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Sample records for blood circulation time

  1. Regional blood flow with first circulation time-indicator curves: a simplified, physiologic method of interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic computed tomography, digital subtraction angiography, and radionuclide angiography can all be used to evaluate regional blood flow noninvasively. Although regional blood flow cannot be determined uniquely from first circulation time-indicator curves, relative transit time to and through the regions of interest and relative regional blood volume in the regions of interest can be measured and related to relative regional blood flow using a modified Stewart-Hamilton equation. However, for precise mathematical calculation, extrapolation of the first circulation data beyond the point of recirculation is required. Indices of transit time and regional volume that do not require extrapolation were evaluated in an experimental model. The correlation coefficients between the indices of transit time and volume and the more mathematically precise measurements were 0.99 and 0.95, respectively (p < 0.01). It is suggested that these indices, which can also be evaluated visually, are useful in interpreting first circulation time-indicator curves in a physiologic manner

  2. Prolonged in vivo circulation time by zwitterionic modification of magnetite nanoparticles for blood pool contrast agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wangchuan; Lin, Jiang; Li, Mingli; Ma, Yongjie; Chen, Yuxin; Zhang, Chunfu; Li, Dan; Gu, Hongchen

    2012-01-01

    Long circulation time is critical for blood pool contrast agents used in high-resolution magnetic resonance angiography. For iron oxide particle contrast agents, size and surface properties significantly influence their in vivo performance. We developed a novel long-circulating blood pool contrast agent by introducing zwitterionic structure onto the particle surface. Zwitterionic structure was fabricated by 3-(diethylamino)propylamine (DEAPA) grafted onto the surface of ployacrylic acid coated magnetite nanoparticles via EDC/NHS [N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbo-diimide hydrochloride/N-hydroxysuccinimide] coupling chemistry. Zwitterionic particles demonstrated five times lower macrophage cell uptake than the original particles and low cell toxicity. Magnetic resonance angiography indicated that zwitterionic nanoparticles had much longer in vivo circulation time than the original particles and were an ideal candidate for blood pool contrast agent. We suppose that zwitterionic modification by DEAPA and EDC/NHS can be used generally for coating nanoparticles with carboxyl surface and to prolong their circulating time. PMID:22539402

  3. Determination of blood circulation times of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles by T2* relaxometry using ultrashort echo time (UTE) MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharlach, Constantin; Warmuth, Carsten; Schellenberger, Eyk

    2015-11-01

    Blood circulation is an important determinant of the biodistribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Here we present a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on the use of ultrafast echo times (UTE) for the noninvasive determination of blood half-lives at high particle concentrations, when conventional pulse sequences fail to produce a useful MR signal. Four differently coated iron oxide nanoparticles were administered intravenously at a dose of 500 μmol Fe/kg bodyweight and UTE images of C57BL/6 mice were acquired on a 1-T ICON scanner (Bruker). T2* relaxometry was done by acquiring UTE images with echo times of 0.1, 0.8 and 1.6 ms. Blood circulation time was then determined by fitting an exponential curve to the time course of the measured relaxation rates. Circulation time was shortest for particles coated with malic acid (t1/2=23 min) and longest for particles coated with tartaric acid (t1/2=63 min). UTE-based T2* relaxometry allows noninvasive determination of blood circulation time and is especially useful when high particle concentrations are present. PMID:26119420

  4. Red Blood Cell Membrane as a Biomimetic Nanocoating for Prolonged Circulation Time and Reduced Accelerated Blood Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Lang; Bu, Lin-Lin; Xu, Jun-Hua; Cai, Bo; Yu, Guang-Tao; Yu, Xiaolei; He, Zhaobo; Huang, Qinqin; Li, Andrew; Guo, Shi-Shang; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Liu, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Jun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Tza-Huei; Zhao, Xing-Zhong

    2015-12-01

    For decades, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) has been widely incorporated into nanoparticles for evading immune clearance and improving the systematic circulation time. However, recent studies have reported a phenomenon known as "accelerated blood clearance (ABC)" where a second dose of PEGylated nanomaterials is rapidly cleared when given several days after the first dose. Herein, we demonstrate that natural red blood cell (RBC) membrane is a superior alternative to PEG. Biomimetic RBC membrane-coated Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (Fe(3)O(4) @RBC NPs) rely on CD47, which is a "don't eat me" marker on the RBC surface, to escape immune clearance through interactions with the signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRP-α) receptor. Fe(3)O(4) @RBC NPs exhibit extended circulation time and show little change between the first and second doses, with no ABC suffered. In addition, the administration of Fe(3)O(4) @RBC NPs does not elicit immune responses on neither the cellular level (myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs)) nor the humoral level (immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG)). Finally, the in vivo toxicity of these cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles is systematically investigated by blood biochemistry, hematology testing, and histology analysis. These findings are significant advancements toward solving the long-existing clinical challenges of developing biomaterials that are able to resist both immune response and rapid clearance. PMID:26488923

  5. Systematic assessment of blood circulation time of functionalized upconversion nanoparticles in the chick embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadort, Annemarie; Liang, Liuen; Grebenik, Ekaterina; Guller, Anna; Lu, Yiqing; Qian, Yi; Goldys, Ewa; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Nanoparticle-based delivery of drugs and contrast agents holds great promise in cancer research, because of the increased delivery efficiency compared to `free' drugs and dyes. A versatile platform to investigate nanotechnology is the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane tumour model, due to its availability (easy, cheap) and accessibility (interventions, imaging). In our group, we developed this model using several tumour cell lines (e.g. breast cancer, colon cancer). In addition, we have synthesized in-house silica coated photoluminescent upconversion nanoparticles with several functional groups (COOH, NH2, PEG). In this work we will present the systematic assessment of their in vivo blood circulation times. To this end, we injected chick embryos grown ex ovo with the functionalized UCNPs and obtained a small amount of blood at several time points after injection to create blood smears The UCNP signal from the blood smears was quantified using a modified inverted microscope imaging set-up. The results of this systematic study are valuable to optimize biochemistry protocols and guide nanomedicine advancement in the versatile chick embryo tumour model.

  6. A blood circulation model for reference man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leggett, R.W.; Eckerman, K.F. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Health Sciences Research Div.; Williams, L.R. [Indiana Univ., South Bend, IN (United States). Div. of Liberal Arts and Sciences

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersal of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravascular injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is to improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The total blood volume is partitioned into the blood contents of 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chambers, left heart chambers, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the systemic tissues (aorta and large arteries), and venous return from the systemic tissues (large veins). As a compromise between physical reality and computational simplicity, the circulation of blood is viewed as a system of first-order transfers between blood pools, with the delay time depending on the mean transit time across the pool. The model allows consideration of incomplete, tissue-dependent extraction of material during passage through the circulation and return of material from tissues to plasma.

  7. Optimized Quantification of Fragmented, Free Circulating DNA in Human Blood Plasma Using a Calibrated Duplex Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Horlitz, Martin; Lucas, Annabelle; Sprenger-Haussels, Markus

    2009-01-01

    Background Duplex real-time PCR assays have been widely used to determine amounts and concentrations of free circulating DNA in human blood plasma samples. Circulatory plasma DNA is highly fragmented and hence a PCR-based determination of DNA concentration may be affected by the limited availability of full-length targets in the DNA sample. This leads to inaccuracies when counting PCR target copy numbers as whole genome equivalents. Methodology/Principal Findings A model system was designed a...

  8. Blood volume, plasma volume and circulation time in a high-energy-demand teleost, the yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill; Cousins; Jones; p

    1998-06-01

    We measured red cell space with 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, and dextran space with 500 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran), in two groups of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Red cell space was 13.8+/-0.7 ml kg-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.) Assuming a whole-body hematocrit equal to the hematocrit measured at the ventral aortic sampling site and no significant sequestering of 51Cr-labeled red blood cells by the spleen, blood volume was 46. 7+/-2.2 ml kg-1. This is within the range reported for most other teleosts (30-70 ml kg-1), but well below that previously reported for albacore (Thunnus alalunga, 82-197 ml kg-1). Plasma volume within the primary circulatory system (calculated from the 51Cr-labeled red blood cell data) was 32.9+/-2.3 ml kg-1. Dextran space was 37.0+/-3.7 ml kg-1. Because 500 kDa FITC-dextran appeared to remain within the vascular space, these data imply that the volume of the secondary circulatory system of yellowfin tuna is small, and its exact volume is not measurable by our methods. Although blood volume is not exceptional, circulation time (blood volume/cardiac output) is clearly shorter in yellowfin tuna than in other active teleosts. In a 1 kg yellowfin tuna, circulation time is approximately 0.4 min (47 ml kg-1/115 ml min-1 kg-1) compared with 1. 3 min (46 ml kg-1/35 ml min-1 kg-1) in yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata) and 1.9 min (35 ml kg-1/18 ml min-1 kg-1) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In air-breathing vertebrates, high metabolic rates are necessarily correlated with short circulation times. Our data are the first to imply that a similar relationship occurs in fishes. PMID:9450974

  9. Time-evolution of in vivo protein corona onto blood-circulating PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin (DOXIL) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjidemetriou, Marilena; Al-Ahmady, Zahraa; Kostarelos, Kostas

    2016-03-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are instantly modified once injected in the bloodstream because of their interaction with the blood components. The spontaneous coating of NPs by proteins, once in contact with biological fluids, has been termed the `protein corona' and it is considered to be a determinant factor for the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic profile of NPs. Protein exposure time is thought to greatly influence the composition of protein corona, however the dynamics of protein interactions under realistic, in vivo conditions remain unexplored. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the time evolution of in vivo protein corona, formed onto blood circulating, clinically used, PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Protein adsorption profiles were determined 10 min, 1 h and 3 h post-injection of liposomes into CD-1 mice. The results demonstrated that a complex protein corona was formed as early as 10 min post-injection. Even though the total amount of protein adsorbed did not significantly change over time, the fluctuation of protein abundances observed indicated highly dynamic protein binding kinetics.Nanoparticles (NPs) are instantly modified once injected in the bloodstream because of their interaction with the blood components. The spontaneous coating of NPs by proteins, once in contact with biological fluids, has been termed the `protein corona' and it is considered to be a determinant factor for the pharmacological, toxicological and therapeutic profile of NPs. Protein exposure time is thought to greatly influence the composition of protein corona, however the dynamics of protein interactions under realistic, in vivo conditions remain unexplored. The aim of this study was to quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the time evolution of in vivo protein corona, formed onto blood circulating, clinically used, PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Protein adsorption profiles were determined 10 min, 1 h and 3 h post

  10. Circulation time determined by carotid angiography in patients with chronic internal Carotid artery occlusion. Comparison with cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism measured by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Inugami, Atsushi (Research Inst. for Brain and Blood Vessels, Akita (Japan)); Shishido, Fumio (and others)

    1994-10-01

    The degree of collateral circulation in patients with unilaterally chronic internal carotid artery occlusion was estimated by mean transit time of contrast material in rapid sequence carotid angiography (Angiographic MTT), and compared with cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism measured by PET. In normal density region on X-ray CT, a significant negative correlation was observed between Angiographic MTT and cerebral blood flow (CBF). This indicates that cerebral blood flow can be estimated by Angiographic MTT. It has been reported that the ratio of cerebral blood volume (CBV) to CBF (CBV/CBF), i.e., mean transit time determined by PET well agreed with OEF, and is good indicator for brain circulation reserve. In this study, no significant correlation was observed between Angiographic MTT and CBV/CBF. However, a significant positive correlation was observed between Angiographic MTT and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and no significant correlation was observed between Angiographic MTT and oxygen consumption rate (CMRO[sub 2]). These indicates that Angiographic MTT may be indicator for brain circulation reserve. (author).

  11. A blood circulation model for reference man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dynamic blood circulation model that predicts the movement and gradual dispersion of a bolus of material in the circulation after its intravenous injection into an adult human. The main purpose of the model is improve the dosimetry of internally deposited radionuclides that decay in the circulation to a significant extent. The model partitions the blood volume into 24 separate organs or tissues, right heart chamber, left heart chamber, pulmonary circulation, arterial outflow to the aorta and large arteries, and venous return via the large veins. Model results were compared to data obtained from injection of carbon 11 labeled carbon monoxide or rubidium 86

  12. A comparitive study on concepts of circulation of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V N; Pandey, A

    1990-04-01

    This study traces the progressively evolving concepts of blood circulation. Evidences from medical and non-medical Sanskrit literature have been presented to high the fact that the Ayurvedic concepts of physiology are time tested. PMID:22557695

  13. A COMPARITIVE STUDY ON CONCEPTS OF CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, V. N.; Pandey, Ayodhya

    1990-01-01

    This study traces the progressively evolving concepts of blood circulation. Evidences from medical and non-medical Sanskrit literature have been presented to high the fact that the Ayurvedic concepts of physiology are time tested.

  14. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.;

    1998-01-01

    We measured red cell space with 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, and dextran space with 500 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran), in two groups of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Red cell space was 13.8+/-0.7 ml kg-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.) Assuming a whole- body hematocrit eq...

  15. Optimizing 18F-FDG PET/CT imaging of vessel wall inflammation: the impact of 18F-FDG circulation time, injected dose, uptake parameters, and fasting blood glucose levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-FDG PET is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data are available on the impact of methodological variables, i.e. prescan fasting glucose, FDG circulation time and injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG PET imaging. Included in the study were 195 patients who underwent vascular FDG PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standardized uptake values (meanSUVmax), target-to-background ratios (meanTBRmax) and FDG blood-pool activity in the superior vena cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake values classified according to the tertiles of prescan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l, showing a favorable relationship between arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with aorticmeanSUVmax values as well as SVC and JV FDG blood-pool activity, but positive correlations with aortic and carotidmeanTBRmax values. Prescan glucose levels were negatively associated with aortic and carotidmeanTBRmax and carotidmeanSUVmax values, but were positively correlated with SVC blood-pool uptake. The injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with vascular FDG uptake. FDG circulation times and prescan blood glucose levels significantly affect FDG uptake in the aortic and carotid walls and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG PET/CT. The injected FDG dose was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels less than 7.0 mmol/l should be preferred in this setting. (orig.)

  16. Optimizing 18F-FDG PET/CT Imaging of Vessel Wall Inflammation –The Impact of 18F-FDG Circulation Time, Injected Dose, Uptake Parameters, and Fasting Blood Glucose Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucerius, Jan; Mani, Venkatesh; Moncrieff, Colin; Machac, Josef; Fuster, Valentin; Farkouh, Michael E.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Rudd, James H. F.; Fayad, Zahi A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data is available regarding the impact of methodological variables, i. e. patient’s pre-scan fasting glucose, the FDG circulation time, the injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG-PET imaging. Methods 195 patients underwent vascular FDG-PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standard uptake values (meanSUVmax) as well as target-to-background-ratios (meanTBRmax) and the FDG blood pool activity in the superior vein cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake classified according to tertiles of patient’s pre-scan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose was compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood pool FDG uptake. Results Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l showing favorable relations between the arterial and blood pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with the aortic meanSUVmax values as well as SVC- and JV FDG blood pool activity but a positive correlation with the aortic- and carotid meanTBRmax values. Pre-scan glucose was negatively associated with aortic- and carotid meanTBRmax and carotid meanSUVmax values, but correlated positively with the SVC blood pool uptake. Injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with the vascular FDG uptake. Conclusion FDG circulation times and pre-scan blood glucose levels significantly impact FDG uptake within the aortic and carotid wall and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG-PET/CT. FDG dose injected was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and pre-scan glucose levels

  17. Optimizing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging of vessel wall inflammation: the impact of {sup 18}F-FDG circulation time, injected dose, uptake parameters, and fasting blood glucose levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucerius, Jan [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Maastricht University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht (Netherlands); Maastricht University Medical Center, Cardiovascular Research Institute Maastricht (CARIM), Maastricht (Netherlands); University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Mani, Venkatesh; Fayad, Zahi A. [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Moncrieff, Colin [Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, Translational and Molecular Imaging Institute, One Gustave L. Levy Place, P.O. Box 1234, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Machac, Josef [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Fuster, Valentin [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); The Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Cardiovasculares (CNIC), Madrid (Spain); Farkouh, Michael E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Zena and Michael A. Weiner Cardiovascular Institute and Marie-Josee and Henry R. Kravis Cardiovascular Health Center, New York, NY (United States); Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Cardiovascular Imaging Clinical Trials Unit, New York, NY (United States); Tawakol, Ahmed [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Cardiac MR PET CT Program, Boston, MA (United States); Rudd, James H.F. [Cambridge University, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    {sup 18}F-FDG PET is increasingly used for imaging of vessel wall inflammation. However, limited data are available on the impact of methodological variables, i.e. prescan fasting glucose, FDG circulation time and injected FDG dose, and of different FDG uptake parameters, in vascular FDG PET imaging. Included in the study were 195 patients who underwent vascular FDG PET/CT of the aorta and the carotids. Arterial standardized uptake values ({sub mean}SUV{sub max}), target-to-background ratios ({sub mean}TBR{sub max}) and FDG blood-pool activity in the superior vena cava (SVC) and the jugular veins (JV) were quantified. Vascular FDG uptake values classified according to the tertiles of prescan fasting glucose levels, the FDG circulation time, and the injected FDG dose were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the potential impact of all variables described on the arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. Tertile analyses revealed FDG circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels of less than 7.0 mmol/l, showing a favorable relationship between arterial and blood-pool FDG uptake. FDG circulation times showed negative associations with aortic{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values as well as SVC and JV FDG blood-pool activity, but positive correlations with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} values. Prescan glucose levels were negatively associated with aortic and carotid{sub mean}TBR{sub max} and carotid{sub mean}SUV{sub max} values, but were positively correlated with SVC blood-pool uptake. The injected FDG dose failed to show any significant association with vascular FDG uptake. FDG circulation times and prescan blood glucose levels significantly affect FDG uptake in the aortic and carotid walls and may bias the results of image interpretation in patients undergoing vascular FDG PET/CT. The injected FDG dose was less critical. Therefore, circulation times of about 2.5 h and prescan glucose levels less than 7.0 mmol

  18. Measurement of cerebral circulation time in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, inexpensive method for measuring the cerebral circulation time (CCT) was developed. The CCT was considered to be equal to the time that an intravenously injected bolus of sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m took to go from the subclavian artery to the posterior venous confluence. The dilution curves were externally recorded at these two vessels. Particular attenion was given to the curve treatment. The computer programmes were specially conceived in order to detect and, if possible, correct the experimental curve defects. Several reliability criteria were also defined in order to test the validity of each measurement. From a physiological point of view, the CCT is equal to the ratio of the global cerebral blood volume to the global cerebral blood flow. Thus, it can be widely applied in clinical research. For example, in a study of the relationship between CCT and age, sex and light cerebrovascular impairment, the technique was sensitive enough to discriminate between healthy subjects and patients suffering from-transient ischemic attack, or regressive stroke, and to show the action of a drug on the cerebral circulation in such patients. (orig.)

  19. Space-Time Radar Waveforms: Circulating Codes

    OpenAIRE

    Babur, G.; Aubry, P.; Le Chevalier, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a concept of the circulating codes covering the whole class of the space-time codes. The circulating codes do not narrow the radiated pattern of the antenna array, thus providing a wide angular coverage, possibly tunable. In turn, the beam-forming on transmit is achievable by means of the signal processing in one (or each) receiver channel. The modelling results demonstrate the efficiency of the circulating codes based on their multidimensional ambiguity functions.

  20. Arterial Blood, Rather Than Venous Blood, is a Better Source for Circulating Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizue Terai

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: Our data indicate that arterial blood specimens might be a better source of circulating uveal melanoma cells. Although less conveniently processed, perhaps arterial blood should be evaluated as sample source for measurement of CTCs.

  1. Influence of obesity and androgen deficiency on prostatic blood circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Tyuzikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Study at 120 Diabetes Mellitus II type men the high frequency Obesity (71,7% and Androgen Deficiency (52,8—64,5% of the patients depending on a degree of the indemnification and them pathogenic authentic communications were shown. The blood level of total testosterone was represented by the critical factor of Prostatic arterial Blood Circulation. Obesity and Androgen Deficiency are seem as independent risk factors to development of ischemic prostatopathy, such as Prostatic blood circulation Disorders can develop earlier than other variants of the diabetic microangiophaty.

  2. Mechanical axial flow blood pump to support cavopulmonary circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, A L; Kapadia, J; Madduri, D

    2008-11-01

    We are developing a collapsible, percutaneously inserted, axial flow blood pump to support the cavopulmonary circulation in infants with a failing single ventricle physiology. An initial design of the impeller for this axial flow blood pump was performed using computational fluid dynamics analysis, including pressure-flow characteristics, scalar stress estimations, blood damage indices, and fluid force predictions. A plastic prototype was constructed for hydraulic performance testing, and these experimental results were compared with the numerical predictions. The numerical predictions and experimental findings of the pump performance demonstrated a pressure generation of 2-16 mm Hg for 50-750 ml/min over 5,500-7,500 RPM with deviation found at lower rotational speeds. The axial fluid forces remained below 0.1 N, and the radial fluid forces were determined to be virtually zero due to the centered impeller case. The scalar stress levels remained below 250 Pa for all operating conditions. Blood damage analysis yielded a mean residence time of the released particles, which was found to be less than 0.4 seconds for both flow rates that were examined, and a maximum residence time was determined to be less than 0.8 seconds. We are in the process of designing a cage with hydrodynamically shaped filament blades to act as a diffuser and optimizing the impeller blade shape to reduce the flow vorticity at the pump outlet. This blood pump will improve the clinical treatment of patients with failing Fontan physiology and provide a unique catheter-based therapeutic approach as a bridge to recovery or transplantation. PMID:19089799

  3. Nanostructured Substrates for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Over the past decade, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become an emerging ``biomarker'' for detecting early-stage cancer metastasis, predicting patient prognosis, as well as monitoring disease progression and therapeutic outcomes. However, isolation of CTCs has been technically challenging due to the extremely low abundance (a few to hundreds per ml) of CTCs among a high number of hematologic cells (109 per mL) in the blood. Our joint research team at UCLA has developed a new cell capture technology for quantification of CTCs in whole blood samples. Similar to most of the existing approaches, epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody (anti-EpCAM) was grafted onto the surfaces to distinguish CTCs from the surrounding hematologic cells. The uniqueness of our technology is the use of nanostructured surfaces, which facilitates local topographical interactions between CTCs and substrates at the very first cell/substrate contacting time point. We demonstrated the ability of these nanostructured substrates to capture CTCs in whole blood samples with significantly improved efficiency and selectivity. The successful demonstration of this cell capture technology using brain, breast and prostate cancer cell lines encouraged us to test this approach in clinical setting. We have been able to bond our first validation study with a commercialized technology based on the use of immunomagnetic nanoparticles. A group of clinically well-characterized prostate cancer patients at UCLA hospital have been recruited and tested in parallel by these two technologies.

  4. An ethanol extract of Ramulus mori improves blood circulation by inhibiting platelet aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jiyun; Kwon, Gayeung; Park, Jieun; Kim, Jeong-Keun; Choe, Soo Young; Seo, Yoonhee; Lim, Young-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Inappropriate platelet aggregation can cause blood coagulation and thrombosis. In this study, the effect of an ethanol extract of Ramulus mori (ERM) on blood circulation was investigated. The antithrombotic activity of ERM on rat carotid arterial thrombosis was evaluated in vivo, and the effect of ERM on platelet aggregation and blood coagulation time was evaluated ex vivo. To evaluate the safety of ERM, its cytotoxicity to platelets and its effect on tail bleeding time were assessed; ERM was not toxic to rat platelets and did not prolong bleeding time. Moreover, administering ERM to rats had a significant preventive effect on carotid arterial thrombosis in vivo, and significantly inhibited adenosine diphosphate- and collagen-induced platelet aggregation ex vivo, whereas it did not prolong coagulation periods, such as prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time. The results suggest that ERM is effective in improving blood circulation via antiplatelet activity rather than anticoagulation activity. PMID:26967156

  5. Ultrasonic Doppler blood flow meter for extracorporeal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Ricardo G.; Costa, Eduardo T.; Maia, Joaquim M.; Nantes Button, Vera L. d. S.

    2000-04-01

    In cardiac surgeries it is frequently necessary to carry out interventions in internal heart structures, and where the blood circulation and oxygenation are made by artificial ways, out of the patient's body, in a procedure known as extracorporeal circulation (EC). During this procedure, one of the most important parameters, and that demands constant monitoring, is the blood flow. In this work, an ultrasonic pulsed Doppler blood flowmeter, to be used in an extracorporeal circulation system, was developed. It was used a 2 MHz ultrasonic transducer, measuring flows from 0 to 5 liters/min, coupled externally to the EC arterial line destined to adults perfusion (diameter of 9.53 mm). The experimental results using the developed flowmeter indicated a maximum deviation of 3.5% of full scale, while the blood flow estimator based in the rotation speed of the peristaltic pump presented deviations greater than 20% of full scale. This ultrasonic flowmeter supplies the results in a continuous and trustworthy way, and it does not present the limitations found in those flowmeters based in other transduction methods. Moreover, due to the fact of not being in contact with the blood, it is not disposable and it does not need sterilization, reducing operational costs and facilitating its use.

  6. Accuracy of a new bedside method for estimation of circulating blood volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Waever Rasmussen, J; Winther Henneberg, S

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of a modification of the carbon monoxide method of estimating the circulating blood volume.......To evaluate the accuracy of a modification of the carbon monoxide method of estimating the circulating blood volume....

  7. Effects of the Intermittent Pneumatic Circulator on Blood Pressure during Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao-Ju Hsu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Hypotension is frequently reported during hemodialysis. This study aimed to examine the effect of the intermittent pneumatic circulator on blood pressure during hemodialysis. Sixteen subjects with chronic hemodialysis were recruited. Each subject randomly received two test conditions on separate days, hemodialysis with and without the circulator. The circulator was applied to the subject on lower extremities during 0.5–1 hr, 1.5–2 hr, 2.5–3 hr, and 3.5–4 hr of hemodialysis. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP and heart rate (HR were analyzed at pre-dialysis, 1 hr, 2 hr, and 3 hr of hemodialysis. Stroke volume (SV and cardiac output (CO were evaluated between 2.5 and 3.0 hr of hemodialysis. Blood chemicals (sodium, calcium, potassium, and phosphorous and Kt/V before and after each hemodialysis session were analyzed. The number of episodes of hypotension was also recorded. The circulator intervention significantly improved SBP and DBP across all time points (P = 0.002 for SBP; P = 0.002 for DBP. The frequency of hypotension was significantly decreased (P = 0.028. SV and CO were significantly improved with the circulator intervention (P = 0.017 for SV; P = 0.026 for CO and no statistical significances were found on blood chemicals or Kt/V analyses. The results suggested that the circulator intervention helps stabilize blood pressure and appears to be a practical treatment. Future studies are suggested to develop new circulator innovations with sensor feedback systems to enhance safety and maximize treatment efficiency.

  8. Does Every Cell Get Blood? Young Students' Discussions about Illustrations of Human Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westman, Anna-Karin; Karlsson, Karl-Goran

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a study of how groups of young students discuss illustrations of human blood circulation. Transparency is not an innate quality of illustrations, visual information is always coded and interpretations are always related to culture and context. Results of this study are discussed with reference to Kress and van Leeuwens'…

  9. Filtration parameters influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A W Coumans

    Full Text Available Filtration can achieve circulating tumor cell (CTC enrichment from blood. Key parameters such as flow-rate, applied pressure, and fixation, vary largely between assays and their influence is not well understood. Here, we used a filtration system, to monitor these parameters and determine their relationships. Whole blood, or its components, with and without spiked tumor cells were filtered through track-etched filters. We characterize cells passing through filter pores by their apparent viscosity; the viscosity of a fluid that would pass with the same flow. We measured a ratio of 5·10(4∶10(2∶1 for the apparent viscosities of 15 µm diameter MDA-231 cells, 10 µm white cells and 90 fl red cells passing through a 5 µm pore. Fixation increases the pressure needed to pass cells through 8 µm pores 25-fold and halves the recovery of spiked tumor cells. Filtration should be performed on unfixed samples at a pressure of ∼10 mbar for a 1 cm(2 track-etched filter with 5 µm pores. At this pressure MDA-231 cells move through the filter in 1 hour. If fixation is needed for sample preservation, a gentle fixative should be selected. The difference in apparent viscosity between CTC and blood cells is key in optimizing recovery of CTC.

  10. Changes in circulating blood volume following isoflurane or sevoflurane anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, H; Takaori, M; Kimura, K; Fukui, A; Fujita, Y

    1993-07-01

    Changes of circulating blood volume (CB volume) measured by the dual indicator dilution method were observed in 33 chronically instrumented mongrel dogs following either alpha-chloralose-urethane (C group), additive isoflurane (I group) or sevoflurane anesthesia (S group). These anesthetic groups were each divided into two subgroups with regard to respiratory care, namely Cp, Ip and Sp for those with intermittent positive pressure ventilation (six animals per subgroups), and Cs, Is and Ss for those with spontaneous breathing (five animals per subgroups). The CB volume under positive pressure ventilation remained unchanged in the Ip and Sp groups at both 0.5 and 1.0 MAC, and in the Cp group. The CB volume remained essentially unchanged in the Cs and Is groups at both 0.5 or 1.0 MAC, but the plasma volume tended to increase slightly in the Is group at 1.0 MAC. In the Ss group under spontaneous breathing, however, the CB volume increased from 84.4 +/- 7.0 to 91.4 +/- 7.7 at 0.5 MAC, and to 91.4 +/- 10.2 ml.kg(-1) at 1.0 MAC (0.01 < P < 0.05). These increases were caused by an increase in the plasma volume. The above data suggests that a concomitant increase in the venous pressure associated with an increase in the intrathoracic pressure produced by positive pressure ventilation would attenuate changes in the CB volume during sevoflurane anesthesia. PMID:15278818

  11. Evaluation of coronary blood flow velocity during cardiac arrest with circulation maintained through mechanical chest compressions in a porcine model

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner Henrik; Madsen Hardig Bjarne; Steen Stig; Sjoberg Trygve; Harnek Jan; Olivecrona Goran K

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Mechanical chest compressions (CCs) have been shown capable of maintaining circulation in humans suffering cardiac arrest for extensive periods of time. Reports have documented a visually normalized coronary blood flow during angiography in such cases (TIMI III flow), but it has never been actually measured. Only indirect measurements of the coronary circulation during cardiac arrest with on-going mechanical CCs have been performed previously through measurement of the cor...

  12. A new torsion control mechanism induced by blood circulation in dragonfly wings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new mechanism to generate the torque of flapping dragonfly wings is disclosed in this paper. The concept is inspired by blood circulation in insect wings. The blood flowing in veins induces Coriolis forces in the flapping wings. The Coriolis forces acting on veins are of opposite directions when blood flows in and out. The opposite Coriolis forces generate torsional moment to the wing, especially in the leading-edge part. To estimate the time-varying torque induced by the blood circulation, a simplified U-tube model is designed. A three-dimensional finite element model of the wing is developed to analyze the dynamic behaviors under this torque. The dragonfly wing is in favor of torsional deformation because the corrugated structure is of high flexural rigidity in the spanwise direction but is of low torsional rigidity in the chordwise direction. In both the downstroke and upstroke, the twist of the leading-edge part causes the sections to camber spontaneously. Such a kind of deformation is found to be of great importance to improve aerodynamic efficiency. In addition, it also compensates for the disadvantageous bending deformation caused by air pressure in flapping flight. These results are important for better understanding of the multifunctional structures of dragonfly wings and may give some inspiration to the bionics of flapping-wing micro air vehicles (FMAVs). (paper)

  13. Night time blood pressure dip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; Bloomfield; Alex; Park

    2015-01-01

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure,called the "dip",is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%,referred to as blunted or absent,have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load,whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon,whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.

  14. The Effect of Pulsatile Versus Nonpulsatile Blood Flow on Viscoelasticity and Red Blood Cell Aggregation in Extracorporeal Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Chi Bum; Kang, Yang Jun; Kim, Myoung Gon; Yang, Sung; Lim, Choon Hak; Son, Ho Sung; Kim, Ji Sung; Lee, So Young; Son, Kuk Hui; Sun, Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) can induce alterations in blood viscoelasticity and cause red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of pump flow pulsatility on blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation. Methods Mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: a nonpulsatile pump group (n=6) or a pulsatile pump group (n=6). After ECC was started at a pump flow rate of 80 mL/kg/min, cardiac fibrillation was induced. Blood sampling was perfo...

  15. Action of adrenalin on the circulation of the murine Plasmodium developing stages, in different blood compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertani S.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Adrenalin was used to investigate in vivo the circulation of the different stages of rodent Plasmodium present in the blood. A single dose of adrenalin injected to mice infected with P. yoelii resulted immediately in i a diminution of the parasitaemia of approximately 50 % in the peripheral large vessels (estimated in tail blood films, as well as in the capillaries (estimated in smears of blood collected from a fed Anopheles, and ii an increased parasitaemia in blood collected by cardiac puncture from the right heart. The numbers of young stages of P. yoelii in the peripheral blood were initially somewhat reduced but, unexpectedly, midterm trophozoites were preferentially expelled from the peripheral blood into major organs like the heart. With P. vinckei, parasitaemia decreased only when midterm trophozoites predominated, and with P. chabaudi no effect was observed at any time. We propose that midterm trophozoites, by their increased surface area, as compared to rings, and their flexibility which contrasts with the rigid schizonts, are particularly susceptible to haemodynamic perturbations.

  16. Elasticity of nanoparticles influences their blood circulation, phagocytosis, endocytosis, and targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Aaron C; Zhang, Mengwen; Kumar, Sunny; Vogus, Douglas R; Menegatti, Stefano; Helgeson, Matthew E; Mitragotri, Samir

    2015-03-24

    The impact of physical and chemical modifications of nanoparticles on their biological function has been systemically investigated and exploited to improve their circulation and targeting. However, the impact of nanoparticles' flexibility (i.e., elastic modulus) on their function has been explored to a far lesser extent, and the potential benefits of tuning nanoparticle elasticity are not clear. Here, we describe a method to synthesize polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based hydrogel nanoparticles of uniform size (200 nm) with elastic moduli ranging from 0.255 to 3000 kPa. These particles are used to investigate the role of particle elasticity on key functions including blood circulation time, biodistribution, antibody-mediated targeting, endocytosis, and phagocytosis. Our results demonstrate that softer nanoparticles (10 kPa) offer enhanced circulation and subsequently enhanced targeting compared to harder nanoparticles (3000 kPa) in vivo. Furthermore, in vitro experiments show that softer nanoparticles exhibit significantly reduced cellular uptake in immune cells (J774 macrophages), endothelial cells (bEnd.3), and cancer cells (4T1). Tuning nanoparticle elasticity potentially offers a method to improve the biological fate of nanoparticles by offering enhanced circulation, reduced immune system uptake, and improved targeting. PMID:25715979

  17. Rapid multi-wavelength optical assessment of circulating blood volume without a priori data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginova, Ekaterina V.; Zhidkova, Tatyana V.; Proskurnin, Mikhail A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    The measurement of circulating blood volume (CBV) is crucial in various medical conditions including surgery, iatrogenic problems, rapid fluid administration, transfusion of red blood cells, or trauma with extensive blood loss including battlefield injuries and other emergencies. Currently, available commercial techniques are invasive and time-consuming for trauma situations. Recently, we have proposed high-speed multi-wavelength photoacoustic/photothermal (PA/PT) flow cytometry for in vivo CBV assessment with multiple dyes as PA contrast agents (labels). As the first step, we have characterized the capability of this technique to monitor the clearance of three dyes (indocyanine green, methylene blue, and trypan blue) in an animal model. However, there are strong demands on improvements in PA/PT flow cytometry. As additional verification of our proof-of-concept of this technique, we performed optical photometric CBV measurements in vitro. Three label dyes—methylene blue, crystal violet and, partially, brilliant green—were selected for simultaneous photometric determination of the components of their two-dye mixtures in the circulating blood in vitro without any extra data (like hemoglobin absorption) known a priori. The tests of single dyes and their mixtures in a flow system simulating a blood transfusion system showed a negligible difference between the sensitivities of the determination of these dyes under batch and flow conditions. For individual dyes, the limits of detection of 3×10-6 M‒3×10-6 M in blood were achieved, which provided their continuous determination at a level of 10-5 M for the CBV assessment without a priori data on the matrix. The CBV assessment with errors no higher than 4% were obtained, and the possibility to apply the developed procedure for optical photometric (flow cytometry) with laser sources was shown.

  18. Biomechanopharmacology in Evaluation of Herbs of Activating Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Fu-long; CAO Jun

    2005-01-01

    Herbs of activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis(ABCRBS) are a category of over 10% in the modern Chinese Pharmacopoeia. A new borderline discipline, biomechanopharmacology, is shaping by the efforts of applying biomechanics in pharmacological studies of ABCRBS herbs. Biomechanics is involved in modeling of blood stasis syndrome (BSS) with mechanical force induced injury and model evaluation by shear stress monitoring for blood coagulation. Investigations showed that tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) contained in Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort and diallyl trisulfide (DT) extracted from garlic demonstrated inhibiting characteristics on vWF mediated platelet activation and thrombus formation occurring under high shear rates. The effect of TMP on shear-induced platelet aggregation might be due to inhibition of calcium channel activity since it showed significant inhibition on intracellular level of calcium demonstrated by laser confocal microscope. The combined effects of TMP and shear stress on rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cell (rCMEC) were investigated by various doses of TMP incorporated with different levels of shear stress generated by a rotational coneplate rheometer. The results indicated that apoptosis of rCMECs could be restrained by a combination of medial level of shear stress with a suitable dose of TMP. To study the influences of shear stress, pressure and TMP on angiogenesis of vascular endothelial cell, cultured rCMEC was pretreated in a flow chamber with independent adjustment for levels of shear stress and pressure, and then 3D cultured on Matrigel. The results indicate that combined effects of shear stress, pressure and TMP may influence angiogenesis significantly. We believe that research on interactions among blood shear stress, secretion of endothelial cell, and pharmacodynamics will be an interesting area of biomechanopharmacology. Herbs of ABCRBS and their extracts for protecting endothelial cells to maintain their normal functions are

  19. [PULMONARY COMPLICATIONS IN CHILDREN, OPERATED ON FOR INBORN HEART FAILURES IN THE ARTIFICIAL BLOOD CIRCULATION ENVIRONMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkivska, L V; Nastenko, E A; Golovenko, O S; Lazoryshynets, V V

    2015-11-01

    The risk factors of pulmonary complications occurrence were analyzed in children, operated on for inborn heart failures in atrificial blood circulation environment. Pulmonary complications rate and the risk factors of their occurrence were analyzed. PMID:26939427

  20. The Clinical Utilization of Circulating Cell Free DNA (CCFDNA in Blood of Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanyuan Wu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative and quantitative testing of circulating cell free DNA (CCFDNA can be applied for the management of malignant and benign neoplasms. Detecting circulating DNA in cancer patients may help develop a DNA profile for early stage diagnosis in malignancies. The technical issues of obtaining, using, and analyzing CCFDNA from blood will be discussed.

  1. Circulation times of cancer cells by in vivo flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Li, Yan; Gu, Zhengqin; Chen, Tong; Wang, Cheng; Wei, Xunbin

    2012-03-01

    Liver cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, with approximately 1,000,000 cases reported every year. Hepatocellular carcinoma may metastasize to lung, bones, kidney, and many other organs. Surgical resection, liver transplantation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current HCC therapies. However the outcomes are poor: the survival rate is almost zero for metastatic HCC patients. Molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" combined with real-time confocal fluorescence imaging are used to assess spreading and the circulation kinetics of liver tumor cells. The in vivo flow cytometer has the capability to detect and quantify continuously the number and flow characteristics of fluorescently labeled cells in vivo in real time without extracting blood sample. We have measured the depletion kinetics of two related human HCC cell lines, high-metastatic HCCLM3 cells and low-metastatic HepG2 cells, which were from the same origin and obtained by repetitive screenings in mice. >60% HCCLM3 cells are depleted within the first hour. Interestingly, the low-metastatic HepG2 cells possess noticeably slower depletion kinetics. In comparison, <40% HepG2 cells are depleted within the first hour. The differences in depletion kinetics might provide insights into early metastasis processes.

  2. Interaction of an idealized cavopulmonary circulation with mechanical circulatory assist using an intravascular rotary blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Sonya S; Moskowitz, William B; Throckmorton, Amy L

    2010-10-01

    This study evaluated the performance of an intravascular, percutaneously-inserted, axial flow blood pump in an idealized total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) model of a Fontan physiology. This blood pump, intended for placement in the inferior vena cava (IVC), is designed to augment pressure and blood flow from the IVC to the pulmonary circulation. Three different computational models were examined: (i) an idealized TCPC without a pump; (ii) an idealized TCPC with an impeller pump; and (iii) an idealized TCPC with an impeller and diffuser pump. Computational fluid dynamics analyses of these models were performed to assess the hydraulic performance of each model under varying physiologic conditions. Pressure-flow characteristics, fluid streamlines, energy augmentation calculations, and blood damage analyses were evaluated. Numerical predictions indicate that the pump with an impeller and diffuser blade set produces pressure generations of 1 to 16 mm Hg for rotational speeds of 2000 to 6000 rpm and flow rates of 1 to 4 L/min. In contrast, for the same flow range, the model with the impeller only in the IVC demonstrated pressure generations of 1 to 9 mm Hg at rotational speeds of 10,000 to 12,000 rpm. Influence of blood viscosity was found to be insignificant at low rotational speeds with minimal performance deviation at higher rotational speeds. Results from the blood damage index analyses indicate a low probability for damage with maximum damage index levels less than 1% and maximum fluid residence times below 0.6 s. The numerical predictions further indicated successful energy augmentation of the TCPC with a pump in the IVC. These results support the continued design and development of this cavopulmonary assist device. PMID:20964699

  3. Occult Breast Lobular Carcinoma with Numerous Circulating Tumor Cells in Peripheral Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Kanako Ogura; Maki Amano; Toshiharu Matsumoto; Asumi Sakaguchi; Taijiro Kosaka; Toshiaki Kitabatake; Kuniaki Kojima

    2015-01-01

    We experienced a very rare case of occult breast lobular carcinoma with numerous circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood. The diagnosis was very difficult because there were no symptoms of breast cancer and the preceding chief complaints such as general fatigue and weight loss or abnormality of peripheral blood findings were suggestive of a hematological disease. We could make a correct diagnosis of this case by checking the findings of complete blood count and bone marrow biopsy at the s...

  4. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla; Rudenick, Paula A.; Fatima Crispi; Monica Cruz-Lemini; Georgina Palau; Oscar Camara; Eduard Gratacos; Bijnens, Bart H.

    2014-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI) is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding ...

  5. Using Time-Series Regression to Predict Academic Library Circulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Terrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Four methods were used to forecast monthly circulation totals in 15 midwestern academic libraries: dummy time-series regression, lagged time-series regression, simple average (straight-line forecasting), monthly average (naive forecasting). In tests of forecasting accuracy, dummy regression method and monthly mean method exhibited smallest average…

  6. [The reaction of the pulpal blood circulation to thermal stimuli].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gängler, P

    1976-01-01

    The present paper characterizes the reactions of the systemcirculation and microcirculation of the pulpa to the effects of temperature changes from--30 degrees C to +55 degrees C. In the range between 25 degrees C and 50 degrees C an increase of the blood flow rate can be observed. By long-standing action of temperatures above 40 degrees C and below 25 degrees C a dilatation of the blood vessels and a decrease of the blood flow rate are caused, thus leading to aggregations, capillary stoppage, and finally to thrombosis of entire pulpa sections. In addition to the outline of the critical initial alterations of the microcirculation in the course of inflammation the clinical conclusions towards crown and cavity preparation by means of water spray cooling, concerning thermal sensibility tests, and cryo-surgical operations are discussed. PMID:135441

  7. Influence of passive leg movements on blood circulation on the tilt table in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czell David

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One problem in the mobilization of patients with neurological diseases, such as spinal cord injury, is the circulatory collapse that occurs while changing from supine to vertical position because of the missing venous pump due to paralyzed leg muscles. Therefore, a tilt table with integrated stepping device (tilt stepper was developed, which allows passive stepping movements for performing locomotion training in an early state of rehabilitation. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate if passive stepping and cycling movements of the legs during tilt table training could stabilize blood circulation and prevent neurally-mediated syncope in healthy young adults. Methods In the first experiment, healthy subjects were tested on a traditional tilt table. Subjects who had a syncope or near-syncope in this condition underwent a second trial on the tilt stepper. In the second experiment, a group of healthy subjects was investigated on a traditional tilt table, the second group on the tilt ergometer, a device that allows cycling movements during tilt table training. We used the chi-square test to compare the occurrence of near-syncope/syncope in both groups (tilt table/tilt stepper and tilt table/tilt ergometer and ANOVA to compare the blood pressure and heart rate between the groups at the four time intervals (supine, at 2 minutes, at 6 minutes and end of head-up tilt. Results Separate chi-square tests performed for each experiment showed significant differences in the occurrence of near syncope or syncope based on the device used. Comparison of the two groups (tilt stepper/ tilt table in experiment one (ANOVA showed that blood pressure was significantly higher at the end of head-up tilt on the tilt stepper and on the tilt table there was a greater increase in heart rate (2 minutes after head-up tilt. Comparison of the two groups (tilt ergometer/tilt table in experiment 2 (ANOVA showed that blood pressure was significantly

  8. In vivo flow cytometer for real-time detection and quantification of circulating cells

    OpenAIRE

    Novak, J.; Georgakoudi, I.; Wei, X; Prossin, A.; Lin, C.P.

    2004-01-01

    An in vivo flow cytometer is developed that allows the real-time detection and quantification of circulating fluorescently labeled cells in live animals. A signal from a cell population of interest is recorded as the cells pass through a slit of light focused across a blood vessel. Confocal detection of the excited fluorescence allows continuous monitoring of labeled cells in the upper layers of scattering tissue, such as the skin. The device is used to characterize the in vivo kinetics of re...

  9. An Experimental Study on Drugs for Improving Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treating Mild Chronic Hepatic Damage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Large and small doses of drugs for improving blood circulation and removing blood stasis were used in model rats to treat mild chronic hepatic damage induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). The results show that large dose of Dang Gui (当归 Radix Angelicae Sinensis) and Dan Shen (丹参 Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae) (drugs for regulating blood flow) and small dose of Yu Jin (郁金 Radix Curcumae) and Niu Xi (牛膝 Radix Achyranthis Bidentatae) (drugs for activating blood flow) can significantly elevate the activity of SOD (P<0.05) and/or lower the T/K ratio, markedly reduce the MDA content (P<0.05 or P<0.01) and significantly decrease the activities of ALT and AST (P<0.05 or P<0.01), demonstrating that these drugs are effective in combating oxygen free radicals (OFR) in chronic liver damage. On the contrary, large dose of Tu Bie Chong (土鳖虫 Eupolyphaga seu Steleophaga) and E Zhu (莪术 Rhizoma Curcumae) (drugs for removing blood stasis) tend to increase the ALT and AST (P<0.05) activities. The results suggest that the synergism of elevation of the SOD activity and reduction of T/K ratio contributes to the action of drugs for improving blood circulation and removing blood stasis in combating the liver damage induced by CCl4.

  10. Blood Circulation Laboratory Investigations with Video Are Less Investigative than Instructional Blood Circulation Laboratories with Live Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Mildred A.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2008-01-01

    Live organisms versus digital video of the organisms were used to challenge students' naive ideas and misconceptions about blood, the heart, and circulatory patterns. Three faculty members taught 259 grade 10 biology students in a California high school with students from diverse ethnolinguistic groups who were divided into 5 classes using…

  11. Influence of circulating antigen on blood pool activity of a radioiodinated monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athymic mice with and without circulating CA 125 antigen were injected with 0.1-100 μg of 131I-labeled OC 125 F(ab')2 antibody fragment. Both the blood clearance of 131I activity and the change in serum CA 125 were monitored over 24 h. Influence of CA 125 on blood pool activity could be avoided only at the 100 μg dose. In patient studies, circulating CA 125 levels decreased for the first 2 h after injection of OC 125 F(ab')2 but generally returned to preinjection levels shortly thereafter. In vitro binding studies using the sera from patients injected with 131I-labeled OC 125 F(ab')2 suggest that circulating CA 125 could interfere with the tumor uptake of the labeled antibody. (author)

  12. Quantitative measurement of blood circulation in tests of rats using nuclear medical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments show that is it is possible to quantitatively assess the blood circulation and, within limits, the germinative function of tests by measuring the impulses of an incorporated radionuclide (99-Tc-pertechnetate) using an uptake measuring instrument. This is a rapid and unbloody method to be adopted in human medicine. 'Acute tests' or pre-damaged tests can thus be exactly diagnosed. In the former case the circulation modification and in the latter the evaluation of the germinative function ability is of main interest. The most important measuring criterion is the 15-minute-uptake U; it represents the blood circulation in the tests measured. The germinative function ability is evaluated on the basis of the accumulation activity Nsub(max). (orig./MG)

  13. Significant reduction in blood loss in patients undergoing minimal extracorporeal circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, W. B.; van Boven, W. J.; Smelt, M.; Morshuis, W. J.; van Dongen, H. P.; Haas, F. J.; Aarts, L. P.

    2006-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown differences in blood loss and allogeneic transfusion requirements between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Recently a new concept, the mini-extracorporeal circulation, was introduced to minimize the side effects of extracorporeal circulat

  14. Exploring the Impact of Students' Learning Approach on Collaborative Group Modeling of Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kang, Eunhee; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effect on group dynamics of statements associated with deep learning approaches (DLA) and their contribution to cognitive collaboration and model development during group modeling of blood circulation. A group was selected for an in-depth analysis of collaborative group modeling. This group constructed a model in a…

  15. Mechanical cavopulmonary assist for the univentricular Fontan circulation using a novel folding propeller blood pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throckmorton, Amy L; Ballman, Kimberly K; Myers, Cynthia D; Litwak, Kenneth N; Frankel, Steven H; Rodefeld, Mark D

    2007-01-01

    A blood pump specifically designed to operate in the unique anatomic and physiologic conditions of a cavopulmonary connection has never been developed. Mechanical augmentation of cavopulmonary blood flow in a univentricular circulation would reduce systemic venous pressure, increase preload to the single ventricle, and temporarily reproduce a scenario analogous to the normal two-ventricle circulation. We hypothesize that a folding propeller blood pump would function optimally in this cavopulmonary circulation. The hydraulic performance of a two-bladed propeller prototype was characterized in an experimental flow loop using a blood analog fluid for 0.5-3.5 lpm at rotational speeds of 3,600-4,000 rpm. We also created five distinctive blood pump designs and evaluated their hydraulic performance using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The two-bladed prototype performed well over the design range of 0.5-3.5 lpm, producing physiologic pressure rises of 5-18 mm Hg. Building upon this proof-of-concept testing, the CFD analysis of the five numerical models predicted a physiologic pressure range of 5-40 mm Hg over 0.5-4 lpm for rotational speeds of 3,000-7,000 rpm. These preliminary propeller designs and the two-bladed prototype achieved the expected hydraulic performance. Optimization of these configurations will reduce fluid stress levels, remove regions of recirculation, and improve the hydraulic performance of the folding propeller. This propeller design produces the physiologic pressures and flows that are in the ideal range to mechanically support the cavopulmonary circulation and represents an exciting new therapeutic option for the support of a univentricular Fontan circulation. PMID:18043158

  16. A computational model of the fetal circulation to quantify blood redistribution in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Garcia-Canadilla

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR due to placental insufficiency is associated with blood flow redistribution in order to maintain delivery of oxygenated blood to the brain. Given that, in the fetus the aortic isthmus (AoI is a key arterial connection between the cerebral and placental circulations, quantifying AoI blood flow has been proposed to assess this brain sparing effect in clinical practice. While numerous clinical studies have studied this parameter, fundamental understanding of its determinant factors and its quantitative relation with other aspects of haemodynamic remodeling has been limited. Computational models of the cardiovascular circulation have been proposed for exactly this purpose since they allow both for studying the contributions from isolated parameters as well as estimating properties that cannot be directly assessed from clinical measurements. Therefore, a computational model of the fetal circulation was developed, including the key elements related to fetal blood redistribution and using measured cardiac outflow profiles to allow personalization. The model was first calibrated using patient-specific Doppler data from a healthy fetus. Next, in order to understand the contributions of the main parameters determining blood redistribution, AoI and middle cerebral artery (MCA flow changes were studied by variation of cerebral and peripheral-placental resistances. Finally, to study how this affects an individual fetus, the model was fitted to three IUGR cases with different degrees of severity. In conclusion, the proposed computational model provides a good approximation to assess blood flow changes in the fetal circulation. The results support that while MCA flow is mainly determined by a fall in brain resistance, the AoI is influenced by a balance between increased peripheral-placental and decreased cerebral resistances. Personalizing the model allows for quantifying the balance between cerebral and peripheral

  17. Requirement of vasculogenesis and blood circulation in late stages of liver growth in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wohland Thorsten

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early events in vertebrate liver development have been the major focus in previous studies, however, late events of liver organogenesis remain poorly understood. Liver vasculogenesis in vertebrates occurs through the interaction of endoderm-derived liver epithelium and mesoderm-derived endothelial cells (ECs. In zebrafish, although it has been found that ECs are not required for liver budding, how and when the spatio-temporal pattern of liver growth is coordinated with ECs remains to be elucidated. Results To study the process of liver development and vasculogenesis in vivo, a two-color transgenic zebrafish line Tg(lfabf:dsRed; elaA:EGFP was generated and named LiPan for liver-specific expression of DsRed RFP and exocrine pancreas-specific expression of GFP. Using the LiPan line, we first followed the dynamic development of liver from live embryos to adult and showed the formation of three distinct yet connected liver lobes during development. The LiPan line was then crossed with Tg(fli1:EGFPy1 and vascular development in the liver was traced in vivo. Liver vasculogenesis started at 55–58 hpf when ECs first surrounded hepatocytes from the liver bud surface and then invaded the liver to form sinusoids and later the vascular network. Using a novel non-invasive and label-free fluorescence correction spectroscopy, we detected blood circulation in the liver starting at ~72 hpf. To analyze the roles of ECs and blood circulation in liver development, both cloche mutants (lacking ECs and Tnnt2 morphants (no blood circulation were employed. We found that until 70 hpf liver growth and morphogenesis depended on ECs and nascent sinusoids. After 72 hpf, a functional sinusoidal network was essential for continued liver growth. An absence of blood circulation in Tnnt2 morphants caused defects in liver vasculature and small liver. Conclusion There are two phases of liver development in zebrafish, budding and growth. In the growth phase

  18. Reconstructing Ocean Circulation using Coral (triangle)14C Time Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashgarian, M; Guilderson, T P

    2001-02-23

    We utilize monthly {sup 14}C data derived from coral archives in conjunction with ocean circulation models to address two questions: (1) how does the shallow circulation of the tropical Pacific vary on seasonal to decadal time scales and (2) which dynamic processes determine the mean vertical structure of the equatorial Pacific thermocline. Our results directly impact the understanding of global climate events such as the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). To study changes in ocean circulation and water mass distribution involved in the genesis and evolution of ENSO and decadal climate variability, it is necessary to have records of climate variables several decades in length. Continuous instrumental records are limited because technology for continuous monitoring of ocean currents (e.g. satellites and moored arrays) has only recently been available, and ships of opportunity archives such as COADS contain large spatial and temporal biases. In addition, temperature and salinity in surface waters are not conservative and thus can not be independently relied upon to trace water masses, reducing the utility of historical observations. Radiocarbon in sea water is a quasi-conservative water mass tracer and is incorporated into coral skeletal material, thus coral {sup 14}C records can be used to reconstruct changes in shallow circulation that would be difficult to characterize using instrumental data. High resolution {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as ours, provide a powerful constraint on the rate of surface ocean mixing and hold great promise to augment one time oceanographic surveys. {Delta}{sup 14}C timeseries such as these, not only provide fundamental information about the shallow circulation of the Pacific, but can also be directly used as a benchmark for the next generation of high resolution ocean models used in prognosticating climate. The measurement of {Delta}{sup 14}C in biological archives such as tree rings and coral growth bands is a direct record of

  19. Circulating Blood Monocyte Subclasses and Lipid-Laden Adipose Tissue Macrophages in Human Obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Pecht

    Full Text Available Visceral adipose tissue foam cells are increased in human obesity, and were implicated in adipose dysfunction and increased cardio-metabolic risk. In the circulation, non-classical monocytes (NCM are elevated in obesity and associate with atherosclerosis and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that circulating NCM correlate and/or are functionally linked to visceral adipose tissue foam cells in obesity, potentially providing an approach to estimate visceral adipose tissue status in the non-surgical obese patient.We preformed ex-vivo functional studies utilizing sorted monocyte subclasses from healthy donors. Moreover, we assessed circulating blood monocyte subclasses and visceral fat adipose tissue macrophage (ATM lipid content by flow-cytometry in paired blood and omental-fat samples collected from patients (n = 65 undergoing elective abdominal surgery.Ex-vivo, NCM and NCM-derived macrophages exhibited lower lipid accumulation capacity compared to classical or intermediate monocytes/-derived macrophages. Moreover, of the three subclasses, NCM exhibited the lowest migration towards adipose tissue conditioned-media. In a cohort of n = 65, increased %NCM associated with higher BMI (r = 0.250,p<0.05 and ATM lipid content (r = 0.303,p<0.05. Among patients with BMI≥25Kg/m2, linear regression models adjusted for age, sex or BMI revealed that NCM independently associate with ATM lipid content, particularly in men.Collectively, although circulating blood NCM are unlikely direct functional precursor cells for adipose tissue foam cells, their increased percentage in the circulation may clinically reflect higher lipid content in visceral ATMs.

