbits were randomly divided into a normal control group (n=5)and a model group (n=25). Hydroxyprednisone acetate was intramuscularly administered to the rabbits in the model group in a dosage of 7.5 mg/kg, twice per week for 6 weeks, to induce ischemic necrosis of femoral head and normal saline of the equal volume was intramuscularly administered to the rabbits in the normal control group, twice per week for 6 weeks. Then, the 5 rabbits from the normal control group and 5 rabbits selected randomly from the model group were sacrificed and the changes in histopathology and the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) were observed. The other 20 rabbits in the model group were randomly divided into the treatment group 1 and the treatment group 2, and the control group 1 and the control group 2, 5 rabbits in every group. Taohong Siwu Tang (桃红四物汤 Decoction of Four Drugs with Addition of Peach Kernel and Safflower) was orally administered to the rabbits in the treatment group 1 and the treatment group 2 in a dosage of 7 ml/kg, once daily and normal saline of the equal volume was orally administered to the rabbits in the control groupl and the control group, 2 once daily. After 10 weeks the rabbits in the treatment group 1 and the control group 1 were sacrificed and after 13 weeks the rabbits in the treatment group 2 and the control group 2 were sacrificed, and the expression of VEGF was detected in these rabbits. Results: The expression of VEGF was significantly enhanced in rabbits of the model group as compared with the normal control group (P<0.01), and gradually reduced with the lapse of time. The expression of VEGF in the control groups was significantly reduced as compared with the treatment

  1. Evaluation of Two Different Analytical Methods for Circulating Tumor Cell Detection in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Primary Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. S. Jaeger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence is accumulating that circulating tumor cells (CTC out of peripheral blood can serve as prognostic marker not only in metastatic but also in early breast cancer (BC. Various methods are available to detect CTC. Comparisons between the different techniques, however, are rare. Material and Methods. We evaluate two different methods for CTC enrichment and detection in primary BC patients: the FDA-approved CellSearch System (CSS; Veridex, Warren, USA and a manual immunocytochemistry (MICC. The cut-off value for positivity was ≥1 CTC. Results. The two different nonoverlapping patient cohorts evaluated with one or the other method were well balanced regarding common clinical parameters. Before adjuvant CHT 21.1% (416 out of 1972 and 20.6% (247 out of 1198 of the patients were CTC-positive, while after CHT 22.5% (359 out of 1598 and 16.6% (177 out of 1066 of the patients were CTC-positive using CSS or MICC, respectively. CTC positivity rate before CHT was thus similar and not significantly different (P=0.749, while CTC positivity rate immediately after CHT was significantly lower using MICC compared to CSS (P<0.001. Conclusion. Using CSS or MICC for CTC detection, we found comparable prevalence of CTC before but not after adjuvant CHT.

  2. Quantitative assessment of oscillatory components in blood circulation: classification of the effect of aging, diabetes, and acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernjak, Alan; Stefanovska, Aneta; Urbancic-Rovan, Vilma; Azman-Juvan, Katja

    2005-04-01

    The human cardiovascular system is a complex system with the pumping activity of the heart as the main generator of oscillations. Besides the heartbeat there are several other oscillatory components which determine its dynamics. Their nonlinear nature and a weak coupling between them both require special treatment while studying this system. A particular characteristic of the oscillatory components is their frequency fluctuations in time. Consequently, their interactions also fluctuate in time. Therefore the wavelet transform is applied to trace the oscillatory components in time, and specific quantitative measures are introduced to quantify the contribution of each of the oscillatory components involved on the time scale of up to three minutes. Oscillatory components are then analysed from signals obtained by simultaneous measurements of blood flow in the microcirculation, ECG, respiration and blood pressure. Based on quantitative evaluation of the oscillatory components related to (I) the heart beat (0.6-2Hz), (II) respiration (0.145-0.6Hz), (III) intrinsic myogenic activity (0.052-0.145Hz), (IV) sympathetic activity (0.021-0.052Hz), (V, VI) endothelial related activity (0.0095-0.021Hz, 0.005 - 0.0095 Hz), 30-minutes recording taken on 109 healthy subjects, 75 patients with diabetes, and 82 patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were analysed. Classification of the effect of ageing, diabetes and AMI from blood flow signals simultaneously recorded in the skin of four extremities, the heart rate and heart rate variability from R-R intervals will be presented and discussed.

  3. Core bioactive components promoting blood circulation in the traditional Chinese medicine compound xueshuantong capsule (CXC) based on the relevance analysis between chemical HPLC fingerprint and in vivo biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Liang, Jie-ping; Li, Pei-bo; Peng, Wei; Peng, Yao-yao; Zhang, Gao-min; Xie, Cheng-shi; Long, Chao-feng; Su, Wei-wei

    2014-01-01

    Compound xueshuantong capsule (CXC) is an oral traditional Chinese herbal formula (CHF) comprised of Panax notoginseng (PN), Radix astragali (RA), Salvia miltiorrhizae (SM), and Radix scrophulariaceae (RS). The present investigation was designed to explore the core bioactive components promoting blood circulation in CXC using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and animal studies. CXC samples were prepared with different proportions of the 4 herbs according to a four-factor, nine-level uniform design. CXC samples were assessed with HPLC, which identified 21 components. For the animal experiments, rats were soaked in ice water during the time interval between two adrenaline hydrochloride injections to reduce blood circulation. We assessed whole-blood viscosity (WBV), erythrocyte aggregation and red corpuscle electrophoresis indices (EAI and RCEI, respectively), plasma viscosity (PV), maximum platelet aggregation rate (MPAR), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time (PT). Based on the hypothesis that CXC sample effects varied with differences in components, we performed grey relational analysis (GRA), principal component analysis (PCA), ridge regression (RR), and radial basis function (RBF) to evaluate the contribution of each identified component. Our results indicate that panaxytriol, ginsenoside Rb1, angoroside C, protocatechualdehyde, ginsenoside Rd, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside are the core bioactive components, and that they might play different roles in the alleviation of circulation dysfunction. Panaxytriol and ginsenoside Rb1 had close relevance to red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, angoroside C was related to platelet aggregation, protocatechualdehyde was involved in intrinsic clotting activity, ginsenoside Rd affected RBC deformability and plasma proteins, and calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside influenced extrinsic clotting activity. This study indicates that angoroside C, calycosin-7-O-β-D-glucoside, panaxytriol, and

  4. Meteorologically-driven circulation and flushing times of the Bay of Algeciras, Strait of Gibraltar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Garrido, José C; Lafuente, Jesús García; Sammartino, Simone; Naranjo, Cristina; de los Santos, Francisco J; Álvarez Fanjul, Enrique

    2014-03-15

    A primitive-equation model has been used to investigate the meteorologically-driven circulation of the Bay of Algeciras. It is shown that the mean circulation of Atlantic Water (AW) is characterized by an anticyclonic cell, while Mediterranean Water (MW) follows a preferred cyclonic pathway. Meteorological forcing distorts substantially the AW mean circulation pattern, and only modulates that of the MW. Winds drive a vertical circulation cell in the Atlantic layer consistent with Ekman dynamics, whereas the horizontal circulation pattern is markedly dependent on the swift Atlantic jet entering the Mediterranean and changes from clearly anticyclonic to cyclonic as the jet separates or approaches the strait's northern shoreline. This occurs through atmospheric pressure-driven acceleration/deceleration of the jet, in agreement with internal hydraulics theory predictions. It is also found that the renewal of AW is largely modulated by tides, with meteorological forcing playing a secondary role. The opposite applies to the renewal of MW.

  5. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leisure-time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... copyright American Heart Association Download (1.4 MB) High Blood Pressure A high blood pressure reading. copyright American Heart ...

  6. Impact of methods used to express levels of circulating fatty acids on the degree and direction of associations with blood lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeant, Susan; Ruczinski, Ingo; Ivester, Priscilla; Lee, Tammy C; Morgan, Timothy M; Nicklas, Barbara J; Mathias, Rasika A; Chilton, Floyd H

    2016-01-28

    Numerous studies have examined relationships between disease biomarkers (such as blood lipids) and levels of circulating or cellular fatty acids. In such association studies, fatty acids have typically been expressed as the percentage of a particular fatty acid relative to the total fatty acids in a sample. Using two human cohorts, this study examined relationships between blood lipids (TAG, and LDL, HDL or total cholesterol) and circulating fatty acids expressed either as a percentage of total or as concentration in serum. The direction of the correlation between stearic acid, linoleic acid, dihomo-γ-linolenic acid, arachidonic acid and DHA and circulating TAG reversed when fatty acids were expressed as concentrations v. a percentage of total. Similar reversals were observed for these fatty acids when examining their associations with the ratio of total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol. This reversal pattern was replicated in serum samples from both human cohorts. The correlations between blood lipids and fatty acids expressed as a percentage of total could be mathematically modelled from the concentration data. These data reveal that the different methods of expressing fatty acids lead to dissimilar correlations between blood lipids and certain fatty acids. This study raises important questions about how such reversals in association patterns impact the interpretation of numerous association studies evaluating fatty acids and their relationships with disease biomarkers or risk.

  7. Effects of a chicken collagen hydrolysate on the circulation system in subjects with mild hypertension or high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouguchi, Tomomi; Ohmori, Takashi; Shimizu, Muneshige; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Maeyama, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Takuya; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Tanabe, Soichi

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of a chicken collagen hydrolysate (CCH) on the circulation system in humans. A total of 58 subjects with either mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 140-159 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) 90-99 mmHg) or high-normal blood pressure (SBP 130-139 mmHg or DBP 85-89 mmHg) were assigned to two groups, one involving a placebo and the other, the test food (including CCH of 2.9 g/d). The parameters related to each subject's circulation system were monitored over the study period of 18 weeks. The Δbrachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an indicator of arterial stiffness and marker of vascular damage, was significantly lower in the test food group than in the placebo group during the treatment period. The blood pressure in the test food group was also significantly lower than that in the placebo group, while the serum nitrogen oxide was higher in the test food group after the treatment. These results suggest that CCH exerted modulatory effects on the human circulation system.

  8. Plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere of Central Europe: Isotopic composition and time evolution vs. circulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierepko, Renata; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Wershofen, Herbert; Holgye, Zoltan; Kapała, Jacek; Isajenko, Krzysztof

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports evidence of Pu isotopes in the lower part of the troposphere of Central Europe. The data were obtained based on atmospheric aerosol fraction samples collected from four places in three countries (participating in the informal European network known as the Ring of Five (Ro5)) forming a cell with a surface area of about 200,000km(2). We compared our original data sets from Krakow (Poland, 1990-2007) and Bialystok (Poland, 1991-2007) with the results from two other locations, Prague (Czech Republic; 1997-2004) and Braunschweig (Germany; 1990-2003) to find time evolution of the Pu isotopes. The levels of the activity concentration for (238)Pu and for ((239+240))Pu were estimated to be a few and some tens of nBqm(-3), respectively. However, we also noted some results were much higher (even about 70 times higher) than the average concentration of (238)Pu in the atmosphere. The achieved complex data sets were used to test a new approach to the problem of solving mixing isotopic traces from various sources (here up to three) in one sample. Results of our model, supported by mesoscale atmospheric circulation parameters, suggest that Pu from nuclear weapon accidents or tests and nuclear burnt-up fuel are present in the air.

  9. Intrinsic determinants and predictors of superovulatory yields in sheep: Circulating concentrations of reproductive hormones, ovarian status, and antral follicular blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Seaton, Patricia; Franco Oliveira, Maria Emilia; Kridli, Rami T; Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    Hormonal ovarian superstimulation has contributed to small ruminant reproduction around the world, impacting genetic improvement and zoosanitary programs, contributing to the conservation of endangered species, and supporting other related biotechnologies. Advanced knowledge surrounding the superovulatory treatments in sheep has resulted in enhanced control of influencing factors and improved the protocols currently used. However, in spite of minimization of some adverse factors, superovulatory responses in ewes still remain variable, preventing the more widespread use of superovulation in commercial embryo transfer programs and reproductive research in this species. Recent evidence demonstrates that changes in antral follicular populations and blood supply, and circulating concentrations of certain reproductive hormones determined at the specific time points just before or during the superovulatory treatment are associated with superovulation success in ewes. This review attempts to compile the data from available literature to identify ovarian and hormonal determinants of the superovulatory outcome in ewes, which can be used to substantially improve the existing protocols and to reduce the extra cost and unnecessary stress imposed on poorly responding animals. An overview of most commonly used and some recently developed, FSH-based ovarian stimulation protocols is given at the outset to highlight variation in the frequency and timing of gonadotropin injections, estrus synchronization methods, and follicular wave synchronization and/or ovulation induction techniques during the superovulatory treatments in ewes.

  10. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte;

    1998-01-01

    in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type...... to the stored blood, were used in a culture system with LPS and PHA as stimulators of TNF-alpha and IL-2 release. The effect of added supernatants, from either stored whole blood or SAGM blood, on cytokine release was evaluated compared to saline as control. TNF-alpha concentration was analyzed by ELISA after...

  11. Storms, hanged pirates, anemia, exsanguination: the contributions of Monro, Kellie and Abercrombie in understanding intracranial blood circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale De Bonis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The so-called Monro-Kellie doctrine states that with an intact skull, the sum of the volume of the brain plus the cerebrospinal fluid volume plus the intracranial blood volume is constant. Therefore an increase in one should cause a reduction in one or both of the remaining two. The researcher who expressed the doctrine in such a way was indeed Harvey Cushing in 1925, during a lecture in Edinburgh. The original Monro-Kellie doctrine is the result of observations on autopsies and several animal experiments. What the original doctrine states is a dynamic explanation of the intracranial system, aimed at explaining how a pulsatile and continuous perfusion may occur in a closed-non-expandable and fully filled system. During each cardiac cycle the quantity of blood within the head must be the same: during the systole, the brain arteries dilate, and, in the mean time, a quantity of blood, equal to that which is dilating them, is passing out of the head through the veins. During the succeeding diastole, the quantity which dilated the brain arteries passes into the corresponding veins and, at the same time, as much passes from the sinuses out of the head, as enters into the head from the arteries situated between the heart and the head. Monro implicitly states that the blood coming out from the cerebral veins into the sinuses must be pulsatile and (almost synchronous with the arteries. That is deeply different from the concept of a constant content of a rigid case, as expressed by Cushing.

  12. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte;

    1998-01-01

    in stimulating TNF-alpha and IL-2 release in an ex vivo assay. METHODS: Supernatants of 10 units of whole blood and 10 units of SAGM blood were collected after 1, 21 and 35 days of standard blood bank storage. Heparinized blood from 20 healthy volunteers (as 'recipients'), corresponding in ABO and Rh type......OBJECTIVES: TNF-alpha and IL-2 are important cytokines in macrophage and T-lymphocyte activity against infection and dissemination of malignant cells. We studied the influence of supernatants from stored whole blood and buffy-coat-depleted SAGM (saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol) blood...... to the stored blood, were used in a culture system with LPS and PHA as stimulators of TNF-alpha and IL-2 release. The effect of added supernatants, from either stored whole blood or SAGM blood, on cytokine release was evaluated compared to saline as control. TNF-alpha concentration was analyzed by ELISA after...

  13. Assessment of liver circulation by quantitative scintiangiography: Evaluation of the relative contribution of the hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to liver perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molino, G.; Squadrone, E.; Baccegal, M.; Magnani, C.

    1989-04-01

    Quantitative hepatic scintiangiography was previously used for evaluating the relative contribution of hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to the hepatic circulation. The present study compares 3 different procedures (automatic and manual integration, and slope fitting methods) for analyzing the hepatic time activity curves obtained after bolus i.v. injection of 370 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-diethylentriaminopentacetic acid. Twenty five subjects were studied: Five controls, ten cirrhotics, and ten portal hypertensive patients previously submitted to side to side portacaval anastomosis. The correspondence between results given by the different methods was satisfactory only in shunted patients, and the reproducibility of computed parameters was quite poor for all procedures. Accordingly, none of the methods can be considered as supporting reliable quantitative pathophysiological evaluations. However, the hepatic arterial/portal venous flow ratio was found to be increased in liver cirrhosis and in shunted patients and therefore, in spite of the limitations underlined before and of the absence of data on the reproducibility of consecutive injections, hepatic scintiangiography may be of some clinical utility.

  14. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-06-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis.

  15. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K

    1996-01-01

    Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during...... storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine...... content at donation, and histamine concentration in samples drawn from the units on days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21, 28 and 35 were analysed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median plasma histamine concentration was 4.8 (range 1.9-14.3) nmol/l (n = 18). Median total cell-bound histamine content was 417...

  16. Study on numerical simulation and dynamic mechanism of winter- time circulation in the eastern China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong; HOU Yijun; WEI Zexun; LIU Xingquan; ZHAO Xixi

    2004-01-01

    An MOM2 based 3-dimentional prognostic baroclinic Z-ordinate model was established to study the circulation in eastern China seas, considering the topography, inflow and outflow on the open boundary, wind stress, temperature and salinity exchange on the sea surface. The results were consistent with observation and showed that the Kuroshio intrudes in large scale into the East China Sea continental shelf East China, during which its water is exchanged ceaselessly with outer sea water along Ryukyu Island. The Tsushima Warm Current is derived from several sources, a branch of the Kuroshio, part of the Taiwan Warm Current, and Yellow Sea mixed water coming from the west of Cheju Island. The water from the west of Cheju Island contributes approximately 13% of the Isushima Warm Current total transport through the Korea Strait. The circulation in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea is basically cyclonic circulation, and is comprised of coastal currents and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. Besides simulation of the real circulation, numerical experiments were conducted to study the dynamic mechanism. The numerical experiments indicated that wind directly drives the East China Sea and Yellow Sea Coastal Currents, and strengthens the Korea Coastal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current. In the no wind case, the kinetic energy of the coastal current area and main YSWC area is only 1% of that of the wind case. Numerical experiments also showed that the Tsushima Warm Current is of great importance to the formation of the Korea Coastal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current.

  17. [The role of nitric oxide in regulation of the erythrocyte system state in rat offspring with chronic disturbance of uteroplacental blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, S B; Ivanova, A S; Novikov, A A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of exogenous nitric oxide donor deponit-10 (nitroglycerin) on red cell indices in the offspring of rats with experimental disturbances of uteroplacental circulation has been investigated. It is established that fetal hypoxia facilitates the mobilization of functional reserves of the red cell system in the prenatal and early days of postnatal life of offspring in white rats, which is manifested by the growing process of erythropoiesis. Hyperfunction of the erythrocyte system in the first lifedays of pups leads eventually to a depletion of its functional capacities. The administration of an exogenous nitric oxide donor on the background of damaged uteroplacental circulation prevents the depletion and disruption of the functional reserves of the blood red cell system.

  18. 活血化瘀法在老年病中的应用%Promoting Blood Circulation Method Apply In Geriatrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何慧珍

    2011-01-01

    From the continued study of the physiological and pathological changes in the elderly and understanding of the relationship between human physiological and pathological changes in qi and blood, it finds that Stasis is the most important influencing factor in the development of Geriatrics, and combining the study of the nature of modem stasis and the mechanism of promoting blood circulation method.Promoting blood circulation method was considered to have a significant effect in elderly common diseases, frequentlyoccurring disease, and complicated cases.%从对老年人生理病理变化的不断研究及对气血与人体生理病理变化关系的认识出发,阐明血瘀在影响老年病发生发展的诸多因素中占有主导地位,并结合现代对血瘀本质及活血化瘀法作用机制的研究,探讨活血化瘀法在老年常见病多发病以及老年疑难杂病中的应用.

  19. Summary of 32 Patients with Cardiac Syndrome X Treated by TCM Therapy of Regulating Qi Relieving Chest Stuffiness and Promoting Blood Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Jing-yuan; ZHAO Gui-feng; WANG Zhan-wu; MA Xue-peng; ZHANG Zhen-peng; LI Ming; SHAO Lei; ZHAO Chun-yan; GE Yong-bin; WANG Heng-he; WANG Qiang; ZHANG Yun; YU Dong-ling; ZHANG Yu; HUANG Qi; ZHAO Zhi-qiang

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical effect of Liqi Kuanxiong Huoxue method(理气宽胸活血,LKH,traditional Chinese medicine,TCM therapeutic method for regulating qi,relieving chest stuffiness and promoting blood circulation) in treating patients with cardiac syndrome X (CSX).Methods:The prospective,non-randomized controlled study was conducted on 51 selected patients with CSX,who were non-randomly assigned to 2 groups,the treated group treated with LKH in addition to the conventional treatment(32 patients),and the control group treated with conventional treatment(19 patients)like nitrate,diltiazem hydrochloride,etc.The treatment course was 14 days.The changes of such symptoms as angina pectoris,TCM syndrome and indexes of treadmill exercise test before and after treatment were observed.Results:After treatment,such symptoms as chest pain and stuffy feeling and palpitation in the treated group were improved more than those in the control group(P<0.05);the total effective rate on angina pectoris and TCM syndrome in the treated group was better than that in the control group(P<0.05).The treadmill exercise test showed that the maximal metabolic equivalent(Max MET),the time of angina onset and ST segment depression by 0.1 mV were obviously improved after treatment in both groups,but the improvement in the treated group was better than that in the control group respectively (P<0.05).Conclusion:The LKH method could reduce the frequency of angina attacks and improve the clinical condition of patients with CSX.

  20. Electrochemical Red Blood Cell Counting: One at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepunaru, Lior; Sokolov, Stanislav V; Holter, Jennifer; Young, Neil P; Compton, Richard G

    2016-08-08

    We demonstrate that the concentration of a red blood cell solution under physiological conditions can be determined by electrochemical voltammetry. The magnitude of the oxygen reduction currents produced at an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode was diagnosed analytically at concentrations suitable for a point-of-care test device. The currents could be further enhanced when the solution of red blood cells was exposed to hydrogen peroxide. We show that the enhanced signal can be used to detect red blood cells at a single entity level. The method presented relies on the catalytic activity of red blood cells towards hydrogen peroxide and on surface-induced haemolysis. Each single cell activity is expressed as current spikes decaying within a few seconds back to the background current. The frequency of such current spikes is proportional to the concentration of cells in solution.

  1. Real-time PCR detection of Plasmodium directly from whole blood and filter paper samples

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Brian. J.; Martin, Kimberly A; Arango, Eliana; Agudelo, Olga M; Maestre, Amanda; Yanow, Stephanie K.

    2011-01-01

    Background Real-time PCR is a sensitive and specific method for the analysis of Plasmodium DNA. However, prior purification of genomic DNA from blood is necessary since PCR inhibitors and quenching of fluorophores from blood prevent efficient amplification and detection of PCR products. Methods Reagents designed to specifically overcome PCR inhibition and quenching of fluorescence were evaluated for real-time PCR amplification of Plasmodium DNA directly from blood. Whole blood from clinical s...

  2. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Kotenko К.V.; Korchazhkina N.B.; Petrova М.S.; Ruzova Т.К.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years) with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a cond...

  3. Haemodynamic evaluation of the cerebral circulation by periorbital Doppler examination and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement in carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T; Buchardt Hansen, H J

    1988-01-01

    To assess the haemodynamic significance of an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, angiography or direct ultrasound examination should be supplemented by indirect physiologic testing of the collateral circulation. Among the tests proposed, we used the periorbital flow direction, assessed by Do...

  4. Superior efficacy of liposomal amphotericin B with prolonged circulation in blood in the treatment of severe candidiasis in leukopenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W.M. van Etten (Els); S.V. Snijders (Susan); W. van Vianen (Wim); I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractIn leukopenic mice with severe systemic candidiasis, single-dose treatment (5 mg of amphotericin B [AMB]/kg of body weight) with long-circulating polyethylene glycol-coated AMB liposomes (PEG-AMB-LIP) resulted in zero mortality and a significant reduction in

  5. Early, Prehospital Activation of the Walking Blood Bank Based on Mechanism of Injury Improves Time to Fresh Whole Blood Transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Aaron K; Auten, Jonathan D; Zieber, Tara J; Lunceford, Nicole L

    2016-01-01

    Balanced component therapy (BCT) remains the mainstay in trauma resuscitation of the critically battle injured. In austere medical environments, access to packed red blood cells, apheresis platelets, and fresh frozen plasma is often limited. Transfusion of warm, fresh whole blood (FWB) has been used to augment limited access to full BCT in these settings. The main limitation of FWB is that it is not readily available for transfusion on casualty arrival. This small case series evaluates the impact early, mechanism-of-injury (MOI)-based, preactivation of the walking blood bank has on time to transfusion. We report an average time of 18 minutes to FWB transfusion from patient arrival. Early activation of the walking blood bank based on prehospital MOI may further reduce the time to FWB transfusion.

  6. Theoretical discussion on promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis therapy for restless leg syndrome%活血化瘀法治疗不宁腿综合征的理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳; 刁倩; 李涛

    2012-01-01

    传统治疗思路认为具有柔肝养阴、缓急止痛作用的芍药甘草汤是治疗不宁腿综合征(restless legs syndrome,RLS)的有效方剂.但笔者通过临床实践、结合古代文献及中医药理论认为,血脉瘀阻是RLS的主要病机,活血化瘀应是治疗RLS的核心疗法.%Peony and Licorice Decoction was effective in treating Restless leg syndrome(RLS) with the function of nourishing yin for softening liver,relaxing spasm and relieving pain.Clinical practice,ancient literature and Chinese medicine theory were comprehensively studied to conclude that blood stasis is the key cause of RLS.Promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis was the crucial therapy for RLS.

  7. Meridional circulation in the solar convection zone: time-distance helioseismic inferences from four years of HMI/SDO observations

    CERN Document Server

    Rajaguru, S P

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss results from time-distance helioseismic measurements of meridional circulation in the solar convection zone using 4 years of Doppler velocity observations by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Using an in-built mass conservation constraint in terms of the stream function we invert helioseismic travel times to infer meridional circulation in the solar convection zone. We find that the return flow that closes the meridional circulation is possibly beneath the depth of $0.77 R_{\\odot}$. We discuss the significance of this result in relation to other helioseismic inferences published recently and possible reasons for the differences in the results. Our results show clearly the pitfalls involved in the measurements of material flows in the deep solar interior given the current limits on signal-to-noise and our limited understanding of systematics in the data. We also discuss the implications of our results for the dynamics of solar interi...

  8. Predictive Understanding of the Oceans' Wind-Driven Circulation on Interdecadal Time Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghil, Michael [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and IGPP; Temam, Roger [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Feliks, Y. [IIBR (France); Simonnet, E. [INLN (France); Tachim-Medjo, T. [Florida International Univ. (FIU), Miami, FL (United States)

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project was to obtain a predictive understanding of a major component of the climate system's interdecadal variability: the oceans' wind-driven circulation. To do so, we developed and applied advanced computational and statistical methods to the problem of climate variability and climate change. The methodology was developed first for models of intermediate complexity, such as the quasi-geostrophic and the primitive equations, which describe the wind-driven, near-surface flow in mid-latitude ocean basins. Our computational work consisted in developing efficient multi-level methods to simulate this flow and study its dependence on physically relevant parameters. Our oceanographic and climate work consisted in applying these methods to study the bifurcations in the wind-driven circulation and their relevance to the flows observed at present and those that might occur in a warmer climate. Both aspects of the work are crucial for the efficient treatment of large-scale, eddy-resolving numerical simulations of the oceans and an increased understanding and better prediction of climate change. Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding ocean-atmosphere interaction in the mid-latitudes. An important by-product of this research is a novel approach to explaining the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  9. AFP mRNA level in enriched circulating tumor cells from hepatocellular carcinoma patient blood samples is a pivotal predictive marker for metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junhua; Niu, Xiaojuan; Zou, Lihui; Li, Lin; Li, Shugang; Han, Jingli; Zhang, Peiying; Song, Jinghai; Xiao, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) quantification may be helpful for evaluating cancer dissemination, predicting prognosis and assessing therapeutic effectiveness and safety. In the present study, CTCs from blood samples of 72 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were enriched with anti-EpCAM nanoparticles. AFP mRNA level was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after enrichment of CTCs from HCC blood samples at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after hepatectomy, respectively. AFP mRNA expression in CTCs was positive in 43 patients (59.7%) and negative in 29 patients (40.3%) before hepatectomy. Among 43 patients with positive AFP mRNA expression in CTCs before hepatectomy, 10 and 11 were diagnosed as intrahepatic/extrahepatic metastasis before and after hepatectomy, respectively. In addition, these 21 patients with metastasis had persisting positive AFP mRNA of CTCs during the whole tested year. Specifically, 3 patients with AFP mRNA negative in CTCs before hepatectomy changed to be positive at 6 and 9 months, and 2 of them were diagnosed as metastasis 12 months after hepatectomy. We conclude that the positive AFP mRNA of CTCs can be a pivotal predictor for HCC metastasis before and after hepatectomy. The release of AFP expression from hepatocellular carcinoma cells into circulation must be a major source of HCC metastasis.

  10. Circulating angiotensin II gains access to the hypothalamus and brain stem during hypertension via breakdown of the blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biancardi, Vinicia Campana; Son, Sook Jin; Ahmadi, Sahra; Filosa, Jessica A; Stern, Javier E

    2014-03-01

    Angiotensin II-mediated vascular brain inflammation emerged as a novel pathophysiological mechanism in neurogenic hypertension. However, the precise underlying mechanisms and functional consequences in relation to blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and central angiotensin II actions mediating neurohumoral activation in hypertension are poorly understood. Here, we aimed to determine whether BBB permeability within critical hypothalamic and brain stem regions involved in neurohumoral regulation was altered during hypertension. Using digital imaging quantification after intravascularly injected fluorescent dyes and immunohistochemistry, we found increased BBB permeability, along with altered key BBB protein constituents, in spontaneously hypertensive rats within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, the nucleus of the solitary tract, and the rostral ventrolateral medulla, all critical brain regions known to contribute to neurohumoral activation during hypertension. BBB disruption, including increased permeability and downregulation of constituent proteins, was prevented in spontaneously hypertensive rats treated with the AT1 receptor antagonist losartan, but not with hydralazine, a direct vasodilator. Importantly, we found circulating angiotensin II to extravasate into these brain regions, colocalizing with neurons and microglial cells. Taken together, our studies reveal a novel angiotensin II-mediated feed-forward mechanism during hypertension, by which circulating angiotensin II evokes increased BBB permeability, facilitating in turn its access to critical brain regions known to participate in blood pressure regulation.

  11. Simultaneous quantitative assessment of circulating cell-free mitochondrial and nuclear DNA by multiplex real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of circulating nucleic acids in plasma and serum could be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for monitoring a wide variety of diseases and conditions. We describe here a rapid, simple and accurate multiplex real-time PCR method for direct synchronized analysis of circulating cell-free (ccf mitochondrial (mtDNA and nuclear (nDNA DNA in plasma and serum samples. The method is based on one-step multiplex real-time PCR using a FAM-labeled MGB probe and primers to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC-labeled MGB probe and primers to amplify the nDNA sequence of the glycerinaldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH gene, in plasma and serum samples simultaneously. The efficiencies of the multiplex assays were measured in serial dilutions. Based on the simulation of the PCR reaction kinetics, the relative quantities of ccf mtDNA were calculated using a very simple equation. Using our optimised real-time PCR conditions, close to 100% efficiency was obtained from the two assays. The two assays performed in the dilution series showed very good and reproducible correlation to each other. This optimised multiplex real-time PCR protocol can be widely used for synchronized quantification of mtDNA and nDNA in different samples, with a very high rate of efficiency.

  12. Assessment of a six gene panel for the molecular detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood of female cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horvat Reinhard

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC in the peripheral blood of cancer patients has been described for various solid tumors and their clinical relevance has been shown. CTC detection based on the analysis of epithelial antigens might be hampered by the genetic heterogeneity of the primary tumor and loss of epithelial antigens. Therefore, we aimed to identify new gene markers for the PCR-based detection of CTC in female cancer patients. Methods Gene expression of 38 cancer cell lines (breast, ovarian, cervical and endometrial and of 10 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples from healthy female donors was measured using microarray technology (Applied Biosystems. Differentially expressed genes were identified using the maxT test and the 50% one-sided trimmed maxT-test. Confirmatory RT-qPCR was performed for 380 gene targets using the AB TaqMan® Low Density Arrays. Then, 93 gene targets were analyzed using the same RT-qPCR platform in tumor tissues of 126 patients with primary breast, ovarian or endometrial cancer. Finally, blood samples from 26 healthy women and from 125 patients (primary breast, ovarian, cervical, or endometrial cancer, and advanced breast cancer were analyzed following OncoQuick enrichment and RNA pre-amplification. Likewise, hMAM and EpCAM gene expression was analyzed in the blood of breast and ovarian cancer patients. For each gene, a cut-off threshold value was set at three standard deviations from the mean expression level of the healthy controls to identify potential markers for CTC detection. Results Six genes were over-expressed in blood samples from 81% of patients with advanced and 29% of patients with primary breast cancer. EpCAM gene expression was detected in 19% and 5% of patients, respectively, whereas hMAM gene expression was observed in the advanced group (39% only. Multimarker analysis using the new six gene panel positively identified 44% of the cervical, 64% of the

  13. Microfluidic bead-based multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification for detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood using quantum dots labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He, E-mail: mzhang_he@126.com; Fu, Xin; Hu, Jiayi; Zhu, Zhenjun

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: A microfluidic beads-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dots labels was developed. The chip-based CTCs analysis could detect reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products of tumor cell as low as 1 tumor cell (e.g. CEA expressing cell) in 1 mL blood sample. This microfluidic beads-based nucleic acid sensor is a promising platform for disease-related nucleic acid molecules at the lowest level at their earliest incidence. -- Highlights: •Combination of microfluidic bead-based platform and enzyme–probe–AuNPs is proposed. •The developed nucleic acid sensor could respond to 5 fM of tumor associated DNA. •Microfluidic platform and multienzyme-labeled AuNPs greatly enhanced sensitivity. •The developed nucleic acid sensor could respond to RT-PCR products of tumor cell as low as 1 tumor cell in 1 mL blood sample. •We report a sensitive nucleic acid sensor for detection of circulating tumor cells. -- Abstract: This study reports the development of a microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells in blood samples using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dot labels. In this method, the microbeads functionalized with the capture probes and modified electron rich proteins were arrayed within a microfluidic channel as sensing elements, and the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with the horseradish peroxidases (HRP) and DNA probes were used as labels. Hence, two signal amplification approaches are integrated for enhancing the detection sensitivity of circulating tumor cells. First, the large surface area of Au nanoparticle carrier allows several binding events of HRP on each nanosphere. Second, enhanced mass transport capability inherent from microfluidics leads to higher capture efficiency of targets because continuous flow within micro

  14. Effect of Chinese Drugs for Supplementing Qi, Nourishing Yin and Activating Blood Circulation on Myocardial Perfusion in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction after Revascularization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong-qiang; JIN Mei; QIU Sheng-lei; WANG Pei-li; ZHU Tian-gang; WANG Cheng-long; LI Tian-chang; LIU Hong-xu; BIAN Hong; YAO Li-fang; SHI Da-zhuo

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of Chinese drugs for supplementing qi, nourishing yin and activating blood circulation on the myocardial perfusion in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients after revascularization. Methods: Eighty patients with anterior or inferior ventricular wall AMI, who had received revascularization by intravenous thrombolysis or coronary bypass, were randomized into the treated group and the control group equally, both treated with conventional Western medical treatment, but combined, respectively, Dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) was performed 14 days and 3 months after revascularization, respectively on every patient to observe blood perfusion extent (b value), myocardial perfusion velocity (k value) and local blood flow volume (k × b) in left ventricular infarction-related vascular segments under stressed state. Results: With 5 cases dropping out in the observation pedod (3 in the treated group and 2 in the control group), the tdal was completed in 75 patients in total. The 14-day DSE shows that the b value and k×b value of left anterior ventricular wall mid segment and apex segment, and the k value of apex segment in patients with antedor wall AMI, as well as the b value and k×b of basel segment in patients with infedor wall AMI in the treated group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The 3-month DSE shows that the b value of apex segment, k×b value of basal segment, mid segment and apex segment of left anterior ventdcular wall in patients with anterior wall AMI as well as the b value and k x b value of basal segment of left infedor ventricular wall in patients with inferior wall AMI were all higher in the treated group than those in the control group, respectively (P<0.05). The comparison between 14-day DSE and 3-month DSE in the treated group showed that the b value of apex segment of left antedor ventdcular wall in patients with antedor wall AMI and the k×b value of apex

  15. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis D virus in blood donors from Argentina: circulation of HBsAg and reverse transcriptase mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, Cecilia María; Gentile, Emiliano Alberto; Castillo, Amalia Inés; Cuestas, María Luján; Pataccini, Gabriela; Cánepa, Camila; Malan, Richard; Blejer, Jorgelina; Berini, Carolina; Eirin, María Emilia; Pedrozo, Williams; Oubiña, José Raúl; Biglione, Mirna Marcela; Mathet, Verónica Lidia

    2014-05-01

    In Argentina, current procedures to ensure the safety of the blood supply for transfusion include the serologic detection of specific blood-borne infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and the genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis D virus (HDV) in blood donor populations from two distantly located Argentine regions. Data from 56,983 blood donations from the Favaloro Foundation, in the city of Buenos Aires (Central Region), and the Central Blood Bank of Misiones Province (Northeast Region) were analyzed. Samples that were reactive for HBsAg were analyzed for HBV-DNA characterization and HDV serological and molecular analysis. The HBV prevalence was 0.12 % for HBsAg and 1.68 % for anti-HBc antibodies in Buenos Aires, and 0.73 % and 8.55 %, respectively, in Misiones. Seventy-seven HBsAg-reactive samples were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction for HBV-DNA. Subgenotypes A2, B2, C2, F1b and F4 (Buenos Aires) and F1b and D3 (Misiones) were detected. Several mutations within the major hydrophilic region of HBsAg, the reverse transcriptase, the basal core promoter, and the precore/core were detected. HDV genotype 1 was identified in Buenos Aires. This study confirms the circulation of several HBV subgenotypes, as well as known and newly identified variants, and the presence of HDV1 in this population. A thorough investigation has to be carried out to evaluate the clinical importance of some of the documented mutations as well as those detected in the HDV1 case.

  16. Potentials of the circulating pruritogenic mediator lysophosphatidic acid in development of allergic skin inflammation in mice: role of blood cell-associated lysophospholipase D activity of autotaxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoshibumi; Morikawa, Yoshiyuki; Okudaira, Shinichi; Kimoto, Shigenobu; Tanaka, Tamotsu; Aoki, Junken; Tokumura, Akira

    2014-05-01

    Itching and infiltration of immune cells are important hallmarks of atopic dermatitis (AD). Although various studies have focused on peripheral mediator-mediated mechanisms, systemic mediator-mediated mechanisms are also important in the pathogenesis and development of AD. Herein, we found that intradermal injection of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), a bioactive phospholipid, induces scratching responses by Institute of Cancer Research mice through LPA1 receptor- and opioid μ receptor-mediating mechanisms, indicating its potential as a pruritogen. The circulating level of LPA in Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia mice, a systemic AD model, with severe scratching was found to be higher than that of control BALB/c mice, probably because of the increased lysophospholipase D activity of autotaxin (ATX) in the blood (mainly membrane associated) rather than in plasma (soluble). Heparan sulfate proteoglycan was shown to be involved in the association of ATX with blood cells. The sequestration of ATX protein on the blood cells by heparan sulfate proteoglycan may accelerate the transport of LPA to the local apical surface of vascular endothelium with LPA receptors, promoting the hyperpermeability of venules and the pathological uptake of immune cells, aggravating lesion progression and itching in Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia mice.

  17. Identification of six potential markers for the detection of circulating canine mammary tumour cells in the peripheral blood identified by microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, A; Lenze, D; Hummel, M; Kohn, B; Gruber, A D; Klopfleisch, R

    2012-01-01

    The presence of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood is a prognostic factor for survival of human breast cancer patients. CTCs in the peripheral blood of dogs with mammary tumours have not been reported definitively. The present pilot study identifies mRNA markers for CTCs by comparing the transcriptome of canine mammary carcinoma cell lines CMM26 and CMM115 and peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs). Genes with a 200-fold or higher mRNA expression in carcinoma cell lines were tested for specificity and sensitivity to detect CTCs using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Six mRNA markers, AGR2, ATP8B1, CRYAB, F3 IRX3 and SLC1A1 were expressed in cell lines, but not PBL. All PCRs were able to detect one carcinoma cell admixed in 10(6) or more PBLs. The six mRNA markers may be suitable for detection of canine mammary CTCs and allow the analysis of their spatiotemporal distribution in dogs with mammary tumours.