  20. Augmentation of blood circulation to the fingers by warming distant body areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscheyev, V. S.; Leon, G. R.; Paul, S.; Tranchida, D.; Linder, I. V.

    2000-01-01

    Future activities in space will require greater periods of time in extreme environments in which the body periphery will be vulnerable to chilling. Maintaining the hands and fingers in comfortable conditions enhances finger flexibility and dexterity, and thus effects better work performance. We have evaluated the efficacy of promoting heat transfer and release by the extremities by increasing the blood flow to the periphery from more distant parts of the body. The experimental garment paradigm developed by the investigators was used to manipulate the temperature of different body areas. Six subjects, two females and four males, were evaluated in a stage-1 baseline condition, with the inlet temperature of the circulating water in the liquid cooling/warming garment (LCWG) at 33 degrees C. At stage 2 the total LCWG water inlet temperature was cooled to 8 degrees C, and at stage 3 the inlet water temperature in specific segments of the LCWG was warmed (according to protocol) to 45 degrees C, while the inlet temperature in the rest of the LCWG was maintained at 8 degrees C. The following four body-area-warming conditions were studied in separate sessions: (1) head, (2) upper torso/arm, (3) upper torso/arm/head, and (4) legs/feet. Skin temperature, heat flux and blood perfusion of the fingers, and subjective perception of thermal sensations and overall physical comfort were assessed. Finger temperature (T(fing)) analyses showed a statistically significant condition x stage interaction. Post-hoc comparisons (T(fing)) indicated that at stage 3, the upper torso/arm/head warming condition was significantly different from the head, upper torso/arm and legs/feet conditions, showing an increase in T(fing). There was a significant increase in blood perfusion in the fingers at stage 3 in all conditions. Subjective perception of hand warmth, and overall physical comfort level significantly increased in the stage 3 upper torso/arm/head condition. The findings indicate that

  1. Changes in circulating blood volume after infusion of hydroxyethyl starch 6% in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Andersson, J; Rasmussen, S E;

    2001-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to a volume challenge with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (200/0.5) 6% depends on the relation between the volume of HES 6% infused and the expansion of the blood volume in critically ill patients. However, only relatively limited data exist on the plasma expanding effect of...... infusion of HES 6% in critically ill patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variation in the expansion of the circulating blood volume (CBV) in critically ill patients after infusion of 500 ml of colloid (HES (200/0.5) 6%) using the carbon monoxide method....

  2. The circulating PBEF/NAMPT/visfatin level is associated with a beneficial blood lipid profile

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, P.; Greevenbroek, van, M.M.J.; Bouwman, F.G. (F.G.); Brouwers, M.C.G.J.; Kallen, van der, B.F.; Smit, E.; Keijer, J.; Mariman, E C M

    2007-01-01

    Visfatin with the official gene name pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor 1 (PBEF) and the protein name nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is a recently discovered adipocyte-secreted protein that was shown by some to be associated with visceral fat and insulin resistance. To explore the link between PBEF/NAMPT/visfatin and lipid metabolism, we analyzed the relation of its plasma level with several parameters of adiposity, insulin resistance and the circulating blood lipid profile in...

  3. Effects of Therapeutic Ultrasound on Intramuscular Blood Circulation and Oxygen Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Morishita, Katsuyuki; Karasuno, Hiroshi; Yokoi, Yuka; Morozumi, Kazunori; Ogihara, Hisayoshi; Ito, Toshikazu; Fujiwara, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koji

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to clarify the effects of therapeutic ultrasound on intramuscular local blood circulation (and oxygen dynamics) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Participants: The participants were 11 healthy males. Methods: All participants performed all three trials; (1) the ultrasound (US group), (2) without powered ultrasound (placebo group), and (3) rest (control group). Ultrasound was applied at 3 MHz, 1.0 W/cm2, and 100% duty cycle for 10 minutes. Evaluation index were...

  4. Evaluation of Peripheral Blood Circulation Disorder in Scleroderma Patients Using an Optical Sensor with a Pressurization Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakoshi, Yoshiki

    2016-01-01

    Blood circulation function of peripheral blood vessels in skin dermis was evaluated employing an optical sensor with a pressurization mechanism using the blood outflow and reflow characteristics. The device contains a light source and an optical sensor. When applied to the skin surface, it first exerts the primary pressure (higher than the systolic blood pressure), causing an outflow of blood from the dermal peripheral blood vessels. After two heartbeats, the pressure is lowered (secondary pressure) and blood reflows into the peripheral blood vessels. Hemoglobin concentration, which changes during blood outflow and reflow, is derived from the received light intensity using the Beer–Lambert law. This method was evaluated in 26 healthy female volunteers and 26 female scleroderma patients. In order to evaluate the blood circulation function of the peripheral blood vessels of scleroderma patients, pressurization sequence which consists of primary pressure followed by secondary pressure was adopted. Blood reflow during the first heartbeat period after applying the secondary pressure of 40mmHg was (mean±SD) 0.059±0.05%mm for scleroderma patients and 0.173±0.104%mm for healthy volunteers. Blood reflow was significantly lower in scleroderma patients than in healthy volunteers (p<0.05). This result indicates that the information necessary for assessing blood circulation disorder of peripheral blood vessels in scleroderma patients is objectively obtained by the proposed method. PMID:27479094

  5. Changes in circulating blood volume after infusion of hydroxyethyl starch 6% in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Andersson, J; Rasmussen, S E; Andersen, P K; Henneberg, S W

    2001-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to a volume challenge with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (200/0.5) 6% depends on the relation between the volume of HES 6% infused and the expansion of the blood volume in critically ill patients. However, only relatively limited data exist on the plasma expanding effect o...... infusion of HES 6% in critically ill patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variation in the expansion of the circulating blood volume (CBV) in critically ill patients after infusion of 500 ml of colloid (HES (200/0.5) 6%) using the carbon monoxide method.......The cardiovascular response to a volume challenge with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (200/0.5) 6% depends on the relation between the volume of HES 6% infused and the expansion of the blood volume in critically ill patients. However, only relatively limited data exist on the plasma expanding effect of...

  6. Hydrodynamic and label-free sorting of circulating tumor cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geislinger, Thomas M.; Stamp, Melanie E. M.; Wixforth, Achim; Franke, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate continuous, passive, and label-free sorting of different in vitro cancer cell lines (MV3, MCF7, and HEPG2) as model systems for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from undiluted whole blood employing the non-inertial lift effect as driving force. This purely viscous, repulsive cell-wall interaction is sensitive to cell size and deformability differences and yields highly efficient cell separation and high enrichment factors. We show that the performance of the device is robust over a large range of blood cell concentrations and flow rates as well as for the different cell lines. The collected samples usually contain more than 90% of the initially injected CTCs and exhibit average enrichment factors of more than 20 for sorting from whole blood samples.

  7. Treatment of 39 Nodular Panniculitis Patients withClearing Away Heat to Remove Dampness andPromoting Blood Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Thirty-nine nodular panniculitis (NP) patients were treated with clearing away Heat to remove Dampness and promoting blood circulation in our hospital from September 1978 to June 1995. The clinical therapeutic effect was good and reported as follows.

  8. Blood circulation of the inner ear under the influence of medications. Radiotracer experiments using guinea pig cochlea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dependence of the blood circulation in the inner ear on various medications is discussed. By means of a radiotracer clearance technique the cochlear clearance curves for the guinea pig cochlea after the administration of various circulation stimulants were determined. (MBC)

  9. Detection of Circulating Tumour Cells from Blood of Breast Cancer Patients via RT-qPCR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andergassen, Ulrich; Kölbl, Alexandra C.; Hutter, Stefan; Friese, Klaus; Jeschke, Udo, E-mail: udo.jeschke@med.uni-muenchen.de [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich, Munich, Maistrasse 11, D-80337 Munich (Germany)

    2013-09-25

    Breast cancer is still the most frequent cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Often death is not caused only by the primary tumour itself, but also by metastatic lesions. Today it is largely accepted, that these remote metastases arise out of cells, which detach from the primary tumour, enter circulation, settle down at secondary sites in the body and are called Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs). The occurrence of such minimal residual diseases in the blood of breast cancer patients is mostly linked to a worse prognosis for therapy outcome and overall survival. Due to their very low frequency, the detection of CTCs is, still a technical challenge. RT-qPCR as a highly sensitive method could be an approach for CTC-detection from peripheral blood of breast cancer patients. This assumption is based on the fact that CTCs are of epithelial origin and therefore express a different gene panel than surrounding blood cells. For the technical approach it is necessary to identify appropriate marker genes and to correlate their gene expression levels to the number of tumour cells within a sample in an in vitro approach. After that, samples from adjuvant and metastatic patients can be analysed. This approach may lead to new concepts in diagnosis and treatment.

  10. Detection of Circulating Tumour Cells from Blood of Breast Cancer Patients via RT-qPCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Jeschke

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is still the most frequent cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Often death is not caused only by the primary tumour itself, but also by metastatic lesions. Today it is largely accepted, that these remote metastases arise out of cells, which detach from the primary tumour, enter circulation, settle down at secondary sites in the body and are called Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs. The occurrence of such minimal residual diseases in the blood of breast cancer patients is mostly linked to a worse prognosis for therapy outcome and overall survival. Due to their very low frequency, the detection of CTCs is, still a technical challenge. RT-qPCR as a highly sensitive method could be an approach for CTC-detection from peripheral blood of breast cancer patients. This assumption is based on the fact that CTCs are of epithelial origin and therefore express a different gene panel than surrounding blood cells. For the technical approach it is necessary to identify appropriate marker genes and to correlate their gene expression levels to the number of tumour cells within a sample in an in vitro approach. After that, samples from adjuvant and metastatic patients can be analysed. This approach may lead to new concepts in diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Detection of Circulating Tumour Cells from Blood of Breast Cancer Patients via RT-qPCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breast cancer is still the most frequent cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Often death is not caused only by the primary tumour itself, but also by metastatic lesions. Today it is largely accepted, that these remote metastases arise out of cells, which detach from the primary tumour, enter circulation, settle down at secondary sites in the body and are called Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs). The occurrence of such minimal residual diseases in the blood of breast cancer patients is mostly linked to a worse prognosis for therapy outcome and overall survival. Due to their very low frequency, the detection of CTCs is, still a technical challenge. RT-qPCR as a highly sensitive method could be an approach for CTC-detection from peripheral blood of breast cancer patients. This assumption is based on the fact that CTCs are of epithelial origin and therefore express a different gene panel than surrounding blood cells. For the technical approach it is necessary to identify appropriate marker genes and to correlate their gene expression levels to the number of tumour cells within a sample in an in vitro approach. After that, samples from adjuvant and metastatic patients can be analysed. This approach may lead to new concepts in diagnosis and treatment

  12. Genetic profiling of tumours using both circulating free DNA and circulating tumour cells isolated from the same preserved whole blood sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Dominic G; Smith, Nigel; Morris, Daniel; Leong, Hui Sun; Li, Yaoyong; Hollebecque, Antoine; Ayub, Mahmood; Carter, Louise; Antonello, Jenny; Franklin, Lynsey; Miller, Crispin; Blackhall, Fiona; Dive, Caroline; Brady, Ged

    2016-04-01

    Molecular information obtained from cancer patients' blood is an emerging and powerful research tool with immense potential as a companion diagnostic for patient stratification and monitoring. Blood, which can be sampled routinely, provides a means of inferring the current genetic status of patients' tumours via analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) or circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). However, accurate assessment of both CTCs and ctDNA requires all blood cells to be maintained intact until samples are processed. This dictates for ctDNA analysis EDTA blood samples must be processed with 4 h of draw, severely limiting the use of ctDNA in multi-site trials. Here we describe a blood collection protocol that is amenable for analysis of both CTCs and ctDNA up to four days after blood collection. We demonstrate that yields of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from whole blood CellSave samples are equivalent to those obtained from conventional EDTA plasma processed within 4 h of blood draw. Targeted and genome-wide NGS revealed comparable DNA quality and resultant sequence information from cfDNA within CellSave and EDTA samples. We also demonstrate that CTCs and ctDNA can be isolated from the same patient blood sample, and give the same patterns of CNA enabling direct analysis of the genetic status of patients' tumours. In summary, our results demonstrate the utility of a simple approach that enabling robust molecular analysis of CTCs and cfDNA for genotype-directed therapies in multi-site clinical trials and represent a significant methodological improvement for clinical benefit. PMID:26639657

  13. TCM Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis by Supplementing the Kidney and Invigorating the Blood Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉海旺; 姚淑莲; 罗强; 曹小菊

    2002-01-01

    The therapeutic effects in treating the intermediate and late rheumatoid arthritis by supplementing the kidney and invigorating blood circulation were observed. In the 43 cases of the treatment group, No. 2 Qu Feng Shi Ling capsules (祛风湿灵胶囊2号) and Fenbid (芬必得) were prescribed, while in the 39 cases of the control group Lei Gong Teng Tablets (雷公藤总甙片) and Fenbid were given. The results showed that the total effective rate in the treatment group was more satisfactory than that in the control (P<0.05 or P<0.01). With less toxic effects, the former could better improve the local swelling and lower the blood viscosity.

  14. Chasing a ghost? - Issues with the determination of circulating levels of endotoxin in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnauck, Anne; Lentle, Roger Graham; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2016-06-01

    Reliable quantification of bacterial products such as endotoxin is important for the diagnosis of Gram-negative infection and for the monitoring of its treatment. Further, it is important to identify patients with persistent subclinical level of bacterial products in their systemic circulation as data from animal studies also suggest this may be correlated with the onset of metabolic syndrome. In this review, we first aim to describe the principles of the Limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) test, an assay that is used to quantify endotoxin, and the various shortcomings that must be addressed before it can become a reliable means of quantifying endotoxin in samples derived from blood. We then review published data regarding endotoxin levels in healthy subjects and those with sepsis, inflammatory bowel disease, liver disorders and metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. We also review the evidence regarding influence of macronutrients in augmenting the levels of systemic endotoxin. The results of this review show that reported mean levels of endotoxin in the systemic circulation of healthy humans and of those with various clinical disorders vary over a wide range. Further, this review shows that a significant proportion of this variation can be related to the method that was used to prepare plasma and serum samples prior to assay and its ability to reduce the effect of various blood borne factors that interfere with the LAL assay. PMID:26732012

  15. Advances of Studies on Mechanisms of Drugs for Activating Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis in Treatment of Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Primary liver cancer is mainly characterized by the mass in hypochondriac region, stabbing pain at a fixative region, tenderness, dim complexion,vascular spider, vein exposure, livid tongue,ecchymosis, taut and uneven pulse and other symptoms of blood stasis. Experimental studies have found that the patient with liver cancer is often accompanied with disturbance of microcirculation,increase of blood viscosity and high blood agglutinative state. Therefore, activating blood circulation to remove blood stasis is clinically an important therapy for primary liver cancer. A great number of studies on the mechanisms have been carried out in China and other countries. The follow is a review about the mechanisms.

  16. Circulating fibrocytes stabilize blood vessels during angiogenesis in a paracrine manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinqing; Tan, Hong; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Yuejun; Samuelson, Lisa; Li, Xueyong; Cui, Caibin; Gerber, David A

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence supports that circulating fibrocytes play important roles in angiogenesis. However, the specific role of fibrocytes in angiogenesis and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that fibrocytes stabilized newly formed blood vessels in a mouse wound-healing model by inhibiting angiogenesis during the proliferative phase and inhibiting blood vessel regression during the remodeling phase. Fibrocytes also inhibited angiogenesis in a Matrigel mouse model. In vitro study showed that fibrocytes inhibited both the apoptosis and proliferation of vascular endothelial cells (VECs) in a permeable support (Transwell) co-culture system. In a three-dimensional collagen gel, fibrocytes stabilized the VEC tubes by decreasing VEC tube density on stimulation with growth factors and preventing VEC tube regression on withdrawal of growth factors. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that fibrocytes expressed many prosurvival factors that are responsible for the prosurvival effect of fibrocytes on VECs and blood vessels. Fibrocytes also expressed angiogenesis inhibitors, including thrombospondin-1 (THBS1). THBS1 knockdown partially blocked the fibrocyte-induced inhibition of VEC proliferation in the Transwell co-culture system and recovered the fibrocyte-induced decrease of VEC tube density in collagen gel. Purified fibrocytes transfected with THBS1 siRNA partially recovered the fibrocyte-induced inhibition of angiogenesis in both the wound-healing and Matrigel models. In conclusion, our findings reveal that fibrocytes stabilize blood vessels via prosurvival factors and anti-angiogenic factors, including THBS1. PMID:24300950

  17. Evaluation of coronary blood flow velocity during cardiac arrest with circulation maintained through mechanical chest compressions in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Henrik

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mechanical chest compressions (CCs have been shown capable of maintaining circulation in humans suffering cardiac arrest for extensive periods of time. Reports have documented a visually normalized coronary blood flow during angiography in such cases (TIMI III flow, but it has never been actually measured. Only indirect measurements of the coronary circulation during cardiac arrest with on-going mechanical CCs have been performed previously through measurement of the coronary perfusion pressure (CPP. In this study our aim was to correlate average peak coronary flow velocity (APV to CPP during mechanical CCs. Methods In a closed chest porcine model, cardiac arrest was established through electrically induced ventricular fibrillation (VF in eleven pigs. After one minute, mechanical chest compressions were initiated and then maintained for 10 minutes upon which the pigs were defibrillated. Measurements of coronary blood flow in the left anterior descending artery were made at baseline and during VF with a catheter based Doppler flow fire measuring APV. Furthermore measurements of central (thoracic venous and arterial pressures were also made in order to calculate the theoretical CPP. Results Average peak coronary flow velocity was significantly higher compared to baseline during mechanical chests compressions and this was observed during the entire period of mechanical chest compressions (12 - 39% above baseline. The APV slowly declined during the 10 min period of mechanical chest compressions, but was still higher than baseline at the end of mechanical chest compressions. CPP was simultaneously maintained at > 20 mmHg during the 10 minute episode of cardiac arrest. Conclusion Our study showed good correlation between CPP and APV which was highly significant, during cardiac arrest with on-going mechanical CCs in a closed chest porcine model. In addition APV was even higher during mechanical CCs compared to baseline. Mechanical

  18. Central blood circulation in children at chronic combined low dose radiation and chemical action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The state of central blood circulation and its hormonal regulation were studied in 1465 children living permanently under chronic low dose radiation and chemical action. Basic group consisted of 1093 children (579 boys and 514 girls) . 372 children (115 boys and 227 girls permanently living on 'clean' areas) were investigated in control group. Average age was 10,8 years old in basic group and 10,4 years old in the control group. Such parameters as arterial pressure, level of lead in blood and urine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dophamine content in urine, thyroxine, iodothyronine, prostaglandins and cyclic AMP content in the blood serum has been controlled. Hypotensive states were determined to prevail in children living permanently under chronic low dose radiation and chemical action. The main pathogenic mechanism of this defeat is consider to be a reduction of the sympathoadrenal system activity combined with a decreasing of the thyroid system activity and of cyclic AMP level as well as predominance of prostaglandin depressive activity

  19. A SYSTEM AND A DEVICE FOR ISOLATING CIRCULATING TUMOR CELLS FROM THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD IN VIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Mego

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTC play a crucial role in disseminating tumors and in the metastatic cascade. CTCs are found only in small numbers, and the limited amount of isolated CTCs makes it impossible to characterize them closely. This paper presents a proposal for a new system for isolating CTCs from the peripheral blood in vivo. The system enables CTCs to be isolated from the whole blood volume for further research and applications. The proposed system consists of magnetic nanoparticles covered by monoclonal antibodies against a common epithelial antigen, large supermagnets, which are used to control the position of the nanoparticles within the human body, and a special wire made of a magnetic core wrapped in a non-magnetic shell. The system could be used not only for isolating CTCs, but also for in vivo isolation of other rare cells from the peripheral blood, including hematopoietic and/or mesenchymal stem cells, with applications in regenerative medicine and/or in stem cell transplantation.

  20. Flow of a circulating tumor cell and red blood cells in microvessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2015-12-01

    Quantifying the behavior of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood stream is of fundamental importance for understanding metastasis. Here, we investigate the flow mode and velocity of CTCs interacting with red blood cells (RBCs) in various sized microvessels. The flow of leukocytes in microvessels has been described previously; a leukocyte forms a train with RBCs in small microvessels and exhibits margination in large microvessels. Important differences in the physical properties of leukocytes and CTCs result from size. The dimensions of leukocytes are similar to those of RBCs, but CTCs are significantly larger. We investigate numerically the size effects on the flow mode and the cell velocity, and we identify similarities and differences between leukocytes and CTCs. We find that a transition from train formation to margination occurs when (R -a ) /tR≈1 , where R is the vessel radius, a is the cell radius, and tR is the thickness of RBCs, but that the motion of RBCs differs from the case of leukocytes. Our results also show that the velocities of CTCs and leukocytes are larger than the average blood velocity, but only CTCs move faster than RBCs for microvessels of R /a ≈1.5 -2.0 . These findings are expected to be useful not only for understanding metastasis, but also for developing microfluidic devices.

  1. Determination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in circulating blood: significance of VEGF in various leucocytes and platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    contained considerable amounts of VEGF. In isolated lymphocytes and monocytes, VEGF was not present in measurable amounts. The number of neutrophils was significantly (p<0.0001) correlated to VEGF concentrations in lysed whole blood, but not to VEGF concentrations in plasma or serum. The number of platelets...... clotting. CONCLUSION: Circulating neutrophils contain considerable amounts of VEGF that contribute to high VEGF levels in lysed whole blood. VEGF in circulating platelets contributes to high VEGF levels in serum and lysed whole blood. Allowing whole blood samples to clot for between 2 and 6 h before serum......AIM: The sources of increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in peripheral blood from cancer patients are not known in detail. The aim of the present study was to evaluate correlations between the VEGF content in isolated leucocyte subpopulations and VEGF concentrations in...

  2. Numerical simulation of blood flow and pressure drop in the pulmonary arterial and venous circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, M Umar; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin; Peskin, Charles S; Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A

    2014-10-01

    A novel multiscale mathematical and computational model of the pulmonary circulation is presented and used to analyse both arterial and venous pressure and flow. This work is a major advance over previous studies by Olufsen et al. (Ann Biomed Eng 28:1281-1299, 2012) which only considered the arterial circulation. For the first three generations of vessels within the pulmonary circulation, geometry is specified from patient-specific measurements obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Blood flow and pressure in the larger arteries and veins are predicted using a nonlinear, cross-sectional-area-averaged system of equations for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube. Inflow into the main pulmonary artery is obtained from MRI measurements, while pressure entering the left atrium from the main pulmonary vein is kept constant at the normal mean value of 2 mmHg. Each terminal vessel in the network of 'large' arteries is connected to its corresponding terminal vein via a network of vessels representing the vascular bed of smaller arteries and veins. We develop and implement an algorithm to calculate the admittance of each vascular bed, using bifurcating structured trees and recursion. The structured-tree models take into account the geometry and material properties of the 'smaller' arteries and veins of radii ≥ 50 μm. We study the effects on flow and pressure associated with three classes of pulmonary hypertension expressed via stiffening of larger and smaller vessels, and vascular rarefaction. The results of simulating these pathological conditions are in agreement with clinical observations, showing that the model has potential for assisting with diagnosis and treatment for circulatory diseases within the lung. PMID:24610385

  3. MECHANICAL AND PHARMACOLOGICAL SUPPORT OF BLOOD CIRCULATION IN SURGICAL TREATMENT OF LEFT VENTRICLE POSTINFARCTION ANEURISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vitsukaev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite all successes of a modern heart surgery, anesthesiology and resuscitation till now actual there is a ques- tion of improvement of results of surgical treatment of patients with chronic left ventricle postinfarction aneu- risms. Аfter left ventricular reconstructive surgery preoperative risk factors of development heavy myocardial dysfunctions in the postoperative period aren’t defined accurately now. We have made the analysis of 168 similar operations and have defined preoperative risk factors of development of severe heart failure in the intraoperative and early postoperative period. We have suggested methods to improve the results of operations in these patients using mechanical and pharmacological support of blood circulation. Use our suggested methods of preoperative preparation (Intraaortic balloon counterpulsation (VABK and VABK + levosimendan had significantly impro- ved results and significantly reduce mortality in patients with high risk of surgical treatment. 

  4. Atmospheric Circulation of Brown Dwarfs: Jets, Vortices, and Time Variability

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xi

    2014-01-01

    A variety of observational evidence demonstrates that brown dwarfs exhibit active atmospheric circulations. In this study we use a shallow-water model to investigate the global atmospheric dynamics in the stratified layer overlying the convective zone on these rapidly rotating objects. We show that the existence and properties of the atmospheric circulation crucially depend on key parameters including the energy injection rate and radiative timescale. Under conditions of strong internal heat flux and weak radiative dissipation, a banded flow pattern comprising east-west jet streams spontaneously emerges from the interaction of atmospheric turbulence with the planetary rotation. In contrast, when the internal heat flux is weak and/or radiative dissipation is strong, turbulence injected into the atmosphere damps before it can self-organize into jets, leading to a flow dominated by isotropic turbulence and vortices instead. Based on the location of the transition, we suggest that many brown dwarfs may exhibit at...

  5. SELECTION OF FETAL CELLS CIRCULATING IN MATERNAL BLOOD FOR NONINVASIVE PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudkov G. V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophoblast cells circulating in maternal blood may serve as potential sources of genetic information for screening in obstetric practice approaches to noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. The material for the study was whole blood of pregnant women of gestational ages of 8-12 weeks in a volume of 10 ml. stabilized with heparin. Enrichment was performed by the method of gradient centrifugation and magnetic separation (CD45– with fluorescent staining negative fractions labeled with antibodies to antigens of trophoblasts (HLA-G, and Trop-2 to conduct flow cytometry and sorting of cells on glass slides. Single cell candidates using laser micro dissection were transferred into a vial for subsequent whole-genome amplification, providing sufficient representativeness of their genome. Fetal origin of the genetic material was confirmed by comparison of alleles of the HLA genes of the parents and cells candidates. It is possible to improve significantly the accuracy and versatility of non-invasive prenatal diagnosis using comparative genomic hybridization using chips (аCGH

  6. Gene expression analysis in pregnant women and their infants identifies unique fetal biomarkers that circulate in maternal blood

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Jill L.; Johnson, Kirby L.; Slonim, Donna; Lai, Chao-Qiang; Ramoni, Marco; Alterovitz, Gil; Jarrah, Zina; Yang, Zinger; Bianchi, Diana W.

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of fetal mRNA transcripts in the maternal circulation holds great promise for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. To identify potential fetal biomarkers, we studied whole blood and plasma gene transcripts that were common to 9 term pregnant women and their newborns but absent or reduced in the mothers postpartum. RNA was isolated from peripheral or umbilical blood and hybridized to gene expression arrays. Gene expression, paired Student’s t test, and pathway analyses were performed....

  7. Effects of Replenishing Qi, Promoting Blood Circulation and Resolving Phlegm on Vascular Endothelial Function and Blood Coagulation System in Senile Patients with Hyperlipemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huimin; Han Libei; Sheng Tong; He Qiong; Liang Jinpu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the curative effect of the method of replenishing qi, promoting blood circulation and resolving phlegm on senile hyperlipemia and its effects on vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system. Method: 96 patients with senile hyperlipemia were randomly divided into a treatment group and a of blood lipid, vascular endothelial function, blood coagulation system and safety. Results: After treatment,the treatment group was obviously superior to the control group (P<0.05) in reducing plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as in the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α), D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB). Conclusion: Danshen Jueming Granules have the effect of regulating metabolism of blood lipid, and improving vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system in senile patients with hyperlipemia.

  8. Fetal Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More Fetal Circulation Updated:Jul 8,2016 click to enlarge The ... fetal heart. These two bypass pathways in the fetal circulation make it possible for most fetuses to survive ...

  9. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice.…

  10. Genetic Variation in the Natriuretic Peptide System, Circulating Natriuretic Peptide Levels, and Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jørgen L; Nielsen, Søren J; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Tine W; Olsen, Michael H; Linneberg, Allan; Madsbad, Sten; Fenger, Mogens; Berg, Nikolaj D

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundIn a large collaborative study (n > 50,000), common variants in the natriuretic peptide (NP) genes were found to be associated with circulating NP levels and also with blood pressure (BP) levels based on office BP measurements (OBPMs). It is unknown if determining an individual's BP by 24......-h ambulatory BP measurements (ABPMs) will influence the effect of NP gene variations on BP levels.MethodsWe used rs632793 at the NPPB (NP precursor B) locus to investigate the relationship between genetically determined serum N-terminal pro-brain NP (NT-proBNP) concentrations and BP levels...... participants with the G:G genotype (geometric mean (95% confidence interval (CI)): 34.8 (31.5-38.4) pg/ml vs. 48.1 (41.9-55.3) pg/ml, P = 0.0002), but higher 24-h ambulatory BP levels (mean difference (95% CI): 2.0 (0.1-4.1) mm Hg, P = 0.043, for systolic BP and 1.7 (0.4-3.1) mm Hg, P = 0.011, for diastolic BP...

  11. Immunomagnetic Nano-Screening Chip for Circulating Tumor Cells Detection in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, A. P.; Lane, N.; Tam, J.; Sokolov, K.; Garner, H. R.; Uhr, J. W.; Zhang, X. J.

    2010-03-01

    We present a novel method towards diagnose cancer at an early stage via a blood test. Early diagnosis is high on the future agenda of oncologists because of significant evidence that it will result in a higher cure rate. Capture of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which are known to escape from carcinomas at an early stage offers such an opportunity. We design, fabricate and optimize the nanomagnetic-screening chip that captures the CTCs in microfluid, and further integrate the nano-chip with the new multispectral imaging system so that it can quantify different tumor markers and automate the entire instrument. Specifically, hybrid plasmonic (Fe2O3-core Au shell) nanoparticles, conjugated a collection of antibodies especially chosen to target breast cancer CTCs, with high magnetic susceptibility will be used for effective immunomagnetic CTC isolation. Greatly increased sensitivity over previous attempts is demonstrated by decreasing the length scale for interactions between the magnetic-nanoparticle-tagged CTCs and the isolative magnetic field, while increasing the effective cross-sectional area over which this interaction takes place. The screening chip is integrated with a novel hyperspectral microscopic imaging (HMI) platform capable of recording the entire emission spectra in a single pass evaluation. The combined system will precisely quantify up to 10 tumor markers on CTCs.

  12. Peculiarities of indexes of autonomic regulation of blood circulation and heart rate variability in perimenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neufeld I.W.

    Results: We have not revealed statistically significant differences in the most of indexes of autonomic regulation of blood circulation (except heart rate between the women groups with conserved menstrual cycle and in menopause. The majority of heart rate variability indexes correlated with the term of natural menopause (correlation coefficient r took values from 0.17 to 0.24. Remoteness of surgical menopause beginning correlated only with index S of synchronization between 0.1 Hz oscillations (r=-0.41, р=0.039. Statistically (not clinically significant correlations were revealed between several indexes of autonomic regulation and sex hormone levels. Conclusion: We have not revealed clinically significant correlations between the indexes of cardiovascular system autonomic regulation and characteristics of menopausal status in women (sex hormone levels, hot flushes, and Kupperman index. However, we have shown statistically (not clinically significant correlations between several indexes of autonomic regulation and remoteness of menopause beginning (SDNN, CV, RMSSD, PNN50, power of low and high frequency bands correlated with natural menopause while index S correlated with surgical menopause and sex hormone levels.

  13. Real-time, aptamer-based tracking of circulating therapeutic agents in living animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Brian Scott; Hoggarth, David A; Maliniak, Dan; Ploense, Kyle; White, Ryan J; Woodward, Nick; Hsieh, Kuangwen; Bonham, Andrew J; Eisenstein, Michael; Kippin, Tod E; Plaxco, Kevin W; Soh, Hyongsok Tom

    2013-11-27

    A sensor capable of continuously measuring specific molecules in the bloodstream in vivo would give clinicians a valuable window into patients' health and their response to therapeutics. Such technology would enable truly personalized medicine, wherein therapeutic agents could be tailored with optimal doses for each patient to maximize efficacy and minimize side effects. Unfortunately, continuous, real-time measurement is currently only possible for a handful of targets, such as glucose, lactose, and oxygen, and the few existing platforms for continuous measurement are not generalizable for the monitoring of other analytes, such as small-molecule therapeutics. In response, we have developed a real-time biosensor capable of continuously tracking a wide range of circulating drugs in living subjects. Our microfluidic electrochemical detector for in vivo continuous monitoring (MEDIC) requires no exogenous reagents, operates at room temperature, and can be reconfigured to measure different target molecules by exchanging probes in a modular manner. To demonstrate the system's versatility, we measured therapeutic in vivo concentrations of doxorubicin (a chemotherapeutic) and kanamycin (an antibiotic) in live rats and in human whole blood for several hours with high sensitivity and specificity at subminute temporal resolution. We show that MEDIC can also obtain pharmacokinetic parameters for individual animals in real time. Accordingly, just as continuous glucose monitoring technology is currently revolutionizing diabetes care, we believe that MEDIC could be a powerful enabler for personalized medicine by ensuring delivery of optimal drug doses for individual patients based on direct detection of physiological parameters. PMID:24285484

  14. Effects of Chinese herbs capable of replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation and their compatibility on differentially expressed genes of ischemic myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN HuiJun; GUO ChunYu; SHI DaZhuo

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Chinese herbs capable of replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation and their compatibility on differentially expressed genes of ischemic myocardium which were selected from differential expression profile we had established before,and to explore the underlying mechanism. The acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model was established by ligating the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery,then the model rats were randomly divided into the model group,the Metoprolol group,the replenishing qi nourishing yin (RN)group,the activating blood circulation (AB) group,and the replenishing qi,nourishing yin and activating blood circulation (RA) group. In addition,the normal group and the sham group were set up. The rats of medication groups were administered by intragastric gavage with corresponding drugs on the second day after operations,and the rats of the normal group and the sham group were given normal saline as the same time.Then the ischemic hearts were harvested on the 8th day after operation. The myocardial pathomorphological changes were observed under a light microscope. The mRNA changes of target genes such as COX5a and ATP5e were detected using Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Q-PCR),and the activities of related enzymes were detected by colorimetric assay. The main results were as follows:the histological changes were observed by HE staining,and cardiocyte swelling,inflammatory cell infiltration and cytolysis were showed in regional ischemic myocardium of the model group,while the pathomorphological changes in all medication groups did not show obvious changes.Two genes related to energy metabolism,COX5a and ATP5e,were selected as the target genes which were down-regulated at the mRNA level in the medication groups. The activities of correlative functional enzymes also decreased in the RA group compared to that in the model group accordingly (P<0.05). The results indicated

  15. Research on the blood pump for extracorporeal circulation%体外循环用血泵研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路力军; 胡兆燕; 陈正龙; 潘友联

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the principle and clinical significance of extracorporeal circulation, briefly introduces the principles and characteristics of the blood pump for extracorporeal circulation, and the key technical evaluation indexes of the blood pump. The paper focuses on the development history of centrifugal blood pump, the working principle and features of the second-generation, the third-generation magnetic drive blood pump. The second-generation blood pump uses disc-shaped magnetic coupler whose permanent magnet adopts the structure of push-pull combination. The third-generation blood pump based on the second one is added the suspension system, including electromagnetic levitation and permanent magnetic levitation at present. Finally this paper prospects for the development trend of the centrifugal blood pump for extracorporeal circulation.%本文在阐述体外循环原理及临床意义的基础上,简单介绍了体外循环用血泵的原理、特点以及关键技术评价指标,重点分析了离心血泵的发展历史,及二代、三代离心血泵磁力驱动的工作原理和特点.第二代血泵采用圆盘形磁力耦合器驱动方式,其永磁体采用组合拉推式结构.第三代血泵是在第二代血泵的基础上增加了磁悬浮系统.最后展望了体外循环用离心血泵的发展趋势.

  16. Early behaviour of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate in the head after intravenous bolus injection: Its relevance to the cerebral blood circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative differences between the behavior of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate (Tc) and both, non-diffusible and diffusible reference tracers in the head were evaluated by a statistical comparison of their time-activity curves in blood, brain and some tissues underlying the brain, after IV injection in the rat. This study showed that the particular cephalic behaviour of Tc was neither similar to that of diffusible tracers (even with restricted diffusion) nor equivalent to that of a non-diffusible tracer in the whole head. Although Tc is not an intravascular tracer in the entire cephalic volume, it was demonstrated that the initial peak characterizing the dilution of this tracer in the head is exclusively generated by its first passage in the cerebral circulation, even if the blood flow rate is changed. To extract from this initial peak a first dilution curve relevant to the cerebral circulation, Tc kinetics in the head were considered a two compartmental model. Assuming that the maximum uptake of tracer was reached at the same time in both compartments of this model, the disappearance of Tc from the fast compartment approximates the first dilution curve of Tc in the fast cerebral circulation, if the slope of the Tc disappearance curve from the slow compartment is assimilated to a plateau. (orig.)

  17. Clinical Observation on Influence of Chinese Medicines for Promoting Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis on FIB and DD in Plasma of Patients with Cerebral Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晖; 陈甦; 陈少芳

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to study the influence of Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis on fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer (DD) in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis. Method: 73 inpatients with acute cerebral thrombosis were randomly divided into a control group of 34 cases and a treatment group of 39 cases. The content of FIB and DD in plasma was detected before treatment and on the 7th and 14th days after treatment. Result: FIB content in plasma after treatment was lower than that before treatment in the control group (P<0.01) and more remarkable in the treatment group (P<0.001). There was an obvious difference in DD content before and after treatment in both groups. DD content on the 7th and 14th days after treatment in the treatment group was obviously higher than that in the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively). Conclusion: Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis can reduce the FIB content in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis, raise the DD content in plasma, cause the peak of DD content appear earlier and obviously improve hypercoagulability of blood in patients with cerebral thrombosis.

  18. Activity of kallikrein-kinin system of blood and state of placental circulation at full-term pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kairov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The activity of kallikrein-kinin system of blood and the state of placental circulation at full-term physiological pregnancy have been studied.In 30 pregnant women aged 18—27 at 38th—40th weeks of pregnancy, the activity of  kallikrein-kinin system (KKS of blood before and after the action double local hypoxia of arm and the state of placental hemodynamics were analyzed. Three types of reaction of kininogenase and inhibitory chains of KSS were revealed: adaptive, kininogenase, and inhibitory. Disturbed placental hemodynamics  was observed in pregnant women with kininogenase and inhibitory types of KSS reaction.

  19. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: TNF-alpha and IL-2 are important cytokines in macrophage and T-lymphocyte activity against infection and dissemination of malignant cells. We studied the influence of supernatants from stored whole blood and buffy-coat-depleted SAGM (saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol) blood in...... stored blood, were used in a culture system with LPS and PHA as stimulators of TNF-alpha and IL-2 release. The effect of added supernatants, from either stored whole blood or SAGM blood, on cytokine release was evaluated compared to saline as control. TNF-alpha concentration was analyzed by ELISA after...... culture for 24 h and IL-2 after 72 h, respectively. RESULTS: Supernatants from both stored whole blood and SAGM blood showed a significant decrease in both LPS- and PHA-stimulated TNF-alpha release that was dependent on storage time. IL-2 was not detected in response to LPS stimulation. PHA-stimulated IL...

  20. Chinese Drugs That Invigorate Spleen to Remove Dampness and Activate Blood Circulation to Eliminate Turbid for Retarding Progression of Chronic Renal Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of Chinese drugs (CD) that invigorate Spleen to remove Dampness and activate the blood circulation to eliminate Turbid for retarding progression of chronic renal failure (CRF). Methods: Thirty-nine patients with CRF were divided into two groups at random: the 18 patients in group A (the control group) were treated with low protein diet and controlling blood pressure and 21 patients in group B (the treatment group) were treated similarly with that of the control group and additional CD. Levels of serous creatinine (SCr), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), blood albumin (Alb), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and hemoglobin (Hb) were checked every two months and the rate of progression of CRF was estimated by slope of the creatinine reciprocal (1/SCr) with time (months). Results: Levels of SCr and BUN in group B were lower and HDL higher than those in group A significantly, P<0.05. Mean slopes of the creatinine reciprocal with time in the two groups were markedly different, P<0.01. Conclusion: Additional CD treatment based upon the low protein diet and controlling blood pressure could retard the rate of progression of CRF evidently.

  1. Gas Hold-Up, Mixing Time and Circulation Time in Internal Loop Airlift Bubble Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdul Rahman–Al Ezzi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of superficial gas in the riser (Vgr and liquid phase properties on the gas hold-up(ɛg , mixing time (Tm and circulation time (TC were studied in 8 liter internal air lift loop reactor (down comer-to-riser crosssectional area ratio = 0.249. Air was used as a gas phase. Water and four aqueous solutions of 10% concentration methanol, ethanol, (were used to simulate the behavior of non-coalescing organic liquids 50% glycerol and 2% Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC were used to simulate the behavior of coalescing viscous liquids. Polyethylene-non-porous-solid particles with a concentration of (50 Kg/m3 were used as solid phase. Superficial gas velocity varied from 0.01 m/s to 0.1 m/s and air dispersed into the center of the draught tube by using a porous gas distributor. The results showed that (εg increased with increasing gas velocity and coalescence inhibition of liquid, while Tm and Tc decrease with increasing gas velocity. It was found that increasing liquid viscosity and coalescence reduces (εg but increases (Tm and (Tc. The gas holdup was correlated with dimensionless groups and independent parameter with correlation coefficient is 0.967, the following correlation is obtained.

  2. Gene expression profiling of circulating tumor cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells from breast cancer patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hensler, M.; Vancurova, I.; Becht, E.; Palata, O.; Strnad, P.; Tesarova, P.; Cabinakova, M.; Švec, David; Kubista, Mikael; Bartunkova, J.; Spisek, R.; Sojka, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 4 (2016), e1102827. ISSN 2162-402X Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : Breast cancer * gene expression profiling * circulating tumor cells Subject RIV: FD - Oncology ; Hematology

  3. Tiny magnetic wireless pump: Fabrication of magnetic impeller and magnetic wireless manipulation for blood circulation in legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hoon; Yu, Chang Ho; Ishiyama, K.

    2015-05-01

    This paper introduces a wireless pump that uses magnetic wireless manipulation to pump blood in the legs. A compact size and sufficient hydrodynamic performance were the most important requirements. Because the bonded magnet technique allows for a complex shape and various magnetization orientations, we fabricated a magnetic impeller from magnetic SmFeN powder. The impellers demonstrated a magnetic moment of 2772.64 emu and coercive force of 7.55 kOe. Using the impeller, we developed a tiny blood pump with a diameter of 22 mm and height of 6 mm. The pump allows for a maximum flow rate of 2.7 l/min and maximum pump head of approximately 170 mm Hg at a rotating speed of 6000 rpm. This level of hydrodynamic performance is sufficient to circulate blood in the legs. In this paper, we present the magnetic properties of the magnetic impeller and the hydrodynamic performance with wireless operation.

  4. Holographic intravital microscopy for 2-D and 3-D imaging intact circulating blood cells in microcapillaries of live mice

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Park, Inwon; Kim, Pilhan; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Intravital microscopy is an essential tool that reveals behaviours of live cells under conditions close to natural physiological states. So far, although various approaches for imaging cells in vivo have been proposed, most require the use of labelling and also provide only qualitative imaging information. Holographic imaging approach based on measuring the refractive index distributions of cells, however, circumvent these problems and offer quantitative and label-free imaging capability. Here, we demonstrate in vivo two- and three-dimensional holographic imaging of circulating blood cells in intact microcapillaries of live mice. The measured refractive index distributions of blood cells provide morphological and biochemical properties including three-dimensional cell shape, haemoglobin concentration, and haemoglobin contents at the individual cell level. With the present method, alterations in blood flow dynamics in live healthy and sepsis-model mouse were also investigated.

  5. Circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and central blood volume (CBV) in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütten, H J; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Bendtsen, F; Warberg, J

    1986-01-01

    ). Arterial plasma concentration of ANP in supine patients was (mean +/- SEM) 33 +/- 4 vs 41 +/- 10 pg/ml (9.9 +/- 1.2 vs 12.3 +/- 3.0 fmol/l) in controls (n.s.), and there was a weak direct correlation with right atrial pressure (r = 0.36, P = 0.05). There was no relationship with the presence of ascites or...... diuretic treatment. Central blood volume (CBV, i.e. the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and aorta), determined from the mean transit time of 125I-labelled of 125I-labelled albumin and cardiac output, was significantly reduced in cirrhotics compared to controls (1.45 +/- 0.12 vs. 1.83 +/- 0.10 l......, P less than 0.02) and inversely correlated with portal pressure (r = 0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas total plasma volume was somewhat increased (3.51 +/- 0.2 vs. 3.19 +/- 0.2, 0.05 less than P less than 0.1). A high arterio-venous extraction of ANP was found in the splanchnic system (extraction...

  6. Circulating blood cells function as a surveillance system for damaged tissue in Drosophila larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Daniel T.; Brock, Amanda R.; Fish, Greg S.; Wang, Yan; Perrin, Laurent; Krasnow, Mark A.; Galko, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Insects have an open circulatory system in which the heart pumps blood (hemolymph) into the body cavity, where it directly bathes the internal organs and epidermis. The blood contains free and tissue-bound immune cells that function in the inflammatory response. Here, we use live imaging of transgenic Drosophila larvae with fluorescently labeled blood cells (hemocytes) to investigate the circulatory dynamics of larval blood cells and their response to tissue injury. We find that, under normal...

  7. Active removal of radioactivity in the blood circulation using biotin-bearing liposomes and avidin for rapid tumour imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to shorten the delay between the administration of tumour-imaging agents and obtainment of scintigrams, rapid delivery of radionuclide to tumours followed by rapid clearance from the blood is required. We used liposomes with biotin bound on their surface (B-liposomes) as carriers for rapid delivery. For rapid blood clearance, we employed avidin in the expectation that the strong affinity between biotin and avidin would result in the aggregation of B-liposomes in the blood circulation, and that these aggregates would be taken up rapidly by the reticuloendothelial system, resulting in the rapid elimination of liposomes and the radionuclide encapsulated in them. When B-liposomes encapsulating gallium-67 deferoxamine were intravenously administered to mice bearing sarcoma 180, large amounts of 67Ga were delivered to tumours by 4 h after injection, though the 67Ga blood level remained high. On the other hand, administration of avidin 4 h after administration of the B-liposomes dramatically reduced the blood level so that it was only 5% of that in the non-treated group 1 h later. As a result, the tumour-to-blood ratio reached nearly 14 and 5 h after radionuclide administration, suggesting that rapid tumour-imaging will be feasible by means of this method. (orig.)

  8. Clinical test on circulating tumor cells in peripheral blood of lung cancer patients, based on novel immunomagnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Daoyun; Guo, Hongyin; Zhang, Lianbin; Zhou, Wenpeng

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims to establish a novel and highly sensitive method to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood of patients with lung cancer. This therefore enables the discovery of invisible micrometastasis in the early stage of lung cancer, leading to better prognostic assessments of lung cancer and detection of the post-operative tumor recurrence and metastasis, treatment options, and evaluation of curative effects. In this research study, various lung cancer cells were mixed with adult blood samples to simulate blood samples of tumor patients. With novel test methods, CTCs in peripheral blood of lung cancer patients were calculated, after the reaction between the cells obtained from the mix and EpCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) antibodies which were marked by immunomagnetic beads. The results showed that 18 out of 42 (42.9%) lung cancer patients had a positive CTCs, which increased with tumor enlargement or metastasis. CTCs were not detected in a total of 20 blood samples from healthy volunteers. This indicated that the technology of novel immunomagnetic bead-enrichment could effectively separate and identify CTCs in peripheral blood of lung cancer patients, which is of great clinical value for prognostic assessments and treatment guidance of lung cancer. PMID:25682839

  9. Modeling blood flow circulation in intracranial arterial networks: a comparative 3D/1D simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, L; Cheever, E; Anor, T; Madsen, J R; Karniadakis, G E

    2011-01-01

    We compare results from numerical simulations of pulsatile blood flow in two patient-specific intracranial arterial networks using one-dimensional (1D) and three-dimensional (3D) models. Specifically, we focus on the pressure and flowrate distribution at different segments of the network computed by the two models. Results obtained with 1D and 3D models with rigid walls show good agreement in massflow distribution at tens of arterial junctions and also in pressure drop along the arteries. The 3D simulations with the rigid walls predict higher amplitude of the flowrate and pressure temporal oscillations than the 1D simulations with compliant walls at various segments even for small time-variations in the arterial cross-sectional areas. Sensitivity of the flow and pressure with respect to variation in the elasticity parameters is investigated with the 1D model. PMID:20661645

  10. Determination of the volume of circulating blood by means of in vivo labelled red blood cells with 99mTc pertechnetate and use of a Bulgarian kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was proposed for determination of the circulating blood volume (CBV) by means of in vivo labelled red blood cells, which was compared to the routine method with 51Cr-sodium chromate. To the patients concecutively was given 1 g of potassium perchlorate (for blocking of the organs, which actively absorbed the perchnetate ion) and 500 mkg of tin pyrophosphate (Bulgarian kit) with subsequent labelling of the red blood cells with 99mTc-pertechnate (1,8 - 3,7 MBq). The volume of the red blood cells, and hence also CBV, was measured with the use of a modified by the authors formula, in which correction for the individual effectiveness of the cell labelling was done. In comparison with the standard method for in vitro labelling of the red blood cells with 51Cr sodium chromate, the method proposed gave an insignificant difference of 4,16%, but when compared to the commercial tin pyrophosphate (of the firm Mallinckrot - Holland), the Bulgarian kit displayed equivalent qualities. It was concluded that the method has a high accuracy and was easy for execution, cause a low radiation burden of the patient and is suitable for application in nuclear cardiology and radionuclide angiography

  11. Residual circulation trajectories and transit times into the extratropical lowermost stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Birner

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Transport into the extratropical lowermost stratosphere (LMS can be divided into a slow part (time-scale of several months to years associated with the global-scale stratospheric residual circulation and a fast part (time-scale of days to a few months associated with (mostly quasi-horizontal mixing (i.e. two-way irreversible transport, including stratosphere-troposphere exchange. The stratospheric residual circulation can be considered to consist of two branches: a deep branch more strongly associated with planetary waves breaking in the middle to upper stratosphere, and a shallow branch more strongly associated with synoptic-scale waves breaking in the subtropical lower stratosphere. In this study the contribution due to the stratospheric residual circulation alone to transport into the LMS is quantified using residual circulation trajectories, i.e. trajectories driven by the (time-dependent residual mean meridional and vertical velocities. This contribution represents the advective part of the overall transport into the LMS and can be viewed as providing a background onto which the effect of mixing has to be added. Residual mean velocities are obtained from a comprehensive chemistry-climate model as well as from reanalysis data. Transit times of air traveling from the tropical tropopause to the LMS along the residual circulation streamfunction are evaluated and compared to recent mean age of air estimates. A clear time-scale separation with much smaller transit times into the mid-latitudinal LMS than into polar LMS is found that is indicative of a clear separation of the shallow from the deep branch of the residual circulation. This separation between the shallow and the deep circulation branch is further manifested in a clear distinction in the aspect ratio of the vertical to meridional extent of the trajectories as well as the integrated mass flux along the residual circulation trajectories. The residual transit time distribution reproduces

  12. Residual circulation trajectories and transit times into the extratropical lowermost stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Birner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport into the extratropical lowermost stratosphere (LMS can be divided into a slow part (time-scale of several months to years associated with the global-scale stratospheric residual circulation and a fast part (time-scale of days to a few months associated with (mostly quasi-horizontal mixing (i.e. two-way irreversible transport, including extratropical stratosphere-troposphere exchange. The stratospheric residual circulation may be considered to consist of two branches: a deep branch more strongly associated with planetary waves breaking in the middle to upper stratosphere, and a shallow branch associated with synoptic and planetary scale waves breaking in the subtropical lower stratosphere. In this study the contribution due to the stratospheric residual circulation alone to transport into the LMS is quantified using residual circulation trajectories, i.e. trajectories driven by the (time-dependent residual mean meridional and vertical velocities. This contribution represents the advective part of the overall transport into the LMS and can be viewed as providing a background onto which the effect of mixing has to be added. Residual mean velocities are obtained from a comprehensive chemistry-climate model as well as from reanalysis data. Transit times of air traveling from the tropical tropopause to the LMS along the residual circulation streamfunction are evaluated and compared to recent mean age of air estimates. A time-scale separation with much smaller transit times into the mid-latitudinal LMS than into polar LMS is found that is indicative of a separation of the shallow from the deep branch of the residual circulation. This separation between the shallow and the deep circulation branch is further manifested in a distinction in the aspect ratio of the vertical to meridional extent of the trajectories, the integrated mass flux along the residual circulation trajectories, as well as the stratospheric entry latitude of the trajectories

  13. Influence of Molecular Structure on O2-Binding Properties and Blood Circulation of Hemoglobin‒Albumin Clusters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Yamada

    Full Text Available A hemoglobin wrapped covalently by three human serum albumins, a Hb-HSA3 cluster, is an artificial O2-carrier with the potential to function as a red blood cell substitute. This paper describes the synthesis and O2-binding properties of new hemoglobin‒albumin clusters (i bearing four HSA units at the periphery (Hb-HSA4, large-size variant and (ii containing an intramolecularly crosslinked Hb in the center (XLHb-HSA3, high O2-affinity variant. Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the Hb-HSA4 diameter is greater than that of either Hb-HSA3 or XLHb-HSA3. The XLHb-HSA3 showed moderately high O2-affinity compared to the others because of the chemical linkage between the Cys-93(β residues in Hb. Furthermore, the blood circulation behavior of 125I-labeled clusters was investigated by assay of blood retention and tissue distribution after intravenous administration into anesthetized rats. The XLHb-HSA3 was metabolized faster than Hb-HSA3 and Hb-HSA4. Results suggest that the molecular structure of the protein cluster is a factor that can influence in vivo circulation behavior.