  18. Effect of the Principle of Activating Blood Circulation to Break Stasis on GMP-140 and D2 Dimer in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of the principle of activating blood circulation to break stasis (ABCBS) and its influence on platelet membranous protein particle (GMP-140) and D2 dimer (Ddimer) before and after treatment. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with blood stasis syndrome (BSS) of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) were randomly divided into two groups, both of which were treated with conventional treatment, i.e. with western medicine (WM), with Salvia injection added through intravenously dripping.One of the two groups was used as the control and the other group as the treated group who had ABCBS herbs orally taken in addition. The duration of treatment course for both groups was 3 weeks. Results: There were changes in both groups over clinical symptoms, nerve function deficit scoring and GMP-140, D-dimer, but the treated group showed significantly better than that of the control group, (P<0.05). Conclusion: ABCBS principle could serve as an important auxiliary treating method for BSS of ACI, as it can effectively alter the blood of ACI patients which was viscous, condense, coagulant and aggregating.

  19. William Harvey and blood circulation: his epistemological obstacles William Harvey: la circulación sanguínea y algunos de sus obstáculos epistemológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Escobar Gónima

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper emphasizes on the importance of William Harvey as a precursor of the experimental method in medicine. It describes some of the epistemological obstacles he had to face in the elaboration of his theory of blood circulation, contradicting the galenical theory on the subject that was accepted as a doctrine at his time. Este artículo señala la importancia de William Harvey como precursor del método experimental en medicina. Se mencionan algunos obstáculos teóricos que tuvo que afrontar para elaborar su teoría de la circulación sanguínea, contradiciendo la teoría galénica aceptada como doctrina en su tiempo.

  20. Illustration of the heart and blood vessels in medieval times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Majid; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane; Loukas, Marios; Alakbarli, Farid; Newman, Andrew J

    2010-08-06

    Throughout history, illustrations had played a key role in the promotion and evolution of medicine by providing a medium for transmission of scientific observations. Due to religious prohibitions, color drawings of the human body did not appear in medieval Persia and during the Islamic Golden Age. This tradition, however, has been overlooked with the publication of the first color atlas and text of human anatomy, Tashrihi Mansuri (Mansur's Anatomy), by Mansur ibn Ilyas in the fourteenth century AD. Written in Persian and containing several vivid illustrations of the human body, this book gained widespread attention by both scholars and lay persons. In this article, a brief history of Mansur's Anatomy and an English translation of selected sections from this book regarding the heart and blood vessels are presented.

  1. Storage time of transfused blood and disease recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of postoperative infectious complications may lead to poor prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative infectious complications may be related to the storage time...... of the transfused blood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between blood storage time and the development of disease recurrence and long-term survival after colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative data were prospectively recorded in 740 patients undergoing elective resection...... complications. CONCLUSION: Transfusion of buffy-coat-depleted red cells suspended in saline, adenine, glucose, and mannitol blood stored for cancer surgery....

  2. Storage time of transfused blood and disease recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    of the transfused blood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between blood storage time and the development of disease recurrence and long-term survival after colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative data were prospectively recorded in 740 patients undergoing elective resection...... complications. CONCLUSION: Transfusion of buffy-coat-depleted red cells suspended in saline, adenine, glucose, and mannitol blood stored for cancer surgery.......BACKGROUND: Perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of postoperative infectious complications may lead to poor prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative infectious complications may be related to the storage time...

  3. Association between circulating white blood cell count and long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Anoop; Mitchell, Paul; Rochtchina, Elena; Tan, Jennifer; Wang, Jie Jin

    2007-02-15

    Inflammatory processes are implicated in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, there are limited data on longitudinal associations between systemic markers of inflammation and AMD. The authors examined the prospective relation between the circulating white blood cell (WBC) count and early and late AMD in a population-based cohort of 3,654 participants, aged 49-97 years, in the Blue Mountains region, Australia. The main outcome of interest was the 10-year incidence of early and late AMD among individuals free from corresponding disease at the baseline (1992-1994). An elevated baseline WBC count was associated with early AMD incidence, independent of smoking and other major confounders. The multivariable relative risk comparing tertile 3 of WBC count (>6.7 x 10(9) cells/liter) with tertile 1 (circulating WBC count, a widely available marker of inflammation, and incidence of early AMD.

  4. Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh Andersen, Ida; Brasen, Claus L.; Christensen, Henry;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: According to current recommendations, blood samples should be taken in the morning after 15 minutes' resting time. Some components exhibit diurnal variation and in response to pressures to expand opening hours and reduce waiting time, the aims of this study were to investigate...... the impact of resting time prior to blood sampling and diurnal variation on biochemical components, including albumin, thyrotropin (TSH), total calcium and sodium in plasma. METHODS: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included in the period Nov 2011 until June 2014 (opening...... hours: 7am-3pm). Each patient's arrival time and time of blood sampling were registered. The impact of resting time and the time of day for all components was analysed using simple linear regression. The "maximum allowable bias" was used as quality indicator for the change in reference interval. RESULTS...

  5. Speech therapy changes blood circulation and oxygenation in the brain and muscle: a near-infrared spectrophotometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Martin; von Bonin, Dietrich; Wolf, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that artistic speech therapy (AST) has effects on heart rate variability. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether AST also affects hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in the brain and skeletal muscle measured by near infrared spectrophotometry(NIRS). The results show that ATS has effects on important physiological parameters, i.e., it leads to a decrease in cerebral blood flow during recitation and to brain activation thereafter.

  6. Bioengineering of Improved Biomaterials Coatings for Extracorporeal Circulation Requires Extended Observation of Blood-Biomaterial Interaction under Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Kris N. J.; Aldenhoff, Yvette B. J.; van der Veen, Frederik H; Maessen, Jos G.; Leo H. Koole

    2007-01-01

    Extended use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) systems is often hampered by thrombus formation and infection. Part of these problems relates to imperfect hemocompatibility of the CPB circuitry. The engineering of biomaterial surfaces with genuine long-term hemocompatibility is essentially virgin territory in biomaterials science. For example, most experiments with the well-known Chandler loop model, for evaluation of blood-biomaterial interactions under flow, have be...

  7. Nourishing Yin and Promoting Blood Circulation of TCM to Treat Hemorheologic Disorder Induced by Diabetes Mellitus in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Xia

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus, DM, is commonly accompanied with various stages of hemorheologic disturbances that are the main causes of the development of chronic DM. In this study, simple Chinese material medica [yang-yin jiang-tang preparation (YYJT] was given to alloxan-induced DM rats and analyzed to compare the changes of fasting blood glucose (FBG, fasting insulin (FINS, hemorheologic parameters and insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II before and after administration. The results suggested that YYJT can significantly downregulate FBG (P < 0.005, improve insulin resistance and beta-cell secretion (P < 0.05, decrease whole blood viscosity at low and high shear rates, gathering of blood index test (GIT and fibrinogen (FIB (P < 0.05, and enlarge the function of IGF-II (P < 0.05. We concluded that YYJT could prevent and treat hemorheologic disorder in DM rats by means of reducing glucose, improving insulin resistance and elevating IGF-II.

  8. The identification of blood circulation in the operation of free flap transplantation%游离皮瓣移植术中血液循环判断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾加祥; 田恒; 张乃臣; 刘宏君; 潘俊博; 董佳生

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of identifying blood circulation in the operation of free flap transplantation to a successful flap surgery. Methods Twenty - six patients who suffered from trauma and soft tissue loss in our hospital from Mar. 2007 to Dec. 2009 received free skin flap transplantation with latissimus dorsi muscle and thigh anterolatera flap. The correlation between flap flexibility, color, the color of the venous blood, and flap survival after surgery were observed. Results After surgery, it was found that the flap survival was good if the flap flexibility and the color of the flap had the same color with the donor area and the venous blood became mauve. Conclusion The identification of blood circulation in the operation of free flap transplantation is important to a successful flap surgery.%目的 探讨游离皮瓣移植术中血液循环判断对皮瓣手术成功的指导意义.方法 对2007年3月~2009年12月26例外伤后皮肤和软组织缺损的患者行游离背阔肌和股前外侧皮瓣移植,观察术中吻合血管后皮瓣的弹性、色泽,吻合处静脉血流的颜色和术后皮瓣的存活之间的关系.结果 游离皮瓣移植术中吻合血管后,如皮瓣的弹性正常、色泽逐渐转为原供区切取前色泽,静脉血流颜色转为(淡)紫红色,则皮瓣术后存活良好.结论 游离皮瓣移植术中静脉血流和皮瓣颜色等血液循环的判断对皮瓣存活有重要的参考的意义.

  9. Winter-time circulation and sediment transport in the Hudson Shelf Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C.K.; Butman, B.; Traykovski, P.

    2003-01-01

    observed here, and methods that account for the region's complex bathymetry, sediment distribution, and circulation. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of nasal blood by real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Koichi; Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Yoshino, Mineo

    2012-07-01

    A new approach for the identification of body fluid stains by comparing specific mRNA expression levels has been extensively studied in recent years. Here, we examine whether nasal blood, which is regarded as one of the most difficult types of blood to identify, can be identified by comparing mRNA expression levels of target genes specific to saliva, nasal secretion, and blood. The saliva-specific statherin gene (STATH) was found to be expressed at high levels in not only saliva (dCt value: 1.32±1.39, n=5), but also nasal secretions (dCt value: 0.90±1.14, n=5), while the histatin gene (HTN3) was only expressed at high levels in saliva (dCt value: 1.08±2.35, n=5). We also confirmed that the hemoglobin-beta gene (HBB) showed high expression levels in blood (dCt value: -9.51±0.40, n=5). Four nasal blood stains were found to highly express STATH (dCt value: 5.65±3.98) and HBB (dCt value: -8.79±1.67) but not HTN3, suggesting that the stain samples contained both nasal secretions and blood and can therefore be identified as nasal blood stains. Although menstrual blood showed the same expression pattern as nasal blood, the menstrual blood-specific protein matrix metallopeptidase 7 (MMP7) was not expressed in all nasal blood stain samples. Therefore, its expression levels could be used to discriminate between nasal and menstrual blood. In conclusion, real-time RT-PCR was able to identify nasal blood, although the stability of gene expression in nasal blood stains was low over time, suggesting that this assay may not be effective for older stains. Future work should examine the usefulness of this assay under various environmental conditions.

  11. Timing of adding blood to prime affects inflammatory response to neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Benjamin S; Jordan, James E; Lane, Magan R; DiPasquale, Vanessa M; Graf, Lori P; Ootaki, Yoshio; Ungerleider, Ross M

    2016-07-08

    Complications from systemic inflammation are reported in neonates following exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass. Although the use of asanguinous primes can reduce these complications, in neonates, this can result in significant haemodilution, requiring addition of blood. This study investigates whether the addition of blood after institution of bypass alters the inflammatory response compared with a blood prime. Neonatal swine were randomised into four groups: blood prime, blood after bypass but before cooling, blood after cooling but before low flow, and blood after re-warming. All groups were placed on central bypass, cooled, underwent low flow, and then re-warmed for a total bypass time of 2 hours. Although haematocrit values between groups varied throughout bypass, all groups ended with a similar value. Although they spent time with a lower haematocrit, asanguinous prime groups did not have elevated lactate levels at the end of bypass compared with blood prime. Asanguinous primes released less tumour necrosis factor α than blood primes (p=0.023). Asanguinous primes with blood added on bypass produced less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α (p=0.006, 0.019). Animals receiving blood while cool also showed less interleukin 10 and tumour necrosis factor α production than those that received blood warm (p=0.026, 0.033). Asanguinous primes exhibited less oedema than blood primes, with the least body weight gain noted in the end cool group (p=0.011). This study suggests that using an asanguinous prime for neonates being cooled to deep hypothermia is practical, and the later addition of blood reduces inflammation.

  12. Akonni TruTip(®) and Qiagen(®) methods for extraction of fetal circulating DNA--evaluation by real-time and digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Rebecca C; Gindlesperger, Alissa; Stokes, Tinsley; Lopez, David; Hyman, Lynn; Freed, Michelle; Belgrader, Phil; Harvey, Jeanne; Li, Zheng

    2013-01-01

    Due to the low percentage of fetal DNA present in maternal plasma (extraction processes are required for successful downstream detection applications in non-invasive prenatal diagnostic testing. In this study, two extraction methods using similar chemistries but different workflows were compared for isolation efficiency and percent fetal DNA recovery. The Akonni Biosystems TruTip technology uses a binding matrix embedded in a pipette tip; the Circulating Nucleic Acids Kit from Qiagen employs a spin column approach. The TruTip method adds an extra step to decrease the recovery of DNA fragments larger than 600 bp from the sample to yield an overall higher percentage of smaller molecular weight DNA, effectively enriching for fetal DNA. In this evaluation, three separate extraction comparison studies were performed--a dilution series of fragmented DNA in plasma, a set of clinical maternal samples, and a blood collection tube time point study of maternal samples. Both extraction methods were found to efficiently extract small fragment DNA from large volumes of plasma. In the amended samples, the TruTip extraction method was ~15% less efficient with overall DNA recovery, but yielded an 87% increase in % fetal DNA relative to the Qiagen method. The average percent increase of fetal DNA of TruTip extracted samples compared to the Qiagen method was 55% for all sets of blinded clinical samples. A study comparing extraction efficiencies from whole blood samples incubated up to 48 hours prior to processing into plasma resulted in more consistent % fetal DNA recoveries using TruTip. The extracted products were tested on two detection platforms, quantitative real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR, and yielded similar results for both extraction methods.

  13. Assessment of EGFR mutations in circulating tumor cell preparations from NSCLC patients by next generation sequencing: toward a real-time liquid biopsy for treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marchetti

    Full Text Available Assessment of EGFR mutation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients is mandatory for optimization of pharmacologic treatment. In this respect, mutation analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTCs may be desirable since they may provide real-time information on patient's disease status.Blood samples were collected from 37 patients enrolled in the TRIGGER study, a prospective phase II multi-center trial of erlotinib treatment in advanced NSCLC patients with activating EGFR mutations in tumor tissue. 10 CTC preparations from breast cancer patients without EGFR mutations in their primary tumors and 12 blood samples from healthy subjects were analyzed as negative controls. CTC preparations, obtained by the Veridex CellSearch System, were subjected to ultra-deep next generation sequencing (NGS on the Roche 454 GS junior platform.CTCs fulfilling all Veridex criteria were present in 41% of the patients examined, ranging in number between 1 and 29. In addition to validated CTCs, potential neoplastic elements were seen in 33 cases. These included cells not fulfilling all Veridex criteria (also known as "suspicious objects" found in 5 (13% of 37 cases, and isolated or clustered large naked nuclei with irregular shape observed in 33 (89% cases. EGFR mutations were identified by NGS in CTC preparations of 31 (84% patients, corresponding to those present in matching tumor tissue. Twenty-five (96% of 26 deletions at exon 19 and 6 (55% of 11 mutations at exon 21 were detectable (P = 0.005. In 4 (13% cases, multiple EGFR mutations, suggesting CTC heterogeneity, were documented. No mutations were found in control samples.We report for the first time that the CellSearch System coupled with NGS is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool for EGFR mutation analysis in CTC preparations with potential clinical impact.

  14. The effect of cromoglycate on time-dependent histamine and serotonin concentrations in stored blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konca, Kamuran; Tiftik, E Naci; Aslan, Gönül; Kanik, Arzu; Yalçin, Atilla

    2006-04-01

    Biogenic amines, having vascular and inflammatory effects, are accepted as a potential threat for some non-hemolytic transfusion reactions. The aim of this study was to investigate time-dependent histamine/serotonin levels in stored blood products and to see whether cromoglycate has any effect on these mediators. Either for platelet or whole blood, 10-fold concentrations of cromoglycate (1 microg ml(-1), 10 microg ml(-1), 100 microg ml(-1)) with controls prepared as pairs of replicate bags collected from two healthy subjects, separately. By using enzyme immunoassay, histamine and serotonin levels were determined in platelet or blood replicates. Histamine levels increased significantly with time but serotonin remained unchanged during the storage of platelet or blood specimens. Cromoglycate had no effect on these biogenic amines except an increase of serotonin in whole blood specimens containing 100 microg ml(-1) of it. So, cromoglycate cannot protect blood products against rising levels of histamine or serotonin.

  15. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10, at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10 and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10 for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0, there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (p<0.05, the pH value of refrigerated blood samples exhibited insignificant changes during the study (p<0.05. Mean values of pCO2 showed a significant increase in Group I and Group III after 1 h then a progressive decrease after 12 h in all Groups. Mean pO2 values were significantly higher for Group I after 2 h and for Groups II and III after 1 h (p<0.05. In general, base excess decreased significantly for all the groups during the study especially in Groups II and III. In comparison with baseline values, in all groups, bicarbonate (HCO3 increased between 1 h and 6 h (p<0.05, and later decreased at the end of the study (p<0.05. In conclusion, status of acid-base indices of the samples stored at refrigerator and RT were found within normal reference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  16. Bleeding Time, Volume of Shed Blood Collected at the Bleeding Time Site, and the Peripheral Venous Hematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    The bleeding time. Prog in Hemostasis and Thrombosis, NY, Grune-Stratton 2:249-271,1974. 2. The bleeding time. The Lancet 1991;337:1447-1448. 3...aggregation. The Lancet 1984;1409-1410. 29. The bleeding-time and the haematocrit. The Lancet May 4; 1984;997-998. 30. Turrito VT,Weiss HJ: Red blood

  17. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  18. Smartphone-based Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement Using Pulse Transit Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Meintjes, Andries; Baig, Mirza; Linden, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of low cost and easy to use personalized medical monitoring devices has opened the door for new and innovative methods of health monitoring to emerge. Cuff-less and continuous methods of measuring blood pressure are particularly attractive as blood pressure is one of the most important measurements of long term cardiovascular health. Current methods of noninvasive blood pressure measurement are based on inflation and deflation of a cuff with some effects on arteries where blood pressure is being measured. This inflation can also cause patient discomfort and alter the measurement results. In this work, a mobile application was developed to collate the PhotoPlethysmoGramm (PPG) waveform provided by a pulse oximeter and the electrocardiogram (ECG) for calculating the pulse transit time. This information is then indirectly related to the user's systolic blood pressure. The developed application successfully connects to the PPG and ECG monitoring devices using Bluetooth wireless connection and stores the data onto an online server. The pulse transit time is estimated in real time and the user's systolic blood pressure can be estimated after the system has been calibrated. The synchronization between the two devices was found to pose a challenge to this method of continuous blood pressure monitoring. However, the implemented continuous blood pressure monitoring system effectively serves as a proof of concept. This combined with the massive benefits that an accurate and robust continuous blood pressure monitoring system would provide indicates that it is certainly worthwhile to further develop this system.

  19. Circulating thrombopoietin levels in normal healthy blood donors and in aplastic anemia patients in relation to disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombopoietin (TPO is the key hematopoietic growth factor regulating the production of platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes and maintaining platelet hemostasis. This study was done to find any relationship between the levels of thrombopoietin and the severity of disease in patients with aplastic anemia. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of aplastic anemia and 45 normal healthy blood donors of both sexes over a period of 2 years, and TPO was estimated by using commercially available TPO-specific-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The median TPO level of 1190 pg/ml (range 625-7651 pg/ml in aplastic anemia patients was significantly higher than the median TPO level of 121.1 pg/ml (81.25-237.7 pg/ml in normal healthy blood donors (P = 0.000. No significant difference was observed in TPO levels of male and female patients (P = 0.453. The median TPO concentrations observed in very severe aplastic anemia, severe aplastic anemia, and nonsevere aplastic anemia were 2765 pg/ml (range 625-6451 pg/ml, 1190 pg/ml (range 672.1-7651 pg/ml, and 1111.5 pg/ml (range 761.1-2289.2 pg/ml, respectively. TPO in patients of very severe aplastic anemia was significantly higher than patients of nonsevere aplastic anemia (P = 0.043, with no significant relation among rest of the groups. Discussion: TPO levels in aplastic anemia patients were significantly higher than in healthy blood donors; however, in aplastic anemia patients TPO levels were significantly higher only in patients with very severe disease.

  20. Distal Pedicle Flap Blood Circulation Features and Clinical Signiifcance%远端蒂皮瓣的血液循环特征及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓光

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the distally based flap.Methods The clinical data of 30 cases of patients with distal pedicle flap, fresh limb specimen of forearm and leg, the characteristics and signiifcance of blood circulation in two aspects of the driven vein blood flow structure and hemodynamics.Results The distally based lfap blood supply is divided into four types: body is organized vascular network (cluster), muscle interstitial fascia, direct skin blood vessel, well-known blood vessel, there was no reverse flow, more fit with physiological.ConclusionIt is a prerequisite for the survival of the lfap to observe whether the venous relfux is smooth, Superifcial venous blood can be introduced into the lfap, from shallow to deep will increase the return load, increase the survival rate of skin lfap.%目的:探究远端蒂皮瓣的血液循环特征及临床意义。方法收集30例行远端蒂皮瓣术患者的临床资料,取前臂与小腿新鲜肢体标本,从动静脉血流构筑与血流动力学两方面探究血液循环特征与意义。结果将远端蒂皮瓣供血方式分为四种:体被组织血管网(丛)、肌间隙筋膜穿血管、直接皮肤血管、知名血管,均没有出现逆向血流,与生理性更贴合。结论观察静脉回流是否顺畅是决定皮瓣能否成活的前提,蒂部浅静脉能将远端静脉血导入皮瓣内,由浅到深将回流负荷加重,增加了皮瓣成活率。

  1. Circadian Forensics : Estimating blood trace deposition time using rhythmic biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Lech (Karolina)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractThe main objectives of criminal investigation are to determine the who, the how and the when of the crime. Who was the perpetrator that committed the criminal offense; how did the crime happen; and when or at what time did the crime happen. Currently, there are methods which allow th

  2. Blood splash in lambs-a preliminary study using the one-stage prothrombin time test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, D J

    1981-02-01

    Lambs from a flock in which a high incidence of blood splash had been detected were examined using the one-stage prothrombin test. For comparison lambs from a commercial slaughter line were also examined. All the affected lambs and 35·4% from the slaughter line had extended prothrombin times, and a relationship between extended prothrombin times and the occurrence of blood splash was established. Investigation of the pastures grazed by the affected flock showed the presence of coumarin producing plants and grasses. Some coumarin drugs prolong one-stage prothrombin times, and more importantly, induce capillary fragility, thus predisposing animals to blood splash.

  3. Contrast Circulation Time to Assess Right Ventricular Dysfunction in Pulmonary Embolism: A Retrospective Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platon, Alexandra; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Perrier, Arnaud; Bendjelid, Karim

    2016-01-01

    Objective To optimize enhancement of pulmonary arteries and facilitate diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE), modern computed tomography angiography (CTA) contains a contrast bolus tracking system. We explored the diagnostic accuracy of the time-intensity curves given by this automated system to identify right ventricular dysfunction (RVD) in acute PE. Methods 114 CTAs with a diagnosis of PE were reviewed. RVD was defined as right-to-left ventricular diameter ratio of 1 or greater. Four parameters on time-intensity curves were identified. Parameters between CTAs with and those without RVD were compared with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. The ability of the four parameters to discriminate patients with RVD was explored by compiling the area under the operating curves (AUC). Results The time needed by the contrast media to reach the pulmonary artery [8 seconds (IQR: 7–9) versus 7 seconds (IQR: 6–8), p<0.01], the time needed to reach 40 Hounsfield units (HU) [11 seconds (IQR: 8.5–14) versus 9.5 seconds (IQR: 8–10.5), p<0.01], and the contrast intensity reached after 10 seconds [19 HU (IQR: 4–67) versus 53 HU (IQR: 32–80), p<0.05] were all statistically different between CTA with and CTA without RVD. Those three parameters changed gradually across severity categories of RVD (p<0.05 for trend). Their AUC to identify RVD ranged from 0.63 to 0.66. The slope of contrast intensity over time was not informative: [31 HU/s (IQR: 20–57) in CTA with, compared to 36 HU/s (IQR: 22.5–53) in CTA without RVD, p = 0.60]. Conclusion Several parameters of the time-intensity curve obtained by the bolus tracking system are associated with RVD assessed on CTA images. Of those, the time needed to reach a predefined threshold seems to be the easiest to obtain in any CTA without additional processing time or contrast injection. However, the performance of those parameters is globally low. PMID:27551831

  4. Functional state of blood circulation and neuromuscular system of the lower limb of patients with congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia after consolidation of the nonunion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Александр Павлович Поздеев

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and functional state of the neuromuscular system and the blood supply to the lower limbs of children with congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT after consolidation. Material and Methods. A total of 100 patients with CPT were analyzed. We performed a clinical examination of patients, panoramic X-ray of the lower extremities, electroneuromyogram, and reovasography. Results and Conclusions. The primary complaints of patients with CPT after the consolidation of the non-union were lameness, deformations of lower extremities, and pain in the local joints. The electromyoneuromyogram data of the lower limbs of patients with CPT exhibited a decrease of the contractility of the muscles of the lower limbs, and neuropathy of the peroneal nerves of both lower limbs. The reovasography data of the lower limbs of patients with CPT displayed improvement in blood circulation in the lower extremities after the consolidation of the tibia. These data promote the current methods of treatment of patients with CPT; however, the temperature, degree of limb lengthening, and deformity correction should be considered in the future.

  5. Circulation and hydrological characteristics of the North Aegean Sea: a contribution from real-time buoy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. NITTIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the POSEIDON Project, a network of open sea oceanographic buoys equipped with meteorological and oceanographic sensors has been operational in the Aegean Sea since 1998. The analysis of upper-ocean physical data (currents at 3m, temperature and salinity at 3-40m depths collected during the last 2 years from the stations of the North Aegean basin indicates a strong temporal variability of flow field and hydrological characteristics in both synoptic and seasonal time scales. The northern part of the basin is mainly influenced by the Black Sea Water outflow and the mesoscale variability of the corresponding thermohaline fronts, while the southern stations are influenced by the general circulation of the Aegean Sea with strong modulations caused by the seasonally varying atmospheric forcing.

  6. Synthesis of star-branched PLA-b-PMPC copolymer micelles as long blood circulation vectors to enhance tumor-targeted delivery of hydrophobic drugs in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Li-xia [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhao, Jin, E-mail: zhaojin@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Li, Ke; He, Li-gang; Qian, Xiao-ming; Liu, Chao-yong; Wang, Li-mei; Yang, Xin-qi [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Sun, Jinjin [Department of General Surgery, The Second Hospital of Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300211 (China); Ren, Yu [Tianjin Research Center of Basic Medical Science, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Kang, Chun-sheng, E-mail: kang97061@yahoo.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Yuan, Xu-bo, E-mail: xbyuan@tju.edu.cn [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, School of Materials Science & Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-09-01

    Star-branched amphiphilic copolymer nanocarriers with high-density zwitterionic shell show great promise in drug delivery due to their controllable small size and excellent anti-biofouling properties. This gives the hydrophobic cargo with high stability and long blood circulation in vivo. In the present study, star-branched polylactic acid and poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) copolymers with (AB{sub 3}){sub 3}–type architecture (PLA-b-PMPC{sub 3}){sub 3} were conceived as drug vectors, and the copolymers were synthesized by an “arm-first” approach via the combination of ring opening polymerization (ROP), atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and the click reaction. The self-assembled star-branched copolymer micelles (sCPM) had an average diameter of about 64.5 nm and exhibited an ultra-hydrophilic surface with an ultralow water contact angle of about 12.7°, which efficiently suppressed the adhesion of serum proteins. In vivo experiments showed that the sCPM loading strongly enhanced the blood circulation time of DiI and the plasma half-life of DiI in sCPM was 19.3 h. The relative accumulation concentration in tumor of DiI delivered by sCPM was 2.37-fold higher than that of PLA-PEG, at 4 h after intravenous injection. These results demonstrated that the star-branched copolymer (PLA-b-PMPC{sub 3}){sub 3} is a promising alternative carrier material for intravenous delivery versus classic PEG-modified strategies. - Highlights: • Star-branched amphiphilic copolymer micelles (sCPM) with zwitterionic shells were prepared. • sCPM possess an ultra-hydrophilic surface and thus inhibited the protein absorption. • sCPM can effectively prolong the cargo’s plasma circulation time. • sCPM can enhance the cargo’s passive tumor-targeted delivery.

  7. [Influence of mydocalm on the degree of intra-abdominal hypertension and local blood circulation in the intestinal wall in experiment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapegin, V I; Sapegin, I D; Il'chenko, F N

    2014-01-01

    The effect of mydocalm (tolperison, 5 mg/kg single dose) on the dynamics of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH), blood circulation regulation, and oxygen balance in the tissues of intestinal wall were studied in acute experiments on rabbits. Using a special stand of original design, the initial IAH level was modeled at 200 mm H2O with the subsequent stopping of further receipt of liquid during 3 hours in an elastic container in the abdominal cavity. During 3-h observation without drug administration, no changes in IAH due to the tone of muscles of the frontal abdominal wall takes place, but there is progressive deceleration of local blood flow (-35.33 + 0.99%, p < 0.01), suppressed dilation (-20.02 + 0.54%, p < 0.01) and constriction (-60.45 + 1.17%, p < 0.01) reactivity of vessels, and decreased oxygen tension (-47.18 + 0.75%, p < 0.01) in the intestinal wall at the end of experiment. The introduction of mydocalm reduces the tone of muscles of the frontal abdominal wall, which leads to a decrease in IAH (maximum effect after 1.5 hours, -20.81 + 0.84%, p < 0.01) and prevents decrease in the local blood flow (-26.77 + 0.41%, p < 0.01), suppression of dilation (-16.51 + 0.34%, p < 0.01) and constriction (-37.85 + 0.61%, p < 0.01) reactivity of vessels, and reduction in oxygen tension (-36.60 + 1.18%, p < 0.01) at the end of experiment. The administration of mydocalm can extend the limits of application of a conservative therapy for patients with IAH and to improve the results.

  8. Loss of bone marrow adrenergic beta 1 and 2 receptors modifies transcriptional networks, reduces circulating inflammatory factors, and regulates blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmari, Niousha; Schmidt, Jordan T; Krane, Gregory A; Malphurs, Wendi; Cunningham, Bruce E; Owen, Jennifer L; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Zubcevic, Jasenka

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a prevalent condition with complex etiology and pathophysiology. Evidence exists of significant communication between the nervous system and the immune system (IS), and there appears to be a direct role for inflammatory bone marrow (BM) cells in the pathophysiology of hypertension. However, the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying this interaction have not been characterized. Here, we transplanted whole BM cells from the beta 1 and 2 adrenergic receptor (AdrB1(tm1Bkk)AdrB2(tm1Bkk)/J) knockout (KO) mice into near lethally irradiated C57BL/6J mice to generate a BM AdrB1.B2 KO chimera. This allowed us to evaluate the role of the BM beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors in mediating BM IS homeostasis and regulating blood pressure (BP) in an otherwise intact physiological setting. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting demonstrated that a decrease in systolic and mean BP in the AdrB1.B2 KO chimera is associated with a decrease in circulating inflammatory T cells, macrophage/monocytes, and neutrophils. Transcriptomics in the BM identified 7,419 differentially expressed transcripts between the C57 and AdrB1.B2 KO chimera. Pathway analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts related to several cell processes in the BM of C57 compared with AdrB1.B2 KO chimera, including processes related to immunity (e.g., T-cell activation, T-cell recruitment, cytokine production, leukocyte migration and function), the cardiovascular system (e.g., blood vessel development, peripheral nerve blood flow), and the brain (e.g., central nervous system development, neurite development) among others. This study generates new insight into the molecular events that underlie the interaction between the sympathetic drive and IS in modulation of BP.

  9. Nano-structured hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers: from properties, methemoglobin suppression to long circulation in blood%血红蛋白基纳米氧载体:结构特点、高铁含量控制及血循环中持久存在

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁媛; 章晓兰; 刘昌胜

    2011-01-01

    Due to the continuously insufficient supply and the disadvantages associated with the donated blood, artificial blood substitute has received extensive attentions throughout the world in recent years.Nano-structured hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (NHOCs), in particular the liposome-encapsulated hemoglobin (LEH) and hemoglobin-based polymeric nanoparticles (HbPNPs), which combine the nanotechnology with the traditional cellular oxygen carriers, have shown great potential applications in blood transfusion, thrombus and cancer therapy as well.The present article firstly reports on the current status of the synthesis, properties, clinical trial and application of the LEH and HbPNPs.And then, attentions are devoted to highlight the main challenges and the proposed strategies of the NHOCs with the respect of suppression of the methemoglobin formation and prolonging the blood circulation time.These results make us confident in advancing further development of NHOCs, with the expectation of their eventual commercialization.

  10. Evolution of Photonic Time Stretch: From Analog to Digital Conversion to Blood Screening

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Bahram; Fard, Ali; Kim, Sang Hyup

    2011-01-01

    We show how the ability to slow down, amplify, and capture fast transient events can produce high-throughput real-time instruments ranging from digitizers to imaging flow cytometers for detection of rare diseased cells in blood.

  11. Near-infrared indocyanine dye permits real-time characterization of both venous and lymphatic circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurahashi, Toshikazu; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Onishi, Tetsuro; Arai, Tetsuya; Teranishi, Katsunori; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the optical properties of a near-infrared (NIR) fluorochrome, di-β-cyclodextrin-binding indocyanine derivative (TK-1), and its pharmacokinetic differences with indocyanine green (ICG). TK-1 was designed to have hydrophilic cyclodextrin molecules and, thus, for higher water solubility and smaller particle sizes than the plasma protein-bound ICG. We compared optical properties such as the absorption and fluorescence spectra, quantum yield, and photostability between both dyes in vitro. In addition, we subcutaneously injected a 1 mM solution of TK-1 or ICG into the hind footpad of rats and observed real-time NIR fluorescence intensities in their femoral veins and accompanying lymphatics at the exposed groin site to analyze the dye pharmacokinetics. These optical experiments demonstrated that TK-1 has high water solubility, a low self-aggregation tendency, and high optical and chemical stabilities. Our in vivo imaging showed that TK-1 was transported via peripheral venous flow and lymphatic flow, whereas ICG was drained only through lymphatics. The results of this study showed that lymphatic and venous transport can be differentially regulated and is most likely influenced primarily by particle size, and that TK-1 can enable real-time NIR fluorescence imaging of whole fluids and solute movement via both microvessels and lymphatics, which conventional ICG cannot achieve.

  12. Changes in Deep Ocean Circulation During Times of High Climate Variability from Nd Isotopes in South Atlantic Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, A. M.; Goldstein, S. L.; Hemming, S. R.; Zylberberg, D. R.

    2003-12-01

    The transition between marine isotope stages (MIS) 5a and 4 appears in the stacked benthic foraminferal d18O SPECMAP record as a gradual increase in ice volume. In contrast, the transition occurs in the Greenland ice core d18O records with two well-developed interstadial events (I19 and I20), which are the first Dansgaard-Oescheger events of the last ice age. The MIS 5b/5a transition appears as a much more rapid warming in both the Greenland ice and benthic d18O records. Recent work (Lehmann et al. 2002, Chapman et al. 1999) indicates that climate variability in MIS 5 as indicated in the Greenland ice record was closely interconnected with iceberg discharges, surface temperature changes, and deep ocean circulation in the North Atlantic. In order to determine the response of deep ocean circulation to climate changes from late in MIS 5 to full glacial MIS 4, we have measured Nd isotope ratios from the Fe-Mn portion of core TNO57-21 from the Cape Basin in the South Atlantic. Nd isotopes, unlike nutrient water mass proxies, are not affected by biological fractionation, and reflect the strength of the North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) signal in the seawater above the core site. Results from cores TNO57-21 and RC11-83 (also from the Cape Basin) indicate that the NADW export to the Southern Ocean has varied on time scales reflecting glacial-interglacial cycles through MIS 4 (Rutberg et al. 2000) and during interstadial events through MIS 3 (Piotrowski et al., Fall AGU), and was stronger and weaker during warmer and colder Northern Hemisphere climate intervals, respectively. The extension of the Nd isotope record to MIS 5a and 5b indicates an increased NADW signal during MIS 5, therefore the long-term pattern of strong and weak NADW export during warm and cold periods persists beyond the last ice age. The Nd isotope pattern during MIS 4 through 5b generally corresponds to the benthic foraminferal d13C record from Cape Basin cores (Ninnemann et al. 1999), indicating that the

  13. Ultra High-Resolution In vivo Computed Tomography Imaging of Mouse Cerebrovasculature Using a Long Circulating Blood Pool Contrast Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starosolski, Zbigniew; Villamizar, Carlos A; Rendon, David; Paldino, Michael J; Milewicz, Dianna M; Ghaghada, Ketan B; Annapragada, Ananth V

    2015-05-18

    Abnormalities in the cerebrovascular system play a central role in many neurologic diseases. The on-going expansion of rodent models of human cerebrovascular diseases and the need to use these models to understand disease progression and treatment has amplified the need for reproducible non-invasive imaging methods for high-resolution visualization of the complete cerebral vasculature. In this study, we present methods for in vivo high-resolution (19 μm isotropic) computed tomography imaging of complete mouse brain vasculature. This technique enabled 3D visualization of large cerebrovascular networks, including the Circle of Willis. Blood vessels as small as 40 μm were clearly delineated. ACTA2 mutations in humans cause cerebrovascular defects, including abnormally straightened arteries and a moyamoya-like arteriopathy characterized by bilateral narrowing of the internal carotid artery and stenosis of many large arteries. In vivo imaging studies performed in a mouse model of Acta2 mutations demonstrated the utility of this method for studying vascular morphometric changes that are practically impossible to identify using current histological methods. Specifically, the technique demonstrated changes in the width of the Circle of Willis, straightening of cerebral arteries and arterial stenoses. We believe the use of imaging methods described here will contribute substantially to the study of rodent cerebrovasculature.

  14. The Use of a New CellCollector to Isolate Circulating Tumor Cells from the Blood of Patients with Different Stages of Prostate Cancer and Clinical Outcomes - A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Gerit; Fischer, Kersten; Weber, Ekkehard; Medek, Rita; Hoda, Raschid; Lücke, Klaus; Fornara, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Methods Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) constitute a useful approach for personalized medicine. Nevertheless, the isolation of these cells remains very challenging because they rarely circulate in the blood. Another current problem is the cancer-specific characterization of these cells, which requires a method that allows for the molecular and immunocytochemical profiling of all captured cells. The purpose of our proof of concept study was to investigate the use of a medical wire (CellCollector, GILUPI) to isolate CTCs in the blood of prostate cancer (PCa) patients, which allowed CTCs to be counted and molecularly characterized. Forty-three PCa patients in different stages and 11 control subjects were studied. Some randomized samples were used to detect tumor-associated transcripts, such as prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), in the isolated CTCs. Results The mean CTC counts were 4.6 CTCs [range, 0–8] in patients with localized PCa, 16.8 CTCs [range, 10–25] in patients with locally advanced PCa, and 26.8 CTCs [range, 0–98] in patients with metastatic PCa. The median follow-up time was 24 months, and there was a significant difference in the cancer-specific survival rates. Patients with CTC counts under 5 CTCs lived significantly longer (p = 0.035) than patients with more than 5 CTCs. We also demonstrated that the captured CTCs could be molecularly characterized. We detected tumor-associated transcripts of EGFR and PSMA in patients with metastatic PCa in 42.8% and 14.3% of the analyzed samples, respectively. Conclusion Our results indicate that the sensitive isolation and molecular characterization of CTCs can be achieved ex vivo using the wire. Patients with more than 5 CTCs had a mortality risk that was 7.0 times greater that of those with fewer than 5 CTCs (hazard ratio 7.0 95%, CI 1.1–29.39). This proof of concept was required for the approval of the use of

  15. Using peripheral blood circulating DNAs to detect CpG global methylation status and genetic mutations in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iriyama, Chisako [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Tomita, Akihiro, E-mail: atomita@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Hoshino, Hideaki; Adachi-Shirahata, Mizuho [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Furukawa-Hibi, Yoko; Yamada, Kiyofumi [Department of Neuropsychopharmacology and Hospital Pharmacy, Nagoya University School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Circulating DNAs (CDs) can be used to detect genetic/epigenetic abnormalities in MDS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epigenetic changes can be detected more sensitively when using plasma DNA than PBMNC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mutation ratio in CDs may reflect the ratio in stem cell population in bone marrow. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using CDs can be a safer alternate strategy compared to bone marrow aspiration. -- Abstract: Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a hematopoietic stem cell disorder. Several genetic/epigenetic abnormalities are deeply associated with the pathogenesis of MDS. Although bone marrow (BM) aspiration is a common strategy to obtain MDS cells for evaluating their genetic/epigenetic abnormalities, BM aspiration is difficult to perform repeatedly to obtain serial samples because of pain and safety concerns. Here, we report that circulating cell-free DNAs from plasma and serum of patients with MDS can be used to detect genetic/epigenetic abnormalities. The plasma DNA concentration was found to be relatively high in patients with higher blast cell counts in BM, and accumulation of DNA fragments from mono-/di-nucleosomes was confirmed. Using serial peripheral blood (PB) samples from patients treated with hypomethylating agents, global methylation analysis using bisulfite pyrosequencing was performed at the specific CpG sites of the LINE-1 promoter. The results confirmed a decrease of the methylation percentage after treatment with azacitidine (days 3-9) using DNAs from plasma, serum, and PB mono-nuclear cells (PBMNC). Plasma DNA tends to show more rapid change at days 3 and 6 compared with serum DNA and PBMNC. Furthermore, the TET2 gene mutation in DNAs from plasma, serum, and BM cells was quantitated by pyrosequencing analysis. The existence ratio of mutated genes in plasma and serum DNA showed almost equivalent level with that in the CD34+/38- stem cell population in BM. These data suggest that genetic

  16. Cell-free fetal DNA and intact fetal cells in maternal blood circulation: implications for first and second trimester non-invasive prenatal diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Farideh Z; Sinacori, Mina K; Dang, Dianne D; Marquez-Do, Deborah; Horne, Cassandra; Lewis, Dorothy E; Simpson, Joe Leigh

    2002-01-01

    Both intact fetal cells as well as cell-free fetal DNA are present in the maternal circulation and can be recovered for non-invasive prenatal genetic diagnosis. Although methods for enrichment and isolation of rare intact fetal cells have been challenging, diagnosis of fetal chromosomal aneuploidy including trisomy 21 in first- and second-trimester pregnancies has been achieved with a 50-75% detection rate. Similarly, cell-free fetal DNA can be reliably recovered from maternal plasma and assessed by quantitative PCR to detect fetal trisomy 21 and paternally derived single gene mutations. Real-time PCR assays are robust in detecting low-level fetal DNA concentrations, with sensitivity of approximately 95-100% and specificity near 100%. Comparing intact fetal cell versus cell-free fetal DNA methods for non-invasive prenatal screening for fetal chromosomal aneuploidy reveals that the latter is at least four times more sensitive. These preliminary results do not support a relationship between frequency of intact fetal cells and concentration of cell-free fetal DNA. The above results imply that the concentration of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may not be dependent on circulating intact fetal cells but rather be a product of growth and cellular turnover during embryonic or fetal development.

  17. Proximal pulmonary arterial obstruction decreases the time constant of the pulmonary circulation and increases right ventricular afterload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagnamenta, Alberto; Vanderpool, Rebecca; Brimioulle, Serge; Naeije, Robert

    2013-06-01

    The time constant of the pulmonary circulation, or product of pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and compliance (Ca), called the RC-time, has been reported to remain constant over a wide range of pressures, etiologies of pulmonary hypertension, and treatments. We wondered if increased wave reflection on proximal pulmonary vascular obstruction, like in operable chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, might also decrease the RC-time and thereby increase pulse pressure and right ventricular afterload. Pulmonary hypertension of variable severity was induced either by proximal obstruction (pulmonary arterial ensnarement) or distal obstruction (microembolism) eight anesthetized dogs. Pulmonary arterial pressures (Ppa) were measured with high-fidelity micromanometer-tipped catheters, and pulmonary flow with transonic technology. Pulmonary ensnarement increased mean Ppa, PVR, and characteristic impedance, decreased Ca and the RC-time (from 0.46 ± 0.07 to 0.30 ± 0.03 s), and increased the oscillatory component of hydraulic load (Wosc/Wtot) from 25 ± 2 to 29 ± 2%. Pulmonary microembolism increased mean Ppa and PVR, with no significant change in Ca and characteristic impedance, increased RC-time from 0.53 ± 0.09 to 0.74 ± 0.05 s, and decreased Wosc/Wtot from 26 ± 2 to 13 ± 2%. Pulse pressure increased more after pulmonary ensnarement than after microembolism. Concomitant measurements with fluid-filled catheters showed the same functional differences between the two types of pulmonary hypertension, with, however, an underestimation of Wosc. We conclude that pulmonary hypertension caused by proximal vs. distal obstruction is associated with a decreased RC-time and increased pulsatile component of right ventricular hydraulic load.

  18. Disseminated tumor cells in bone marrow and circulating tumor cells in blood of breast cancer patients: current state of detection and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethdorf, Sabine; Pantel, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Despite the progress resulting from early detection and improved adjuvant therapy, the prognosis of breast cancer patients is still limited by the occurrence of distant metastases largely due to clinically occult micrometastases that remain undetected at primary diagnosis even by high-resolution imaging approaches. Recent research efforts have concentrated on the identification of additional parameters allowing individual risk assessment and stratification of patients for targeted therapies, since traditional prognostic factors are not sufficient to predict metastatic relapse and treatment decisions are still mainly based on statistical risk parameters. Highly sensitive and specific immunocytochemical and molecular assays now enable the detection and characterization of disseminated and circulating tumor cells (DTCs and CTCs, respectively) at the single cell level in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood, providing insights into the first crucial steps of the metastatic cascade. However, because of the still high variability of results in DTC/CTC detection, the necessity of standardized approaches will be discussed. A large number of studies showed that the presence of DTCs in BM has prognostic impact for primary breast cancer patients. DTCs are likely to escape from chemotherapy by maintaining a dormant nonproliferating state. There is also evidence for a stem cell-like phenotype of DTCs, probably contributing to the opportunity to escape from dormancy control and to start expansion to manifest metastases. Blood would also be an ideal source for the detection and monitoring of CTCs because of an easy noninvasive sampling procedure enabling repeated analyses. While prognostic significance of CTCs could be reliably demonstrated for metastatic breast cancer, studies to analyze the impact of CTCs in primary breast cancer patients and the potential to replace or supplement BM analysis are still ongoing. Furthermore, molecular characterization of CTCs might contribute

  19. [Analysis of the timing parameters of blood flow in the carotid basin arteries of hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, E S

    2011-01-01

    Vascular duplex ultrasound study with simultaneous ECG recording was performed to estimate the timing parameters of blood flow in the common carotid, internal carotid, and middle cerebral arteries in patients with grades 1 and 2 arterial hypertension. There was an increase in the blood flow acceleration phase index in the common carotid and middle cerebral arteries and a reduction in the systolic phase index in the internal carotid arteries. There were correlations of phasic blood flow parameters in the extra- and intracranial arteries with age and lipidogram readings.

  20. Circulating brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and frequency of BDNF positive T cells in peripheral blood in human ischemic stroke: Effect on outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Adeline; Yan, Jun; Csurhes, Peter; Greer, Judith; McCombe, Pamela

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of circulating BDNF and the frequency of BDNF-producing T cells after acute ischaemic stroke. Serum BDNF levels were measured by ELISA. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate peripheral blood leukocytes that were labelled with antibodies against markers of T cells, T regulatory cells (Tregs), and intracellular BDNF. There was a slight increase in serum BDNF levels after stroke. There was no overall difference between stroke patients and controls in the frequency of CD4(+) and CD8(+) BDNF(+) cells, although a subgroup of stroke patients showed high frequencies of these cells. However, there was an increase in the percentage of BDNF(+) Treg cells in the CD4(+) population in stroke patients compared to controls. Patients with high percentages of CD4(+) BDNF(+) Treg cells had a better outcome at 6months than those with lower levels. These groups did not differ in age, gender or initial stroke severity. Enhancement of BDNF production after stroke could be a useful means of improving neuroprotection and recovery after stroke.

  1. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation - description of a novel in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehnert, Sabrina; Freude, Thomas; Ihle, Christoph; Mayer, Larissa; Braun, Bianca; Graeser, Jessica; Flesch, Ingo; Stöckle, Ulrich; Nussler, Andreas K; Pscherer, Stefan

    2015-03-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts׳ maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients׳ sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients׳ serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients׳ blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β.

  2. ABO Blood Group Genotyping by Real-time PCR in Kazakh Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Tarlykov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ABO blood group genotyping is a new technology in hematology that helps prevent adverse transfusion reactions in patients. Identification of antigens on the surface of red blood cells is based on serology; however, genotyping employs a different strategy and is aimed directly at genes that determine the surface proteins. ABO blood group genotyping by real-time PCR has several crucial advantages over other PCR-based techniques, such as high rapidity and reliability of analysis. The purpose of this study was to examine nucleotide substitutions differences by blood types using a PCR-based method on Kazakh blood donors.Methods. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Center for Biotechnology. Venous blood samples from 369 healthy Kazakh blood donors, whose blood types had been determined by serological methods, were collected after obtaining informed consent. The phenotypes of the samples included blood group A (n = 99, B (n = 93, O (n = 132, and AB (n = 45. Genomic DNA was extracted using a salting-out method. PCR products of ABO gene were sequenced on an ABI 3730xl DNA analyzer (Applied Biosystems. The resulting nucleotide sequences were compared and aligned against reference sequence NM_020469.2. Real-time PCR analysis was performed on CFX96 Touch™ Real-Time PCR Detection System (BioRad.Results. Direct sequencing of ABO gene in 369 samples revealed that the vast majority of nucleotide substitutions that change the ABO phenotype were limited to exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene at positions 261, 467, 657, 796, 803, 930 and 1,060. However, genotyping of only three of them (261, 796 and 803 resulted in identification of major ABO genotypes in the Kazakh population. As a result, TaqMan probe based real-time PCR assay for the specific detection of genotypes 261, 796 and 803 was developed. The assay did not take into account several other mutations that may affect the determination of blood group, because they have a

  3. Comparison of circulation times of thermal waters discharging from the Idaho batholith based on geothermometer temperatures, helium concentrations, and 14C measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, R.H.; Evans, William C.; Young, H.W.

    2006-01-01

    Circulation times of waters in geothermal systems are poorly known. In this study, we examine the thermal waters of the Idaho batholith to verify whether maximum system temperatures, helium concentrations, and 14C values are related to water age in these low-to-moderate temperature geothermal systems. He/N2 values of gas collected from thermal waters that circulate solely through distinct units of the Idaho batholith correlate linearly with Na-K-(4/3)Ca geothermometer temperatures, showing that both variables are excellent indicators of relative water age. Thermal waters that circulate in early Tertiary (45-50 Ma) granite of the Sawtooth batholith have 3.5 times more helium than thermal waters of the same aquifer temperature that circulate through the main Cretaceous granite (average 91 Ma). Hot spring waters circulating in hydrothermally altered parts of the batholith have very little dissolved helium and no correlation between He/N2 values and geothermometer temperatures. Thermal waters discharging from the Idaho batholith are more depleted in deuterium than modern precipitation in the area. Recharge to these geothermal systems occurred from at least 10,000 BP for the cooler systems up to about 33,000 BP for the hotter systems.

  4. Comparison of Real-time PCR method and blood culture in diagnosis of septicemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Gholami

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bloodstream infections (BSI have a high incidence and high mortality in the worldwide. The mortality rate is variable between 20-70%. Therefore, early and timely detection of BSI agent in clinical laboratories is necessary. The aim of this study was to determine an efficient diagnostic tool to septicemia in accompany of blood culture method by Real-time PCR (using panbacterial 23S rRNA gene. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two analytical and clinical stages in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, from October 2014 to June 2015. In analytical stage, sensitivity (by serial dilution from 104 to 1 CFU/ml and specificity of the primer were evaluated with the Staphylococcus aureus (as Gram positive indicator bacteria and Escherichia coli (as Gram-negative indicator bacteria, human genome (from Hella cell culture, Candida albicans yeast and Aspergillus fumigatus fungus. In clinical stage, 121 blood samples were collected from patients suspected to sepsis in intensive care unit (ICU from Hamadan University Hospitals. Finally, the results of Real-time PCR and blood culture methods were compared. Results: The Real-time PCR showed a sensitivity ranging from 2 to 10 target copies per reaction to the whole blood for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. The specificity of this method was evaluated and no false positive amplification was identified. 57.85% (70 cases of the samples were positive by Real-time PCR and 13.22% (16 cases of the samples were positive by blood culture. However, none of the cases that were positive by blood culture were negative in Real-time PCR. As well as, 44.62% (54 cases of cases were positive by Real-time PCR but blood culture showed no bacteria in the samples, and 42.15% (51 cases were negative by both methods. Correlation or agreement of Kappa was 0.20, that indicating poor agreement between the two methods. Conclusion: Real-time PCR is more sensitive than blood

  5. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Fetal Circulation Updated:Oct 18,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  6. Multiscale analysis of heart rate, blood pressure and respiration time series

    CERN Document Server

    Angelini, L; Marinazzo, D; Nitti, L; Pellicoro, M; Pinna, G D; Stramaglia, S; Tupputi, S A

    2005-01-01

    We present the multiscale entropy analysis of short term physiological time series of simultaneously acquired samples of heart rate, blood pressure and lung volume, from healthy subjects and from subjects with Chronic Heart Failure. Evaluating the complexity of signals at the multiple time scales inherent in physiologic dynamics, we find that healthy subjects show more complex time series at large time scales; on the other hand, at fast time scales, which are more influenced by respiration, the pathologic dynamics of blood pressure is the most random. These results robustly separate healthy and pathologic groups. We also propose a multiscale approach to evaluate interactions between time series, by performing a multivariate autoregressive modelling of the coarse grained time series: this analysis provides several new quantitative indicators which are statistically correlated with the pathology.

  7. Quantification of peripheral and central blood pressure variability using a time-frequency method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchaki, Z; Butlin, M; Qasem, A; Avolio, A P; Kouchaki, Z; Butlin, M; Qasem, A; Avolio, A P; Kouchaki, Z; Avolio, A P; Butlin, M; Qasem, A

    2016-08-01

    Systolic blood pressure variability (BPV) is associated with cardiovascular events. As the beat-to-beat variation of blood pressure is due to interaction of several cardiovascular control systems operating with different response times, assessment of BPV by spectral analysis using the continuous measurement of arterial pressure in the finger is used to differentiate the contribution of these systems in regulating blood pressure. However, as baroreceptors are centrally located, this study considered applying a continuous aortic pressure signal estimated noninvasively from finger pressure for assessment of systolic BPV by a time-frequency method using Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT). The average ratio of low frequency and high frequency power band (LFPB/HFPB) was computed by time-frequency decomposition of peripheral systolic pressure (pSBP) and derived central aortic systolic blood pressure (cSBP) in 30 healthy subjects (25-62 years) as a marker of balance between cardiovascular control systems contributing in low and high frequency blood pressure variability. The results showed that the BPV assessed from finger pressure (pBPV) overestimated the BPV values compared to that assessed from central aortic pressure (cBPV) for identical cardiac cycles (P<;0.001), with the overestimation being greater at higher power.

  8. Revisiting the circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: molecular detection methods to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage and the effect of gametocytocidal drugs.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousema, T.; Okell, L.; Shekalaghe, S.; Griffin, J.T.; Omar, S.; Sawa, P.; Sutherland, C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Ghani, A.C.; Drakeley, C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is renewed acknowledgement that targeting gametocytes is essential for malaria control and elimination efforts. Simple mathematical models were fitted to data from clinical trials in order to determine the mean gametocyte circulation time and duration of gametocyte carriage in trea

  9. Storage time of transfused blood and disease recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    of buffy-coat-depleted red cells suspended in saline, adenine, glucose, and mannitol blood for 21 days was used as cut-off point. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 6.8 years (range, 5.4 years to 7.9 years), and median overall survival was 4.6 years for 288 nontransfused patients and 3.0 years for 452...... complications. CONCLUSION: Transfusion of buffy-coat-depleted red cells suspended in saline, adenine, glucose, and mannitol blood stored for ... of the transfused blood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between blood storage time and the development of disease recurrence and long-term survival after colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative data were prospectively recorded in 740 patients undergoing elective resection...

  10. SU-E-T-45: Antibody Mean Residence Time in Blood and Its Correlation with Protein Molecular Weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, C; Williams, L [Retired from City of Hope Medical Center, Arcadia, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Animal biodistribution data are required prior to introducing a new radiopharmaceutical into clinical trials. Protein engineering, using recombinant DNA techniques can produce a large number of related (cognate) antibodies to a given molecular target. Thus, it is important that these constructs be numerically related to one another via a single criterion. In the following, we use the mean residence time (MRT) in murine blood as this criterion. Methods: Five cognate anti-CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) antibodies were compared with regard to their MRT in whole blood of CEA-positive tumor-bearing (LS174T) mice. MRT was defined by blood AUC (area under the curve) divided by the initial blood uptake value; all in units of percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g). Cognates included single chain scFv (25 kDa), diabody (50 kDa), minibody (80 kDa), F(ab')2 (120 kDa), and intact (155 kDa) forms of the murine cT84.66 antibody against CEA. All were labeled with radioactive iodine. Results: The agents, in the sequence listed, exhibited MRT values of 1.16 +/- 0.01 h, 0.99 h, 5.06 +/- 0.70 h, 6.61 +/- 0.36 h, and 59.3 +/- 2.4 h respectively. Because of the monotonic nature of the sequence, a linear correlation analysis was performed between molecular weight (MW) and MRT or ln(MRT) of the 5 proteins. Probability of random correlation was 0.10 for MRT and 0.01 for ln(MRT). Conclusion: MRT values of cognate anti-CEA antibodies were found to be a monotonically increasing sequence with respect to MW. Cognate MW values correlated best to ln(MRT) of the protein species. Thus MRT was proportional to an exponential function of molecular weight. The extended intact antibody circulation time presumably reflected its relatively maximal MW. Presence of an intact FC segment on this native antibody may also have influenced these results.

  11. Time to positivity in blood cultures of adults with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansorena Luis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background previous studies have established that bacterial blood concentration is related with clinical outcome. Time to positivity of blood cultures (TTP has relationship with bacterial blood concentration and could be related with prognosis. As there is scarce information about the usefulness of TTP, we study the relationship of TTP with clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. Methods TTP of all cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, detected between January 1995 and December 2004 using the BacT/Alert automated blood culture system in a teaching community hospital was analyzed. When multiple cultures were positive only the shortest TTP was selected for the analysis. Results in the study period 105 patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia were detected. Median TTP was 14.1 hours (range 1.2 h to 127 h. Immunosuppressed patients (n = 5, patients with confusion (n = 19, severe sepsis or shock at the time of blood culture extraction (n = 12, those with a diagnosis of meningitis (n = 7 and those admitted to the ICU (n = 14 had lower TTP. Patients with TTP in the first quartile were more frequently hospitalized, admitted to the ICU, had meningitis, a non-pneumonic origin of the bacteremia, and a higher number of positive blood cultures than patients with TTP in the fourth quartile. None of the patients with TTP in the 90th decile had any of these factors associated with shorter TTP, and eight out of ten patients with TTP in the 10th decile had at least one of these factors. The number of positive blood cultures had an inverse correlation with TTP, suggesting a relationship of TTP with bacterial blood concentration. Conclusion Our data support the relationship of TTP with several clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, and its potential usefulness as a surrogate marker of outcome.

  12. Complex blood flow quantification using real-time in vivo vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Per, Haugaard;

    A new method to define and quantify complex blood flow is presented. The standard deviations of real-time in vivo vector flow angle estimates are used. Using vector flow ultrasound imaging both carotid bifurcations of two healthy volunteers were scanned. Scanning was performed with a 7.6 MHz linear...... patterns can be visualised and quantified with real-time in vivo vector flow. Good agreement between visual evaluation and the quantitative method has been shown. A standard deviation of vector angle estimates above 30 is proposed to define complex blood flow....

  13. Two analytical solutions for a model of pulsed arterial spin labeling with randomized blood arrival times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrabe, J.; Lewis, D. P.

    2004-03-01

    A fairly general theoretical model for pulsed arterial spin labeling perfusion methods has been available for some time but analytical solutions were derived for only a small number of arterial blood input functions. These mostly assumed a sudden and simultaneous arrival of the tagged blood into the imaged region. More general cases had to be handled numerically. We present analytical solutions for two more realistic arterial input functions. They both allow the arrival times of the molecules of tagged arterial blood to be statistically distributed. We consider cases of (1) a uniform distribution on a finite time interval and (2) a normal distribution characterized by its mean and standard deviation. These models are physiologically meaningful because the statistical nature of the arrival times reflects the distribution of velocities and path lengths that the blood water molecules undertake from the tagging region to the imaged region. The model parameters can be estimated from the measured dependency of the perfusion signal on the tag inversion time.

  14. Blood serum metabolites and meat quality in crossbred pigs experiencing different lairage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Juric

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pigs of two crosses: A (Duroc x Swedish Landrace x Pietrain (n=24 and B (Swedish Landrace x Large White x Pietrain (n=26 were used to investigate the effects of different lairage time (2 and 24 hours on levels of stress and meat quality traits. No direct effect of lairage time on cortisol, lactate, electrolytes and meat quality parameters was observed. However, after long lairage time, pigs showed lower level of glucose and higher CK, AST and ALT activity. Crossbred B pigs exposed to short lairage time, showed higher blood lactate, sodium, and potassium level, higher drip loss and lower pHi, whereas there were no significant differences between the crossbreeds in the long lairage group. The results indicate that long lairage time decreases blood glucose level and produces signs of muscle damage. In the short lairage period, the crossbreed B showed a higher response to pre-slaughter handling affecting the meat quality.

  15. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis...... and in 12 controls. The lung function including diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL, CO) was determined by conventional single breath technique. RESULTS: In the patients, PTT was shorter, 3.9+/-1.2 vs 5.7+/-1.0 s in the controls, P

  16. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG;

    2006-01-01

    not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis......BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... and in 12 controls. The lung function including diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL, CO) was determined by conventional single breath technique. RESULTS: In the patients, PTT was shorter, 3.9+/-1.2 vs 5.7+/-1.0 s in the controls, P

  17. Does the extracorporeal circulation worsen anemia in hemodialysis patients? Investigation with advanced microscopes of red blood cells drawn at the beginning and end of dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamopoulos D

    2013-10-01

    phosphorus, but not, however, with that of creatinine.Conclusion: Extracorporeal circulation is not detrimental to the structural integrity of RBC membranes. Uremic milieu is a candidate cause of RBC membrane deterioration, which possibly worsens anemia.Keywords: hemodialysis, anemia, red blood cells, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy

  18. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation – Description of a novel in vitro model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehnert, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.ehnert@gmail.com [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Freude, Thomas, E-mail: tfreude@bgu-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Ihle, Christoph, E-mail: cihle@bgu-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Mayer, Larissa, E-mail: lara.nk@gmail.com [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Braun, Bianca, E-mail: bianca.braun@med.uni-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Graeser, Jessica, E-mail: jessica.graeser@student.reutlingen-university.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Flesch, Ingo, E-mail: iflesch@bgu-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); and others

    2015-03-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts' maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients' sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients' serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients' blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β. - Highlights: • We present here a physiologically relevant in vitro model for diabetic osteopathy. • Blood of T2DM patients contains factors that affect osteoblasts' function. • The model developed here can be used to identify these factors, e.g. TGF-β. • Blocking TGF-β signaling partly rescues the osteoblasts' function in the T2DM group. • The model is useful to demonstrate the role of single factors in diabetic osteopathy.

  19. Thought Analysis of Tonifying the Kidney and Promoting Blood Circulation to Improvement Endometrial Receptivity%补肾活血法改善子宫内膜容受性探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何东杰; 许丽绵; 冯倩怡

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the theoretical basis of tonifying the kidney and promoting blood circulation to improve the endometrial receptivity, providing a theoretical basis for the clinical application. Methods: Through the improvement of endometrial receptivity of tonifying kidney, activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis on the basis of the literature, the modern research basis, the analysis of application of the principles and cases of the set, invigorating the kidney and activating the blood therapy is effective to improve the endometrial receptivity. Conclusion: The method of tonifying kidney and activating blood can effectively improve the endometrial receptivity-Reference citation;He Dongjie,Xu Limian, Feng Qianyi. Thought Analysis of Tonifying the Kidney and Promoting Blood Circulation to Improvement Endometrial Receptivity[J]. China Journal of Chinese Medicine,2013 ,28(5) :715 -716.%目的:探讨补肾活血法改善子宫内膜容受性的理论依据.方法:通过对补肾法、活血化瘀法改善子宫内膜容受性的文献依据、现代研究基础、临证应用原则及案例分析等方面的阐述,证明补肾活血法是行之有效的改善内膜容受性的治疗方法.结果:补肾为改善子宫内膜容受性之根本大法,活血化瘀是改善子宫内膜容受性之重要治法.结论:补肾活血法能有效改善子宫内膜容受性.

  20. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zolfagharian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bee venom (BV is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Methods: Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50, and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD values of BV were determined. Results: Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa, respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. Conclusion: BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  1. The circulation of Ghlin flint during the time of the Blicquy - Villeneuve-Saint-Germain culture (Early Neolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solène Denis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the North of France and Belgium, the Blicquy - Villeneuve-Saint-Germain culture marks the end of the Early Neolithic Period (beginning of the 5th millennium. The Blicquy group is constituted of eleven sites located in Belgium, with two main centers of occupation: one Western in Hainaut and one Eastern in Hesbaye, 100 km away from the first. As part of a PhD, the lithic industry of these sites is studied in order to reconstruct the circulation networks through a techno-economic analysis. It has been complex to identify the raw materials, given the lack of information about the siliceous outcrops in the Mons Basin. However, two main circulation networks have been highlighted: one of Ghlin flint and one of tertiary Bartonian flint. These two types of flint are indeed easily recognizable by their macroscopic characteristics. The outcrops of tertiary Bartonian flints originate from the Paris Basin, where systematic surveys have been conducted since the late 1980s. The circulation of tertiary Bartonian flint is now well-known and emblematic of the Blicquy - Villeneuve-Saint-Germain culture. Therefore, this paper will focus on the circulation of Ghlin flint in the Blicquy-Villeneuve-Saint-Germain culture. The Ghlin flint shows on the surface in the Mons Basin, about twenty kilometers away from the Hainaut sites. Heavily exploited in the latter, it was exported to the Hesbaye sites in a significant way, despite the availability of siliceous resources available in Hesbaye. Moreover, some artifacts circulated towards the Paris Basin. The study of the circulation of Ghlin flint can therefore help to determine the socio-economic organization of these populations by specifying the linkages between the population centers of Hainaut, Hesbaye and Paris Basin.

  2. Barriers to Timely and Safe Blood Transfusion for PPH Patients: Evidence from a Qualitative Study in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhter, Sadika; Anwar, Iqbal; Akter, Rashida; Kumkum, Feroza Akhter; Nisha, Monjura Khatun; Ashraf, Fatema; Islam, Ferdousi; Begum, Nazneen; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Austin, Anne; Islam, Syed Shariful; Rahman, Aminur

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives In Bangladesh, postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality accounting for 31% of all blood transfusions in the country. Although safe blood transfusion is one of the 8 signal functions of Comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care (CEmOC) strategy, most of the designated public sector CEmOC facilities do not have on-site blood storage system. Emergent blood is mainly available from external blood banks. As a result, emergent patients are to rely on an unregulated network of brokers for blood which may raise question about blood safety. This study explored lived experiences of patients’ attendants, managers, providers, and blood brokers before and after the implementation of an on-line Blood Information and Management Application (BIMA) in regards to barriers and facilitators of blood transfusion for emergent patients. Methods Data were collected at Dhaka Medical College Hospital (DMCH), a tertiary-level teaching hospital before (January 2014) and after (March 2015) the introduction of an online BIMA system. Data collection methods included 24 key informant interviews (KIIs) and 40 in-depth interviews (IDIs). KIIs were conducted with formal health service providers, health managers and unlicensed blood brokers. IDIs were conducted with the relatives and husbands of women who suffered PPH, and needed emergency blood. Results Patients’ attendants were unaware of patients’ blood type and availability of blood in emergency situation. Newly introduced online BIMA system could facilitate blood transfusion process for poor patients at lower cost and during any time of day and night. However, service providers and service recipients were heavily dependent on a network of unlicensed blood brokers for required blood for emergent PPH patients. Blood collected through unlicensed blood brokers is un-screened, unregulated and probably unsafe. Blood brokers feel that they are providing a needed service, acknowledged a

  3. Detection of malaria infection in blood transfusion: a comparative study among real-time PCR, rapid diagnostic test and microscopy: sensitivity of Malaria detection methods in blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Gholamreza; Mohebali, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Abolghasemi, Hassan; Zeraati, Hojjat; Alipour, Mohsen; Azizi, Ebrahim; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2011-06-01

    The transmission of malaria by blood transfusion was one of the first transfusion-transmitted infections recorded in the world. Transfusion-transmitted malaria may lead to serious problems because infection with Plasmodium falciparum may cause rapidly fatal death. This study aimed to compare real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) with rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and light microscopy for the detection of Plasmodium spp. in blood transfusion, both in endemic and non-endemic areas of malaria disease in Iran. Two sets of 50 blood samples were randomly collected. One set was taken from blood samples donated in blood bank of Bandar Abbas, a city located in a malarious-endemic area, and the other set from Tehran, a non-endemic one. Light microscopic examination on both thin and thick smears, RDTs, and real-time PCR were performed on the blood samples and the results were compared. Thin and thick light microscopic examinations of all samples as well as RDT results were negative for Plasmodium spp. Two blood samples from endemic area were positive only with real-time PCR. It seems that real-time PCR as a highly sensitive method can be helpful for the confirmation of malaria infection in different units of blood transfusion organization especially in malaria-endemic areas where the majority of donors may be potentially infected with malaria parasites.

  4. Influence of a constant magnetic field on thrombocytes. [delay of blood coagulation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyerova, Y. A.

    1974-01-01

    In an experiment on white mice it was found that a constant electromagnetic field with strength of 250-275 oersteds is biologically active at an exposure of 55 minutes. Qualitative and morphological changes in thrombocytes 1-3 days following exposure reduced their numbers, prolonged blood coagulation time and increased the number of leucocytes.

  5. Quantification of complex blood flow using real-time in vivo vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per;

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative method for distinguishing complex from non-complex flow patterns in ultrasound is presented. A new commercial BK Medical ultrasound scanner uses the Transverse Oscillation vector flow technique for visualising flow patterns in real-time. In vivo vector flow data of the blood flow...

  6. 益气活血汤对癌症患者生存质量的影响%The impact of decoction for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation on quality of life of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智芬; 施智严; 刘祥珍

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of decoction for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation on quality of life of cancer patients.Method 64 patients were randomly divided into study group (n=35)and control group(n=29),study group received decoction for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation and control group received strong white cells enhancing tablets.Result Total effective rate for study group and control group was 82.8% and 65.5% ,respectively.For study group,quality of life was improved by 45.7% ,survival rate for 1 year was 88.6% ,median survical period was 16.5 months.For control group, quality of life was improved by 31% ,survival rate for 1 year was 58.6% ,median survival period was 9.6 months.Conclusion Decoction for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation markedly improve immune function,lighten adverse and toxicological reactions,and hence improveing patients quality of life.

  7. Phospholipid-dependent clotting time is able to identify cancer patients with high levels of circulating microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doormaal, F.F.; Kleinjan, A.; Buller, H.R.; Kamphuisen, P.; Berckmans, R.J.; Nieuwland, R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Circulating procoagulant microparticles (MP) have been associated with a prothrombotic state in many diseases, including cancer. MP can enhance thrombin formation by exposing tissue factor (TF), the initiator of coagulation in vivo. Whether procoagulant TF is really exposed on circulat

  8. The Diabetes Assistant: A Smartphone-Based System for Real-Time Control of Blood Glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Keith-Hynes; Benton Mize; Antoine Robert; Jérôme Place

    2014-01-01

    Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas are destroyed and insulin must be injected daily to enable the body to metabolize glucose. Standard therapy for T1DM involves self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) several times daily with a blood glucose meter and injecting insulin via a syringe, pen or insulin pump. An “Artificial Pancreas” (AP) is a closed-loop control system that uses a continuous glucose monitor (CGM), a...

  9. Timing and Location of Blood Product Transfusion and Outcomes in Massively Transfused Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    blood components in a 1:1:1 ratio of platelets:fresh frozen plasma:red blood cells (RBCs) is based on analyses of massive transfusion (MT, Q10 RBC units in 24 hours). These 24-hour analyses are weakened by survival bias and do not describe the timing and location of transfusions. Mortality outcomes associated with early (first 6 hours) resuscitation incorporating platelets, for combat casualties requiring MT, have not been reported. METHODS: We analyzed records for 8,618 casualties treated at the United States military hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, between January 2004 and

  10. Time related variations in stem cell harvesting of umbilical cord blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Miscio, Giuseppe; Fontana, Andrea; Copetti, Massimiliano; Francavilla, Massimo; Bosi, Alberto; Perfetto, Federico; Valoriani, Alice; de Cata, Angelo; Santodirocco, Michele; Totaro, Angela; Rubino, Rosa; di Mauro, Lazzaro; Tarquini, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent mesenchymal cells useful for treatment in malignant/nonmalignant hematologic-immunologic diseases and regenerative medicine. Transplantation outcome is correlated with cord blood volume (CBV), number of total nucleated cells (TNC), CD34+ progenitor cells and colony forming units in UCB donations. Several studies have addressed the role of maternal/neonatal factors associated with the hematopoietic reconstruction potential of UCB, including: gestational age, maternal parity, newborn sex and birth weight, placental weight, labor duration and mode of delivery. Few data exist regarding as to how time influences UCB collection and banking patterns. We retrospectively analyzed 17.936 cord blood donations collected from 1999 to 2011 from Tuscany and Apulia Cord Blood Banks. Results from generalized multivariable linear mixed models showed that CBV, TNC and CD34+ cell were associated with known obstetric and neonatal parameters and showed rhythmic patterns in different time domains and frequency ranges. The present findings confirm that volume, total nucleated cells and stem cells of the UCB donations are hallmarked by rhythmic patterns in different time domains and frequency ranges and suggest that temporal rhythms in addition to known obstetric and neonatal parameters influence CBV, TNC and CD34+ cell content in UBC units.

  11. Time related variations in stem cell harvesting of umbilical cord blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Miscio, Giuseppe; Fontana, Andrea; Copetti, Massimiliano; Francavilla, Massimo; Bosi, Alberto; Perfetto, Federico; Valoriani, Alice; De Cata, Angelo; Santodirocco, Michele; Totaro, Angela; Rubino, Rosa; di Mauro, Lazzaro; Tarquini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent mesenchymal cells useful for treatment in malignant/nonmalignant hematologic-immunologic diseases and regenerative medicine. Transplantation outcome is correlated with cord blood volume (CBV), number of total nucleated cells (TNC), CD34+ progenitor cells and colony forming units in UCB donations. Several studies have addressed the role of maternal/neonatal factors associated with the hematopoietic reconstruction potential of UCB, including: gestational age, maternal parity, newborn sex and birth weight, placental weight, labor duration and mode of delivery. Few data exist regarding as to how time influences UCB collection and banking patterns. We retrospectively analyzed 17.936 cord blood donations collected from 1999 to 2011 from Tuscany and Apulia Cord Blood Banks. Results from generalized multivariable linear mixed models showed that CBV, TNC and CD34+ cell were associated with known obstetric and neonatal parameters and showed rhythmic patterns in different time domains and frequency ranges. The present findings confirm that volume, total nucleated cells and stem cells of the UCB donations are hallmarked by rhythmic patterns in different time domains and frequency ranges and suggest that temporal rhythms in addition to known obstetric and neonatal parameters influence CBV, TNC and CD34+ cell content in UBC units. PMID:26906327

  12. The Value of Conservative Treatment of Ectopic Pregnancy by “Promoting Blood Circulation to Dissipate Blood Stasis Method”%论“活血化瘀止血法”保守治疗异位妊娠的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡道敏

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is one common acute abdominal pain of the obstetrics and gynecology .With advanced science and technology , the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is obviously improved , and provides a time and opportunity for the conservative treatment .Many clinical studies report Chinese medicine alone or with Western medicine in the conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy has a unique curative effect, and side effect is small .This paper aimed to preliminarily discuss the clinical value of “promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis” conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy .%异位妊娠( ectopic pregnancy )是妇产科常见的急腹症之一。随着科学技术的发达,异位妊娠的早期诊断率显著提高,为保守治疗提供了时间和机会。临床上有多篇研究报道中药单独或联合西药保守治疗异位妊娠具有独特疗效,不良作用小。现初步探讨“活血化瘀止血法”保守治疗异位妊娠的临床价值。

  13. Influence of postmortem time on the outcome of blood cultures among cadaveric tissue donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegeman, V; Verhaegen, J; Lismont, D; Verduyckt, B; De Rijdt, T; Ectors, N

    2009-02-01

    Tissue banks provide tissues of human cadaver donors for transplantation. The maximal time limit for tissue retrieval has been set at 24 h postmortem. This study aimed at evaluating the evidence for this limit from a microbiological point of view. The delay of growth in postmortem blood cultures, the identification of the species isolated and clinical/environmental factors were investigated among 100 potential tissue donors. No significant difference was found in the rate of donors with grown blood cultures within (25/65=38%) compared with after (24/65=37%) 24 h of death. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and gastro-intestinal microorganisms were isolated within and after 24 h of death. Two factors--antimicrobial therapy and "delay before body cooling"--were significantly inversely related with donors' blood culture results. From a microbiological point of view, there is no evidence for avoiding tissue retrieval among donors after 24 h of death.

  14. Umbilical cord blood graft enhancement strategies: has the time come to move these into the clinic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norkin, M; Lazarus, H M; Wingard, J R

    2013-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an attractive stem cell graft option for patients who need allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell support, but lack a suitable HLA-matched donor. However, the limited number of hematopoietic progenitor cells in a single cord blood unit can lead to an increased risk of graft failure, delayed hematological recovery and prolonged immunosuppression, particularly in adult patients. Several strategies to overcome these potential limitations are being evaluated. In this review, we discuss promising ex vivo manipulations to enhance cord blood engraftment capacity such as culture of UCB cells with stimulatory cytokines and growth factors, mesenchymal cells, Notch ligand, copper chelators, prostaglandins, complement components, nicotinamide and CD26/DPPIV inhibitors. All these approaches are now in early clinical trials. However, despite the fact that several cord blood enhancement strategies have resulted in increased numbers of progenitor cells and faster neutrophil recovery, the ability of these techniques to significantly shorten engraftment time and permit the use of cord units with low numbers of total nucleated cells, or accomplish reliable engraftment with a single cord, have yet to be convincingly demonstrated. The ultimate clinical value of ex vivo cord blood expansion or manipulation has not been defined yet, and the current data do not permit predicting which technology will prove to be the optimal strategy. Nevertheless, expectations remain high that eventually ex vivo enhancement will be able to improve clinical outcomes and significantly extend the applicability of UCB transplantation.