  14. Influence of Molecular Structure on O2-Binding Properties and Blood Circulation of Hemoglobin‒Albumin Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kana; Yokomaku, Kyoko; Haruki, Risa; Taguchi, Kazuaki; Nagao, Saori; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki; Komatsu, Teruyuki

    2016-01-01

    A hemoglobin wrapped covalently by three human serum albumins, a Hb-HSA3 cluster, is an artificial O2-carrier with the potential to function as a red blood cell substitute. This paper describes the synthesis and O2-binding properties of new hemoglobin‒albumin clusters (i) bearing four HSA units at the periphery (Hb-HSA4, large-size variant) and (ii) containing an intramolecularly crosslinked Hb in the center (XLHb-HSA3, high O2-affinity variant). Dynamic light scattering measurements revealed that the Hb-HSA4 diameter is greater than that of either Hb-HSA3 or XLHb-HSA3. The XLHb-HSA3 showed moderately high O2-affinity compared to the others because of the chemical linkage between the Cys-93(β) residues in Hb. Furthermore, the blood circulation behavior of 125I-labeled clusters was investigated by assay of blood retention and tissue distribution after intravenous administration into anesthetized rats. The XLHb-HSA3 was metabolized faster than Hb-HSA3 and Hb-HSA4. Results suggest that the molecular structure of the protein cluster is a factor that can influence in vivo circulation behavior. PMID:26895315

  15. Computed tomography perfusion imaging may predict cognitive impairment in patients with first-time anterior circulation transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Li, Yunming; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Jian; Wang, Zhiqiang; Duan, Dan; Li, Yuxia; Wang, Qingsong

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether computed tomography perfusion imaging (CTPI)-derived parameters are associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) in patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Patients with first-time anterior circulation TIA (diagnosed within 24 h of onset) and normal cognition, treated between August 2009 and August 2014 at the Department of Neurology of Chengdu Military General Hospital, China, were analyzed retrospectively. Patients underwent whole-brain CTPI within 1 week of TIA to detect cerebral blood volume (CBV), cerebral blood flow (CBF), mean transit time (MTT) and time to peak (TTP) in the ischemic region. Based on cognitive function assessment 4 weeks after TIA, using the Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) and mini mental state examination, the patients were divided into control and VCI groups. CTPI parameters and other clinical data were compared between groups, and Spearman's correlation analysis used to identify associations between cognitive scores and CTPI parameters in the VCI group. 50 patients (25 per group; aged 55-72 years) were included. Patient age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption, educational level, time from TIA onset to admission, time from TIA onset to CTPI, and prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation and hyperhomocysteinemia did not differ between groups. Both groups showed TTP and MTT prolongation, CBF reduction, but no change in CBV in the ischemic region; these changes were significantly larger in the VCI group (P < 0.05). MTT correlated negatively with MoCA score (r = -0.51, P = 0.009). CTPI could facilitate early diagnosis of VCI in patients with anterior circulation TIA. PMID:26721459

  16. An elapsed time-temperature monitor for blood storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, G E; Cloud, S; Myhre, B A

    1977-01-01

    Blood should not be allowed to exceed 10 C while being stored or transported. However, one cannot test the internal temperature of a unit of blood without contaminating it. Most blood banks have established an arbitrary time limit beyond which a blood unit cannot be kept out of the refrigerator. This method is ineffective if blood is stored in a satellite refrigerator, since the blood may be moved in and out of the refrigerator and the blood bank personnel will be unaware of it. An elapsed time indicator is described which employs a small condenser (E-Cell-Plessey Electronics) charged with a known amount of electricity. If the device is removed from the refrigerator, it begins to discharge at a known rate. The amount of time subsequently can be determined by the loss of charge. The prototype of this instrument has been found to be quite accurate and small (2 inches X 2 inches X 1 inch). It would be rather inexpensive if made in considerable numbers. PMID:867474

  17. Clinical Observation in 45 Cases of Hemorrhagic Apoplexy of the Acute Stage Treated by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙国柱

    2003-01-01

    To explore the therapeutic effects of the method of promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis on hemorrhagic apoplexy of acute stage, 45 cases were treated by the method and observed for their conscious state and motor function, which were compared with 40 cases treated with regular western drugs. The results showed that the effective rate in the treated group was 82.2% and that in control group 60% with a significant difference (P<0.05) between the two groups. In the treated group, the scores of the conscious state and the motor function after treatment were elevated dramatically (P<0.01), indicating a much better effect in the treated group than in the control group.

  18. Thrombolysis in anterior versus posterior circulation strokes: timing of recanalization, ischemic tolerance, and other differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagola, Jorge; Ribo, Marc; Alvarez-Sabin, José; Rubiera, Marta; Santamarina, Estevo; Maisterra, Olga; Delgado-Mederos, Raquel; Ortega, Gemma; Quintana, Manuel; Molina, Carlos A

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies have suggested a greater ischemic tolerance in posterior circulation as compared to anterior cerebral circulation. We aimed to investigate whether a differential response exists between anterior and posterior circulation strokes. Two hundred and four middle cerebral artery (MCA) patients and 28 basilar artery occlusion (BAO) patients treated with intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator were included. Transcranial Doppler assessed recanalization at different time points. Patients were divided in three groups: total time of ischemia (TTI)24 hours. We calculated the percentage of recovery (admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS]- discharge NIHSS/admission NIHSS)×100. Mean time to treatment was longer in BAO patients (P=.031). Early recanalization was more frequent among MCA occlusions (41% vs 29%; P=.039); the rate of persisting occlusion at 24 hours was similar (P=.933). Clinical recovery according to TTI was similar in each group: 24 hours: BAO -44%/MCA 11% (P=.23). For each hour of ischemia MCA patients worsened 1.78% (P=.035) and BAO 1.76% (P=.421). MCA occlusions compared to BAO were independently associated with hemorrhagic transformation (OR: 8.2; P=.043). Our data do not support the theory of increased ischemic tolerance in posterior circulation. Despite longer time-to-treatment, BAO were more resistant to hemorrhagic transformations. PMID:20040010

  19. Negative enrichment by immunomagnetic nanobeads for unbiased characterization of circulating tumor cells from peripheral blood of cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinhofer Ingeborg

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A limitation of positive selection strategies to enrich for circulating tumor cells (CTCs is that there might be CTCs with insufficient expression of the surface target marker which may be missed by the procedure. We optimized a method for enrichment, subsequent detection and characterization of CTCs based on depletion of the leukocyte fraction. Methods The 2-step protocol was developed for processing 20 mL blood and based on red blood cell lysis followed by leukocyte depletion. The remaining material was stained with the epithelial markers EpCAM and cytokeratin (CK 7/8 or for the melanoma marker HMW-MAA/MCSP. CTCs were detected by flow cytometry. CTCs enriched from blood of patients with carcinoma were defined as EpCAM+CK+CD45-. CTCs enriched from blood of patients with melanoma were defined as MCSP+CD45-. One-hundred-sixteen consecutive blood samples from 70 patients with metastatic carcinomas (n = 48 or metastatic melanoma (n = 22 were analyzed. Results CTCs were detected in 47 of 84 blood samples (56% drawn from carcinoma patients, and in 17 of 32 samples (53% from melanoma patients. CD45-EpCAM-CK+ was detected in pleural effusion specimens, as well as in peripheral blood samples of patients with NSCLC. EpCAM-CK+ cells have been successfully cultured and passaged longer than six months suggesting their neoplastic origin. This was confirmed by CGH. By defining CTCs in carcinoma patients as CD45-CK+ and/or EpCAM+, the detection rate increased to 73% (61/84. Conclusion Enriching CTCs using CD45 depletion allowed for detection of epithelial cancer cells not displaying the classical phenotype. This potentially leads to a more accurate estimation of the number of CTCs. If detection of CTCs without a classical epithelial phenotype has clinical relevance need to be determined.

  20. [Blood circulation and the trinity. Medical antitrinitarians Michael Servet (1511-1553) and Giorgio Biandrata (1515-1588)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröer, Ralf

    2006-03-01

    This paper centers on the relationship between renaissance medicine and antitrinitarianism forming an important part of the radical reformation in 16th century. Antitrinitarians denied the theological concept of the triune Christian God. Modern antitriniarianism was first formulated by Michael Servetus, a Spanish physician. The doctrine soon won disciples in northern Italy (Padua, Pisa, Rome) and in some countries of eastern central Europe (Poland, Moravia, Transylvania). Physicians who believed in or sympathized with antitrinitarianism revolutionized the theory of blood flow. They developed new concepts leading to Harvey's theory of the circulation of the blood. Parts of Servet's theory looked like Paracelsus's mystical idea of the eternal flesh of the body of Christ (Latin limbus aeternus), but later the medicine and natural philosophy of antitrinitarian physicians tended to be empiristic, rational and sometimes materialistic. They contributed heavily to the diffusion and physiological foundation of antitrinitarian concepts like unitarianism, tolerance and irenism. PMID:17146958

  1. Macrophage-dependent clearance of systemically administered B16BL6-derived exosomes from the blood circulation in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Imai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies using B16BL6-derived exosomes labelled with gLuc–lactadherin (gLuc-LA, a fusion protein of Gaussia luciferase (a reporter protein and lactadherin (an exosome-tropic protein, showed that the exosomes quickly disappeared from the systemic circulation after intravenous injection in mice. In the present study, the mechanism of rapid clearance of intravenously injected B16BL6 exosomes was investigated. gLuc-LA-labelled exosomes were obtained from supernatant of B16BL6 cells after transfection with a plasmid DNA encoding gLuc-LA. Labelling was stable when the exosomes were incubated in serum. By using B16BL6 exosomes labelled with PKH26, a lipophilic fluorescent dye, it was demonstrated that PKH26-labelled B16BL6 exosomes were taken up by macrophages in the liver and spleen but not in the lung, while PKH26-labelled exosomes were taken up by the endothelial cells in the lung. Subsequently, gLuc-LA-labelled B16BL6 exosomes were injected into macrophage-depleted mice prepared by injection with clodronate-containing liposomes. The clearance of the intravenously injected B16BL6 exosomes from the blood circulation was much slower in macrophage-depleted mice than that in untreated mice. These results indicate that macrophages play important roles in the clearance of intravenously injected B16BL6 exosomes from the systemic circulation.

  2. Exploring Secondary Students' Epistemological Features Depending on the Evaluation Levels of the Group Model on Blood Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinyoung; Kim, Heui-Baik

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the epistemological features and model qualities depending on model evaluation levels and to explore the reasoning process behind high-level evaluation through small group interaction about blood circulation. Nine groups of three to four students in the eighth grade participated in the modeling practice. Their group models, which were represented by discourse and blood circulation diagrams, were analyzed for the development of the framework that informed the model evaluation levels and epistemological features. The model evaluation levels were categorized into levels one to four based on the following evaluation criteria: no evaluation, authoritative sources, superficial criteria, and more comprehensive criteria. The qualities of group models varied with the criteria of model evaluation. While students who used authoritative sources for evaluating the group model appeared to have an absolutist epistemology, students who evaluated according to the superficial criteria and more comprehensive criteria appeared to have an evaluative epistemology. Furthermore, groups with Level four showed a chain reaction of cognitive reasoning during the modeling practice concerning practical epistemology. The findings have implications for science teachers and education researchers who want to understand the context for developing students' practical epistemologies.

  3. Changes of blood circulation of the extremity after external fixation for tibia shaft defect: an experimental study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare two approaches, end to endcompression with lengthening (EECL) and segmental bone transport by lengthening (STBL), for long tubular bone defect and nonunion.Methods: Ten goats were used to establish the bone defect model of the mid-tibia. The bone defect ends were shortened step by step with a sulcated half-ring external fixator. Changes of the blood flow of the distal extremity were measured with pulse-Doppler monitor and angiography.Results: The blood flow in the distal extremity was not affected when bone defect was less than 15% of the original length. Blood circulatory disorder would appear in the distal extremity when bone defect ranged 15%-20% of the original length. The necrosis would appear in the extremity because of the blood circulatory obstacle when bone defect was more than 20% of the original length.Conclusions: EECL is an appropriate alternative of treatments if bone defect is less than 15%; while SBTL may be feasible if bone defect is over 20% of the original length. When bone defect ranges between 15% and 20%, EECL should be applied with great care on condition of keeping watch on the extremity circulation with pulse-Doppler monitor.

  4. Decreased time constant of the pulmonary circulation in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenzie Ross, Robert V.; Toshner, Mark R.; Soon, Elaine; Naeije, Robert; Pepke-Zaba, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary arterial compliance (Ca) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and proximal chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). It has recently been shown that the time constant of the pulmonary circulation (RC time constant), or PVR × Ca, remains unaltered in various forms and severities of pulmonary hypertension, with the exception of left heart failure. We reasoned...

  5. V1a vasopressin receptors maintain normal blood pressure by regulating circulating blood volume and baroreflex sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Koshimizu, Taka-aki; Nasa, Yoshihisa; Tanoue, Akito; Oikawa, Ryo; Kawahara, Yuji; Kiyono, Yasushi; ADACHI, TETSUYA; Tanaka, Toshiki; Kuwaki, Tomoyuki; Mori, Toyoki; Takeo, Satoshi; Okamura, Hitoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2006-01-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is a hormone that is essential for both osmotic and cardiovascular homeostasis, and exerts important physiological regulation through three distinct receptors, V1a, V1b, and V2. Although AVP is used clinically as a potent vasoconstrictor (V1a receptor-mediated) in patients with circulatory shock, the physiological role of vasopressin V1a receptors in blood pressure (BP) homeostasis is ill-defined. In this study, we investigated the functional roles of the V1a recept...

  6. Time course for the recovery of physical performance, blood hemoglobin, and ferritin content after blood donation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegler, Andreas K; Grand, Johannes; Stangerup, Ida;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that blood donation negatively affects endurance performance, but data on physical recovery after a standard blood donation are scarce. This study aimed to elucidate the temporary impact of blood donation on endurance performance, measured as peak oxygen uptake (VO......2peak ) and time trial (TT) performance. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: VO2peak , TT performance, blood, iron, and anthropometric variables were determined before (baseline) and 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after blood donation in 19 healthy men. RESULTS: VO2peak was reduced by 6.5% from 49.7 ± 2 mL/kg/min at...... baseline to 46.3 ± 2 mL/kg/min on Day 3 (p < 0.001), and TT performance was reduced by 5.2% from 13:31 ± 00:42 to 14:13 ± 00:50 min:sec (p < 0.001). Both VO2peak and TT performance were back to baseline 14 days after blood donation. Blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration declined 7.9% from 9.3 ± 0.11 mmol...

  7. Biochemical assessment of growth factors and circulation of blood components contained in the different fractions obtained by centrifugation of venous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corigiano, M; Ciobanu, G; Baldoni, E; Pompa, G

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a biochemical marker with different elements of a normal blood serum and centrifuged blood serum after a different rotation system. For this technique, we used five fractions of a blood Concentrated Growth Factors system (bCGF) and a particular device for the different rotation program. Blood samples were collected from 10 volunteers aged between 35 and 55 in the Operative Unit of the “Sapienza” University of Rome with only a fraction of different biochemical elements. Through an individual blood phase separator tube of venous blood, active factions of serum and 4 fractions of red buffy coat were taken. The biochemical markers with 14 elements were examined at times: P1-11 minutes, P2-12minutes, P3-15 minutes. Exclusively biological materials which are normally applied in the regeneration techniques for different defects and lesions were used with this technique. After specific rotation programs, a different result was obtained for each cycle: P1, P2, P3. In test tubes obtained by separated blood, we observed a higher concentration of proteins, ions, and other antigens compared to normal blood plasma. Examining the biochemical results of different elements, we observed an increase (P≤0,01). Since each person’s DNA is different, we could not have the same results in 5 fractions of blood concentration, we did, however, find a good increase in only a fraction of proteins, immunoglobulin and different ions. We obtained five fractions after centrifugation, and we had an increase in different biochemical elements compared to normal blood (P≤0,01) which is significant at different times. These biochemical elements were stimulated by different growth factors, which are used by the immune system, and they induced the formation of hard and soft tissues and good regeneration. PMID:25001662

  8. Photoacoustic monitoring of real time blood and hemolymph sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, A.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Gutíerrez-Juárez, G.; Vargas-Luna, M.

    2003-01-01

    The dynamics of blood and hemolymph sedimentation is studied in real time using the photoacoustic technique. A modified configuration of a conventional photoacoustic cell is used, where the advantage of this methodology is that the sample is not illuminated directly and that the process can be monitored through the measurement of the thermal contact between a reference material and the blood. It is demonstrated that during the process the thermal effusivity decreases at the region of contact between the sample and the reference materials. The usefulness of these results in real time monitoring using photothermal techniques is discussed.

  9. FLAIR vascular hyperintensities and dynamic 4D angiograms for the estimation of collateral blood flow in posterior circulation occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of this paper are to assess collateral blood flow in posterior circulation occlusion by MRI-based approaches (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensities (FVHs), collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms) and investigate its relation to ischemic lesion size and growth. In 28 patients with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and 10 patients with basilar artery (BA) occlusion, MRI findings were analyzed, with emphasis on distal FVH and collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms. In PCA occlusion, distal FVH was observed in 18/29 (62.1 %), in BA occlusion, in 8/10 (80 %) cases. Collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms was graded 1 in 8 (27.6 %) patients, 2 in 1 (3.4 %) patient, 3 in 12 (41.4 %) patients, and 4 in 8 (27.6 %) patients with PCA occlusion and 0 in 1 (10 %) patient, 2 in 3 (30 %) patients, 3 in 1 (10 %) patient, and 4 in 5 (50 %) patients with BA occlusion. FVH grade showed neither correlation with initial or follow-up diffusion-weighted image (DWI) lesion size nor DWI-perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) mismatch ratio. Collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms correlated inversely with initial DWI lesion size and moderately with the DWI-(PWI) mismatch ratio. The combination of distal FVH and collateralization grade on dynamic 4D angiograms correlated inversely with initial as well as follow-up DWI lesion size and highly with the DWI-PWI mismatch ratio. In posterior circulation occlusion, FVH is a frequent finding, but its prognostic value is limited. Dynamic 4D angiograms are advantageous to examine and graduate collateral blood flow. The combination of both parameters results in an improved characterization of collateral blood flow and might have prognostic relevance. (orig.)

  10. FLAIR vascular hyperintensities and dynamic 4D angiograms for the estimation of collateral blood flow in posterior circulation occlusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foerster, Alex; Wenz, Holger; Kerl, Hans Ulrich; Al-Zghloul, Mansour; Habich, Sonia; Groden, Christoph [University of Heidelberg, Department of Neuroradiology, Universitaetsmedizin Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany)

    2014-09-15

    The objectives of this paper are to assess collateral blood flow in posterior circulation occlusion by MRI-based approaches (fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensities (FVHs), collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms) and investigate its relation to ischemic lesion size and growth. In 28 patients with posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and 10 patients with basilar artery (BA) occlusion, MRI findings were analyzed, with emphasis on distal FVH and collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms. In PCA occlusion, distal FVH was observed in 18/29 (62.1 %), in BA occlusion, in 8/10 (80 %) cases. Collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms was graded 1 in 8 (27.6 %) patients, 2 in 1 (3.4 %) patient, 3 in 12 (41.4 %) patients, and 4 in 8 (27.6 %) patients with PCA occlusion and 0 in 1 (10 %) patient, 2 in 3 (30 %) patients, 3 in 1 (10 %) patient, and 4 in 5 (50 %) patients with BA occlusion. FVH grade showed neither correlation with initial or follow-up diffusion-weighted image (DWI) lesion size nor DWI-perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) mismatch ratio. Collateralization on dynamic 4D angiograms correlated inversely with initial DWI lesion size and moderately with the DWI-(PWI) mismatch ratio. The combination of distal FVH and collateralization grade on dynamic 4D angiograms correlated inversely with initial as well as follow-up DWI lesion size and highly with the DWI-PWI mismatch ratio. In posterior circulation occlusion, FVH is a frequent finding, but its prognostic value is limited. Dynamic 4D angiograms are advantageous to examine and graduate collateral blood flow. The combination of both parameters results in an improved characterization of collateral blood flow and might have prognostic relevance. (orig.)

  11. The effect of chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure in normal and chronic restraint stressed rats: related with circulating level of blood pressure regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayada, Ceylan; Turgut, Günfer; Turgut, Sebahat; Güçlü, Zuhal

    2015-01-01

    Nesfatin is a peptide secreted by peripheral tissues, central and peripheral nervous system. It is involved in the regulation of homeostasis. Although the effects of nesfatin-1 on nutrition have been studied widely in the literature, the mechanisms of nesfatin-1 action and also relations with other physiological parameters are still not clarified well. We aimed to investigate the effect of peripheral chronic nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure regulation in normal and in rats exposed to restraint immobilization stress. In our study, three month-old male Wistar rats were used. Rats were divided into 4 groups as Control, Stress, Control+Nesfatin-1, Nesfatin-1+Stress. Angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone, cortisol, nesfatin-1 levels were determined in plasma samples by ELISA. Our results have shown that chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration increases blood pressure in normal and in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress. Effect of nesfatin-1 on circulating level of angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. We can conclude that elevated high blood pressure after chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress may be related to decreased plasma level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase concentration. PMID:25504061

  12. Innovative Strategy in Treating Angina Pectoris with Chinese Patent Medicines by Promoting Blood Circulation and Removing Blood Stasis: Experience from Combination Therapy in Chinese Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Moreover, angina pectoris is one of the most important types of CHD. Therefore, prevention and effective treatment of angina pectoris is of utmost importance in both China and western countries. However, undesirable effects of antianginal therapy do influence treatment adherence to a certain extent. Therefore, it's not surprising that, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), including Chinese medicine (CM), are widely welcomed among patients with CHD, hoping that it might complement western medicine. In our previous studies, blood stasis syndrome (BSS) (Xueyu Zheng) was the main syndrome (Zheng-hou) of angina pectoris. Currently, China Food and Drug Administration authoritatively recommended more than 200 Chinese patent medicines (CPMs) as complementary or adjunctive therapies for symptom management and enhancing quality of life along with mainstream care on angina pectoris management in mainland China. This paper reviewed 4 kinds of most frequently-used CPMs by promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis in the treatment of angina pectoris. It aims to evaluate the current evidence of CPMs in combination therapy for angina pectoris. This review indicated that CPMs as adjunctive treatment to routine antianginal therapy play an active role in reducing the incidence of primary endpoint events, decreasing anginal attack rate, and improving electrocardiogram. Additionally, CPMs have been proven relatively safe. Further rigorously designed clinical trials should be conducted to confirm the results. PMID:25360837

  13. Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa) in the circulating blood of Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Characidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Patricia Oliveira; Affonso, Elizabeth Gusmão; Boijink, Cheila de Lima; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Inoue, Luis Antonio Kioshi Aoki

    2011-01-01

    Myxosporea parasitize many organs in fresh and saltwater fish. Species of the genus Myxobolus parasitizing the gills and other organs of the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum have been described. In the present study, blood smears were made from juvenile tambaqui and were stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa-Wright in order to identify myxozoan parasites. Out of a total of 36 fish examined, one specimen (2.7%) that was reared in a cage presented spores that were identified as M. colossomatis, whereas fish kept in 250 L tanks showed prevalence of 5.5%. This is the first report of M. colossomatis in the blood of farmed tambaqui in the Amazon region. These results indicate that myxozoan parasites should also be investigated in fish blood smears. Some myxosporean species may cause diseases in fish, and these species need to be identified so that adequate preventive sanitary control can be instituted. PMID:21439240

  14. Analysis on Mechanisms of Activating Blood Circulation and Compatible Regularity of Cinnamon Twig%桂枝活血机理及配伍规律探析*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐慕鸽; 魏凯峰(通讯作者)

    2013-01-01

    阐述了桂枝功能与活血的关系,以及相关的配伍。认为桂枝的活血功效是通过调节机体血、气、水发挥,根据证候配伍活血药、养血药、温里药、理气药、补气药而在临床灵活使用。%This paper states the function of activating blood circulation in Cinnamon Twig, as well as the compatible regularity. The function on activating blood circulation of Cinnamon Twig is resulted from regulating body's blood, Qi and fluid. We should use it flexibly according to rational combination with blood-activating drugs, blood-enriching drugs and Qi-tonifying drugs in clinical practice.

  15. Real time blood testing using quantitative phase imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Hoa V; Bhaduri, Basanta; Tangella, Krishnarao; Best-Popescu, Catherine; Popescu, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a real-time blood testing system that can provide remote diagnosis with minimal human intervention in economically challenged areas. Our instrument combines novel advances in label-free optical imaging with parallel computing. Specifically, we use quantitative phase imaging for extracting red blood cell morphology with nanoscale sensitivity and NVIDIA's CUDA programming language to perform real time cellular-level analysis. While the blood smear is translated through focus, our system is able to segment and analyze all the cells in the one megapixel field of view, at a rate of 40 frames/s. The variety of diagnostic parameters measured from each cell (e.g., surface area, sphericity, and minimum cylindrical diameter) are currently not available with current state of the art clinical instruments. In addition, we show that our instrument correctly recovers the red blood cell volume distribution, as evidenced by the excellent agreement with the cell counter results obtained on normal patients and those with microcytic and macrocytic anemia. The final data outputted by our instrument represent arrays of numbers associated with these morphological parameters and not images. Thus, the memory necessary to store these data is of the order of kilobytes, which allows for their remote transmission via, for example, the cellular network. We envision that such a system will dramatically increase access for blood testing and furthermore, may pave the way to digital hematology. PMID:23405194

  16. Dynamics of indicators of a metabolic exchange and condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities after traction extension at patients with lumbar and sacral dorsopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotenko К.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study influence of traction therapy in a pulse mode in a complex with electrotherapy on a condition of blood circulation of the bottom extremities and level of a metabolic exchange. Material and methods. There had been examined 120 patients with a lumbar and sacral dorsopathy aged from 22 to 69 years (middle age of 49,5 years with prescription of a disease from 1 to 5 years, among them men of 34,2%, women of 65,8%. Results. The analysis of effects of various medical methods on a condition of local blood circulation in the bottom extremities showed that the most expressed its compensation is noted at complex application of mechanical pulse traction influence and electrotherapy for patients with a dorsopathy of lumbar and sacral department of a backbone that is confirmed by restoration to normal values of all indicators rheovasogramm. Conclusion. High clinical results of application of the combined medical and rehabilitation complex are based on compensation of local blood circulation that is shown in elimination of deficiency of blood supply due to improvement of a tone of arterial vessels and elimination of venous stagnation, and also due to increase of linear speed of a blood-groove and development of collateral blood circulation. Application of electrical impulse and mechanical traction influences, more at their combination promotes fermentative activity of the systems responsible for a protein exchange that is important for prevention of degenerate and dystrophic process progressing.

  17. On the formulation of pH-sensitive liposomes with long circulation times

    OpenAIRE

    Simões, Sérgio; Moreira, João Nuno; Fonseca, Cristina; Düzgünes, Nejat; Pedroso de Lima, Maria C

    2004-01-01

    Strategies used to enhance liposome-mediated drug delivery in vivo include the enhancement of stability and circulation time in the bloodstream, targeting to specific tissues or cells, and facilitation of intracytoplasmic delivery. pH-sensitive liposomes have been developed to mediate the introduction of highly hydrophilic molecules or macromolecules into the cytoplasm. These liposomes destabilize under acidic conditions found in the endocytotic pathway, and usually contain phosphatidylethano...

  18. Systematic review and meta-analysis of circulating S100B blood levels in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina Aleksovska

    Full Text Available S100B is a calcium-binding protein secreted in central nervous system from astrocytes and other glia cells. High blood S100B levels have been linked to brain damage and psychiatric disorders. S100B levels have been reported to be higher in schizophrenics than healthy controls. To quantify the relationship between S100B blood levels and schizophrenia a systematic literature review of case-control studies published on this topic within July 3rd 2014 was carried out using three bibliographic databases: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Studies reporting mean and standard deviation of S100B blood levels both in cases and controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-Mean Ratio (mMR of S100B blood levels in cases compared to controls was used as a measure of effect along with its 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. 20 studies were included totaling for 994 cases and 785 controls. Schizophrenia patients showed 76% higher S100B blood levels than controls with mMR = 1.76 95% CI: 1.44-2.15. No difference could be found between drug-free patients with mMR = 1.84 95%CI: 1.24-2.74 and patients on antipsychotic medication with mMR = 1.75 95% CI: 1.41-2.16. Similarly, ethnicity and stage of disease didn't affect results. Although S100B could be regarded as a possible biomarker of schizophrenia, limitations should be accounted when interpreting results, especially because of the high heterogeneity that remained >70%, even after carrying out subgroups analyses. These results point out that approaches based on traditional categorical diagnoses may be too restrictive and new approaches based on the characterization of new complex phenotypes should be considered.

  19. Lung Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Karthik; Shimoda, Larissa A

    2016-01-01

    The circulation of the lung is unique both in volume and function. For example, it is the only organ with two circulations: the pulmonary circulation, the main function of which is gas exchange, and the bronchial circulation, a systemic vascular supply that provides oxygenated blood to the walls of the conducting airways, pulmonary arteries and veins. The pulmonary circulation accommodates the entire cardiac output, maintaining high blood flow at low intravascular arterial pressure. As compared with the systemic circulation, pulmonary arteries have thinner walls with much less vascular smooth muscle and a relative lack of basal tone. Factors controlling pulmonary blood flow include vascular structure, gravity, mechanical effects of breathing, and the influence of neural and humoral factors. Pulmonary vascular tone is also altered by hypoxia, which causes pulmonary vasoconstriction. If the hypoxic stimulus persists for a prolonged period, contraction is accompanied by remodeling of the vasculature, resulting in pulmonary hypertension. In addition, genetic and environmental factors can also confer susceptibility to development of pulmonary hypertension. Under normal conditions, the endothelium forms a tight barrier, actively regulating interstitial fluid homeostasis. Infection and inflammation compromise normal barrier homeostasis, resulting in increased permeability and edema formation. This article focuses on reviewing the basics of the lung circulation (pulmonary and bronchial), normal development and transition at birth and vasoregulation. Mechanisms contributing to pathological conditions in the pulmonary circulation, in particular when barrier function is disrupted and during development of pulmonary hypertension, will also be discussed. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:897-943, 2016. PMID:27065170

  20. Numerical model of circulation and residence times in the Persian Gulf

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donncha, Fearghal; Ragnoli, Emanuele

    2014-05-01

    The Persian Gulf is a semi-enclosed, marginal sea that is exposed to arid, subtropical climate. As a consequence of the extreme climate, evaporation is greater than freshwater inflow resulting in a net loss of water and associated, reverse flow, estuarine circulation as the highly saline waters exit the basin through the Straits of Hormuz, into the Gulf of Oman. Because of their consistent direction, these density currents are central in the distribution and removal of pollutants from the gulf. Tidal forcing impacts circulation in the region, particularly on smaller scales of length and time. Wind forcing can be significant, particularly the Shamal weather phenomenon; wind that sets in with great abruptness and force, and is related to synoptic weather systems to the Northwest. Output from high resolution (~1km) numerical simulations, using NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean), provide insight into the physical oceanography of the region. The model was forced by 0.75° European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric data and tidal constituents extracted from the Oregon State University Tidal Prediction Software (OTPS/TPXO). Model results permit a detailed examination of the three primary forcing processes, namely: tidal forces, wind forces, and density differences. To assess fundamental model performance, results are compared with two historical observation datasets: (1) a comprehensive dataset of velocity and CTD measurements collected by Reynolds (1993) and (2) time series measurements recorded in the Strait of Hormuz from December 1996 to March 1998 by Johns et al. (2003). Model results exhibit close agreement to field values validating the model for a more detailed analysis of circulations patterns within the gulf. To better elucidate the dominant forcing processes, classical tidal analysis decomposed the flow currents by fitting the flow profile to a finite set of sinusoids at specific frequencies related to astronomical

  1. Measurement of regional hepatic blood flow and scintigraphic imaging of portal circulation with /sup 133/Xe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroiss, A. (Krankenanstalt der Stadt Wien Rudolfstiftung (Austria) 1. Medizinische Abt.)

    1980-01-01

    Regional hepatic blood flow has been determined by 4 methods with the aid of /sup 133/Xe washout technique: 1. scintisplenoportography (direct application of /sup 133/Xe into the spleen by means of a thin needle); 2. arterial method (/sup 133/Xe is injected into the A. hepatica by means of a catheter); 3. retrograde-venous method (/sup 133/Xe administered by an occluding hepatic vein catheter); 4. percutaneous intrahepatic method (/sup 133/Xe administered directly into the parenchyma by means of a Chiba needle). It was possible to demonstrate that hepatic blood flow values established with the aid of /sup 133/Xe are independent of the form of application (scintisplenoportography, arterial method, retrograde-venous method).

  2. Higher blood flow and circulating NO products offset high-altitude hypoxia among Tibetans

    OpenAIRE

    Erzurum, S. C.; Ghosh, S; Janocha, A. J.; W Xu; Bauer, S.; Bryan, N. S.; Tejero, J.; Hemann, C.; Hille, R; Stuehr, D J; Feelisch, M; Beall, C. M.

    2007-01-01

    The low barometric pressure at high altitude causes lower arterial oxygen content among Tibetan highlanders, who maintain normal levels of oxygen use as indicated by basal and maximal oxygen consumption levels that are consistent with sea level predictions. This study tested the hypothesis that Tibetans resident at 4,200 m offset physiological hypoxia and achieve normal oxygen delivery by means of higher blood flow enabled by higher levels of bioactive forms of NO, the main endothelial factor...

  3. Comparison of Bleeding Time and Clotting Time in Different Blood Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahapatra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Researchers have demonstrated that epistaxis is more often encountered in patients having blood group O probably due to lower expression of von Willebrand factor. We had taken up this study to find out if there is any definite relationship between the blood groups with the bleeding time and clotting time in our population. Approach: This retrospective study was conducted in the department of physiology in our institution. The available detail reports of 740 students passing through 1st year of MBBS over the years from 1999-2007 were analyzed in respect of age, sex, blood groups, bleeding time and clotting time. The blood grouping was done with the standard antisera and bleeding time and clotting time were estimated by Duke method and capillary tube method respectively. Finally bleeding time and clotting time of different blood groups were compared and statistical analysis was done. Results: In present study population O group was found in more number of cases (37.8% than A, B and AB. Clotting time was found to be prolonged more than 6 min in maximum number of cases in B group (12.7 cases followed by A group (8 and O group (5.8 and AB group (4.3%. Similarly bleeding time was more than 4 min in AB group in 21.8 followed by 13.9 in group B, 10.5 in group A and 9.6% in group O. Conclusion: In present study population interestingly clotting time was more in blood group AB and bleeding time in blood group B than other blood groups which was statistically significant. Further study needed to correlate the association of this finding in cases of epistaxis and hemoptysis in our population.

  4. Effects of 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist rizatriptan on cerebral blood flow and blood volume in normal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazawa, Hidehiko; Tsuchida, Tatsuro; Pagani, Marco; Mori, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Masato; Tanaka, Fumiko; Yonekura, Yoshiharu

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the vasoconstrictor effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT1B/1D) receptor agonists for migraine treatment, changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and blood volume induced by rizatriptan were assessed by positron emission tomography (PET). Eleven healthy volunteers underwent PET studies before and after rizatriptan administration. Dynamic PET data were acquired after bolus injection of H2(15)O to analyze CBF and arterial-to-capillary blood volume (V0) images using the three-weighted integral method. After a baseline scan, three further acquisitions were performed at 40 to 50, 60 and 70 to 80 mins after drug administration. Global and regional differences in CBF and V0 between conditions were compared using absolute values in the whole brain and cortical regions, as well as statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. The global and regional values for CBF and V0 decreased significantly after rizatriptan administration compared with the baseline condition. However, both values recovered to baseline within 80 mins after treatment. The maximal reduction in global CBF and V0 was approximately 13% of baseline value. The greatest decrease in CBF was observed approximately 60 mins after drug administration, whereas the maximal reduction in V0 was observed approximately 5 mins earlier. Statistical parametric mapping did not highlight any regional differences between conditions. Thus, in brain circulation, rizatriptan caused significant CBF and V0 decreases, which are consistent with the vasoconstrictor effect of triptans on the large cerebral arteries. The gradual recovery in the late phase from the maximal CBF and V0 decrease suggests that rizatriptan does not affect the cerebral autoregulatory response in small arteries induced by CBF reduction. PMID:15944648

  5. [Changes in gingival blood circulation in patients with provisional fixed acrylic dentures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, A S; Rudakova, Iu A; Ivanova, S B; Nekrasov, A N

    2015-01-01

    The adhesion of oral microorganisms to the surface of teeth and dental restorative materials is often the starting point in the developments of caries and periodontal disease. Formation of biofilm on the surface provisional acrylic bridge is especially quickly and can potentially generate decay or periodontal disease on the teeth. Occlusion trauma and occlusion disorders effects on increasing of injure regional periodontal tissues. Using ultrasonic doppler diagnostics oral mucosal blood flow was measured in 79 patients with periodontitis of medium severity with different hygiene conditions before and during orthopedic treatment by provisional fixed dentures was model by different methods. According to the results of this study was stated optimization of oral mucosal blood flow after pre-prosthetic treatments and the supportive hygiene periodontal care during the treatment. Results was used for reduce of functional stress in the in periodontal tissues during the orthopedic alignment by the use of fixed dentures. Specific prosthodontic hygiene protocol and model by individual articulator must be used to treat patients with widespread chronic periodontitis by interim prostheses. PMID:25909614

  6. Elderly bioheat modeling: changes in physiology, thermoregulation, and blood flow circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rida, Mohamad; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ghali, Kamel; Hoballah, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    A bioheat model for the elderly was developed focusing on blood flow circulatory changes that influence their thermal response in warm and cold environments to predict skin and core temperatures for different segments of the body especially the fingers. The young adult model of Karaki et al. (Int J Therm Sci 67:41-51, 2013) was modified by incorporation of the physiological thermoregulatory and vasomotor changes based on literature observations of physiological changes in the elderly compared to young adults such as lower metabolism and vasoconstriction diminished ability, skin blood flow and its minimum and maximum values, the sweating values, skin fat thickness, as well as the change in threshold parameter related to core or skin temperatures which triggers thermoregulatory action for sweating, maximum dilatation, and maximum constriction. The developed model was validated with published experimental data for elderly exposure to transient and steady hot and cold environments. Predicted finger skin temperature, mean skin temperature, and core temperature were in agreement with published experimental data at a maximum error less than 0.5 °C in the mean skin temperature. The elderly bioheat model showed an increase in finger skin temperature and a decrease in core temperature in cold exposure while it showed a decrease in finger skin temperature and an increase in core temperature in hot exposure.

  7. Knowledge about HIV-AIDS among first-time and regular voluntary non-remunerated blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ripal; Tiwari, Aseem Kumar; Shah, Priti; Tulsiani, Sunita; Harimoorthy, V; Choudhury, N

    2007-10-01

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the serious public health problems in India. AIDS education has been considered as one of the main intervention for control. Sexual route is the major route of transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV); however, approximately 2.5% is transmitted through blood and blood products. The present study was carried out to know the level of awareness about HIV infection and blood donation among first time (190) and repeat (310) voluntary donors of all age groups. One pre-structured questionnaire was circulated among altruistic blood donors. About 96.6% donors want to become repeat donors. Majority of the donors had good knowledge about routes of HIV transmission. According to 97.4% donors, it is transmitted by sexual route, according to 87.4% of donors by sharing needle, according to 85% of donors by blood transfusion and 82.4% of donors believe through vertical transmission. However, 32.4% of the donors, still believe that HIV infection could be transmitted through blood donation. Intense motivational program among donors is needed to remove this myth. Regular donors were convinced the importance of regular and repeat blood donation. They came forward to donate blood for the cause of humanity (80.6%) and the sense of pride (27.79%). First time donors were less motivated by the cause of humanity (56.21%) and volunteered because of peer pressure (26.03%) and motivated by relative or friend. Donors were very alert about precaution to be taken for protecting themselves from danger of HIV infection and priority wise use of safe sexual practice (90%), disposable needles (61.43%) and receive tested blood (45.71%) whenever required. When in need of blood for relatives the donors will give priority to the quality (64.65%) and properly tested blood from voluntary blood donors (86.7%). PMID:18306600

  8. A model of the circulating blood for use in radiation dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, T.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.

    1987-12-31

    Over the last few years there has been a significant increase in the use of radionuclides in leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte imaging procedures. Radiopharmaceutical used in these procedures are confined primarily to the blood, have short half-lives, and irradiate the body as they move through the circulatory system. There is a need for a model, to describe the circulatory system in an adult human, which can be used to provide radiation absorbed dose estimates for these procedures. A simplified model has been designed assuming a static circulatory system and including major organs of the body. The model has been incorporated into the MIRD phantom and calculations have been completed for a number of exposure situations and radionuclides of clinical importance. The model will be discussed in detail and results of calculations using this model will be presented.

  9. A model of the circulating blood for use in radiation dose calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hui, T.E.; Poston, J.W. Sr.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a significant increase in the use of radionuclides in leukocyte, platelet, and erythrocyte imaging procedures. Radiopharmaceutical used in these procedures are confined primarily to the blood, have short half-lives, and irradiate the body as they move through the circulatory system. There is a need for a model, to describe the circulatory system in an adult human, which can be used to provide radiation absorbed dose estimates for these procedures. A simplified model has been designed assuming a static circulatory system and including major organs of the body. The model has been incorporated into the MIRD phantom and calculations have been completed for a number of exposure situations and radionuclides of clinical importance. The model will be discussed in detail and results of calculations using this model will be presented.

  10. CORRELATION OF VOLUME BLOOD CIRCULATION IN THE HEPATIC ARTERY AND THE STATE OF MICROCIRCULATORY BLOODSTREAM OF THE TRANSPLANTED LIVER AFTER ITS REVASCULIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Granov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: optimization of the surgical treatment policy with orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT depending on the results of intraoperative fl owmetry and the state of intrahepatic microcirculatory bloodstream according to immunohistochemical (IHC study of microspecimens of the donor’s liver.Materials and methods. 60 patients are included in the study. Group I (n = 30 comprised of patients for whom it was not necessary to perform any additional interventions on the bloodstream in the hepatopancreatobiliary area during OLT. Group II (n = 30 had patients with insuffi cient arterial blood supply for the graft in the intraoperative stage where it was needed to perform additional and/or repeated interventions in the arteries of the hepatopancreatobilliary area. Intraoperative fl owmetry with assessment of the volume blood circulation (VBC in the hepatic artery (HA was carried out in the both studied groups. Reference value of VBC was 100 ml/min and higher. Before and after reperfusion in the liver biopsy material we performed immunohistochemical study with the use of endothelial marker CD 31 with subsequent morphometric estimation of the specifi c square of the microvascular bloodstream.Results. In both groups there was no change in the specifi c square in the areas of portal tract and central vein before and after restoring blood fl ow. In the second group, an 8 times increase of the specifi c square of sinusoids was observed after restoring blood fl ow (р < 0,01.Conclusion. Intraoperative fl owmetric control of the blood fl ow allows in due time to perform surgical correction of the graft arterial blood supply during OLT, and it reduces the risk of thrombosis up to 0%. The value of VBC in the hepatic artery (HA has reliable dependence upon the state of microcirculatory bloodstream of cadaveric donor’s liver after reperfusion.

  11. [Synchonization of the blood flow rate in arterial with the changing rate of space of blood pressure with time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shenghua; Qin, Renjia

    2012-10-01

    In physiology-related books, there are many relationship curves about blood flow rate in arteries and blood pressure changes with time, but there are not much explanation about such relationship. This is the very the question that the present article tries to answer. We clarified the relations between blood flow rate and blood pressure gradient using the experimental curves as the basis, using Poiseuille Law and relative knowledge of phisics and mathematics, and using analysis and reasoning. Based on the study, it can be concluded that in every course of cardiac cycle, the blood flow rate of any section in artery blood vessel is roughly synchronized with changing rate of space and time of the blood pressure, but blood flow rate is not synchronized with blood pressure. PMID:23198422

  12. Single-Cell Isolation of Circulating Tumor Cells from Whole Blood by Lateral Magnetophoretic Microseparation and Microfluidic Dispensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinho; Cho, Hyungseok; Han, Song-I; Han, Ki-Ho

    2016-05-01

    This paper introduces a single-cell isolation technology for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) using a microfluidic device (the "SIM-Chip"). The SIM-Chip comprises a lateral magnetophoretic microseparator and a microdispenser as a two-step cascade platform. First, CTCs were enriched from whole blood by the lateral magnetophoretic microseparator based on immunomagnetic nanobeads. Next, the enriched CTCs were electrically identified by single-cell impedance cytometer and isolated as single cells using the microshooter. Using 200 μL of whole blood spiked with 50 MCF7 breast cancer cells, the analysis demonstrated that the single-cell isolation efficiency of the SIM-Chip was 82.4%, and the purity of the isolated MCF7 cells with respect to WBCs was 92.45%. The data also showed that the WBC depletion rate of the SIM-Chip was 2.5 × 10(5) (5.4-log). The recovery rates were around 99.78% for spiked MCF7 cells ranging in number from 10 to 90. The isolated single MCF7 cells were intact and could be used for subsequent downstream genetic assays, such as RT-PCR. Single-cell culture evaluation of the proliferation of MCF7 cells isolated by the SIM-Chip showed that 84.1% of cells at least doubled in 5 days. Consequently, the SIM-Chip could be used for single-cell isolation of rare target cells from whole blood with high purity and recovery without cell damage. PMID:27093098

  13. Apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities and high serum levels of circulating nucleosomes and DNA in blood correlate with breast cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As cell-free circulating DNA exists predominantly as mono- and oligonucleosomes, the focus of the current study was to examine the interplay of circulating nucleosomes, DNA, proteases and caspases in blood of patients with benign and malignant breast diseases. The concentrations of cell-free DNA and nucleosomes as well as the protease and caspase activities were measured in serum of patients with benign breast disease (n = 20), primary breast cancer (M0, n = 31), metastatic breast cancer (M1, n = 32), and healthy individuals (n = 28) by PicoGreen, Cell Death Detection ELISA, Protease Fluorescent Detection Kit and Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay, respectively. Patients with benign and malignant tumors had significantly higher levels of circulating nucleic acids in their blood than healthy individuals (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001), whereas these levels could not discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. Our analyses of all serum samples revealed significant correlations of circulating nucleosome with DNA concentrations (p = 0.001), nucleosome concentrations with caspase activities (p = 0.008), and caspase with protease activities (p = 0.0001). High serum levels of protease and caspase activities associated with advanced tumor stages (p = 0.009). Patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer had significantly higher nucleosome levels in their blood than node-negative patients (p = 0.004). The presence of distant metastases associated with a significant increase in serum nucleosome (p = 0.01) and DNA levels (p = 0.04), and protease activities (p = 0.008). Our findings demonstrate that high circulating nucleic acid concentrations in blood are no indicators of a malignant breast tumor. However, the observed changes in apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities along with the elevated serum levels of nucleosomes and DNA in blood are linked to breast cancer progression

  14. Regime Transitions of Steady and Time-Dependent Hadley Circulations: Comparison of Axisymmetric and Eddy-Permitting Simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Bordoni, Simona; Schneider, Tapio

    2010-01-01

    Steady-state and time-dependent Hadley circulations are investigated with an idealized dry GCM, in which thermal forcing is represented as relaxation of temperatures toward a radiative-equilibrium state. The latitude ϕ_0 of maximum radiative-equilibrium temperature is progressively displaced off the equator or varied in time to study how the Hadley circulation responds to seasonally varying forcing; axisymmetric simulations are compared with eddy-permitting simulations. In axisymm...

  15. A two-time-level split-explicit ocean circulation model (MASNUM) and its validation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lei

    2014-01-01

    A two-time-level, three-dimensional numerical ocean circulation model (named MASNUM) was estab-lished with a two-level, single-step Eulerian forward-backward time-differencing scheme. A mathematical model of large-scale oceanic motions was based on the terrain-following coordinated, Boussinesq, Reyn-olds-averaged primitive equations of ocean dynamics. A simple but very practical Eulerian forward-back-ward method was adopted to replace the most preferred leapfrog scheme as the time-differencing method for both barotropic and baroclinic modes. The forward-backward method is of second-order of accuracy, computationally efficient by requiring only one function evaluation per time step, and free of the compu-tational mode inherent in the three-level schemes. This method is superior to the leapfrog scheme in that the maximum time step of stability is twice as large as that of the leapfrog scheme in staggered meshes thus the computational efficiency could be doubled. A spatial smoothing method was introduced to control the nonlinear instability in the numerical integration. An ideal numerical experiment simulating the propa-gation of the equatorial Rossby soliton was performed to test the amplitude and phase error of this new model. The performance of this circulation model was further verified with a regional (northwest Pacific) and a quasi-global (global ocean simulation with the Arctic Ocean excluded) simulation experiments. These two numerical experiments show fairly good agreement with the observations. The maximum time step of stability in these two experiments were also investigated and compared between this model and that model which adopts the leapfrog scheme.

  16. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... American Heart Association Download (1.4 MB) High Blood Pressure A high blood pressure reading. copyright American Heart ...

  17. Effect of Chinese Drugs for Promoting Blood Circulation and Eliminating Blood Stasis on Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Expression in Rabbits with Glucocorticoid-induced Ischemic Necrosis of Femoral Head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Zhen-xi; CHEN Lei

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To probe into the mechanism of Chinese drugs for promoting blood circulation and eliminating blood stasis in the prevention and treatment of glueocorticoid-induced ischemic necrosis of femoral head.Methods: Thirty New Zealand adult white rabbits were randomly divided into a normal control group (n=5)and a model group (n=25). Hydroxyprednisone acetate was intramuscularly administered to the rabbits in the model group in a dosage of 7.5 mg/kg, twice per week for 6 weeks, to induce ischemic necrosis of femoral head and normal saline of the equal volume was intramuscularly administered to the rabbits in the normal control group, twice per week for 6 weeks. Then, the 5 rabbits from the normal control group and 5 rabbits selected randomly from the model group were sacrificed and the changes in histopathology and the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) were observed. The other 20 rabbits in the model group were randomly divided into the treatment group 1 and the treatment group 2, and the control group 1 and the control group 2, 5 rabbits in every group. Taohong Siwu Tang (桃红四物汤 Decoction of Four Drugs with Addition of Peach Kernel and Safflower) was orally administered to the rabbits in the treatment group 1 and the treatment group 2 in a dosage of 7 ml/kg, once daily and normal saline of the equal volume was orally administered to the rabbits in the control groupl and the control group, 2 once daily. After 10 weeks the rabbits in the treatment group 1 and the control group 1 were sacrificed and after 13 weeks the rabbits in the treatment group 2 and the control group 2 were sacrificed, and the expression of VEGF was detected in these rabbits. Results: The expression of VEGF was significantly enhanced in rabbits of the model group as compared with the normal control group (P<0.01), and gradually reduced with the lapse of time. The expression of VEGF in the control groups was significantly reduced as compared with the treatment

  18. PEGylated and targeted extracellular vesicles display enhanced cell specificity and circulation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijmans, S A A; Fliervoet, L A L; van der Meel, R; Fens, M H A M; Heijnen, H F G; van Bergen En Henegouwen, P M P; Vader, P; Schiffelers, R M

    2016-02-28

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are increasingly being recognized as candidate drug delivery systems due to their ability to functionally transfer biological cargo between cells. However, the therapeutic applicability of EVs may be limited due to a lack of cell-targeting specificity and rapid clearance of exogenous EVs from the circulation. In order to improve EV characteristics for drug delivery to tumor cells, we have developed a novel method for decorating EVs with targeting ligands conjugated to polyethylene glycol (PEG). Nanobodies specific for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) were conjugated to phospholipid (DMPE)-PEG derivatives to prepare nanobody-PEG-micelles. When micelles were mixed with EVs derived from Neuro2A cells or platelets, a temperature-dependent transfer of nanobody-PEG-lipids to the EV membranes was observed, indicative of a 'post-insertion' mechanism. This process did not affect EV morphology, size distribution, or protein composition. After introduction of PEG-conjugated control nanobodies to EVs, cellular binding was compromised due to the shielding properties of PEG. However, specific binding to EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells was dramatically increased when EGFR-specific nanobodies were employed. Moreover, whereas unmodified EVs were rapidly cleared from the circulation within 10min after intravenous injection in mice, EVs modified with nanobody-PEG-lipids were still detectable in plasma for longer than 60min post-injection. In conclusion, we propose post-insertion as a novel technique to confer targeting capacity to isolated EVs, circumventing the requirement to modify EV-secreting cells. Importantly, insertion of ligand-conjugated PEG-derivatized phospholipids in EV membranes equips EVs with improved cell specificity and prolonged circulation times, potentially increasing EV accumulation in targeted tissues and improving cargo delivery. PMID:26773767

  19. The Brewer-Dobson circulation and total ozone from seasonal to decadal time scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Weber

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the winter Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC on the seasonal and decadal evolution of total ozone in both hemispheres is investigated using satellite total ozone data and outputs from two chemistry-climate models (CCM. Combining data from both hemispheres a linear relationship between the winter cumulative extratropical 100 hPa eddy heat flux and the ozone ratio with respect to fall ozone levels exists and is statistically significant for tropical as well as polar ozone. The high correlation at high latitudes persists well into the summer months until the onset of the next winter season. The anti-correlation of the cumulative eddy heat flux with tropical ozone ratios, however, breaks down in spring as the polar vortex erodes and changes to a weak positive correlation similar to that observed at high latitudes. The inter-annual variability and decadal evolution of ozone in each hemisphere in winter, spring, and summer are therefore driven by the cumulative effect of the previous winter's meridional circulation. This compact linear relationship is also found in two different CCMs (EMAC-FUB, DLR-E39C-A indicating that current models realistically describe the variability in stratospheric circulation and its climate effect on total ozone. Both models show a positive trend in the winter mean eddy heat flux (and winter BDC strength in both hemispheres until year 2050, however the inter-annual variability (peak-to-peak is two to three times larger than the mean change between 1960 and 2050. It is, therefore, possible to detect a shift in this compact linear relationship related to past and future changes in the stratospheric halogen load. A similar shift is difficult to derive from observational data since the satellite era now spanning more than thirty years is still fairly short.