  15. Timing of neuraxial pain interventions following blood patch for post dural puncture headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaparin, Naum; Gritsenko, Karina; Shapiro, David; Kosharskyy, Boleslav; Kaye, Alan D; Smith, Howard S

    2014-01-01

    Post dural puncture headache (PDPH) is a common complication of interventional neuraxial procedures. Larger needle gauge, younger patients, low body mass index, women (especially pregnant women), and "traumatic" needle types are all associated with a higher incidence of PDPH. Currently, an epidural blood patch is the gold-standard treatment for this complication. However, despite the high PDPH cure rate through the use of this therapy, little is known about the physiology behind the success of the epidural blood patch, specifically, the time course of patch formation within the epidural space or how long it takes for the blood patch volume to be resorbed by the body. Of the many unanswered and debated topics related to PDPH and epidural blood patches, one additional specific question that may alter clinical management is when it is safe for patients who have experienced a disruption of the thecal space and have undergone this procedure to have a subsequent epidural or spinal procedure, such as a neuraxial anesthetic (i.e. a spinal anesthetic for an elective outpatient procedure) or an interventional pain procedure for chronic pain management. This question becomes more unclear if the new procedure includes a steroid medication. As an example, an older patient presents with a history of lumbar disc disease and during lumbar epidural steroid injection, an inadvertent wet tap occurs leading to PDPH. Following management with fluids, caffeine, medications, and a successful epidural blood patch, it remains unclear as to when would be the best time frame to consider a second lumbar epidural steroid injection. We identified the 3 main risk factors of subsequent interventional neuraxial procedures as (1) disruption of the epidural blood patch and ongoing reparative processes, (2) epidural procedure failure, and (3) infection. We looked at the literature, and summarized the existing literature in order to enable health care professionals to understand the time course of

  16. How do the full-generation poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers activate blood platelets? Activation of circulating platelets and formation of "fibrinogen aggregates" in the presence of polycations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watala, Cezary; Karolczak, Kamil; Kassassir, Hassan; Talar, Marcin; Przygodzki, Tomasz; Maczynska, Katarzyna; Labieniec-Watala, Magdalena

    2016-04-30

    Direct use of poly(amido)amine (PAMAM) dendrimers as drugs may be limited, due to uncertain (cyto)toxicity. Peripheral blood components, which constitute the first line of a contact with administered pharmaceuticals, may become vastly affected by PAMAM dendrimers. The aim of this study was to explore how PAMAMs' polycationicity might affect blood platelet activation and reactivity, and thus trigger various haemostatic events. We monitored blood platelet reactivity in rats with experimental diabetes upon a long-term administration of the unmodified PAMAM dendrimers. In parallel, the effects on blood flow in a systemic circulation was recorded intravitally in mice administered with PAMAM G2, G3 or G4. Compounding was the in vitro approach to monitor the impact of PAMAM dendrimers on blood platelet activation and reactivity and on selected haemostatic and protein conformation parameters. We demonstrated the activating effects of polycations on blood platelets. Some diversity of the revealed outcomes considerably depended on the used approach and the particular technique employed to monitor blood platelet function. We discovered undesirable impact of plain PAMAM dendrimers on primary haemostasis and their prothrombotic influence. We emphasize the need of a more profound verifying of all the promising findings collected for PAMAMs with the use of well-designed in vivo preclinical studies.

  17. Time-resolved X-ray PIV measurements of hemodynamic information of real pulsatile blood flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hanwook; Yeom, Eunseop; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    X-ray imaging technique has been used to visualize various bio-fluid flow phenomena as a nondestructive manner. To obtain hemodynamic information related with circulatory vascular diseases, a time-resolved X-ray PIV technique with high temporal resolution was developed. In this study, to embody actual pulsatile blood flows in a circular conduit without changes in hemorheological properties, a bypass loop is established by connecting a microtube between the jugular vein and femoral artery of a rat. Biocompatible CO2 microbubbles are used as tracer particles. After mixing with whole blood, CO2 microbubbles are injected into the bypass loop. Particle images of the pulsatile blood flows in the bypass loop are consecutively captured by the time-resolved X-ray PIV system. The velocity field information are obtained with varying flow rate and pulsataility. To verify the feasibility of the use of CO2 microbubbles under in vivo conditions, the effects of the surrounding-tissues are also investigated, because these effects are crucial for deteriorating the image contrast of CO2 microbubbles. Therefore, the velocity information of blood flows in the abdominal aorta are obtained to demonstrate the visibility and usefulness of CO2 microbubbles under ex vivo conditions. This work was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (MSIP) (No. 2008-0061991).

  18. Nearshore circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battjes, J.A.; Sobey, R.J.; Stive, M.J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Shelf circulation is driven primarily by wind- and tide-induced forces. It is laterally only weakly constrained so that the geostrophic (Coriolis) acceleration is manifest in the response. Nearshore circulation on the other hand is dominated by wave-induced forces associated with shallow-water. wave

  19. Historical time trends in red blood cell usage in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Hoeven LR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Loan R van Hoeven,1,2 Maria MW Koopman,3 Hendrik Koffijberg,4 Kit CB Roes,1 Mart P Janssen1,2 1Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 2Transfusion Technology Assessment Department, Sanquin Research, 3Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, 4Department of Health Technology and Services Research, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands Background: While the number of hospitalized patients in Dutch hospitals has increased since 1997, the demand for red blood cell units (RBCs has simultaneously decreased. This implies a dramatic change in transfusion practice toward fewer blood transfusions on average per patient.Objectives: In order to explain the RBC reduction, different patient groups (surgical, medical, obstetrical, and specific age groups were studied retrospectively in relation to RBC use. In addition, the use of combinations of RBCs, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets during a transfusion episode was examined for trends over time.Materials and methods: Data from the PROTON database, containing information on all transfusions in twelve Dutch hospitals in the period 1996–2005, including corresponding patient data (age, diagnosis, treatment, and hospitalizations and blood unit data (type, amount, and date were analyzed.Results: The proportion of RBCs used for surgical patients declined from 50% in 1996 to 40% in 2005, whereas medical use increased from 47% to 58% (the remaining 2%–3% went to obstetrical patients. Changes were more marked in the higher age groups. Also, a trend was observed toward the use of only one or two RBCs during a transfusion episode rather than three or more. Among surgical patients who received blood, the use of combinations of blood units, as compared to RBCs only, increased from 32% to 39%.Conclusion: The results suggest a more restrictive transfusion policy

  20. Extracting Biological Meaning From Global Proteomic Data on Circulating-Blood Platelets: Effects of Diabetes and Storage Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John H.; Suleiman, Atef; Daly, Don S.; Springer, David L.; Spinelli, Sherry L.; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P.

    2008-11-25

    Transfusion of platelets into patients suffering from trauma and a variety of disease is a common medical practice that involves millions of units per year. Partial activation of platelets can result in the release of bioactive proteins and lipid mediators that increase the risk of adverse post-transfusion effects. Type-2 diabetes and storage are two factors known to cause partial activation of platelets. A global proteomic study was undertaken to investigate these effects. In this paper we discuss the methods used to interpret these data in terms of biological processes affected by diabetes and storage. The main emphasis is on the processing of proteomic data for gene ontology enrichment analysis by techniques originally designed for microarray data.

  1. 益气清热活血法辨治慢性萎缩性胃炎初探%Preliminary Discussion on Therapy of Benefiting Qi and Clearing Heat for Promoting Blood Circulation in Treating Chronic Atrophic Gastritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张征波

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore mechanism and clinical experience on therapy of benefiting qi and clearing heat for promoting blood circulation in treating chronic atrophic gastritis .Methods Through the study of literature and clinical practice , the pathological factors of CAG include exogenous, diet, emotion and fatigue.The key pathogenesis is insufficiency of the spleen , blood stasis caused by deficiency , then deficiency , heat and blood stasis were coexisted .The therapy of benefiting qi and clearing heat for promoting blood circulation is used .Result The therapy of benefiting qi and clearing heat for promoting blood circulation in treating chronic atrophic gastritis has obtained better therapeutic effect .Conclusion The therapy of benefiting qi and clearing heat for promoting blood circulation can effectively reduce the risk of the disease to the development of gastric cancer , and provide new ideas for the clinical treatment of CAG and the prevention of gastric cancer .%目的:探索健脾益气清热活血通络法(以下简称益气清热活血法)治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎的机理及临床经验。方法通过研读文献及临床实践,总结慢性萎缩性胃炎的病理因素多是外感、饮食、情志、劳倦,病机关键以脾虚为本,瘀热为标,因虚致瘀,虚、热、瘀并存。以此为理论指导,采用益气清热活血法治疗本病。结果临床采用益气清热活血法治疗本病取得良好疗效。结论益气清热活血法可有效降低本病向胃癌发展的风险。为临床治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎及预防胃癌的发生提供新思路。

  2. Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    1997-01-01

    pattern was observed. Mathematical analysis of the data indicated a peak at 0152 h and a periodicity index of 117.5. A periodicity equation was developed describing the average relation between mf intensity and hour of the day for the study area. Based on the observed periodicity pattern, the effect...... of blood sampling before peak time is discussed, and the importance of taking sampling time into consideration when analysing data from epidemiological studies is emphasized. A simple method is devised which can be used to adjust for the influence of time on mf intensities, in studies where accurate...

  3. Cervical cancer detection by time-resolved spectra of blood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, Rudran; Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Ramamurthy, P.; Palled, Siddanna R.; Ganesh, K. M.

    2014-05-01

    Fluorescence spectral techniques are very sensitive, and hence they are gaining importance in cancer detection. The biomarkers indicative of cancer could be identified and quantified by spectral or time domain fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of an investigation of time-resolved spectra of cellular components of blood obtained from cervical cancer patients and normal controls are given. The cancer indicative biomarker in this paper is porphyrin; it has a fluorescence decay time of 60% more in samples of cancer patients than those of normal controls. Based on such measurements, a randomized set comprising samples from cancer patients and controls (N=27 in total) could be classified with sensitivity (92%) and specificity (86%).

  4. In Vivo Monitoring of Multiple Circulating Cell Populations Using Two-photon Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkaczyk, Eric R; Zhong, Cheng Frank; Ye, Jing Yong; Myc, Andrzej; Thomas, Thommey; Cao, Zhengyi; Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Luker, Kathryn E; Luker, Gary D; Norris, Theodore B; Baker, James R

    2008-02-15

    To detect and quantify multiple distinct populations of cells circulating simultaneously in the blood of living animals, we developed a novel optical system for two-channel, two-photon flow cytometry in vivo. We used this system to investigate the circulation dynamics in live animals of breast cancer cells with low (MCF-7) and high (MDA-MB-435) metastatic potential, showing for the first time that two different populations of circulating cells can be quantified simultaneously in the vasculature of a single live mouse. We also non-invasively monitored a population of labeled, circulating red blood cells for more than two weeks, demonstrating that this technique can also quantify the dynamics of abundant cells in the vascular system for prolonged periods of time. These data are the first in vivo application of multichannel flow cytometry utilizing two-photon excitation, which will greatly enhance our capability to study circulating cells in cancer and other disease processes.

  5. Circulating vascular endothelial growth factor during the normal menstrual cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusumanto, YH; Hospers, GAP; Sluiter, WJ; Dam, WA; Meijer, C; Mulder, NH

    2004-01-01

    Background: The purpose of the study was to investigate whether cycle-related variations in circulating Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) levels would increase the metastatic potential at specific times during the menstrual cycle. Materials and Methods: VEGF levels in serum and whole blood w

  6. 活血化瘀法治疗急性脑血管病的效果评价%Effect and Evaluation in Treatment Acute Cerebro Vascular Disease of Blood Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨活血化瘀法治疗急性脑血管病的临床疗效。方法选取我院接收的54例急性脑血管病患者作为本次的研究对象,所有患者均采用活血化瘀法进行治疗,并对其临床资料进行回顾性分析,对活血化瘀法在急性脑血管病中的应用效果进行评价分析。结果本组54例患者采用活血化瘀法治疗后痊愈28例,显效12例,有效10例,无效4例,治疗总有效率为92.59%,无效率为7.41%。结论给予急性脑血管疾病患者活血化瘀法治疗可取的较好的治疗效果。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of activating blood and resolving stasis in treatment of acute cerebral vascular disease.MethodsChoose 54 cases of acute cerebral vascular disease patients in our hospital,al patients were treated by promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis method treatment,and the clinical data were analyzed retrospectively,to evaluate the application effect of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease.Results 54 patients in this group with promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis after treatment,28 cases recovered,22 cases markedly effective,4 cases ineffective,the total effective rate was 92.59%,no effect in 7.41%.Conclusion Giving the better therapeutic effect in patients with acute cerebral vascular disease desirable and activating blood stasis treatment,the higher clinical value,should be popularized and applied.

  7. Circulating human B and plasma cells. Age-associated changes in counts and detailed characterization of circulating normal CD138- and CD138+ plasma cells. : Blood B-lymphocytes and plasma cells in adults

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Generation of B and plasma cells involves several organs with a necessary cell trafficking between them. A detailed phenotypic characterization of four circulating B-cell subsets (immature-, naïve-, memory- B-lymphocytes and plasma cells) of 106 healthy adults was realized by multiparametric flow cytometry. We show that CD10, CD27 and CD38 is the minimal combination of subsetting markers allowing unequivocal identification of immature (CD10(+)CD27(-)CD38(+), 6+/-6 cell...

  8. Intraventricular hemorrhage in the preterm neonate: timing and cerebral blood flow changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ment, L.R.; Duncan, C.C.; Ehrenkranz, R.A.; Lange, R.C.; Taylor, K.J.; Kleinman, C.S.; Scott, D.T.; Sivo, J.; Gettner, P.

    1984-03-01

    Serial cranial ultrasound studies, 133xenon inhalation cerebral blood flow determinations, and risk factor analyses were performed in 31 preterm neonates. Contrast echocardiographic studies were additionally performed in 16 of these 31 infants. Sixty-one percent were found to have germinal matrix or intraventricular hemorrhage. Seventy-four percent of all hemorrhages were detected by the thirtieth postnatal hour. The patients were divided into three groups: early GMH/IVH by the sixth postnatal hour (eight infants) interval GMH/IVH from 6 hours through 5 days (10), and no GMH/IVH (12). Cerebral blood flow values at 6 postnatal hours were significantly lower for the early GMH/IVH group than for the no GMH/IVH group (P less than 0.01). Progression of GMH/IVH was observed only in those infants with early hemorrhage, and these infants had a significantly higher incidence of neonatal mortality. Ventriculomegaly as determined by ultrasound studies was noted equally in infants with and without GMH/IVH (50%) and was not found to correlate with low cerebral blood flow. The patients with early hemorrhage were distinguishable by their need for more vigorous resuscitation at the time of birth and significantly higher ventilator settings during the first 36 postnatal hours, during which time they also had higher values of PCO2. An equal incidence of patent ductus arteriosus was found across all of the groups. We propose that early GMH/IVH may be related to perinatal events and that the significant decrease in cerebral blood flow found in infants with early GMH/IVH is secondary to the presence of the hemorrhage itself. Progression of early GMH/IVH and new interval GMH/IVH may be related to later neonatal events known to alter cerebral blood flow.

  9. Detection of Tumor Cell-Specific mRNA in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Breast Cancer — Evaluation of Several Markers with Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Andergassen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that cells from epithelial tumors, e.g., breast cancer, detach from their primary tissue and enter blood circulation. We show that the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs in samples of patients with primary and metastatic breast cancer can be detected with an array of selected tumor-marker-genes by reverse transcription real-time PCR. The focus of the presented work is on detecting differences in gene expression between healthy individuals and adjuvant and metastatic breast cancer patients, not an accurate quantification of these differences. Therefore, total RNA was isolated from blood samples of healthy donors and patients with primary or metastatic breast cancer after enrichment of mononuclear cells by density gradient centrifugation. After reverse transcription real-time PCR was carried out with a set of marker genes (BCSP, CK8, Her2, MGL, CK18, CK19. B2M and GAPDH were used as reference genes. Blood samples from patients with metastatic disease revealed increased cytokine gene levels in comparison to normal blood samples. Detection of a single gene was not sufficient to detect CTCs by reverse transcription real-time PCR. Markers used here were selected based on a recent study detecting cancer cells on different protein levels. The combination of such a marker array leads to higher and more specific discovery rates, predominantly in metastatic patients. Identification of CTCs by PCR methods may lead to better diagnosis and prognosis and could help to choose an adequate therapy.

  10. Blood glutathione S-transferase-π as a time indicator of stroke onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Turck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ability to accurately determine time of stroke onset remains challenging. We hypothesized that an early biomarker characterized by a rapid increase in blood after stroke onset may help defining better the time window during which an acute stroke patient may be candidate for intravenous thrombolysis or other intravascular procedures. METHODS: The blood level of 29 proteins was measured by immunoassays on a prospective cohort of stroke patients (N = 103 and controls (N = 132. Mann-Whitney U tests, ROC curves and diagnostic odds ratios were applied to evaluate their clinical performances. RESULTS: Among the 29 molecules tested, GST-π concentration was the most significantly elevated marker in the blood of stroke patients (p3 h after onset. According to goal-oriented distinct cut-offs (sensitivity(Se-oriented: 17.7 or specificity(Sp-oriented: 65.2 ug/L, the GST-π test obtained 91%Se/50%Sp and 50%Se/91%Sp, respectively. Moreover, GST-π showed also the highest AUC (0.83 and performances for detecting patients treated with tPA (N = 12 compared to ineligible patients (N = 103. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that GST-π can accurately predict the time of stroke onset in over 50% of early stroke patients. The GST-π test could therefore complement current guidelines for tPA administration and potentially increase the number of patients accessing thrombolysis.

  11. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Fong Lei

    Full Text Available Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  12. Real-time characterization of the uterine blood flow in mares before and after artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J C; Ignácio, F S; Rocha, N S; Thompson, D L; Pinto, C R; Meira, C

    2015-09-01

    The present experiment was divided into two studies to investigate the effect of age and endometrial degeneration on uterine blood flow of mares throughout the immediate post-breeding period. In study 1, uterine blood flow was characterized in mares (n = 7 mares/group) with minimal, moderate or severe endometrial degenerative changes (GI, GII and GIII, respectively). In study 2, the effect of age was investigated using young (≤ 6 years) and old (≥ 15 years) mares (n = 7 mares/group). Uterine vascular perfusion and mesometrial pulsatility index (PI) were evaluated every hour from H0 (moment immediately before AI) to H12. In study 1, a pronounced and transitory increase on uterine vascular perfusion was detected (P blood flow. In study 2, a transitory increase on uterine vascular perfusion was also observed in both age groups during the first hour after mating. However, mesometrial PI of young and old mares was similar (P > 0.05) and constant (P > 0.7) through the first 12h after AI. Results demonstrated, for the first time, the immediate changes on uterine vascular perfusion and mesometrial PI in response to semen infusion. Moreover, reduced blood flow of the uterus during the post-breeding period was strongly associated with endometrial degenerative changes in mares, regardless of age.

  13. Reducing time to identification of aerobic bacteria and fastidious micro-organisms in positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intra, J; Sala, M R; Falbo, R; Cappellini, F; Brambilla, P

    2016-12-01

    Rapid and early identification of micro-organisms in blood has a key role in the diagnosis of a febrile patient, in particular, in guiding the clinician to define the correct antibiotic therapy. This study presents a simple and very fast method with high performances for identifying bacteria by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) after only 4 h of incubation. We used early bacterial growth on PolyViteX chocolate agar plates inoculated with five drops of blood-broth medium deposited in the same point and spread with a sterile loop, followed by a direct transfer procedure on MALDI-TOF MS target slides without additional modification. Ninety-nine percentage of aerobic bacteria were correctly identified from 600 monomicrobial-positive blood cultures. This procedure allowed obtaining the correct identification of fastidious pathogens, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae that need complex nutritional and environmental requirements in order to grow. Compared to the traditional pathogen identification from blood cultures that takes over 24 h, the reliability of results, rapid performance and suitability of this protocol allowed a more rapid administration of optimal antimicrobial treatment in the patients.

  14. Time course and recovery of arterial blood gases during exacerbations in adults with Cystic Fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waterhouse, D F

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia and hypercapnia are closely linked to morbidity and mortality in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). The aims of this study were to describe the changes in blood gases during and following an acute pulmonary exacerbation in adults with CF. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of patients with CF admitted for management of an acute exacerbation. Blood gas and spirometric analysis was performed on admission, throughout the treatment period, and 31 days after discharge (day 45). RESULTS: At presentation, eight of nineteen patients had evidence of either hypoxia (PaO(2)<8 kPa) and\\/or hypercapnia (PaCO(2)>6.6 kPa). Blood gas parameters stabilized following two weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy, with little difference evident in between treatment completion and subsequent review following discharge. Hypercapnia reversed in three patients, with persistent hypercapnia evident in two patients. CONCLUSION: In our study group, hypoxemia and hypercapnia were frequently observed at presentation of the acute exacerbation. Blood gases stabilized following two weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy, with arterial PCO(2) one month following hospital discharge generally similar to that at time of discharge.

  15. The fetal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Acharya, Ganesh

    2004-12-30

    Accumulating data on the human fetal circulation shows the similarity to the experimental animal physiology, but with important differences. The human fetus seems to circulate less blood through the placenta, shunt less through the ductus venosus and foramen ovale, but direct more blood through the lungs than the fetal sheep. However, there are substantial individual variations and the pattern changes with gestational age. The normalised umbilical blood flow decreases with gestational age, and, at 28 to 32 weeks, a new level of development seems to be reached. At this stage, the shunting through the ductus venosus and the foramen ovale reaches a minimum, and the flow through the lungs a maximum. The ductus venosus and foramen ovale are functionally closely related and represent an important distributional unit for the venous return. The left portal branch represents a venous watershed, and, similarly, the isthmus aorta an arterial watershed. Thus, the fetal central circulation is a very flexible and adaptive circulatory system. The responses to increased afterload, hypoxaemia and acidaemia in the human fetus are equivalent to those found in animal studies: increased ductus venosus and foramen ovale shunting, increased impedance in the lungs, reduced impedance in the brain, increasingly reversed flow in the aortic isthmus and a more prominent coronary blood flow.

  16. [Haemodynamic role of blood-plasma circulating cell-free DNA and contained therein high-molecular-weight CpG-rich fraction in pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis obliterans of carotid arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konorova, I L; Veĭko, N N; Ershova, E S; Antelava, A L; Chechetkin, A O

    2009-01-01

    The hydrodynamic resistance (HR) of blood is one of the components of the total peripheral resistance. High-molecular-weight DNA appears to decrease the HR in accordance with the Toms's effect. The present study was undertaken to investigate the HR and properties of cell-free DNA circulating in the blood plasma (hereinafter referred to as pDNA) of the control donors, patients suffering from either arterial hypertension (AH) alone or that combined with atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid arteries (CAs). Within the normal concentrations of pDNA, we revealed an inverse dependence of the HR thereupon and upon the content in pDNA of the high-molecular-weight CpG-rich fraction (CpG-DNA), i. e., a transcribed region of the ribosomal repeat (rDNA). A decrease or an increase in the pDNA concentration in all the patients examined was accompanied by an elevation of the rDNA concentration in the blood plasma. Exceeding a certain level thereof appeared to give rise to an increase in both the HR and arterial pressure (AP). Patients presenting with degree I essential AH were found to have a decreased endonuclease activity of the blood plasma, with the pDNA concentration being more than two-fold higher with no change in the rDNA content. Their HR appeared to be increased (parteries were typically revealed on the background of a lowered HR (parterial intima. In some of them, the pDNA concentration does not differ from the normal values, but in its composition, there is an increased content of rDNA, elevating as obliteration of the vessels' lumen increases, with the HR being decreased. The majority of them have degree II AH. In others, the pDNA concentration is by an order of magnitude higher than the normal values, while the rDNA content in pDNA is decreased, with the HR being elevated. Most of them have degree III AH. Pronounced and rough stenoses take an asymptomatic course in patients with decreased values of the HR and a slightly elevated level of pDNA and/or rDNA in the

  17. Total and isoform-specific quantitative assessment of circulating Fibulin-1 using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and time-resolved immunofluorometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Cangemi, Claudia; Jensen, Martin L;

    2015-01-01

    -resolved immunofluorometric assay (TRIFMA). Both methods were validated and compared to a commercial ELISA (CircuLex). Molecular size determination was performed under native conditions by SEC analysis coupled to SRM-MS and TRIFMA. RESULTS:: Absolute quantitation of total fibulin-1, isoforms -1C and -1D was performed by SRM......PURPOSE:: Targeted proteomics using SRM-MS combined with stable isotope dilution has emerged as a promising quantitative technique for the study of circulating protein biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize robust quantitative assays for the emerging cardiovascular...... biomarker fibulin-1 and its circulating isoforms in human plasma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:: We used bioinformatics analysis to predict total and isoform-specific tryptic peptides for absolute quantitation using SRM-MS. Fibulin-1 was quantitated in plasma by nanoflow-LC-SRM-MS in undepleted plasma and time...

  18. Real-time RT-PCR systems for CTC detection from blood samples of breast cancer and gynaecological tumour patients (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andergassen, Ulrich; Kölbl, Alexandra C; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-04-01

    Cells, which detach from a primary epithelial tumour and migrate through lymphatic vessels and blood stream are called 'circulating tumour cells'. These cells are considered to be the main root of remote metastasis and are correlated to a worse prognosis concerning progression-free and overall survival of the patients. Therefore, the detection of the minimal residual disease is of great importance regarding therapeutic decisions. Many different detection strategies are already available, but only one method, the CellSearch® system, reached FDA approval. The present review focusses on the detection of circulating tumour cells by means of real-time PCR, a highly sensitive method based on differences in gene expression between normal and malignant cells. Strategies for an enrichment of tumour cells are mentioned, as well as a large panel of potential marker genes. Drawbacks and advantages of the technique are elucidated, whereas, the greatest advantage might be, that by selection of appropriate marker genes, also tumour cells, which have already undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition can be detected. Finally, the application of real-time PCR in different gynaecological malignancies is described, with breast cancer being the most studied cancer entity.

  19. Range/velocity limitations for time-domain blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1993-01-01

    The traditional range/velocity limitation for blood velocity estimation systems using ultrasound is elucidated. It is stated that the equation is a property of the estimator used, not the actual physical measurement situation, as higher velocities can be estimated by the time domain cross......-correlation approach. It is demonstrated that the time domain technique under certain measurement conditions will yield unsatisfactory results, when trying to estimate high velocities. Various methods to avoid these artifacts using temporal and spatial clustering techniques are suggested. The improvement...

  20. Determination of glycated and acetylated hemoglobins in cord blood by time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Félix O; Gagnon, René; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Auray-Blais, Christiane

    2011-07-01

    The characterization of cord blood hemoglobin at the molecular level is a daunting challenge because hemoglobin F (HbF) and hemoglobin A (HbA) coexist in neonatal blood. We developed and validated a method using electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ES-TOF-MS) that measures, in a single analysis, relative levels of glycated and acetylated hemoglobin and allows the calculation of relative proportions of HbA, HbF(0), and HbF(1) in cord blood. Specific sections of acquired spectra were deconvoluted using a maximum entropy-based approach to true mass scale spectra. Mass precisions were less than 3 ppm with similar accuracies. Intra-interday precisions for α- and γ-chain glycation levels were 2.10%/3.72% and 2.75%/6.79%, respectively. The linearity of the α-chain glycation response was excellent (r(2) = 0.9990). We performed sample analysis on 39 cord blood specimens and found that the glycated α- and γ-chain levels were 2.27 ± 0.21% and 2.38 ± 0.29%, respectively, while the acetylated (G)γ and (A)γ-chain levels were 8.48 ± 0.53% and 7.14 ± 0.74%, respectively. We observed three types of HbF distinguishable by the intensities of γ-chain variants. Two-thirds of cord blood specimens were classified as HbF(I) with an intensity ratio (G)γ/(A)γ of 1.90 ± 0.12. For HbF(II) type (10/39 neonates), the intensity ratio of (G)γ/(A)γ was 3.71 ± 0.28. For three neonates with HbF(III), no (A)γ-chain was detected.

  1. Circulating Fibronectin Controls Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja von Au

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibronectin is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix, and experimental evidence has shown that it modulates blood vessel formation. The relative contribution of local and circulating fibronectin to blood vessel formation in vivo remains unknown despite evidence for unexpected roles of circulating fibronectin in various diseases. Using transgenic mouse models, we established that circulating fibronectin facilitates the growth of bone metastases by enhancing blood vessel formation and maturation. This effect is more relevant than that of fibronectin produced by endothelial cells and pericytes, which only exert a small additive effect on vessel maturation. Circulating fibronectin enhances its local production in tumors through a positive feedback loop and increases the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF retained in the matrix. Both fibronectin and VEGF then cooperate to stimulate blood vessel formation. Fibronectin content in the tumor correlates with the number of blood vessels and tumor growth in the mouse models. Consistent with these results, examination of three separate arrays from patients with breast and prostate cancers revealed that a high staining intensity for fibronectin in tumors is associated with increased mortality. These results establish that circulating fibronectin modulates blood vessel formation and tumor growth by modifying the amount of and the response to VEGF. Furthermore, determination of the fibronectin content can serve as a prognostic biomarker for breast and prostate cancers and possibly other cancers.

  2. Cuff-less blood pressure measurement using pulse arrival time and a Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xianxiang; Fang, Zhen; Xue, Yongjiao; Zhan, Qingyuan; Yang, Ting; Xia, Shanhong

    2017-02-01

    The present study designs an algorithm to increase the accuracy of continuous blood pressure (BP) estimation. Pulse arrival time (PAT) has been widely used for continuous BP estimation. However, because of motion artifact and physiological activities, PAT-based methods are often troubled with low BP estimation accuracy. This paper used a signal quality modified Kalman filter to track blood pressure changes. A Kalman filter guarantees that BP estimation value is optimal in the sense of minimizing the mean square error. We propose a joint signal quality indice to adjust the measurement noise covariance, pushing the Kalman filter to weigh more heavily on measurements from cleaner data. Twenty 2 h physiological data segments selected from the MIMIC II database were used to evaluate the performance. Compared with straightforward use of the PAT-based linear regression model, the proposed model achieved higher measurement accuracy. Due to low computation complexity, the proposed algorithm can be easily transplanted into wearable sensor devices.

  3. Implementation of ultrasound time-domain cross-correlation blood velocity estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1993-01-01

    are used in the algorithm, imposing a heavy burden on the signal processing hardware. The algorithm is analyzed with regard to the high sampling frequency, and a method for performing real-time high-speed-movement and cross-correlation is suggested. Implementation schemes based on using the sign......The implementation of real-time blood velocity estimators using time-domain cross-correlation is investigated. The basic algorithm for stationary echo canceling, cross-correlation estimation and subsequent velocity estimation is presented. Sampled data acquired at rates of approximately 20 MHz...... of the data as well as the full precision are proposed. From an analysis of the process it is concluded that the sign data implementation can attain real-time processing. This can also be obtained for the full precision data, but at the expense of using a number of dedicated signal processing chips. Both...

  4. Real-time RT-PCR assay to differentiate clades of H5N1 avian influenza viruses circulating in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Z; Jones, J; Creanga, A; Ferdinand, K; Inui, K; Gerloff, N; Davis, C T; Nguyen, T; Donis, R O

    2013-11-01

    Continued circulation and geographical expansion of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus have led to the emergence of numerous clades in Vietnam. Although viral RNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis are the gold standard for H5N1 HA clade designation, limited sequencing capacity in many laboratories precludes rapid H5N1 clade identification and detection of novel viruses. Therefore, a Taqman real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid differentiation of the four major H5N1 clades detected in Vietnam was developed. Using HA sequence alignments of clades 1.1, 2.3.2.1, 2.3.4, and 7 viruses, primers and FAM-labeled probes were designed to target conserved regions characteristic of each clade. The assay was optimized and evaluated using circulating clades of H5N1 collected in Vietnam from 2007 to 2012 and shown to be both sensitive and specific for the differentiation of the four H5N1 clades. The assay provides a useful tool for screening of large specimen collections for HA gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis and for the rapid identification of molecular clade signatures to support outbreak investigations and surveillance activities. Finally, this assay may be useful to monitor for the emergence of novel or variant clades of H5N1 in Vietnam in the future or in other countries where these particular clades may circulate.

  5. The effect of holding times of whole blood and its components during processing on in vitro and in vivo quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F; de Korte, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Whole blood is not usually collected close to the processing site, which results in a holding time between collection and processing. In some countries, the holding time is limited to 8 hours, after which the units are cooled, rendering them useless for platelet preparation. Other countries allow a 24-hour (“overnight”) ambient hold to allow platelet preparation. The impact of this holding time on subsequent blood components will be reviewed in this article. In addition, there are various “in-process” holding times that further prolong the time before the final blood component is ready. Particularly, these in-process holding times are not well defined and poorly controlled,but can nevertheless affect the biochemical and functional characteristics of blood components. Furthermore, current, non–evidence-based, guidelines have restricted the length of some of these holding times. This article summarizes the evidence and fills gaps where evidence is lacking.

  6. Novel techniques of real-time blood flow and functional mapping: technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Kyousuke; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Saito, Masato; Tamura, Yukie; Anei, Ryogo; Kapeller, Christoph; Hayashi, Hideaki; Prueckl, Robert; Guger, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    There are two main approaches to intraoperative monitoring in neurosurgery. One approach is related to fluorescent phenomena and the other is related to oscillatory neuronal activity. We developed novel techniques to visualize blood flow (BF) conditions in real time, based on indocyanine green videography (ICG-VG) and the electrophysiological phenomenon of high gamma activity (HGA). We investigated the use of ICG-VG in four patients with moyamoya disease and two with arteriovenous malformation (AVM), and we investigated the use of real-time HGA mapping in four patients with brain tumors who underwent lesion resection with awake craniotomy. Real-time data processing of ICG-VG was based on perfusion imaging, which generated parameters including arrival time (AT), mean transit time (MTT), and BF of brain surface vessels. During awake craniotomy, we analyzed the frequency components of brain oscillation and performed real-time HGA mapping to identify functional areas. Processed results were projected on a wireless monitor linked to the operating microscope. After revascularization for moyamoya disease, AT and BF were significantly shortened and increased, respectively, suggesting hyperperfusion. Real-time fusion images on the wireless monitor provided anatomical, BF, and functional information simultaneously, and allowed the resection of AVMs under the microscope. Real-time HGA mapping during awake craniotomy rapidly indicated the eloquent areas of motor and language function and significantly shortened the operation time. These novel techniques, which we introduced might improve the reliability of intraoperative monitoring and enable the development of rational and objective surgical strategies.

  7. Mountains and Tropical Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naiman, Z.; Goodman, P. J.; Krasting, J. P.; Malyshev, S.; Russell, J. L.; Stouffer, R. J.

    2015-12-01

    Observed tropical convection exhibits zonal asymmetries that strongly influence spatial precipitation patterns. The drivers of changes to this zonally-asymmetric Walker circulation on decadal and longer timescales have been the focus of significant recent research. Here we use two state-of-the-art earth system models to explore the impact of earth's mountains on the Walker circulation. When all land-surface topography is removed, the Walker circulation weakens by 33-59%. There is a ~30% decrease in global, large-scale upward vertical wind velocities in the middle of the troposphere, but only minor changes in global average convective mass flux, precipitation, surface and sea-surface temperatures. The zonally symmetric Hadley circulation is also largely unchanged. Following the spatial pattern of changes to large-scale vertical wind velocities, precipitation becomes less focused over the tropics. The weakening of the Walker circulation, but not the Hadley circulation, is similar to the behavior of climate models during radiative forcing experiments: in our simulations, the weakening is associated with changes in vertical wind velocities, rather than the hydrologic cycle. These results indicate suggest that mountain heights may significantly influence the Walker circulation on geologic time scales, and observed changes in tropical precipitation over millions of years may have been forced by changes in tropical orography.

  8. Chronic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  9. 实体瘤外周血循环肿瘤细胞与转移相关性的研究进展%Relationship between circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of solid tumor and metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任传利; 韩崇旭; 王大新

    2011-01-01

    目的:总结实体瘤外周血中循环肿瘤细胞(CTC)和转移相关性的研究进展.方法:以"循环肿瘤细胞、实体瘤、转移"为关键词,检索2000-01-2010-10PubMed、Science Direct、Ovid、Springer、CNKI和维普等数据库的相关文献.纳入标准:关于实体瘤CTC与转移密切相关的分子机制、临床相关性的文献.共纳入分析42篇文献.结果:随着分子生物学和材料技术的发展,越来越多的方法有效地富集和鉴定不同类型实体瘤外周血CTC.细胞基因水平证实CTC具有恶性生物学特性,CTC自身基因和转移相关蛋白谱的表达,肿瘤微环境、免疫系统等因素影响着CTC远处器官转移灶的形成.CTC数目、特定基因、蛋白的表达与治疗疗效、预后等具有相关性.结论:研究CTC参与血液播散转移的机制,为全面、准确地阐明恶性实体瘤转移的机制、个体化的治疗提供新的工具.%OBJECTIVE: To review of the studies the relationship between circulating tumor cells (CTC)in peripheral blood of solid tumors and the mechanism of metastasis. METHODS: Keyword: circulating tumor cell (CTC), solid tumors, metastasis. Retrieval system: PubMed, Ovid, Science Direct, Springer, CNKI,Weipu Data. The time limit: 2000-01- 2010-10. The enrolled criteria: about the relationship between CTC in peripheral blood of solid tumors and the mechanism of metastasis, its clinical relevance. Overall, 42 literatures were cited. RESULTS: As the development of the advanced technique of molecular biology and material,more and more methods can be used to enrich and identify CTC. It is reported that cytogenetic evidence that CTC in patients with carcinoma are malignant. The gene and related metastatic protein profile in CTC,tumor microenvironment, immune system can influence on tumor metastasis. The number of CTC, the expression of specific genes and proteins have a relationship with the effect of treatment and evaluation of prognosis. CONCLUSION: The study

  10. Relative blood loss and operative time can predict length of stay following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, K; Thastum, M; Nørholt, S E; Blomlöf, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the length of stay (LOS) following orthognathic surgery and thereby to establish a benchmark. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of postoperative LOS following orthognathic surgery. Patients were treated consecutively during the period 2010 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were (1) patient age ≥18 years, and (2) surgery involving a three-piece Le Fort I osteotomy, or a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), or bimaxillary surgery. A total of 335 patients were included. The following data were recorded: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age, sex, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and type of surgery. LOS was defined as the duration of time from date of surgery to date of discharge. The average LOS was 1.3 days following Le Fort I osteotomy, 1.3 days following BSSO, and 1.8 days following bimaxillary surgery. In the multivariate regression model (R(2)=0.11), predictors of a prolonged LOS were operative time (P<0.001) and relative blood loss (P=0.002). No significant effect of age, BMI, sex, or treatment on LOS was observed. The short duration of LOS found in this study supports the possibility of increasing outpatient pathways for selected patients.

  11. Population-based screening for anemia using first-time blood donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Johnson, Bryce; Wright, David J.; Cable, Ritchard G.; Carey, Patricia; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Simon, Toby L.; Murphy, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Anemia is an important public health concern. Data from population-based surveys such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are the gold standard, but are obtained infrequently and include only small samples from certain minority groups. Objectives We assessed whether readily available databases of blood donor hemoglobin values could be used as a surrogate for population hemoglobin values from NHANES. Design Blood donor venous and fingerstick hemoglobin values were compared to 10,254 NHANES 2005-2008 venous hemoglobin values using demographically stratified analyses and ANOVA. Fingerstick hemoglobins or hematocrits were converted to venous hemoglobin estimates using regression analysis. Results Venous hemoglobin values from 1,609 first time donors correlated extremely well with NHANES data across different age, gender and demographic groups. Cigarette smoking increased hemoglobin by 0.26 to 0.59 g/dL depending on intensity. Converted fingerstick hemoglobin from 36,793 first time donors agreed well with NHANES hemoglobin (weighted mean hemoglobin of 15.53 g/dL for donors and 15.73 g/dL for NHANES) with similar variation in mean hemoglobin by age. However, compared to NHANES, the larger donor dataset showed reduced differences in mean hemoglobin between Blacks and other races/ethnicities. Conclusions Overall, first-time donor fingerstick hemoglobins approximate U.S. population data and represent a readily available public health resource for ongoing anemia surveillance. PMID:22460662

  12. Real-Time Blood Flow Estimation Using a Recursive Least-Squares Lattice Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1997-01-01

    Ultrasonic flow estimation involves Fourier-transforming data from successive pulses. The standard periodogram spectral estimate does not reflect the true velocity distribution in the blood and assumes quasi-stationarity in the data. Last year (see J.A. Jensen et al., IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium...... Proceedings, p. 1221-4, 1996), the authors demonstrated that a recursive lattice filter can yield results much closer to the correct velocity distribution. They have now implemented it in real time on a system with sixteen ADSP-21060 processors, interfaced to a commercial scanner. The system can perform real...