  20. Quantitative assessment of oscillatory components in blood circulation: classification of the effect of aging, diabetes, and acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernjak, Alan; Stefanovska, Aneta; Urbancic-Rovan, Vilma; Azman-Juvan, Katja

    2005-04-01

    The human cardiovascular system is a complex system with the pumping activity of the heart as the main generator of oscillations. Besides the heartbeat there are several other oscillatory components which determine its dynamics. Their nonlinear nature and a weak coupling between them both require special treatment while studying this system. A particular characteristic of the oscillatory components is their frequency fluctuations in time. Consequently, their interactions also fluctuate in time. Therefore the wavelet transform is applied to trace the oscillatory components in time, and specific quantitative measures are introduced to quantify the contribution of each of the oscillatory components involved on the time scale of up to three minutes. Oscillatory components are then analysed from signals obtained by simultaneous measurements of blood flow in the microcirculation, ECG, respiration and blood pressure. Based on quantitative evaluation of the oscillatory components related to (I) the heart beat (0.6-2Hz), (II) respiration (0.145-0.6Hz), (III) intrinsic myogenic activity (0.052-0.145Hz), (IV) sympathetic activity (0.021-0.052Hz), (V, VI) endothelial related activity (0.0095-0.021Hz, 0.005 - 0.0095 Hz), 30-minutes recording taken on 109 healthy subjects, 75 patients with diabetes, and 82 patients after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) were analysed. Classification of the effect of ageing, diabetes and AMI from blood flow signals simultaneously recorded in the skin of four extremities, the heart rate and heart rate variability from R-R intervals will be presented and discussed.

  1. A reliable method to concentrate circulating DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzgunova, Olga; Bondar, Anna; Morozkin, Evgeniy; Mileyko, Vladislav; Vlassov, Valentin; Laktionov, Pavel

    2011-01-15

    Concentration of circulating DNA probes is required to increase the amount of DNA involved in subsequent study (by polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, and microarray). This work was dedicated to the comparison of five different methods used for concentration of DNA circulating in blood. Precipitation of circulating DNA with acetone in the presence of triethylamine provides minimal DNA loss, high reproducibility, and at least three times higher DNA yield in comparison with the standard ethanol protocol. PMID:20828533

  2. Evaluation of Two Different Analytical Methods for Circulating Tumor Cell Detection in Peripheral Blood of Patients with Primary Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. S. Jaeger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Evidence is accumulating that circulating tumor cells (CTC out of peripheral blood can serve as prognostic marker not only in metastatic but also in early breast cancer (BC. Various methods are available to detect CTC. Comparisons between the different techniques, however, are rare. Material and Methods. We evaluate two different methods for CTC enrichment and detection in primary BC patients: the FDA-approved CellSearch System (CSS; Veridex, Warren, USA and a manual immunocytochemistry (MICC. The cut-off value for positivity was ≥1 CTC. Results. The two different nonoverlapping patient cohorts evaluated with one or the other method were well balanced regarding common clinical parameters. Before adjuvant CHT 21.1% (416 out of 1972 and 20.6% (247 out of 1198 of the patients were CTC-positive, while after CHT 22.5% (359 out of 1598 and 16.6% (177 out of 1066 of the patients were CTC-positive using CSS or MICC, respectively. CTC positivity rate before CHT was thus similar and not significantly different (P=0.749, while CTC positivity rate immediately after CHT was significantly lower using MICC compared to CSS (P<0.001. Conclusion. Using CSS or MICC for CTC detection, we found comparable prevalence of CTC before but not after adjuvant CHT.

  3. Mechanisms of adaptation of the hepatic vasculature to the deteriorating conditions of blood circulation in liver cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzenko, Dmitry Victorovich; Arefyev, Nikolay Olegovich; Belov, Dmitry Vladimirovich

    2016-06-01

    PubMed, EMBASE, Orphanet, MIDLINE, Google Scholar and Cochrane Library were searched for articles published between 1983 and 2015. Relevant articles were selected by using the following terms: "Liver cirrhosis", "Endothelial dysfunction", "Sinusoidal remodeling", "Intrahepatic angiogenesis" and "Pathogenesis of portal hypertension". Then the reference lists of identified articles were searched for other relevant publications as well. Besides gross hepatic structural disorders related to diffuse fibrosis and formation of regenerative nodules, the complex morphofunctional rearrangement of the hepatic microvascular bed and intrahepatic angiogenesis also play important roles in hemodynamic disturbances in liver cirrhosis. It is characterized by endothelial dysfunction and impaired paracrine interaction between activated stellate hepatocytes and sinusoidal endotheliocytes, sinusoidal remodeling and capillarization, as well as development of the collateral microcirculation. In spite of the fact that complex morphofunctional rearrangement of the hepatic microvascular bed and intrahepatic angiogenesis in liver cirrhosis are the compensatory-adaptive reaction to the deteriorating conditions of blood circulation, they contribute to progression of disease and development of serious complications, in particular, related to portal hypertension. PMID:27326313

  4. Circulating tumor cells in breast cancer: A tool whose time has come of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristofanilli Massimo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are isolated tumor cells disseminated from the site of disease in metastatic and/or primary cancers, including breast cancer, that can be identified and measured in the peripheral blood of patients. As recent technical advances have rendered it easier to reproducibly and repeatedly sample this population of cells with a high degree of accuracy, these cells represent an attractive surrogate marker of the site of disease. Currently, CTCs are being integrated into clinical trial design as a surrogate for phenotypic and genotypic markers in correlation with development of molecularly targeted therapies. As CTCs play a crucial role in tumor dissemination, translational research is implicating CTCs in several biological processes, including epithelial to mesenchymal transition. In this mini-review, we review CTCs in metastatic breast cancer, and discuss their clinical utility for assessing prognosis and monitoring response to therapy. We will also introduce their utility in pharmacodynamic monitoring for rational selection of molecularly targeted therapies and briefly address how they can help elucidate the biology of cancer metastasis.

  5. Phenotypic and Functional Alterations in Circulating Memory CD8 T Cells with Time after Primary Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Martin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Memory CD8 T cells confer increased protection to immune hosts upon secondary viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections. The level of protection provided depends on the numbers, quality (functional ability, and location of memory CD8 T cells present at the time of infection. While primary memory CD8 T cells can be maintained for the life of the host, the full extent of phenotypic and functional changes that occur over time after initial antigen encounter remains poorly characterized. Here we show that critical properties of circulating primary memory CD8 T cells, including location, phenotype, cytokine production, maintenance, secondary proliferation, secondary memory generation potential, and mitochondrial function change with time after infection. Interestingly, phenotypic and functional alterations in the memory population are not due solely to shifts in the ratio of effector (CD62Llo and central memory (CD62Lhi cells, but also occur within defined CD62Lhi memory CD8 T cell subsets. CD62Lhi memory cells retain the ability to efficiently produce cytokines with time after infection. However, while it is was not formally tested whether changes in CD62Lhi memory CD8 T cells over time occur in a cell intrinsic manner or are due to selective death and/or survival, the gene expression profiles of CD62Lhi memory CD8 T cells change, phenotypic heterogeneity decreases, and mitochondrial function and proliferative capacity in either a lymphopenic environment or in response to antigen re-encounter increase with time. Importantly, and in accordance with their enhanced proliferative and metabolic capabilities, protection provided against chronic LCMV clone-13 infection increases over time for both circulating memory CD8 T cell populations and for CD62Lhi memory cells. Taken together, the data in this study reveal that memory CD8 T cells continue to change with time after infection and suggest that the outcome of vaccination strategies designed to elicit

  6. Intrinsic determinants and predictors of superovulatory yields in sheep: Circulating concentrations of reproductive hormones, ovarian status, and antral follicular blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlewski, Pawel M; Seaton, Patricia; Franco Oliveira, Maria Emilia; Kridli, Rami T; Murawski, Maciej; Schwarz, Tomasz

    2016-07-01

    Hormonal ovarian superstimulation has contributed to small ruminant reproduction around the world, impacting genetic improvement and zoosanitary programs, contributing to the conservation of endangered species, and supporting other related biotechnologies. Advanced knowledge surrounding the superovulatory treatments in sheep has resulted in enhanced control of influencing factors and improved the protocols currently used. However, in spite of minimization of some adverse factors, superovulatory responses in ewes still remain variable, preventing the more widespread use of superovulation in commercial embryo transfer programs and reproductive research in this species. Recent evidence demonstrates that changes in antral follicular populations and blood supply, and circulating concentrations of certain reproductive hormones determined at the specific time points just before or during the superovulatory treatment are associated with superovulation success in ewes. This review attempts to compile the data from available literature to identify ovarian and hormonal determinants of the superovulatory outcome in ewes, which can be used to substantially improve the existing protocols and to reduce the extra cost and unnecessary stress imposed on poorly responding animals. An overview of most commonly used and some recently developed, FSH-based ovarian stimulation protocols is given at the outset to highlight variation in the frequency and timing of gonadotropin injections, estrus synchronization methods, and follicular wave synchronization and/or ovulation induction techniques during the superovulatory treatments in ewes. PMID:27173957

  7. Effective use of general circulation model outputs for forecasting monthly rainfalls to long lead times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Sandra; Wang, Q. J.; Schepen, Andrew; Robertson, David

    2013-09-01

    Long lead rainfall forecasts are highly valuable for planning and management of water resources and agriculture. In this study, we establish multiple statistical calibration and bridging models that use general circulation model (GCM) outputs as predictors to produce monthly rainfall forecasts for Australia with lead times up to 8 months. The statistical calibration models make use of raw forecasts of rainfall from a coupled GCM, and the statistical bridging models make use of sea surface temperature (SST) forecasts of the GCM. The forecasts from the multiple models are merged through Bayesian model averaging to take advantage of the strengths of individual models. The skill of monthly rainfall forecasts is generally low. Compared to forecasting seasonal rainfall totals, it is more challenging to forecast monthly rainfall. However, there are regions and months for which forecasts are skillful. In particular, there are months of the year for which forecasts can be skillfully made at long lead times. This is most evident for the period of November and December. Using GCM forecasts of SST through bridging clearly improves monthly rainfall forecasts. For lead time 0, the improvement is particularly evident for February to March, July and October to December. For longer lead times, the benefit of bridging is more apparent. As lead time increases, bridging is able to maintain forecast skill much better than when only calibration is applied.

  8. Revisiting the circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes: molecular detection methods to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage and the effect of gametocytocidal drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawa Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is renewed acknowledgement that targeting gametocytes is essential for malaria control and elimination efforts. Simple mathematical models were fitted to data from clinical trials in order to determine the mean gametocyte circulation time and duration of gametocyte carriage in treated malaria patients. Methods Data were used from clinical trials from East Africa. The first trial compared non-artemisinin combination therapy (non-ACT: sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP plus amodiaquine and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT: SP plus artesunate (AS or artemether-lumefantrine. The second trial compared ACT (SP+AS with ACT in combination with a single dose of primaquine (ACT-PQ: SP+AS+PQ. Mature gametocytes were quantified in peripheral blood samples by nucleic acid sequence based amplification. A simple deterministic compartmental model was fitted to gametocyte densities to estimate the circulation time per gametocyte; a similar model was fitted to gametocyte prevalences to estimate the duration of gametocyte carriage after efficacious treatment. Results The mean circulation time of gametocytes was 4.6-6.5 days. After non-ACT treatment, patients were estimated to carry gametocytes for an average of 55 days (95% CI 28.7 - 107.7. ACT reduced the duration of gametocyte carriage fourfold to 13.4 days (95% CI 10.2-17.5. Addition of PQ to ACT resulted in a further fourfold reduction of the duration of gametocyte carriage. Conclusions These findings confirm previous estimates of the circulation time of gametocytes, but indicate a much longer duration of (low density gametocyte carriage after apparently successful clearance of asexual parasites. ACT shortened the period of gametocyte carriage considerably, and had the most pronounced effect on mature gametocytes when combined with PQ.

  9. Bidecadal North Atlantic ocean circulation variability controlled by timing of volcanic eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swingedouw, Didier; Ortega, Pablo; Mignot, Juliette; Guilyardi, Eric; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Butler, Paul G; Khodri, Myriam; Séférian, Roland

    2015-01-01

    While bidecadal climate variability has been evidenced in several North Atlantic paleoclimate records, its drivers remain poorly understood. Here we show that the subset of CMIP5 historical climate simulations that produce such bidecadal variability exhibits a robust synchronization, with a maximum in Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) 15 years after the 1963 Agung eruption. The mechanisms at play involve salinity advection from the Arctic and explain the timing of Great Salinity Anomalies observed in the 1970s and the 1990s. Simulations, as well as Greenland and Iceland paleoclimate records, indicate that coherent bidecadal cycles were excited following five Agung-like volcanic eruptions of the last millennium. Climate simulations and a conceptual model reveal that destructive interference caused by the Pinatubo 1991 eruption may have damped the observed decreasing trend of the AMOC in the 2000s. Our results imply a long-lasting climatic impact and predictability following the next Agung-like eruption. PMID:25818017

  10. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  11. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K; Dybkjaer, E; Skov, P S

    1996-01-01

    Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during...... full amount of leucocytes, and this may play a significant role in detrimental effects of blood transfusion....

  12. Portable real time analysis system for regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very portable, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) analysis instrument system suitable for use in the operating theater during surgery is under development. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid state radiation detectors, an 8086 based data acquisition and communications module and a DEC Microvax computer are used so that the instrument is very compact, yet has the computational power to provide real time data analysis in the clinical environment. The instrument is currently being used at Bowman Gray School of Medicine to study rCBF during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Preliminary studies indicate that monitoring rCBF during this surgical procedure may provide insights into the mechanism that causes a significant fraction of these patients to suffer post operative neuropsychological deficit

  13. Portable real time analysis system for regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiernan, T.; Entine, G.; Stump, D.A.; Prough, D.S.

    1988-02-01

    A very portable, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) analysis instrument system suitable for use in the operating theater during surgery is under development. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid state radiation detectors, an 8086 based data acquisition and communications module and a DEC Microvax computer are used so that the instrument is very compact, yet has the computational power to provide real time data analysis in the clinical environment. The instrument is currently being used at Bowman Gray School of Medicine to study rCBF during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Preliminary studies indicate that monitoring rCBF during this surgical procedure may provide insights into the mechanism that causes a significant fraction of these patients to suffer post operative neuropsychological deficit.

  14. A study of the influence scan timing and depiction of blood vessel diameter in CE-3DMRA. Simulation by pulsatile flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In imaging using contrast-enhanced three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (CE-3DMRA), optimizing the delay time from the start of intravenous injection of contrast medium to the start of scanning has generally been an important concern when obtaining blood vessel images of good contrast. Recent methods of mechanically assessing the attainment of contrast medium injection include Smart-Prep and others. Another method is the Test Bolus, in which a small amount of contrast medium determines the timing of scan start, in quest of the time intensity curve. Because these methods are not necessarily satisfactory, the corrected method is used in clinical cases. In terms of how scan timing affects blood vessel depiction, no study has examined pulsatile flow, which is carried out by simulation. On the other hand, there are reports on data filling of k-space using imitation blood vessels on a computer and simple experimental equipment. This research examined experimentally blood vessel depiction according to scan timing and the diameter of blood vessels by using a systemic circulation simulator that incorporated hemodynamic circulation in which pulsatile flow is the same as that of a human body, using an artificial heart developed especially for MRI. It is thought that scan timing in CE-3DMRA affects the depiction of blood vessels for which the diameter of the blood vessel differs from the experimental result. Phase-encoding k-space data filling is the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of each blood vessel irrespective of sequential and centric k-space ordering. The timing shift phenomenon, in which a blood vessel is so thin that the scan timing is overdue and shows a relatively high value, can occur. Moreover, that scan timing affects not only the diameter of a blood vessel but also depiction of the narrowing of a stenotic blood vessel or a branch blood vessel was demonstrated clinically and experimentally. Therefore, blood vessel depiction changes with scan timing, and

  15. Optimization of an Enrichment process for Circulating tumor cells from the blood of Head and Neck Cancer patients through depletion of normal cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Liying; Lang, James C.; Balasubramanian, Priya; Jatana, Kris R.; Schuller, David; Agrawal, Amit; Zborowski, Maciej; Chalmers, Jeffrey J.

    2009-01-01

    The optimization of a purely negative depletion, enrichment process for circulating tumor cells, CTC's, in the peripheral blood of Head and Neck cancer patients is presented. The enrichment process uses a red cell lysis step followed by immunomagnetic labeling, and subsequent depletion, of CD45 positive cells. A number of relevant variables are quantified, or attempted to be quantified, which control the performance of the enrichment process. Six different immunomagnetic labeling combinations...

  16. Assessment of Cord Blood Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels and Circulating CD34+ Cells in Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Tawfeek Moawed, Nihad Ahmed El Nashar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory distress syndrome (RDS secondary to surfactant deficiency is a common cause of mobility and mortality in premature infants. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is a major angiogenic factor and prime regulator of endothelial cells proliferation. So, VEGF may contribute to surfactant secretion and pulmonary maturation. Additionally, circulating CD34+ stem – progenitor cells are elevated along with its mobilizing cytokines in neonatal RDS. Aim of work: This study aimed to elucidate the role of cord blood VEGF and the circulating CD34+ cells in preterm infants with and without RDS. Patients & method: This study was conducted on 55 preterm neonates divided into 25 preterm (15 males/ 10 females without RDS with mean age of 31.60 ± 1.56 weeks and 30 preterm neonates with RDS (18 males/ 12 females with mean age of 29.95 ± 1.09 weeks . Twenty healthy neonates (14 males/ 6 females served as controls with mean age of 38.20 ± 3.57 weeks. All neonates were subjected to full history taking; thorough clinical examination and laboratory investigations including determination of VEGF levels in cord blood samples using ELISA and circulating CD34+ cells in peripheral blood by flowcytometery. Results:The results of this study revealed that cord blood VEGF levels were significantly decreased in preterms with RDS versus preterms without RDS and controls with p values of both < 0.0001. Furthermore, the circulating CD34+ cells were significantly increased in preterm infants with RDS versus preterm infants without RDS and controls (p < 0.05 & < 0.0001 respectively. Premature rupture of the membrane, gender of the newborn, birth weight and antenatal steroid administration had neither significant effect on the cord blood VEGF nor on the number of CD34+ cells. There was inverse significant correlation between GA and the number of CD34+ cells. Conclusion:It was concluded that low cord blood VEGF is associated with RDS and its level negatively

  17. Assessment of liver circulation by quantitative scintiangiography: Evaluation of the relative contribution of the hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to liver perfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molino, G.; Squadrone, E.; Baccegal, M.; Magnani, C.

    1989-04-01

    Quantitative hepatic scintiangiography was previously used for evaluating the relative contribution of hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to the hepatic circulation. The present study compares 3 different procedures (automatic and manual integration, and slope fitting methods) for analyzing the hepatic time activity curves obtained after bolus i.v. injection of 370 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-diethylentriaminopentacetic acid. Twenty five subjects were studied: Five controls, ten cirrhotics, and ten portal hypertensive patients previously submitted to side to side portacaval anastomosis. The correspondence between results given by the different methods was satisfactory only in shunted patients, and the reproducibility of computed parameters was quite poor for all procedures. Accordingly, none of the methods can be considered as supporting reliable quantitative pathophysiological evaluations. However, the hepatic arterial/portal venous flow ratio was found to be increased in liver cirrhosis and in shunted patients and therefore, in spite of the limitations underlined before and of the absence of data on the reproducibility of consecutive injections, hepatic scintiangiography may be of some clinical utility.

  18. Assessment of liver circulation by quantitative scintiangiography: Evaluation of the relative contribution of the hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to liver perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative hepatic scintiangiography was previously used for evaluating the relative contribution of hepatic arterial and portal venous blood flows to the hepatic circulation. The present study compares 3 different procedures (automatic and manual integration, and slope fitting methods) for analyzing the hepatic time activity curves obtained after bolus i.v. injection of 370 MBq 99mTc-diethylentriaminopentacetic acid. Twenty five subjects were studied: Five controls, ten cirrhotics, and ten portal hypertensive patients previously submitted to side to side portacaval anastomosis. The correspondence between results given by the different methods was satisfactory only in shunted patients, and the reproducibility of computed parameters was quite poor for all procedures. Accordingly, none of the methods can be considered as supporting reliable quantitative pathophysiological evaluations. However, the hepatic arterial/portal venous flow ratio was found to be increased in liver cirrhosis and in shunted patients and therefore, in spite of the limitations underlined before and of the absence of data on the reproducibility of consecutive injections, hepatic scintiangiography may be of some clinical utility. (orig.)

  19. Using computational fluid dynamics software to estimate circulation time distributions in bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Kyle M; Sushil, Shrinivasan; Eggleton, Charles D; Marten, Mark R

    2003-01-01

    Nonideal mixing in many fermentation processes can lead to concentration gradients in nutrients, oxygen, and pH, among others. These gradients are likely to influence cellular behavior, growth, or yield of the fermentation process. Frequency of exposure to these gradients can be defined by the circulation time distribution (CTD). There are few examples of CTDs in the literature, and experimental determination of CTD is at best a challenging task. The goal in this study was to determine whether computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software (FLUENT 4 and MixSim) could be used to characterize the CTD in a single-impeller mixing tank. To accomplish this, CFD software was used to simulate flow fields in three different mixing tanks by meshing the tanks with a grid of elements and solving the Navier-Stokes equations using the kappa-epsilon turbulence model. Tracer particles were released from a reference zone within the simulated flow fields, particle trajectories were simulated for 30 s, and the time taken for these tracer particles to return to the reference zone was calculated. CTDs determined by experimental measurement, which showed distinct features (log-normal, bimodal, and unimodal), were compared with CTDs determined using CFD simulation. Reproducing the signal processing procedures used in each of the experiments, CFD simulations captured the characteristic features of the experimentally measured CTDs. The CFD data suggests new signal processing procedures that predict unimodal CTDs for all three tanks. PMID:14524709

  20. Plutonium isotopes in the atmosphere of Central Europe: Isotopic composition and time evolution vs. circulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierepko, Renata; Mietelski, Jerzy W; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Anczkiewicz, Robert; Wershofen, Herbert; Holgye, Zoltan; Kapała, Jacek; Isajenko, Krzysztof

    2016-11-01

    This paper reports evidence of Pu isotopes in the lower part of the troposphere of Central Europe. The data were obtained based on atmospheric aerosol fraction samples collected from four places in three countries (participating in the informal European network known as the Ring of Five (Ro5)) forming a cell with a surface area of about 200,000km(2). We compared our original data sets from Krakow (Poland, 1990-2007) and Bialystok (Poland, 1991-2007) with the results from two other locations, Prague (Czech Republic; 1997-2004) and Braunschweig (Germany; 1990-2003) to find time evolution of the Pu isotopes. The levels of the activity concentration for (238)Pu and for ((239+240))Pu were estimated to be a few and some tens of nBqm(-3), respectively. However, we also noted some results were much higher (even about 70 times higher) than the average concentration of (238)Pu in the atmosphere. The achieved complex data sets were used to test a new approach to the problem of solving mixing isotopic traces from various sources (here up to three) in one sample. Results of our model, supported by mesoscale atmospheric circulation parameters, suggest that Pu from nuclear weapon accidents or tests and nuclear burnt-up fuel are present in the air. PMID:27450248

  1. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during...... storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine...... content at donation, and histamine concentration in samples drawn from the units on days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21, 28 and 35 were analysed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median plasma histamine concentration was 4.8 (range 1.9-14.3) nmol/l (n = 18). Median total cell-bound histamine content was 417...

  2. Cuff inflations do not affect night-time blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Emilie H; Theilade, Simone; Hansen, Tine W;

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort related to cuff inflation may bias 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements, especially during night-time. We accessed the impact of cuff inflations by comparing 24 h BP recorded with a cuff-less tonometric wrist device and an upper-arm oscillometric cuff device. Fifty......-three participants with type 2 diabetes were assigned randomly to four 24-h BP recordings with a cuff (TM2430: visit 1 or 2, and 4) and a tonometric device (BPro: visit 1 or 2, 3, and 4). The mean 24 h systolic BP was significantly higher when measured with the cuff versus the tonometric device (141.6±14.6 vs. 128.......3±14.6 mmHg, P≤0.01), as was nocturnal BP (6.7±5.3 vs. 10.3±7.6%, P=0.002). In conclusion, nocturnal BP decline was higher when measured with the cuff device, suggesting that cuff inflations did not increase night-time BP. Further evaluation of the tonometric device using the updated European Society of...

  3. Newly developed photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) simulation for non-invasive and continuous diagnosis of blood during extracorporeal circulation support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2011-07-01

    We have sought for non-invasive diagnosis of blood during the extracorporeal circulation support. To achieve the goal, we have newly developed a photon-cell interactive Monte Carlo (pciMC) model for optical propagation through blood. The pciMC actually describes the interaction of photons with 3-dimentional biconcave RBCs. The scattering is described by micro-scopical RBC boundary condition based on geometric optics. By using pciMC, we modeled the RBCs inside the extracorporeal circuit will be oriented by the blood flow. The RBCs' orientation was defined as their long axis being directed to the center of the circulation tube. Simultaneously the RBCs were allowed to randomly rotate about the long axis direction. As a result, as flow rate increased, the orientation rate increased and converged to approximately 22% at 0.5 L/min flow rate and above. And finally, by using this model, the pciMC non-invasively and absolutely predicted Hct and hemoglobin with the accuracies of 0.84+/-0.82 [HCT%] and 0.42+/-0.28 [g/dL] respectively against measurements by a blood gas analyzer.

  4. 以心脏泵血过程为主线讲好血液循环的体会%Realization of Teaching Blood Circulation Basing on the Mainline of the Course of Pumping Blood of Heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐云; 任晓蒙; 梅彩琴

    2011-01-01

    In the teaching of the chapter of blood circulation system in physiology, basing on the mainline of the course of pumping blood of heart, it adopted the approaches of the anatomic structure atlas of blood circulation system, concluded graphics, multi -media courseware of demonstrating dynamically physiological process and so on to teach the abstract and complex the course of pumping blood of heart visually and intensively. Meanwhile, letting the mainline of the course of pumping blood of heart run through in the following teaching contents, it will help the students master the difficulties and improve the teaching effects.%在生理学血液循环系统这一章节的授课中,以心脏泵血过程为主线,采用循环系统的解剖结构图谱,归纳图表,演示动态生理过程的多媒体课件等多种手段,将抽象复杂的心脏泵血过程讲得比较透彻直观,将其内容为主线贯穿于血液循环的后续内容中,有助于学生对重点内容的理解,提高授课效果.

  5. Immunomodulating effect of blood transfusion: is storage time important?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Dybkjoer, E; Kronborg, Gitte;

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: TNF-alpha and IL-2 are important cytokines in macrophage and T-lymphocyte activity against infection and dissemination of malignant cells. We studied the influence of supernatants from stored whole blood and buffy-coat-depleted SAGM (saline, adenine, glucose and mannitol) blood in sti...

  6. Measurement of Circulation, Retention Times and Flow Patterns in an Electrolytic Refinery by Using Radioactive Tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes full-scale plant studies in a nickel electrolytic refinery by use of radioactive tracers. The method is particularly suitable since the flow of materials has to be kept to that pertaining under normal conditions. After considering the properties of the electrolyte, the sensitivity of detection, the possible contamination of the factory and other factors, 24Na and 82Br (with activities of 5 or 6 mCi each) were chosen as the tracers. The tracer was measured in situ by a dip-counting method using a water-cooled scintillation probe, a survey meter placed on the outer surface of a pipe junction and a well-type scintillation counter in the laboratory. The first experiment was to measure the circulation time through the electrolytic process by means of the peak-to-peak method. The resulting time, seven hours, was unexpectedly short in comparison with calculations. The second experiment was concerned with electrolyte flowing through two purifying vessels, each with a different construction. The same mixer was used for both vessels, each with outlets at the top. The inlets were on the opposite side, in one case at the top and in the other at the bottom. The experiment showed that the difference in the residence times was remarkably large. The third experiment was carried out in a series of electrolytic cells. Labelled electrolyte was continuously injected into a cathode chamber and 20- to 30-ml samples were periodically taken at nine different points by means of a special sampler. As a result, the flow patterns of the electrolyte were determined and the rapid mixing within the chamber was observed. Further, the flow rate of the electrolyte into the chamber was calculated by the continuous dilution method. (author)

  7. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-06-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis.

  8. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis. (paper)

  9. Dual-Track Clearance of Circulating Bacteria Balances Rapid Restoration of Blood Sterility with Induction of Adaptive Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadley, Steven P; Plaumann, Ann; Coletti, Raffaele; Lehmann, Christin; Wanisch, Andreas; Seidlmeier, Amelie; Esser, Knud; Luo, Shanshan; Rämer, Patrick C; Massberg, Steffen; Busch, Dirk H; van Lookeren Campagne, Menno; Verschoor, Admar

    2016-07-13

    Efficient clearance of bacteremia prevents life-threatening disease. Platelet binding to intravascular bacteria, a process involving platelet glycoprotein GPIb and bacterial opsonization with activated complement C3, influences blood clearance and anti-infective immunity. Using intravital microscopy of the bloodstream of mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes, we show that bacterial clearance is not a uniform process but a "dual-track" mechanism consisting of parallel "fast" and "slow" pathways. "Slow clearance" is regulated by time-dependent bacterial opsonization, stochastic platelet binding, and capture of bacteria-platelet-complexes via the complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily, CRIg. The mechanism spares some bacteria from "fast clearance" and rapid destruction in the liver via Kupffer cell scavenger receptors, keeping them available for adaptive immunity induction by splenic CD8α(+) dendritic cells. We consistently find "fast" and "slow" clearance patterns for a broad panel of other Gram+ and Gram- bacteria. Thus, dual-track clearance balances rapid restoration of blood sterility with induction of specific antibacterial immunity. PMID:27345696

  10. Quantifying circulating hypoxia-induced RNA transcripts in maternal blood to determine in utero fetal hypoxic status

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Clare; Teh, Wan Tinn; Walker, Susan P.; Leung, Cheryl; Mendis, Sonali; Larmour, Luke; Tong, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypoxia in utero can lead to stillbirth and severe perinatal injury. While current prenatal tests can identify fetuses that are hypoxic, none can determine the severity of hypoxia/acidemia. We hypothesized a hypoxic/acidemic fetus would up-regulate and release hypoxia-induced mRNA from the fetoplacental unit into the maternal circulation, where they can be sampled and quantified. Furthermore, we hypothesized the abundance of hypoxia induced mRNA in the maternal circulation would co...

  11. Haematopoiesis and a new mechanism for the release of mature blood cells from the bone marrow into the circulation in snakes (Ophidia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano-Martins, I Sigueko; Dabrowski, Z; Tabarowski, Z; Witkowska-Pelc, E; Spadacci Morena, D Denelle; Spodaryk, K

    2002-10-01

    This is the first description of haematopoiesis in snakes. Studies were carried out on the following species belonging to Ophidia: Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacusu, Waglerophis merremii, Elaphe taeniura taeniura, Boa constrictor,and Python reticulatus. Smears of the peripheral blood and histological preparations from the vertebrae, ribs, liver, and spleen were studied under a light and electron microscope. Myeloid cells were present in the following locations in the vertebrae: the neural spine, zygoapophysial processes, floor of the neural canal, lacunae in the bodies of vertebrae and also inside the ribs. Although the vascular system was well developed, especially around the ribs, vessels inside the marrow cavities were scarce, both in the ribs and elsewhere where haematopoiesis was found. Venous sinuses were well developed in the vertebrae and in the rib regions from their costal head towards the middle area. They consisted of one layer of fine endothelial cells. Mature cells in the process of migration into the general circulation were only sporadically encountered when venous sinuses were studied on perfusion-fixed specimens. In contrast, almost every sinus venosus contained protrusions directed towards the lumen, filled mostly with mature and immature blood cells. Various stages of their formation were seen in the cross sections of venous sinuses ranging from small, newly formed to large, elongated ones, filled with many fully developed and some maturing blood cells. In many cases the apices of the protrusions were ruptured, and mature blood cells, as well as a few immature ones, were seen in their vicinity. This observation led us to a new hypothesis that blood cells are released from the extravascular space into the lumen of venous sinuses. In snakes, these cells are released into the systemic circulation mainly via the rupture of protrusions filled with mature blood cells and, to a lesser degree, by transcytosis as known in mammals. In the spleens

  12. Assessment of diagnostic potency of exosomal microRNA in circulating blood of patient with thyroid cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Samsonov

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostics of thyroid cancer (TC remains a challenging issue due to the high incidence of asymptomatic thyroid nodular pathologies and absence of non-invasive methods of their assessment. Thyroid tumors are classified as benign and malignant with incidence ration approximated as 9:1. Correct and timely differential diagnosis is the basis for correctly choosing a treatment policy and hence determines treatment results. Methods for molecular genetic analysis are being recently developed and introduced into clinical practice, enabling the diagnostic process to be optimized. Analysis of the intracellular and secreted (exosomal fractions of small regulatory RNAs (microRNAs is one of the most promising methods for the diagnosis of cancers, including TC. The stability of extracellular microRNA is determined by bonds to proteins, lipoproteins, or its encapsulation into the membrane microvesicles – exosomes. There is reason for suggesting that exosomes with the specific composition of microRNA are a result of the process of active and biologically important secretion while release of other microRNA forms accompanies apoptotic or necrotic cell death. This determines the special diagnostic value of the exosomal fraction of circulating microRNAs, which may reflect the presence and clinically relevant properties of a tumor. This paper discusses the state of the problem and presents methods and preliminary results of the studies conducted by the authors to develop a novel method for diagnosing and monitoring TC. Thus, level of plasma exosomal miR-21 was shown to distinguish patients with benign tumor and follicular CT, while miR-31 can help to distinguish patients with benign tumor and papillary TC. Moreover, reciprocal character of miR-21 and miR-181a concentration in plasma exosomes was detected by comparison of patient with papillary and follicular TC.

  13. Theoretical discussion on promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis therapy for restless leg syndrome%活血化瘀法治疗不宁腿综合征的理论探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵阳; 刁倩; 李涛

    2012-01-01

    传统治疗思路认为具有柔肝养阴、缓急止痛作用的芍药甘草汤是治疗不宁腿综合征(restless legs syndrome,RLS)的有效方剂.但笔者通过临床实践、结合古代文献及中医药理论认为,血脉瘀阻是RLS的主要病机,活血化瘀应是治疗RLS的核心疗法.%Peony and Licorice Decoction was effective in treating Restless leg syndrome(RLS) with the function of nourishing yin for softening liver,relaxing spasm and relieving pain.Clinical practice,ancient literature and Chinese medicine theory were comprehensively studied to conclude that blood stasis is the key cause of RLS.Promoting blood circulation and removing blood stasis was the crucial therapy for RLS.

  14. Statistical Analysis of Categorical Time Series of Atmospheric Elementary Circulation Mechanisms - Dzerdzeevski Classification for the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenčič, Mihael

    2016-01-01

    Northern hemisphere elementary circulation mechanisms, defined with the Dzerdzeevski classification and published on a daily basis from 1899–2012, are analysed with statistical methods as continuous categorical time series. Classification consists of 41 elementary circulation mechanisms (ECM), which are assigned to calendar days. Empirical marginal probabilities of each ECM were determined. Seasonality and the periodicity effect were investigated with moving dispersion filters and randomisation procedure on the ECM categories as well as with the time analyses of the ECM mode. The time series were determined as being non-stationary with strong time-dependent trends. During the investigated period, periodicity interchanges with periods when no seasonality is present. In the time series structure, the strongest division is visible at the milestone of 1986, showing that the atmospheric circulation pattern reflected in the ECM has significantly changed. This change is result of the change in the frequency of ECM categories; before 1986, the appearance of ECM was more diverse, and afterwards fewer ECMs appear. The statistical approach applied to the categorical climatic time series opens up new potential insight into climate variability and change studies that have to be performed in the future. PMID:27116375

  15. Haemodynamic evaluation of the cerebral circulation by periorbital Doppler examination and cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement in carotid artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sillesen, H; Schroeder, T; Buchardt Hansen, H J

    1988-01-01

    To assess the haemodynamic significance of an internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis, angiography or direct ultrasound examination should be supplemented by indirect physiologic testing of the collateral circulation. Among the tests proposed, we used the periorbital flow direction, assessed by Do...

  16. Study on numerical simulation and dynamic mechanism of winter- time circulation in the eastern China seas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dong; HOU Yijun; WEI Zexun; LIU Xingquan; ZHAO Xixi

    2004-01-01

    An MOM2 based 3-dimentional prognostic baroclinic Z-ordinate model was established to study the circulation in eastern China seas, considering the topography, inflow and outflow on the open boundary, wind stress, temperature and salinity exchange on the sea surface. The results were consistent with observation and showed that the Kuroshio intrudes in large scale into the East China Sea continental shelf East China, during which its water is exchanged ceaselessly with outer sea water along Ryukyu Island. The Tsushima Warm Current is derived from several sources, a branch of the Kuroshio, part of the Taiwan Warm Current, and Yellow Sea mixed water coming from the west of Cheju Island. The water from the west of Cheju Island contributes approximately 13% of the Isushima Warm Current total transport through the Korea Strait. The circulation in the Bohai Sea and Yellow Sea is basically cyclonic circulation, and is comprised of coastal currents and the Yellow Sea Warm Current. Besides simulation of the real circulation, numerical experiments were conducted to study the dynamic mechanism. The numerical experiments indicated that wind directly drives the East China Sea and Yellow Sea Coastal Currents, and strengthens the Korea Coastal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current. In the no wind case, the kinetic energy of the coastal current area and main YSWC area is only 1% of that of the wind case. Numerical experiments also showed that the Tsushima Warm Current is of great importance to the formation of the Korea Coastal Current and Yellow Sea Warm Current.

  17. C-reactive protein prolongs blood coagulation time in phospholipids-dependent coagulation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L D Kozmin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available C-refctive protein prolongs blood coagulation time in phospholipids-dependent coagulation tests. O.P. Bliznukov, L.D. Kostin, A.J. Martinov, T.A. Lisitsina, T.M. Reshetnyak, V.J. Lauga Objective. To study influence of different CRP forms on blood clotting time in standard phospholipid clotting tests. Material and methods. Purified native CRP. monomeric CRP (0-1.6 M, immune complexes of native CRP and rabbit polyclonal anti-CRP antibodies (1.6 M were added to blood plasma of healthy donors. Blood clotting time was registered using optical coagulometer. Phospholipid dependent prothrombin time (PT, activated partial tromboplastin time (APTT, kaolin clotting time (KCT with kaolin and ellagic acid, dilute Russel viper venom time (dRVVT were determined. Results. Native CRP was able to increase blood clotting time in all mentioned clotting tests, excluding prothrombin time. CRP influence on blood clotting time showed a concentration dependence. Polyclonal rabbit anti-CRP antibodies had no inhibitory effect on CRP prolonged blood clotting time. Monomeric CRP (0-1.6 M had no influence on blood clotting time in all phospholipid-dependent clotting tests.

  18. Quantification of cellular volume and sub-cellular density fluctuations: comparison of normal peripheral blood cells and circulating tumor cells identified in a breast cancer patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KevinGregoryPhillips

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Cancer metastasis, the leading cause of cancer-related deaths, is facilitated in part by the hematogenous transport of circulating tumor cells (CTCs through the vasculature. Clinical studies have demonstrated that CTCs circulate in the blood of patients with metastatic disease across the major types of carcinomas, and that the number of CTCs in peripheral blood is correlated with overall survival in metastatic breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer. While the potential to monitor metastasis through CTC enumeration exists, the basic physical features of CTCs remain ill defined and moreover, the corresponding clinical utility of these physical parameters is unknown. To elucidate the basic physical features of CTCs we present a label-free imaging technique utilizing differential interference contrast (DIC microscopy to measure cell volume and to quantify sub-cellular mass-density variations as well as the size of subcellular constituents from mass-density spatial correlations. DIC measurements were carried out on CTCs identified in a breast cancer patient using the high-definition (HD CTC detection assay. We compared the biophysical features of HD-CTC to normal blood cell subpopulations including leukocytes, platelets, and red blood cells. HD-CTCs were found to possess larger volumes, decreased mass-density fluctuations, and shorter-range spatial density correlations in comparison to leukocytes. Our results suggest that HD-CTCs exhibit biophysical signatures that might be used to potentially aid in their detection and to monitor responses to treatment in a label-free fashion. The biophysical parameters reported here can be incorporated into computational models of CTC-vascular interactions and in vitro flow models to better understand metastasis.

  19. AFP mRNA level in enriched circulating tumor cells from hepatocellular carcinoma patient blood samples is a pivotal predictive marker for metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junhua; Niu, Xiaojuan; Zou, Lihui; Li, Lin; Li, Shugang; Han, Jingli; Zhang, Peiying; Song, Jinghai; Xiao, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) quantification may be helpful for evaluating cancer dissemination, predicting prognosis and assessing therapeutic effectiveness and safety. In the present study, CTCs from blood samples of 72 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were enriched with anti-EpCAM nanoparticles. AFP mRNA level was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after enrichment of CTCs from HCC blood samples at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after hepatectomy, respectively. AFP mRNA expression in CTCs was positive in 43 patients (59.7%) and negative in 29 patients (40.3%) before hepatectomy. Among 43 patients with positive AFP mRNA expression in CTCs before hepatectomy, 10 and 11 were diagnosed as intrahepatic/extrahepatic metastasis before and after hepatectomy, respectively. In addition, these 21 patients with metastasis had persisting positive AFP mRNA of CTCs during the whole tested year. Specifically, 3 patients with AFP mRNA negative in CTCs before hepatectomy changed to be positive at 6 and 9 months, and 2 of them were diagnosed as metastasis 12 months after hepatectomy. We conclude that the positive AFP mRNA of CTCs can be a pivotal predictor for HCC metastasis before and after hepatectomy. The release of AFP expression from hepatocellular carcinoma cells into circulation must be a major source of HCC metastasis. PMID:27160647

  20. Detection of circulating tumor cells in blood of metastatic breast cancer patients using a combination of cytokeratin and EpCAM antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weissenstein Ulrike

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are detectable in peripheral blood of metastatic breast cancer patients (MBC. In this paper we evaluate a new CTC separation method based on a combination of anti-EpCAM- and anti-cytokeratin magnetic cell separation with the aim to improve CTC detection with low target antigen densities. Methods Blood samples of healthy donors spiked with breast cancer cell line HCC1937 were used to determine accuracy and precision of the method. 10 healthy subjects were examined to evaluate specificity. CTC counts in 59 patients with MBC were measured to evaluate the prognostic value on overall survival. Results Regression analysis of numbers of recovered vs. spiked HCC1937 cells yielded a coefficient of determination of R2 = 0.957. The average percentage of cell recovery was 84%. The average within-run coefficient of variation for spiking of 185, 85 and 30 cells was 14%. For spiking of 10 cells the within-run CV was 30%. No CTCs were detected in blood of 10 healthy subjects examined. A standard threshold of 5 CTC/7.5 ml blood as a cut-off point between risk groups led to a highly significant prognostic marker (p  Conclusions We show that our CTC detection method is feasible and leads to accurate and reliable results. Our data suggest that a refined differentiation between patients with different CTC levels is reasonable.

  1. Application of promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis in treatment of chronic hepatitis B patients%活血化瘀法在慢性乙型肝炎治疗中的运用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周虎; 宋薇薇; 徐文斌; 俞冠东

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨慢性乙型肝炎患者(以下简称慢肝)是否存在免疫机能紊乱,活血化瘀疗法是否能改善慢性乙型肝炎患者免疫功能.方法 慢肝患者120例免疫球蛋白,T淋巴细胞亚群与20例健康对照组比较.将120例慢肝随机分为辨证组(A组)21例,活血化瘀组(B组)15例,辨证加活血化瘀组(C组)65例.结果 慢肝患者存在免疫功能紊乱,治疗后C组疗效明显高于其他两组.结论 在辨证基础上加活血化瘀的中药,能调整慢肝患者的免疫功能,显著提高治疗慢肝临床疗效.%Objective To discuss whether there is immune dysfunction in chronic hepatitis b patients and whether promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis could improve immune function of them. Methods Compare immunoglobulin and T lymphocyte subsets of 120 chronic hepatitis B patients and 20 healthy people. 120 chronic hepatitis B patients were grouped A, B and C by using random grouping test method. Group A which contains 21 patients, were treated with syndrome differentiation treatment, group B 15 patients, with promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis, and group C 65 patients, with both treatment. Results There is immune dysfunction in chronic hepatitis B patients, and patients in group C got better curative effect than those in the other 2 groups. Conclusion Promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis on the basis of syndrome differentiation treatment could improve immune function of chronic hepatitis B patients, and improve the curative effect significantly.

  2. Assessment of a six gene panel for the molecular detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood of female cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in the peripheral blood of cancer patients has been described for various solid tumors and their clinical relevance has been shown. CTC detection based on the analysis of epithelial antigens might be hampered by the genetic heterogeneity of the primary tumor and loss of epithelial antigens. Therefore, we aimed to identify new gene markers for the PCR-based detection of CTC in female cancer patients. Gene expression of 38 cancer cell lines (breast, ovarian, cervical and endometrial) and of 10 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples from healthy female donors was measured using microarray technology (Applied Biosystems). Differentially expressed genes were identified using the maxT test and the 50% one-sided trimmed maxT-test. Confirmatory RT-qPCR was performed for 380 gene targets using the AB TaqMan® Low Density Arrays. Then, 93 gene targets were analyzed using the same RT-qPCR platform in tumor tissues of 126 patients with primary breast, ovarian or endometrial cancer. Finally, blood samples from 26 healthy women and from 125 patients (primary breast, ovarian, cervical, or endometrial cancer, and advanced breast cancer) were analyzed following OncoQuick enrichment and RNA pre-amplification. Likewise, hMAM and EpCAM gene expression was analyzed in the blood of breast and ovarian cancer patients. For each gene, a cut-off threshold value was set at three standard deviations from the mean expression level of the healthy controls to identify potential markers for CTC detection. Six genes were over-expressed in blood samples from 81% of patients with advanced and 29% of patients with primary breast cancer. EpCAM gene expression was detected in 19% and 5% of patients, respectively, whereas hMAM gene expression was observed in the advanced group (39%) only. Multimarker analysis using the new six gene panel positively identified 44% of the cervical, 64% of the endometrial and 19% of the ovarian cancer patients. The

  3. Microfluidic bead-based multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification for detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood using quantum dots labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A microfluidic beads-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dots labels was developed. The chip-based CTCs analysis could detect reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products of tumor cell as low as 1 tumor cell (e.g. CEA expressing cell) in 1 mL blood sample. This microfluidic beads-based nucleic acid sensor is a promising platform for disease-related nucleic acid molecules at the lowest level at their earliest incidence. -- Highlights: •Combination of microfluidic bead-based platform and enzyme–probe–AuNPs is proposed. •The developed nucleic acid sensor could respond to 5 fM of tumor associated DNA. •Microfluidic platform and multienzyme-labeled AuNPs greatly enhanced sensitivity. •The developed nucleic acid sensor could respond to RT-PCR products of tumor cell as low as 1 tumor cell in 1 mL blood sample. •We report a sensitive nucleic acid sensor for detection of circulating tumor cells. -- Abstract: This study reports the development of a microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells in blood samples using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dot labels. In this method, the microbeads functionalized with the capture probes and modified electron rich proteins were arrayed within a microfluidic channel as sensing elements, and the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with the horseradish peroxidases (HRP) and DNA probes were used as labels. Hence, two signal amplification approaches are integrated for enhancing the detection sensitivity of circulating tumor cells. First, the large surface area of Au nanoparticle carrier allows several binding events of HRP on each nanosphere. Second, enhanced mass transport capability inherent from microfluidics leads to higher capture efficiency of targets because continuous flow within micro

  4. Microfluidic bead-based multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification for detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood using quantum dots labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, He, E-mail: mzhang_he@126.com; Fu, Xin; Hu, Jiayi; Zhu, Zhenjun

    2013-05-24

    Graphical abstract: A microfluidic beads-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the blood using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dots labels was developed. The chip-based CTCs analysis could detect reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) products of tumor cell as low as 1 tumor cell (e.g. CEA expressing cell) in 1 mL blood sample. This microfluidic beads-based nucleic acid sensor is a promising platform for disease-related nucleic acid molecules at the lowest level at their earliest incidence. -- Highlights: •Combination of microfluidic bead-based platform and enzyme–probe–AuNPs is proposed. •The developed nucleic acid sensor could respond to 5 fM of tumor associated DNA. •Microfluidic platform and multienzyme-labeled AuNPs greatly enhanced sensitivity. •The developed nucleic acid sensor could respond to RT-PCR products of tumor cell as low as 1 tumor cell in 1 mL blood sample. •We report a sensitive nucleic acid sensor for detection of circulating tumor cells. -- Abstract: This study reports the development of a microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells in blood samples using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dot labels. In this method, the microbeads functionalized with the capture probes and modified electron rich proteins were arrayed within a microfluidic channel as sensing elements, and the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with the horseradish peroxidases (HRP) and DNA probes were used as labels. Hence, two signal amplification approaches are integrated for enhancing the detection sensitivity of circulating tumor cells. First, the large surface area of Au nanoparticle carrier allows several binding events of HRP on each nanosphere. Second, enhanced mass transport capability inherent from microfluidics leads to higher capture efficiency of targets because continuous flow within micro

  5. Microfluidic bead-based multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification for detection of circulating tumor cells in the blood using quantum dots labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He; Fu, Xin; Hu, Jiayi; Zhu, Zhenjun

    2013-05-24

    This study reports the development of a microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor for sensitive detection of circulating tumor cells in blood samples using multienzyme-nanoparticle amplification and quantum dot labels. In this method, the microbeads functionalized with the capture probes and modified electron rich proteins were arrayed within a microfluidic channel as sensing elements, and the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) functionalized with the horseradish peroxidases (HRP) and DNA probes were used as labels. Hence, two signal amplification approaches are integrated for enhancing the detection sensitivity of circulating tumor cells. First, the large surface area of Au nanoparticle carrier allows several binding events of HRP on each nanosphere. Second, enhanced mass transport capability inherent from microfluidics leads to higher capture efficiency of targets because continuous flow within micro-channel delivers fresh analyte solution to the reaction site which maintains a high concentration gradient differential to enhance mass transport. Based on the dual signal amplification strategy, the developed microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor could discriminate as low as 5 fM (signal-to-noise (S/N)3) of synthesized carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) gene fragments and showed a 1000-fold increase in detection limit compared to the off-chip test. In addition, using spiked colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29) in the blood as a model system, the detection limit of this chip-based approach was found to be as low as 1 HT29 in 1 mL blood sample. This microfluidic bead-based nucleic acid sensor is a promising platform for disease-related nucleic acid molecules at the lowest level at their earliest incidence. PMID:23663673

  6. Meridional circulation in the solar convection zone: time-distance helioseismic inferences from four years of HMI/SDO observations

    CERN Document Server

    Rajaguru, S P

    2015-01-01

    We present and discuss results from time-distance helioseismic measurements of meridional circulation in the solar convection zone using 4 years of Doppler velocity observations by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Using an in-built mass conservation constraint in terms of the stream function we invert helioseismic travel times to infer meridional circulation in the solar convection zone. We find that the return flow that closes the meridional circulation is possibly beneath the depth of $0.77 R_{\\odot}$. We discuss the significance of this result in relation to other helioseismic inferences published recently and possible reasons for the differences in the results. Our results show clearly the pitfalls involved in the measurements of material flows in the deep solar interior given the current limits on signal-to-noise and our limited understanding of systematics in the data. We also discuss the implications of our results for the dynamics of solar interi...

  7. De novo assembly and identification of unique contigs in the bovine oviduct from animals with high and low circulating estradiol concentrations during timed artificial insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reproductive efficiency is a large concern for many cattle producers and understanding the mechanisms responsible for biological variation in reproduction is key to improving reproductive efficiency. Timed artificial insemination of beef cows with high circulating estradiol concentrations at time o...

  8. Fasudil inhibits the myogenic response in the fetal pulmonary circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tourneux, Pierre; Chester, Marc; Grover, Theresa; Abman, Steven H.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to high pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and low pulmonary blood flow, the fetal pulmonary circulation is characterized by mechanisms that oppose vasodilation. Past work suggests that high myogenic tone contributes to high PVR and may contribute to autoregulation of blood flow in the fetal lung. Rho-kinase (ROCK) can mediate the myogenic response in the adult systemic circulation, but whether high ROCK activity contributes to the myogenic response and modulates time-dependent v...

  9. Timing of blood pressure lowering in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcel, Cheryl; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    Whether there are any benefits without harm from early lowering of blood pressure (BP) in the setting of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) has been a longstanding controversy in medicine. Whilst most studies have consistently shown associations between elevated BP, particularly systolic BP, and poor outcome, some also report that very low BP (systolic <130 mmHg) and large reductions in systolic BP are associated with poor outcomes in AIS. However, despite these associations, the observed U- or J-shaped relationship between BP and outcome in these patients may not be causally related. Patients with more severe strokes may have a more prominent autonomic response and later lower BP as their condition worsens, often pre-terminally. Fortunately, substantial progress has been made in recent years with new evidence arising from well-conducted randomized trials. This review outlines new evidence and recommendations for clinical practice over BP management in AIS. PMID:26041479

  10. Influence of different storage times and temperatures on blood gas and acid-base balance in ovine venous blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hussein

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of storage temperature and time on blood gas and acid-base balance of ovine venous blood. Ten clinically healthy sheep were used in this study. A total number of 30 blood samples, were divided into three different groups, and were stored in a refrigerator adjusted to +4 ºC (Group I, n = 10, at RT of about 22-25 ºC (Group II, n = 10 and in an incubator adjusted to 37 ºC (Group III, n = 10 for up to 48 h. Blood samples were analysed for blood gas and acid-base indices at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of storage. In comparison to the baseline value (0, there were significant decreases of blood pH of samples stored at RT and in the incubator after 1 h (p<0.05, the pH value of refrigerated blood samples exhibited insignificant changes during the study (p<0.05. Mean values of pCO2 showed a significant increase in Group I and Group III after 1 h then a progressive decrease after 12 h in all Groups. Mean pO2 values were significantly higher for Group I after 2 h and for Groups II and III after 1 h (p<0.05. In general, base excess decreased significantly for all the groups during the study especially in Groups II and III. In comparison with baseline values, in all groups, bicarbonate (HCO3 increased between 1 h and 6 h (p<0.05, and later decreased at the end of the study (p<0.05. In conclusion, status of acid-base indices of the samples stored at refrigerator and RT were found within normal reference range and it may be of clinical diagnostic use for up to 6 h.

  11. Fully portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fully portable blood irradiator was developed using the beta emitter thulium-170 as the radiation source and vitreous carbon as the body of the irradiator, matrix for isotope encapsulation, and blood interface material. These units were placed in exteriorized arteriovenous shunts in goats, sheep, and dogs and the effects on circulating lymphocytes and on skin allograft retention times measured. The present work extends these studies by establishing baseline data for skin graft rejection times in untreated animals

  12. Predictive Understanding of the Oceans' Wind-Driven Circulation on Interdecadal Time Scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghil, Michael [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and IGPP; Temam, Roger [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Feliks, Y. [IIBR (France); Simonnet, E. [INLN (France); Tachim-Medjo, T. [Florida International Univ. (FIU), Miami, FL (United States)

    2008-09-30

    The goal of this project was to obtain a predictive understanding of a major component of the climate system's interdecadal variability: the oceans' wind-driven circulation. To do so, we developed and applied advanced computational and statistical methods to the problem of climate variability and climate change. The methodology was developed first for models of intermediate complexity, such as the quasi-geostrophic and the primitive equations, which describe the wind-driven, near-surface flow in mid-latitude ocean basins. Our computational work consisted in developing efficient multi-level methods to simulate this flow and study its dependence on physically relevant parameters. Our oceanographic and climate work consisted in applying these methods to study the bifurcations in the wind-driven circulation and their relevance to the flows observed at present and those that might occur in a warmer climate. Both aspects of the work are crucial for the efficient treatment of large-scale, eddy-resolving numerical simulations of the oceans and an increased understanding and better prediction of climate change. Considerable progress has been achieved in understanding ocean-atmosphere interaction in the mid-latitudes. An important by-product of this research is a novel approach to explaining the North Atlantic Oscillation.

  13. Determination of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in circulating blood: significance of VEGF in various leucocytes and platelets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werther, K; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    AIM: The sources of increased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentrations in peripheral blood from cancer patients are not known in detail. The aim of the present study was to evaluate correlations between the VEGF content in isolated leucocyte subpopulations and VEGF concentrations ...

  14. Effect of the Principle of Activating Blood Circulation to Break Stasis on GMP-140 and D2 Dimer in Patients with Acute Cerebral Infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical efficacy of the principle of activating blood circulation to break stasis (ABCBS) and its influence on platelet membranous protein particle (GMP-140) and D2 dimer (Ddimer) before and after treatment. Methods: Eighty-eight patients with blood stasis syndrome (BSS) of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) were randomly divided into two groups, both of which were treated with conventional treatment, i.e. with western medicine (WM), with Salvia injection added through intravenously dripping.One of the two groups was used as the control and the other group as the treated group who had ABCBS herbs orally taken in addition. The duration of treatment course for both groups was 3 weeks. Results: There were changes in both groups over clinical symptoms, nerve function deficit scoring and GMP-140, D-dimer, but the treated group showed significantly better than that of the control group, (P<0.05). Conclusion: ABCBS principle could serve as an important auxiliary treating method for BSS of ACI, as it can effectively alter the blood of ACI patients which was viscous, condense, coagulant and aggregating.

  15. Measurement of Circulating Filarial Antigen Levels in Human Blood with a Point-of-Care Test Strip and a Portable Spectrodensitometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnais, Cédric B; Vlaminck, Johnny; Kunyu-Shako, Billy; Pion, Sébastien D; Awaca-Uvon, Naomi-Pitchouna; Weil, Gary J; Mumba, Dieudonné; Boussinesq, Michel

    2016-06-01

    The Alere Filariasis Test Strip (FTS) is a qualitative, point-of-care diagnostic tool that detects Wuchereria bancrofti circulating filarial antigen (CFA) in human blood, serum, or plasma. The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis employs the FTS for mapping filariasis-endemic areas and assessing the success of elimination efforts. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between the intensity of positive test lines obtained by FTS with CFA levels as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with blood and plasma samples from 188 individuals who live in a filariasis-endemic area. The intensity of the FTS test line was assessed visually to provide a semiquantitative score (visual Filariasis Test Strip [vFTS]), and line intensity was measured with a portable spectrodensitometer (quantitative Filariasis Test Strip [qFTS]). These results were compared with antigen levels measured by ELISA in plasma from the same subjects. qFTS measurements were highly correlated with vFTS scores (ρ = 0.94; P bancrofti CFA levels in human blood, which are correlated with adult worm burdens. This tool may be useful for assessing the impact of treatment on adult filarial worms in individuals and communities. PMID:27114288

  16. Cuff-Free Blood Pressure Estimation Using Pulse Transit Time and Heart Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ruiping; Jia, Wenyan; Mao, Zhi-Hong; Sclabassi, Robert J.; Sun, Mingui

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that the pulse transit time (PTT), the interval between the peak of the R-wave in electrocardiogram (ECG) and the fingertip photoplethysmogram (PPG), is related to arterial stiffness, and can be used to estimate the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). This phenomenon has been used as the basis to design portable systems for continuously cuff-less blood pressure measurement, benefiting numerous people with heart conditions. However, the PTT-ba...

  17. Time to positivity in blood cultures of adults with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

    OpenAIRE

    Ansorena Luis; Garrido Jose; Rodríguez-Lera María; Peralta Galo; Roiz María

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background previous studies have established that bacterial blood concentration is related with clinical outcome. Time to positivity of blood cultures (TTP) has relationship with bacterial blood concentration and could be related with prognosis. As there is scarce information about the usefulness of TTP, we study the relationship of TTP with clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. Methods TTP of all cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, detec...

  18. Smartphone-based Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement Using Pulse Transit Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Meintjes, Andries; Baig, Mirza; Linden, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of low cost and easy to use personalized medical monitoring devices has opened the door for new and innovative methods of health monitoring to emerge. Cuff-less and continuous methods of measuring blood pressure are particularly attractive as blood pressure is one of the most important measurements of long term cardiovascular health. Current methods of noninvasive blood pressure measurement are based on inflation and deflation of a cuff with some effects on arteries where blood pressure is being measured. This inflation can also cause patient discomfort and alter the measurement results. In this work, a mobile application was developed to collate the PhotoPlethysmoGramm (PPG) waveform provided by a pulse oximeter and the electrocardiogram (ECG) for calculating the pulse transit time. This information is then indirectly related to the user's systolic blood pressure. The developed application successfully connects to the PPG and ECG monitoring devices using Bluetooth wireless connection and stores the data onto an online server. The pulse transit time is estimated in real time and the user's systolic blood pressure can be estimated after the system has been calibrated. The synchronization between the two devices was found to pose a challenge to this method of continuous blood pressure monitoring. However, the implemented continuous blood pressure monitoring system effectively serves as a proof of concept. This combined with the massive benefits that an accurate and robust continuous blood pressure monitoring system would provide indicates that it is certainly worthwhile to further develop this system. PMID:27225558

  19. 原发性痛经血瘀证实质及活血化瘀研究进展%Essence of Primary Dysmenorrhea of Blood Stasis Syndrome and the Progress of Promoting Blood Circulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙桂芳; 王佩娟

    2012-01-01

    The occurrence of primary dysmenorrhea should be mainly due to the rise of the prostaglandin level, and other factors can also directly or indirectly lead to primary dysmenorrhea. The most common syndrome is hlood stasis syndrome. It is found that the changes of vasomotion function, the visible components of hlood and their deformability and flow and other factors can interact and promote the formation of blood stasis syndrome, leading to uterine ischemia and lacks of oxygen, and finally pain. The blood circulation-promoting method plays a multi\\-target regulatory role in primary dysmenorrhea, not only reducing the pain-causing substances, but also improving the indicators of blood stasis syndrome, making an exact effect.The occurrence of primary dysmenorrhea should be mainly due to the rise of the prostaglandin level, and other factors can also directly or indirectly lead to primary dysmenorrhea. The most common syndrome is hlood stasis syndrome. It is found that the changes of vasomotion function, the visible components of hlood and their deformability and flow and other factors can interact and promote the formation of blood stasis syndrome, leading to uterine ischemia and lacks of oxygen, and finally pain. The blood circulation-promoting method plays a multi\\-target regulatory role in primary dysmenorrhea, not only reducing the pain-causing substances, but also improving the indicators of blood stasis syndrome, making an exact effect.%原发性痛经的发生主要与前列腺素水平升高有关,其它因素也可直接或间接导致痛经.本病以血瘀证多见,研究发现血管舒缩功能改变,血液有形成分及血液变形性与流动学的改变及其他因素等可相互作用,促进血瘀证形成,使子宫局部缺血缺氧而疼痛.活血化瘀法对本病发挥多靶点调控作用,既可降低致痛物质,又可改善血瘀证指标,疗效确切.

  20. Nonlinear Pressure-Flow Relationship Is Able to Detect Asymmetry of Brain Blood Circulation Associated with Midline Shift

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Kun; Lo, Men-Tzung; Peng, C. K.; Novak, Vera; Schmidt, Eric A.; Kumar, Ajay; Czosnyka, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Reliable and noninvasive assessment of cerebral blood flow regulation is a major challenge in acute care monitoring. This study assessed dynamics of flow regulation and its relationship to asymmetry of initial computed tomography (CT) scan using multimodal pressure flow (MMPF) analysis. Data of 27 patients (38 ± 15 years old) with traumatic brain injury (TBI) were analyzed. Patients were selected from bigger cohort according to criteria of having midline shift on initial CT scan and intact sk...

  1. Circulating thrombopoietin levels in normal healthy blood donors and in aplastic anemia patients in relation to disease severity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the key hematopoietic growth factor regulating the production of platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes and maintaining platelet hemostasis. This study was done to find any relationship between the levels of thrombopoietin and the severity of disease in patients with aplastic anemia. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of aplastic anemia and 45 normal healthy blood donors of both sexes over a pe...

  2. Simultaneous quantitative assessment of circulating cell-free mitochondrial and nuclear DNA by multiplex real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantification of circulating nucleic acids in plasma and serum could be used as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for monitoring a wide variety of diseases and conditions. We describe here a rapid, simple and accurate multiplex real-time PCR method for direct synchronized analysis of circulating cell-free (ccf mitochondrial (mtDNA and nuclear (nDNA DNA in plasma and serum samples. The method is based on one-step multiplex real-time PCR using a FAM-labeled MGB probe and primers to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC-labeled MGB probe and primers to amplify the nDNA sequence of the glycerinaldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH gene, in plasma and serum samples simultaneously. The efficiencies of the multiplex assays were measured in serial dilutions. Based on the simulation of the PCR reaction kinetics, the relative quantities of ccf mtDNA were calculated using a very simple equation. Using our optimised real-time PCR conditions, close to 100% efficiency was obtained from the two assays. The two assays performed in the dilution series showed very good and reproducible correlation to each other. This optimised multiplex real-time PCR protocol can be widely used for synchronized quantification of mtDNA and nDNA in different samples, with a very high rate of efficiency.

  3. Hydrodynamic and solid residence time distribution in a circulating fluidized bed: experimental and 3D computational study

    OpenAIRE

    Andreux, Régis; Petit, Geoffrey; Hemati, Mehrdji; Simonin, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    Vertical profiles of local pressure, horizontal profiles of net vertical solid mass flux, and residence time distributions (RTD) of the solid phase are experimentally assessed in the riser of a small scale cold Circulating Fluidized Bed of 9 m high having a square cross section of 1111 cm. Air (density 1.2 kg/m3, dynamic viscosity 1.8×10-5 Pa.s) and typical FCC particles (density 1400 kg/m3, mean diameter 70 mm) are used. The superficial gas velocity is kept constant at 7 m/s while the soli...

  4. Heparin Therapy during Extracorporeal Circulation: Deriving an Optimal Activated Clotting Time during Cardiopulmonary Bypass for Isolated Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, Kenneth; Ridgway, Tim; Al-Rawi, Omar; Poullis, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Bull’s seminal work on heparin therapy during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) was carried out over 30 years ago and has not been updated in the modern era. No correlation with postoperative blood loss was performed. The optimal activated clotting time (ACT) with regard to blood loss has not been established for patients undergoing CPB. A minimum ACT of 400 is based on the lack of visible formation of clots in the CPB circuit. The effect of heparin dose, sensitivity, metabolism, patient size, ele...

  5. Circulating thrombopoietin levels in normal healthy blood donors and in aplastic anemia patients in relation to disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombopoietin (TPO is the key hematopoietic growth factor regulating the production of platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes and maintaining platelet hemostasis. This study was done to find any relationship between the levels of thrombopoietin and the severity of disease in patients with aplastic anemia. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of aplastic anemia and 45 normal healthy blood donors of both sexes over a period of 2 years, and TPO was estimated by using commercially available TPO-specific-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The median TPO level of 1190 pg/ml (range 625-7651 pg/ml in aplastic anemia patients was significantly higher than the median TPO level of 121.1 pg/ml (81.25-237.7 pg/ml in normal healthy blood donors (P = 0.000. No significant difference was observed in TPO levels of male and female patients (P = 0.453. The median TPO concentrations observed in very severe aplastic anemia, severe aplastic anemia, and nonsevere aplastic anemia were 2765 pg/ml (range 625-6451 pg/ml, 1190 pg/ml (range 672.1-7651 pg/ml, and 1111.5 pg/ml (range 761.1-2289.2 pg/ml, respectively. TPO in patients of very severe aplastic anemia was significantly higher than patients of nonsevere aplastic anemia (P = 0.043, with no significant relation among rest of the groups. Discussion: TPO levels in aplastic anemia patients were significantly higher than in healthy blood donors; however, in aplastic anemia patients TPO levels were significantly higher only in patients with very severe disease.

  6. Neuropsychiatric disease relevance of circulating anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies depends on blood-brain barrier integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, C; Stepniak, B; Schneider, A; Papiol, S; Tantra, M; Begemann, M; Sirén, A-L; Pardo, L A; Sperling, S; Mohd Jofrry, S; Gurvich, A; Jensen, N; Ostmeier, K; Lühder, F; Probst, C; Martens, H; Gillis, M; Saher, G; Assogna, F; Spalletta, G; Stöcker, W; Schulz, T F; Nave, K-A; Ehrenreich, H

    2014-10-01

    In 2007, a multifaceted syndrome, associated with anti-NMDA receptor autoantibodies (NMDAR-AB) of immunoglobulin-G isotype, has been described, which variably consists of psychosis, epilepsy, cognitive decline and extrapyramidal symptoms. Prevalence and significance of NMDAR-AB in complex neuropsychiatric disease versus health, however, have remained unclear. We tested sera of 2817 subjects (1325 healthy, 1081 schizophrenic, 263 Parkinson and 148 affective-disorder subjects) for presence of NMDAR-AB, conducted a genome-wide genetic association study, comparing AB carriers versus non-carriers, and assessed their influenza AB status. For mechanistic insight and documentation of AB functionality, in vivo experiments involving mice with deficient blood-brain barrier (ApoE(-/-)) and in vitro endocytosis assays in primary cortical neurons were performed. In 10.5% of subjects, NMDAR-AB (NR1 subunit) of any immunoglobulin isotype were detected, with no difference in seroprevalence, titer or in vitro functionality between patients and healthy controls. Administration of extracted human serum to mice influenced basal and MK-801-induced activity in the open field only in ApoE(-/-) mice injected with NMDAR-AB-positive serum but not in respective controls. Seropositive schizophrenic patients with a history of neurotrauma or birth complications, indicating an at least temporarily compromised blood-brain barrier, had more neurological abnormalities than seronegative patients with comparable history. A common genetic variant (rs524991, P=6.15E-08) as well as past influenza A (P=0.024) or B (P=0.006) infection were identified as predisposing factors for NMDAR-AB seropositivity. The >10% overall seroprevalence of NMDAR-AB of both healthy individuals and patients is unexpectedly high. Clinical significance, however, apparently depends on association with past or present perturbations of blood-brain barrier function. PMID:23999527

  7. Storage time of transfused blood and disease recurrence after colorectal cancer surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perioperative blood transfusion and subsequent development of postoperative infectious complications may lead to poor prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested that the development of postoperative infectious complications may be related to the storage time of...... the transfused blood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between blood storage time and the development of disease recurrence and long-term survival after colorectal cancer surgery. METHODS: Preoperative and postoperative data were prospectively recorded in 740 patients undergoing elective...... transfused patients (P = 0.004). The survival of patients receiving blood exclusively stored < 21 days was 2.5 years. For patients receiving any blood stored > or = 21 days, survival was 3.7 years (P = 0.12). Among patients with curative resection (n = 532), the hazard ratio of disease recurrence was 1.5 (95...

  8. Rearranged EML4-ALK fusion transcripts sequester in circulating blood platelets and enable blood-based crizotinib response monitoring in non-small-cell lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, R. Jonas A.; Karachaliou, Niki; Berenguer, Jordi; Gimenez-Capitan, Ana; Schellen, Pepijn; Teixido, Cristina; Tannous, Jihane; Kuiper, Justine L.; Drees, Esther; Grabowska, Magda; van Keulen, Marte; Heideman, Danielle A.M.; Thunnissen, Erik; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Viteri, Santiago; Tannous, Bakhos A.; Drozdowskyj, Ana; Rosell, Rafael; Smit, Egbert F.; Wurdinger, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Non-small-cell lung cancers harboring EML4-ALK rearrangements are sensitive to crizotinib. However, despite initial response, most patients will eventually relapse, and monitoring EML4-ALK rearrangements over the course of treatment may help identify these patients. However, challenges associated with serial tumor biopsies have highlighted the need for blood-based assays for the monitoring of biomarkers. Platelets can sequester RNA released by tumor cells and are thus an attractive source for the non-invasive assessment of biomarkers. Methods: EML4-ALK rearrangements were analyzed by RT-PCR in platelets and plasma isolated from blood obtained from 77 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, 38 of whom had EML4-ALK-rearranged tumors. In a subset of 29 patients with EML4-ALK-rearranged tumors who were treated with crizotinib, EML4-ALK rearrangements in platelets were correlated with progression-free and overall survival. Results: RT-PCR demonstrated 65% sensitivity and 100% specificity for the detection of EML4-ALK rearrangements in platelets. In the subset of 29 patients treated with crizotinib, progression-free survival was 3.7 months for patients with EML4-ALK+ platelets and 16 months for those with EML4-ALK− platelets (hazard ratio, 3.5; P = 0.02). Monitoring of EML4-ALK rearrangements in the platelets of one patient over a period of 30 months revealed crizotinib resistance two months prior to radiographic disease progression. Conclusions: Platelets are a valuable source for the non-invasive detection of EML4-ALK rearrangements and may prove useful for predicting and monitoring outcome to crizotinib, thereby improving clinical decisions based on radiographic imaging alone. PMID:26544515

  9. Detection rate of actionable mutations in diverse cancers using a biopsy-free (blood) circulating tumor cell DNA assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaederle, Maria; Husain, Hatim; Fanta, Paul T.; Piccioni, David E.; Kesari, Santosh; Schwab, Richard B.; Banks, Kimberly C.; Lanman, Richard B.; Talasaz, AmirAli; Parker, Barbara A.; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of cell-free DNA using next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a powerful tool for the detection/monitoring of alterations present in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA). Plasma extracted from 171 patients with a variety of cancers was analyzed for ctDNA (54 genes and copy number variants (CNVs) in three genes (EGFR, ERBB2 and MET)). The most represented cancers were lung (23%), breast (23%), and glioblastoma (19%). Ninety-nine patients (58%) had at least one detectable alteration. The most frequent alterations were TP53 (29.8%), followed by EGFR (17.5%), MET (10.5%), PIK3CA (7%), and NOTCH1 (5.8%). In contrast, of 222 healthy volunteers, only one had an aberration (TP53). Ninety patients with non-brain tumors had a discernible aberration (65% of 138 patients; in 70% of non-brain tumor patients with an alteration, the anomaly was potentially actionable). Interestingly, nine of 33 patients (27%) with glioblastoma had an alteration (6/33 (18%) potentially actionable). Overall, sixty-nine patients had potentially actionable alterations (40% of total; 69.7% of patients (69/99) with alterations); 68 patients (40% of total; 69% of patients with alterations), by a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drug. In summary, 65% of diverse cancers (as well as 27% of glioblastomas) had detectable ctDNA aberration(s), with the majority theoretically actionable by an approved agent. PMID:26848768

  10. The early influence of hip traction or internal rotating on blood circulation of femoral head with neck fracture: study by superselective digital subtraction arteriography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the early influence of hip traction or internal rotating on the femur head blood circulation with femur neck fracture. Methods: Using digital subtraction angiography (DSA), nine patients underwent selective arteriography of the medial and lateral femoral circumflex artery from 2 to 23 days after the femoral neck fracture in a neutral position. Seven of them were done in the presence of 3 kg hip traction, and six were in 5 kg hip traction (4 cases after 3 kg traction). Angiography was also performed in a intorted position without traction in 5 patients. In 3 cases, retinacular artery angiography was done simultaneously using the micro catheter. The femoral circumflex arteriography of the normal leg was done in 8 patients, and three of them were simultaneously done in a postion of internal rotating of straight leg. Results: Comparison with the arteriographic findings in absence of traction, all retinacular arteries but inferior arteries were depicted few branches and less femoral head perfusion in all 9 patients, especially in that of medial femoral circumflex arteriography, as hip joint was tractating in neutral position with the same speed and volume of injecting contrast medium and, the veins were demonstrated poorly or delayed. Those changes became notable as traction weight increased from 3 kg to 5 kg in all four cases. While hip joint was internally rotating with the sick leg straightened in 5 patients, all retinacular arteries especially their branches and femoral head perfusion were hardly shown, which were also seen in normal leg in 2 cases, and those changes were more marked than that of in traction. Conclusion: Traction and internally rotating of hip joint decrease blood perfusion of major areas of the femoral head while blood flow of major retinacular arteries are reduced or even failed to be displayed with the vein drainage being impeded. Traction may be one of the important causes of avascular osteonecrosis of the femoral head

  11. Loss of bone marrow adrenergic beta 1 and 2 receptors modifies transcriptional networks, reduces circulating inflammatory factors, and regulates blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmari, Niousha; Schmidt, Jordan T; Krane, Gregory A; Malphurs, Wendi; Cunningham, Bruce E; Owen, Jennifer L; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Zubcevic, Jasenka

    2016-07-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is a prevalent condition with complex etiology and pathophysiology. Evidence exists of significant communication between the nervous system and the immune system (IS), and there appears to be a direct role for inflammatory bone marrow (BM) cells in the pathophysiology of hypertension. However, the molecular and neural mechanisms underlying this interaction have not been characterized. Here, we transplanted whole BM cells from the beta 1 and 2 adrenergic receptor (AdrB1(tm1Bkk)AdrB2(tm1Bkk)/J) knockout (KO) mice into near lethally irradiated C57BL/6J mice to generate a BM AdrB1.B2 KO chimera. This allowed us to evaluate the role of the BM beta 1 and beta 2 adrenergic receptors in mediating BM IS homeostasis and regulating blood pressure (BP) in an otherwise intact physiological setting. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting demonstrated that a decrease in systolic and mean BP in the AdrB1.B2 KO chimera is associated with a decrease in circulating inflammatory T cells, macrophage/monocytes, and neutrophils. Transcriptomics in the BM identified 7,419 differentially expressed transcripts between the C57 and AdrB1.B2 KO chimera. Pathway analysis revealed differentially expressed transcripts related to several cell processes in the BM of C57 compared with AdrB1.B2 KO chimera, including processes related to immunity (e.g., T-cell activation, T-cell recruitment, cytokine production, leukocyte migration and function), the cardiovascular system (e.g., blood vessel development, peripheral nerve blood flow), and the brain (e.g., central nervous system development, neurite development) among others. This study generates new insight into the molecular events that underlie the interaction between the sympathetic drive and IS in modulation of BP. PMID:27235450

  12. Measuring bovine mammary gland blood flow using a transit time ultrasonic flow probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorewit, R C; Aromando, M C; Bristol, D G

    1989-07-01

    Lactating cattle were used to validate a transit time ultrasonic blood flow metering system for measuring mammary gland arterial blood flow. Blood flow probes were surgically placed around the right external pudic artery. An electromagnetic flow probe was implanted in tandem with the ultrasonic probe in two cows for comparative measurements. The absolute accuracy of the implanted flow probes was assessed in vivo by mechanical means on anesthetized cows after 2 to 3 wk of implantation. The zero offset of the ultrasonic probes ranged from -12 to 8 ml/min. When the ultrasonic probe was properly implanted, the slopes of the calibration curves were linear and ranged from .92 to .95, tracking absolute flow to within 8%. The transit time instrument's performance was examined under a variety of physiological conditions. These included milking and hormone injections. The transit time ultrasonic flow meter accurately measured physiological changes in mammary arterial blood flow in chronically prepared conscious cattle. Blood flow increased 29% during milking. Epinephrine decreased mammary blood flow by 90 to 95%. Oxytocin doses increased mammary blood flow by 15 to 24%. PMID:2674232

  13. Experimental investigation of natural circulation BWR core-wide and regional stability on the basis of time series analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A time series analysis method was performed to calculate decay ratios from dominant poles of a transfer function by applying AR method to time series of the core inlet flow rate. By utilizing this method, one can estimate stability at any specific operating point online without assuming excessively conservative conditions. Experiments were conducted with the SIRIUS facility, which simulates a representative natural circulation BWR. Channel and regional stability decay ratios at the nominal operating condition were determined to be 0.38 and 0.54, respectively, which indicates sufficient margin for the instabilities. Experiments were extended to investigate the effects of the design parameters on stability. For the marginal operating condition, the system further stabilized with decreasing a ratio of outer to inner power, a core inlet subcooling, and void reactivity coefficient. The system became the least stable condition when thermal conductance of the fuel rod coincided with the oscillation period of thermal-hydraulic instability. (author)

  14. Time-resolved volumetric MRI blood flow: a Doppler ultrasound perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Roy; Oliván Bescós, Javier; Nagel, Eike; Vilanova, Anna

    2014-03-01

    Hemodynamic information is increasingly inspected to assess cardiovascular disease. Abnormal blood-flow patterns include high-speed jet flow and regurgitant flow. Such pathological blood-flow patterns are nowadays mostly inspected by means of color Doppler ultrasound imaging. To date, Doppler ultrasound has been the prevailing modality for blood-flow analysis, providing non-invasive and cost-effective blood-flow imaging. Since recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly employed to measure time-resolved blood-flow data. Albeit more expensive, MRI enables volumetric velocity encoding, providing true vector-valued data with less noise. Domain experts in the field of ultrasound and MRI have extensive experience in the interpretation of blood-flow information, although they employ different analysis techniques. We devise a visualization framework that extends on common Doppler ultrasound visualizations, exploiting the added value of MRI velocity data, and aiming for synergy between the domain experts. Our framework enables experts to explore the advantages and disadvantages of the current renditions of their imaging data. Furthermore, it facilitates the transition from conventional Doppler ultrasound images to present-day high-dimensional velocity fields. To this end, we present a virtual probe that enables direct exploration of MRI-acquired blood-flow velocity data using user-friendly interactions. Based on the probe, Doppler ultrasound inspired visualizations convey both in-plane and through-plane blood-flow velocities. In a compound view, these two-dimensional visualizations are linked to state-of-the-art three-dimensional blood-flow visualizations. Additionally, we introduce a novel volume rendering of the blood-flow velocity data that emphasizes anomalous blood-flow patterns. The visualization framework was evaluated by domain experts, and we present their feedback.

  15. Ensemble forecasts of monthly catchment rainfall out to long lead times by post-processing coupled general circulation model output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepen, Andrew; Wang, Q. J.

    2014-11-01

    Monthly streamflow forecasts with long lead time are being sought by water managers in Australia. In this study, we take a first step towards a monthly streamflow modelling approach by harnessing a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (CGCM) to produce monthly rainfall forecasts for three catchments across Australia. Bayesian methodologies are employed to produce forecasts based on CGCM raw rainfall forecasts and also CGCM sea surface temperature forecasts. The Schaake Shuffle is used to connect forecast ensemble members of individual months to form ensemble monthly time series forecasts. Monthly forecasts and three-monthly forecasts of rainfall are assessed for lead times of 0-6 months, based on leave-one-year-out cross-validation for 1980-2010. The approach is shown to produce well-calibrated ensemble forecasts that source skill from both the atmospheric and ocean modules of the CGCM. Although skill is generally low, moderate skill scores are observed in some catchments for lead times of up to 6 months. In months and catchments where there is limited skill, the forecasts revert to climatology. Thus the forecasts developed can be considered suitable for continuously forecasting time series of streamflow to long lead times, when coupled with a suitable monthly hydrological model.

  16. Visualisation of blood and lymphatic vessels with increasing exposure time of the detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalchenko, V V; Kuznetsov, Yu L; Meglinski, I V

    2013-07-31

    We describe the laser speckle contrast method for simultaneous noninvasive imaging of blood and lymphatic vessels of living organisms, based on increasing detector exposure time. In contrast to standard methods of fluorescent angiography, this technique of vascular bed imaging and lymphatic and blood vessel demarcation does not employ toxic fluorescent markers. The method is particularly promising with respect to the physiology of the cardiovascular system under in vivo conditions. (laser applications in biology and medicine)

  17. ABO Blood Group Genotyping by Real-time PCR in Kazakh Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Tarlykov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. ABO blood group genotyping is a new technology in hematology that helps prevent adverse transfusion reactions in patients. Identification of antigens on the surface of red blood cells is based on serology; however, genotyping employs a different strategy and is aimed directly at genes that determine the surface proteins. ABO blood group genotyping by real-time PCR has several crucial advantages over other PCR-based techniques, such as high rapidity and reliability of analysis. The purpose of this study was to examine nucleotide substitutions differences by blood types using a PCR-based method on Kazakh blood donors.Methods. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the National Center for Biotechnology. Venous blood samples from 369 healthy Kazakh blood donors, whose blood types had been determined by serological methods, were collected after obtaining informed consent. The phenotypes of the samples included blood group A (n = 99, B (n = 93, O (n = 132, and AB (n = 45. Genomic DNA was extracted using a salting-out method. PCR products of ABO gene were sequenced on an ABI 3730xl DNA analyzer (Applied Biosystems. The resulting nucleotide sequences were compared and aligned against reference sequence NM_020469.2. Real-time PCR analysis was performed on CFX96 Touch™ Real-Time PCR Detection System (BioRad.Results. Direct sequencing of ABO gene in 369 samples revealed that the vast majority of nucleotide substitutions that change the ABO phenotype were limited to exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene at positions 261, 467, 657, 796, 803, 930 and 1,060. However, genotyping of only three of them (261, 796 and 803 resulted in identification of major ABO genotypes in the Kazakh population. As a result, TaqMan probe based real-time PCR assay for the specific detection of genotypes 261, 796 and 803 was developed. The assay did not take into account several other mutations that may affect the determination of blood group, because they have a

  18. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    OpenAIRE

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-01-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation f...

  19. Circulation and hydrological characteristics of the North Aegean Sea: a contribution from real-time buoy measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. NITTIS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of the POSEIDON Project, a network of open sea oceanographic buoys equipped with meteorological and oceanographic sensors has been operational in the Aegean Sea since 1998. The analysis of upper-ocean physical data (currents at 3m, temperature and salinity at 3-40m depths collected during the last 2 years from the stations of the North Aegean basin indicates a strong temporal variability of flow field and hydrological characteristics in both synoptic and seasonal time scales. The northern part of the basin is mainly influenced by the Black Sea Water outflow and the mesoscale variability of the corresponding thermohaline fronts, while the southern stations are influenced by the general circulation of the Aegean Sea with strong modulations caused by the seasonally varying atmospheric forcing.

  20. On the Influence of Weak Magnetic and Electric Fields on the Fluctuations of Ionic Electric Currents in Blood Circulation

    CERN Document Server

    Kanokov, Zakirjon; Nasirov, Avazbek K

    2009-01-01

    An analysis of a variety of existing experimental data leads to the conclusion on the existence of a resonance mechanism allowing weak magnetic fields to affect biological processes. These fields may either be static magnetic fields comparable in magnitude with the magnetic field of the earth or weak ultra-low frequency time-dependent fields. So far, a generally accepted theoretical model allowing one to understand the effect of magnetic and electric fields on biological processes is not available. By this reason, it is not clear which characteristics of the fields, like magnetic and electric field strength, frequency of change of the field, shape of the electromagnetic wave, the duration of the magnetic or electric influence or some particular combination of them, are responsible for the biological effect. In the present analysis it is shown that external time-independent magnetic fields may cause a resonance amplification of ionic electric currents in biological tissues and, in particular, in the vasculatur...

  1. Implementation of ultrasound time-domain cross-correlation blood velocity estimators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1993-01-01

    The implementation of real-time blood velocity estimators using time-domain cross-correlation is investigated. The basic algorithm for stationary echo canceling, cross-correlation estimation and subsequent velocity estimation is presented. Sampled data acquired at rates of approximately 20 MHz are...

  2. Feasibility of quantification of the distribution of blood flow in the normal human fetal circulation using CMR: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seed Mike

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present the first phase contrast (PC cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR measurements of the distribution of blood flow in twelve late gestation human fetuses. These were obtained using a retrospective gating technique known as metric optimised gating (MOG. Methods A validation experiment was performed in five adult volunteers where conventional cardiac gating was compared with MOG. Linear regression and Bland Altman plots were used to compare MOG with the gold standard of conventional gating. Measurements using MOG were then made in twelve normal fetuses at a median gestational age of 37 weeks (range 30–39 weeks. Flow was measured in the major fetal vessels and indexed to the fetal weight. Results There was good correlation between the conventional gated and MOG measurements in the adult validation experiment (R=0.96. Mean flows in ml/min/kg with standard deviations in the major fetal vessels were as follows: combined ventricular output (CVO 540±101, main pulmonary artery (MPA 327±68, ascending aorta (AAo 198±38, superior vena cava (SVC 147±46, ductus arteriosus (DA 220±39,pulmonary blood flow (PBF 106±59,descending aorta (DAo 273±85, umbilical vein (UV 160±62, foramen ovale (FO107±54. Results expressed as mean percentages of the CVO with standard deviations were as follows: MPA 60±4, AAo37±4, SVC 28±7, DA 41±8, PBF 19±10, DAo50±12, UV 30±9, FO 21±12. Conclusion This study demonstrates how PC CMR with MOG is a feasible technique for measuring the distribution of the normal human fetal circulation in late pregnancy. Our preliminary results are in keeping with findings from previous experimental work in fetal lambs.

  3. Real-time, aptamer-based tracking of circulating therapeutic agents in living animals

    OpenAIRE

    Ferguson, B. Scott; Hoggarth, David A.; Maliniak, Dan; Ploense, Kyle; White, Ryan J.; Woodward, Nick; Hsieh, Kuangwen; Bonham, Andrew J.; Eisenstein, Michael; Kippin, Tod; Plaxco, Kevin W.; Soh, H. Tom

    2013-01-01

    A sensor capable of continuously measuring specific molecules in the bloodstream in vivo would give clinicians a valuable window into patients’ health and their response to therapeutics. Such technology would enable truly personalized medicine, wherein therapeutic agents could be tailored with optimal doses for each patient to maximize efficacy and minimize side effects. Unfortunately, continuous, real-time measurement is currently only possible for a handful of targets, such as glucose, lact...

  4. Time variations of the effects of circulation variability modes on European temperature and precipitation in winter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beranová, Romana; Huth, Radan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2008), s. 139-158. ISSN 0899-8418 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/05/2282; GA AV ČR IAA300420506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : temperature * precipitation * modes of variability * time variations * Euro-Atlantic sector Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 1.971, year: 2008

  5. Multiscale analysis of heart rate, blood pressure and respiration time series

    CERN Document Server

    Angelini, L; Marinazzo, D; Nitti, L; Pellicoro, M; Pinna, G D; Stramaglia, S; Tupputi, S A

    2005-01-01

    We present the multiscale entropy analysis of short term physiological time series of simultaneously acquired samples of heart rate, blood pressure and lung volume, from healthy subjects and from subjects with Chronic Heart Failure. Evaluating the complexity of signals at the multiple time scales inherent in physiologic dynamics, we find that healthy subjects show more complex time series at large time scales; on the other hand, at fast time scales, which are more influenced by respiration, the pathologic dynamics of blood pressure is the most random. These results robustly separate healthy and pathologic groups. We also propose a multiscale approach to evaluate interactions between time series, by performing a multivariate autoregressive modelling of the coarse grained time series: this analysis provides several new quantitative indicators which are statistically correlated with the pathology.

  6. Visualization of a gas-liquid metal two-phase natural circulation flow by a real-time neutron radiography technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a breeder-type nuclear power plant, liquid metal is used as a coolant due to the high heat capacity factor. Also, some proposals for fusion reactor blanket design include liquid metal as a possible coolant. In both cases the understanding of natural circulation of liquid-metal flow behavior is an integral part of the thermal hydraulic analysis, especially under two-phase flow conditions. Experimental investigations have been conducted to study a liquid metal two-phase natural circulation flow system. A lead-bismuth (PbBi) eutectic mixture is used as a working fluid in a heated metal walled natural circulation loop. Gas injection induces natural circulation through the gas-lift mechanism. A real-time neutron radiography system is used to visualize the two-phase mixture, specifically the interface and the flow regime. Measurements of void fraction, void fluctuation and bubble propagation are performed

  7. An Investigation of Pulse Transit Time as a Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, B. M.; O'Flynn, B.; Mathewson, A.

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the Pulse Transit Method (PTT) as a non-invasive means to track Blood Pressure over a short period of time. PTT was measured as the time it takes for an ECG R-wave to propagate to the finger, where it is detected by a photoplethysmograph sensor. The PTT method is ideal for continuous 24-hour Blood Pressure Measurement (BPM) since it is both cuff-less and non-invasive and therefore comfortable and unobtrusive for the patient. Other techniques, such as the oscillometric method, have shown to be accurate and reliable but require a cuff for operation, making them unsuitable for long term monitoring. Although a relatively new technique, the PTT method has shown to be able to accurately track blood pressure changes over short periods of time, after which re-calibration is necessary. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the method.

  8. Estimation of equilibrium time between rumen and blood using a modified the extraction technique in sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified modification to the sublimation technique for water separation before TOH counting in biological fluids is discussed. The recovered TOH radioactivity after distillation was 98.7% of that of the non-distilled TOH. The technique was applied to determine the time required for attaining equilibrium between rumen and blood water in sheep previously injected with TOH for water metabolism studies. Analysis of TOH radioactivity/time curves in blood as a primary pool and in the rumen as a secondary pool showed that equilibration time between these two large water subpools was about 12-18 hrs after dosing. TOH specific radioactivity that was derived to rumen from blood was about 90-95% at 8 hrs after injection. It was also found that the calculated water total entry rate values were comparable to the corresponding estimated water consumption

  9. An Investigation of Pulse Transit Time as a Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to examine the Pulse Transit Method (PTT) as a non-invasive means to track Blood Pressure over a short period of time. PTT was measured as the time it takes for an ECG R-wave to propagate to the finger, where it is detected by a photoplethysmograph sensor. The PTT method is ideal for continuous 24-hour Blood Pressure Measurement (BPM) since it is both cuff-less and non-invasive and therefore comfortable and unobtrusive for the patient. Other techniques, such as the oscillometric method, have shown to be accurate and reliable but require a cuff for operation, making them unsuitable for long term monitoring. Although a relatively new technique, the PTT method has shown to be able to accurately track blood pressure changes over short periods of time, after which re-calibration is necessary. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the method.

  10. An Investigation of Pulse Transit Time as a Non-Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, B M; O' Flynn, B; Mathewson, A, E-mail: brian.mccarthy@tyndall.ie [Tyndall National Institute, UCC, Lee Maltings, Prospect Row, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-08-17

    The objective of this paper is to examine the Pulse Transit Method (PTT) as a non-invasive means to track Blood Pressure over a short period of time. PTT was measured as the time it takes for an ECG R-wave to propagate to the finger, where it is detected by a photoplethysmograph sensor. The PTT method is ideal for continuous 24-hour Blood Pressure Measurement (BPM) since it is both cuff-less and non-invasive and therefore comfortable and unobtrusive for the patient. Other techniques, such as the oscillometric method, have shown to be accurate and reliable but require a cuff for operation, making them unsuitable for long term monitoring. Although a relatively new technique, the PTT method has shown to be able to accurately track blood pressure changes over short periods of time, after which re-calibration is necessary. The purpose of this study is to determine the accuracy of the method.

  11. Effect of confounding factors on blood pressure estimation using pulse arrival time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two confounding factors were selected and analyzed in blood pressure estimation using pulse arrival time (PAT) for each individual. The heart rate was used as the confounding factor for the cardiac cycle, and the duration from the maximum derivative point to the dicrotic peak (TDB) in the photoplethysmogram was used as another confounding factor representing arterial stiffness. By considering these factors with PAT in multiple regression analysis, the performance of blood pressure estimation is enhanced significantly in the diastolic phase as well as in the systolic phase. The reproducibility of this method was also validated with formerly obtained regression equations from the training set. The correlation between estimated and measured blood pressure decreased a little, but the validity was still maintained (r ≅ 0.8). This shows the value of the method in non-intrusive blood pressure estimation for individual patients and may be useful for various applications

  12. Time to positivity in blood cultures of adults with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansorena Luis

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background previous studies have established that bacterial blood concentration is related with clinical outcome. Time to positivity of blood cultures (TTP has relationship with bacterial blood concentration and could be related with prognosis. As there is scarce information about the usefulness of TTP, we study the relationship of TTP with clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia. Methods TTP of all cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, detected between January 1995 and December 2004 using the BacT/Alert automated blood culture system in a teaching community hospital was analyzed. When multiple cultures were positive only the shortest TTP was selected for the analysis. Results in the study period 105 patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia were detected. Median TTP was 14.1 hours (range 1.2 h to 127 h. Immunosuppressed patients (n = 5, patients with confusion (n = 19, severe sepsis or shock at the time of blood culture extraction (n = 12, those with a diagnosis of meningitis (n = 7 and those admitted to the ICU (n = 14 had lower TTP. Patients with TTP in the first quartile were more frequently hospitalized, admitted to the ICU, had meningitis, a non-pneumonic origin of the bacteremia, and a higher number of positive blood cultures than patients with TTP in the fourth quartile. None of the patients with TTP in the 90th decile had any of these factors associated with shorter TTP, and eight out of ten patients with TTP in the 10th decile had at least one of these factors. The number of positive blood cultures had an inverse correlation with TTP, suggesting a relationship of TTP with bacterial blood concentration. Conclusion Our data support the relationship of TTP with several clinical parameters in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteremia, and its potential usefulness as a surrogate marker of outcome.

  13. A real time, wearable ECG and continous blood pressure monitoring system for first responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, David M D; Colunas, Marcio F M; Marques, Fabio A Ferreira; Fernandes, Jose M; Cunha, Joao P Silva

    2011-01-01

    The study of stress and fatigue among First Responders is a major step in mitigating this public health problem. Blood pressure, heart rate variability and fatigue related arrhythmia are three of the main "windows" to study stress and fatigue. In this paper we present a wearable medical device, capable of acquiring an electrocardiogram and estimating blood pressure in real time, through a pulse wave transit time approach. The system is based on an existent certified wearable medical device called "Vital Jacket" and is aimed to become a tool to allow cardiologists in studying stress and fatigue among first response professionals. PMID:22255923

  14. SU-E-T-45: Antibody Mean Residence Time in Blood and Its Correlation with Protein Molecular Weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Animal biodistribution data are required prior to introducing a new radiopharmaceutical into clinical trials. Protein engineering, using recombinant DNA techniques can produce a large number of related (cognate) antibodies to a given molecular target. Thus, it is important that these constructs be numerically related to one another via a single criterion. In the following, we use the mean residence time (MRT) in murine blood as this criterion. Methods: Five cognate anti-CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) antibodies were compared with regard to their MRT in whole blood of CEA-positive tumor-bearing (LS174T) mice. MRT was defined by blood AUC (area under the curve) divided by the initial blood uptake value; all in units of percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g). Cognates included single chain scFv (25 kDa), diabody (50 kDa), minibody (80 kDa), F(ab')2 (120 kDa), and intact (155 kDa) forms of the murine cT84.66 antibody against CEA. All were labeled with radioactive iodine. Results: The agents, in the sequence listed, exhibited MRT values of 1.16 +/- 0.01 h, 0.99 h, 5.06 +/- 0.70 h, 6.61 +/- 0.36 h, and 59.3 +/- 2.4 h respectively. Because of the monotonic nature of the sequence, a linear correlation analysis was performed between molecular weight (MW) and MRT or ln(MRT) of the 5 proteins. Probability of random correlation was 0.10 for MRT and 0.01 for ln(MRT). Conclusion: MRT values of cognate anti-CEA antibodies were found to be a monotonically increasing sequence with respect to MW. Cognate MW values correlated best to ln(MRT) of the protein species. Thus MRT was proportional to an exponential function of molecular weight. The extended intact antibody circulation time presumably reflected its relatively maximal MW. Presence of an intact FC segment on this native antibody may also have influenced these results

  15. SU-E-T-45: Antibody Mean Residence Time in Blood and Its Correlation with Protein Molecular Weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, C; Williams, L [Retired from City of Hope Medical Center, Arcadia, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Animal biodistribution data are required prior to introducing a new radiopharmaceutical into clinical trials. Protein engineering, using recombinant DNA techniques can produce a large number of related (cognate) antibodies to a given molecular target. Thus, it is important that these constructs be numerically related to one another via a single criterion. In the following, we use the mean residence time (MRT) in murine blood as this criterion. Methods: Five cognate anti-CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen) antibodies were compared with regard to their MRT in whole blood of CEA-positive tumor-bearing (LS174T) mice. MRT was defined by blood AUC (area under the curve) divided by the initial blood uptake value; all in units of percent injected dose per gram (%ID/g). Cognates included single chain scFv (25 kDa), diabody (50 kDa), minibody (80 kDa), F(ab')2 (120 kDa), and intact (155 kDa) forms of the murine cT84.66 antibody against CEA. All were labeled with radioactive iodine. Results: The agents, in the sequence listed, exhibited MRT values of 1.16 +/- 0.01 h, 0.99 h, 5.06 +/- 0.70 h, 6.61 +/- 0.36 h, and 59.3 +/- 2.4 h respectively. Because of the monotonic nature of the sequence, a linear correlation analysis was performed between molecular weight (MW) and MRT or ln(MRT) of the 5 proteins. Probability of random correlation was 0.10 for MRT and 0.01 for ln(MRT). Conclusion: MRT values of cognate anti-CEA antibodies were found to be a monotonically increasing sequence with respect to MW. Cognate MW values correlated best to ln(MRT) of the protein species. Thus MRT was proportional to an exponential function of molecular weight. The extended intact antibody circulation time presumably reflected its relatively maximal MW. Presence of an intact FC segment on this native antibody may also have influenced these results.

  16. Continuous blood pressure monitoring during exercise using pulse wave transit time measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass, J; Meigas, K; Karai, D; Kattai, R; Kaik, J; Rossmann, M

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of a research, which is focused on the development of the convenient device for continuous non-invasive monitoring of arterial blood pressure. The blood pressure estimation method is based on a presumption that there is a singular relationship between the pulse wave propagation time in arterial system and blood pressure. The parameter used in this study is pulse wave transit time (PWTT). The measurement of PWTT involves the registration of two time markers, one of which is based on ECG R peak detection and another on the detection of pulse wave in peripheral arteries. The reliability of beat to beat systolic blood pressure calculation during physical exercise was the main focus for the current paper. Sixty-one subjects (healthy and hypertensive) were studied with the bicycle exercise test. As a result of current study it is shown that with the correct personal calibration it is possible to estimate the beat to beat systolic arterial blood pressure during the exercise with comparable accuracy to conventional noninvasive methods. PMID:17272172

  17. Time impact on non-activated and kaolin-activated blood samples in thromboelastography

    OpenAIRE

    Durila, Miroslav; Lukáš, Pavel; Bronský, Jiří; Cvachovec, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Background The correct methodology of thrombelastography might be influenced by elapsing time. In our study we investigated kaolin activated citrated samples together with non-activated citrated samples in relation to the elapsed times of 0, 15 and 30 minutes to compare both methods and to find out if there is an impact of time on results of thrombelastography. Methods Blood samples obtained from 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed after 0, 15 and 30 minutes from sampling with kaolin activati...

  18. Effects of a TASER® conducted energy weapon on the circulating red-blood-cell population and other factors in Sus scrofa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, James R; Bernhard, Joshua A; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L; Tarango, Melissa

    2013-09-01

    In previous studies hematocrit has been consistently increased in an anesthetized animal model after exposures to TASER(®) conducted energy weapons (CEWs). In the present study we analyzed changes in blood cell counts and red blood cell membrane proteins following two 30-s applications of a TASER C2 device (which is designed for civilian use). Hematocrit increased significantly from 33.2 ± 2.4 (mean ± SD) to 42.8 ± 4.6 % immediately after CEW exposure of eleven pigs (Sus scrofa). Red blood cell count increased significantly from 6.10 ± 0.55 × 10(12)/L to 7.45 ± 0.94 × 10(12)/L, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly from 54.5 ± 2.4 fl to 57.8 ± 2.6 fl. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly from 20.5 ± 0.7 to 18.5 ± 0.6 mM. Thirty protein spots (from two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, selected for detailed comparison) exhibited greater densities 30-min post-exposure compared with pre-exposure values. A greater number of echinocytes were observed following CEW exposure. On the basis of these results it appears that, during the strong muscle contractions produced by TASER CEWs, a specific population of red blood cells (RBCs) may be released from the spleen or other reservoirs within the body. The total time of CEW exposure in the present study was relatively long compared with exposures in common law-enforcement scenarios. Despite statistically significant changes in red blood cell counts (and other measures directly related to RBCs), the alterations were short-lived. The transient nature of the changes would be likely to counteract any potentially detrimental effects. PMID:23543463

  19. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and...... cirrhosis. The relation between PBV and PTT and the low diffusing capacity suggests the pulmonary vascular compartment as an important element in the pathophysiology of the lung dysfunction in cirrhosis....

  20. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... cirrhosis. The relation between PBV and PTT and the low diffusing capacity suggests the pulmonary vascular compartment as an important element in the pathophysiology of the lung dysfunction in cirrhosis....... not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and...

  1. Time-dependent low-field MRI characteristics of canine blood: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jimo; Park, Sangjun; Jeong, Eunseok; Kim, Namsoo; Kim, Minsu; Jung, Yechan; Cho, Youngkwon; Lee, Kichang

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted to assess time-sensitive magnetic resonance (MR) changes in canine blood using low-field MR. Arterial and venous blood samples were collected from eight healthy beagle dogs. Samples were placed in 5-mL tubes and imaged within 3 hours of collection at 1 day intervals from day 1 to day 30. The following sequences were used: T1-weighted (T1W), T2-weighted (T2W), fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), short tau inversion recovery (STIR), and T2-star gradient-echo (T2(*)-GRE). Visual comparison of the images revealed that four relatively homogenous blood clots and twelve heterogeneous blood clots developed. The margination of the clot and plasma changed significantly on day 2 and day 13. On day 2, heterogeneous blood clots were differentiated into 2 to 3 signal layers in the T2W, T1W, and especially the STIR images. Hypointense signal layers were also detected in the blood clots in STIR images, which have T2 hypo, FLAIR hypo, and T1 hyper intense signals. In all images, these signal layers remained relatively unchanged until day 13. Overall, the results suggest that hematomas are complex on low-field MRI. Accordingly, it may not be feasible to accurately characterize hemorrhages and predict clot age based on low-field MRI. PMID:27051346

  2. The influence of the dried blood spot drying time on the recoveries of six immunosuppressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco A. Koster

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the drying time of dried blood spots (DBS is currently not included in DBS validations. The influence of the DBS drying time on the recovery of tacrolimus, ascomycin, sirolimus, everolimus, cyclosporin A and temsirolimus was evaluated by measuring DBS with a fixed blood volume at a hematocrit range between 0.1 and 0.6 L/L at 3, 24 and 48 hours of drying time. Results showed that the recovery of sirolimus, everolimus, temsirolimus and cyclosporin A was influenced by the DBS drying time, while the recovery of tacrolimus and ascomycin was not. A drying time of at least 24 hours is advised in order to stabilize hematocrit and concentration related recovery effects of sirolimus, everolimus, temsirolimus and cyclosporin A.

  3. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zolfagharian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Bee venom (BV is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Methods: Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was selected. The anti-coagulation factor of the crude venom from this species was purified by using gel filtration chromatography (sephadex G-50, and the molecular weights of the anti-coagulants in this venom estimated by using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE. Blood samples were obtained from 10 rabbits, and the prothrombin time (PT and the partial thromboplastin time (PTT tests were conducted. The approximate lethal dose (LD values of BV were determined. Results: Crude BV increased the blood clotting time. For BV concentrations from 1 to 4 mg/mL, clotting was not observed even at more than 300 seconds, standard deviations (SDs = ± 0.71; however, clotting was observed in the control group 13.8 s, SDs = ± 0.52. Thus, BV can be considered as containing anti-coagulation factors. Crude BV is composed 4 protein bands with molecular weights of 3, 15, 20 and 41 kilodalton (kDa, respectively. The LD50 of the crude BV was found to be 177.8 μg/mouse. Conclusion: BV contains anti-coagulation factors. The fraction extracted from the Iranian bees contains proteins that are similar to anti-coagulation proteins, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2 and melittin, and that can increase the blood clotting times in vitro.

  4. THE PROCEDURE AND HARDWARE OF A PREPARATION MOVEMENT TRAJECTORY DEFINITION AND TIME AND FREQUENCY PARAMETERS OF ITS INTERACTION WITH A SAWING DISK AT THE MESSAGE TO IT OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL PERIODIC CIRCULATING MOVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Kiselev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The procedure for parameters definition of sawing preparations two-dimensional circulating movement, including the form of a trajectory and a direction of circulating movement is submitted. The procedure and hardware description for time measurement of the cutting tool and processable preparation contact interaction in conditions of its periodic circulating movement is given.

  5. Storage time effect on blood diet for tsetse mass production in sterile insect technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Byamungu, S. Matembo, K. Benedict & G. Mashenga

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Different methods have been developed for tsetse and trypanosomiasis control oreradication but all these have their specific advantages and limitations. However, a combination of methodscould be used as part of an Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AWPM. The sterile insect technique(SIT as a technique of choice for eradication of tsetse flies requires mass production of flies in the laboratories.Since tsetses are exclusively haemotophogous insects, a quality blood diet is needed for maintenance of flieswith optimum production. The aim of this study was to establish the optimum storage time of blood diet fortsetse colonies.Methods: A total of 450 flies Glossina austeni were fed on different batches of blood (collected in 2004, 2005,2006, 2007 and 2008 three times a week. Pupae were collected daily and mortality checks were done onweekly basis. The quality of the blood diet was measured by observation of tsetse production parametersincluding survival, pupae production and size.Results: The survival of flies fed on 2004 and 2006 batches had lower survival compared to the rest of thebatches. Also the 2005 batch had a significant higher number of pupae compared to the production in othertreatments. The 2004 and 2005 batches had more of small pupae (class A & B compared to the other batches.Interpretation & conclusion: There was a significant difference between the blood batches and the productionparameters were better in the last three years, i.e. 2008, 2007 and 2006. Therefore, this study recommendsthree years to be an optimum storage time for blood diet under regional conditions. Also the storage temperatureconditions should remain stable at –20ºC.

  6. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation – Description of a novel in vitro model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehnert, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.ehnert@gmail.com [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Freude, Thomas, E-mail: tfreude@bgu-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Ihle, Christoph, E-mail: cihle@bgu-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Mayer, Larissa, E-mail: lara.nk@gmail.com [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Braun, Bianca, E-mail: bianca.braun@med.uni-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Graeser, Jessica, E-mail: jessica.graeser@student.reutlingen-university.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); Flesch, Ingo, E-mail: iflesch@bgu-tuebingen.de [BG Trauma Center, Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen, Schnarrenbergstr. 95, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany); and others

    2015-03-15

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts' maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients' sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients' serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients' blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β. - Highlights: • We present here a physiologically relevant in vitro model for diabetic osteopathy. • Blood of T2DM patients contains factors that affect osteoblasts' function. • The model developed here can be used to identify these factors, e.g. TGF-β. • Blocking TGF-β signaling partly rescues the osteoblasts' function in the T2DM group. • The model is useful to demonstrate the role of single factors in diabetic osteopathy.