  13. Blood Perfusion of Abdominal Organs during Extracorporeal Circulation Detected by 2D-Color Doppler Flow Imaging%两维彩色多普勒超声检测体外循环状态下脏器的血流灌注

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵玉华; 张琦; 陈如坤; 武世英; 刘跃

    1996-01-01

    用体表及心脏术中经食道超声心动图(TEE)经胃研究心脏停跳体外循环时腹部脏器及外周血管的血流灌注,发现腹主、肝、肾、脾动脉显示红或蓝色血流,动脉呈锯齿形搏动性频谱,静脉呈连续性平直频谱,并可计算血流参数,同时在体表检查颈总、眼、及桡动脉血流.经手术前,体外循环前、中、后比较认为:体表及TEE术中检测内脏与周围血管灌注,可直接实时的了解血流动态变化.%The blood perfusion of abdominal organs and peripheral vessels during extracorporeal circulation(ECC)was studied by B-mode and transesophageal echocardiography(TEE).During ECC, TEE displayed that the color of the blood flow in hepatic A,splenic A,renal A and abdominal aorta appeared red or blue.The spectrum of arteries was shown as serrate and pulsatile waves and veins flat and continuous waves.The parameters of the blood flows were calculated.The blood flows of commoncarotid A,opthalmic A and radial A were examined at the same time,Comparing the results obtained before the operation with those before.during and after ECC,it is suggested that using transthoracic and intraoperative TEE to detect the blood perfusion of abdominal organs and peripheral yesseis, provides a direct and real time observation of the dynamic changes of blood flow.

  14. 中药活血化淤法改善脑出积压患者运动功能疗效观察%Observation of improvement of movement function by Chinese drugs through promoting circulation by removing blood stasis in patients with brain hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹德铭; 高聪; 沈岩松

    2002-01-01

    @@ Background:Disability rate following brain hemorrhage is high.Rcovery and improvement of movement function is closely related to management of brain hemorrhage during acute phage,absorption of hematoma.According to traditional medicine principle,Chinese drugs promote absorption and functional recovery through promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis.The Chinese drugs are safe in clinic

  15. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  16. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, T.; Skoog, I.; Oudkerk, M.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Groot, J.C. de; Hofman, A.W.I.M.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  17. Influence of curve magnitude and other variables on operative time, blood loss and transfusion requirements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, M

    2015-05-03

    Posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) typically requires lengthy operating time and may be associated with significant blood loss and subsequent transfusion. This study aimed to identify factors predictive of duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in an Irish AIS cohort.

  18. 炎痛平透皮软膏的制备及活血作用的探讨%Preparation and promoting blood circulation effect of Yantongping transdermal ointments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何爱明; 徐洁; 王艺辉; 林世明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To find out the best prescription method for Yantongping transdermal ointments through orthogonal design and research on the effect of promoting blood circulation. Methods With 60 minutes in vitro cumulative penetration rate, using L9(34) orthogonal experiment, the best formula and technology were found out through grinding method, and quality thereafter was e-valuated. Mice was picked up as blank groups and model groups, each respectively was divided into six smaller groups as Vaseline, Vaseline and Fatty Alcohol, Yantongping transdermal ointments( low dosage) , Yantongping transdermal ointments( medium dosage) , Yantongping transdermal ointments( high dosage) and Voltaren Emulsions. A A and AV were measured before and after modeling by microcirculation method and microscopic micro-distance measuring method , while the blood circulation function of each medicine by the scoring of the blood of veinule was compared. Results The best prescription was confirmed by A2B2C3D2, that was with the weight of the traditional Chinese drugs (TCD) Vaseline ratioes ( A) to 50% , with the weight of TCD and Fatty Alcohol ratios ( B) to 25% , the order of reagent was as follow; Fatty Alcohol, TCD, Vaseline . The grinding temperature was 80 X. , and it passed five quality evaluation as physical appearance, melting point, water value, stability, irritation. Before modeling, in the A A level measured, Yantongping group (low dosage) had statistical significance over Vaseline and Fatty Alcohol group in 30 min(P<0.05= ,while Yantongping group (medium dosage and high dosage) had obviously statistical significance over Vaseline and Fatty Alcohol group in different time periods in the A A and A V level (P<0. 01=. In the blood flow quality evaluation measured, Yantongping group (low dosage) had statistical significance over Vaseline and Fatty Alcohol group in 20 min, 30 min ( P<0. 05 ) ; while Yantongping group ( medium and high dosage) had obviously significant

  19. Blood pressure variations real-time reflect the conditioned fear learning and memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chang Hsu

    Full Text Available The conditioned fear learning and memory occurs when a neutral conditioned stimulus (CS is paired with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US. This process is critically dependent on the amygdala and inevitably involves blood pressure (BP alterations. We hypothesized that BP variations could instantaneously reveal individual steps during conditioned fear learning and memory. An implanted telemetric probe was used to monitor the BP real-time in rats during training and testing sessions of the fear-potentiated startle. Our results showed that (i the conditioned fear learning during the training sessions was reflected by light (CS-induced rapid BP elevations and by electric shock (US-evoked sympathetic tone elevations; (ii these two BP-related parameters were not only negatively correlated with each other but also coupled to each other in the training session trials; (iii both parameters closely predicted the performance of fear-potentiated startle on the next day; and (iv although local blocking of one of the two fear-conditioned pathways in the training session partially inhibited fear learning, the fear memory retrieval still used both pathways. Altogether, real-time blood pressure variations faithfully revealed the critical steps involved in conditioned fear learning and memory, and our results supported a coupling between the cued learning and the post-shock calmness.

  20. Analytical model for real time, noninvasive estimation of blood glucose level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhyapak, Anoop; Sidley, Matthew; Venkataraman, Jayanti

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents an analytical model to estimate blood glucose level from measurements made non-invasively and in real time by an antenna strapped to a patient's wrist. Some promising success has been shown by the RIT ETA Lab research group that an antenna's resonant frequency can track, in real time, changes in glucose concentration. Based on an in-vitro study of blood samples of diabetic patients, the paper presents a modified Cole-Cole model that incorporates a factor to represent the change in glucose level. A calibration technique using the input impedance technique is discussed and the results show a good estimation as compared to the glucose meter readings. An alternate calibration methodology has been developed that is based on the shift in the antenna resonant frequency using an equivalent circuit model containing a shunt capacitor to represent the shift in resonant frequency with changing glucose levels. Work under progress is the optimization of the technique with a larger sample of patients.

  1. Cerebral Circulation Time is Prolonged and Not Correlated with EDSS in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Study Using Digital Subtracted Angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Lucia; Donati, Donatella; Menci, Elisabetta; Cioni, Samuele; Bellini, Matteo; Grazzini, Irene; Leonini, Sara; Galluzzi, Paolo; Severi, Sauro; Burroni, Luca; Casasco, Alfredo; Morbidelli, Lucia; Santarnecchi, Emiliano; Piu, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    Literature has suggested that changes in brain flow circulation occur in patients with multiple sclerosis. In this study, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was used to measure the absolute CCT value in MS patients and to correlate its value to age at disease onset and duration, and to expand disability status scale (EDSS). DSA assessment was performed on eighty MS patients and on a control group of forty-four age-matched patients. CCT in MS and control groups was calculated by analyzing the angiographic images. Lesion and brain volumes were calculated in a representative group of MS patients. Statistical correlations among CCT and disease duration, age at disease onset, lesion load, brain volumes and EDSS were considered. A significant difference between CCT in MS patients (mean = 4.9s; sd = 1.27s) and control group (mean = 2.8s; sd = 0.51s) was demonstrated. No significant statistical correlation was found between CCT and the other parameters in all MS patients. Significantly increased CCT value in MS patients suggests the presence of microvascular dysfunctions, which do not depend on clinical and MRI findings. Hemodynamic changes may not be exclusively the result of a late chronic inflammatory process. PMID:25679526

  2. Cerebral circulation time is prolonged and not correlated with EDSS in multiple sclerosis patients: a study using digital subtracted angiography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Monti

    Full Text Available Literature has suggested that changes in brain flow circulation occur in patients with multiple sclerosis. In this study, digital subtraction angiography (DSA was used to measure the absolute CCT value in MS patients and to correlate its value to age at disease onset and duration, and to expand disability status scale (EDSS. DSA assessment was performed on eighty MS patients and on a control group of forty-four age-matched patients. CCT in MS and control groups was calculated by analyzing the angiographic images. Lesion and brain volumes were calculated in a representative group of MS patients. Statistical correlations among CCT and disease duration, age at disease onset, lesion load, brain volumes and EDSS were considered. A significant difference between CCT in MS patients (mean = 4.9s; sd = 1.27 s and control group (mean = 2.8s; sd = 0.51 s was demonstrated. No significant statistical correlation was found between CCT and the other parameters in all MS patients. Significantly increased CCT value in MS patients suggests the presence of microvascular dysfunctions, which do not depend on clinical and MRI findings. Hemodynamic changes may not be exclusively the result of a late chronic inflammatory process.

  3. Reproducibility of Neonate Ocular Circulation Measurements Using Laser Speckle Flowgraphy

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    Tadashi Matsumoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the ocular blood flow in neonates may clarify the relationships between eye diseases and ocular circulation abnormalities. However, no method for noninvasively measuring ocular circulation in neonates is established. We used laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG modified for neonates to measure their ocular circulation and investigated whether this method is reproducible. During their normal sleep, we studied 16 subjects (adjusted age of 34–48 weeks whose blood flow could be measured three consecutive times. While the subjects slept in the supine position, three mean blur rate (MBR values of the optic nerve head (ONH were obtained: the MBR-A (mean of all values, MBR-V (vessel mean, and MBR-T (tissue mean, and nine blood flow pulse waveform parameters in the ONH were examined. We analyzed the coefficient of variation (COV and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for each parameter. The COVs of the MBR values were all ≤10%. The ICCs of the MBR values were all >0.8. Good COVs were observed for the blowout score, blowout time, rising rate, falling rate, and acceleration time index. Although the measurement of ocular circulation in the neonates was difficult, our results exhibited reproducibility, suggesting that this method could be used in clinical research.

  4. Weighing Scale-Based Pulse Transit Time is a Superior Marker of Blood Pressure than Conventional Pulse Arrival Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Stephanie L.-O.; Carek, Andrew M.; Kim, Chang-Sei; Ashouri, Hazar; Inan, Omer T.; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2016-12-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is being widely pursued for cuff-less blood pressure (BP) monitoring. Most efforts have employed the time delay between ECG and finger photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms as a convenient surrogate of PTT. However, these conventional pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements include the pre-ejection period (PEP) and the time delay through small, muscular arteries and may thus be an unreliable marker of BP. We assessed a bathroom weighing scale-like system for convenient measurement of ballistocardiography and foot PPG waveforms – and thus PTT through larger, more elastic arteries – in terms of its ability to improve tracking of BP in individual subjects. We measured “scale PTT”, conventional PAT, and cuff BP in humans during interventions that increased BP but changed PEP and smooth muscle contraction differently. Scale PTT tracked the diastolic BP changes well, with correlation coefficient of ‑0.80 ± 0.02 (mean ± SE) and root-mean-squared-error of 7.6 ± 0.5 mmHg after a best-case calibration. Conventional PAT was significantly inferior in tracking these changes, with correlation coefficient of ‑0.60 ± 0.04 and root-mean-squared-error of 14.6 ± 1.5 mmHg (p < 0.05). Scale PTT also tracked the systolic BP changes better than conventional PAT but not to an acceptable level. With further development, scale PTT may permit reliable, convenient measurement of BP.

  5. 益气活血法对脑出血大鼠脑内凝血酶敏感蛋白-1及其受体CD36表达的影响%Effects of Replenishing Qi and Promoting Blood Circulation Treatment on the Expression of Thrombospondin-1 and Receptor CD36 of lntracerebral Hemorrhagic Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈柏林; 邢之华; 唐涛; 刘宜峰; 阳鹤鹏; 刘清娥; 吴汉军

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To make a primary study of the mechanism of replenishing qi and promoting blood circulation treatment for curing intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) rats by observing the expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and its receptor CD36. METHODS 155 SD rats were randomly divided into six groups, namely normal group, sham operated group, ICH model group, replenishing qi and promoting blood circulation treatment group, replenishing qi group and promoting blood circulation treatment group. ICH model was established by injecting collagenase type Ⅶ, while replenishing qi group, promoting blood circulation treatment group and replenishing qi and promoting blood circulation treatment group were respectively administered with replenishing qi decoction, promoting blood circulation treatment decoction and Buyang Huanwu Decoction. Afterwards, brain tissue was extracted different and the expression of TSP-1 and CD36 were detected by western blotting. RESULTS There was no significant changes in the expression of TSP-1 and CD36 between normal group and sham operated group at different time. In ICH model group, TSP-1 reached peak on the fourth day,CD36 on the 4th and 28th day. In replenishing qi and promoting blood circulation treatment group, the expression of TSP-1 was lower than that in model group on the 1st day(P<0.01); the expression of TSP-1 and CD36 was both lower than that in model group on the 4th day(P<0.01); the expression of CD36 was higher than that in model group on the 28th day(P<0.01).CONCLUSION Replenishing qi and promoting blood circulation treatment may regulate the expression of TSP-1 and its receptor CD36 in ICH rat, thus it can lower the inhibiting effect on angiogenesis and promote the shaping and maturity of new blood vessels as well as the recovery of brain tissue injury.%目的 通过观察益气活血法对脑出血大鼠脑内损伤区凝血酶敏感蛋白-1(thrombospondin-1,TSP-1)及其受体CD36表达的影响,初步探讨益气活血法

  6. A patient-centric goal in time to blood pressure control from drug therapy initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Song Hee; Wang, Junling; Tak, Sunghee

    2013-02-01

    A time frame in which newly diagnosed hypertensive patients attain blood pressure (BP) goal would guide patients through uncertainty associated with initiating drug therapy for hypertension control. This study estimates time to BP goal resulting from drug therapy initiation among real-world hypertensive patients and identifies factors associated with variations in time to BP goal. The study uses a historical cohort design. Hypertensive patients who had initiated antihypertensive drug therapy between July 1, 2002, and December 31, 2003, were followed up to 12 months until the end of 2004. Electronic medical records from a medical group were linked with pharmacy claims, as well as with medical claims. Survival analyses were used to compare lengths of time needed to reach BP goals. A total of 223 patients from a real world practice setting had initiated antihypertensive drug therapy. The patients took 3.25 months (95% CI: 2.49-4.82) to reach BP goal. The patient-centric time to BP goal was 7.1 weeks longer than those reported in controlled experimental settings. This finding highlights the gap between results of controlled clinical trials and their application to clinical practice, and informs healthcare practitioners of the importance of setting a patient-centric goal in pharmacological treatment of hypertension.

  7. Determination of blood oxygenation in the brain by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy: influence of the skin, skull, and meninges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Liu, Hanli; Wang, Lihong; Tittel, Frank K.; Chance, Britton; Jacques, Steven L.

    1994-07-01

    Near infrared light has been used for the determination of blood oxygenation in the brain but little attention has been paid to the fact that the states of blood oxygenation in arteries, veins, and capillaries differ substantially. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations for a heterogeneous system were conducted, and near infrared time-resolved reflectance measurements were performed on a heterogeneous tissue phantom model. The model was made of a solid polyester resin, which simulates the tissue background. A network of tubes was distributed uniformly through the resin to simulate the blood vessels. The time-resolved reflectance spectra were taken with different absorbing solutions filled in the network. Based on the simulation and experimental results, we investigated the dependence of the absorption coefficient obtained from the heterogeneous system on the absorption of the actual absorbing solution filled in the tubes. We show that light absorption by the brain should result from the combination of blood and blood-free tissue background.

  8. Non invasive prenatal diagnosis: analysis of circulating fetal DNA and cells in maternal blood El diagnóstico prenatal no invasor: análisis de células y ADN fetal circulantes en la sangre materna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cecilia Jaramillo Posada

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Times New Roman";,";serif";; font-size: 12pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">Prenatal non invasive diagnosis by means of analyses of foetal DNA or cells circulating in maternal blood is one of the most promising areas of obstetrics. Among maternal diseases that could be diagnosed by these methods, or whose behaviour could be predicted, are preeclampsia, growth restriction and preterm labour. Some foetal conditions that could be detected are sex, chromosomal anomalies and single-gene defects. However, these are complex and expensive techniques that are not regularly performed in health care institutions. With this review we intend to provide the readers Times New Roman";,";serif";; font-size: 12pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">with up to date information on the main techniques available for the study of circulating foetal cells and DNA, and on their possible clinical applications. The review was based on a search for journals indexed up to 2008 in Pubmed, Scielo and Latindex. Especially relevant articles were chosen by the authors.

    El diagnóstico prenatal temprano y no invasor por medio del análisis de células o ADN fetales circulantes en la sangre materna es un área prometedora de la obstetricia moderna. Entre las enfermedades que se pueden diagnosticar o cuyo comportamiento es posible predecir por estos métodos se encuentran la preeclampsia, la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino y el parto pretérmino. Algunas condiciones fetales que podrían detectarse son el sexo, ciertas anomalías cromosómicas y los defectos de un solo gen. Sin

  9. Vascular Steal Explains Early Paradoxical Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Cerebrovascular Response in Brain Regions with Delayed Arterial Transit Times

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    Julien Poublanc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI during manipulation of inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2 can be used to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and map regions of exhausted cerebrovascular reserve. These regions exhibit a reduced or negative BOLD response to inhaled CO2. In this study, we sought to clarify the mechanism behind the negative BOLD response by investigating its time delay (TD. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC MRI with the injection of a contrast agent was used as the gold standard in order to provide measurement of the blood arrival time to which CVR TD could be compared. We hypothesize that if negative BOLD responses are the result of a steal phenomenon, they should be synchronized with positive BOLD responses from healthy brain tissue, even though the blood arrival time would be delayed. Methods: On a 3-tesla MRI system, BOLD CVR and DSC images were collected in a group of 19 patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. For each patient, we generated a CVR magnitude map by regressing the BOLD signal with the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2, and a CVR TD map by extracting the time of maximum cross-correlation between the BOLD signal and PETCO2. In addition, a blood arrival time map was generated by fitting the DSC signal with a gamma variate function. ROI masks corresponding to varying degrees of reactivity were constructed. Within these masks, the mean CVR magnitude, CVR TD and DSC blood arrival time were extracted and averaged over the 19 patients. CVR magnitude and CVR TD were then plotted against DSC blood arrival time. Results: The results show that CVR magnitude is highly correlated to DSC blood arrival time. As expected, the most compromised tissues with the longest blood arrival time have the lowest (most negative CVR magnitude. However, CVR TD shows a noncontinuous relationship with DSC blood arrival time. CVR TD is well correlated to DSC blood arrival time

  10. Real-Time Blood Donor Management Using Dashboards Based on Data Mining Models

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    Santhanam T

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data mining modeling techniques to examine the blood donor classification and extending this to facilitate the development of realtime blood donor management using dashboards with blood profile and geo-location data. This enables decision makers the ability to manage and plan the blood donation activities based on key metrics. This capability provides the ability to plan effective targeted blood donation campaigns. The scoring algorithm implemented for the dashboard also helps in the optimized deployment of budget resources and budget allocation determination for blood donation campaigns.

  11. Shortened Time to Identify Staphylococcus Species from Blood Cultures and Methicillin Resistance Testing Using CHROMAgar

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    Shingo Chihara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to rapidly differentiate coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS from Staphylococcus aureus and to determine methicillin resistance is important as it affects the decision to treat empiric antibiotic selection. The objective of this study was to evaluate CHROMagar S. aureus and CHROMagar MRSA (Becton Dickinson for rapid identification of Staphylococcus spp. directly from blood cultures. Consecutive blood culture bottles (BacT Alert 3D SA and SN, bioMérieux growing gram-positive cocci in clusters were evaluated. An aliquot was plated onto CHROMagar MRSA (C-MRSA and CHROMagar S. aureus (C-SA plates, which were read at 12 to 16 hours. C-SA correctly identified 147/147 S. aureus (100% sensitivity; 2 CoNS were misidentified as S. aureus (98% specificity. C-MRSA correctly identified 74/77 MRSA (96% sensitivity. None of the MSSA isolates grew on C-MRSA (100% specificity. In conclusion, CHROMagar is a rapid and sensitive method to distinguish MRSA, MSSA, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and may decrease time of reporting positive results.

  12. Simulations of cardiovascular blood flow accounting for time dependent deformational forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters Randles, Amanda; Melchionna, Simone; Latt, Jonas; Succi, Sauro; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2012-02-01

    Cardiovascular disease is currently the leading cause of death in the United States, and early detection is critical. Despite advances in imaging technology, 50% of these deaths occur suddenly and with no prior symptoms. The development and progression of coronary diseases such as atherosclerosis has been linked to prolonged areas of low endothelial shear stress (ESS); however, there is currently no way to measure ESS in vivo. We will present a patient specific fluid simulation that applies the Lattice Boltzmann equation to model the blood flow in the coronary arteries whose geometries are derived from computed tomography angiography data. Using large-scale supercomputers up to 294,912 processors, we can model a full heartbeat at the resolution of the red blood cells. We are investigating the time dependent deformational forces exerted on the arterial flows from the movement of the heart. The change in arterial curvature that occurs over a heartbeat has been shown to have significant impact on flow velocity and macroscopic quantities like shear stress. We will discuss a method for accounting for these resulting forces by casting them into a kinetic formalism via a Gauss-Hermite projection and their impact on ESS while maintaining the static geomtry obtained from CTA data.

  13. 活血化瘀疗法在呼吸系统疾病中的应用探究%The application of promoting blood circulation therapy on diseases of respiratory system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王妍

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease,asthma,interstitial lung disease,lung tumor,pneumonia and other in-fectious diseases are the most common respiratory diseases in clinic,in traditional Chinese medicine theory,"blood stasis"throughout these diseases. Therefore,promoting blood circulation therapy has an important position in clinical worK. This Kind of drug has its unique role in the treatment of traditional Chinese medicine,it also match the requirements of the mod-ern pharmacology research. This article proved the effectivity and scientific of promoting blood circulation therapy based on data compilation of clinical practices and experimental studies. This also provided foundation for the combination of tradi-tional Chinese and western medicine therapy.%呼吸系统疾病包含了慢性阻塞性肺疾病、支气管哮喘、间质性肺疾病、肺肿瘤、肺栓塞、感染性疾病等多个病种,而通过中医理论分析,这些疾病的发生发展过程中,“瘀血”贯穿始终,因此,活血化瘀疗法在呼吸系统疾病的治疗中有着非常重要的地位,临床工作中我们发现这类药物除了本身的中医治疗特色之外,也符合现代药理研究的要求,本文通过对临床实践及实验研究的资料整理,证实了活血化瘀疗法的有效性和科学性,同时也为中西医联合治疗奠定了基础。

  14. Toward Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Monitoring via Pulse Transit Time: Theory and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukkamala, Ramakrishna; Hahn, Jin-Oh; Inan, Omer T; Mestha, Lalit K; Kim, Chang-Sei; Töreyin, Hakan; Kyal, Survi

    2015-08-01

    Ubiquitous blood pressure (BP) monitoring is needed to improve hypertension detection and control and is becoming feasible due to recent technological advances such as in wearable sensing. Pulse transit time (PTT) represents a well-known potential approach for ubiquitous BP monitoring. The goal of this review is to facilitate the achievement of reliable ubiquitous BP monitoring via PTT. We explain the conventional BP measurement methods and their limitations; present models to summarize the theory of the PTT-BP relationship; outline the approach while pinpointing the key challenges; overview the previous work toward putting the theory to practice; make suggestions for best practice and future research; and discuss realistic expectations for the approach.

  15. Repercussões do pneumoperitônio sobre o sistema venoso dos membros inferiores-estudo em porcas The effect of pneumoperitoneum in the blood circulation of the lower limbs-a swine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Valezi

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A trombose venosa profunda e a embolia pulmonar são complicações dos atos cirúrgicos nem sempre diagnosticadas. Nas operações pela via laparoscópica, a insuflação do CO2 na cavidade peritoneal é provavelmente a principal determinante da estase venosa nos membros inferiores. Este trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de determinar a influência do pneumoperitônio na dinâmica circulatória dos membros inferiores. Distribuíram-se trinta porcas em três grupos: sem pneumoperitônio, com pneumoperitônio de 10mmHg e de l5mmHg de pressão intra-abdominal. Foram medidas a freqüência e débito cardíacos, pressão arterial média, pressão e diâmetro da artéria e veia femorais, velocidade do fluxo arterial e venoso femorais. Após a realização do pneumoperitônio foi encontrado aumento significativo na pressão e no diâmetro da veia femoral e diminuição significativa na velocidade do fluxo venoso femoral. A elevação da pressão venosa femoral e a diminuição da velocidade do fluxo venoso femoral foram mais intensas com o aumento da pressão intra-abdominal. Todos os parâmetros analisados retornaram aos valores iniciais após o esvaziamento do pneumoperitônio.Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are complications of surgical procedures, the most of times underdiagnosticated. ln laparoscopic surgery, the carbon dioxide insuflation into the peritoneal cavity is probably the cause of venous stasis of the lower limbs. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of pneumoperitoneum in the blood circulation of the lower limbs. Thirty female pigs were divided in three groups: 1- without pneumoperitoneum; I - with 10 mmHg; and II - with 15 mmHg of abdominal pressure levels. Within the clinical parameters were analysed heart rate, cardiac output and mean arterial pressure to certify that the haemodynamic changes would not be gilty for the modifications of lower limbs circulation. This analysis did not find significant

  16. [Efficacy of troxerutin on the flow properties of blood under defined conditions of circulation. A double-blind study of patients with diabetic retinopathy and arteriosclerotic retinopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallasch, G; Dörfer, C; Schmitt, T; Stage, A

    1985-07-01

    In a clinically controlled double-blind study it was demonstrated that tri-(hydroxyethyl)-rutin is not capable of significantly improving blood viscosity or one of its constituent factors. On the basis of data from 58 patients, none of whom was under 43 years old, it was possible to show that the substance tested has no favorable influence on plasma viscosity, erythrocyte deformability and aggregation, or on the concentration of plasma proteins which promote aggregation. Thus, in the very group of patients for whom an improvement in blood flow properties by means of oral administration of tri-(hydroxyethyl)rutin had been hoped for, no therapeutic effect could be demonstrated.

  17. Optimal time for human umbilical cord blood cell transplantation in rats with myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Yun-li; SHEN Lu-hua; LI Hong-wei; ZHANG Yu-chen; ZHAO Lin; ZHAO Shu-mei; XU Qing

    2009-01-01

    Background Cell therapy for cardiac regeneration is still under investigation. To date there have been a limited number of studies describing the optimal time for cell injection. The present study aimed to examine the optimal time for human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) transplantation after myocardial infarction (MI).Methods The animals underwent MI by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and received an intravenous injection of equal volumes of HUCBCs or phosphate buffered saline at days 1,5,10 and 30 after MI. HUCBCs were detected by immunostaining against human human leucocyte antigen (HLA). Cardiac function, histological analysis and measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were performed 4 weeks after cell transplantation. Results HUCBCs transplantation could improve cardiac function in rats that received transplantation at 5 and 10 days after MI. The best benefit was achieved in rats that received cells at 10-day after MI. Survival of engrafted HUCBCs, angiogenesis and VEGF expression were more obvious in the 10-day transplantation group than in the other transplantation groups. No evidence of cardiomyocyte regeneration was detected in any transplanted rats. Conclusions HUCBCs transplantation could improve cardiac function in rats that received HUCBCs at days 5 and 10 after MI with the optimal time for transplantation being 10 days post MI. Angiogenesis, but not cardiomyocyte regeneration, played a key role in the cardiac function improvement.

  18. 清热活血方药治疗类风湿关节炎疗效分析%Analysis of Therapeutic Effect of Clearing Heat and Activating Blood Circulation in the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震

    2014-01-01

    目的:对清热活血方药对类风湿关节炎患者的临床治疗效果进行分析性研究和探讨。方法选取本院2013年5月至2014年5月经我院进行治疗的80例类风湿性关节炎的患者采用清热活血方药的方法进行治疗。结果治疗后,表现出食欲不振和出现皮疹以及头痛还有恶心等症状的患者各1例,有2例患者发生不良反应,其不良反应率7.5%。P<0.05其差异有统计学意义。结论对类风湿关节炎患者采用清热活血方药进行治疗对其疼痛、肿胀、晨僵等症状有着很好的改善作用,对于提高患者的治疗效果有着积极作用,值得推广临床使用。%Objective The effect of heat treatment on clinical and promoting blood circulation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis analytical study and discussion.Methods Select hospital in May 2013 to 2014 5 menstrual hospital for treatment of 80 cases of rheumatoid arthritis were treated with heat treatment methods and promoting blood circulation.Results After treatment, patients showed a loss of appetite and a rash and headache as well as nausea and other symptoms of each one case,there are two cases of patients with adverse reactions,adverse reaction rate of 7.5%.P<0.05 the differences were statistically significant. Conclusion Rheumatoid arthritis patients treated using heat and promoting blood circulation to their pain,swelling, morning stiffness and other symptoms have a very good improvement,to improve the treatment of patients with a positive role worthy of clinical use.

  19. Asymptotic analysis of blood flow in stented arteries: time dependency and direct simulations***

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichon Gostaf Kirill

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to extend in two distinct directions results recently obtained in [10]. In a first step we focus on the possible extension of our results to the time dependent case. Whereas in the second part some preliminary numerical simulations aim to give orders of magnitudes in terms of numerical costs of direct 3D simulations. We consider, in the first part, the time dependent rough problem for a simplified heat equation in a straight channel that mimics the axial velocity under an oscillating pressure gradient. We derive first order approximations with respect to ϵ, the size of the roughness. In order to understand the problem and set up correct boundary layer approximations, we perform a time periodic fourier analysis and check that no frequency can interact with the roughness. We show rigorously on this toy problem that the boundary layers remain stationary in time (independent on the frequency number. Finally we perform numerical tests validating our theoretical approach. In the second part, we determine actual limits, when running three-dimensional blood flow simulations of the non-homogenized stented arteries. We solve the stationary Stokes equations for an artery containing a saccular aneurysm. Consecutive levels of uniform mesh refinement, serve to relate spatial resolution, problem scale, and required computation time. Test computations are presented for femoral side aneurysm, where a simplified ten-wire stent model was placed across the aneurysm throat. We advocate the proposed stent homogenization model, by concluding that an actual computation power is not sufficient to run accurate, direct simulations of a pulsatile flow in stented vessels.

  20. A multiple time stepping algorithm for efficient multiscale modeling of platelets flowing in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Na; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2015-03-01

    We developed a multiple time-stepping (MTS) algorithm for multiscale modeling of the dynamics of platelets flowing in viscous blood plasma. This MTS algorithm improves considerably the computational efficiency without significant loss of accuracy. This study of the dynamic properties of flowing platelets employs a combination of the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and the coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) methods to describe the dynamic microstructures of deformable platelets in response to extracellular flow-induced stresses. The disparate spatial scales between the two methods are handled by a hybrid force field interface. However, the disparity in temporal scales between the DPD and CGMD that requires time stepping at microseconds and nanoseconds respectively, represents a computational challenge that may become prohibitive. Classical MTS algorithms manage to improve computing efficiency by multi-stepping within DPD or CGMD for up to one order of magnitude of scale differential. In order to handle 3-4 orders of magnitude disparity in the temporal scales between DPD and CGMD, we introduce a new MTS scheme hybridizing DPD and CGMD by utilizing four different time stepping sizes. We advance the fluid system at the largest time step, the fluid-platelet interface at a middle timestep size, and the nonbonded and bonded potentials of the platelet structural system at two smallest timestep sizes. Additionally, we introduce parameters to study the relationship of accuracy versus computational complexities. The numerical experiments demonstrated 3000x reduction in computing time over standard MTS methods for solving the multiscale model. This MTS algorithm establishes a computationally feasible approach for solving a particle-based system at multiple scales for performing efficient multiscale simulations.

  1. Blood Transfusion and Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  2. Biodegradable long-circulating polymeric nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gref, R; Minamitake, Y; Peracchia, M T; Trubetskoy, V; Torchilin, V; Langer, R

    1994-03-18

    Injectable nanoparticulate carriers have important potential applications such as site-specific drug delivery or medical imaging. Conventional carriers, however, cannot generally be used because they are eliminated by the reticulo-endothelial system within seconds or minutes after intravenous injection. To address these limitations, monodisperse biodegradable nanospheres were developed from amphiphilic copolymers composed of two biocompatible blocks. The nanospheres exhibited dramatically increased blood circulation times and reduced liver accumulation in mice. Furthermore, they entrapped up to 45 percent by weight of the drug in the dense core in a one-step procedure and could be freeze-dried and easily redispersed without additives in aqueous solutions.

  3. Circulating DNA as Potential Biomarker for Cancer Individualized Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Shaorong; Liu Baorui; Lu Jianwei; Feng Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    Cancer individualized therapy often requires for gene mutation analysis of tumor tissue. However, tumor tissue is not always available in clinical practice, particularly from patients with refractory and recurrence disease. Even if patients have sufifcient tumor tissue for detection, as development of cancer, the gene status and drug sensitivity of tumor tissues could also change. Hence, screening mutations from primary tumor tissues becomes useless, it’s necessary to ifnd a surrogate tumor tissue for individualized gene screening. Circulating DNA is digested rapidly from blood, which could provide real-time information of the released fragment and make the real-time detection possible. Therefore, it’s expected that circulating DNA could be a potential tumor biomarker for cancer individualized therapy. This review focuses on the biology and clinical utility of circulating DNA mainly on gene mutation detection. Besides, its current status and possible direction in this research area is summarized and discussed objectively.

  4. Identification of blood culture isolates directly from positive blood cultures by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and a commercial extraction system: analysis of performance, cost, and turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Adam, Heather J; Karlowsky, James A; Nichol, Kimberly A; Pang, Paulette F; Guenther, Jodi; Webb, Amanda A; Miller, Crystal; Alfa, Michelle J

    2012-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry represents a revolution in the rapid identification of bacterial and fungal pathogens in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Recently, MALDI-TOF has been applied directly to positive blood culture bottles for the rapid identification of pathogens, leading to reductions in turnaround time and potentially beneficial patient impacts. The development of a commercially available extraction kit (Bruker Sepsityper) for use with the Bruker MALDI BioTyper has facilitated the processing required for identification of pathogens directly from positive from blood cultures. We report the results of an evaluation of the accuracy, cost, and turnaround time of this method for 61 positive monomicrobial and 2 polymicrobial cultures representing 26 species. The Bruker MALDI BioTyper with the Sepsityper gave a valid (score, >1.7) identification for 85.2% of positive blood cultures with no misidentifications. The mean reduction in turnaround time to identification was 34.3 h (P blood cultures and 26.5 h in a more practical setting where conventional identification or identification from subcultures was required for isolates that could not be directly identified by MALDI-TOF. Implementation of a MALDI-TOF-based identification system for direct identification of pathogens from blood cultures is expected to be associated with a marginal increase in operating costs for most laboratories. However, the use of MALDI-TOF for direct identification is accurate and should result in reduced turnaround time to identification.

  5. A comparison of two methods for calculating CR (time constant) during studies of arterial blood flow in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaoka, K; Ogawa, K

    1990-11-01

    Some of our earlier reports have dealt with experiments on the central caudal arteries of a series of anesthetized rats. The results of these experiments were expressed by a relationship derived from the Windkessel theory where f(t) = alpha dz(t)/dt + beta z(t). When this theory is used, the measured blood flow forms f(t) and calculated wave forms alpha dz(t)/dt + beta z(t) agree closely. In these studies, we discovered that, when blood flow adz(t)/dt + beta z(t) agree closely. In these studies, we discovered that, when blood flow decreases, CR (time constant tau, the product of the blood vessel compliance C and the peripheral resistance R) values increase and vary widely. In the present study, 1) we investigated changes in CR when blood flow increases, and, 2) the method of least squares was used in calculating the formula given above. We achieved a better conformity between measured blood flow and calculated blood flow and perceived a clearer relationship between mean blood flow and CR than when they were calculated by the old method.

  6. Reducing time to identification of positive blood cultures with MALDI-TOF MS analysis after a 5-h subculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verroken, A; Defourny, L; Lechgar, L; Magnette, A; Delmée, M; Glupczynski, Y

    2015-02-01

    Speeding up the turn-around time of positive blood culture identifications is essential in order to optimize the treatment of septic patients. Several sample preparation techniques have been developed allowing direct matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification of positive blood cultures. Yet, the hands-on time restrains their routine workflow. In this study, we evaluated an approach whereby MALDI-TOF MS identification without any additional steps was carried out on short subcultured colonies from positive blood bottles with the objective of allowing results reporting on the day of positivity detection. Over a 7-month period in 2012, positive blood cultures detected by 9 am with an automated system were inoculated onto a Columbia blood agar and processed after a 5-h incubation on a MALDI-TOF MicroFlex platform (Bruker Daltonik GmbH). Single-spotted colonies were covered with 1 μl formic acid and 1 μl matrix solution. The results were compared to the validated identification techniques. A total of 925 positive blood culture bottles (representing 470 bacteremic episodes) were included. Concordant identification was obtained in 727 (81.1 %) of the 896 monomicrobial blood cultures, with failure being mostly observed with anaerobes and yeasts. In 17 episodes of polymicrobic bacteremia, the identification of one of the two isolates was achieved in 24/29 (82.7 %) positive cultures. Routine implementation of MALDI-TOF MS identification on young positive blood subcultures provides correct results to the clinician in more than 80 % of the bacteremic episodes and allows access to identification results on the day of blood culture positivity detection, potentially accelerating the implementation of targeted clinical treatments.

  7. 外周血循环肿瘤细胞的检测在前列腺癌中的应用%Detection and clinical application of circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of patients with prostate cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿元元; 戴波

    2013-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most common urogenital malignant tumor among males in Western countries. Recently, more and more prostate cancer patients were diagnosed in China. Tumor metastasis is one of the main cause for the failure of prostate cancer treatment. Tumor cells entering into circulation system is the prerequisite for tumor metastasis in the distant organs. Many studies began to focus on circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood (CTC) because it could represent individual tumor characteristics. This review focused on the detection, enumeration and biomarkers of CTC.%  前列腺癌是欧美国家最常见的男性泌尿生殖系统恶性肿瘤。近年来,我国前列腺癌的发病率明显升高。肿瘤转移是导致多数前列腺癌患者治疗失败的重要原因,而肿瘤细胞进入外周血循环系统是远处器官转移的先决条件。外周血中循环肿瘤细胞(circulating tumor cell,CTC)因能反映患者个体的肿瘤特征,且较易获得而受到众多学者的关注。本文就CTC的检测方法以及CTC计数和分子标志物在前列腺癌中的研究进展作一综述。

  8. Occupational and leisure time physical activity in contrasting relation to ambulatory blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clays Els

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While moderate and vigorous leisure time physical activities are well documented to decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease, several studies have demonstrated an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in workers with high occupational activity. Research on the underlying causes to the contrasting effects of occupational and leisure time physical activity on cardiovascular health is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the relation of objective and self-report measures of occupational and leisure time physical activity with 24-h ambulatory systolic blood pressure (BP. Methods Results for self-reported physical activity are based on observations in 182 workers (60% male, mean age 51 years, while valid objective physical activity data were available in 151 participants. The usual level of physical activity was assessed by 5 items from the Job Content Questionnaire (high physical effort, lifting heavy loads, rapid physical activity, awkward body positions and awkward positions of head or arms at work and one item asking about the general level of physical activity during non-working time. On a regular working day, participants wore an ambulatory BP monitor and an accelerometer physical activity monitor during 24 h. Associations were examined by means of Analysis of Covariance. Results Workers with an overall high level of self-reported occupational physical activity as well as those who reported to often lift heavy loads at work had a higher mean systolic BP at work, at home and during sleep. However, no associations were observed between objectively measured occupational physical activity and BP. In contrast, those with objectively measured high proportion of moderate and vigorous leisure time physical activity had a significantly lower mean systolic BP during daytime, while no differences were observed according to self-reported level of leisure time physical activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that

  9. Time course of changes in heart rate and blood pressure variability in rats with myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aires

    Full Text Available Our aim was to determine the time course of changes in autonomic balance in the acute (1 and 3 days, sub-acute (7 days and chronic (28 days phases of myocardial infarction (MI in rats. Autonomic balance was assessed by temporal and spectral analyses of blood pressure variability (BPV and heart rate variability (HRV. Pulsatile blood pressure (BP recordings (30 min were obtained in awake and unrestrained male Wistar rats (N = 77; 8-10 weeks old with MI (coronary ligature or sham operation (SO. Data are reported as means±SE. The high frequency (HF component (n.u. of HRV was significantly lower in MI-1- (P0.05. This reduction was mainly due to attenuation of the low frequency (LF band of BPV in absolute and normalized units (SO-1=39.3±7%; SO-3=55±4.5%; SO-7=46.8±4.5%; SO-28=45.7±5%; MI-1=13±3.5%; MI-3=35±4.7%; MI-7=25±2.8%; MI-28=21.4±2.8%. The results suggest that the reduction in HRV was associated with decrease of the HF component of HRV suggesting recovery of the vagal control of heartbeats along the post-infarction healing period. The depression of BPV was more dependent on the attenuation of the LF component, which is linked to the baroreflex modulation of the autonomic balance.