  7. Factors circulating in the blood of type 2 diabetes mellitus patients affect osteoblast maturation – Description of a novel in vitro model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most frequent metabolic disorders in industrialized countries. Among other complications, T2DM patients have an increased fracture risk and delayed fracture healing. We have demonstrated that supraphysiological glucose and insulin levels inhibit primary human osteoblasts' maturation. We aimed at developing a more physiologically relevant in vitro model to analyze T2DM-mediated osteoblast changes. Therefore, SCP-1-immortalized pre-osteoblasts were differentiated with T2DM or control (non-obese and obese) sera. Between both control groups, no significant changes were observed. Proliferation was significantly increased (1.69-fold), while AP activity and matrix mineralization was significantly reduced in the T2DM group. Expression levels of osteogenic marker genes and transcription factors were altered, e.g. down-regulation of RUNX2 and SP-7 or up-regulation of STAT1, in the T2DM group. Active TGF-β levels were significantly increased (1.46-fold) in T2DM patients' sera. SCP-1 cells treated with these sera showed significantly increased TGF-β signaling (2.47-fold). Signaling inhibition effectively restored osteoblast maturation in the T2DM group. Summarizing our data, SCP-1 cells differentiated in the presence of T2DM patients' serum exhibit reduced osteoblast function. Thus, this model has a high physiological impact, as it can identify circulating factors in T2DM patients' blood that may affect bone function, e.g. TGF-β. - Highlights: • We present here a physiologically relevant in vitro model for diabetic osteopathy. • Blood of T2DM patients contains factors that affect osteoblasts' function. • The model developed here can be used to identify these factors, e.g. TGF-β. • Blocking TGF-β signaling partly rescues the osteoblasts' function in the T2DM group. • The model is useful to demonstrate the role of single factors in diabetic osteopathy

  8. The theory of the circulation of blood and (different) paths of Aristotelianism. Girolamo Franzosi's De motu cordis et sanguinis in animalibus pro Aristotele et Galeno adversus anatomicos neotericos libri duo: teleology versus mechanism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Few discoveries in the history of medicine had a greater impact than William Harvey's discovery of the circulation of blood, and few intellectual milieus of the early modern period had as decisive a part in the rise of 'modern' medicine and the shaping of the western scientific mentality in general than the philosophical and scientific movement of 'Venetian Aristotelianism', which grew up around the University of Padua, where Harvey himself had studied. In this chapter, I aim to explore some aspects of the intellectual movement of 'Venetian Aristotelianism' as well as the debate that ensued upon the discovery of the circulation of blood. My focus, however, is not on any of the major protagonists, but rather on a quite marginal figure in this debate, namely Hieronymus Franzosi. PMID:25707099

  9. Time related variations in stem cell harvesting of umbilical cord blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Miscio, Giuseppe; Fontana, Andrea; Copetti, Massimiliano; Francavilla, Massimo; Bosi, Alberto; Perfetto, Federico; Valoriani, Alice; de Cata, Angelo; Santodirocco, Michele; Totaro, Angela; Rubino, Rosa; di Mauro, Lazzaro; Tarquini, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent mesenchymal cells useful for treatment in malignant/nonmalignant hematologic-immunologic diseases and regenerative medicine. Transplantation outcome is correlated with cord blood volume (CBV), number of total nucleated cells (TNC), CD34+ progenitor cells and colony forming units in UCB donations. Several studies have addressed the role of maternal/neonatal factors associated with the hematopoietic reconstruction potential of UCB, including: gestational age, maternal parity, newborn sex and birth weight, placental weight, labor duration and mode of delivery. Few data exist regarding as to how time influences UCB collection and banking patterns. We retrospectively analyzed 17.936 cord blood donations collected from 1999 to 2011 from Tuscany and Apulia Cord Blood Banks. Results from generalized multivariable linear mixed models showed that CBV, TNC and CD34+ cell were associated with known obstetric and neonatal parameters and showed rhythmic patterns in different time domains and frequency ranges. The present findings confirm that volume, total nucleated cells and stem cells of the UCB donations are hallmarked by rhythmic patterns in different time domains and frequency ranges and suggest that temporal rhythms in addition to known obstetric and neonatal parameters influence CBV, TNC and CD34+ cell content in UBC units.

  10. Implantable reflectance pulse transit time blood pressure sensor with oximetry capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, J.; Gehrke, R.; Theodor, M.; Bingger, P.; Förster, K.; Heilmann, C.; Beyersdorf, F.; Zappe, H.; Seifert, A.

    2010-04-01

    We present a novel implantable multi-wavelength reflectance sensor for the measurement of blood pressure with pulse transit time (PTT). Continuous long-term monitoring of blood pressure and arterial oxygen saturation is vital for medical diagnostics and the ensuing therapy of cardiovascular diseases. Conventional cuff-based blood pressure monitors do not provide continuous data and put severe constraints on the patients' daily lives. An implantable sensor would eliminate such problems. The new biocompatible sensor is placed subcutaneously on blood perfused tissue. The PTT is calculated by photoplethysmograms and the ECG-signal, that is recorded with intracorporal electrodes. In addition, the sensor detects the arterial oxygen saturation. An ensuing spectralphotometric analysis of the light intensity changes delivers data on the concentration of dysfunctional hemoglobin derivatives. Experimental measurements showed a clear correlation between the estimated PTT and the systolic blood pressure reference. These initial results demonstrate the potential of the sensor as part of an fully implantable sensor system for the longterm-monitoring of cardiovascular parameters.

  11. 益气活血汤对癌症患者生存质量的影响%The impact of decoction for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation on quality of life of cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄智芬; 施智严; 刘祥珍

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate effect of decoction for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation on quality of life of cancer patients.Method 64 patients were randomly divided into study group (n=35)and control group(n=29),study group received decoction for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation and control group received strong white cells enhancing tablets.Result Total effective rate for study group and control group was 82.8% and 65.5% ,respectively.For study group,quality of life was improved by 45.7% ,survival rate for 1 year was 88.6% ,median survical period was 16.5 months.For control group, quality of life was improved by 31% ,survival rate for 1 year was 58.6% ,median survival period was 9.6 months.Conclusion Decoction for supplementing qi and activating blood circulation markedly improve immune function,lighten adverse and toxicological reactions,and hence improveing patients quality of life.

  12. Ten influenza seasons in France: distribution and timing of influenza A and B circulation, 2003–2013

    OpenAIRE

    Mosnier, Anne; Caini, Saverio; Daviaud, Isabelle; Bensoussan, Jean-Louis; Stoll-Keller, Françoise; Bui, Tan Tai; Lina, Bruno; van der Werf, Sylvie; Cohen, Jean Marie; ,

    2015-01-01

    Background Describing the circulation of influenza viruses and the characteristics of seasonal epidemics remains an essential tool to optimize the strategies of influenza prevention and control. Special attention has been recently paid to influenza B in the context of the availability of a quadrivalent vaccine, containing two influenza B strains. Methods We used data from a practitioners-based influenza surveillance network to describe the circulation of influenza viruses in France from 2003–...

  13. Automated Extraction and Quantification of Human Cytomegalovirus DNA in Whole Blood by Real-Time PCR Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Mengelle, C.; Sandres-Sauné, K.; Pasquier, C; Rostaing, L.; Mansuy, J.-M.; Marty, M.; Da Silva, I.; Attal, M.; Massip, P.; Izopet, J.

    2003-01-01

    The measurement of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) DNA in blood is becoming the standard method for monitoring HCMV infection in immune-suppressed and unsuppressed patients. As various blood compartments can be used, we have compared the HCMV DNA measured in whole blood (WB), peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL), and plasma by real-time PCR. We tested 286 samples: HCMV DNA was extracted automatically from WB and PBL with the MagNA Pure instrument (Roche Molecular Biochemicals) and manually from pla...

  14. Cervical cancer detection by time-resolved spectra of blood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaivani, Rudran; Masilamani, Vadivel; AlSalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Ramamurthy, P.; Palled, Siddanna R.; Ganesh, K. M.

    2014-05-01

    Fluorescence spectral techniques are very sensitive, and hence they are gaining importance in cancer detection. The biomarkers indicative of cancer could be identified and quantified by spectral or time domain fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of an investigation of time-resolved spectra of cellular components of blood obtained from cervical cancer patients and normal controls are given. The cancer indicative biomarker in this paper is porphyrin; it has a fluorescence decay time of 60% more in samples of cancer patients than those of normal controls. Based on such measurements, a randomized set comprising samples from cancer patients and controls (N=27 in total) could be classified with sensitivity (92%) and specificity (86%).

  15. Real-time electrical impedimetric monitoring of blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations conducted in a microfluidic chip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kin Fong Lei

    Full Text Available Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sample during coagulation. Analysis of the impedance change of the blood was conducted to investigate the characteristics of blood coagulation process and the starting time of blood coagulation was defined. The study of blood coagulation time under temperature and hematocrit variations was shown a good agreement with results in the previous clinical reports. The electrical impedance measurement for the definition of blood coagulation process provides a fast and easy measurement technique. The microfluidic chip was shown to be a sensitive and promising device for monitoring blood coagulation process even in a variety of conditions. It is found valuable for the development of point-of-care coagulation testing devices that utilizes whole blood sample in microliter quantity.

  16. Effectiveness of holographic optical element module sensor in measuring blood prothrombin time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small-form-factor holographic optical element (HOE) module, which was mounted on a dual-stage seesaw actuator, was utilized to evaluate blood coagulation in real time. The method involved assessing the decrease in transmitted light of the blood sample surface when the clotting is formed. The prothrombin time (PT) was measured by illumining and focusing a 635 nm laser beam onto the sample. As the fibrinogen turned into non-solute fibrin, the transmitted efficiency and total intensity of the reflected light from the reflector changed. A low-pass filter suppressed the noise in the coagulation-related transient response to yield accurate signals. Finally, the PT measurements were compared to those made classically using other optical sensors. (paper)

  17. Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida B.; Brasen, Claus L.; Christensen, Henry; Nøhr-Jensen, Lene; Nielsen, Dorthe E.; Brandslund, Ivan; Madsen, Jonna S.

    2015-01-01

    impact of resting time prior to blood sampling and diurnal variation on biochemical components, including albumin, thyrotropin (TSH), total calcium and sodium in plasma. METHODS: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included in the period Nov 2011 until June 2014 (opening......: Significant diurnal variation was found for albumin (n = 15,544; p<2×10-16), TSH (n = 20,019; p<2×10-16), calcium (n = 13,588; p = 2.8×10-12) and sodium (n = 51,917; p<2×10-16). Further significant influence for resting time was found for albumin (p = 2.6×10-4), TSH (p = 0.004), calcium (p = 8.9×10-7) and...... sodium (p = 8.7×10-16). Only TSH and albumin were clinically significantly influenced by diurnal variation. Resting time had no clinically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: We found no need for resting 15 minutes prior to blood sampling. However, diurnal variation was found to have a significant and...

  18. Blood glutathione S-transferase-π as a time indicator of stroke onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natacha Turck

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ability to accurately determine time of stroke onset remains challenging. We hypothesized that an early biomarker characterized by a rapid increase in blood after stroke onset may help defining better the time window during which an acute stroke patient may be candidate for intravenous thrombolysis or other intravascular procedures. METHODS: The blood level of 29 proteins was measured by immunoassays on a prospective cohort of stroke patients (N = 103 and controls (N = 132. Mann-Whitney U tests, ROC curves and diagnostic odds ratios were applied to evaluate their clinical performances. RESULTS: Among the 29 molecules tested, GST-π concentration was the most significantly elevated marker in the blood of stroke patients (p3 h after onset. According to goal-oriented distinct cut-offs (sensitivity(Se-oriented: 17.7 or specificity(Sp-oriented: 65.2 ug/L, the GST-π test obtained 91%Se/50%Sp and 50%Se/91%Sp, respectively. Moreover, GST-π showed also the highest AUC (0.83 and performances for detecting patients treated with tPA (N = 12 compared to ineligible patients (N = 103. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that GST-π can accurately predict the time of stroke onset in over 50% of early stroke patients. The GST-π test could therefore complement current guidelines for tPA administration and potentially increase the number of patients accessing thrombolysis.

  19. Time dependent variation of human blood conductivity as a method for an estimation of RBC aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, Nadia; Riha, Pavel; Ivanov, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Time variation of whole human blood conductivity and shear stresses were investigated at rectangular and trapezium-shaped Couette viscometric flow under electric field of 2 kHz. The kinetics of conductivity signals were recorded both under transient flow and after the complete stoppage of shearing at shear rates from 0.94 to 94.5 s(-1) and temperatures T=25 degrees C and 37 degrees C. Contraves Low Shear 30 rotational viscometer as a base unit and a concurrent measuring system, including a device, developed by the conductometric method with a software for measurement of conductivity of biological fluids (data acquisition system), previously described (IFMBE Proceedings Series, Vol. 11, 2005, pp. 4247-4252; Clin. Hemorheol. Microcirc. 35(1/2) (2006), 19-29), were used for the experiments. The obtained experimental relationships show that the human blood conductivity is time, shear rate, hematocrit and temperature dependent under transient flow. It is also dependent on the regime of the applied shear rates. Non-linear curve approximation of the growth and relaxation curves is done. The results show that valuable information could be received about the kinetics of "rouleaux formation" and the time dependences of the blood conductivity follow the structural transformations of RBC aggregates during the aggregation-disaggregation processes. The results suggest that this technique may be used to clarify the mechanism of dynamics of RBC aggregates. PMID:18503112

  20. Time course and recovery of arterial blood gases during exacerbations in adults with Cystic Fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waterhouse, D F

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Hypoxia and hypercapnia are closely linked to morbidity and mortality in patients with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). The aims of this study were to describe the changes in blood gases during and following an acute pulmonary exacerbation in adults with CF. METHODS: We performed a prospective observational study of patients with CF admitted for management of an acute exacerbation. Blood gas and spirometric analysis was performed on admission, throughout the treatment period, and 31 days after discharge (day 45). RESULTS: At presentation, eight of nineteen patients had evidence of either hypoxia (PaO(2)<8 kPa) and\\/or hypercapnia (PaCO(2)>6.6 kPa). Blood gas parameters stabilized following two weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy, with little difference evident in between treatment completion and subsequent review following discharge. Hypercapnia reversed in three patients, with persistent hypercapnia evident in two patients. CONCLUSION: In our study group, hypoxemia and hypercapnia were frequently observed at presentation of the acute exacerbation. Blood gases stabilized following two weeks of intravenous antibiotic therapy, with arterial PCO(2) one month following hospital discharge generally similar to that at time of discharge.

  1. Detection of Tumor Cell-Specific mRNA in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Breast Cancer — Evaluation of Several Markers with Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Andergassen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely known that cells from epithelial tumors, e.g., breast cancer, detach from their primary tissue and enter blood circulation. We show that the presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs in samples of patients with primary and metastatic breast cancer can be detected with an array of selected tumor-marker-genes by reverse transcription real-time PCR. The focus of the presented work is on detecting differences in gene expression between healthy individuals and adjuvant and metastatic breast cancer patients, not an accurate quantification of these differences. Therefore, total RNA was isolated from blood samples of healthy donors and patients with primary or metastatic breast cancer after enrichment of mononuclear cells by density gradient centrifugation. After reverse transcription real-time PCR was carried out with a set of marker genes (BCSP, CK8, Her2, MGL, CK18, CK19. B2M and GAPDH were used as reference genes. Blood samples from patients with metastatic disease revealed increased cytokine gene levels in comparison to normal blood samples. Detection of a single gene was not sufficient to detect CTCs by reverse transcription real-time PCR. Markers used here were selected based on a recent study detecting cancer cells on different protein levels. The combination of such a marker array leads to higher and more specific discovery rates, predominantly in metastatic patients. Identification of CTCs by PCR methods may lead to better diagnosis and prognosis and could help to choose an adequate therapy.

  2. Extracting Biological Meaning From Global Proteomic Data on Circulating-Blood Platelets: Effects of Diabetes and Storage Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, John H.; Suleiman, Atef; Daly, Don S.; Springer, David L.; Spinelli, Sherry L.; Blumberg, Neil; Phipps, Richard P.

    2008-11-25

    Transfusion of platelets into patients suffering from trauma and a variety of disease is a common medical practice that involves millions of units per year. Partial activation of platelets can result in the release of bioactive proteins and lipid mediators that increase the risk of adverse post-transfusion effects. Type-2 diabetes and storage are two factors known to cause partial activation of platelets. A global proteomic study was undertaken to investigate these effects. In this paper we discuss the methods used to interpret these data in terms of biological processes affected by diabetes and storage. The main emphasis is on the processing of proteomic data for gene ontology enrichment analysis by techniques originally designed for microarray data.

  3. Range/velocity limitations for time-domain blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1993-01-01

    The traditional range/velocity limitation for blood velocity estimation systems using ultrasound is elucidated. It is stated that the equation is a property of the estimator used, not the actual physical measurement situation, as higher velocities can be estimated by the time domain cross......-correlation approach. It is demonstrated that the time domain technique under certain measurement conditions will yield unsatisfactory results, when trying to estimate high velocities. Various methods to avoid these artifacts using temporal and spatial clustering techniques are suggested. The improvement in...

  4. The time-course of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes in mouse bone marrow and peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time-course of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCE) in mouse bone marrow and peripheral blood, induced by an acute 0.1 Gy dose of X-rays, was determined using flow cytometric analysis, which made frequent sampling possible and allowed use of a dose low enough not to affect erythroid cell proliferation. The frequency of MPCE (fMPCE) began to increase in the bone marrow at 10 h after irradiation and reached a maximum at 28 h after irradiation. In the peripheral blood fMPCE began to increase at 20 h after irradiation and peaked at about 40 h after irradiation. The time-course found is discussed on the basis of data on the differentiation of erythroid cells. The results indicate that the micronuclei registered in polychromatic erythrocytes may originate from lesions induced not only during the last cell cycle but also during earlier ones. After an acute dose of 1.0 Gy of X-rays the maximum fMPCE was delayed both in bone marrow and peripheral blood reflecting an effect on the cell cycle progression of erythroblasts

  5. Accuracy of PET RCBF measurements: effect of time shift between blood and brain radioactivity curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analytic expressions were derived for estimating the error in PET RCBF measurements associated with the time lag between brain and blood radioactivity following bolus H215O injection and during non-steady-state CO15O inhalation. This lag time reflects the physiological difference in arrival times of 15O activity at brain and radial arterial sampling site as well as the experimentally introduced resistance to flow offered by the arterial catheter/stopcock assembly. Multiple measurements of this time lag ranged between 1 and 10 s. For non-steady-state CO15O PET measurements, estimated errors in RCBF ranged from 0.02 to 30% for delays of 2-8 s and scan lengths of 30-180 s. In the range 20-100 ml min-1 per 100 g, variations in RCBF only marginally affected these errors. Errors increased with longer delays but decreased sharply with scan durations greater than 60 s. For 30-180 s scans, even larger errors are associated with the H215O injection technique (peak blood activity at 10 s): 1-60% for delays of 2-8 s. A 'slow' bolus peaking at 20 s decreased the error by 40%. For the H215O method it is essential to estimate the time shift to within 2 s if accurate flow measurements (error less than 5%) are to be obtained from 40-60 s scans. (author)

  6. Cryopreservation of Circulating Tumor Cells for Enumeration and Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejlund, Sarah; Smith, Julie; Kraan, Jaco;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A blood sample containing circulating tumor cells (CTCs) may serve as a surrogate for metastasis in invasive cancer. Cryopreservation will provide new opportunities in management of clinical samples in the laboratory and allow collection of samples over time for future analysis of exi...

  7. Real-time RT-PCR systems for CTC detection from blood samples of breast cancer and gynaecological tumour patients (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andergassen, Ulrich; Kölbl, Alexandra C; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-04-01

    Cells, which detach from a primary epithelial tumour and migrate through lymphatic vessels and blood stream are called 'circulating tumour cells'. These cells are considered to be the main root of remote metastasis and are correlated to a worse prognosis concerning progression-free and overall survival of the patients. Therefore, the detection of the minimal residual disease is of great importance regarding therapeutic decisions. Many different detection strategies are already available, but only one method, the CellSearch® system, reached FDA approval. The present review focusses on the detection of circulating tumour cells by means of real-time PCR, a highly sensitive method based on differences in gene expression between normal and malignant cells. Strategies for an enrichment of tumour cells are mentioned, as well as a large panel of potential marker genes. Drawbacks and advantages of the technique are elucidated, whereas, the greatest advantage might be, that by selection of appropriate marker genes, also tumour cells, which have already undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition can be detected. Finally, the application of real-time PCR in different gynaecological malignancies is described, with breast cancer being the most studied cancer entity. PMID:26848098

  8. Enhancing the estimation of blood pressure using pulse arrival time and two confounding factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of blood pressure (BP) estimation using multiple regression with pulse arrival time (PAT) and two confounding factors was evaluated in clinical and unconstrained monitoring situations. For the first analysis with clinical data, electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG) and invasive BP signals were obtained by a conventional patient monitoring device during surgery. In the second analysis, ECG, PPG and non-invasive BP were measured using systems developed to obtain data under conditions in which the subject was not constrained. To enhance the performance of BP estimation methods, heart rate (HR) and arterial stiffness were considered as confounding factors in regression analysis. The PAT and HR were easily extracted from ECG and PPG signals. For arterial stiffness, the duration from the maximum derivative point to the maximum of the dicrotic notch in the PPG signal, a parameter called TDB, was employed. In two experiments that normally cause BP variation, the correlation between measured BP and the estimated BP was investigated. Multiple-regression analysis with the two confounding factors improved correlation coefficients for diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure to acceptable confidence levels, compared to existing methods that consider PAT only. In addition, reproducibility for the proposed method was determined using constructed test sets. Our results demonstrate that non-invasive, non-intrusive BP estimation can be obtained using methods that can be applied in both clinical and daily healthcare situations

  9. Pre-exercise glucose ingestion at different time periods and blood glucose concentration during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokmakidis, S P; Volaklis, K A

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of glucose ingestion (GI) at different time periods prior to exercise on blood glucose (BG) levels during prolonged treadmill running. Eight subjects (X+/-SD), age 20+/-0.5yr, bodymass 70.7+/-4.1 kg, height 177+/-4 cm, VO2max 52.8+/-7.8 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) who underwent different experimental conditions ingested a glucose solution (1 g/kg at 350 ml) 30 min (gl-30), 60 min (gl-60), 90 min (gl-90), and a placebo one 60 min (pl-60) prior to exercise in a counterbalanced design. Afterwards they ran at 65% of VO2max for 1 hour and then at 75 % of VO2max till exhaustion. Fingertip blood samples (10 microl) were drawn every 15 min before and during exercise for the determination of BG levels. Oxygen uptake (VO2), heart rate (HR), and blood lactate (La) were also measured every 15 min during exercise. Peak BG values were reached within 30 min after GI but were different (p affect the duration of treadmill running. The La levels were higher (p affecting the duration of running performance at 75% VO2max. Thus, in order to maintain normoglycaemic levels, pre-exercise glucose supplementation should be given 30 min before the onset of exercise. PMID:10961522

  10. Detection of carcinoembryonic antigen messenger RNA in blood using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to predict recurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Zhi-qiang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs in peripheral blood as an indicator of tumor recurrence has not been clearly established, particularly for gastric cancer patients. We conducted a retrospective analysis of the relationship between CTCs in peripheral blood at initial diagnosis and clinicopathologic findings in patients with gastric carcinoma. Methods Blood samples were obtained from 123 gastric carcinoma patients at initial diagnosis. mRNA was extracted and amplified for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA mRNA detection using real-time RT-PCR. Periodic 3-month follow-up examinations included serum CEA measurements and imaging. Results The minimum threshold for corrected CEA mRNA score [(CEA mRNA/GAPDH mRNA × 106] was set at 100. Forty-five of 123 patients (36.6% were positive for CEA mRNA expression. CEA mRNA expression significantly correlated with T stage and postoperative recurrence status (P = 0.001. Recurrent disease was found in 44 of 123 cases (35.8%, and 25 of these (56.8% were positive for CEA mRNA. Of these patients, CEA mRNA was more sensitive than serum CEA in indicating recurrence. Three-year disease-free survival of patients positive for CEA mRNA was significantly poorer than of patients negative for CEA mRNA (P Conclusions CEA mRNA copy number in peripheral blood at initial diagnosis was significantly associated with disease recurrence in gastric adenocarcinoma patients. Real-time RT-PCR detection of CEA mRNA levels at initial diagnosis appears to be a promising predictor for disease recurrence in gastric adenocarcinoma patients.

  11. Model 1: Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because most radiopharmaceuticals are introduced into the body via the vascular system and may remain in the circulation for prolonged periods of time, it is useful to have a model of the blood as an aid in the estimation of radiation dose. It is extremely difficult to devise a precise blood model; the geometry is complex and distribution of blood may vary with position, physiological state and disease process. Estimates of blood volume distribution vary among investigators. Furthermore, the regional hematocrit varies throughout the body, thus affecting distribution of the labeled material according to whether it is attached to cellular elements or in the plasma. The size of the blood pool volumes range from the heart to the capillaries. Variable amounts of non-penetrating radiation contributions to organs depend on the volume of blood in the various sized vessels and the energy of the electrons which may penetrate into tissue from the blood vessel. The present model represents an advance in that it takes into account to some extent the distribution of significant blood pools in the body. Further refinement of the macro-geometry is possible with data which can now be obtained from modern radionuclide imaging equipment. A more difficult problem is definging the micro-geometry relative to the distribution of blood in capillaries and sinusoids, and their relationship to one another

  12. THE EFFECT OF LISTENING TO MUSIC ON HEART RATE; BLOOD PRESSURE; PRE AND TIME OF FATIGUE

    OpenAIRE

    Amir Moghadam; Mohammad Reza Ramezn pour; Elaheh Shadi far

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effect of three types of music during activity on heart rate; blood pressure; PREand time of fatigue occured in students of University.Methods: 15 female students of physicaleducation with a mean age of 21/93±2/43 years; height 161/8±5/22 cm and weight 54/46±7/27kg among the 45 student volunteers randomly selected intensity 80 to 85 percent of maximumheart rate to exhaustion on stationary bicycle pedal border went. As follows in four differentdays (a week interval); no music; s...

  13. Time-resolved blood flow studies using ECG-triggered FLASH MR movies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Functional imaging of ECG-dependent physiologic processes using ECG-triggered or gated FLASH (fast low-angle shot) MR movies provides a new tool for noninvasive investigations of blood flow. Vascular structures and functions are delineated without the need of contrast agents. The measuring times are about 2 (4) minutes per movie corresponding to 128 (256) cardiac cycles. Multiple accumulations may be used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to remove residual artifacts from respiratory motion. Healthy volunteers have been investigated using a Siemens Mangetom

  14. Influence of curve magnitude and other variables on operative time, blood loss and transfusion requirements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, M

    2015-05-03

    Posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for correction of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) typically requires lengthy operating time and may be associated with significant blood loss and subsequent transfusion. This study aimed to identify factors predictive of duration of surgery, intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements in an Irish AIS cohort.

  15. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  16. [Nitric oxide production at pregnant rats and feature postnatal systemogenesis at their posterity developing at insufficiency of disturbance of utero-placental blood circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarov, S B; Ivanova, A S; Novicov, A A

    2013-01-01

    Disturbance of uteroplacental circulation at white rats considerably reduces percent of survival rate of posterity. Hyperfunction of erythrocyte system and NO-dependent mechanisms of regulation in the first days of pups' life results in an exhaustion of their functional reserves. PMID:24640777

  17. Circulating Fibronectin Controls Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja von Au

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Fibronectin is ubiquitously expressed in the extracellular matrix, and experimental evidence has shown that it modulates blood vessel formation. The relative contribution of local and circulating fibronectin to blood vessel formation in vivo remains unknown despite evidence for unexpected roles of circulating fibronectin in various diseases. Using transgenic mouse models, we established that circulating fibronectin facilitates the growth of bone metastases by enhancing blood vessel formation and maturation. This effect is more relevant than that of fibronectin produced by endothelial cells and pericytes, which only exert a small additive effect on vessel maturation. Circulating fibronectin enhances its local production in tumors through a positive feedback loop and increases the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF retained in the matrix. Both fibronectin and VEGF then cooperate to stimulate blood vessel formation. Fibronectin content in the tumor correlates with the number of blood vessels and tumor growth in the mouse models. Consistent with these results, examination of three separate arrays from patients with breast and prostate cancers revealed that a high staining intensity for fibronectin in tumors is associated with increased mortality. These results establish that circulating fibronectin modulates blood vessel formation and tumor growth by modifying the amount of and the response to VEGF. Furthermore, determination of the fibronectin content can serve as a prognostic biomarker for breast and prostate cancers and possibly other cancers.

  18. Total and isoform-specific quantitative assessment of circulating Fibulin-1 using selected reaction monitoring mass spectrometry and time-resolved immunofluorometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Martin; Cangemi, Claudia; Jensen, Martin L; Argraves, William S; Rasmussen, Lars M

    PURPOSE:: Targeted proteomics using SRM-MS combined with stable isotope dilution has emerged as a promising quantitative technique for the study of circulating protein biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize robust quantitative assays for the emerging cardiovascular...... biomarker fibulin-1 and its circulating isoforms in human plasma. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:: We used bioinformatics analysis to predict total and isoform-specific tryptic peptides for absolute quantitation using SRM-MS. Fibulin-1 was quantitated in plasma by nanoflow-LC-SRM-MS in undepleted plasma and time......-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TRIFMA). Both methods were validated and compared to a commercial ELISA (CircuLex). Molecular size determination was performed under native conditions by SEC analysis coupled to SRM-MS and TRIFMA. RESULTS:: Absolute quantitation of total fibulin-1, isoforms -1C and -1D was performed by SRM...

  19. Iron limitation on the northern Gulf of Alaska shelf: model and field observations of affects of circulation on the timing and magnitude of production (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, K. O.; Hedstrom, K.; Gibson, G.; Hinckley, S.

    2010-12-01

    The GLOBEC program was tasked with understanding the mechanistic links between climate forcing and the ocean-ecosystem response on the northern Gulf of Alaska shelf. To address this task, samples were collected 5-6 times annually along the Seward Line between 1998 and 2004. However, interpreting Seward-Line field observations in space and time is complicated by the complex circulation on the GOA shelf. The Alaska Current/Alaskan Stream and Alaska Coastal Current produce eddies and meanders which mix the iron-limited small-cell oceanic community with the iron-rich large-cell coastal community. Thus observations at any point in space and time are the result of the degree of mixing of the oceanic and coastal communities. The ROMS circulation model with embedded ecosystem component was used to extend GLOBEC observations in space and time on the GOA shelf and to provide quantitative implications for our conceptual models of system functions. Results indicate that the timing and magnitude of the spring bloom on the outer shelf is influenced by the degree of mixing of oceanic and coastal water, while the timing of the bloom on the inner shelf is related to thermal and salinity stratification. Outer shelf circulation is influenced by shelf-break eddies propagating westward. Simulations must have sufficient resolution to resolve eddies and meanders for model results to approximate field observations on the GOA shelf. Simulations indicate primary production in the Seward Line region is about 130 g C m-2 y-1, but production of up to 300 g C m-2 y-1 is predicted for Lower Cook Inlet and regions around Kodiak.

  20. Vascular Steal Explains Early Paradoxical Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Cerebrovascular Response in Brain Regions with Delayed Arterial Transit Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Poublanc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI during manipulation of inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2 can be used to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and map regions of exhausted cerebrovascular reserve. These regions exhibit a reduced or negative BOLD response to inhaled CO2. In this study, we sought to clarify the mechanism behind the negative BOLD response by investigating its time delay (TD. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC MRI with the injection of a contrast agent was used as the gold standard in order to provide measurement of the blood arrival time to which CVR TD could be compared. We hypothesize that if negative BOLD responses are the result of a steal phenomenon, they should be synchronized with positive BOLD responses from healthy brain tissue, even though the blood arrival time would be delayed. Methods: On a 3-tesla MRI system, BOLD CVR and DSC images were collected in a group of 19 patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. For each patient, we generated a CVR magnitude map by regressing the BOLD signal with the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2, and a CVR TD map by extracting the time of maximum cross-correlation between the BOLD signal and PETCO2. In addition, a blood arrival time map was generated by fitting the DSC signal with a gamma variate function. ROI masks corresponding to varying degrees of reactivity were constructed. Within these masks, the mean CVR magnitude, CVR TD and DSC blood arrival time were extracted and averaged over the 19 patients. CVR magnitude and CVR TD were then plotted against DSC blood arrival time. Results: The results show that CVR magnitude is highly correlated to DSC blood arrival time. As expected, the most compromised tissues with the longest blood arrival time have the lowest (most negative CVR magnitude. However, CVR TD shows a noncontinuous relationship with DSC blood arrival time. CVR TD is well correlated to DSC blood arrival time

  1. Real-Time Blood Donor Management Using Dashboards Based on Data Mining Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhanam T

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This study uses data mining modeling techniques to examine the blood donor classification and extending this to facilitate the development of realtime blood donor management using dashboards with blood profile and geo-location data. This enables decision makers the ability to manage and plan the blood donation activities based on key metrics. This capability provides the ability to plan effective targeted blood donation campaigns. The scoring algorithm implemented for the dashboard also helps in the optimized deployment of budget resources and budget allocation determination for blood donation campaigns.

  2. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus among healthy voluntary first-time blood donors in Kolkata

    OpenAIRE

    Das, B. K.; B K Gayen; Subhra Aditya; Sumit Kumar Chakrovorty; P.K. Datta; Ajay Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Background: Transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs) threaten safety of the recipients and the community as a whole and are a subject of real concern worldwide. Aims and Objectives: To know prevalence of Hepatitis-B (HBV), Hepatitis-C (HCV), and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in voluntary first-time blood donors. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional observational study done in a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 3 745 voluntary first-time blood donors were recruited and...

  3. Levels and Value of Soluble P-Selectin Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: Evaluating the Link between Soluble P-selectin Levels and Recruitment of Circulating White Blood Cells and the Marker for the Rapid Diagnosis of Chest Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-An Chiu

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet activation that results from coronary plaque rupture is important inthe pathogenesis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Soluble p-selectin(sP-selectin is crucial in modulating leukocyte adhesion to both platelets andendothelial cells during inflammatory response and thrombus formation. Wehypothesized that sP-selectin, an index of both platelet activation and acuteinflammation, rapidly increases and modulates the recruitment of circulatingwhite blood cells (WBC in patients following AMI.Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of 142 consecutive patients withST-segment elevated AMI of onset 0.10 in three intervals from the start of chest painto blood sample collection (< 180 min, ≥ 180 < 360, and ≥ 360 < 720 followingAMI. Correlation analysis demonstrated that the increase in the plasmalevel of sP-selectin was significantly related to the circulating WBCcount (r = 0.248, p = 0.003.Conclusions: sP-selectin was markedly elevated in an early phase of AMI. sP-selectin maybe involved in modulating the recruitment of circulating WBC during AMI.These findings raise the need for a prospective investigation of sP-selectin asa potential reliable clinical tool for rapidly diagnosing AMI.

  4. The usage of Sm-153 as a single particle radiotracer to measure tangential circulation time of granular material in a stirred horizontal vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of a research project, carried out at DSM Research, to characterize a horizontal stirred vessel with an axial stirrer, the mean tangential circulation time (TCT) of the granular material was investigated with the aid of a single radioactive particle. Horizontal stirred vessels are frequently used for mixing different types of granular solids, for example fertilizers. The mean tangential circulation time is one of the important parameters that characterize the tangential mixing quality. Unlike most radiotracer experiments, where a huge amount of single particles (molecules) is applied to a process, a single radioactive particle was added to the test-rig. By detecting the passage of the radioactive particle through a narrow detection window a sample of the TCT distribution was gathered. By acquiring data of many passages of the particle the TCT distribution is formed. By means of simple mathematics the mean TCT and its standard deviation (σ) is calculated from the collected samples of the TCT distribution. Moreover the single radioactive particle represents a perfect Dirac-impulse and there is almost no need to correct the gathered data. As radioactive tracer, Sm-153 was used. Radioactive particles were produced by mixing Sm2O3 with plastic and moulding it into thin plates with varying thickness. From these plates grains were punched out with varying diameter (ranging from about 0.25 to 1 mm). The grains were irradiated with neutrons in the research reactor (IRI) of Delft University, The Netherlands to produce an activity ranging from 1 to 10 MBq. During several weeks nearly 100 experiments and TCT determinations were carried out. During the experiments the radioactive particle size, the stirrer geometry, the filling height of the granular material and the stirrer revolution time were varied. The presented radiotracer method to determine the mean tangential circulation time (TCT) and its standard deviation has proven to be highly suitable. The

  5. Characters available in photoplethysmogram for blood pressure estimation: beyond the pulse transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanjun; Wang, Zengli; Zhang, Lin; Yang, Xianglin; Song, Jinzhong

    2014-06-01

    The continuous and noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement based on pulse transit time (PTT) doesn't need cuff and could monitor BP in real time for a long period. However, PTT is just a time index derived from electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG), while BP-related information within the PPG waveform has seldom been taken into consideration. We hypothesized that PPG waveform feature might be useful for BP estimation. Nine healthy subjects took part in an exercise stress test, including baseline resting, exercise on bicycle ergometry and recovering resting. ECG of lead V5 and PPG from left finger were collected simultaneously, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were recorded from a cuff sphygmometer on the right wrist. The correlation coefficients were obtained between BP (SBP, DBP and pulse pressure (PP)) and PPG morphological indices (total 15 indices in terms of waveform amplitude, time span and area ratio). Five PPG indices were correlated with both SBP and PP (absolute value of correlation coefficient |r| > 0.6) and were further tested for the capability to BP estimation, which were: (1) PTTA, time delay between the R peak of ECG and the foot point of PPG; (2) RSD, time ratio of systole to diastole; (3) RtArea, area ratio of systole to diastole; (4) TmBB, time span of PPG cycle; (5) TmCA, diastolic duration. Comparisons were made between the measured BP and the estimated BP by regression lines and quadratic curve fitting, respectively. As a result, the mean errors of SBP liner fitting with RSD, RtArea, TmBB and TmCA respectively were 5.5, 5.4, 5.2, 5.1 mmHg, which were smaller than that with PTTA of 5.8 mmHg. And the mean errors of SBP quadratic curve fitting with RSD, RtArea, TmBB and TmCA were all 5.1 mmHg, which were smaller than that with PTTA of 5.7 mmHg. The mean errors of multiple regression for SBP, PP and DBP was 4.7, 4.7, 3.5 mmHg respectively, which were more accurate than the regression with

  6. Analysis of Time Dependent Low Level Exposure to Gallium Arsenide on Blood ALAD activity, Glutathione and Lipid per oxidation levels in Rat Blood, Liver and Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braham Deo Gupta

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Gallium arsenide (GaAs, an intermetallic semiconductor has widespread applications in the electronic industry. GaAs has the ability to dissociate into its constitutive moieties, arsenic and gallium which might be responsible for the oxidative stress. The present study was aimed at evaluating, effect of gallium arsenide on blood ALAD activity, glutathione and lipid per oxidation levels in rat blood, liver and kidney on exposure of 1, 2 and 6 months. Result indicated that arsenic moiety in GaAs was mainly responsible for causing oxidative stress via increased TBARS levels, decreased glutathione levels in blood and tissues. We also noted the decreased activity of ALAD in rat blood on exposure to gallium arsenide. The study demonstrates that the time dependent exposure to low level gallium arsenide led to increased in lipid per oxidation, decrease glutathione level and ALAD activity which concludes that the slow release of arsenic moiety from GaAs is mainly responsible for oxidative stress in rats and exerts its toxicity in time dependent manner related to its dissolution and maximum toxicity by increasing the time period of exposure.

  7. Shortened Time to Identify Staphylococcus Species from Blood Cultures and Methicillin Resistance Testing Using CHROMAgar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shingo Chihara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to rapidly differentiate coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS from Staphylococcus aureus and to determine methicillin resistance is important as it affects the decision to treat empiric antibiotic selection. The objective of this study was to evaluate CHROMagar S. aureus and CHROMagar MRSA (Becton Dickinson for rapid identification of Staphylococcus spp. directly from blood cultures. Consecutive blood culture bottles (BacT Alert 3D SA and SN, bioMérieux growing gram-positive cocci in clusters were evaluated. An aliquot was plated onto CHROMagar MRSA (C-MRSA and CHROMagar S. aureus (C-SA plates, which were read at 12 to 16 hours. C-SA correctly identified 147/147 S. aureus (100% sensitivity; 2 CoNS were misidentified as S. aureus (98% specificity. C-MRSA correctly identified 74/77 MRSA (96% sensitivity. None of the MSSA isolates grew on C-MRSA (100% specificity. In conclusion, CHROMagar is a rapid and sensitive method to distinguish MRSA, MSSA, and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus and may decrease time of reporting positive results.

  8. Multiscale time irreversibility of heart rate and blood pressure variability during orthostasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Time irreversibility is a characteristic feature of non-equilibrium, complex systems such as the cardiovascular control mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Time irreversibility analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) represents a new approach to assess cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms. The aim of this paper was to assess the changes in HRV and BPV irreversibility during the active orthostatic test (a balance of ANS shifted towards sympathetic predominance) in 28 healthy young subjects. We used three different time irreversibility indices—Porta’s, Guzik's and Ehler's indices (P%, G% and E, respectively) derived from data segments containing 1000 beat-to-beat intervals on four timescales. We observed an increase in the HRV and a decrease in the BPV irreversibility during standing compared to the supine position. The postural change in irreversibility was confirmed by surrogate data analysis. The differences were more evident in G% and E than P% and for higher scale factors. Statistical analysis showed a close relationship between G% and E. Contrary to this, the association between P% and G% and P% and E was not proven. We conclude that time irreversibility of beat-to-beat HRV and BPV is significantly altered during orthostasis, implicating involvement of the autonomous nervous system in its generation. (paper)

  9. Non invasive prenatal diagnosis: analysis of circulating fetal DNA and cells in maternal blood El diagnóstico prenatal no invasor: análisis de células y ADN fetal circulantes en la sangre materna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Cecilia Jaramillo Posada

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Times New Roman";,";serif";; font-size: 12pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">Prenatal non invasive diagnosis by means of analyses of foetal DNA or cells circulating in maternal blood is one of the most promising areas of obstetrics. Among maternal diseases that could be diagnosed by these methods, or whose behaviour could be predicted, are preeclampsia, growth restriction and preterm labour. Some foetal conditions that could be detected are sex, chromosomal anomalies and single-gene defects. However, these are complex and expensive techniques that are not regularly performed in health care institutions. With this review we intend to provide the readers Times New Roman";,";serif";; font-size: 12pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US">with up to date information on the main techniques available for the study of circulating foetal cells and DNA, and on their possible clinical applications. The review was based on a search for journals indexed up to 2008 in Pubmed, Scielo and Latindex. Especially relevant articles were chosen by the authors.

    El diagnóstico prenatal temprano y no invasor por medio del análisis de células o ADN fetales circulantes en la sangre materna es un área prometedora de la obstetricia moderna. Entre las enfermedades que se pueden diagnosticar o cuyo comportamiento es posible predecir por estos métodos se encuentran la preeclampsia, la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino y el parto pretérmino. Algunas condiciones fetales que podrían detectarse son el sexo, ciertas anomalías cromosómicas y los defectos de un solo gen. Sin

  10. Quantification of complex blood flow using real-time in vivo vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Haugaard, Per;

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative method for distinguishing complex from non-complex flow patterns in ultrasound is presented. A new commercial BK Medical ultrasound scanner uses the Transverse Oscillation vector flow technique for visualising flow patterns in real-time. In vivo vector flow data of the blood flow...... ultrasound. From the same data the mean standard deviation of the flow angles (MSTDA) were calculated and compared to the expert evaluations. Comparison between the combined experts evaluations and the MSTDA was performed. Using linear regression analysis, a correlation coefficient of 0.925 was found....... The upper and lower bounds for a 95% confidence interval of 0.974 and 0.792 respectively, were calculated. The MSTDA was below 25 for the common carotid artery and above 25 for the carotid bulb. Thus, the MSTDA value can distinguishing complex flow from non-complex flow and can be used as the basis...

  11. Complex blood flow quantification using real-time in vivo vector flow ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Møller; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Per, Haugaard;

    for the vector angle estimates was calculated for each box in every frame. For comparison three ultrasound experts evaluated the presence of complex flow in every box. The trial was blinded. For every sequence the mean standard deviation of the vector angle estimates were calculated for box1 {39......A new method to define and quantify complex blood flow is presented. The standard deviations of real-time in vivo vector flow angle estimates are used. Using vector flow ultrasound imaging both carotid bifurcations of two healthy volunteers were scanned. Scanning was performed with a 7.6 MHz linear...... transducer (8670, B-K Medical, Denmark) and a commercial vector flow ultrasound scanner (ProFocus 2202, B-K Medical). Eight video sequences of one cardiac cycle were obtained. In every frame boxes were placed to define the common carotid artery(box1) and the carotid bulb(box2). The standard deviation...

  12. Prestorage and bedside leucofiltration of whole blood modulates storage-time-dependent suppression of in vitro TNFalpha release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Hammer, J H; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    effects of storage were assessed and compared with supernatants collected immediately after donation as reference. TNFalpha release was storage time dependently suppressed to: 81%, 74% and 57% by supernatants from non-filtered blood stored for 7, 21 and 35 d, respectively. Prestorage leucofiltration......Immunosuppression after transfusion may be related to the content of leucocytes in the transfused blood. Therefore we studied the effects of prestorage and bedside leucodepletion by filtration on the suppression by whole blood of in vitro stimulated tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) release....... Nine units of whole blood were leucofiltered prestorage and stored for 35 d. 27 units, 3 x 9, were stored and leucofiltered at the bedside after 7, 21 and 35 d. Supernatants were collected from all units during storage and added to a whole blood assay of E. coli-LPS-stimulated TNFalpha release. The...

  13. Prestorage and bedside leucofiltration of whole blood modulates storage-time-dependent suppression of in vitro TNFalpha release

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Hammer, J H; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    Immunosuppression after transfusion may be related to the content of leucocytes in the transfused blood. Therefore we studied the effects of prestorage and bedside leucodepletion by filtration on the suppression by whole blood of in vitro stimulated tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) release...... effects of storage were assessed and compared with supernatants collected immediately after donation as reference. TNFalpha release was storage time dependently suppressed to: 81%, 74% and 57% by supernatants from non-filtered blood stored for 7, 21 and 35 d, respectively. Prestorage leucofiltration....... Nine units of whole blood were leucofiltered prestorage and stored for 35 d. 27 units, 3 x 9, were stored and leucofiltered at the bedside after 7, 21 and 35 d. Supernatants were collected from all units during storage and added to a whole blood assay of E. coli-LPS-stimulated TNFalpha release. The...

  14. Optimal time for human umbilical cord blood cell transplantation in rats with myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING Yun-li; SHEN Lu-hua; LI Hong-wei; ZHANG Yu-chen; ZHAO Lin; ZHAO Shu-mei; XU Qing

    2009-01-01

    Background Cell therapy for cardiac regeneration is still under investigation. To date there have been a limited number of studies describing the optimal time for cell injection. The present study aimed to examine the optimal time for human umbilical cord blood cells (HUCBCs) transplantation after myocardial infarction (MI).Methods The animals underwent MI by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery and received an intravenous injection of equal volumes of HUCBCs or phosphate buffered saline at days 1,5,10 and 30 after MI. HUCBCs were detected by immunostaining against human human leucocyte antigen (HLA). Cardiac function, histological analysis and measurement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were performed 4 weeks after cell transplantation. Results HUCBCs transplantation could improve cardiac function in rats that received transplantation at 5 and 10 days after MI. The best benefit was achieved in rats that received cells at 10-day after MI. Survival of engrafted HUCBCs, angiogenesis and VEGF expression were more obvious in the 10-day transplantation group than in the other transplantation groups. No evidence of cardiomyocyte regeneration was detected in any transplanted rats. Conclusions HUCBCs transplantation could improve cardiac function in rats that received HUCBCs at days 5 and 10 after MI with the optimal time for transplantation being 10 days post MI. Angiogenesis, but not cardiomyocyte regeneration, played a key role in the cardiac function improvement.

  15. Activity of Liposomal Amphotericin B with Prolonged Circulation in Blood versus Those of AmBisome and Fungizone against Intracellular Candida albicans in Murine Peritoneal Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    van Etten, Els W. M.; Vianen, Wim; Hak, Janneke; Bakker-Woudenberg, Irma A. J. M.

    1998-01-01

    Activity against intracellular Candida albicans was assessed in C. albicans-infected murine peritoneal macrophages exposed to long-circulating pegylated amphotericin B liposomes (PEG-AMB-LIP), AmBisome, or Fungizone. The level of antifungal activity of Fungizone is much higher than that of AmBisome or PEG-AMB-LIP, while PEG-AMB-LIP and AmBisome show equivalent activity levels. Previous exposure of uninfected macrophages to PEG-AMB-LIP or AmBisome is advantageous for intracellular antifungal a...

  16. Real-time PCR for detection of Trypanosoma evansi in blood samples using SYBR green fluorescent dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A real-time PCR assay was developed for the detection of Trypanosoma evansi DNA in mouse blood samples. The PCR was performed with repetitive DNA primers targeting the 257- bp in T.evansi and with SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to monitor the amplicon accumulation. The minimal detection of purified T.evansi genomic DNA was 0.00338 pg per reaction. DNA template preparation was performed on T.evansi infected mouse blood samples using Chelex 100 resin. It was shown to be a simples and quantitative method as revealed by real-time PCR. The detection limit of the assay was as little as 0.039 Trypanosomes (0.0039 pg) per reaction corresponding to 39 Trypanosomes per mL of blood. DNA template of T.evansi from blood samples was amplified with as little as same amount of purified T.evansi genomic DNA. Similar efficiency between the real-time assay ensured quantitative results. No amplicon was obtained with samples from Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale infected cow blood. The results indicate that the real-time PCR assay described is a rapid and sensitive method suitable for the detection of T.evansi in blood samples in routine clinical laboratory practice. (author)

  17. Asymptotic analysis of blood flow in stented arteries: time dependency and direct simulations***

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichon Gostaf Kirill

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to extend in two distinct directions results recently obtained in [10]. In a first step we focus on the possible extension of our results to the time dependent case. Whereas in the second part some preliminary numerical simulations aim to give orders of magnitudes in terms of numerical costs of direct 3D simulations. We consider, in the first part, the time dependent rough problem for a simplified heat equation in a straight channel that mimics the axial velocity under an oscillating pressure gradient. We derive first order approximations with respect to ϵ, the size of the roughness. In order to understand the problem and set up correct boundary layer approximations, we perform a time periodic fourier analysis and check that no frequency can interact with the roughness. We show rigorously on this toy problem that the boundary layers remain stationary in time (independent on the frequency number. Finally we perform numerical tests validating our theoretical approach. In the second part, we determine actual limits, when running three-dimensional blood flow simulations of the non-homogenized stented arteries. We solve the stationary Stokes equations for an artery containing a saccular aneurysm. Consecutive levels of uniform mesh refinement, serve to relate spatial resolution, problem scale, and required computation time. Test computations are presented for femoral side aneurysm, where a simplified ten-wire stent model was placed across the aneurysm throat. We advocate the proposed stent homogenization model, by concluding that an actual computation power is not sufficient to run accurate, direct simulations of a pulsatile flow in stented vessels.

  18. A multiple time stepping algorithm for efficient multiscale modeling of platelets flowing in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Na; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2015-03-01

    We developed a multiple time-stepping (MTS) algorithm for multiscale modeling of the dynamics of platelets flowing in viscous blood plasma. This MTS algorithm improves considerably the computational efficiency without significant loss of accuracy. This study of the dynamic properties of flowing platelets employs a combination of the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and the coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) methods to describe the dynamic microstructures of deformable platelets in response to extracellular flow-induced stresses. The disparate spatial scales between the two methods are handled by a hybrid force field interface. However, the disparity in temporal scales between the DPD and CGMD that requires time stepping at microseconds and nanoseconds respectively, represents a computational challenge that may become prohibitive. Classical MTS algorithms manage to improve computing efficiency by multi-stepping within DPD or CGMD for up to one order of magnitude of scale differential. In order to handle 3-4 orders of magnitude disparity in the temporal scales between DPD and CGMD, we introduce a new MTS scheme hybridizing DPD and CGMD by utilizing four different time stepping sizes. We advance the fluid system at the largest time step, the fluid-platelet interface at a middle timestep size, and the nonbonded and bonded potentials of the platelet structural system at two smallest timestep sizes. Additionally, we introduce parameters to study the relationship of accuracy versus computational complexities. The numerical experiments demonstrated 3000x reduction in computing time over standard MTS methods for solving the multiscale model. This MTS algorithm establishes a computationally feasible approach for solving a particle-based system at multiple scales for performing efficient multiscale simulations.

  19. A Multiple Time Stepping Algorithm for Efficient Multiscale Modeling of Platelets Flowing in Blood Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Na; Deng, Yuefan; Bluestein, Danny

    2015-01-01

    We developed a multiple time-stepping (MTS) algorithm for multiscale modeling of the dynamics of platelets flowing in viscous blood plasma. This MTS algorithm improves considerably the computational efficiency without significant loss of accuracy. This study of the dynamic properties of flowing platelets employs a combination of the dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) and the coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) methods to describe the dynamic microstructures of deformable platelets in response to extracellular flow-induced stresses. The disparate spatial scales between the two methods are handled by a hybrid force field interface. However, the disparity in temporal scales between the DPD and CGMD that requires time stepping at microseconds and nanoseconds respectively, represents a computational challenge that may become prohibitive. Classical MTS algorithms manage to improve computing efficiency by multi-stepping within DPD or CGMD for up to one order of magnitude of scale differential. In order to handle 3–4 orders of magnitude disparity in the temporal scales between DPD and CGMD, we introduce a new MTS scheme hybridizing DPD and CGMD by utilizing four different time stepping sizes. We advance the fluid system at the largest time step, the fluid-platelet interface at a middle timestep size, and the nonbonded and bonded potentials of the platelet structural system at two smallest timestep sizes. Additionally, we introduce parameters to study the relationship of accuracy versus computational complexities. The numerical experiments demonstrated 3000x reduction in computing time over standard MTS methods for solving the multiscale model. This MTS algorithm establishes a computationally feasible approach for solving a particle-based system at multiple scales for performing efficient multiscale simulations. PMID:25641983

  20. Concept and laboratory experiments for a new lost circulation material pulser (LCM-Pulser) for real time data transmission in boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namuq, M.A.; Reich, M.; Kirsten, U.; Sohmer, M.; Lehmann, F. [Technische Univ. Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany). Inst. fuer Bohrtechnik und Fluidbergbau; Mueller, T. [Adensis GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    It would not be possible to drill through the planned paths to reach targets and optimize the drilling process while drilling without transmitting the geological and directional information to the surface. The most commonly used method for transmitting data is by coded pressure pulses (known as mud pulse telemetry), which propagate to the surface, where they are detected, decoded and displayed for making real time decisions. Mud pulse telemetry systems are using positive, negative or continuous wave pulsers. Mud pulsers are the most critical components of the bottom-hole-assembly with regards to plugging by lost circulation materials. Therefore increasing the tolerance of mud pulse telemetry systems for lost circulation material applications is desired. The plugging of the pulser by lost circulation materials leads to blind drilling, thereby necessitating a trip out of the borehole, consequently increasing the costs of the well. Moreover, one of the contributors to downhole tool failures is the mechanical components associated with mud pulse telemetry. The damage of those components leads to the same previously mentioned problems. All available mud pulse telemetry systems can only generate higher pressure pulse amplitudes by further restricting the flow area. This is necessary in deep wells, where pressure pulses are significantly attenuated on their way to the surface, but leads also to further restrictions when using lost circulation materials. The concept for developing an innovative pulser (named LCM-pulser) and a brief introduction to the experimental setup for evaluating the performance of the pulser will be presented in this paper. The LCM-pulser prototype has been constructed and series of initial experiments have been carried out. The test facilities consist of a flow loop with a pipe line, the new LCM-pulser and a pressure sensor. The fluid used in the experiments is water. With this novel pulser, it is not necessary to restrict the flow area anymore, so

  1. Pulsatile microvascular blood flow imaging by short-time Fourier transform analysis of ultrafast laser holographic interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Puyo, L; Rancillac, A; Simonutti, M; Paques, M; Sahel, J A; Fink, M; Atlan, M

    2015-01-01

    We report on wide-field imaging of pulsatile microvascular blood flow in the exposed cerebral cortex of a mouse by holographic interferometry. We recorded interferograms of laser light backscattered by the tissue, beating against an off-axis reference beam with a 50 kHz framerate camera. Videos of local Doppler contrasts were rendered numerically by Fresnel transformation and short-time Fourier transform analysis. This approach enabled instantaneous imaging of pulsatile blood flow contrasts in superficial blood vessels over 256 x 256 pixels with a spatial resolution of 10 microns and a temporal resolution of 20 ms.

  2. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Miyamoto; Taylor, Sandra L.; Barupal, Dinesh K; Ayumu Taguchi; Gert Wohlgemuth; Wikoff, William R.; Yoneda, Ken Y.; Gandara, David R.; Samir M. Hanash; Kyoungmi Kim; Oliver Fiehn

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer ...

  3. Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Phase Shift Variability during 0.1 Hz Paced Breathing - Marker of Stability of Short-Term Circulation Control

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Somers, V. K.; Nykodym, J.; Francis, D.; Davies, L. C.; Fráňa, P.; Souček, M.; Kára, T.

    Jena : IEEE EMB, 2006, s. 199-202. [ESGCO 2006. Jena (DE), 15.05.2006-17.05.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/05/0402 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : phase shift * blood pressure * heart rate * sudden cardiac death * heart failure * hypertension Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment

  4. Honey Bee Venom (Apis mellifera) Contains Anticoagulation Factors and Increases the Blood-clotting Time

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Zolfagharian; Mohammad Mohajeri; Mahdi Babaie

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Bee venom (BV) is a complex mixture of proteins and contains proteins such as phospholipase and melittin, which have an effect on blood clotting and blood clots. The mechanism of action of honey bee venom (HBV, Apis mellifera) on human plasma proteins and its anti-thrombotic effect were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-coagulation effect of BV and its effects on blood coagulation and purification. Methods: Crude venom obtained from Apis mellifera was ...

  5. Model and field observations of effects of circulation on the timing and magnitude of nitrate utilization and production on the northern Gulf of Alaska shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Kenneth O.; Cheng, Wei; Hinckley, Sarah L.; Lessard, Evelyn J.; Whitledge, Terry; Hermann, Albert J.; Hedstrom, Kate

    2012-09-01

    The GLOBEC program was tasked with understanding the mechanistic links between climate forcing and the ocean-ecosystem response on the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) shelf. To address this task, samples were collected five to six times times annually along the Seward Line between 1998 and 2004. However, interpreting Seward-Line field observations in space and time is complicated by the complex circulation on the GOA shelf. The Alaska Current/Alaskan Stream and Alaska Coastal Current produce eddies and meanders which mix the iron-limited small-cell oceanic community with the iron-rich large-cell coastal community. Thus observations at any point in space and time are the result of the degree of mixing of the oceanic and coastal water masses. The ROMS circulation model with an embedded ecosystem model was used to extend GLOBEC observations in space and time on the GOA shelf. The timing of the spring bloom in simulations was related to shallowing of the pycnocline. The spring bloom began in late March-April on the inner shelf and in May on the mid and outer shelf. The simulations suggest that the magnitude of shelf production is a balance between the amount of iron from freshwater runoff and nitrate, with iron limitation on the outer shelf and adjacent ocean and nitrate limitation on the inner shelf. Simulated shelf-break eddies form near Yakutat, have elevated iron concentrations relative to surrounding waters, and propagate westward, influencing production and nitrate concentrations on the outer shelf and in the adjacent ocean during spring and summer. Simulated primary production in the Seward Line region was about 100-130 g cm-2 y-1, but production of up to 300 g cm-2 y-1 is predicted for regions in Lower Cook Inlet and around Kodiak.

  6. Development of new high temperature short time vertebrate blood pasteurisation equipment for the diet of tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Tsetse flies feed only on vertebrate blood, but the collection and processing of blood is expensive, it must be stored at - 20 deg. C requiring costly storage rooms and reliable electricity, and it must be irradiated to reduce bacterial contaminations. For smaller colonies this is tolerable, but as colony sizes increase to service large-scale programmes, the supply and processing of blood is going to become critical. Blood is normally collected from cattle at slaughter. This process is necessarily not aseptic, and large-scale collection is only possible where the animals are suspended for bleeding. Large slaughter facilities with the necessary throughput of animals for slaughter and appropriate equipment for suspension are not common in Africa. The blood must be prevented from coagulating, which is normally achieved by mechanical defibrination. This is laborious and potentially removes valuable nutrients from blood. Heparin has been used as an alternative, but it is both expensive and thermolabile, making is extremely difficult to deliver to destinations in Africa One alternative to blood decontamination is the High Temperature Short Time Pasteurisation (HTST) method. The food processing industry uses pasteurization to reduce bacterial load in a wide range of products. The equipment required for pasteurization is simple in concept, and available to process quantities from a few litres for experimental work, a few hundred litres as used on individual farms, to very large/scale plants for the commercial processing of dairy and other products. The main idea of our presentation is to develop the adequate bench top pasteuriser HTST unit, which will allow us to test the effects of heat processing on blood, quickly and economically. The HTST pasteurization process can be undertaken using very small quantities of blood in a relatively short time, so the production is both quick and economical. Considerable work has been done on egg pasteurization, and this work

  7. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure in prehypertensives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairbrother K

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kimberly Fairbrother,1 Ben Cartner,1 Jessica R Alley,1 Chelsea D Curry,1, David L Dickinson,2 David M Morris,1 Scott R Collier1 1Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, 2Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Background: During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic exercise and sleep quality can impact this dipping response. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise timing on circadian BP changes and sleep architecture. Materials and methods: Twenty prehypertensive subjects completed the study. During four test sessions, participants first completed a graded exercise test to exhaustion and then performed 30 minutes of treadmill exercise at 7 am (7A, 1 pm (1P, and 7 pm (7P in a random, counterbalanced order at 65% of the heart rate obtained at peak oxygen uptake. An ambulatory cuff was used to monitor BP responses during 24 hours following exercise, and an ambulatory sleep-monitoring headband was worn during sleep following each session. Results: Aerobic exercise at 7A invoked a greater dip in nocturnal systolic BP than exercise at 1P or 7P, although the greatest dip in nocturnal diastolic BP occurred following 7P. Compared to 1P, 7A also invoked greater time spent in deep sleep. Conclusion: These data indicate that early morning may be the most beneficial time to engage in aerobic exercise to enhance nocturnal BP changes and quality of sleep. Keywords: nocturnal dipping, prehypertension, aerobic exercise

  8. Literature Study of Vascular Dementia Treated with Nourishing Kidney and Activating Blood Circulation for Medication Rules%补肾活血法治疗血管性痴呆用药规律文献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍大华; 祝皓

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对补肾活血法为主治疗血管性痴呆(VD)内服方用药的统计,总结归纳出补肾活血治疗VD的用药规律,为临床用药及相关研究提供依据.方法 以频数分析为主统计1995-2010年中国知网数据库、维普数据库、万方数据库中以补肾活血法为主治疗VD的论文,归纳总结补肾活血法治疗VD的用药规律.结果 在药物使用频次上,补肾活血法使用药物频数大于50的为何首乌、川芎、丹参、枸杞、熟地黄、水蛭.在药物药性方面,用药以温性最多,其积分为1.377,其余依次为寒、微温、微寒等.在用药药味方面,苦、甘、辛三昧积分明显高于其他诸味,分别为3.608、3.929、3.295.结论 何首乌、枸杞、熟地黄为补肾药中的核心药物,川芎、丹参、水蛭为活血药中的核心药物.补肾活血用药温性药物多于寒性,药味以苦、甘、辛为主.%Objective: To summarize the law of evidence to general regularity by studying the TCM literature of vascular dementia(VD) mainly explore typification of statistics and to offers reference for clinical medication rules. Methods: The frequency statistic was by prossessing databases of CNKI,VIP,WAN FANG during 1994-2010 which were mainly related to the treatment with nourishing kidney and activating blood circulation of TCM literature of VD and summarizing the medication rules of VD. Results: The frequency of Shou wu,River xiong,Salvia miltiorrhiza,Chinese wolfberry.Ripe dihuang,and Leeches used in nourishing kidney and activating blood circulation were more than 50. Drug of temperature nature was used mostly which integral was 1.377. Using frequency of bitter,grape and michael essien were obviously higher than the other which integral respectively was 3.929, 3.608,3.295. Conclusion: For VD, Shou wu,Chinese wolfberry and Ripe dihuang are anchor drugs in the treatment of ourishing kidney.River xiong,Salvia miltiorrhiza and Leeches are anchor drugs in the treatment

  9. Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa) in the circulating blood of Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Characidae) Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa) no sangue circulante de Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Characidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Oliveira Maciel; Elizabeth Gusmão Affonso; Cheila de Lima Boijink; Marcos Tavares-Dias; Luis Antonio Kioshi Aoki Inoue

    2011-01-01

    Myxosporea parasitize many organs in fresh and saltwater fish. Species of the genus Myxobolus parasitizing the gills and other organs of the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum have been described. In the present study, blood smears were made from juvenile tambaqui and were stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa-Wright in order to identify myxozoan parasites. Out of a total of 36 fish examined, one specimen (2.7%) that was reared in a cage presented spores that were identified as M. colossomatis, whereas...

  10. Feasibility of quantification of the distribution of blood flow in the normal human fetal circulation using CMR: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Seed Mike; F P van Amerom Joshua; Yoo Shi-Joon; Al Nafisi Bahiyah; Grosse-Wortmann Lars; Jaeggi Edgar; Jansz Michael S; Macgowan Christopher K

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background We present the first phase contrast (PC) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) measurements of the distribution of blood flow in twelve late gestation human fetuses. These were obtained using a retrospective gating technique known as metric optimised gating (MOG). Methods A validation experiment was performed in five adult volunteers where conventional cardiac gating was compared with MOG. Linear regression and Bland Altman plots were used to compare MOG with the gold st...

  11. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and human immunodeficiency virus among healthy voluntary first-time blood donors in Kolkata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B K Das

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs threaten safety of the recipients and the community as a whole and are a subject of real concern worldwide. Aims and Objectives: To know prevalence of Hepatitis-B (HBV, Hepatitis-C (HCV, and Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in voluntary first-time blood donors. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional observational study done in a teaching hospital. Materials and Methods: A total of 3 745 voluntary first-time blood donors were recruited and tested for HBV, HCV, and HIV with Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results and Analysis: Among 3 745 blood donors, majority (90.95% were male and 18 to 39 years age group. Prevalence of HBV was higher than HCV and HIV. HBV was maximum in 40 to 49 years (2.25% and 18 to 29 years (1.86% age group, whereas HCV and HIV were maximum in >50 years age group (0.93% and 1.86%, respectively. HIV positivity showed increasing prevalence with increase in age. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was done using %, Chi square test, and Chi square for trend analysis. Conclusion: Seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, and HIV in voluntary blood donors is high in Kolkata and is high throughout this decade. Prevalence is even higher in other parts of India and Indian subcontinent. As voluntary blood donations are the major source of blood supply, chance of TTIs are very high in this part of the world.

  12. Time-resolved blood flow measurement in the in vivo mouse model by optical frequency domain imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, Julia; Mueller, Gregor; Meissner, Sven; Cimalla, Peter; Homann, Hanno; Morawietz, Henning; Koch, Edmund

    2009-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate that phase-resolved Doppler optical frequency domain imaging (OFDI) is very suitable to quantify the pulsatile blood flow within a vasodynamic measurement in the in vivo mouse model. For this, an OFDI-system with a read-out rate of 20 kHz and a center wavelength of 1320 nm has been used to image the time-resolved murine blood flow in 300 μμm vessels. Because OFDI is less sensitive to fringe washout due to axial sample motion, it is applied to analyze the blood flow velocities and the vascular dynamics in six-week-old C57BL/6 mice compared to one of the LDLR knockout strain kept under sedentary conditions or with access to voluntary wheel running. We have shown that the systolic as well as the diastolic phase of the pulsatile arterial blood flow can be well identified at each vasodynamic state. Furthermore, the changes of the flow velocities after vasoconstriction and -dilation were presented and interpreted in the entire physiological context. With this, the combined measurement of time-resolved blood flow and vessel diameter provides the basis to analyze the vascular function and its influence on the blood flow of small arteries of different mouse strains in response to different life styles.

  13. Real-time molecular profiling of photochemically induced rat thrombosis in vivo through quantitative Raman analysis of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M. M.; Shen, A. G.; Yao, H. L.; Zhang, Z. Z.; Hu, J. M.

    2014-11-01

    A device of an animal thrombosis model in vivo coupled with a Raman system for near-surface blood vessels is proposed in this letter. The dual-function set up is capable of simultaneously establishing a photochemically induced artificial thrombus model and collecting in vivo Raman data of both arterial and venous blood, and it provides the first observation of rat thrombosis under the physiological conditions from the beginning to the final form. The real-time and quantitative molecular profiling of flowing blood and the spectra of blood cells in the process of thrombosis provides an insight into the occurring mechanism of thrombosis and a promising method for the in vivo screening of new antithrombotic and thrombolytic drugs.

  14. Real-time molecular profiling of photochemically induced rat thrombosis in vivo through quantitative Raman analysis of blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device of an animal thrombosis model in vivo coupled with a Raman system for near-surface blood vessels is proposed in this letter. The dual-function set up is capable of simultaneously establishing a photochemically induced artificial thrombus model and collecting in vivo Raman data of both arterial and venous blood, and it provides the first observation of rat thrombosis under the physiological conditions from the beginning to the final form. The real-time and quantitative molecular profiling of flowing blood and the spectra of blood cells in the process of thrombosis provides an insight into the occurring mechanism of thrombosis and a promising method for the in vivo screening of new antithrombotic and thrombolytic drugs. (letter)

  15. Pharmacokinetics and extracorporeal adsorption treatment (ECAT) to reduce circulating blood radioactivity after i.v. administration of humanized biotinylated MAB 111In-MN14 in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of radioimmunotherapy of disseminated solid tumors are still disappointing and hence new strategies are needed. ECAT is a new method for tumor radioimmunotargeting to reduce activity in radiosensitive organs by removing excess of radiolabeled MAb from blood. It was previously developed and experimentally evaluated by us using mouse MAb L6 and HMFG1as well as chimeric BR96. The aim of the study was not only to estimate the influence of biotinylation on pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of humanized MAb 111In-MN14, but also to validate the capacity of subsequent ECAT in terms of reduction of activity in whole body, blood and in various organs after i.v. administration of 111In-hMN14-DOTA-biotin in rats. These results could also be transferred to the pre-targeting strategy based on the biotin-avidin reaction. Methods: hMN14 recognizes the carcinoembryonic antigen expressed on most tumor cells from human colorectal, pancreatic, lung, breast, and ovarian carcinomas. 93 rats were used in the study. After radiolabeling, 111In-hMN14-DOTA was biotinylated in order to enable antibodies to be absorbed on the MITRA-avidin-agarose column (Mitra Medical Technology Ltd, Lund, Sweden). NHS-biotin or Sulfo-NHS-biotin were used for the biotinylation of hMN14. ECAT was explored from un-separated blood in 8 rats. Blood volumes were passed through an adsorption column close to theoretical clearance during 2.5h. WB counts and blood activity were monitored. At dissections, performed immediately after ECAT completion, organs and tissues of interest were removed and measured for activity content. Results: TLC analysis of 111In-hMN14-DOTA-biotin showed a radiochemical purity of > 87% for NHS-biotin and >95% for the sulfo-NHS-biotin reagent. HPLC size exclusion analysis showed no aggregation or fragmentation of the radioimmunoconjugate irrespective of the amount of sulfo-NHS-biotin ratio/mg MAb. Increasing or extensive signs of aggregation were registered already at a low

  16. Continuous blood pressure measurement using the pulse transit time: Comparison to intra-arterial measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzak, Andreas; Mendoza, Yuri; Gesche, Heiko; Konermann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Continuous blood pressure (BP) measurement allows the investigation of transient changes in BP and thus may give insights into mechanisms of BP control. We validated a continuous, non-invasive BP measurement based on the pulse transit time (PTT), i.e., BP(PTT), by comparing it with the intra-arterial BP (BP(i.a.)) measurement. Twelve subjects (five females and seven males) were included. BP(i.a.) was obtained from the radial artery using a system from ReCor Medical. Systolic and diastolic BP were calculated using the PTT (BP(PTT), SOMNOscreen). (PTT) was determined from the electrocardiogram and the peripheral pulse wave. The BP was modulated by application of increasing doses of dobutamine (5, 10, 20 μg/kg body mass). Systolic BP(PTT) and systolic BP(i.a.) correlated significantly (R = 0.94). The limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman plot were ± 19 mmHg; the mean values differed by 1 mmHg. The correlation coefficient for the diastolic BP measurements was R = 0.42. The limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman plot were ± 18 mmHg, with a mean difference of 5 mmHg in favour of the BP(PTT). The study demonstrates a significant correlation between the measurement methods for systolic BP. The results encourage the application of PTT-based BP measurement for the evaluation of BP dynamics and pathological BP changes. PMID:25857601

  17. Comparison of DNA extraction kits for detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in spiked human whole blood using real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Podnecky

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia and can cause severe septicemia that may lead to death in 20% to 50% of cases. Rapid detection of B. pseudomallei infection is crucial for timely treatment of septic patients. This study evaluated seven commercially available DNA extraction kits to determine the relative recovery of B. pseudomallei DNA from spiked EDTA-containing human whole blood. The evaluation included three manual kits: the QIAamp DNA Mini kit, the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit, and the High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit; and four automated systems: the MagNAPure LC using the DNA Isolation Kit I, the MagNAPure Compact using the Nucleic Acid Isolation Kit I, and the QIAcube using the QIAamp DNA Mini kit and the QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kit. Detection of B. pseudomallei DNA extracted by each kit was performed using the B. pseudomallei specific type III secretion real-time PCR (TTS1 assay. Crossing threshold (C T values were used to compare the limit of detection and reproducibility of each kit. This study also compared the DNA concentrations and DNA purity yielded for each kit. The following kits consistently yielded DNA that produced a detectable signal from blood spiked with 5.5×10(4 colony forming units per mL: the High Pure PCR Template Preparation, QIAamp DNA Mini, MagNA Pure Compact, and the QIAcube running the QIAamp DNA Mini and QIAamp DNA Blood Mini kits. The High Pure PCR Template Preparation kit yielded the lowest limit of detection with spiked blood, but when this kit was used with blood from patients with confirmed cases of melioidosis, the bacteria was not reliably detected indicating blood may not be an optimal specimen.

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF REAL-TIME MULTIPLEX PCR FOR THE QUANTITATIVE DETERMINATION OF TREC'S AND KREC'S IN WHOLE BLOOD AND IN DRIED BLOOD SPOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gordukova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary immunodeficiencies (PID such as severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID and X-linked agammaglobulinemia are characterized by the lack of functional Tand B-cells, respectively. Without early diagnosis and prompt treatment children with PID suffer from severe infectious diseases, leading to their death or disability. Our purpose was developing of simple, inexpensive, high throughput technique based on the quantitative determination of TREC and KREC molecules by real-time PCR, and its validation in a group of children with a verified diagnosis of SCID and X-linked agammaglobulinemia.In this study, we developed and validated multiplex real-time PCR for the TREC’s and KREC’s quantitative analysis. We have shown that linear range of Ct changes depending on the concentrations of targets with a correlation coefficient R2 not worse than 0.98 was observed at concentrations from 109 to 5 × 104 copies per ml. The lowest amount of targets reliably detected in a reaction volume was 10 TREC’s copies, 5 KREC ‘s copies and 5 copies of internal control (IL17RA. We determined the age-depended reference values of TRECs and KRECs in whole blood in 29 boys and 27 girls with normal immunological parameters. The normal cut-offs for TRECs and KRECs were defined in dry blood spots depending on the method of extraction.The proposed method showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in the studied group. The method can be proposed as a screening tool for the diagnosis of SCID and X-linked agammaglobulinemia both in whole blood and in the dry blood spots. The further investigation is required with larger number of samples. 

  19. Circulating DNA as Potential Biomarker for Cancer Individualized Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Shaorong; Liu Baorui; Lu Jianwei; Feng Jifeng

    2013-01-01

    Cancer individualized therapy often requires for gene mutation analysis of tumor tissue. However, tumor tissue is not always available in clinical practice, particularly from patients with refractory and recurrence disease. Even if patients have sufifcient tumor tissue for detection, as development of cancer, the gene status and drug sensitivity of tumor tissues could also change. Hence, screening mutations from primary tumor tissues becomes useless, it’s necessary to ifnd a surrogate tumor tissue for individualized gene screening. Circulating DNA is digested rapidly from blood, which could provide real-time information of the released fragment and make the real-time detection possible. Therefore, it’s expected that circulating DNA could be a potential tumor biomarker for cancer individualized therapy. This review focuses on the biology and clinical utility of circulating DNA mainly on gene mutation detection. Besides, its current status and possible direction in this research area is summarized and discussed objectively.

  20. A novel interface for hybrid mock circulations to evaluate ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochsner, Gregor; Amacher, Raffael; Amstutz, Alois; Plass, André; Schmid Daners, Marianne; Tevaearai, Hendrik; Vandenberghe, Stijn; Wilhelm, Markus J; Guzzella, Lino

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a novel mock circulation for the evaluation of ventricular assist devices (VADs), which is based on a hardware-in-the-loop concept. A numerical model of the human blood circulation runs in real time and computes instantaneous pressure, volume, and flow rate values. The VAD to be tested is connected to a numerical-hydraulic interface, which allows the interaction between the VAD and the numerical model of the circulation. The numerical-hydraulic interface consists of two pressure-controlled reservoirs, which apply the computed pressure values from the model to the VAD, and a flow probe to feed the resulting VAD flow rate back to the model. Experimental results are provided to show the proper interaction between a numerical model of the circulation and a mixed-flow blood pump. PMID:23204266

  1. A study on the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume by RI-cardiogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume in cases of cardio-pulmonary disease were measured using Giuntini's method which is considered the most appropriate among radiocardiographic methods. The errors in this method were confirmed to be almost negligible. The results obtained were as follows: 1) The pulmonary mean transit time was related to the systemic mean transit time and markedly prolonged in left heart failure. On the other hand, it was markedly shortened in some cases of chronic pulmonary disease, particularly pulmonary emphysema. 2) The pulmonary blood volume tended to increase in left heart disorders and mitral valve disease and tended to decrease in the chronic pulmonary disease. The decrease was conspicuous particularly in some cases of pulmonary emphysema. 3) A structural change of the pulmonary vascular system in the chronic pulmonary disease appeared to bring about shortening of the pulmonary mean transit time and a decrease in the pulmonary blood volume. The pathophysiology of cardio-pulmonary disease can be more clarified by the RI-cardiogram used in this study, in which the pulmonary mean transit time and the pulmonary blood volume are used as the indicator. (author)

  2. Time to Talk: High Blood Cholesterol? 5 Things You Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... W X Y Z 5 Tips: What You Should Know About High Blood Cholesterol Share: Approximately 13 ... Health Approaches for ASD 7 Tips: What You Should Know About Complementary Health Approaches for Multiple Sclerosis ...

  3. Population-based screening for anemia using first-time blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Mast, AE; Steele, WR; Johnson, B.; Wright, DJ; Cable, RG; Carey, P.; Gottschall, JL; Kiss, JE; Simon, TL; Murphy, EL

    2012-01-01

    Anemia is an important public health concern. Data from population-based surveys such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are the gold standard, but are obtained infrequently and include only small samples from certain minority groups. We assessed whether readily available databases of blood donor hemoglobin values could be used as a surrogate for population hemoglobin values from NHANES. Blood donor venous and fingerstick hemoglobin values were compared to 10,254...

  4. Time related variations in stem cell harvesting of umbilical cord blood

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluigi Mazzoccoli; Giuseppe Miscio; Andrea Fontana; Massimiliano Copetti; Massimo Francavilla; Alberto Bosi; Federico Perfetto; Alice Valoriani; Angelo De Cata; Michele Santodirocco; Angela Totaro; Rosa Rubino; Lazzaro di Mauro; Roberto Tarquini

    2016-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent mesenchymal cells useful for treatment in malignant/nonmalignant hematologic-immunologic diseases and regenerative medicine. Transplantation outcome is correlated with cord blood volume (CBV), number of total nucleated cells (TNC), CD34+ progenitor cells and colony forming units in UCB donations. Several studies have addressed the role of maternal/neonatal factors associated with the hematopoietic reconstruction pote...

  5. Selling blood and gametes during tough economic times: insights from Google search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jonathan A.; Ngo, Tin C.; Rothman, Cathy; Breyer, Benjamin; Eisenberg, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction To use Google Insights search volume and publicly available economic indicators to test the hypothesis that sperm, egg, and blood donations increase during economic downturns and to demonstrate the feasibility of using Google search volume data to predict national trends in actual sperm, egg, and blood donations rates. Materials and methods Cross-correlation statistical analysis comparing Google search data for terms relating to blood, egg, and sperm donations with various economic indicators including the S&P 500 closing values, gross domestic product (GDP), the U.S. Index of Leading Indicators (U.S. Leading Index), gross savings rate, mortgage interest rates, unemployment rate, and consumer price index (CPI) from 2004–2011. A secondary analysis determined the Pearson correlation coefficient between Google search data with actual sperm, egg, and blood donation volume in the U.S. as measured by California Cryobank, the National Assisted Reproductive Technology Surveillance System, and the National Blood Collection and Utilization Survey, respectively. Significance of cross-correlation and Pearson correlation analysis as indicated by p value. Results There were several highly significant cross-correlation relationships between search volume and various economic indicators. Correlation between Google search volume for the term “sperm donation,” “egg donation,” and “blood donation” with actual number of sperm, egg and blood donations in the United States demonstrated Pearson correlation coefficients of 0.2 (p > 0.10), −0.1 (p > 0.10), and 0.07 (p > 0.10), respectively. Temporal analysis showed an improved correlation coefficient of 0.9 (p economic downturns. This finding suggests gamete and bodily fluid donations are influenced by market forces like other commodities. Google search may be useful for predicting blood donation trends but is more limited in predicting actual semen and oocyte donation patterns. PMID:26432967

  6. The effect of time from last food intake on arterial blood gases: Implication on reference values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahedpour Anaraki M

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Arterial blood gas parameters were analyzed in forty-nine healthy persons (31 males, 18 females to detemine reference values fo these parameters and their relation to the time from last food intake to arterial puncture (T. The mean ± standard deviation of arterial oxygen pressure, arterial carbon dioxide pressure and pH at core body temperature were 84.4±7.0 mmHg (Male: 83.0±6.5, Female: 86.7±73, 37.7±2.8 mmHg (Male: 38.5±2.7, Female: 36.2±2.4 respectively 7.41±0.02 (Male: 7.41±0.02 Female: 7.42±0.03. the mean PCO2 was lower in comparison with most of the studies at sea level. The difference between males and females was significant in PCO2 and PH (P=0.004, P=0.02 respectively but in was not significant in PO2 (P=0.07. The PCO2 and pH had no statistically significant relatioship with age (P=0.42, P=0.25 respectively. The relationship between Po2 with age, PCO2 and T was significant (P=0.02, P=0.017, and P=0.019 respectively. The best linear predictive equation was: Po2= 1.28 AO2-29.4 for T10hours Þ AO2 = 0.21(Baro-47 – (1.2PCO2

  7. Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa in the circulating blood of Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Characidae Myxobolus sp. (Myxozoa no sangue circulante de Colossoma macropomum (Osteichthyes, Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Oliveira Maciel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Myxosporea parasitize many organs in fresh and saltwater fish. Species of the genus Myxobolus parasitizing the gills and other organs of the tambaqui Colossoma macropomum have been described. In the present study, blood smears were made from juvenile tambaqui and were stained with May Grunwald-Giemsa-Wright in order to identify myxozoan parasites. Out of a total of 36 fish examined, one specimen (2.7% that was reared in a cage presented spores that were identified as M. colossomatis, whereas fish kept in 250 L tanks showed prevalence of 5.5%. This is the first report of M. colossomatis in the blood of farmed tambaqui in the Amazon region. These results indicate that myxozoan parasites should also be investigated in fish blood smears. Some myxosporean species may cause diseases in fish, and these species need to be identified so that adequate preventive sanitary control can be instituted.Mixosporídeos parasitam diversos órgãos de peixes de água doce e salgada, tendo sido descrita espécie do gênero Myxobolus parasitando brânquias e outros órgãos de tambaqui Colossoma macropomum. No presente trabalho, extensões sanguíneas de juvenis de tambaquis foram confeccionadas e coradas com May Grunwald-Giemsa-Wright para identificação de parasitos myxozoários. Do total de 36 peixes examinados, um espécime (2,7% cultivado em tanque-rede apresentou esporos identificados como M. colossomatis, enquanto os peixes mantidos em tanques com 250 L apresentaram prevalência de 5,5%. Esse é o primeiro registro de M. colossomatis no sangue de tambaqui cultivado na Amazônia. Esses resultados indicam que parasitos Myxozoa devem ser também investigados em extensões sanguíneas. Algumas espécies de mixosporídeos podem causar doença em peixes, sendo necessária a identificação da espécie para um adequado manejo sanitário preventivo.

  8. Optics based signal processing methods for intraoperative blood vessel detection and quantification in real time (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amal; Shukair, Shetha A.; Le Rolland, Paul; Vijayvergia, Mayank; Subramanian, Hariharan; Gunn, Jonathan W.

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive operations require surgeons to make difficult cuts to blood vessels and other tissues with impaired tactile and visual feedback. This leads to inadvertent cuts to blood vessels hidden beneath tissue, causing serious health risks to patients and a non-reimbursable financial burden to hospitals. Intraoperative imaging technologies have been developed, but these expensive systems can be cumbersome and provide only a high-level view of blood vessel networks. In this research, we propose a lean reflectance-based system, comprised of a dual wavelength LED, photodiode, and novel signal processing algorithms for rapid vessel characterization. Since this system takes advantage of the inherent pulsatile light absorption characteristics of blood vessels, no contrast agent is required for its ability to detect the presence of a blood vessel buried deep inside any tissue type (up to a cm) in real time. Once a vessel is detected, the system is able to estimate the distance of the vessel from the probe and the diameter size of the vessel (with a resolution of ~2mm), as well as delineate the type of tissue surrounding the vessel. The system is low-cost, functions in real-time, and could be mounted on already existing surgical tools, such as Kittner dissectors or laparoscopic suction irrigation cannulae. Having been successfully validated ex vivo, this technology will next be tested in a live porcine study and eventually in clinical trials.

  9. Time-effect relationship of mitochondrial DNA 4977bp deletion in human peripheral blood cell after X ray irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the time-effect of mitochondrial DNA 4977bp deletion in human peripheral blood cells exposed to X ray, human peripheral whole blood samples were collected from two healthy individuals, and exposed to X rays with dose from 0 to 10 Gy. The genomic DNAs were isolated from the whole-blood samples, and the levels of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and copy number of total mtDNA in the DNA samples were detected by Real-time PCR after irradiation at 2, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that the copy number of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and total mtDNA, and the rates of mtDNA 4977bp deletion increase with incubation time with dose at 5 Gy after irradiation. Moreover, they increased with dose from 0 to 10 Gy after irradiation at 24 h and 72 h, respectively. The results suggested that the levels of mtDNA 4977bp deletion and the copy number of total mtDNA in human peripheral blood cells exposed to X ray were accumulated with incubation time and dose increase, respectively. (authors)

  10. PULMONARY CIRCULATION AT EXERCISE

    OpenAIRE

    R. Naeije; CHESLER, N

    2012-01-01

    The pulmonary circulation is a high flow and low pressure circuit, with an average resistance of 1 mmHg.min.L−1 in young adults, increasing to 2.5 mmHg.min.L−1 over 4–6 decades of life. Pulmonary vascular mechanics at exercise are best described by distensible models. Exercise does not appear to affect the time constant of the pulmonary circulation or the longitudinal distribution of resistances. Very high flows are associated with high capillary pressures, up to a 20–25 mmHg threshold associ...

  11. Evidence for an amoeba-like infectious stage of ichthyophonus sp. and description of a circulating blood stage: a probable mechanism for dispersal within the fish host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocan, Richard; LaPatra, Scott; Hershberger, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Small amoeboid cells, believed to be the infectious stage of Ichthyophonus sp., were observed in the bolus (stomach contents) and tunica propria (stomach wall) of Pacific staghorn sculpins and rainbow trout shortly after they ingested Ichthyophonus sp.–infected tissues. By 24–48 hr post-exposure (PE) the parasite morphed from the classically reported multinucleate thick walled schizonts to 2 distinct cell types, i.e., a larger multinucleate amoeboid cell surrounded by a narrow translucent zone and a smaller spherical cell surrounded by a “halo” and resembling a small schizont. Both cell types also appeared in the tunica propria, indicating that they had recently penetrated the columnar epithelium of the stomach. No Ichthyophonus sp. pseudo-hyphae (“germination tubes”) were observed in the bolus or penetrating the stomach wall. Simultaneously, Ichthyophonus sp. was isolated in vitro from aortic blood, which was consistently positive from 6 to 144 hr PE, then only intermittently for the next 4 wk. Small PAS-positive cells observed in blood cultures grew into colonies consisting of non-septate tubules (pseudo-hyphae) terminating in multinucleated knob-like apices similar to those seen in organ explant cultures. Organ explants were culture positive every day; however, typical Ichthyophonus sp. schizonts were not observed histologically until 20–25 days PE. From 20 to 60 days PE, schizont diameter increased from ≤25 μm to ≥82 μm. Based on the data presented herein, we are confident that we have resolved the life cycle of Ichthyophonus sp. within the piscivorous host.

  12. Clinical Utility Of Blood E2F3 MRNA Assay In The Early Diagnosis Of Prostatic Cancer By Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Based on the fact that prostate cancer development and progression is the result of the interaction between different molecular mechanisms, many efforts have been devoted to the identification of new circulating genes that could serve as non invasive, reliable early diagnostic and prognostic markers and where their specific functions allow potential therapeutic targets. E2F3 is a member of E2F family of transcription factors involved in cell cycle regulatory functions. It was found that E2F3 is over-expressed in some tumors including bladder and prostate cancer. Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical significance of peripheral blood E2F3 mRNA assay in the early diagnosis of patients with localized prostate cancer and to compare its expression in the blood of age-matched prostate cancer, benign prostatic hypertrophy and healthy males. Methods: This study was conducted on 25 patients with cancer prostate, 15 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (serving as a pathological control group) in addition to 10 healthy men (serving as a healthy control group). Blood samples were collected and tested for the detection of E2F3 mRNA gene by real time RT-PCR and prostate specific antigen (PSA) by electro chemiluminescence immunoassay. E2F3 mRNA results were reported in relative quantification, where the target and housekeeping gene (GAPDH) were amplified from the same sample in two separate reaction plates. Results were then compared between different samples relying on direct comparison of threshold cycle (CT) values. Finally, the normalized level of target gene expression was calculated by using the formula: 2δδCT Results: Total PSA at the cutoff 4 ng/mL had a diagnostic sensitivity of 88%, specificity of 84%, positive predictive value of 88%, negative predictive value of 84% and diagnostic efficacy of 86%. E2F3 mRNA was statistically higher in cancer prostate group than in benign prostatic hyperplasia and healthy control groups. At the cut

  13. The circulation physiology of agroecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Zhiping; Richard Dawson

    2007-01-01

    This paper represents an effort to enlarge the understanding of the biophysical foundation of agroecosystems by using an analogy with the circulation of the blood in the human body. The circulation function in the human body can be represented as arterial pressure. The factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body have direct counterparts in the cultivation-husbandry system. The relationship between circulation pressure and the factors affecting that pressure in the cultivation-husbandry system are similar to the relationship between the arterial pressure and factors affecting arterial pressure in the human body. Furthermore, circulation resistance in the cultivation-husbandry system can be shown to be analogous to the calculation of peripheral resistance in the human body by Poiseuille's formula.

  14. Circulation pattern based parameterization of a multiplicative random cascade for disaggregation of observed and projected daily rainfall time series

    OpenAIRE

    Lisniak, D.; J Franke; Bernhofer, C.

    2013-01-01

    The use of multiplicative random cascades (MRCs) for temporal rainfall disaggregation has been extensively studied in the past. MRCs are appealing for rainfall disaggregation due to their formal simplicity and the possibility to extract the model parameters directly from observed high resolution rainfall data. These parameters, however, represent the rainfall characteristics of the observation period. Since rainfall characteristics of different time slices are changing due to climate variabil...

  15. Dynamic Effect of Rolling Massage on Blood Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chinese traditional medical massage has been used as a natural therapy to eliminate some diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage frequency to the blood flow in the blood vessels under the rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that when the frequency is smaller than or comparable to the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the effect on the blood flux by the rolling massage is small. On the contrast, if the frequency is twice or more times of the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the blood flux is greatly enhanced and increases linearly with respect to the frequency. Similar behavior has also been observed on the shear stress on the blood vessel walls. The result is helpful for understanding that the rolling massage has the function of promoting the blood circulation and removing the blood stasis.

  16. Dynamic Effect of Rolling Massage on Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Yan; Yi, Hou-Hui; Li, Hua-Bing; Fang, Hai-Ping

    2009-02-01

    The Chinese traditional medical massage has been used as a natural therapy to eliminate some diseases. Here, the effect of the rolling massage frequency to the blood flow in the blood vessels under the rolling massage manipulation is studied by the lattice Boltzmann simulation. The simulation results show that when the frequency is smaller than or comparable to the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the effect on the blood flux by the rolling massage is small. On the contrast, if the frequency is twice or more times of the pulsatile frequency of the blood flow, the blood flux is greatly enhanced and increases linearly with respect to the frequency. Similar behavior has also been observed on the shear stress on the blood vessel walls. The result is helpful for understanding that the rolling massage has the function of promoting the blood circulation and removing the blood stasis.

  17. Blood sample tube transporting system versus point of care technology in an emergency department; effect on time from collection to reporting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Birgitte; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    technologies (POCT) are used in emergency departments. This study assesses the hypothesis, that using Point of Care Technology in analysing blood samples versus tube transporting blood samples for laboratory analyses results in shorter time from the blood sample is collected to the result is reported in an...

  18. An intelligent system for continuous blood pressure monitoring on remote multi-patients in real time

    OpenAIRE

    Marani, Roberto; Perri, Anna Gina

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an electronic system to perform a non-invasive measurement of the blood pressure based on the oscillometric method, which does not suffer from the limitations of the well-known auscultatory one. Moreover the proposed system is able to evaluate both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and makes use of a microcontroller and a Sallen-Key active filter. With reference to other similar devices, a great improvement of our measurement system is achieved since it...

  19. Comparison of quantitative HCMV DNAemia in whole blood and leukocytes, and Real-Time PCR in a BMT patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio De Nisco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. HCMV is the most opportunistic viral agent in the transplantation of bone marrow and solid organ. Early therapy based on the detection of HCMV pp65 antigen in peripheral blood leukocytes, has led to a significant reduction in the incidence of related HCMV diseases.The pp65 antigenemia is difficult to standardize, while the quantification of HCMV DNA by Real-Time PCR is an alternative diagnostic approach with greater sensitivity and reproducibility, providing important information in the management of infected patients. Objectives. The aim of this study was the comparative analysis of quantitative HCMV DNAemia in leukocytes and in whole blood, with Real-time PCR, in a BMT patient with HCMV post-transplant reactivation, in order to analyze the relationship between levels of viral DNA at different time-points obtained in the two biological matrices. Study Design. The presence of HCMV DNA was detected in whole blood and peripheral blood leukocytes in a patient who underwent allogeneic marrow transplant for Ph1 + acute lymphoblastic leukemia in molecular remission. After 5-6 months, the patient has increased molecular Bcr-Abl (Philadelphia chromosome. It was activated immune reaction by means of tapering (lowering the dose of cyclosporine that uses the GvL effect to turn negative the Philadelphia chromosome positivity (Bcr/Abl negativity. Later, the patient develops GvHD and cortisone is administered. The persistence of grafts treated with immunosuppressants periodically reactivates HCMV infection. The DNA extraction from whole-blood was performed by automatic extractor QIACUBE (Qiagen, while extraction from leucocytes was performed on a standard number of leukocytes (EXTRAcell- Nanogen.The extracted DNA was amplified by Real-Time Alert Q-PCR (Nanogen.The samples were analyzed weekly for about 5 months from 1 year after transplantation. Results. The patient at 1 year after transplantation, has three HCMV reactivation at 56th, 62th and 67

  20. Optimal control of CPR procedure using hemodynamic circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Suzanne M.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.; Jung, Eunok

    2007-12-25

    A method for determining a chest pressure profile for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) includes the steps of representing a hemodynamic circulation model based on a plurality of difference equations for a patient, applying an optimal control (OC) algorithm to the circulation model, and determining a chest pressure profile. The chest pressure profile defines a timing pattern of externally applied pressure to a chest of the patient to maximize blood flow through the patient. A CPR device includes a chest compressor, a controller communicably connected to the chest compressor, and a computer communicably connected to the controller. The computer determines the chest pressure profile by applying an OC algorithm to a hemodynamic circulation model based on the plurality of difference equations.

  1. [Time trends of incidence rates of work accident with blood contamination in a North Italian teaching hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrario, M M; Landone, S; De Biasi, M; Tagliasacchi, R; Riva, R; Veronesi, G; Sassi, M; Borchini, R; Bonzini, M

    2012-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of incidence rates of accidents with blood contaminations (ABC) and time trends is the milieu for assessing the effectiveness of preventive interventions. A standardised procedure for registration and follow-up of ABC was et up in a North Italian hospital since 2002. Accurate estimates of rate denominator, as full-time equivalent (FTE) person-years, was calculated, for exposed workers only and excluding periods of prolonged absence. In the observation period (2004-2011), training courses for head nurses on security procedures were repeatedly carried out as well as the progressive introduction of vacuum blood collection systems (since 2009). 1287 ABC have been reported, corresponding to an overall annual crude incidence rate of 4.73 per 100 FTE. Temporal trends, calculated on the biennial incidence, resulted in a reductions over the time period considered, in particular for needlestick injuries. Our results support the notions on the efficacy of the adopted prevention measures. PMID:23405640

  2. Timing and topography of cerebral blood flow, aura, and headache during migraine attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, J; Friberg, L; Olsen, T S; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Lassen, N A; Andersen, A R; Karle, A

    1990-01-01

    Ten years of study has resulted in considerable but fragmented knowledge about regional cerebral blood flow in migraine with aura (classic migraine). In the present study, the number of repeatedly studied patients (n = 63) was large enough to determine statistically significant sequences of event...... nociceptors. Bilateral headache caused by a unilateral cerebral disturbance may be explained by recent neuroanatomical and neurophysiological findings....

  3. Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    1997-01-01

    The circadian periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial (mf) intensities in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of infected individuals from an endemic community in north-eastern Tanzania. The mf density was quantified at two-hourly intervals for 24 hours. A clear nocturnal periodic...

  4. Time dependent variation of human blood conductivity as a method for an estimation of RBC aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 1 (2008), s. 69-78. ISSN 1386-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : RBC aggregation * blood conductivity * low shear rate viscometry Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.814, year: 2008

  5. Fast blood flow monitoring in deep tissues with real-time software correlators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Detian; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Baker, Wesley B.; Gannon, Kimberly; Kavuri, Venki; Ko, Tiffany; Schenkel, Steven; Li, Zhe; Li, Zeren; Mullen, Michael T.; Detre, John A.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce, validate and demonstrate a new software correlator for high-speed measurement of blood flow in deep tissues based on diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). The software correlator scheme employs standard PC-based data acquisition boards to measure temporal intensity autocorrelation functions continuously at 50 – 100 Hz, the fastest blood flow measurements reported with DCS to date. The data streams, obtained in vivo for typical source-detector separations of 2.5 cm, easily resolve pulsatile heart-beat fluctuations in blood flow which were previously considered to be noise. We employ the device to separate tissue blood flow from tissue absorption/scattering dynamics and thereby show that the origin of the pulsatile DCS signal is primarily flow, and we monitor cerebral autoregulation dynamics in healthy volunteers more accurately than with traditional instrumentation as a result of increased data acquisition rates. Finally, we characterize measurement signal-to-noise ratio and identify count rate and averaging parameters needed for optimal performance. PMID:27231588

  6. Effects of Blood-Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Feedback on BAC Estimates Over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullers, Susan; Ennis, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of self-tested blood alcohol concentration (BAC) feedback, from personal hand-held breathalyzers, on the accuracy of BAC estimation. Using an e-mail prompted web-based questionnaire, 19 participants were asked to report both BAC estimates and subsequently measured BAC levels over the course of 27 days. Results from…

  7. Blood donor deferral: time for change? An evidence-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borra V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vere Borra,1 Giovani Vandewalle,1 Hans Van Remoortel,1 Veerle Compernolle,1,2 Emmy De Buck,1 Philippe Vandekerckhove1–31Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, Mechelen, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ghent, Ghent, 3Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Donor selection remains an important part in the safety of the blood supply all over the world. Yet, donor deferral criteria seem to be strongly based on the precautionary principle protecting safety and quality, and on supply and expense considerations. This review therefore provides an overview of the available evidence on donor exclusion criteria, as well as on their cost-effectiveness, for the most frequent reasons of donor deferral in our region. PubMed was queried to retrieve primary research studies, systematic reviews, and health technology assessments (HTAs concerning donor exclusion criteria. With a similar approach, HTAs about the different blood-banking safety interventions were included. Reasons for donor deferral were recorded via the blood bank information system of the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders. Seven systematic reviews were identified: four on donor safety (hypotension, hypertension/type 2 diabetes, epilepsy, and higher age and three on recipient safety (hemochromatosis, men who have sex with men, and endoscopy. Forty-three low-quality observational studies were included, as well as 16 HTAs: three about donor exclusion criteria and 13 cost-utility analyses about blood-banking safety interventions. In general, the available evidence for deferral reasons was of low quality, and for 60% of the top 30 reasons for excluding donors, no evidence was found. Blood banking shows its unique position as many safety measures far exceed the normally accepted cost of €50,000/quality-adjusted life-years. The historical model based on the precautionary principle and on supply and expense considerations provides adequate supplies of

  8. Validity of standard reference values irrespective of rest and time of day prior to blood sampling-results from albumin and thyrotropin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I. B.; Brasen, C. L.; Christensen, H.;

    2015-01-01

    throughout the opening hours and investigate the impact of resting time. Materials and method: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included during Nov. 2011-Jun. 2014 (opening hours: 7am-3pm). For each patient arrival time and time of blood sampling were registered...

  9. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  10. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... failure . Your heart may not be able to circulate enough blood to meet your body's needs. Endocrine ... related to heart disease and stroke. Start exploring today ! Related Tools HBP Risk Calculator HBP Trackers Videos ...

  11. Timing of Peak Blood Glucose after Breakfast Meals of Different Glycemic Index in Women with Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Foote

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the peak timing of postprandial blood glucose level (PBGL of two breakfasts with different glycemic index (GI in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Ten women with diet-controlled GDM who were between 30 and 32 weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. They consumed two carbohydrate controlled, macronutrient matched bread-based breakfasts with different GI (low vs. high on two separate occasions in a random order after an overnight fast. PBGLs were assessed using a portable blood analyser. Subjects were asked to indicate their satiety rating at each blood sample collection. Overall the consumption of a high GI breakfast resulted in a greater rise in PBGL (mean ± SEM peak PBGL: low GI 6.7 ± 0.3 mmol/L vs. high GI 8.6 ± 0.3 mmol/L; p < 0.001 and an earlier peak PBGL time (16.9 ± 4.9 min earlier; p = 0.015, with high variability in PBGL time between subjects. There was no significant difference in subjective satiety throughout the test period. In conclusion, the low GI breakfast produced lower postprandial glycemia, and the peak PBGL occurred closer to the time recommended for PBGL monitoring (i.e., 1 h postprandial in GDM than a macronutrient matched high GI breakfast.

  12. Establishment of a real-time PCR for quantifying transforming growth factor beta1 in blood of hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background: The carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a multi-factorial, multistep and complex process. Its prognosis is poor and early detection is of the utmost importance. Transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) message RNA (mRNA) has been reported to be elevated in HCC patients using Northern blotting. However, little work has been done about the detection of TGF-β1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood of patients with HCC using the real-time polymerase chain reactions (PCR) method. Objective: To assess the prognostic value of quantitative levels of TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood of patients with HCC, and to investigate the relationship between the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood and many diagnostic and pathological factors. Methods: We developed an optimized Taqman real-time PCR to quantify TGF-β1 mRNA in peripheral blood of 53 patients with HCC and 44 healthy volunteers. In addition, blood was collected from patients with HCC for measuring levels of total bilirubin (TBil), prealbumin, albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltranspeptidase (GGT), alpha-L-fucosidase (AFU), alpha fetoprotein (AFP), carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9), viral load and platelet counts. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software system (SPSS 10.0). Results: In real-time PCR, fluorescence was detectable in all blood specimens from patients with HCC and healthy volunteers. The levels of TGF-β1 mRNA expression in patients with HCC were significantly higher compared to that in healthy volunteers (P<0.000 1), suggesting an association of the activated TGF-β1 gene transcription with hepatocarcinogenesis. Patients with HCC were divided into 2 groups according to their TGF-β1 mRNA above (group A, n=28) or below (group B, n=25) the mean level. Statistical results demonstrated that TGF-β1 mRNA expression level was correlated with patients age, serum levels of CEA

  13. An intelligent system for continuous blood pressure monitoring on remote multi-patients in real time

    CERN Document Server

    Marani, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present an electronic system to perform a non-invasive measurement of the blood pressure based on the oscillometric method, which does not suffer from the limitations of the well-known auscultatory one. Moreover the proposed system is able to evaluate both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure values and makes use of a microcontroller and a Sallen-Key active filter. With reference to other similar devices, a great improvement of our measurement system is achieved since it performs the transmission of the systolic and diastolic pressure values to a remote computer. This aspect is very important when the simultaneous monitoring of multi-patients is required. The proposed system, prototyped and tested at the Electron Devices Laboratory (Electrical and Information Engineering Department) of Polytechnic University of Bari, Italy, is characterized by originality, by plainness of use and by a very high level of automation (so called intelligent system).

  14. Comparison of a Real-Time PCR Method with Serology and Blood Smear Analysis for Diagnosis of Human Anaplasmosis: Importance of Infection Time Course for Optimal Test Utilization

    OpenAIRE

    Schotthoefer, A. M.; Meece, J. K.; Ivacic, L. C.; Bertz, P. D.; Zhang, K.; Weiler, T.; Uphoff, T S; Fritsche, T R

    2013-01-01

    Anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis are emerging tick-borne diseases with clinically similar presentations caused by closely related pathogens. Currently, laboratories rely predominantly on blood smear analysis (for the detection of intracellular morulae) and on serologic tests, both of which have recognized limitations, for diagnostic purposes. We compared the performance of a published real-time PCR assay that incorporates melt curve analysis to differentiate Anaplasma and Ehrlichia species with ...

  15. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure in prehypertensives

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Kimberly Fairbrother,1 Ben Cartner,1 Jessica R Alley,1 Chelsea D Curry,1, David L Dickinson,2 David M Morris,1 Scott R Collier1 1Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, 2Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Background: During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP) “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute a...

  16. Effects of exercise timing on sleep architecture and nocturnal blood pressure in prehypertensives

    OpenAIRE

    Fairbrother K; Cartner B; Alley JR; Curry CD; Dickinson DL; Morris DM; Collier SR

    2014-01-01

    Kimberly Fairbrother,1 Ben Cartner,1 Jessica R Alley,1 Chelsea D Curry,1, David L Dickinson,2 David M Morris,1 Scott R Collier1 1Vascular Biology and Autonomic Studies Laboratory, Department of Health and Exercise Science, 2Department of Economics, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA Background: During nocturnal sleep, blood pressure (BP) “dips” compared to diurnal BP, reducing stress on the cardiovascular system. Both the hypotensive response elicited by acute aerobic e...

  17. Determination of the optional time for taking blood samples by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty four young hens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Every group was diet free (FAS) or force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or the diet with 20% crude protein in which soybean meal or cotton seed meal was the sole nitrogen source (30 g DM/kg BW). 30 μCi 3H-Leu/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after force-fed or on fasting. Venous blood samples were taken at 5, 30 min, 4,24,36 and 48h after injection. The excreta during the whole period of 48h after injection was collected. Special radioactivities of nonprotein plasma at every time point and excreta were measured. The optional time of taking blood samples was 20-24 hours after injected 3H-Leu

  18. When Prostate Cancer Circulates in the Bloodstream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Vlaeminck-Guillem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Management of patients with prostate cancer is currently based on imperfect clinical, biological, radiological and pathological evaluation. Prostate cancer aggressiveness, including metastatic potential, remains difficult to accurately estimate. In an attempt to better adapt therapeutics to an individual (personalized medicine, reliable evaluation of the intrinsic molecular biology of the tumor is warranted, and particularly for all tumor sites (primary tumors and secondary sites at any time of the disease progression. As a consequence of their natural tendency to grow (passive invasion or as a consequence of an active blood vessel invasion by metastase-initiating cells, tumors shed various materials into the bloodstream. Major efforts have been recently made to develop powerful and accurate methods able to detect, quantify and/or analyze all these circulating tumor materials: circulating tumors cells, disseminating tumor cells, extracellular vesicles (including exosomes, nucleic acids, etc. The aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about these circulating tumor materials and their applications in translational research.

  19. Comparison of DNA Extraction Kits for Detection of Burkholderia pseudomallei in Spiked Human Whole Blood Using Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Podnecky, Nicole L.; Elrod, Mindy G.; Newton, Bruce R.; Dauphin, Leslie A.; Shi, JianRong; Chawalchitiporn, Sutthinan; Baggett, Henry C.; Hoffmaster, Alex R.; Gee, Jay E.

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is endemic in northern Australia and Southeast Asia and can cause severe septicemia that may lead to death in 20% to 50% of cases. Rapid detection of B. pseudomallei infection is crucial for timely treatment of septic patients. This study evaluated seven commercially available DNA extraction kits to determine the relative recovery of B. pseudomallei DNA from spiked EDTA-containing human whole blood. The evaluation included three m...

  20. Timing of Peak Blood Glucose after Breakfast Meals of Different Glycemic Index in Women with Gestational Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Foote; Jennie C. Brand-Miller; Glynis P. Ross; Tania P. Markovic; Jimmy Chun Yu Louie

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine the peak timing of postprandial blood glucose level (PBGL) of two breakfasts with different glycemic index (GI) in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Ten women with diet-controlled GDM who were between 30 and 32 weeks of gestation were enrolled in the study. They consumed two carbohydrate controlled, macronutrient matched bread-based breakfasts with different GI (low vs. high) on two separate occasions in a random order after an overnight fast. PBGLs were assess...