  10. Time course of changes in heart rate and blood pressure variability in rats with myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, R.; Pimentel, E.B.; Forechi, L.; Dantas, E.M.; Mill, J.G.

    2017-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the time course of changes in autonomic balance in the acute (1 and 3 days), sub-acute (7 days) and chronic (28 days) phases of myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Autonomic balance was assessed by temporal and spectral analyses of blood pressure variability (BPV) and heart rate variability (HRV). Pulsatile blood pressure (BP) recordings (30 min) were obtained in awake and unrestrained male Wistar rats (N = 77; 8-10 weeks old) with MI (coronary ligature) or sham operation (SO). Data are reported as means±SE. The high frequency (HF) component (n.u.) of HRV was significantly lower in MI-1- (P0.05). This reduction was mainly due to attenuation of the low frequency (LF) band of BPV in absolute and normalized units (SO-1=39.3±7%; SO-3=55±4.5%; SO-7=46.8±4.5%; SO-28=45.7±5%; MI-1=13±3.5%; MI-3=35±4.7%; MI-7=25±2.8%; MI-28=21.4±2.8%). The results suggest that the reduction in HRV was associated with decrease of the HF component of HRV suggesting recovery of the vagal control of heartbeats along the post-infarction healing period. The depression of BPV was more dependent on the attenuation of the LF component, which is linked to the baroreflex modulation of the autonomic balance. PMID:28076450

  11. Pulsatile microvascular blood flow imaging by short-time Fourier transform analysis of ultrafast laser holographic interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Puyo, L; Rancillac, A; Simonutti, M; Paques, M; Sahel, J A; Fink, M; Atlan, M

    2015-01-01

    We report on wide-field imaging of pulsatile microvascular blood flow in the exposed cerebral cortex of a mouse by holographic interferometry. We recorded interferograms of laser light backscattered by the tissue, beating against an off-axis reference beam with a 50 kHz framerate camera. Videos of local Doppler contrasts were rendered numerically by Fresnel transformation and short-time Fourier transform analysis. This approach enabled instantaneous imaging of pulsatile blood flow contrasts in superficial blood vessels over 256 x 256 pixels with a spatial resolution of 10 microns and a temporal resolution of 20 ms.

  12. Study on measure of lung circulation time with 640 VCT in lung function assessment for COPD%640层容积CT肺循环时间的测定在COPD患者肺功能评价的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜涛; 杨永山; 李丽娜; 樊春玲; 李昕

    2013-01-01

      目的:通过肺循环时间的测定来反映COPD患者肺弥散功能的强弱。方法:对35例患者分别经640VCT进行肺循环时间测定与肺灌注显像对比分析。结果:按肺灌注受损面积小于25%的肺循环时间为12.86±2.43秒8例,受损面积25%~50%肺循环时间为17.56±2.53秒18例,受损面积大于50%肺循环时间大于22.35秒9例;结论:COPD患者由于肺泡壁的破坏引起毛细血管床的减少而血流减少,通过肺循环相对时间的测定,能够准确判定肺弥散功能的受损程度。%Objective: To reflect the strength of the lung dispersion function through the pulmonary circulation time determination of COPD patients. Methods: 35 patients by 640 respectively VCT pulmonary circulation time measurement the pulmonary perfusion imaging contrast analysis. Results: According to the pulmonary perfusion damage area was less than 25% of the pulmonary circulation time was 12.86+/-2.43 (s), 8 cases of the damaged area of 25%~50%pulmonary circulation time was 17.56+/- 2.53 (s) 18 cases, the damaged area was more than 50% pulmonary circulation time more than 22.35 (s), 9; Conclusion: Patients with COPD due to the destruction of the alveolar walls caused by capillary bed decreased blood flow was decreased, through the pulmonary circulation relative time measurement, to determine the accurate lung dispersion function of the degree of damage.

  13. Storage time of red blood cells and mortality of transfusion recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelburg, Rutger A; van de Watering, Leo M G; Briët, Ernest; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2013-01-01

    Storage of red cells and the associated storage lesion have been suggested to contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether increasing storage time of red cells is associated with mortality of recipients. From all patients who received red cell transfusions between January 2005 and May 2009, in the Leiden University Medical Center, we selected those who received only-young or only-old red cells, defined as below or above the median storage time. Mortality was compared in a Cox regression model. Subsequently, similar comparisons were made between subgroups with increasing contrast between old and young red cells. Among adult patients, after correction for potential confounders, the hazard ratio of death within 1 year after receiving red cells stored for more than 17 days compared with 17 days or less was 0.98 (95% confidence interval, 0.83-1.2). With increasing contrast, the hazard ratio decreased to 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.97) for red cells stored for more than 24 days compared with less than 10 days. In contrast to what has previously been suggested, we find an almost 2-fold increase in mortality rate after the transfusion of fresh red cells compared with old red cells. Results dependent on analyses chosen and previous studies may not have used optimal analyses. The tendency to demand ever-fresher blood could actually be detrimental for at least some patient groups.

  14. Real-time frequency-domain fiber optic sensor for intra-arterial blood oxygen measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcala, J. R.; Scott, Ian L.; Parker, Jennifer W.; Atwater, Beauford W.; Yu, Clement; Fischer, Russell; Bellingrath, K.

    1993-05-01

    A real time frequency domain phosphorimeter capable of measuring precise and accurate excited state lifetimes for determining oxygen is described. This frequency domain instrument does not make use of cross correlation techniques traditionally used in frequency domain fluorometers. Instead, the electrical signal from the detector is filtered to contain only the first several harmonics. This filtered signal is then sampled and averaged over a few thousand cycles. The absolute phase and absolute modulation of each sampled harmonic of the excitation and of the luminescence is computed by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio is then calculated at each harmonic frequency. A least squares fit is performed in the frequency domain to obtain the lifetimes of discrete exponentials. Oxygen concentrations are computed from these lifetimes. Prototypes based on these techniques were built employing commercially available components. Results from measurements in saline solution and in the arterial blood of dogs show that oxygen concentrations can be determined reproducibly. The system drift is less than 1% in over 100 hours of continuous operation. The performance of fiber optic sensors was evaluated in dogs over a period of 10 hours. The sensors tracked changes in arterial oxygen tension over the course of the experiment without instabilities. The overall response of the system was about 90 seconds. The update time was 3 seconds.

  15. Timing and topography of cerebral blood flow, aura, and headache during migraine attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J; Friberg, L; Olsen, T S

    1990-01-01

    and statistically significant spatial relations. The first observable event was a decrease of regional cerebral blood flow posteriorly in one cerebral hemisphere. Further development of this pathological process was accompanied by the aura symptoms. Thereafter headache occurred while regional cerebral blood flow...... remained decreased. During the headache phase, regional cerebral blood flow gradually changed from abnormally low to abnormally high without apparent change in headache. In some patients headache disappeared while regional cerebral blood flow remained increased. Although regional cerebral blood flow...... reduction and aura symptoms in the great majority of patients were unilateral, one-third had bilateral headache. Unilateral headache usually localized to the side on which regional cerebral blood flow was reduced and from which the aura symptoms originated (i.e., aura symptoms were perceived to occur...

  16. Determination of time delay between blood and interstitial adipose tissue glucose concentration change by microdialysis in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, KJC; Schoonen, AJM

    2001-01-01

    For the development and use of subcutaneous glucose sensors it is important to know the time lag between changes in blood glucose and subcutaneous interstitial glucose concentration. To determine the time lag we inserted a microdialysis probe into the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy

  17. Detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis in canine blood by a single-tube real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction assay and melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongklieng, Amornmas; Intapan, Pewpan M; Boonmars, Thidarut; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Janwan, Penchom; Sanpool, Oranuch; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2015-03-01

    A real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer polymerase chain reaction (qFRET PCR) coupled with melting curve analysis was developed for detection of Babesia canis vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections in canine blood samples in a single tube assay. The target of the assay was a region within the 18S ribosomal RNA gene amplified in either species by a single pair of primers. Following amplification from the DNA of infected dog blood, a fluorescence melting curve analysis was done. The 2 species, B. canis vogeli and H. canis, could be detected and differentiated in infected dog blood samples (n = 37) with high sensitivity (100%). The detection limit for B. canis vogeli was 15 copies of a positive control plasmid, and for H. canis, it was 150 copies of a positive control plasmid. The assay could simultaneously distinguish the DNA of both parasites from the DNA of controls. Blood samples from 5 noninfected dogs were negative, indicating high specificity. Several samples can be run at the same time. The assay can reduce misdiagnosis and the time associated with microscopic examination, and is not prone to the carryover contamination associated with the agarose gel electrophoresis step of conventional PCR. In addition, this qFRET PCR method would be useful to accurately determine the range of endemic areas or to discover those areas where the 2 parasites co-circulate.

  18. The circulation physiology of agroecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zhiping; Richard Dawson

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents an effort to enlarge the understanding of the biophysical foundation of agroecosystems by using an analogy with the circulation of the blood in the human body. The circulation function in the human body can be represented as arterial pressure. The factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body have direct counterparts in the cultivation-husbandry system. The relationship between circulation pressure and the factors affecting that pressure in the cultivation-husbandry system are similar to the relationship between the arterial pressure and factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body. Furthermore, circulation resistance in the cultivation-husbandry system can be shown to be analogous to the calculation of peripheral resistance in the human body by Poiseuille's formula.

  19. Measurements Of Coronary Mean Transit Time And Myocardial Tissue Blood Flow By Deconvolution Of Intravasal Tracer Dilution Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korb, H.; Hoeft, A.; Hellige, G.

    1984-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that intramyocardial blood volume does not vary to a major extent even during extreme variation of hemodynamics and coronary vascular tone. Based on a constant intramyocardial blood volume it is therefore possible to calculate tissue blood flow from the mean transit time of an intravascular tracer. The purpose of this study was to develop a clinically applicable method for measurement of coronary blood flow. The new method was based on indocyanine green, a dye which is bound to albumin and intravasally detectable by means of a fiberoptic catheter device. One fiberoptic catheter was placed in the aortic root and another in the coronary sinus. After central venous dye injection the resulting arterial and coronary venous dye dilution curves were processed on-line by a micro-computer. The mean transit time as well as myocardial blood flow were calculated from the step response function of the deconvoluted arterial and coronary venous signals. Reference flow was determined with an extracorporeal electromagnetic flowprobe within a coronary sinus bypass system. 38 steady states with coronary blood flow ranging from 49 - 333 ml/min*100g were analysed in 5 dogs. Mean transit times varied from 2.9 to 16.6 sec. An average intracoronary blood volume of 13.9 -7 1.8 m1/100g was calculated. The correlation between flow determined by the dye dilution technique and flow measured with the reference method was 0.98. According to these results determination of coronary blood flow with a double fiberoptic system and indocyanine green should be possible even under clinical conditions. Furthermore, the arterial and coronary venous oxygen saturation can be monitored continuously by the fiberoptic catheters. Therefore, additional information about the performance of the heart such as myocardial oxygen consumption and myocardial efficiency is available with the same equipment.

  20. Universal Probe Library based real-time PCR for rapid detection of bacterial pathogens from positive blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lingxiang; Shen, Ding-Xia; Zhou, Qiming; Liu, Chao-Jun; Li, Zexia; Fang, Xiangdong; Li, Quan-Zhen

    2014-03-01

    A set of real-time PCR based assays using the locked nucleic acid probes from Roche Universal ProbeLibrary were developed for rapid detection of eight bacterial species from positive blood culture bottles. Four duplex real-time PCR reactions targeting to one Gram-positive bacterium and one Gram-negative bacterium were optimized for species identification according to Gram stain results. We also included mecA-specific primers and probes in the assays to indicate the presence of methicillin resistance in the bacterial species. The analytical sensitivity was in the range of 1-10 CFU per PCR reaction mixture. The specificity and cross reactivity of the assay was validated by 28 ATCC reference strains and 77 negative blood culture specimens. No cross-reactivity was observed in these samples thus demonstrating 100 % specificity. 72 previously characterized clinical isolates were tested by the real-time PCR assay and validated the accuracy and feasibility of the real-time PCR assay. Furthermore, 55 positive blood culture samples were tested using real-time PCR and 50 (90.9 %) of them were identified as the same species as judged by biochemical analysis. In total, real-time PCR showed 98.2 % consistent to that of traditional methods. Real-time PCR can be used as a supplement for early detection of the frequently-occurred pathogens from the positive blood cultures.

  1. Early Postnatal Blood Pressure in Preterm Infants : Effects of Chorioamnionitis and Timing of Antenatal Steroids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, Jasper V.; Kornelisse, Rene F.; Rours, Ingrid G. I. J. G.; Passos, Valeria Lima; De Krijger, Ronald R.; Zimmermann, Luc J. I.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest postnatal blood pressure in preterm infants to be decreased by chorioamnionitis and increased by antenatal steroids (AS). We examined the adjusted effects of both antenatal modulators on postnatal blood pressure (BP), with separate effects reported for histologic chorioamnio

  2. Historical time trends in red blood cell usage in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeven, Loan R; Koopman, Maria M W; Koffijberg, Hendrik; Roes, Kit C.B.; Janssen, Mart P

    2016-01-01

    Background: While the number of hospitalized patients in Dutch hospitals has increased since 1997, the demand for red blood cell units (RBCs) has simultaneously decreased. This implies a dramatic change in transfusion practice toward fewer blood transfusions on average per patient. Objectives: In or

  3. Real-time blood cross-matching sensor for intelligent management of transfusion safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasubramanian, M K; Anthony, Steven R

    2004-01-01

    Blood transfusion errors are not uncommon. In some cases the error is fatal. This is primarily due to lack of an automated system at the point of application and over-reliance on bar-coding and paperwork to catch these critical errors. In emergency situations, human errors contribute to transfusion and transplantation of incompatible blood types and organs resulting in rejection and possible fatality. We present a sensing concept that will monitor blood compatibility between the patient and the transfusion bag before allowing the valve to open for transfusion to take place. This will eliminate all transfusion errors and provide 100% safe transfusions automatically. The operating principle of the sensor is based on the light scattering characteristics of dilute blood and the effect of agglutination on scattering. The device proposed is an optical system based on spectrophotometric methods. The device configuration, and results from several tests with combinations of known blood samples will be presented.

  4. Time course study of blood pressure in term and preterm infants immediately after birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Pichler

    Full Text Available To describe temporal changes in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure (SBP, DBP, and MBP, respectively in term and preterm infants immediately after birth.Prospective observational two-center study. In term infants SBP, DBP, and MBP were assessed non-invasively every minute for the first 15 minutes, and in preterm infants every minute for the first 15 minutes, as well as at 20, 25, 30, 45, and 60 minutes after birth. Regression analyses were performed by gender and respiratory support in all neonates; and by mode of delivery, cord clamping time, and development of ultrasound-detected brain injury in preterm neonates.Term infants (n = 54 had a mean (SD birth weight of 3298 (442 g and gestational age of 38 (1 weeks, and preterm infants (n = 94 weighed 1340 (672 g and were 30 (3 weeks gestation. Term infants' SBP, DBP and MBP within the first 15 minutes after birth were independent of gender or respiratory support. Linear mixed regression analysis showed that preterm infants, who were female, born vaginally, had delayed cord clamping and did not require positive pressure ventilation nor develop periventricular injury or ventriculomegaly, had significantly higher SBP, DBP, and MBP at some measurement points within the first hour after birth.We present novel reference ranges of BP immediately after birth in a cohort of term and preterm neonates. They may aid in optimization of cardiovascular support during early transition at all gestations.

  5. Quantification of viral genome in cord blood donors by real time PCR to investigate human herpesvirus type 8 active infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golchin, Neda; Kheirandish, Maryam; Sharifi, Zohreh; Samiee, Shahram; Kokhaei, Parviz; Pourpak, Zahra

    2015-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is one of the most important sources of hematopoietic stem cells which can be used for transplantation. The transplanted CB stem cells might cause infections in recipients. The aim of this study is to evaluate Human Herpes Virus8 (HHV8) as a Rhadinovirus among CB samples in order to assess safety of cord blood stem cells transplantation. To assess this aim, we surveyed 800 cord blood specimens by Real Time PCR.The overall HHV8 incidence in cord blood mononuclear cells was 1.38% and none of them was in lytic phase of HHV8. The authors suggest further HHV8 study on CB samples for transplantation.

  6. Comparison of DNA extraction kits for detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in spiked human whole blood using real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Podnecky

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia and can cause severe septicemia that may lead to death in 20% to 50% of cases. Rapid detection of B. pseudomallei infection is crucial for timely treatment of septic patients. This study evaluated seven commercially available DNA extraction kits to determine the relative recovery of B. pseudomallei DNA from spiked EDTA-containing human whole blood. The evaluation included three manual kits: the QIAamp DNA Mini kit, the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit, and the High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit; and four automated systems: the MagNAPure LC using the DNA Isolation Kit I, the MagNAPure Compact using the Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I, and the QIAcube using the QIAamp DNA Mini kit and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit. Detection of B. pseudomallei DNA extracted by each kit was performed using the B. pseudomallei specific type III secretion real-time PCR (TTS1 assay. Crossing threshold (C T values were used to compare the limit of detection and reproducibility of each kit. This study also compared the DNA concentrations and DNA purity yielded for each kit. The following kits consistently yielded DNA that produced a detectable signal from blood spiked with 5.5×10(4 colony forming units per mL: the High Pure PCR Template Preparation, QIAamp DNA Mini, MagNA Pure Compact, and the QIAcube running the QIAamp DNA Mini and QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kits. The High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit yielded the lowest limit of detection with spiked blood, but when this kit was used with blood from patients with confirmed cases of melioidosis, the bacteria was not reliably detected indicating blood may not be an optimal specimen.

  7. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  8. Real-time polymerase chain reaction with melting analysis of positive blood culture specimens in bloodstream infections: diagnostic value and turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Silvia; Gherardi, Giovanni; De Florio, Lucia; Avola, Alessandra; Crea, Francesca; Riva, Elisabetta; Vitali, Massimiliano Andrea; Galluzzo, Sara; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2013-01-01

    A Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with melting analysis was devised to target bacterial and fungal genes together with the most prevalent antimicrobial resistance genes in 250 positive blood culture broths. This method allowed the blood culture cultivated pathogens to be classified into clinically relevant groups such as Enterobacteriaceae, oxidase-positive bacilli, oxidase-positive coccobacilli, S. aureus and yeast. Enterococci and streptococci could be distinguished from CoNS only by the Gram stain. Gram-positive bacilli were discriminated from Gram-positive cocci by Gram stain. Furthermore, the most important antimicrobial resistant genes such as mecA, vanA, bla TEM , bla SHV and bla CTX-M could be identified. All results were obtained with a turnaround time of three hours from the moment of blood culture positivity compared to 24-72 hours for phenotypic methods. In conclusion, the proposed approach can allow the clinician to implement proper early management of sepsis patients.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF REAL-TIME MULTIPLEX PCR FOR THE QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF TREC'S AND KREC'S IN WHOLE BLOOD AND IN DRIED BLOOD SPOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gordukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies (PID such as severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and X-linked agammaglobulinemia are characterized by the lack of functional Tand B-cells, respectively. Without early diagnosis and prompt treatment children with PID suffer from severe infectious diseases, leading to their death or disability. Our purpose was developing of simple, inexpensive, high throughput technique based on the quantitative determination of TREC and KREC molecules by real-time PCR, and its validation in a group of children with a verified diagnosis of SCID and X-linked agammaglobulinemia.In this study, we developed and validated multiplex real-time PCR for the TREC’s and KREC’s quantitative analysis. We have shown that linear range of Ct changes depending on the concentrations of targets with a correlation coefficient R2 not worse than 0.98 was observed at concentrations from 109 to 5 × 104 copies per ml. The lowest amount of targets reliably detected in a reaction volume was 10 TREC’s copies, 5 KREC ‘s copies and 5 copies of internal control (IL17RA. We determined the age-depended reference values of TRECs and KRECs in whole blood in 29 boys and 27 girls with normal immunological parameters. The normal cut-offs for TRECs and KRECs were defined in dry blood spots depending on the method of extraction.The proposed method showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in the studied group. The method can be proposed as a screening tool for the diagnosis of SCID and X-linked agammaglobulinemia both in whole blood and in the dry blood spots. The further investigation is required with larger number of samples. 

  10. Evidence for an amoeba-like infectious stage of ichthyophonus sp. and description of a circulating blood stage: a probable mechanism for dispersal within the fish host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard; LaPatra, Scott; Hershberger, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Small amoeboid cells, believed to be the infectious stage of Ichthyophonus sp., were observed in the bolus (stomach contents) and tunica propria (stomach wall) of Pacific staghorn sculpins and rainbow trout shortly after they ingested Ichthyophonus sp.–infected tissues. By 24–48 hr post-exposure (PE) the parasite morphed from the classically reported multinucleate thick walled schizonts to 2 distinct cell types, i.e., a larger multinucleate amoeboid cell surrounded by a narrow translucent zone and a smaller spherical cell surrounded by a “halo” and resembling a small schizont. Both cell types also appeared in the tunica propria, indicating that they had recently penetrated the columnar epithelium of the stomach. No Ichthyophonus sp. pseudo-hyphae (“germination tubes”) were observed in the bolus or penetrating the stomach wall. Simultaneously, Ichthyophonus sp. was isolated in vitro from aortic blood, which was consistently positive from 6 to 144 hr PE, then only intermittently for the next 4 wk. Small PAS-positive cells observed in blood cultures grew into colonies consisting of non-septate tubules (pseudo-hyphae) terminating in multinucleated knob-like apices similar to those seen in organ explant cultures. Organ explants were culture positive every day; however, typical Ichthyophonus sp. schizonts were not observed histologically until 20–25 days PE. From 20 to 60 days PE, schizont diameter increased from ≤25 μm to ≥82 μm. Based on the data presented herein, we are confident that we have resolved the life cycle of Ichthyophonus sp. within the piscivorous host.

  11. Clinical studies of cerebral circulation using single photon emission computed tomography, 2; Evaluation of cerebral blood flow after acetazolamide loading on moyamoya disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uno, Toshiro [Gifu Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1993-09-01

    To evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients with moyamoya disease, single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) was performed using acetazolamide-activated {sup 133}Xe inhalation method. In the present investigation, 15 patients were subjected: 6 pediatric cases with the mean age of 10.8 years and 9 adult cases with the mean age of 44.6 years. The regional CBF (rCBF) was measured in the territory of anterior cerebral artery (ACA), middle cerebral artery (MCA), posterior cerebral artery (PCA), basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity was evaluated from the rCBF measured before and after administration of acetazolamide. Namely, cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity was expressed as %CBF and calculated as follows: %CBF=100 x (CBF after acetazolamide administration-CBF at rest)/CBF at rest. rCBF in adult patients was decreased in the cerebral hemisphere, while that in childhood was significantly decreased in the territory of ACA. The %CBF after acetazolamide loading was decreased in the territory of ACA and MCA in both adult and childhood. When cerebral %CBF was compared to the cerebellar %CBF, the ratio of cerebral %CBF and cerebellar %CBF resulted in markedly lower in childhood than adult. rCBF and cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity were also measured before and after extracranial and intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery in three pediatric moyamoya patients. Although rCBF was increased immediately after EC-IC bypass surgery, the cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity remained blunted. These results meant that in the pediatric moyamoya patients cerebrovascular acetazolamide reactivity is more blunted than adult moyamoya patients. Also, the cerebral vessels in moyamoya disease were considered to be dilated to their limitation by the blood supplied through the EC-IC bypass and not to be expandable any more by acetazolamide. (author) 45 refs.

  12. What does the time constant of the pulmonary circulation tell us about the progression of right ventricular dysfunction in pulmonary arterial hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofiore, A; Wang, Z; Chesler, N C

    2015-06-01

    Compliance (C) and resistance (R) maintain a unique, inverse relationship in the pulmonary circulation, resulting in a constant characteristic time [Formula: see text] that has been observed in healthy subjects as well as patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, little is known about the dependence of right ventricular (RV) function on the coupled changes in R and C in the context of this inverse relationship. We hypothesized three simple dependencies of RV ejection fraction (RVEF) on R and C. The first model (linear-R) assumes a linear RVEF-R relation; the second (linear-C) assumes a linear RVEF-C relation; and the third one combines the former two in a mixed linear model. We found that the linear-R model and the mixed linear model are in good agreement with clinical evidence. A conclusive validation of these models will require more clinical data. Longitudinal data in particular are needed to identify the time course of ventricular-vascular impairment in PAH. Simple models like the ones we present here, once validated, will advance our understanding of the mechanisms of RV failure, which could improve strategies to manage RV dysfunction in PAH.

  13. Research and Application of Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treatment of Children with Bronchial Asthma%浅谈活血化瘀法治疗小儿支气管哮喘的研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王增玲; 吴航

    2014-01-01

    Infantile bronchial asthma is pediatric common disease,The disease often repeated attacks or continue without remission. In recent years,Many physicians recognize the important role in the pathogenesis of asthma stasis in plays,Children with asthma and confirmed the performance of the body evident from the microscopic point of stasis,Consider the use of Chinese medicine treatment of blood circulation, Satisfactory results in terms of exacerbation or remission can be. I realized that in the clinical, On the basis of the syndrome differentiation accompanied by traditional blood circulation drugs, can achieve better results.%小儿哮喘是儿科常见病,本病常反复发作或持续不解。近年来,许多医家认识到血瘀在哮喘病的发病机制中所起的重要作用,并且从微观角度证实了哮喘患儿机体明显存在血瘀表现,认为运用中医活血化瘀药治疗,无论在发作期还是缓解期均可取得满意疗效。本研究发现,在传统辨证施治的基础上佐以活血化瘀药,可取得较好的疗效。

  14. 活血化瘀法治疗难治性反流性食道炎43例%Clinical Observation on 43 Cases of Refractory Reflux Esophagitis Treated with Promoting Blood Circulation Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏林

    2012-01-01

      目的观察活血化瘀法治疗难治性反流性食管炎的疗效。方法采用血府逐瘀汤加减(柴胡、枳壳、赤芍、桃仁、红花、太子参、茯苓、大枣、当归、生地黄、川牛膝、桔梗、穿山甲、浙贝母、陈皮、炙甘草等)治疗本病43例,对照组以奥美拉唑治疗本病41例,结果治疗组总有效率88%,对照组总有效率78%。结论活血化瘀法治疗难治性反流性食道炎疗效确切。%  Objective To observe blood circulation-based traditional Chinese medicinetreatment of refractory reflux esophagit is curative effect. Methods Use Xu-efuzhuyu Decoction Subtraction (Bupleurum,Citrus aurantium,red peony,pe-ac h kernel,safflower,heterophylla,Poria,Jujube,angeli ca,Reh-mannia,Achyranthes,Campanulaceae,Pangolin,Fritillaria,Citrus,Licorice,etc.)treatment of the disease in 43 cases.The control group treatment of the disease with Omeprazole in 41 cases.The result:treatment group efficacy is better than the control group.Conclusion this method through both strengthening is suitable to the refractory reflux esophagitis which is lingering course、blood gas deficiency and blood stasis as obvious.

  15. Late Posthemorrhagic Structural and Functional Changes in Pulmonary Circulation Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Andreyeva

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to reveal the major regularities and mechanisms of morphological changes in the rat pulmonary circulation arteries in the late posthemorrhagic period and to compare them with age-related features of the vessels. Materials and methods: experiments to generate graduated hemorrhagic hypotension with the blood pressure being maintained at 40 mm Hg were carried out on young (5—6-month albino male Wistar rats. Throughout hypotension and 60 days after blood loss, the blood was tested to determine low and average molecular-weight substances by spectrophotometry and the pro- and antioxidative systems by chemiluminescence. Pulmonary circulation arteries were morphologically studied in young animals, rats in the late posthemorrhagic period and old (24—25-month rats. Results. Sixty-minute hemorrhagic hypotension leads to the development of endotoxemia and imbalance of the pro- and antioxidative systems, the signs of which are observed in the late periods (2 months after hypotension. At the same time, the posthemorrhagic period is marked by the significant pulmonary circulation arterial morphological changes comparable with their age-related alterations in old rat. This shows up mainly in the reorganization of a connective tissue component in the vascular wall: the elevated levels of individual collagen fibers, their structural changes, elastic medial membrane destruction and deformity. At the same time, there is a change in the morphometric parameters of vessels at all study stages while their lowered flow capacity is only characteristic for intraorgan arteries. Conclusion: The increased activity of free radical oxidation and endotoxemia may be believed to be one of the causes of morphological changes in pulmonary circulation arteries in the late posthemorrhagic period, which is similar to age-related vascular alterations. Key words: hemorrhagic hypotension, pulmonary circulation arteries, free radical oxidation, endotoxemia, remodeling, late

  16. The effect of time from last food intake on arterial blood gases: Implication on reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedpour Anaraki M

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Arterial blood gas parameters were analyzed in forty-nine healthy persons (31 males, 18 females to detemine reference values fo these parameters and their relation to the time from last food intake to arterial puncture (T. The mean ± standard deviation of arterial oxygen pressure, arterial carbon dioxide pressure and pH at core body temperature were 84.4±7.0 mmHg (Male: 83.0±6.5, Female: 86.7±73, 37.7±2.8 mmHg (Male: 38.5±2.7, Female: 36.2±2.4 respectively 7.41±0.02 (Male: 7.41±0.02 Female: 7.42±0.03. the mean PCO2 was lower in comparison with most of the studies at sea level. The difference between males and females was significant in PCO2 and PH (P=0.004, P=0.02 respectively but in was not significant in PO2 (P=0.07. The PCO2 and pH had no statistically significant relatioship with age (P=0.42, P=0.25 respectively. The relationship between Po2 with age, PCO2 and T was significant (P=0.02, P=0.017, and P=0.019 respectively. The best linear predictive equation was: Po2= 1.28 AO2-29.4 for T10hours Þ AO2 = 0.21(Baro-47 – (1.2PCO2

  17. Daidzin, an antioxidant isoflavonoid, decreases blood alcohol levels and shortens sleep time induced by ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, C I; Lin, R C; Antony, V; Lumeng, L; Li, T K; Mai, K; Liu, C; Wang, Q D; Zhao, Z H; Wang, G F

    1994-12-01

    The extract from an edible vine, Pueraria lebata, has been reported to be efficacious in lessening alcohol intoxication. In this study, we have tested the efficacy of one of the major components, daidzin, from this plant extract. When ethanol (40% solution, 3 g/kg body weight) was given to fasted rats intragastrically, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) peaked at 30 min after alcohol ingestion and reached 1.77 +/- 0.14 mg/ml (mean values +/- SD, n = 6). If daidzin (30 mg/kg) was mixed with the ethanol solution and given to animals intragastrically, BAC was found to peak at 90 min after alcohol ingestion and reached only 1.20 +/- 0.30 mg/ml (n = 6) (p daidzin to delay and decrease peak BAC level after ethanol ingestion was also observed in fed animals. In both fasted and fed rats given alcohol without daidzin, BAC quickly declined after reaching its peak at 30 min. By contrast, BAC levels receded more slowly if daidzin was also fed to the animals. Daidzin showed a chronic effect. Rats fed daidzin for 7 days before ethanol challenge, but not on the day of challenge, also produced lower and later peak BAC levels. Interestingly, daidzin, whether fed to rats only once or chronically for 7 days, did not significantly alter activities of either alcohol dehydrogenase or mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase in the liver. Further experiments demonstrated that daidzin shortened sleep time for rats receiving ethanol intragastrically (7 g/kg) but not intraperitoneally (2 g/kg). To test whether daidzin delayed stomach-emptying, [14C]polyethylene glycol was mixed with ethanol and fed to rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Optics based signal processing methods for intraoperative blood vessel detection and quantification in real time (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amal; Shukair, Shetha A.; Le Rolland, Paul; Vijayvergia, Mayank; Subramanian, Hariharan; Gunn, Jonathan W.

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive operations require surgeons to make difficult cuts to blood vessels and other tissues with impaired tactile and visual feedback. This leads to inadvertent cuts to blood vessels hidden beneath tissue, causing serious health risks to patients and a non-reimbursable financial burden to hospitals. Intraoperative imaging technologies have been developed, but these expensive systems can be cumbersome and provide only a high-level view of blood vessel networks. In this research, we propose a lean reflectance-based system, comprised of a dual wavelength LED, photodiode, and novel signal processing algorithms for rapid vessel characterization. Since this system takes advantage of the inherent pulsatile light absorption characteristics of blood vessels, no contrast agent is required for its ability to detect the presence of a blood vessel buried deep inside any tissue type (up to a cm) in real time. Once a vessel is detected, the system is able to estimate the distance of the vessel from the probe and the diameter size of the vessel (with a resolution of ~2mm), as well as delineate the type of tissue surrounding the vessel. The system is low-cost, functions in real-time, and could be mounted on already existing surgical tools, such as Kittner dissectors or laparoscopic suction irrigation cannulae. Having been successfully validated ex vivo, this technology will next be tested in a live porcine study and eventually in clinical trials.

  19. 前循环破裂动脉瘤的手术时机%The timing of surgery for ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丙波; 朱文昱; 贡志刚; 兰青

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨前循环破裂动脉瘤的手术适宜时机.方法 回顾性分析82例前循环破裂动脉瘤患者,按入院时Hunt-Hess分级分为低分级组(Ⅰ~Ⅲ级,n=64)和高分级组(Ⅳ~Ⅴ级,n=18);按手术时机分为早期手术组(≤3 d,n=45)、中期手术组(4~10 d,n=20)、晚期手术组(≥11 d,n=12),5例因再出血未能手术.用格拉斯哥转归量表(Glasgow Outcome Scale,GOS)评价转归.结果 在低分级患者中,早期手术组转归良好(GOS 4~5分)率显著高于中、晚期手术组(96.3%对75%,P=0.031),而术后主要并发症发生率显著低于中晚期手术组(22.2%对46.9%,P=0.049);中期手术组转归良好率显著高于晚期手术组(85.5%对41.7%,P=0.004),术后主要并发症发生率显著低于晚期手术组(30.0%对75.0%,P=0.027).高分级患者均为早期手术,其转归良好率为55.6%.结论 对不同分级的前循环破裂动脉瘤患者宜尽早手术.%Objective To investigate the appropriate timing of surgery for ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms. Methods Eighty-two patients with ruptured anterior circulation aneurysms were analyzed retrospectively. They were divided into the low-grade group (grade Ⅰ to Ⅲ, n =64) and the high-grade group (grade Ⅳ to Ⅴ, n = 18) according to the Hunt & Hess scale on admission. Then they were also divided into early (≤3 d, n = 45), intermediate (4-10 d, n = 20) and late (≥11 d, n = 12) surgery groups according to their timing of surgery. Surgery were not performed in 5 patients for rebleeding. The outcome at 3 months was scored according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Results In the low-grade group, the rate of good outcome (GOS 4-5) in the early surgery group was significantly higher than that in the intermediate and late surgery groups (96. 3% vs. 75. 0%, P =0. 031), and the incidence of the major postoperative complications was significantly lower than that in the intermediate, and late surgery groups (22. 2% vs. 46. 9%, P =0. 049); the

  20. Transfused stored platelets have the same haemostatic function as circulating native platelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeloffzen, W. W. H.; Kluin-Nelemans, H. C.; Veeger, N. J. G. M.; de Wolf, J. Th. M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives As thrombelastography (R) (TEG) measures haemostasis in whole blood, we used this instrument to study whether transfused platelets (PLTs) have the same haemostatic function compared to native circulating PLTs. Further, we studied the effect of storage time on the haemostati

  1. Sino-Danish Brain Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Du, Xiangyun; Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe

    2014-01-01

    China is faced with urgent needs to develop an economically and environmentally sustainable economy based on innovation and knowledge. Brain circulation and research and business investments from the outside are central for this development. Sino-American brain circulation and research...... and investment by overseas researchers and entrepreneurs are well described. In that case, the US is the center of global R&D and S&T. However, the brain circulation and research and investments between a small open Scandinavian economy, such as Denmark, and the huge developing economy of China are not well...... understood. In this case, Denmark is very highly developed, but a satellite in the global R&D and S&T system. With time and the growth of China as a R&D and S&T power house, both Denmark and China will benefit from brain circulation between them. Such brain circulation is likely to play a key role in flows...

  2. Use of polyglycerol (PG), instead of polyethylene glycol (PEG), prevents induction of the accelerated blood clearance phenomenon against long-circulating liposomes upon repeated administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Lila, Amr S; Nawata, Kosuke; Shimizu, Taro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Kiwada, Hiroshi

    2013-11-01

    The accelerated blood clearance (ABC) phenomenon accounts for the rapid systemic clearance of PEGylated nanocarriers upon repeated administrations. IgM production against the polyethylene glycol (PEG) coating in PEGylated liposomes is now known to be responsible for such unexpected pharmacokinetical alterations. The ABC phenomenon poses a remarkable clinical challenge by reducing the therapeutic efficacy of encapsulated drugs and causing harmful effects due to the altered tissue distribution pattern of the drugs. In this study, we investigated the in vivo performance of liposomes modified with polyglycerol (PG) upon repeated injection, and the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of such liposomes when they encapsulated a cytotoxic agent, doxorubicin (DXR). Repeated injection of PEG-coated liposomes in rats induced the ABC phenomenon, while repeated injection of PG-coated liposomes did not. In addition, DXR-containing PG-coated liposomes showed antitumor activity that was superior to that of free DXR and similar to that of DXR-containing PEG-coated liposomes upon repeated administration. These results indicate that polyglycerol (PG) might represent a promising alternative to PEG via enhancing the in vivo performance of liposomes by not eliciting the ABC phenomenon upon repeated administration.

  3. 行气活血法治疗2型糖尿病气滞血瘀证的临床研究%Clinical Study on Diabetes Type 2 of Qi Stagnation and Blood Stasis Treated with Promoting Flow of Qi and Blood Circulation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国梁; 刘海英; 王珏; 姚燕珍; 赵志钧; 於松达; 於孝龙; 李亚平

    2009-01-01

    To observe the effects of promoting flow of qi and blood circulation method on platelet-activating factor, plasma endothelin and nitric oxide of patients with diabetes type 2 of qi stagnation and blood stasis.Meothods: 104 cases were divided into two groups, 53 cases was treatment group, 51 cases was control. Treatment group was given jiawei taohong siwu decoction, control was given taohong siwu decoction. The changes of clinical symptoms, blood viscosity,CD62p, CD63, PAC-1, ET and NO were observed and recorded.Results: To compare with before treated, the changes of clinical symptoms, blood viscosity,CD62p, CD63, PAC-1, ET and NO were improved after treated with jiawei taohong siwu decoction or taohong siwu decoction, there was obvious difference between treatment and control groups.Conclusion: The effects of promoting flow of qi and blood circulation method on diabetes type 2 of qi stagnation and blood stasis were veritable.%目的:观察行气活血法对2型糖尿病气滞血瘀证患者血小板活化因子及血浆内皮素、一氧化氮的影响.方法:104例患者,随机分为治疗组53例,对照组51例;治疗组服用加味桃红四物汤,对照组服用桃红四物汤;观察两组临床疗效、血黏度、CD62p、CD63、PAC-1和ET、NO的变化.结果:两组治疗前后组内比较,血黏度、CD62p、CD63、PAC-1和ET、NO的差异,治疗组有非常显著性意义(P<0.01),对照组有显著性意义(P<0.05);组间比较,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05).结论:行气活血法能降低2型糖尿病患者的血黏度,抑制血小板活化,调节内皮素和一氧化氮的分泌失衡,作用较活血化瘀法显著.

  4. Systematic Review on Treatment of Chronic Atrophic Gastritis by Reinforcing qi, Promoting Blood Circulation and Replenishing Yin%益气活血养阴法治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎的系统评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 刘福生; 张寅; 杜娜; 苏泽琦; 丁霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To systematically evaluate the efficacy of reinforcing qi ,promoting blood circulation and replenishing yin on treating chronic atrophic gastritis. Methods:Relevant Chinese and English literature of randomized clinical trials(RCTs) were reviewed via database. Trials were adopted if the Jadad scale score was 1 or more. Statistical heterogeneity between trials was evaluated by Revman 5.2. Heterogeneity of the in-cluded articles was tested to select proper effect models for calculation. Publication bias was investigated through visual inspection of funnel plots and Egger ’s regression model. Results:Nine RCTs including 846 patients were analyzed. The quality of RCTs are generally low. Compared with western medical treatment , reinforcing qi,promoting blood circulation and replenishing yin was better in improving the total effective rate of chronic gastritis. OR=4.57,95%CI (3.09~6.77). The difference was statistically significant (P<0.00001). Conclusion:Reinforcing qi,promoting blood circulation and replenishing yin may be superior to western medicines in improving total effective rate of patients with chronic atrophic gastritis. But more high quality research is needed to increase the strength of the evidence.%目的:系统评价中医益气活血养阴法治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎的疗效。方法:通过数据库检索中英文随机对照试验(RCT)文献,将Jadad积分≥1分的文章纳入研究,并提取纳入研究的特征信息。采用Revman 5.2软件进行Meta-分析,检验异质性,并根据异质性结果选择相应的效应模型,最后绘制漏斗图及Egger回归方程评定有无发表偏倚。结果:最终有9项RCT,共846例患者入选,文献质量普遍较低。益气活血养阴法治疗慢性萎缩性胃炎的总体疗效优于单纯的西医治疗,其汇总OR=4.57,95%CI(3.09~6.77),差异均具有统计学意义(P<0.00001)。结论:益气活血养阴法治疗慢性萎缩

  5. When Prostate Cancer Circulates in the Bloodstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Vlaeminck-Guillem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Management of patients with prostate cancer is currently based on imperfect clinical, biological, radiological and pathological evaluation. Prostate cancer aggressiveness, including metastatic potential, remains difficult to accurately estimate. In an attempt to better adapt therapeutics to an individual (personalized medicine, reliable evaluation of the intrinsic molecular biology of the tumor is warranted, and particularly for all tumor sites (primary tumors and secondary sites at any time of the disease progression. As a consequence of their natural tendency to grow (passive invasion or as a consequence of an active blood vessel invasion by metastase-initiating cells, tumors shed various materials into the bloodstream. Major efforts have been recently made to develop powerful and accurate methods able to detect, quantify and/or analyze all these circulating tumor materials: circulating tumors cells, disseminating tumor cells, extracellular vesicles (including exosomes, nucleic acids, etc. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about these circulating tumor materials and their applications in translational research.

  6. Microprocessor-based near real-time bedside blood chemistry monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, D K; Jordan, W S

    1992-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument which integrates the function of a volumetric infusion pump with a blood chemistry analyzer has been developed. Presently, the instrument is capable of measuring Na+, K+, Ca++ and pH within approximately 40 sec at a frequency of up to every 2 min. The system is set up as an intravenous (IV) infusion pump with the addition of an array of disposable sensors placed at the distal end of the IV set. An isotonic IV solution is used to keep the site patent while also serving as a calibrant for the sensors. The instrument first calibrates the sensors, then withdraws approximately 0.6 ml of blood to come in contact with the sensors. Within approximately 15 sec, it displays the results, flushes the blood back into the patient and resumes normal infusion. There is no blood loss to the patient and no need to handle blood. The system was first validated with known aqueous controls and then used on-line in a variety of animal studies where dynamic fluctuation of electrolytes and pH occurred. Excellent correlation was found with off-line samples tested on conventional STAT analyzers. Some preliminary patient data is also presented.

  7. Flow cytometric data analysis of circulating progenitor cell stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestine A. Mahar

    2017-02-01

    We performed a quality control assessment of the stability of circulating blood progenitor cells in blood samples stored at 4 °C, to determine the time period during which blood samples can be analyzed and yield consistent data for progenitor cell content. Healthy volunteers (n=6 were recruited and underwent phlebotomy, and blood was stored in EDTA tubes at 4 °C. Flow cytometry was performed to quantitate progenitor cell subsets at 0–4 h, 24 h, and 48 h post phlebotomy. All processed samples were fixed with 1% Paraformaldehyde and 1,000,000 total data events were collected. We found no significant differences in PC data for both CD34+ (P=0.68 for one-way ANOVA and CD34+/CD133+ (P=0.74 for one-way ANOVA.

  8. Fractionation and current time trends of PCB congeners: evolvement of distributions 1950–2010 studied using a global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lammel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PCBs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants expected to decline in abiotic environmental media in response to decreasing primary emissions since the 1970s. A coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with embedded dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry and air-surface exchange processes with soils, vegetation and the cryosphere is used to study the transport and fate of four PCB congeners covering a range of 3–7 chlorine atoms.

    The change of the geographic distribution of the PCB mixture reflects the sources and sinks' evolvement over time. Globally, secondary emissions (re-volatilisation from surfaces are on the long term increasingly gaining importance over primary emissions. Secondary emissions are most important for the congeners with 5–6 chlorine atoms. Correspondingly, the levels of these congeners are predicted to decrease slowest. Changes in congener mixture composition (fractionation are characterized both geographically and temporally. In high latitudes enrichment of the lighter, less persistent congeners and more delayed decreasing levels in response to decreasing emissions are found. The delivery of the contaminants to high latitudes is predicted to be more efficient than previously suggested. The results suggest furthermore that the effectiveness of emission control measures may significantly vary among substances. The trends of decline of organic contaminant levels in the abiotic environmental media do not only vary with latitude (slow in high latitudes, but do also show longitudinal gradients.

  9. Real time observation and automated measurement of red blood cells agglutination inside a passive microfluidic biochip containing embedded reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Maxime; Cubizolles, Myriam; Buhot, Arnaud

    2016-09-20

    The process of agglutination is commonly used for the detection of biomarkers like proteins or viruses. The multiple bindings between micrometer sized particles, either latex beads or red blood cells (RBCs), create aggregates that are easily detectable and give qualitative information about the presence of the biomarkers. In most cases, the detection is made by simple naked-eye observation of agglutinates without any access to the kinetics of agglutination. In this study, we address the development of a real-time time observation of RBCs agglutination. Using ABO blood typing as a proof-of-concept, we developed i) an integrated biological protocol suitable for further use as point-of-care (POC) analysis and ii) two dedicated image processing algorithms for the real-time and quantitative measurement of agglutination. Anti-A or anti-B typing reagents were dried inside the microchannel of a passive microfluidic chip designed to enhance capillary flow. A blood drop deposit at the tip of the biochip established a simple biological protocol. In situ agglutination of autologous RBCs was achieved by means of embedded reagents and real time agglutination process was monitored by video recording. Using a training set of 24 experiments, two real-time indicators based on correlation and variance of gray levels were optimized and then further confirmed on a validation set. 100% correct discrimination between positive and negative agglutinations was performed within less than 2min by measuring real-time evolution of both correlation and variance indicators.

  10. Effect of circulating progesterone concentration during synchronization for fixed-time artificial insemination on ovulation and fertility in Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, J N S; Carvalho, J B P; Crepaldi, G A; Soares, J G; Girotto, R W; Maio, J R G; Souza, J C; Baruselli, P S

    2015-04-01

    Four experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of different circulating progesterone (P4) concentrations during a synchronization of ovulation protocol for the timed artificial insemination (TAI) of Bos indicus (Nelore) beef cattle. In the first trial, 13 ovariectomized Nelore heifers were randomly allocated into one of three groups using new P4 devices (New; 1.0 g P4), previously used P4 devices for 8 days (Used1x), and previously used P4 devices for 16 days (Used2x), in a crossover experimental design. The circulating P4 concentrations during the P4 device treatment were lower for Used1x (2.3 ± 0.1 ng/mL) and Used2x (2.0 ± 0.1 ng/mL) than those for New (3.8 ± 0.2 ng/mL; P = 0.001). In the second trial, the ovarian follicular dynamics of 60 anestrous cows were evaluated after the cows received the treatments described previously (New [n = 20], Used1x [n = 20], and Used2x [n = 20]). During the insertion of the P4 device, the cows were administered 2.0-mg estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the P4 device was removed, and the cows were administered 0.53-mg sodium cloprostenol, 300 IU eCG, and 1-mg estradiol cypionate. There were no differences among the groups during the interval from P4 device removal to ovulation (73.7 ± 2.9 vs. 69.8 ± 2.4 vs. 68.4 ± 2.3 hours) or regarding the ovulation rate (70.0% vs. 80.0% vs. 85.0%). However, the maximum diameter of the largest follicle was greater (P = 0.06) in the Used2x (15.3 ± 0.4 mm) than that of New (13.5 ± 0.8 mm) and Used1x (14.9 ± 0.5 mm). In experiment 3, 443 anestrous cows were randomly assigned into one of the three treatments (New [n = 144] vs. Used1x [n = 167] vs. Used2x [n = 132]) and received a TAI 48 hours after the P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle during the device removal (10.7 ± 0.3 vs. 11.2 ± 0.2 vs. 11.3 ± 0.3 mm) and the 30-day pregnancy rates (51.4% vs. 53.9% vs. 43.2%) did not differ among the experimental

  11. Role of Circulating Fibrocytes in Cardiac Fibrosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rong-Jie Lin; Zi-Zhuo Su; Shu-Min Liang; Yu-Yang Chen; Xiao-Rong Shu; Ru-Qiong Nie; Jing-Feng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is revealed that circulating fibrocytes are elevated in patients/animals with cardiac fibrosis, and this review aims to provide an introduction to circulating fibrocytes and their role in cardiac fibrosis.Data Sources: This review is based on the data from 1994 to present obtained from PubMed.The search terms were "circulating fibrocytes" and "cardiac fibrosis".Study Selection: Articles and critical reviews, which are related to circulating fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis, were selected.Results: Circulating fibrocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, represent a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting mixed morphological and molecular characteristics ofhematopoietic and mesenchymal cells (CD34+/CD45+/collagen I+).They can produce extracellular matrix and many cytokines.It is shown that circulating fibrocytes participate in many fibrotic diseases, including cardiac fibrosis.Evidence accumulated in recent years shows that aging individuals and patients with hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation have more circulating fibrocytes in peripheral blood and/or heart tissue, and this elevation of circulating fibrocytes is correlated with the degree of fibrosis in the hearts.Conclusions: Circulating fibrocytes are effector cells in cardiac fibrosis.

  12. Role of Circulating Fibrocytes in Cardiac Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jie; Su, Zi-Zhuo; Liang, Shu-Min; Chen, Yu-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Rong; Nie, Ru-Qiong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Xie, Shuang-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is revealed that circulating fibrocytes are elevated in patients/animals with cardiac fibrosis, and this review aims to provide an introduction to circulating fibrocytes and their role in cardiac fibrosis. Data Sources: This review is based on the data from 1994 to present obtained from PubMed. The search terms were “circulating fibrocytes” and “cardiac fibrosis”. Study Selection: Articles and critical reviews, which are related to circulating fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis, were selected. Results: Circulating fibrocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, represent a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting mixed morphological and molecular characteristics of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells (CD34+/CD45+/collagen I+). They can produce extracellular matrix and many cytokines. It is shown that circulating fibrocytes participate in many fibrotic diseases, including cardiac fibrosis. Evidence accumulated in recent years shows that aging individuals and patients with hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation have more circulating fibrocytes in peripheral blood and/or heart tissue, and this elevation of circulating fibrocytes is correlated with the degree of fibrosis in the hearts. Conclusions: Circulating fibrocytes are effector cells in cardiac fibrosis. PMID:26831236

  13. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1997-01-01

    post-sinusoidal resistance, a low plasma volume, a short central circulation time, and the presence of ascites. In contrast, a low intra-arterial blood pressure was determined by a low serum sodium, a low haemoglobin, and a high cardiac output. Diuretic treatment did not influence this model......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations...... with cirrhosis than in matched controls (p low 24-h arterial blood pressure were a high...

  14. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor

    2016-06-29

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  15. Clinical characteristics of bacteremia caused by Helicobacter cinaedi and time required for blood cultures to become positive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoka, Hideki; Baba, Masaru; Kimura, Muneyoshi; Abe, Masahiro; Inagawa, Hiroko; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the clinical characteristics of patients with Helicobacter cinaedi bacteremia and the time required for blood cultures to become positive. The medical records of all patients with H. cinaedi bacteremia at Toranomon Hospital and Toranomon Hospital Kajigaya between March 2009 and March 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Sixty-three patients, 34 men and 29 women with a median age of 67 years (range, 37 to 88 years), were diagnosed with H. cinaedi bacteremia. A total of 51,272 sets of blood cultures were obtained during the study period, of which 5,769 sets of blood cultures were positive for some organism and 126 sets were H. cinaedi positive. The time required for blood cultures to become positive for H. cinaedi was ≤5 days in 69 sets (55%) and >5 days in 57 sets (45%). Most patients had an underlying disease, including chronic kidney disease (21 cases), solid tumor (19 cases), hematological malignancy (13 cases), diabetes mellitus (8 cases), chronic liver disease (6 cases), and postorthopedic surgery (3 cases). Only 1 patient had no apparent underlying disease. The clinical symptoms included cellulitis in 24 cases, colitis in 7 cases, and fever only in 27 cases, including 7 cases of febrile neutropenia. The 30-day mortality rate of H. cinaedi bacteremia was 6.3%. In conclusion, most cases of H. cinaedi bacteremia occurred in immunocompromised patients. We might have overlooked nearly half of the H. cinaedi bacteremia cases if the duration of monitored blood culture samples had been within 5 days. Therefore, when clinicians suspect H. cinaedi bacteremia, the observation period for blood cultures should be extended.

  16. Collagen-binding protein, Aegyptin, regulates probing time and blood feeding success in the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas, Andrezza Campos; Ramirez, José Luis; Jasinskiene, Nijole; James, Anthony A; Ribeiro, José M C; Marinotti, Osvaldo; Calvo, Eric

    2014-05-13

    Mosquito salivary glands have important roles in blood feeding and pathogen transmission. However, the biological relevance of many salivary components has yet to be determined. Aegyptin, a secreted salivary protein from Aedes aegypti, binds collagen and inhibits platelet aggregation and adhesion. We used a transgenic approach to study the relevance of Aegyptin in mosquito blood feeding. Aedes aegypti manipulated genetically to express gene-specific inverted-repeat RNA sequences exhibited significant reductions in Aegyptin mRNA accumulation (85-87%) and protein levels (>80-fold) in female mosquito salivary glands. Transgenic mosquitoes had longer probing times (78-300 s, P transgenic mosquitoes failed to inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Reductions of Aegyptin did not affect salivary ADP-induced platelet aggregation inhibition or disturb anticlotting activities. Our results demonstrate the relevance of Aegyptin for A. aegypti blood feeding, providing further support for the hypothesis that platelet aggregation inhibition is a vital salivary function in blood feeding arthropods. It has been suggested that the multiple mosquito salivary components mediating platelet aggregation (i.e., Aegyptin, apyrase, D7) represent functional redundancy. Our findings do not support this hypothesis; instead, they indicate that multiple salivary components work synergistically and are necessary to achieve maximum blood feeding efficiency.

  17. Multi-time-scale hydroclimate dynamics of a regional watershed and links to large-scale atmospheric circulation: Application to the Seine river catchment, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massei, N.; Dieppois, B.; Hannah, D. M.; Lavers, D. A.; Fossa, M.; Laignel, B.; Debret, M.

    2017-03-01

    In the present context of global changes, considerable efforts have been deployed by the hydrological scientific community to improve our understanding of the impacts of climate fluctuations on water resources. Both observational and modeling studies have been extensively employed to characterize hydrological changes and trends, assess the impact of climate variability or provide future scenarios of water resources. In the aim of a better understanding of hydrological changes, it is of crucial importance to determine how and to what extent trends and long-term oscillations detectable in hydrological variables are linked to global climate oscillations. In this work, we develop an approach associating correlation between large and local scales, empirical statistical downscaling and wavelet multiresolution decomposition of monthly precipitation and streamflow over the Seine river watershed, and the North Atlantic sea level pressure (SLP) in order to gain additional insights on the atmospheric patterns associated with the regional hydrology. We hypothesized that: (i) atmospheric patterns may change according to the different temporal wavelengths defining the variability of the signals; and (ii) definition of those hydrological/circulation relationships for each temporal wavelength may improve the determination of large-scale predictors of local variations. The results showed that the links between large and local scales were not necessarily constant according to time-scale (i.e. for the different frequencies characterizing the signals), resulting in changing spatial patterns across scales. This was then taken into account by developing an empirical statistical downscaling (ESD) modeling approach, which integrated discrete wavelet multiresolution analysis for reconstructing monthly regional hydrometeorological processes (predictand: precipitation and streamflow on the Seine river catchment) based on a large-scale predictor (SLP over the Euro-Atlantic sector). This

  18. Examination of adolescents' screen time and physical fitness as independent correlates of weight status and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullrich-French, Sarah C; Power, Thomas G; Daratha, Kenn B; Bindler, Ruth C; Steele, Michael M

    2010-09-01

    Physical fitness performance is an important health correlate yet is often unrelated to sedentary behaviour in early adolescence. In this study, we examined the association of sedentary behaviour (i.e. screen time) with weight-related health markers and blood pressure, after controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance. American middle school students (N = 153, 56% females) aged 11-15 years (mean 12.6 years, s = 0.5) completed assessments of cardiorespiratory fitness performance, screen time, weight status (BMI percentile, waist-to-height ratio), and blood pressure. Multivariate analysis of covariance, controlling for cardiorespiratory fitness performance, found those who met the daily recommendation of 2 h or less of screen time (n = 36, 23.5%) had significantly lower BMI (p fitness and sedentary behaviours to maximize early adolescent health because these behaviours are likely to have unique and independent effects on youth health markers.

  19. Time domain dielectric spectroscopy of nanosecond pulsed electric field induced changes in dielectric properties of pig whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jie; Kolb, Juergen F

    2015-06-01

    The dielectric spectra of fresh pig whole blood in the β-dispersion range after exposure to 300-nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) with amplitude higher than the supra-electroporation threshold for erythrocytes were recorded by time domain reflectometry dielectric spectroscopy. The implications of the dielectric parameters on the dynamics of post-pulse pore development were discussed in light of the Cole-Cole relaxation model. The temporal development of the Cole-Cole parameters indicates that nsPEFs induced significant poration and swelling of erythrocytes within the first 5 min. The results also show that the majority of erythrocytes could not fully recover from supra-electroporation up to 30 min. The findings of this study suggest that time domain dielectric spectroscopy is a promising label-free and real-time physiological measuring technique for nsPEF-blood related biomedical applications, capable of following the conformational and morphological changes of cells.

  20. Effects of supplementing qi and activating blood circulation on piamatral microcirculation in gerbils with cerebral ischemic reperfusion%益气活血对脑缺血再灌注沙土鼠脑膜微循环的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞国平; 戴良珏; 方敏; 谢荭

    2006-01-01

    通,红细胞中度聚集,白细胞数多,有时可见白色微小血栓,微血管周围渗出现象无明显改观.药物组经腹腔注射益气活血药后,细动、静脉开放,血液速度加快,血流量明显增加,细静脉沉积物开始减少,血栓凝块逐渐疏松,栓塞处疏通,红细胞呈轻度聚集或正常,缺血区血供较再灌流后进一步改善,微血管周围渗出现象逐渐减轻甚至消退.对照组未见明显改变.②药物组动物细动脉流速1.04~1.50 mm/s,明显高于对照组,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05~0.01).③药物组动物细静脉流速0.96~1.12 mm/s,明显高于对照组,差异有显著性意义(P<0.05~0.01).结论:益气活血法对沙土鼠脑缺血再灌注后脑膜微循环的作用确切,其直接作用与加快血流速度,扩张细动脉、细静脉管径,改善大脑血供等有关.%BACKGROUND: The key point in the treatment of acute cerebral infarction lies in inproving the blood supply of brain effectively as soon as possible as well as rescue ischemic and half diazonal nerve cells, so as to contract the local of infarction as great as possible.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of traditional treatment of cerebral piamatral microcirculation in gerbil with cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury by supplementing qi and activating blood circulation.DESIGN: Contrast animal experiment at random.SETTING: Zhabei Branch of Shanghai Changzheng Hospital.MATERIALS: The experiment was performed in the Institute of Naval Medicine (key laboratory of the whole army). Twenty-two healthy Monglian gerbils of clean grade (six months old) were selected and randomly divided into medicine group and control group with 11 gerbils in each group.METHODS: Animals were routinely anaesthetized and fixed in prone position to open the cranium window in median line and expose the pia mater. The cranium window was protected by being covered with a cotton ball containing artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) after operation. Gerbils were fixed in dorsal

  1. Effects of Tian-Shu Dripping Pills on Cerebral Blood Circulation among Anesthetized Canine%天舒滴丸对麻醉犬颅内循环的影响*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衡晴晴; 唐朝辉; 曹亮; 李娜; 丁岗; 萧伟

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to observe the effects ofTian-ShuDripping Pills (TSDP) on cerebral hemodynamics among anesthetized dogs, in order to demonstrate its clinical treatment functional correlation on angioneurotic headache. A total of 25 hybrid dogs were randomly divided into the normal saline (NS) group, TS capsule (positive control: 0.4 g·kg-1 crude medicine) group, low-dose TSDP (0.2 g·kg-1 crude medicine) group, middle-dose TSDP (0.4 g·kg-1 crude medicine) group, and high-dose TSDP (0.8 g·kg-1 crude medicine) group.Intraduodenal administration was given once under anesthesia. Changes of mean arterial blood pressure, blood flow of vertebral artery and internal carotid artery blood flow were detected and the cerebral blood flow and cerebral vascular resistance were calculated. The results showed that TSDP of low-dose, middle-dose and high-dose group can significantly reduce the cerebral vascular resistance and increase the cerebral blood flow within 180 min after medication. It was concluded that TSDP can improve the cerebral blood circulation of anesthetized dogs. Its mechanism may be through the reduction on cerebral vascular resistance and increasing of cerebral blood flow.%目的:观察天舒滴丸对麻醉犬颅内血液循环的影响,探讨天舒滴丸治疗血管神经性头痛的机理。方法:杂种家犬25条,随机分为生理盐水组、天舒胶囊组(阳性对照:生药0.4 g·kg-1)、天舒滴丸低剂量组(生药0.2 g·kg-1)、天舒滴丸中剂量组(生药0.4 g·kg-1)、天舒滴丸高剂量组(生药0.8 g·kg-1),麻醉后一次性十二指肠给药,测量并记录平均动脉血压、椎动脉血流量和颈内动脉血流量,并计算脑血流量和脑血管阻力,观察天舒滴丸对犬脑血流量的影响。结果:天舒滴丸低、中、高剂量组均能在给药后180 min内明显降低脑血管阻力,增加脑血流量。结论:天舒滴丸具有改善犬颅内血液循环的作用,其机

  2. An Accurate, Flexible and Small Optical Fiber Sensor: A Novel Technological Breakthrough for Real-Time Analysis of Dynamic Blood Flow Data In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao-ying Yuan; Ling Zhang; Dan Xiao,; Kun Zhao; Chun Lin; Liang-yi Si

    2014-01-01

    Because of the limitations of existing methods and techniques for directly obtaining real-time blood data, no accurate microflow in vivo real-time analysis method exists. To establish a novel technical platform for real-time in vivo detection and to analyze average blood pressure and other blood flow parameters, a small, accurate, flexible, and nontoxic Fabry-Perot fiber sensor was designed. The carotid sheath was implanted through intubation of the rabbit carotid artery (n = 8), and the bloo...

  3. Blood donor deferral: time for change? An evidence-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borra V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vere Borra,1 Giovani Vandewalle,1 Hans Van Remoortel,1 Veerle Compernolle,1,2 Emmy De Buck,1 Philippe Vandekerckhove1–31Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, Mechelen, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ghent, Ghent, 3Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Donor selection remains an important part in the safety of the blood supply all over the world. Yet, donor deferral criteria seem to be strongly based on the precautionary principle protecting safety and quality, and on supply and expense considerations. This review therefore provides an overview of the available evidence on donor exclusion criteria, as well as on their cost-effectiveness, for the most frequent reasons of donor deferral in our region. PubMed was queried to retrieve primary research studies, systematic reviews, and health technology assessments (HTAs concerning donor exclusion criteria. With a similar approach, HTAs about the different blood-banking safety interventions were included. Reasons for donor deferral were recorded via the blood bank information system of the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders. Seven systematic reviews were identified: four on donor safety (hypotension, hypertension/type 2 diabetes, epilepsy, and higher age and three on recipient safety (hemochromatosis, men who have sex with men, and endoscopy. Forty-three low-quality observational studies were included, as well as 16 HTAs: three about donor exclusion criteria and 13 cost-utility analyses about blood-banking safety interventions. In general, the available evidence for deferral reasons was of low quality, and for 60% of the top 30 reasons for excluding donors, no evidence was found. Blood banking shows its unique position as many safety measures far exceed the normally accepted cost of €50,000/quality-adjusted life-years. The historical model based on the precautionary principle and on supply and expense considerations provides adequate supplies of

  4. Dynamic Effect of Rolling Massage on Blood Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan-Yan; YI Hou-Hui; LI Hua-Bing; FANG Hai-Ping

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese traditional medical massage has been used as a natural therapy to eliminate some diseases.Here, the effect of the rolling massage frequency to the blood flow in the blood vessels under the rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation.The simulation results show that when the frequency is smaller than or comparable to the putsatile frequency of the blood flow, the effect on the blood flux by the rolling massage is small.On the contrast, if the frequency is twice or more times of the putsatile frequency of the blood flow, the blood flux is greatly enhanced and increases linearly with respect to the frequency.Similar behavior has also been observed on the shear stress on the blood vessel waits.The result is helpful for understanding that the rolling massage has the function of promoting the blood circulation and removing the blood stasis.

  5. Dynamic Effect of Rolling Massage on Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Yi, Hou-Hui; Li, Hua-Bing; Fang, Hai-Ping

    2009-02-01

    The Chinese traditional medical massage has been used as a natural therapy to eliminate some diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage frequency to the blood flow in the blood vessels under the rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that when the frequency is smaller than or comparable to the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the effect on the blood flux by the rolling massage is small. On the contrast, if the frequency is twice or more times of the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the blood flux is greatly enhanced and increases linearly with respect to the frequency. Similar behavior has also been observed on the shear stress on the blood vessel walls. The result is helpful for understanding that the rolling massage has the function of promoting the blood circulation and removing the blood stasis.

  6. Flow cytometric data analysis of circulating progenitor cell stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Ernestine A; Mou, Liping; Hayek, Salim S; Quyyumi, Arshed A; Waller, Edmund K

    2017-02-01

    A recent publication by Mekonnen et al. demonstrated that among women with non-obstructive coronary artery disease, higher levels of circulating progenitor cells in the blood (CPC), were associated with impaired coronary flow reserve [1]. We performed a quality control assessment of the stability of circulating blood progenitor cells in blood samples stored at 4 °C, to determine the time period during which blood samples can be analyzed and yield consistent data for progenitor cell content. Healthy volunteers (n=6) were recruited and underwent phlebotomy, and blood was stored in EDTA tubes at 4 °C. Flow cytometry was performed to quantitate progenitor cell subsets at 0-4 h, 24 h, and 48 h post phlebotomy. All processed samples were fixed with 1% Paraformaldehyde and 1,000,000 total data events were collected. We found no significant differences in PC data for both CD34+ (P=0.68 for one-way ANOVA) and CD34+/CD133+ (P=0.74 for one-way ANOVA).

  7. Prognostic significance of circulating tumor cells in bone marrow or peripheral blood as detected by qualitative and quantitative PCR in pediatric NPM-ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm-Welk, Christine; Busch, Kerstin; Burkhardt, Birgit; Schieferstein, Jutta; Viehmann, Susanne; Oschlies, Ilske; Klapper, Wolfram; Zimmermann, Martin; Harbott, Jochen; Reiter, Alfred; Woessmann, Willi

    2007-07-15

    Clinical and histopathological characteristics have limited prognostic value for children with anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL). We evaluated the presence, extent, and prognostic impact of circulating tumor cells in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) of children and adolescents with NPM-ALK-positive ALCL at diagnosis using qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for NPM-ALK. Numbers of NPM-ALK transcripts were normalized to 10(4) copies ABL (NCNs). BM was analyzed from 80 patients and PB from 52. BM was positive for NPM-ALK in 47.5% of patients, and positivity was significantly correlated with clinical stage, mediastinal or visceral involvement, microscopic BM involvement, and histologic subtype. Qualitative and quantitative PCR results in BM and PB strongly correlated. BM PCR was associated with the cumulative incidence of relapses (CI-Rs): CI-R was 50% +/- 10% for 38 PCR-positive and 15% +/- 7% for 42 PCR-negative patients (P NPM-ALK in BM had a CI-R of 71% +/- 14% compared with a CI-R of 18% +/- 6% for 59 patients with 10 or fewer NCNs (P < .001). PB PCR results led to a similar grouping. Thus, quantitative PCR in BM or PB allows identification of 20% of patients experiencing 60% of all relapses with an event-free survival of 20%.

  8. Circulating tumor cells in blood of primary breast cancer patients assessed by a novel RT-PCR test kit and comparison with status of bone marrow-disseminated tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Manfred; Foekens, John A

    2009-01-01

    In breast cancer, circulating tumor cells (CTCs)/disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) may serve as independent adverse prognostic variables, to monitor the course of the disease and to predict response or failure to cancer therapy. Most of the techniques to enumerate DTCs in the bone marrow or CTCs in the bloodstream of breast cancer patients rely on a combination of an enrichment step and a detection step. A novel RT-PCR method, the AdnaTest BreastCancer kit, was developed for the enrichment of CTCs from peripheral blood of breast cancer patients followed by identification of CTC-associated marker transcripts by reverse transcription and PCR. Although this test has been demonstrated to identify breast cancer patients at risk, standardization of this technique and direct comparison with other established breast cancer CTC enrichment and detection techniques is still lacking, but highly needed. This is done best within prospective clinical trials, such as in the ongoing DETECT, SUCCESS, and BR-01-2004 trials.

  9. A comparison of the failure times of pulse oximeters during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion in volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagishi, Toshiya; Kanaya, Noriaki; Nakayama, Masayasu; Kurosawa, Saori; Namiki, Akiyoshi

    2004-09-01

    Important information may not be obtained if the pulse oximetry signal is lost during inflation of a cuff for blood pressure measurement, particularly in patients with hemodynamic instability. In the present study, we compared the failure times of pulse oximeters during cuff-induced hypoperfusion in volunteers. A pulse oximeter sensor was attached to the index finger, and a blood pressure cuff was attached to the same arm of each volunteer. MasimoSET Radical (Masimo), Nellcor N-395 (N-395), Nellcor N-20PA, and Nellcor D-25 were tested. To evaluate the failure time of each pulse oximeter, time to peak of cuff pressure, time to loss of signal, time to recovery of signal, and failure interval were measured. All measurements were performed three times for each pulse oximeter and were averaged. There were no differences in hemodynamic measurements among the groups. Time to loss of signal was longer in Masimo than the other pulse oximeters. Masimo and N-395 showed significantly shorter times to recovery of signal than those of the other two pulse oximeters. Failure interval was in the order of Masimo Masimo did not lose a signal as rapidly as the other oximeters studied. Masimo was similar in performance to the N-395 at providing useful data sooner than conventional technology after a loss of the signal. These observations suggest that data will be more available with fewer false-positive alarms when using the Masimo oximeter followed by the N-395 when compared with conventional oximeters.

  10. Behavioral changes during exposure to 1,1,1-trichloroethane: time-course and relationship to blood solvent levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, C J; Campbell, L; Samuel, A M; Alderman, K J; Idzikowski, C; Wilson, H K; Gompertz, D

    1987-01-01

    We report the results of an exposure chamber study in which volunteers were exposed to 0, 950 mg.m-3 (175 ppm) and 1,990 mg.m-3 (350 ppm) of 1,1,1-trichloroethane for 3.5 hours. The time-course of the behavioral changes and the relationship to blood concentrations of 1,1,1-trichloroethane were investigated. A pattern of performance deficits consistent with earlier work was found for some of the tests of psychomotor performance. The time-course of these appeared to be rapid, occurring in some cases within 20 minutes of exposure. For those tasks shown to be sensitive to 1,1,1-trichloroethane exposure, the development of performance changes followed the time-course of blood solvent levels. Two behavioral tests not previously used in this type of work were also employed. One was concerned with the distractability of attention and concentration (the Stroop test), and the other was concerned with analysing grammatical statements (the syntactic reasoning test). Different effects were found. In the Stroop test, enhanced performance was observed following exposure; however, the syntactic reasoning test was found to be resistant to solvent effects. Measures of short-term subjective well-being were not affected by exposure. It is suggested that the observations of time-course effects in performance and their relationship to change in blood solvent levels have implications for psychological test selection and for study designs for examining field exposure.

  11. Whole blood Nested PCR and Real-time PCR amplification of Talaromyces marneffei specific DNA for diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sha; Li, Xiqing; Calderone, Richard; Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jianchi; Cai, Wenying; Xi, Liyan

    2016-02-01

    Talaromyces marneffei is a dimorphic pathogenic fungus, which is a life-threatening invasive mycosis in the immunocompromised host. Prompt diagnosis of T. marneffei infection remains difficult although there has been progress in attempts to expedite the diagnosis of this infection. We previously demonstrated the value of nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect T. marneffei in paraffin embedded tissue samples with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, this assay was used to detect the DNA of T. marneffei in whole blood samples. Real-time PCR assay was also evaluated to identify T. marneffei in the same samples. Twenty out of 30 whole blood samples (67%) collected from 23 patients were found positive by using the nested PCR assay, while 23/30 (77%) samples were found positive by using the real-time PCR assay. In order to express accurately the fungal loads, we used a normalized linearized plasmid as an internal control for real-time PCR. The assay results were correlated as the initial quantity (copies/μl) with fungal burden. These data indicate that combination of nested PCR and real-time PCR assay provides an attractive alternative for identification of T. marneffei DNA in whole blood samples of HIV-infected patients.

  12. Dose reduction in dynamic perfusion CT of the brain: effects of the scan frequency on measurements of cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesmann, Martin [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Muenchen (Germany); Klinikum der Universitaet Muenchen - Grosshadern, Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Muenchen (Germany); Berg, Scott; Stoeckelhuber, B.M. [University of Luebeck, Department of Radiology, Luebeck (Germany); Bohner, G.; Klingebiel, R. [University Medicine Berlin, Department of Neuroradiology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Schoepf, V.; Yousry, I.; Linn, J. [University of Munich, Department of Neuroradiology, Muenchen (Germany); Missler, U. [Evangelisches Krankenhaus Duisburg-Nord, Department of Neuroradiology, Duisburg (Germany)

    2008-12-15

    The influence of the frequency of computed tomography (CT) image acquistion on the diagnostic quality of dynamic perfusion CT (PCT) studies of the brain was investigated. Eight patients with clinically suspected acute ischemia of one hemisphere underwent PCT, performed on average 3.4 h after the onset of symptoms. Sixty consecutive images per slice were obtained with individual CT images obtained at a temporal resolution of two images per second. Eight additional data sets were reconstructed with temporal resolutions ranging from one image per second to one image per 5 s. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and mean transit time (MTT) measurements were performed in identical regions of interest. Two neuroradiologists evaluated the PCT images visually to identify areas of abnormal perfusion. Perfusion images created up to a temporal resolution of one image per 3 s were rated to be diagnostically equal to the original data. Even at one image per 4 s, all areas of infarction were identified. Quantitative differences of CBF, CBV and MTT measurements were {<=}10% up to one image per 3 s. For PCT of the brain, temporal resolution can be reduced to one image per 3 s without significant compromise in image quality. This significantly reduces the radiation dose of the patient. (orig.)

  13. An accurate, flexible and small optical fiber sensor: a novel technological breakthrough for real-time analysis of dynamic blood flow data in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qiao-ying; Zhang, Ling; Xiao, Dan; Zhao, Kun; Lin, Chun; Si, Liang-yi

    2014-01-01

    Because of the limitations of existing methods and techniques for directly obtaining real-time blood data, no accurate microflow in vivo real-time analysis method exists. To establish a novel technical platform for real-time in vivo detection and to analyze average blood pressure and other blood flow parameters, a small, accurate, flexible, and nontoxic Fabry-Perot fiber sensor was designed. The carotid sheath was implanted through intubation of the rabbit carotid artery (n = 8), and the blood pressure and other detection data were determined directly through the veins. The fiber detection results were compared with test results obtained using color Doppler ultrasound and a physiological pressure sensor recorder. Pairwise comparisons among the blood pressure results obtained using the three methods indicated that real-time blood pressure information obtained through the fiber sensor technique exhibited better correlation than the data obtained with the other techniques. The highest correlation (correlation coefficient of 0.86) was obtained between the fiber sensor and pressure sensor. The blood pressure values were positively related to the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein level, number of red blood cells, and hemoglobin level, with correlation coefficients of 0.033, 0.129, 0.358, and 0.373, respectively. The blood pressure values had no obvious relationship with the number of white blood cells and high-density lipoprotein and had a negative relationship with triglyceride levels, with a correlation coefficient of -0.031. The average ambulatory blood pressure measured by the fiber sensor exhibited a negative correlation with the quantity of blood platelets (correlation coefficient of -0.839, Preal time; the sensor can also determine the content and status of the blood flow to some extent. Therefore, the fiber sensor can obtain partially real-time vascular rheology information and may thus enable the early diagnosis of blood rheology disorders and

  14. An intelligent system for continuous blood pressure monitoring on remote multi-patients in real time

    CERN Document Server

    Marani, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an electronic system to perform a non-invasive measurement of the blood pressure based on the oscillometric method, which does not suffer from the limitations of the well-known auscultatory one. Moreover the proposed system is able to evaluate both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and makes use of a microcontroller and a Sallen-Key active filter. With reference to other similar devices, a great improvement of our measurement system is achieved since it performs the transmission of the systolic and diastolic pressure values to a remote computer. This aspect is very important when the simultaneous monitoring of multi-patients is required. The proposed system, prototyped and tested at the Electron Devices Laboratory (Electrical and Information Engineering Department) of Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy, is characterized by originality, by plainness of use and by a very high level of automation (so called intelligent system).

  15. Turnaround time of positive blood cultures after the introduction of matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, Silvia; Dicuonzo, Giordano; D'Agostino, Alfio; Avola, Alessandra; Crea, Francesca; Palazzo, Carlo; Dedej, Etleva; De Florio, Lucia

    2015-07-01

    A comparative evaluation of the turnaround time (TAT) of positive blood culture before and after matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) introduction in the laboratory routine was performed. A total of 643 positive blood cultures, of which 310 before and 333 after MALDI-TOF technique introduction, were collected. In the post MALDI-TOF period, blood culture median TAT decreased from 73.53 hours to 71.73 for Gram-positive, from 64.09 hours to 63.59 for Gram-negative and from 115.7 hours to 47.62 for anaerobes. MALDI-TOF significantly decreased the TAT of anaerobes, for which antimicrobial susceptibility test is not routinely performed. Furthermore, the major advantage of MALDI-TOF introduction was the decrease of the time for pathogen identification (TID) independently from the species with an improvement of 93% for Gram-positive, 86% for Gram-negative and 95% for anaerobes. In addition, high species-level identification rates and cost savings than conventional methods were achieved after MALDI-TOF introduction.

  16. Establishment of a real-time PCR for quantifying transforming growth factor beta1 in blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background: The carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multi-factorial, multistep and complex process. Its prognosis is poor and early detection is of the utmost importance. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) message RNA (mRNA) has been reported to be elevated in HCC patients using Northern blotting. However, little work has been done about the detection of TGF-β1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood of patients with HCC using the real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) method. Objective: To assess the prognostic value of quantitative levels of TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with HCC, and to investigate the relationship between the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood and many diagnostic and pathological factors. Methods: We developed an optimized Taqman real-time PCR to quantify TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood of 53 patients with HCC and 44 healthy volunteers. In addition, blood was collected from patients with HCC for measuring levels of total bilirubin (TBil), prealbumin, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), viral load and platelet counts. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software system (SPSS 10.0). Results: In real-time PCR, fluorescence was detectable in all blood specimens from patients with HCC and healthy volunteers. The levels of TGF-β1 mRNA expression in patients with HCC were significantly higher compared to that in healthy volunteers (P<0.000 1), suggesting an association of the activated TGF-β1 gene transcription with hepatocarcinogenesis. Patients with HCC were divided into 2 groups according to their TGF-β1 mRNA above (group A, n=28) or below (group B, n=25) the mean level. Statistical results demonstrated that TGF-β1 mRNA expression level was correlated with patients age, serum levels of CEA

  17. Multiplex real-time PCR assay for rapid detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci directly from positive blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Sunghyun; Kim, Jungho; Park, Soon-Deok; Uh, Young; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2014-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most prevalent cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and is recognized as a major nosocomial pathogen. This study aimed to evaluate a newly designed multiplex real-time PCR assay capable of the simultaneous detection of mecA, S. aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in blood culture specimens. The Real-MRSA and Real-MRCoNS multiplex real-time PCR assays (M&D, Republic of Korea) use the TaqMan probes 16S rRNA for Staphylococcus spp., the nuc gene for S. aureus, and the mecA gene for methicillin resistance. The detection limit of the multiplex real-time PCR assay was 10(3) CFU/ml per PCR for each gene target. The multiplex real-time PCR assay was evaluated using 118 clinical isolates from various specimen types and a total of 350 positive blood cultures from a continuous monitoring blood culture system. The results obtained with the multiplex real-time PCR assay for the three targets were in agreement with those of conventional identification and susceptibility testing methods except for one organism. Of 350 positive bottle cultures, the sensitivities of the multiplex real-time PCR kit were 100% (166/166 cultures), 97.2% (35/36 cultures), and 99.2% (117/118 cultures) for the 16S rRNA, nuc, and mecA genes, respectively, and the specificities for all three targets were 100%. The Real-MRSA and Real-MRCoNS multiplex real-time PCR assays are very useful for the rapid accurate diagnosis of staphylococcal BSIs. In addition, the Real-MRSA and Real-MRCoNS multiplex real-time PCR assays could have an important impact on the choice of appropriate antimicrobial therapy, based on detection of the mecA gene.

  18. Continuous monitoring of absolute cerebral blood flow by combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy and time-resolved near-infrared technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, Mamadou; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2011-02-01

    Continuous bedside monitoring of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in patients recovering from brain injury could improve the detection of impaired substrate delivery, which can exacerbate injury and worsen outcome. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) provides the ability to monitor perfusion changes continuously, but it is difficult to quantify absolute blood flow - leading to uncertainties as to whether or not CBF has fallen to ischemic levels. To continuously measure CBF, we propose to calibrate DCS data using a single time-point, time-resolved near-infrared (TR-NIR) technique for measuring absolute CBF. Experiments were conducted on newborn piglets in which CBF was increased by raising the arterial tension of CO2 (40-62 mmHg) and decreased by carotid occlusion. For validation, values of CBF measured by TR-NIR were converted into blood flow changes and compared to CBF changes measured by DCS. A strong correlation between perfusion changes from the two techniques was revealed (slope = 0.98 and R2 = 0.96), suggesting that a single time-point CBF measurement by TR-NIR can be used to convert continuous DCS data into units of CBF (ml/100g/min).

  19. Blood transfusion at the time of the First World War--practice and promise at the birth of transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulton, F; Roberts, D J

    2014-12-01

    The centenary of the start of the First World War has stirred considerable interest in the political, social, military and human factors of the time and how they interacted to produce and sustain the material and human destruction in the 4 years of the war and beyond. Medical practice may appear distant and static and perhaps seems to have been somewhat ineffectual in the face of so much trauma and in the light of the enormous advances in medicine and surgery over the last century. However, this is an illusion of time and of course medical, surgical and psychiatric knowledge and procedures were developing rapidly at the time and the war years accelerated implementation of many important advances. Transfusion practice lay at the heart of resuscitation, and although direct transfusion from donor to recipient was still used, Geoffrey Keynes from Britain, Oswald Robertson from America and his namesake Lawrence Bruce Robertson from Canada, developed methods for indirect transfusion from donor to recipient by storing blood in bottles and also blood-banking that laid the foundation of modern transfusion medicine. This review explores the historical setting behind the development of blood transfusion up to the start of the First World War and on how they progressed during the war and afterwards. A fresh look may renew interest in how a novel medical speciality responded to the needs of war and of post-war society.

  20. [THE NEW APPROACH TO EVALUATION OF ENDOTHELIUM DYSFUNCTION: DETECTION OF NUMBER OF CIRCULATING ENDOTHELIUM CELLS USING FLOW CYTOMETRY TECHNIQUE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feoktistova, V S; Vavilkova, T V; Sirotkina, O V; Boldueva, S A; Gaikovaia, L B; Leonova, I A; Laskovets, A B; Ermakov, A I

    2015-04-01

    The endothelium dysfunction takes leading place in pathogenesis of development of cardiovascular diseases. The circulating endothelium cells of peripheral blood can act as a direct cell marker of damage and remodeling of endothelium. The study was carried out to develop a new approach to diagnose of endothelium dysfunction by force of determination of number of circulating endothelium cells using flow cytometry technique and to apply determination of circulating endothelium cells for evaluation of risk of development of ischemic heart disease in women of young and middle age. The study embraced 62 female patients with angiography confirmed ischemic heart disease, exertional angina pectoris at the level of functional class I-II (mean age 51 ± 6 years) and 49 women without anamnesis of ischemic heart disease (mean age 52 ± 9 years). The occurrence of more than three circulating endothelium cells by 3 x 105 leukocytes in peripheral blood increases relative risk of development of ischemic heart disease up to 4 times in women of young and middle age and risk of development of acute myocardial infarction up to 8 times in women with ischemic heart disease. The study demonstrated possibility to apply flow cytometry technique to quantitatively specify circulating endothelium cells in peripheral blood and forecast risk of development of ischemic heart disease in women of young and middle age depending on level of circulating endothelium cells.

  1. Continuous cuff-less blood pressure monitoring based on the pulse arrival time approach: the impact of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muehlsteff, J; Aubert, X A; Morren, G

    2008-01-01

    There is an unmet need for cuff-less blood pressure (BP) monitoring especially, in personal healthcare applications. The pulse arrival time (PAT) approach might offer a suitable solution to enable comfortable BP monitoring even at beat-level. However, the methodology is based on hemodynamic surrogate measures, which are sensitive to patient activities such as posture changes, not necessarily related to blood pressure variations. In this paper, we analyze the impact of posture on the PAT measure and related hemodynamic parameters such as the pre-ejection period in well-defined procedures. Additionally, the PAT of a monitored subject is investigated in an unsupervised scenario illustrating the complexity of such a measurement. Our results show the failure of blood pressure inference based on simple calibration strategies using the PAT measure only. We discuss opportunities to compensate for the observed effects towards the realization of wearable cuff-less blood pressure monitoring. These findings emphasize the importance of accessing context information in personal healthcare applications, where vital sign monitoring is typically unsupervised.

  2. 补肾活血方调控 microRNA-210促进 BMSCs 成骨分化的研究%The kidney-tonifying and blood circulation-promoting recipes promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenehymal stem cells by regulating microRNA-210

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倍源

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究补肾活血方促进骨髓间充质干细胞(Bone Mesenehymal Stem Cells ,BMSCs)成骨分化的分子机制。方法贴壁培养法分离纯化大鼠BMSCs,将培养成功的BMSCs分为空白组、成骨诱导组和中药组,培养7d、14d行矿化结节茜素红染色(Alizarin Red S,ARS),倒置显微镜观察矿化骨结节形成情况,采用real-time PCR检测miR-210的表达变化。结果与空白组比较,成骨诱导组和中药组BMSCs钙化结节数量明显增多,差异有非常显著的统计学意义( P<0.01)。在成骨诱导剂、补肾活血方水提液的作用下,与空白组比较,miR-210表达明显降低,且中药组较成骨诱导组更明显降低miR-210表达。结论补肾活血方通过降低miR-210表达促进BMSCs成骨分化。%Objective To investigate the mechanism of osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenehymal stem cells ( BMSCs) promoted by the kidney-tonifying and blood circulation-promoting recipes.Methods BMSCs of SD rats were isolated with adherent separation method and primarily cultured in vitro.Then BMSCs were divided into blank group, osteo-induced group, and Chinese medicine group.At the 7 th day and the 14 th day, the mineralized nodules were stained using Alizarin red statining ( ARS) . The formation of mineralized nodules was observed using a converted microscope.The expression of miR-210 was detected using real-time PCR.Results Compared with that in blank group, the number of mineralized nodules in osteo-induced group and Chinese medicine group increased significantly ( P <0.01 ) .After the intervention of osteogenic inducer and extraction of the kidney-tonifying and blood circulation-promoting recipes, the expression of miR-210 in both groups decreased significantly compared with that in blank group.And the expression in Chinese medicine group was much lower than that in osteo-induced group. Conclusion The kidney-tonifying and blood circulation-promoting recipes can

  3. 输血后感染的HIV-1流行株分子流行病学调查%Molecular epidemiological investigation of HIV-1 circulating strain infected after blood receiving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵翠英; 李保军; 陈素良; 邢辉; 路新利; 李巧敏; 白广义; 赵宏儒

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解河北省沙河市受血感染者及其夫妻传播者中HIV-1亚型特点和来源.方法 采集HIV-1感染者的全血样品,分离外周血单核细胞(PBMC),提取前病毒DNA,使用套式聚合酶链反应(nested-PCR),扩增HIV-1的env基因的C2~V3区,并进行序列测定和亚型分析.结果 对7例HIV-1感染者的血标本进行nested-PCR扩增,得到6份HIV-1 env C2~V3基因片段,经序列测定分析,6份样品均为B'亚型.组内基因离散率6.22%±1.38%,基因序列与云南瑞丽株RL42(泰国B亚型)相近.受血者Heb0224及其配偶Heb0223与云南瑞丽株RL42 env的基因离散率分别为3.93%和7.71%.结论 在河北省沙河市受血感染者及其夫妻传播者中流行的为HIV-1 B'亚型.%Objective To understand the characteristics and origin of subtypes of HIV-1 strains infected blood receivers and their couples in Shahe, Hebei Province. Methods The whole blood from HIV-1 infected individuals were collected and the peripheral blood mononuclear cell were separated. The provirus DNA was extracted and amplified by nested-PCR, after which the HIV-1 env C2~ V3 gene fragments was sequenced and its subtypes were analyzed. Results Among 7 HIV-1 antibody positive cases, 6 HIV-1 env C2~ V3 gene fragments were amplified and analyzed. 6 cases were confirmed to be infected with HIV-lsubtype B' strain. The genetic distance of HIV-1 B' intersubtype was 6.22 % ± 1.38% ( n = 6), their gene sequence were closely related to RL42 in Yunnan (Thailand B). To compare with RL42, the genetic distance of blood receiver (Heb0224) was 3.39 % and that of their spouses (Heb0223) was 7.71%. Conclusions HIV-1 subtype B' was the predominant subtype circulating among blood receivers and their spouses within families in Shahe, Hebei Province.

  4. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci Directly from Positive Blood Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hye-young; Kim, Sunghyun; Kim, Jungho; Park, Soon-Deok; Uh, Young; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most prevalent cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and is recognized as a major nosocomial pathogen. This study aimed to evaluate a newly designed multiplex real-time PCR assay capable of the simultaneous detection of mecA, S. aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in blood culture specimens. The Real-MRSA and Real-MRCoNS multiplex real-time PCR assays (M&D, Republic of Korea) use the TaqMan probes 16S rRNA for Staphylo...

  5. Detection of bacteria and fungi in blood of patients with febrile neutropenia by real-time PCR with universal primers and probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teranishi, Hideto; Ohzono, Nanae; Inamura, Norikazu; Kato, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Tokio; Akaike, Hiroto; Terada, Kihei; Ouchi, Kazunobu

    2015-03-01

    Febrile neutropenia is the main treatment-related cause of mortality in cancer patients. During June 2012 to April 2014, 97 blood culture samples were collected from patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancy and cancer with febrile neutropenia episodes (FNEs). The samples were examined for the presence of bacteria and fungi using real-time PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA genes. Bacteria were identified in 20 of 97 samples (20.6%) by the real-time PCR assay and in 10 of 97 (10.3%) samples by blood culture. In 6 blood culture-positive samples, the real-time PCR assay detected the same type of bacteria. No fungi were detected by the real-time PCR assay or blood culture. During antibiotic therapy, all samples were negative by blood culture, but the real-time PCR assay yielded a positive result in 2 cases of 2 (100%). The bacterial DNA copy number was not well correlated with the serum C-reactive protein titer of patients with FNEs. We conclude that a real-time PCR assay could provide better detection of causative microbes' in a shorter time, and with a smaller blood sample than blood culture. Using a real-time PCR assay in combination with blood culture could improve microbiological documentation of FNEs.

  6. Influence of simulated microgravity on clock genes expression rhythmicity and underlying blood circulating miRNAs-mRNA co-expression regulatory mechanism in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ke; Qu, Lina

    Purpose: It is vital for astronauts to maintain the optimal alertness and neurobehavioral function. Among various factors that exist in the space flight and long-duration mission environment, gravity changes may probably an essential environmental factor to interfere with internal circadian rhythms homeostasis and sleep quality, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Mammals' biological clock is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and peripheral organs adjust their own rhythmicity with the central signals. Nevertheless,the mechanism underlying this synchronizition process is still unknown. microRNAs (miRNAs) are about 19~22nt long regulatory RNAs that serve as critical modulators of post-transcriptional gene regulation. Recently, circulating miRNAs were found to have the regulatory role between cells and peripheral tissues, besides its function inside the cells. This study aims to investigate the regulatory signal transduction role of miRNAs between SCN and peripheral biological clock effecter tissues and to further decipher the mechanism of circadian disturbance under microgravity. Method: Firstly, based on the assumption that severe alterations in the expression of genes known to be involved in circadian rhythms may affect the expression of other genes, the labeled cDNA from liver and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of clock-knockout mice and control mice in different time points were cohybridized to microarrays. The fold change exceeding 2 (FC>2) was used to identify genes with altered expression levels in the knockout mice compared with control mice. Secondly, male C57BL/6J mice at 8 weeks of age were individually caged and acclimatized to the laboratory conditions (12h light/dark cycle) before being used for continuous core body temperature and activity monitoring. The mice were individually caged and tail suspended using a strip of adhesive surgical tape attached to a chain hanging from a pulley. Peripheral blood and liver tissues collection

  7. Hierarchical zwitterionic modification of a SERS substrate enables real-time drug monitoring in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fang; Hung, Hsiang-Chieh; Sinclair, Andrew; Zhang, Peng; Bai, Tao; Galvan, Daniel David; Jain, Priyesh; Li, Bowen; Jiang, Shaoyi; Yu, Qiuming

    2016-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an ultrasensitive analytical technique with molecular specificity, making it an ideal candidate for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). However, in critical diagnostic media including blood, nonspecific protein adsorption coupled with weak surface affinities and small Raman activities of many analytes hinder the TDM application of SERS. Here we report a hierarchical surface modification strategy, first by coating a gold surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) designed to attract or probe for analytes and then by grafting a non-fouling zwitterionic polymer brush layer to effectively repel protein fouling. We demonstrate how this modification can enable TDM applications by quantitatively and dynamically measuring the concentrations of several analytes--including an anticancer drug (doxorubicin), several TDM-requiring antidepressant and anti-seizure drugs, fructose and blood pH--in undiluted plasma. This hierarchical surface chemistry is widely applicable to many analytes and provides a generalized platform for SERS-based biosensing in complex real-world media.

  8. Comparison of two real-time PCR assays for the detection of malaria parasites from hemolytic blood samples - Short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Hinz, Rebecca; Tannich, Egbert; Frickmann, Hagen

    2015-06-01

    We compared the performance of an in-house and a commercial malaria polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using freeze-thawed hemolytic blood samples. A total of 116 freeze-thawed ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood samples of patients with suspicion of malaria were analyzed by an in-house as well as by a commercially available real-time PCR. Concordant malaria negative PCR results were reported for 39 samples and malaria-positive PCR results for 67 samples. The in-house assay further detected one case of Plasmodium falciparum infection, which was negative in the commercial assay as well as five cases of P. falciparum malaria and three cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria, which showed sample inhibition in the commercial assay. The commercial malaria assay was positive in spite of a negative in-house PCR result in one case. In all concordant results, cycle threshold values of P. falciparum-positive samples were lower in the commercial PCR than in the in-house assay. Although Ct values of the commercial PCR kit suggest higher sensitivity in case of concordant results, it is prone to inhibition if it is applied to hemolytic freeze-thawed blood samples. The number of misidentifications was, however, identical for both real-time PCR assays.

  9. Real-time PCR strategy for parasite quantification in blood and tissue samples of experimental Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Sérgio; Caldas, Ivo Santana; Diniz, Lívia de Figueiredo; Lima, Wanderson Geraldo de; Oliveira, Riva de Paula; Cecílio, Alzira Batista; Ribeiro, Isabela; Talvani, André; Bahia, Maria Terezinha

    2012-09-01

    The lack of an accurate diagnosis has been a serious obstacle to the advancement of the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi chemotherapy and long-term infection can result in different health risks to human. PCRs are alternative methods, more sensitive than conventional parasitological techniques, which due to their low sensitivities are considered unsuitable for these purposes. The aim of this study was to investigate a sensitive diagnostic strategy to quantify blood and cardiac tissues parasites based on real-time PCR tools during acute and chronic phases of murine Chagas disease, as well as to monitor the evolution of infection in those mice under specific treatment. In parallel, fresh blood examination, immunological analysis and quantification of cardiac inflammation were also performed to confront and improve real-time PCR data. Similar profiles of parasitemia curves were observed in both quantification techniques during the acute phase of the infection. In contrast, parasites could be quantified only by real-time PCR at 60 and 120 days of infection. In cardiac tissue, real-time PCR detected T. cruzi DNA in 100% of infected mice, and using this tool a significant Pearson correlation between parasite load in peripheral blood and in cardiac tissue during acute and chronic phases was observed. Levels of serum CCL2, CCL5 and nitric oxide were coincident with parasite load but focal and diffuse mononuclear infiltrates was observed, even with significant (pblood and cardiac muscle at the treatment period, but after the end of chemotherapy an increase of parasitism was detected. Interestingly, inflammatory mediators levels and heart inflammation intensity had similar evolution to the parasite load, in the group of animals treated. Taken together, our data show that real-time PCR strategy used was suitable for studies of murine T. cruzi infection and may prove useful in investigations involving experimental chemotherapy of the disease and the benefits of treatment in relation to

  10. A brief etymology of the collateral circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, James E; Chilian, William M; Deindl, Elisabeth; van Royen, Niels; Simons, Michael

    2014-09-01

    It is well known that the protective capacity of the collateral circulation falls short in many individuals with ischemic disease of the heart, brain, and lower extremities. In the past 15 years, opportunities created by molecular and genetic tools, together with disappointing outcomes in many angiogenic trials, have led to a significant increase in the number of studies that focus on: understanding the basic biology of the collateral circulation; identifying the mechanisms that limit the collateral circulation's capacity in many individuals; devising methods to measure collateral extent, which has been found to vary widely among individuals; and developing treatments to increase collateral blood flow in obstructive disease. Unfortunately, accompanying this increase in reports has been a proliferation of vague terms used to describe the disposition and behavior of this unique circulation, as well as the increasing misuse of well-ensconced ones by new (and old) students of collateral circulation. With this in mind, we provide a brief glossary of readily understandable terms to denote the formation, adaptive growth, and maladaptive rarefaction of collateral circulation. We also propose terminology for several newly discovered processes that occur in the collateral circulation. Finally, we include terms used to describe vessels that are sometimes confused with collaterals, as well as terms describing processes active in the general arterial-venous circulation when ischemic conditions engage the collateral circulation. We hope this brief review will help unify the terminology used in collateral research.

  11. Effects of unsteadiness and non-Newtonian rheology on blood flow through a tapered time-variant stenotic artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional model is used to analyze the unsteady pulsatile flow of blood through a tapered artery with stenosis. The rheology of the flowing blood is captured by the constitutive equation of Carreau model. The geometry of the time-variant stenosis has been used to carry out the present analysis. The flow equations are set up under the assumption that the lumen radius is sufficiently smaller than the wavelength of the pulsatile pressure wave. A radial coordinate transformation is employed to immobilize the effect of the vessel wall. The resulting partial differential equations along with the boundary and initial conditions are solved using finite difference method. The dimensionless radial and axial velocity, volumetric flow rate, resistance impedance and wall shear stress are analyzed for normal and diseased artery with particular focus on variation of these quantities with non-Newtonian parameters.

  12. Validation of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for HTLV-1 proviral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosadas, Carolina; Cabral-Castro, Mauro Jorge; Vicente, Ana Carolina Paulo; Peralta, José Mauro; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this study was to validate a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for HTLV-1 proviral load detection in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. TARL-2 cells were used to generate a standard curve. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell gDNA from 27 seropositive and 23 seronegative samples was analyzed. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, precision, dynamic range of the standard curve and qPCR efficiency were evaluated. All of the positive samples amplified the target gene. All of the negative samples amplified only the control gene (β-actin). The assay presented 100% specificity and sensibility. The intra- and inter-assay variability was 2.4% and 2.2%, respectively. The qPCR efficiency, slope and correlation coefficients (r2) were all acceptable. The limit of detection was 1 copy/rxn. This assay can reliably quantify HTLV-1 proviral load.

  13. Increasing time interval and decreasing allergen dose interval improves ex vivo desensitization of human blood basophils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting Christensen, Sara K; Krohn, Inge Kortekaas; Thuraiaiyah, Jani;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Desensitization is a method for inducing temporary tolerance to allergen. The mechanism underlying desensitization is yet to be established. METHODS: Basophil granulocytes in whole blood from grass pollen allergic subjects were desensitized ex vivo by sequential addition of increasing...... allergen concentrations. At each step basophil activation (CD193(+) CD63(+) ) was monitored with and without (background activation) allergen challenge at optimal concentration. The sequential desensitization protocol was compared to a single-dose desensitization protocols with threshold and subthreshold...... allergen concentrations. Incubation intervals and allergen concentrations were varied in order to optimise the protocol. RESULTS: Sequential desensitization effectively reduced basophil response. The single-dose subthreshold protocol and single-dose threshold protocols did not reduce basophil activation...

  14. Transcriptional activity of telomerase complex in CD34- stem cells of cord blood in dependence of preparation time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bojdys-Szyndlar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether the expression of telomerase subunits encoding genes changes during the process of cord blood preparation. It should establish if the commonly accepted 24 hours time interval in stem cells kriopreservation procedure significantly influences their immortalization and so decreases the "quality" of cord blood stem cells. Investigation includes 69 women. Spontaneous labour was the inclusion condition. The material was collected at birth after clamping of umbilical cord by direct vasopuncture. CD34- cells were extracted from cord blood (MACS, Miltenyi Biotec; Bisley, Surrey, UK. The expression profile of telomerase activators and inhibitors encoding genes was determined using HG_U133A oligonucleotide microarray (Affymetrix. We used a real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay to quantify the telomerase TERT, hTR and TP1 subunits mRNA copy numbers in CD34- cells in 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours after cord blood collection. We observed significant decrease of numbers of copies of TERTA+B mRNA within the successive hours of observation. Significant decrease of numbers of TERTA mRNA copies was confirmed after 24 hours. However, we observed significant increase of numbers of copies of TERTB mRNA after 6 hours of observation. Similar level was maintained during another 6h. The significantly lower number of copies of TERTB mRNA was observed after 24h. We also observed significant increase of number of copies of TERT mRNA after 6 hours. Number of copies of TERT mRNA significantly decreased after another 6h, remaining, however, on a higher then initial one. The significant lower number of copies of TERT mRNA was observed 24h after delivery. The possible explanation of those results is discussed in the paper.

  15. 消化系统肿瘤外周血循环肿瘤细胞的研究进展%Research Progress of Peripheral Blood Circulating Tumor Cells in Digestive System Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施少军; 薛峰

    2016-01-01

    Recently,the detection of circulating tumor cells(CTCs)in peripheral blood is used in clinical practice as a form of‘ liquid biopsy’. The self-seeding mechanism of CTCs provides a novel approach to explore the growing mechanism of malignant tumor and developing corresponding targeting therapies. A decade ago,the CellSearch system, which can capture and enumerate CTCs,has been validated by Food and Drug Administration( FDA)as an aid for monitoring the relapse of tumor after radical operation in patients with breast,prostate and colorectal cancer. In recent years,although the separation and detection technique of CTCs has been promoted significantly,the clinical significance of CTCs in tumors of digestive system is still under investigation. This article reviewed the research progress of peripheral blood CTCs in digestive system tumors.%近年来,外周血循环肿瘤细胞(CTCs)检测已作为一项“液相活检”技术应用于临床实践。CTCs 的肿瘤自我播种机制为探索恶性肿瘤的生长机制以及开发相应的肿瘤靶向治疗提供了新思路。10年前美国食品与药品管理局(FDA)即已批准将计数分析 CTCs 的 CellSearch 系统应用于临床监控乳腺癌、前列腺癌和结直肠癌根治术后肿瘤复发。尽管近年来 CTCs 分离和检测技术得到了显著提升,然而在消化系统肿瘤领域,检测 CTCs 的临床意义尚在研究中。本文就消化系统肿瘤外周血 CTCs 的研究进展作一综述。

  16. Low density lipoproteins as circulating fast temperature sensors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Prassl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The potential physiological significance of the nanophase transition of neutral lipids in the core of low density lipoprotein (LDL particles is dependent on whether the rate is fast enough to integrate small (+/-2 degrees C temperature changes in the blood circulation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using sub-second, time-resolved small-angle X-ray scattering technology with synchrotron radiation, we have monitored the dynamics of structural changes within LDL, which were triggered by temperature-jumps and -drops, respectively. Our findings reveal that the melting transition is complete within less than 10 milliseconds. The freezing transition proceeds slowly with a half-time of approximately two seconds. Thus, the time period over which LDL particles reside in cooler regions of the body readily facilitates structural reorientation of the apolar core lipids. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Low density lipoproteins, the biological nanoparticles responsible for the transport of cholesterol in blood, are shown to act as intrinsic nano-thermometers, which can follow the periodic temperature changes during blood circulation. Our results demonstrate that the lipid core in LDL changes from a liquid crystalline to an oily state within fractions of seconds. This may, through the coupling to the protein structure of LDL, have important repercussions on current theories of the role of LDL in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.

  17. Blood Group Determination using DNA extracted from Exfoliated Primary Teeth at Various Time Durations and Temperatures: A PCR Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Sham S; Salman, Afreen; Hegde, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim To determine polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based blood group on tooth pulp obtained from teeth stored for 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year following extraction and to evaluate the stability of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in primary tooth subjected to a temperature of 200°C ± 5°C for 15 minutes. Materials and methods Dental pulp tissue was collected from 40 exfoliated primary teeth stored for various time durations and temperature and preserved at 4°C till DNA extraction was carried out. Deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted using silica membrane-based spin-column procedure of QIAamp DNA minikit from BioRad. Deoxyribonucleic acid was subjected to PCR amplification and monoplex allele-specific PCR primers for ABO genotyping. Statistical analysis used The data were analyzed by comparison (based on percentage). Results In our study, overall, 85% samples showed a DNA yield. Cent percent results were obtained for samples studied at the end of 1 month followed by 90 and 80% for samples studied for 6 months and 1 year respectively. Heated samples showed 70% result. Conclusion Polymerase chain reaction was found to be an effective method for blood group determination for teeth stored at various time durations and temperatures. However, as the time interval increased, the number of positive results obtained decreased. How to cite this article Pai RK, Bhat SS, Salman A, Hegde S. Blood Group Determination using DNA extracted from Exfoliated Primary Teeth at Various Time Durations and Temperatures: A PCR Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(4):308-312. PMID:28127161

  18. Biodynamics circulation

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Y C

    1984-01-01

    This book is a continuation of my Biomechanics.The first volume deals with the mechanical properties of living tissues. The present volume deals with the mechanics ofcirculation. A third volume willdeal with respiration, fluid balance, locomotion, growth, and strength. This volume is called Bio­ dynamics in order to distinguish it from the first volume. The same style is followed. My objective is to present the mechanical aspects ofphysiology in precise terms ofmechanics so that the subject can become as lucid as physics. The motivation of writing this series of books is, as I have said in the preface to the first volume, to bring biomechanics to students ofbioengineer­ ing, physiology, medicine, and mechanics. I have long felt a need for a set of books that willinform the students ofthe physiological and medical applica­ tions ofbiomechanics,and at the same time develop their training in mechan­ ics. In writing these books I have assumed that the reader already has some basic training in mechanics, to a ...

  19. Coblation tonsillectomy versus dissection tonsillectomy: a comparison of intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izny Hafiz, Z; Rosdan, S; Mohd Khairi, M D

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post operative pain between coblation tonsillectomy and cold tonsillectomy in the same patient. A prospective single blind control trial was carried out on 34 patients whom underwent tonsillectomy. The patients with known bleeding disorder, history of unilateral peritonsillar abscess and unilateral tonsillar hypertrophy were excluded. Operations were done by a single surgeon using cold dissection tonsillectomy in one side while coblation tonsillectomy in the other. Intraoperative time, intraoperative blood loss and post operative pain during the first 3 days were compared between the two methods. Results showed that the intraoperative time was significantly shorter (pcoblation tonsillectomy as compared to cold tonsillectomy. Post operative pain score was significantly less at 6 hours post operation (pcoblation tonsillectomy as compared to cold tonsillectomy. However, there were no differences in the post operative pain scores on day 1, 2 and 3. In conclusion, coblation tonsillectomy does have superiority in improving intraoperative efficiency in term of intraoperative time and bleeding compared to cold dissection tonsillectomy. The patient will benefit with minimal post operative pain in the immediate post surgery duration.

  20. Circulating Tumor Cells, Enumeration and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Mei Hou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The detection and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs has shown significant clinical utility with respect to prognosis in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. Emerging studies show that CTCs can provide pharmacodynamic information to aid therapy decision making. CTCs as a ‘virtual and real-time biopsy’ have clear potential to facilitate exploration of tumor biology, and in particular, the process of metastasis. The challenge of profiling CTC molecular characteristics and generating CTC signatures using current technologies is that they enrich rather than purify CTCs from whole blood; we face the problem of looking for the proverbial ‘needle in the haystack’. This review summarizes the current methods for CTC detection and enumeration, focuses on molecular characterization of CTCs, unveils some aspects of CTC heterogeneity, describes attempts to purify CTCs and scans the horizon for approaches leading to comprehensive dissection of CTC biology.

  1. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  2. Lead levels - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  3. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Miyamoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC adenocarcinoma and other lung cancer cases. Metabolomic analysis of blood samples from the two studies yielded a total of 437 metabolites, of which 148 were identified as known compounds and 289 identified as unknown compounds. Differential analysis identified 15 known metabolites in one study and 18 in a second study that were statistically different (p-values <0.05. Levels of maltose, palmitic acid, glycerol, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, and lactic acid were increased in cancer samples while amino acids tryptophan, lysine and histidine decreased. Many of the metabolites were found to be significantly different in both studies, suggesting that metabolomics appears to be robust enough to find systemic changes from lung cancer, thus showing the potential of this type of analysis for lung cancer detection.

  4. Discussion on Theory of Treating Limbs Coldness of Diabetic Foot at Early Stage by Warming Yang and Promoting Blood Circulation%温阳活血法治疗早期糖尿病足肢冷症的理论初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于宏波; 孙凤平; 严石林; 陶怡

    2013-01-01

    The article discussed the theory of diabetic foot at early stage from its origin and development,the pathogenesis of limbs coldness,and the application of warming Yang and promoting blood circulation way,and pointed out that since ancient times there had been profound knowledge of limbs coldness,analysis of pathogenesis,and the treatment of diabetic foot at early stage,providing important research thought of preventing diabetic foot.%文章分别从早期糖尿病足的发展源流、肢冷症的病机、温阳活血法的应用进行理论探讨,提出从古代开始已有不少医家对早期糖尿病足肢冷症就有深刻的认识和病机分析、治法研究,为防治糖尿病足这一常见并发症提出重要的研究思路.

  5. Comparison of plasma with whole blood prothrombin time and fibrinogen on the same instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Ferrell, Chris; Chandler, Wayne L

    2010-04-01

    We compared plasma with whole blood (WB) international normalized ratio (INR) and fibrinogen using the same instrument and reagents. WBINRs were 50% higher than plasma INRs. After increasing the WB sample volume 40% and adjusting the International Sensitivity Index, WBINRs were similar to plasma INRs [adjusted WBINR = 0.99(plasma INR) - 0.02; r(2) = 0.98; n = 155], but the average difference in WB vs plasma INR was 4-fold higher than duplicate plasma INRs. Variation in hematocrit was a major determinant of the accuracy of the WBINR, with increased error at high INRs. The WB fibrinogen assay was highly dependent on the sample hematocrit (r(2) = 0.83), even after the sample volume was adjusted. Accurate WB fibrinogen measurements required a mathematical hematocrit correction. We conclude that WBINR and fibrinogen assays can be performed on point-of-care or automated analyzers, but sample volume must be adjusted to account for hematocrit. Accuracy is limited by variations in hematocrit with worsening accuracy for samples with high INRs or low fibrinogen levels.

  6. A System for Simple Real-Time Anastomotic Failure Detection and Wireless Blood Flow Monitoring in the Lower Limbs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothfuss, Michael A.; Franconi, Nicholas G.; Unadkat, Jignesh V.; Gimbel, Michael L.; STAR, Alexander; Mickle, Marlin H.

    2016-01-01

    Current totally implantable wireless blood flow monitors are large and cannot operate alongside nearby monitors. To alleviate the problems with the current monitors, we developed a system to monitor blood flow wirelessly, with a simple and easily interpretable real-time output. To the best of our knowledge, the implanted electronics are the smallest in reported literature, which reduces bio-burden. Calibration was performed across realistic physiological flow ranges using a syringe pump. The device’s sensors connected directly to the bilateral femoral veins of swine. For each 1 min, blood flow was monitored, then, an occlusion was introduced, and then, the occlusion was removed to resume flow. Each vein of four pigs was monitored four times, totaling 32 data collections. The implant measured 1.70 cm3 without battery/encapsulation. Across its calibrated range, including equipment tolerances, the relative error is less than ±5% above 8 mL/min and between −0.8% and +1.2% at its largest calibrated flow rate, which to the best of our knowledge is the lowest reported in the literature across the measured calibration range. The average standard deviation of the flow waveform amplitude was three times greater than that of no-flow. Establishing the relative amplitude for the flow and no-flow waveforms was found necessary, particularly for noise modulated Doppler signals. Its size and accuracy, compared with other microcontroller-equipped totally implantable monitors, make it a good candidate for future tether-free free flap monitoring studies. PMID:27730016

  7. The Volume of Blood Shed During the Bleeding Time Correlates with the Peripheral Venous Hematocrit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Thtombosis. NY, Gnme-Stration 1974,2:249. 2. The bleeding time. The Lancet 1991,337:1447. 3. Rodgers RPC, Levin J. A critical reappraisal of the bleeding...The bleeding-time and the baematocrit. The Lancet May 4; 1984,997. * ^SSSfSSf ^ ’*" bl00d "* ""’* ’*■» ">te ta ««»bus fixation. Science

  8. Relative indexes of cutaneous blood perfusion measured by real-time laser Doppler imaging (LDI) in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Jafari, S Morteza; Schawkat, Megir; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Shafighi, Maziar

    2014-07-01

    We used real-time LDI to study regional variations in microcirculatory perfusion in healthy candidates to establish a new methodology for global perfusion body mapping that is based on intra-individual perfusion index ratios. Our study included 74 (37 female) healthy volunteers aged between 22 and 30 years (mean 24.49). Imaging was performed using a recent microcirculation-imaging camera (EasyLDI) for different body regions of each volunteer. The perfusion values were reported in Arbitrary Perfusion Units (APU). The relative perfusion indexes for each candidate's body region were then obtained by normalization with the perfusion value of the forehead. Basic parameters such as weight, height, and blood pressure were also measured and analyzed. The highest mean perfusion value was reported in the forehead area (259.21APU). Mean perfusion in the measured parts of the body correlated positively with mean forehead value, while there was no significant correlation between forehead blood perfusion values and room temperature, BMI, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.420, 0.623, 0.488, 0.099, respectively). Analysis of the data showed that perfusion indexes were not significantly different between male and female volunteers except for the ventral upper arm area (p=.001). LDI is a non-invasive, fast technique that opens several avenues for clinical applications. The mean perfusion indexes are useful in clinical practice for monitoring patients before and after surgical interventions. Perfusion values can be predicted for different body parts for patients only by taking the forehead perfusion value and using the perfusion index ratios to obtain expected normative perfusion values.

  9. Detecting mRNA Predictors of Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mouse Blood Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Syu-ichi; Tomizawa, Ayako; Yomogida, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) is a widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug. Drug-induced liver injury from agents such as APAP is known to vary between individuals within a species. To avoid liver injury and ensure the proper use of pharmaceutical products, it is important to be able to predict such risks using genetic information. This study evaluated the use of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to identify mRNAs (carried in the blood of male ddY mice) capable of predicting susceptibility to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. Screening was performed on samples obtained at 18 h after treatment from mice that had been orally treated with 500 mg/kg APAP. APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was seen in 60% of the mice, and the mortality rate was 12%. Blood APAP concentration did not differ significantly between mice with and without APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. We compared blood mRNA expression levels between mice with (positive, serious or lethal injury) and without hepatotoxicity in the APAP-treated group. The transcript levels of interleukin-encoding loci Il1β, Il10, and tumor necrosis factor (Tnf) were increased in the lethal injury group. Transcripts of the loci encoding transthyretin (Ttr) and metallothionein 1 (Mt1) showed increases in the liver injury group, while those of the glutathione peroxidase 3-encoding locus (Gpx3) were decreased. APAP hepatotoxicity was potentiated in fasted animals, although fasting did not appear to affect the level of expression of these genes. These results indicate that mRNA expression of Il1β, Il10, Tnf, Ttr, Mt1, and Gpx3 in mouse blood may provide useful surrogate markers of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.

  10. Rapid DNA extraction protocol for detection of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency from dried blood spots by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struniawski, R; Szpechcinski, A; Poplawska, B; Skronski, M; Chorostowska-Wynimko, J

    2013-01-01

    The dried blood spot (DBS) specimens have been successfully employed for the large-scale diagnostics of α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency as an easy to collect and transport alternative to plasma/serum. In the present study we propose a fast, efficient, and cost effective protocol of DNA extraction from dried blood spot (DBS) samples that provides sufficient quantity and quality of DNA and effectively eliminates any natural PCR inhibitors, allowing for successful AAT genotyping by real-time PCR and direct sequencing. DNA extracted from 84 DBS samples from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients was genotyped for AAT deficiency variants by real-time</