  1. Influence of a chinese traditional medicine recipes for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation on levels of serum with interleukin-6 and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism in female rats after ovariectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the influence of a Chinese traditional medicine recipe for replenishing kidney function and activating blood circulation (CRRK) in female rats on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and other hormones affecting calcium metabolism after ovariectomy. Methods: Ninety female SD rats were divided into 6 groups: control, model (ovariectomy only) treated with nyl-estriol, treated with CRRK (high, moderate and low doses). CRRK (Gu Kang) was administered at the three dose levels for 90 days. Radioimmunoassay was used to determine the serum levels of estradiol (E2), IL-6, calcitonin (CT) and BGP. The weight and histo-morphology of the uterus of the rats sacrificed after 90 days of treatment was also studied. Results: Compared with the control group, the levels of IL-6 in the model group were significantly higher (P 2 and CT, BGP were significantly lower (P 2 and BGP were significantly higher (P < 0.05-0.001). The weight of uterus was also increased (P < 0.05). The composite recipe proved to have definite effects on normalizing the uterine histomorphology. Conclusion: The results had showed that the composite recipe had good effects on prevention and therapy of osteoporosis after ovariectomy in rats

  2. [Effect of erythrocyte preserved for different lengths of time on anti-D antibody identification with three blood matching tests].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui-Qing; Lin, Wu-Cun; Xu, Dan; Zeng, Jie; Wu, Jian-Jun; Zhao, Shu-Ming

    2003-10-01

    The specificity of the antigens and length of preservation time of erythrocytes are the interfering factors in blood group serological tests. In order to clarify the influence of preservation time of erythrocytes on the blood matching test, the titers of anti-D antibody were detected with papain method, BioVue cross matching card and DianaGel cross matching card in 7 series of panel red blood cells preserved for various length of time (0 to 9 months). The results showed that the titer of micro-column gel test (DianaGel card) was one tube higher than that of column agglutinating test (BioVue card). The titer of erythrocytes preserved for 9 months was as high as 256 tested by DianaGel card, but it was only 2 by papain method in the same anti-serum. It is suggested that there was no obvious difference between the results of micro-column gel test and column agglutinating test, and titer of papain method was the lowest. PMID:14575550

  3. Sino-Danish Brain Circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Rasmus Gjedssø; Du, Xiangyun; Søndergaard, Morten Karnøe

    2014-01-01

    China is faced with urgent needs to develop an economically and environmentally sustainable economy based on innovation and knowledge. Brain circulation and research and business investments from the outside are central for this development. Sino-American brain circulation and research...... and investment by overseas researchers and entrepreneurs are well described. In that case, the US is the center of global R&D and S&T. However, the brain circulation and research and investments between a small open Scandinavian economy, such as Denmark, and the huge developing economy of China are not well...... understood. In this case, Denmark is very highly developed, but a satellite in the global R&D and S&T system. With time and the growth of China as a R&D and S&T power house, both Denmark and China will benefit from brain circulation between them. Such brain circulation is likely to play a key role in flows...

  4. Tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters in colorectal cancer.

    KAUST Repository

    Cima, Igor

    2016-06-29

    Clusters of tumor cells are often observed in the blood of cancer patients. These structures have been described as malignant entities for more than 50 years, although their comprehensive characterization is lacking. Contrary to current consensus, we demonstrate that a discrete population of circulating cell clusters isolated from the blood of colorectal cancer patients are not cancerous but consist of tumor-derived endothelial cells. These clusters express both epithelial and mesenchymal markers, consistent with previous reports on circulating tumor cell (CTC) phenotyping. However, unlike CTCs, they do not mirror the genetic variations of matched tumors. Transcriptomic analysis of single clusters revealed that these structures exhibit an endothelial phenotype and can be traced back to the tumor endothelium. Further results show that tumor-derived endothelial clusters do not form by coagulation or by outgrowth of single circulating endothelial cells, supporting a direct release of clusters from the tumor vasculature. The isolation and enumeration of these benign clusters distinguished healthy volunteers from treatment-naïve as well as pathological early-stage (≤IIA) colorectal cancer patients with high accuracy, suggesting that tumor-derived circulating endothelial cell clusters could be used as a means of noninvasive screening for colorectal cancer. In contrast to CTCs, tumor-derived endothelial cell clusters may also provide important information about the underlying tumor vasculature at the time of diagnosis, during treatment, and throughout the course of the disease.

  5. Role of Circulating Fibrocytes in Cardiac Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rong-Jie; Su, Zi-Zhuo; Liang, Shu-Min; Chen, Yu-Yang; Shu, Xiao-Rong; Nie, Ru-Qiong; Wang, Jing-Feng; Xie, Shuang-Lun

    2016-01-01

    Objective: It is revealed that circulating fibrocytes are elevated in patients/animals with cardiac fibrosis, and this review aims to provide an introduction to circulating fibrocytes and their role in cardiac fibrosis. Data Sources: This review is based on the data from 1994 to present obtained from PubMed. The search terms were “circulating fibrocytes” and “cardiac fibrosis”. Study Selection: Articles and critical reviews, which are related to circulating fibrocytes and cardiac fibrosis, were selected. Results: Circulating fibrocytes, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells, represent a subset of peripheral blood mononuclear cells exhibiting mixed morphological and molecular characteristics of hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells (CD34+/CD45+/collagen I+). They can produce extracellular matrix and many cytokines. It is shown that circulating fibrocytes participate in many fibrotic diseases, including cardiac fibrosis. Evidence accumulated in recent years shows that aging individuals and patients with hypertension, heart failure, coronary heart disease, and atrial fibrillation have more circulating fibrocytes in peripheral blood and/or heart tissue, and this elevation of circulating fibrocytes is correlated with the degree of fibrosis in the hearts. Conclusions: Circulating fibrocytes are effector cells in cardiac fibrosis. PMID:26831236

  6. Blood donor deferral: time for change? An evidence-based analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Borra V; Vandewalle G; Van Remoortel H; Compernolle V; De Buck E; Vandekerckhove P

    2016-01-01

    Vere Borra,1 Giovani Vandewalle,1 Hans Van Remoortel,1 Veerle Compernolle,1,2 Emmy De Buck,1 Philippe Vandekerckhove1–31Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, Mechelen, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ghent, Ghent, 3Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Donor selection remains an important part in the safety of the blood supply all over the world. Yet, donor deferral criteria seem to be strongly based on the precautionary princip...

  7. Blood donor deferral: time for change? An evidence-based analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vandekerckhove, Philippe; Borra,Vere; Vandewalle,Giovani; van Remoortel, Hans; Compernolle, Veerle; De Buck, Emmy

    2016-01-01

    Vere Borra,1 Giovani Vandewalle,1 Hans Van Remoortel,1 Veerle Compernolle,1,2 Emmy De Buck,1 Philippe Vandekerckhove1–31Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, Mechelen, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ghent, Ghent, 3Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Donor selection remains an important part in the safety of the blood supply all over the world. Yet, donor deferral criteria seem to be strongly based on the precautionary pri...

  8. Pulmonary blood flow and pressure as well as arterial blood oxygenation simulations in ventilated artificial patient supported by continuous rotary blood pump.

    OpenAIRE

    ZielińSki, Krzysztof; Golczewski, Tomasz; Fresiello, Libera; Di Molfetta, Arianna; Ferrari, Gianfranco; Kozarski, Maciej; Darowski, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Our previous study suggested insignificant impairment of pulmonary circulation during artificial ventilation if the inspiration time is smaller than the duration of 2-3 heart cycles. This was due to pulmonary blood volume periodic changes. The aim of this study is to analyze the influence of left ventricular assistance by continuous rotary blood pump (RBP) on hemodynamic in ventilated, virtual patient. Methods: Virtual RBP was added to a previously elaborated hybrid (pneumonumeric...

  9. Time-scale and extent at which large-scale circulation modes determine the wind and solar potential in the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the East Atlantic (EA) and the Scandinavian (SCAND) modes are the three main large-scale circulation patterns driving the climate variability of the Iberian Peninsula. This study assesses their influence in terms of solar (photovoltaic) and wind power generation potential (SP and WP) and evaluates their skill as predictors. For that we use a hindcast regional climate simulation to retrieve the primary meteorological variables involved, surface solar radiation and wind speed. First we identify that the maximum influence of the various modes occurs on the interannual variations of the monthly mean SP and WP series, being generally more relevant in winter. Second we find that in this time-scale and season, SP (WP) varies up to 30% (40%) with respect to the mean climatology between years with opposite phases of the modes, although the strength and the spatial distribution of the signals differ from one month to another. Last, the skill of a multi-linear regression model (MLRM), built using the NAO, EA and SCAND indices, to reconstruct the original wintertime monthly series of SP and WP was investigated. The reconstructed series (when the MLRM is calibrated for each month individually) correlate with the original ones up to 0.8 at the interannual time-scale. Besides, when the modeled series for each individual month are merged to construct an October-to-March monthly series, and after removing the annual cycle in order to account for monthly anomalies, these correlate 0.65 (0.55) with the original SP (WP) series in average. These values remain fairly stable when the calibration and reconstruction periods differ, thus supporting up to a point the predictive potential of the method at the time-scale assessed here. (letter)

  10. Multiplex Real-Time PCR Assay for Rapid Detection of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococci Directly from Positive Blood Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Sunghyun; Kim, Jungho; Park, Soon-Deok; Uh, Young; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the most prevalent cause of bloodstream infections (BSIs) and is recognized as a major nosocomial pathogen. This study aimed to evaluate a newly designed multiplex real-time PCR assay capable of the simultaneous detection of mecA, S. aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) in blood culture specimens. The Real-MRSA and Real-MRCoNS multiplex real-time PCR assays (M&D, Republic of Korea) use the TaqMan probes 16S rRNA for Staphylo...

  11. A REAL-TIME PCR-BASED ASSAY FOR DETECTION OF WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI DNA IN BLOOD AND MOSQUITOES

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Ramakrishna U.; ATKINSON, LAURA J.; Reda M R Ramzy; Helmy, Hanan; Farid, Hoda A.; Bockarie, Moses J.; Susapu, Melinda; LANEY, SANDRA J.; Williams, Steven A.; Weil, Gary J

    2006-01-01

    We developed and evaluated real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in human blood and in mosquitoes. An assay based on detection of the W. bancrofti “LDR” repeat DNA sequence was more sensitive than an assay for Wolbachia 16S rDNA. The LDR-based assay was sensitive for detecting microfilarial DNA on dried membrane filters or on filter paper. We also compared real-time PCR with conventional PCR (C-PCR) for detecting W. bancrofti DNA in mosquito s...

  12. Fractionation and current time trends of PCB congeners: evolvement of distributions 1950–2010 studied using a global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lammel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available PCBs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants expected to decline in abiotic environmental media in response to decreasing primary emissions since the 1970s. A coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with embedded dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry and air-surface exchange processes with soils, vegetation and the cryosphere is used to study the transport and fate of four PCB congeners covering a range of 3–7 chlorine atoms.

    The change of the geographic distribution of the PCB mixture reflects the sources and sinks' evolvement over time. Globally, secondary emissions (re-volatilisation from surfaces are on the long term increasingly gaining importance over primary emissions. They are most important for congeners of medium hydrophobicity (5–6 chlorine atoms. Their levels are predicted to decrease slowest. Congeners' fractionation is characterized both geographically and temporally. It causes enrichment of the lighter, less persistent congeners and more delayed decreasing levels in high latitudes in response to decreasing emissions. Delivery of contaminants to high latitudes is predicted to be more efficient than previously suggested. The results suggest furthermore that the effectiveness of emission control measures may significantly vary among substances: trends of decline in abiotic environmental media do not only vary with latitude (slow in high latitudes, but do also show longitudinal gradients

  13. Fractionation and current time trends of PCB congeners: evolvement of distributions 1950–2010 studied using a global atmosphere-ocean general circulation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Lammel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PCBs are ubiquitous environmental pollutants expected to decline in abiotic environmental media in response to decreasing primary emissions since the 1970s. A coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model with embedded dynamic sub-models for atmospheric aerosols and the marine biogeochemistry and air-surface exchange processes with soils, vegetation and the cryosphere is used to study the transport and fate of four PCB congeners covering a range of 3–7 chlorine atoms.

    The change of the geographic distribution of the PCB mixture reflects the sources and sinks' evolvement over time. Globally, secondary emissions (re-volatilisation from surfaces are on the long term increasingly gaining importance over primary emissions. Secondary emissions are most important for the congeners with 5–6 chlorine atoms. Correspondingly, the levels of these congeners are predicted to decrease slowest. Changes in congener mixture composition (fractionation are characterized both geographically and temporally. In high latitudes enrichment of the lighter, less persistent congeners and more delayed decreasing levels in response to decreasing emissions are found. The delivery of the contaminants to high latitudes is predicted to be more efficient than previously suggested. The results suggest furthermore that the effectiveness of emission control measures may significantly vary among substances. The trends of decline of organic contaminant levels in the abiotic environmental media do not only vary with latitude (slow in high latitudes, but do also show longitudinal gradients.

  14. Interpreting the Consequences of Metformin Accumulation in an Emergency Context: Impact of the Time Frame on the Blood Metformin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Daniel Lalau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To clarify the link between metformin accumulation and its metabolic consequences by taking the time frame for metformin measurement into account. Research Design and Methods. Our database was studied for cases of metformin accumulation and lactic acidosis status available on admission, and then we selected patients in whom arterial pH, blood lactate, and plasma and erythrocyte metformin levels had been determined at the same time point. Results. Seventeen reports were studied on 16 patients, of whom 10 presented lactic acidosis. The time interval between admission and comprehensive testing ranged from 0 to 52 hours. The study parameters were determined simultaneously on admission in only 4 patients. In the 9 patients with lactic acidosis on admission and a delayed metformin assay, lactic acidosis persisted in 6 cases and had resolved in 3 cases by the time the blood sampling for metformin assay was performed. Conversely, lactic acidosis developed after admission in one case. Conclusions. Caution must be taken when interpreting the consequences of metformin accumulation in an emergency context: the patient’s lactic acidosis status will have changed by the time the metformin assay is performed, even though metformin accumulation may still be present.

  15. Effects of unsteadiness and non-Newtonian rheology on blood flow through a tapered time-variant stenotic artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-dimensional model is used to analyze the unsteady pulsatile flow of blood through a tapered artery with stenosis. The rheology of the flowing blood is captured by the constitutive equation of Carreau model. The geometry of the time-variant stenosis has been used to carry out the present analysis. The flow equations are set up under the assumption that the lumen radius is sufficiently smaller than the wavelength of the pulsatile pressure wave. A radial coordinate transformation is employed to immobilize the effect of the vessel wall. The resulting partial differential equations along with the boundary and initial conditions are solved using finite difference method. The dimensionless radial and axial velocity, volumetric flow rate, resistance impedance and wall shear stress are analyzed for normal and diseased artery with particular focus on variation of these quantities with non-Newtonian parameters.

  16. Transcriptional activity of telomerase complex in CD34- stem cells of cord blood in dependence of preparation time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bojdys-Szyndlar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether the expression of telomerase subunits encoding genes changes during the process of cord blood preparation. It should establish if the commonly accepted 24 hours time interval in stem cells kriopreservation procedure significantly influences their immortalization and so decreases the "quality" of cord blood stem cells. Investigation includes 69 women. Spontaneous labour was the inclusion condition. The material was collected at birth after clamping of umbilical cord by direct vasopuncture. CD34- cells were extracted from cord blood (MACS, Miltenyi Biotec; Bisley, Surrey, UK. The expression profile of telomerase activators and inhibitors encoding genes was determined using HG_U133A oligonucleotide microarray (Affymetrix. We used a real-time quantitative RT-PCR assay to quantify the telomerase TERT, hTR and TP1 subunits mRNA copy numbers in CD34- cells in 0, 6, 12 and 24 hours after cord blood collection. We observed significant decrease of numbers of copies of TERTA+B mRNA within the successive hours of observation. Significant decrease of numbers of TERTA mRNA copies was confirmed after 24 hours. However, we observed significant increase of numbers of copies of TERTB mRNA after 6 hours of observation. Similar level was maintained during another 6h. The significantly lower number of copies of TERTB mRNA was observed after 24h. We also observed significant increase of number of copies of TERT mRNA after 6 hours. Number of copies of TERT mRNA significantly decreased after another 6h, remaining, however, on a higher then initial one. The significant lower number of copies of TERT mRNA was observed 24h after delivery. The possible explanation of those results is discussed in the paper.

  17. Rate of blood loss and timing of exsanguination on prevalence of ecchymosis in fallow deer (Dama dama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulley, R C; Falepau, D F; Flesch, J S; Wiklund, E

    2010-05-01

    Blood loss associated with four combinations of stunning and exsanguination methods was determined as part of studying prevalence of ecchymosis in slaughtered fallow deer (Dama dama). A fifth treatment simulated incomplete severance of the extended neck after captive bolt stunning. Predicted mean weights of blood collected from the five slaughter treatments, including electrical stunning followed by the thoracic stick method of exsanguination, captive bolt stunning followed by the thoracic stick, captive bolt stunning followed by the gash cut method of exsanguination, electrical stunning followed by the gash cut, and captive bolt stunning followed by incomplete severance of the extended neck, were 1458.7, 1072.7, 684.5, 463.7, and 228.5 g, respectively. The overall effect of exsanguination method was highly significant (p<0.001) with the thoracic stick resulting in the greatest weight of blood collection in the 10s period immediately after initiation. The overall effect of stunning method on blood loss was not significant, although there was a significant (p<0.05) stunning method by exsanguination method interaction. Ecchymosis of varying severity occurred in some carcases from all treatment groups. Using the total loin and round ecchymosis scores, when little or no ecchymosis (grades 0 or 1) was compared with some ecchymosis (grade 2) by logistic regression, castrated bucks were 9.8 times more likely (p=0.002) and does 4.2 times more likely (p=0.06) to have some ecchymosis than entire bucks. The results indicate that ecchymosis can be reduced in fallow deer carcases by thoracic stick exsanguination incorporated less than 10s after stunning. PMID:20374859

  18. Effect of Buddhist meditation on serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, pulse rate, lung volume and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudsuang, R; Chentanez, V; Veluvan, K

    1991-09-01

    Serum cortisol and total protein levels, blood pressure, heart rate, lung volume, and reaction time were studied in 52 males 20-25 years of age practicing Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation, and in 30 males of the same age group not practicing meditation. It was found that after meditation, serum cortisol levels were significantly reduced, serum total protein level significantly increased, and systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and pulse rate significantly reduced. Vital capacity, tidal volume and maximal voluntary ventilation were significantly lower after meditation than before. There were also significant decreases in reaction time after mediation practice. The percentage decrease in reaction time during meditation was 22%, while in subjects untrained in meditation, the percentage decrease was only 7%. Results from these studies indicate that practising Dhammakaya Buddhist meditation produces biochemical and physiological changes and reduces the reaction time. PMID:1801007

  19. Influence of simulated microgravity on clock genes expression rhythmicity and underlying blood circulating miRNAs-mRNA co-expression regulatory mechanism in C57BL/6J mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ke; Qu, Lina

    Purpose: It is vital for astronauts to maintain the optimal alertness and neurobehavioral function. Among various factors that exist in the space flight and long-duration mission environment, gravity changes may probably an essential environmental factor to interfere with internal circadian rhythms homeostasis and sleep quality, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. Mammals' biological clock is controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and peripheral organs adjust their own rhythmicity with the central signals. Nevertheless,the mechanism underlying this synchronizition process is still unknown. microRNAs (miRNAs) are about 19~22nt long regulatory RNAs that serve as critical modulators of post-transcriptional gene regulation. Recently, circulating miRNAs were found to have the regulatory role between cells and peripheral tissues, besides its function inside the cells. This study aims to investigate the regulatory signal transduction role of miRNAs between SCN and peripheral biological clock effecter tissues and to further decipher the mechanism of circadian disturbance under microgravity. Method: Firstly, based on the assumption that severe alterations in the expression of genes known to be involved in circadian rhythms may affect the expression of other genes, the labeled cDNA from liver and suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of clock-knockout mice and control mice in different time points were cohybridized to microarrays. The fold change exceeding 2 (FC>2) was used to identify genes with altered expression levels in the knockout mice compared with control mice. Secondly, male C57BL/6J mice at 8 weeks of age were individually caged and acclimatized to the laboratory conditions (12h light/dark cycle) before being used for continuous core body temperature and activity monitoring. The mice were individually caged and tail suspended using a strip of adhesive surgical tape attached to a chain hanging from a pulley. Peripheral blood and liver tissues collection

  20. Soft pneumatic devices for blood circulation improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Meili, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The research activity I am presenting in this thesis lies within the framework of a cooperation between the University of Cagliari (Applied Mechanics and Robotics lab, headed by professor Andrea Manuello Bertetto, and the research group of physicians referencing to professor Alberto Concu at the Laboratory of Sports Physiology, Department of Medical Sciences), and the Polytechnic of Turin (professor Carlo Ferraresi and his equipe at the Group of Automation and Robotics, Department of Mechanic...

  1. The effect of blood sample positions in a water phantom at the time of irradiation on the dicentric yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood samples of man and rabbit, placed at various distances from the surface of a water phantom with a dosimeter were exposed to 250mGy of 60Co γ-rays. Increases in the dicentric yields in the lymphocytes were observed with increased distances from the surface of the water phantom. As a variation of the dicentric yield with increasing distance in water was found, in the experiment to obtain calibration curves for biological dosimetry, it is recommended that blood samples should be positioned at a constant distance from the surface of a water phantom at the time of irradiation. ICRU REPORT 23 recommends that the calibration measurement be carried out with an ionization chamber positioned at 5cm depth below the surface of a water phantom for 150 kV-10 MV X rays, and 137Cs and 60Co γ-rays. As the same reasons which determine a 5cm depth in the recommendation, should be applied to this case, it is desirable that the experiment be carried out with blood samples positioned at 5cm distance from the surface of a water phantom. (author)

  2. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Miyamoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC adenocarcinoma and other lung cancer cases. Metabolomic analysis of blood samples from the two studies yielded a total of 437 metabolites, of which 148 were identified as known compounds and 289 identified as unknown compounds. Differential analysis identified 15 known metabolites in one study and 18 in a second study that were statistically different (p-values <0.05. Levels of maltose, palmitic acid, glycerol, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, and lactic acid were increased in cancer samples while amino acids tryptophan, lysine and histidine decreased. Many of the metabolites were found to be significantly different in both studies, suggesting that metabolomics appears to be robust enough to find systemic changes from lung cancer, thus showing the potential of this type of analysis for lung cancer detection.

  3. Comparing Entropic and Multiple Relaxation Times Lattice Boltzmann Methods for blood flow simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.W. Geerdink; A.G. Hoekstra

    2009-01-01

    We compare the Lattice BGK, the Multiple Relaxation Times and the Entropic Lattice Boltzmann Methods for time harmonic flows. We measure the stability, speed and accuracy of the three models for Reynolds and Womersley numbers that are representative for human arteries. The Lattice BGK shows predicta

  4. Relative indexes of cutaneous blood perfusion measured by real-time laser Doppler imaging (LDI) in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Jafari, S Morteza; Schawkat, Megir; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Shafighi, Maziar

    2014-07-01

    We used real-time LDI to study regional variations in microcirculatory perfusion in healthy candidates to establish a new methodology for global perfusion body mapping that is based on intra-individual perfusion index ratios. Our study included 74 (37 female) healthy volunteers aged between 22 and 30 years (mean 24.49). Imaging was performed using a recent microcirculation-imaging camera (EasyLDI) for different body regions of each volunteer. The perfusion values were reported in Arbitrary Perfusion Units (APU). The relative perfusion indexes for each candidate's body region were then obtained by normalization with the perfusion value of the forehead. Basic parameters such as weight, height, and blood pressure were also measured and analyzed. The highest mean perfusion value was reported in the forehead area (259.21APU). Mean perfusion in the measured parts of the body correlated positively with mean forehead value, while there was no significant correlation between forehead blood perfusion values and room temperature, BMI, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.420, 0.623, 0.488, 0.099, respectively). Analysis of the data showed that perfusion indexes were not significantly different between male and female volunteers except for the ventral upper arm area (p=.001). LDI is a non-invasive, fast technique that opens several avenues for clinical applications. The mean perfusion indexes are useful in clinical practice for monitoring patients before and after surgical interventions. Perfusion values can be predicted for different body parts for patients only by taking the forehead perfusion value and using the perfusion index ratios to obtain expected normative perfusion values. PMID:24788075

  5. 消瘿汤联合活血散结法治疗甲状腺瘤的临床研究%The clinical research curing thyroid tumor by Xiaoying Decoction and blood circulation.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王广占; 赵静梅; 窦永起

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨消瘿汤联合活血散结法治疗甲状腺瘤的临床疗效方法 分析甲状腺腺瘤患者50例临床资料,采取消瘿汤联合活血散结法治疗,根据治疗后3个月甲状腺瘤大小变化对疗效进行评价.结果 观察组治疗甲状腺腺瘤临床总有效率明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 消瘿汤联合活血散结法治疗甲状腺瘤具有理气解郁,化痰软坚,祛瘀解毒散结的效果,值得临床推广应用.%Objective To approach clinical curative effect of curing thyroid tumor by Xiaoying Decoction and blood circulation Sanjie law. Methods To analyze 50 cases clinical data of thyroid tumor patients, taking Xiaoying Decoction Combined with Huoxue Sanjie therapy, according to the change after treatment for 3 months to evaluate the curative effect of thyroid tumor size. Results The Clinical treatment of thyroid adenoma total efficiency of detection group were higher than control group, P <0.05,the difference were statistical significance. Conclusion The Xiaoying Decoction Combined with Huoxue Sanjie method in the treatment of thyroid tumor with regulate the flow of vital energy and remove obstruction toit and stagnation, reduce phlegm, remove congestion cleanup heat detoxifcation effect,which was to be used.

  6. Technical note: Validation of a chemical pregnancy test in dairy cows that uses whole blood, shortened incubation times, and visual readout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, L M; Moore, S G; Poock, S E; Silvia, W J; Lucy, M C

    2016-09-01

    Chemical pregnancy testing is an alternative to traditional methods of pregnancy diagnosis (either manual palpation or ultrasound) in postpartum dairy cows and heifers. The objective was to validate a chemical pregnancy test that confers the advantages of using whole blood, rapid incubation times, and visual readout. Blood and milk samples were collected from Holstein dairy cows [n=320; 162±62 (mean ± SD) d in milk] on a confinement farm in northeast Missouri at 28 d after artificial insemination (AI). The samples were assayed for pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) by using a rapid visual test as well as traditional plasma- and milk-based tests. Transrectal ultrasonography diagnosis for pregnancy at 35 to 38 d after AI was the reference (gold) standard for all PAG tests. One hundred fifty-nine cows were diagnosed as pregnant by the reference standard (pregnancies per AI=49.7%). The tests were ELISA and either optical density (OD; measured with a microtiter plate reader; plasma, milk, and rapid visual tests) or visual readout (rapid visual test) were used to diagnose pregnancy. When OD was used, the percentage of pregnant cows classified correctly (sensitivity) for the plasma, milk, and rapid visual tests were 97±1, 96±2, and 95±1% (±SE), respectively. The sensitivity of the rapid visual test when assessed visually was 98±1%. The specificity (proportion of nonpregnant cows classified correctly) for the plasma, milk, and rapid visual was 94±2%, 94±2%, and 93±2% when an OD was used. When read visually, the specificity of the rapid visual test was lesser (85±3%) because some cows with faint visual signals yielded false positive diagnosis. The overall accuracy (proportion of pregnant and nonpregnant cows diagnosed correctly) was similar for all tests (plasma, milk, rapid visual OD, and rapid visual; 96±1, 95±1, 94±1, and 92±2%, respectively). In a second experiment, lactating Holstein cows (n=291) from 4 commercial confinement dairy farms in western

  7. Application of PDCA Circulation Method in the Detection of Blood Glucose in Patients with Department of Endocrinology%PDCA循环法在内分泌科患者漏测血糖的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳文敏

    2015-01-01

    Through to the 240 missing blood sugar diabetes using Pdca cycle management model, analysis of leakage causes were measured blood sugar, completes the related factors evaluation, formulate cor esponding nursing measures, to strengthen health education,strengthening the nursing staf the sense of responsibility, strict succession, in order to strengthen the management of patients with meals on time, ready to remind identification using cycle improvement so as to ef ectively reduce the missing rate of the patients with diabetes blood sugar.%通过对240例漏测血糖的糖尿病患者采用Pdca循环管理模式,对漏测血糖发生的原因进行分析,做好相关因素评估,制定针对性护理措施,从而加强健康宣教,加强护理人员责任心,严格交接班,加强患者按时进餐管理,做好提醒标识的使用等方面进行循环改进从而有效的降低了糖尿病患者血糖的漏测率。

  8. An accurate, flexible and small optical fiber sensor: a novel technological breakthrough for real-time analysis of dynamic blood flow data in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao-ying Yuan

    Full Text Available Because of the limitations of existing methods and techniques for directly obtaining real-time blood data, no accurate microflow in vivo real-time analysis method exists. To establish a novel technical platform for real-time in vivo detection and to analyze average blood pressure and other blood flow parameters, a small, accurate, flexible, and nontoxic Fabry-Perot fiber sensor was designed. The carotid sheath was implanted through intubation of the rabbit carotid artery (n = 8, and the blood pressure and other detection data were determined directly through the veins. The fiber detection results were compared with test results obtained using color Doppler ultrasound and a physiological pressure sensor recorder. Pairwise comparisons among the blood pressure results obtained using the three methods indicated that real-time blood pressure information obtained through the fiber sensor technique exhibited better correlation than the data obtained with the other techniques. The highest correlation (correlation coefficient of 0.86 was obtained between the fiber sensor and pressure sensor. The blood pressure values were positively related to the total cholesterol level, low-density lipoprotein level, number of red blood cells, and hemoglobin level, with correlation coefficients of 0.033, 0.129, 0.358, and 0.373, respectively. The blood pressure values had no obvious relationship with the number of white blood cells and high-density lipoprotein and had a negative relationship with triglyceride levels, with a correlation coefficient of -0.031. The average ambulatory blood pressure measured by the fiber sensor exhibited a negative correlation with the quantity of blood platelets (correlation coefficient of -0.839, P<0.05. The novel fiber sensor can thus obtain in vivo blood pressure data accurately, stably, and in real time; the sensor can also determine the content and status of the blood flow to some extent. Therefore, the fiber sensor can obtain

  9. Method for Reducing Pumping Damage to Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor); Akkerman, James W. (Inventor); Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor); VanDamm, George Arthur (Inventor); Bacak, James W. (Inventor); Svejkovsky, Robert J. (Inventor); Benkowski, Robert J. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for minimizing damage to blood in a blood pump wherein the blood pump comprises a plurality of pump components that may affect blood damage such as clearance between pump blades and housing, number of impeller blades, rounded or flat blade edges, variations in entrance angles of blades, impeller length, and the like. The process comprises selecting a plurality of pump components believed to affect blood damage such as those listed herein before. Construction variations for each of the plurality of pump components are then selected. The pump components and variations are preferably listed in a matrix for easy visual comparison of test results. Blood is circulated through a pump configuration to test each variation of each pump component. After each test, total blood damage is determined for the blood pump. Preferably each pump component variation is tested at least three times to provide statistical results and check consistency of results. The least hemolytic variation for each pump component is preferably selected as an optimized component. If no statistical difference as to blood damage is produced for a variation of a pump component, then the variation that provides preferred hydrodynamic performance is selected. To compare the variation of pump components such as impeller and stator blade geometries, the preferred embodiment of the invention uses a stereolithography technique for realizing complex shapes within a short time period.

  10. Real-Time Observation of Thrombus Growth Process in an Impeller of a Hydrodynamically Levitated Centrifugal Blood Pump by Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Murashige, Tomotaka; Kosaka, Ryo; Fujiwara, Tatsuki; Nishida, Masahiro; Maruyama, Osamu

    2015-08-01

    Understanding the thrombus formation in cardiovascular devices such as rotary blood pumps is the most important issue in developing more hemocompatible devices. The objective of this study was to develop a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) method to visualize the thrombus growth process within a rotary blood pump and investigate the optical properties of the thrombus. An in vitro thrombogenic test was conducted using fresh porcine blood and a specially designed hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump with a transparent bottom. The pump rotating at 3000 rpm circulated the blood at 1.0 L/min. The bottom surface of the pump was illuminated with white light pulsed at the same frequency as the pump rotation, and the backward-scattered light was imaged using the HSI system. Using stroboscopic HSI and an image construction algorithm, dynamic spectral imaging at wavelengths ranging from 608 to 752 nm within the rotating pump was achieved. After completing the experiment, we collected the red thrombus formed in the pump impeller and quantified the thrombus hemoglobin concentration (Hbthrombus ). The spectrum changed around the center of the impeller, and the area of change expanded toward the impeller flow path. The shape corresponded approximately to the shape of the thrombus. The spectrum change indicated that the light scattering derived from red blood cells decreased. The Hbthrombus was 4.7 ± 1.3 g/dL versus a total hemoglobin of 13 ± 0.87 g/dL. The study revealed that Hbthrombus was reduced by the surrounding blood flow. PMID:26234451

  11. An Accurate, Flexible and Small Optical Fiber Sensor: A Novel Technological Breakthrough for Real-Time Analysis of Dynamic Blood Flow Data In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Qiao-Ying; Zhang, Ling; Xiao, Dan; Zhao, Kun; Lin, Chun; Liang-yi SI

    2014-01-01

    Because of the limitations of existing methods and techniques for directly obtaining real-time blood data, no accurate microflow in vivo real-time analysis method exists. To establish a novel technical platform for real-time in vivo detection and to analyze average blood pressure and other blood flow parameters, a small, accurate, flexible, and nontoxic Fabry-Perot fiber sensor was designed. The carotid sheath was implanted through intubation of the rabbit carotid artery (n = 8), and the bloo...

  12. Correlates of Blood Pressure According to Early, On Time, and Late Maturation in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werneck, André O; Silva, Danilo R P; Souza, Mariana F; Christofaro, Diego G D; Tomeleri, Crisieli M; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Ronque, Enio R V; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson S

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and correlates of blood pressure (BP) according to somatic maturation in Southern Brazilian adolescents. A total of 1321 adolescents participated in the study (732 girls), aged between 10 and 16 years, enrolled in public schools. The assessment of BP was performed using oscillometric equipment. Measurements of body weight, height, waist circumference, and skinfold thickness were performed. Somatic maturation was estimated by the age at peak height velocity. Behavioral and hereditary variables were obtained using a questionnaire. Early-maturing adolescents had the highest prevalence of high BP (28%; 95% confidence interval, 24.6-33.5) compared with other maturational groups (P=.003). In late-maturing adolescents, the variables associated with BP were paternal hypertension (systolic BP: β=4.9; diastolic BP: β=5.3) and early physical activity (systolic BP: β=-4.0; diastolic DBP: β=-3.6). In average-maturing adolescents, waist circumference (systolic BP: β=0.3), body mass index (diastolic BP: β=0.5), and mother's hypertension (diastolic BP: β=1.8) were positively related to BP. In early-maturing adolescents, only waist circumference (systolic BP: β=0.3; diastolic BP: β=0.3) was associated with BP. The authors conclude that the prevalence of high BP is greater in adolescents with early maturity and the outcome appears to be related to biological indicators in this group. On the other hand, in late-maturing adolescents, behavioral and hereditary variables are more related to BP. PMID:26408345

  13. Determination of optimal sampling times for a two blood sample clearance method using (51)Cr-EDTA in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeulen, Eva; De Sadeleer, Carlos; Piepsz, Amy; Ham, Hamphrey R; Dobbeleir, André A; Vermeire, Simon T; Van Hoek, Ingrid M; Daminet, Sylvie; Slegers, Guido; Peremans, Kathelijne Y

    2010-08-01

    Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a useful tool in the evaluation of kidney function in feline medicine. GFR can be determined by measuring the rate of tracer disappearance from the blood, and although these measurements are generally performed by multi-sampling techniques, simplified methods are more convenient in clinical practice. The optimal times for a simplified sampling strategy with two blood samples (2BS) for GFR measurement in cats using plasma (51)chromium ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) clearance were investigated. After intravenous administration of (51)Cr-EDTA, seven blood samples were obtained in 46 cats (19 euthyroid and 27 hyperthyroid cats, none with previously diagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD)). The plasma clearance was then calculated from the seven point blood kinetics (7BS) and used for comparison to define the optimal sampling strategy by correlating different pairs of time points to the reference method. Mean GFR estimation for the reference method was 3.7+/-2.5 ml/min/kg (mean+/-standard deviation (SD)). Several pairs of sampling times were highly correlated with this reference method (r(2) > or = 0.980), with the best results when the first sample was taken 30 min after tracer injection and the second sample between 198 and 222 min after injection; or with the first sample at 36 min and the second at 234 or 240 min (r(2) for both combinations=0.984). Because of the similarity of GFR values obtained with the 2BS method in comparison to the values obtained with the 7BS reference method, the simplified method may offer an alternative for GFR estimation. Although a wide range of GFR values was found in the included group of cats, the applicability should be confirmed in cats suspected of renal disease and with confirmed CKD. Furthermore, although no indications of age-related effect were found in this study, a possible influence of age should be included in future studies. PMID:20452793

  14. Real-Time Blood Flow Estimation Using a Recursive Least-Squares Lattice Filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stetson, Paul F.; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1997-01-01

    Proceedings, p. 1221-4, 1996), the authors demonstrated that a recursive lattice filter can yield results much closer to the correct velocity distribution. They have now implemented it in real time on a system with sixteen ADSP-21060 processors, interfaced to a commercial scanner. The system can perform real......-time processing for both the periodogram and lattice-filter approaches and displays both results on a PC for comparison. Results are shown for phantom data and for demodulated data from the aorta and hepatic vein of a healthy subject. This demonstrates under clinical conditions that the lattice filter gives...

  15. Clinical research of minimal extracorporeal circulation in perioperative blood conservation of coronary artery bypass graft%微创体外循环对冠状动脉旁路移植术患者围手术期血液保护的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘燕; 崔虎军; 陶凉; 陈绪发

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical effect of minimal extracorporeal circulation (MECC)in blood conservation perioperatively coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methods The data of 120 cases received simple CABG since August 2006 to October 2009 was analyzed retrospectively. All the patients were divided to three groups according to the mode of circulation support in-operation: MECC, conventional extracorporeal circulation (cECC) or off-pump, 40 cases in each group. Jostra MECC system with normal temperature was used in MECC group, and common membrane oxygenator with moderate hypo-temperature was used in cECC group. Collect the data of coagulation and the blood cytological examination perioperatively, the draining volume during the first 24 h after operation, and consumption of blood products perioperatively. Results Stardard and logistic EuroSCORE were higher in MECC group than the others (P<0.01). The operative time and the number of distal anastomosis of off-pump group were less than MECC and cECC groups (P < 0. 05 ), while no difference between MECC group and cECC group. Intrinsic coagulation (activated partial thromboplastin time) were much more prolonged early postoperatively in cECC group, and higher than in MECC group and off-pump group at 2 h, 6 h and 12 h postoperatively (P <0. 05), but no difference in extrinsic coagulation (prothrombin time ) among three group. Adjusted by hematocrit of the same sample, free hemoglobin level rose up during the ECC procedure and reached the maxlmum at the end of ECC in cECC group and MECC group, but the levels were more higher in cECC group than in MECC group (P < 0. 05 ). The draining volum during the first 24 h after operation of cECC group was larger than MECC group and off-pump group (P < 0. 05 ). Although the decreased platelet count perioperatively and more consumed of the blood products in cECC group, but no difference among the three groups. Conculsion MECC could reduce the ruin to blood cell and interfere

  16. Real-Time Electrical Impedimetric Monitoring of Blood Coagulation Process under Temperature and Hematocrit Variations Conducted in a Microfluidic Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Lei, Kin Fong; Chen, Kuan-Hao; Tsui, Po-Hsiang; Tsang, Ngan-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Blood coagulation is an extremely complicated and dynamic physiological process. Monitoring of blood coagulation is essential to predict the risk of hemorrhage and thrombosis during cardiac surgical procedures. In this study, a high throughput microfluidic chip has been developed for the investigation of the blood coagulation process under temperature and hematocrit variations. Electrical impedance of the whole blood was continuously recorded by on-chip electrodes in contact with the blood sa...

  17. Time-Series Analysis of Continuously Monitored Blood Glucose: The Impacts of Geographic and Daily Lifestyle Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean T. Doherty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes is known to be associated with environmental, behavioral, and lifestyle factors. However, the actual impacts of these factors on blood glucose (BG variation throughout the day have remained relatively unexplored. Continuous blood glucose monitors combined with human activity tracking technologies afford new opportunities for exploration in a naturalistic setting. Data from a study of 40 patients with diabetes is utilized in this paper, including continuously monitored BG, food/medicine intake, and patient activity/location tracked using global positioning systems over a 4-day period. Standard linear regression and more disaggregated time-series analysis using autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA are used to explore patient BG variation throughout the day and over space. The ARIMA models revealed a wide variety of BG correlating factors related to specific activity types, locations (especially those far from home, and travel modes, although the impacts were highly personal. Traditional variables related to food intake and medications were less often significant. Overall, the time-series analysis revealed considerable patient-by-patient variation in the effects of geographic and daily lifestyle factors. We would suggest that maps of BG spatial variation or an interactive messaging system could provide new tools to engage patients and highlight potential risk factors.

  18. Timing of Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Yield: Comparison of Alternative Methods with the Classic Method for CD34+ Cell Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Fatorova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs, still represent a certain mystery in biology, have a unique property of dividing into equal cells and repopulating the hematopoietic tissue. This potential enables their use in transplantation treatments. The quality of the HSC grafts for transplantation is evaluated by flow cytometric determination of the CD34+ cells, which enables optimal timing of the first apheresis and the acquisition of maximal yield of the peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs. To identify a more efficient method for evaluating CD34+ cells, we compared the following alternative methods with the reference method: hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC enumeration (using the Sysmex XE-2100 analyser, detection of CD133+ cells, and quantification of aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the PBSCs. 266 aphereses (84 patients were evaluated. In the preapheretic blood, the new methods produced data that were in agreement with the reference method. The ROC curves have shown that for the first-day apheresis target, the optimal predictive cut-off value was 0.032 cells/mL for the HPC method (sensitivity 73.4%, specificity 69.3%. HPC method exhibited a definite practical superiority as compared to other methods tested. HPC enumeration could serve as a supplementary method for the optimal timing of the first apheresis; it is simple, rapid, and cheap.

  19. Changes of blood biochemistry in the rabbit animal model in atherosclerosis research; a time- or stress-effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsantila Nektaria

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rabbits are widely used in biomedical research and especially as animal models in atherosclerosis studies. Blood biochemistry is used to monitor progression of disease, before final evaluation including pathology of arteries and organs. The aim of the present study was to assess the consistency of the biochemical profile of New Zealand White rabbits on standard diet from 3 to 6 months of age, during which they are often used experimentally. Methods and results Eight conventional male 3-month-old New Zealand White rabbits were used. Blood samples were taken at baseline, 1, 2 and 3 months later. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerol concentrations, and alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase activities and malondialdehyde were measured. Statistically significant time-related changes were observed in glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol, which were not correlated with aortic lesions at 6 months of age. Similarly, hepatic enzyme activity had significant time-related changes, without a corresponding liver pathology. Conclusions Age progression and stress due to single housing may be the underlying reasons for these biochemistry changes. These early changes, indicative of metabolic alterations, should be taken into account even in short-term lipid/atherosclerosis studies, where age and standard diet are not expected to have an effect on the control group of a study.

  20. Estimation of the Time Interval between the Administration of Heroin and the Sampling of Blood in Chronic Inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Nathalie; Hallet, Claude; Seidel, Laurence; Demaret, Isabelle; Luppens, David; Ansseau, Marc; Rozet, Eric; Albert, Adelin; Hubert, Philippe; Charlier, Corinne

    2015-05-01

    To develop a model for estimating the time delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users. Eleven patients, all heroin inhalers undergoing detoxification, were included in the study. Several plasma samples were collected during the detoxification procedure and analyzed for the heroin metabolites 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), morphine (MOR), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), according to a UHPLC/MSMS method. The general linear mixed model was applied to time-related concentrations and a pragmatic four-step delay estimation approach was proposed based on the simultaneous presence of metabolites in plasma. Validation of the model was carried out using the jackknife technique on the 11 patients, and on a group of 7 test patients. Quadratic equations were derived for all metabolites except 6AM. The interval delay estimation was 2-4 days when only M3G present in plasma, 1-2 days when M6G and M3G were both present, 0-1 day when MOR, M6G and M3G were present and metabolites present. The 'jackknife' correlation between declared and actual estimated delays was 0.90. The overall precision of the delay estimates was 8-9 h. The delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users can be satisfactorily predicted from plasma heroin metabolites. PMID:25648554

  1. Circulating Tumor Cells, Enumeration and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Mei Hou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The detection and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs has shown significant clinical utility with respect to prognosis in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. Emerging studies show that CTCs can provide pharmacodynamic information to aid therapy decision making. CTCs as a ‘virtual and real-time biopsy’ have clear potential to facilitate exploration of tumor biology, and in particular, the process of metastasis. The challenge of profiling CTC molecular characteristics and generating CTC signatures using current technologies is that they enrich rather than purify CTCs from whole blood; we face the problem of looking for the proverbial ‘needle in the haystack’. This review summarizes the current methods for CTC detection and enumeration, focuses on molecular characterization of CTCs, unveils some aspects of CTC heterogeneity, describes attempts to purify CTCs and scans the horizon for approaches leading to comprehensive dissection of CTC biology.

  2. Circulating Tumor Cells, Enumeration and Beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detection and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has shown significant clinical utility with respect to prognosis in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. Emerging studies show that CTCs can provide pharmacodynamic information to aid therapy decision making. CTCs as a ‘virtual and real-time biopsy’ have clear potential to facilitate exploration of tumor biology, and in particular, the process of metastasis. The challenge of profiling CTC molecular characteristics and generating CTC signatures using current technologies is that they enrich rather than purify CTCs from whole blood; we face the problem of looking for the proverbial ‘needle in the haystack’. This review summarizes the current methods for CTC detection and enumeration, focuses on molecular characterization of CTCs, unveils some aspects of CTC heterogeneity, describes attempts to purify CTCs and scans the horizon for approaches leading to comprehensive dissection of CTC biology

  3. Circulating Tumor Cells, Enumeration and Beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Jian-Mei [Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Krebs, Matthew [Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Christie Hospital Foundation NHS Trust, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Ward, Tim; Morris, Karen; Sloane, Robert [Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Blackhall, Fiona [Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Christie Hospital Foundation NHS Trust, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); Dive, Caroline, E-mail: cdive@picr.man.ac.uk [Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology Group, Paterson Institute for Cancer Research, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom); School of Cancer and Enabling Sciences, University of Manchester, Manchester Cancer Research Centre, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester M20 4BX (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-09

    The detection and enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has shown significant clinical utility with respect to prognosis in breast, colorectal and prostate cancers. Emerging studies show that CTCs can provide pharmacodynamic information to aid therapy decision making. CTCs as a ‘virtual and real-time biopsy’ have clear potential to facilitate exploration of tumor biology, and in particular, the process of metastasis. The challenge of profiling CTC molecular characteristics and generating CTC signatures using current technologies is that they enrich rather than purify CTCs from whole blood; we face the problem of looking for the proverbial ‘needle in the haystack’. This review summarizes the current methods for CTC detection and enumeration, focuses on molecular characterization of CTCs, unveils some aspects of CTC heterogeneity, describes attempts to purify CTCs and scans the horizon for approaches leading to comprehensive dissection of CTC biology.

  4. Effect of short-term heat acclimation on endurance time and skin blood flow in trained athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen TI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsung-I Chen,1,2 Pu-Hsi Tsai,3 Jui-Hsing Lin,4 Ning-Yuean Lee,5 Michael TC Liang61Graduate Institute of Sport Science, National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan, 2Center for Physical Education, Tzu Chi University, Hualien, 3Department of Sport and Leisure, National Quemoy University, Kinmen, 4Department of Physical Education, National Pingtung University of Education, Pingtung, 5College of Living Technology, Tainan University of Technology, Tainan, Taiwan; 6Department of Kinesiology and Health Promotion, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, CA, USABackground: To examine whether short-term, ie, five daily sessions, vigorous dynamic cycling exercise and heat exposure could achieve heat acclimation in trained athletes and the effect of heat acclimation on cutaneous blood flow in the active and nonactive limb.Methods: Fourteen male badminton and table tennis athletes (age = 19.6 ± 1.2 years were randomized into a heat acclimation (EXP, n = 7 or nonheat acclimation (CON, n = 7 group. For 5 consecutive days, the EXP group was trained using an upright leg cycle ergometer in a hot environment (38.4°C ± 0.4°C, while the CON group trained in a thermoneutral environment (24.1°C ± 0.3°C. For both groups, the training intensity and duration increased from a work rate of 10% below ventilatory threshold (VT and 25 minutes per session on day 1, to 10% above VT and 45 minutes per session on day 5. Subjects performed two incremental leg cycle exercise tests to exhaustion at baseline and post-training in both hot and thermoneutral conditions. Study outcome measurements include: maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max; exercise heart rate (HR; O2 pulse; exercise time to exhaustion (tmax; skin blood flow in the upper arm (SkBFa and quadriceps (SkBFq; and mean skin (Tsk.Results: The significant heat-acclimated outcome measurements obtained during high-intensity leg cycling exercise in the high ambient environment are: (1 56%–100% reduction in cutaneous

  5. Time pressure, social work stressors and blood pressure in a team of seven IT-workers during one week of intense work

    OpenAIRE

    Kottwitz, Maria Undine; Lachapelle, Maurice; Elfering, Achim

    2014-01-01

    Background. In the field of information technology (IT) time pressure is common. Working with tight deadlines together on the same task increases the risk of social stressors referring to tensions and conflicts at work. Purpose. This field study tested both the association of time pressure and social stressors with blood pressure during work. Method. Seven employees – staff of a small IT enterprise – participated in repeated ambulatory blood pressure measurements over the course of one ...

  6. A real time PCR assay on blood for diagnosis of invasive candidiasis in immunocompromised patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Ashrafi

    2015-01-01

    Results: From 2009 to 2011, 72 patients with hematologic malignancies and bone marrow transplant recipients were evaluated for IC. The female to male ratio was 27:45; the mean age was 32.1 years. The most common malignancy in this patient was acute myeloid leukemia (AML (27.8% and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL (26.4%. Out of 72 patients, 11 patients (15.3% had positive real time PCR /probe results. Based on the melting temperature (Tm analysis, 5 (45.4% C. krusei, 3 (27.2% C. tropicalis, 2 (18.1% C. parapsilosis and 1 C. albicans (9% were identified. According to the revised EORTC / MSG, 1 patient (9% and 10 patients (91% were defined as proven and possible groups of IC, respectively. The mortality rate in proven and possible IC patient was found 54.5%. Conclusion: The established Real-time PCR/FRET probe assay is an appropriate diagnostic tool for the detection of Candida species DNA and the management of patients suffering from hematologic malignancies and bone marrow recipient are at risk for IC.

  7. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  8. Biodynamics circulation

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Y C

    1984-01-01

    This book is a continuation of my Biomechanics.The first volume deals with the mechanical properties of living tissues. The present volume deals with the mechanics ofcirculation. A third volume willdeal with respiration, fluid balance, locomotion, growth, and strength. This volume is called Bio­ dynamics in order to distinguish it from the first volume. The same style is followed. My objective is to present the mechanical aspects ofphysiology in precise terms ofmechanics so that the subject can become as lucid as physics. The motivation of writing this series of books is, as I have said in the preface to the first volume, to bring biomechanics to students ofbioengineer­ ing, physiology, medicine, and mechanics. I have long felt a need for a set of books that willinform the students ofthe physiological and medical applica­ tions ofbiomechanics,and at the same time develop their training in mechan­ ics. In writing these books I have assumed that the reader already has some basic training in mechanics, to a ...

  9. Validation of transit-time flowmetry for chronic measurements of regional blood flow in resting and exercising rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Amaral

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to validate the transit-time technique for long-term measurements of iliac and renal blood flow in rats. Flow measured with ultrasonic probes was confirmed ex vivo using excised arteries perfused at varying flow rates. An implanted 1-mm probe reproduced with accuracy different patterns of flow relative to pressure in freely moving rats and accurately quantitated the resting iliac flow value (on average 10.43 ± 0.99 ml/min or 2.78 ± 0.3 ml min-1 100 g body weight-1. The measurements were stable over an experimental period of one week but were affected by probe size (resting flows were underestimated by 57% with a 2-mm probe when compared with a 1-mm probe and by anesthesia (in the same rats, iliac flow was reduced by 50-60% when compared to the conscious state. Instantaneous changes of iliac and renal flow during exercise and recovery were accurately measured by the transit-time technique. Iliac flow increased instantaneously at the beginning of mild exercise (from 12.03 ± 1.06 to 25.55 ± 3.89 ml/min at 15 s and showed a smaller increase when exercise intensity increased further, reaching a plateau of 38.43 ± 1.92 ml/min at the 4th min of moderate exercise intensity. In contrast, exercise-induced reduction of renal flow was smaller and slower, with 18% and 25% decreases at mild and moderate exercise intensities. Our data indicate that transit-time flowmetry is a reliable method for long-term and continuous measurements of regional blood flow at rest and can be used to quantitate the dynamic flow changes that characterize exercise and recovery

  10. Photoacoustic detection of blood in dental pulp by using short-time Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Azusa; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    A method based on photoacoustic analysis is proposed to diagnose dental pulp vitality. Photoacoustic analysis enables to get signal from deeper tissues than other optical analyses and therefore, signal detection from root canal of thick dental tissues such as molar teeth is expected. As a light source for excitation of photoacoustic waves, a microchip Q-switched YAG laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm was used and owing to large penetration depth of the near infrared laser, photoacoustic signals from dental root were successfully obtained. It was found that the photoacoustic signals from the teeth containing hemoglobin solution in the pulp cavity provide vibration in high frequency region. It was also shown that the intensities of the high frequency component have correlation with the hemoglobin concentration of solution. We applied short-time Fourier transform for evaluation of photoacoustic signals and this analysis clearly showed photoacoustic signals from dental root.

  11. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  12. Taqman real-time PCR detects Avipoxvirus DNA in blood of Hawai'i 'amakihi (Hemignathus virens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret E M Farias

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Avipoxvirus sp. is a significant threat to endemic bird populations on several groups of islands worldwide, including Hawai'i, the Galapagos Islands, and the Canary Islands. Accurate identification and genotyping of Avipoxvirus is critical to the study of this disease and how it interacts with other pathogens, but currently available methods rely on invasive sampling of pox-like lesions and may be especially harmful in smaller birds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we present a nested TaqMan Real-Time PCR for the detection of the Avipoxvirus 4b core protein gene in archived blood samples from Hawaiian birds. The method was successful in amplifying Avipoxvirus DNA from packed blood cells of one of seven Hawaiian honeycreepers with confirmed Avipoxvirus infections and 13 of 28 Hawai'i 'amakihi (Hemignathus virens with suspected Avipoxvirus infections based on the presence of pox-like lesions. Mixed genotype infections have not previously been documented in Hawai'i but were observed in two individuals in this study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We anticipate that this method will be applicable to other closely related strains of Avipoxvirus and will become an important and useful tool in global studies of the epidemiology of Avipoxvirus.

  13. Stimulus time dependence of cerebral blood flow response to photic stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time dependency of rCBF response to photic stimulation in the primary visual cortices was studied using H215O bolus-injection and PET. The subjects consisted of 5 normal volunteers aged from 25 to 40 years old. Their regional CBF was measured at 2 min and 7 min after the start of photic stimulation (frequency, 10 Hz). The percentage increases of rCBF were 19.6±7.9% (mean±SD, range: 8.9-27.6%) in the primary visual cortex on the left side and 23.2±13.6% (2.5-35.8%) on the right side at 2 min, respectively, while, in comparison, they were 25.3±20.0% (1.8-49.7%) on the left side and 25.3±16.4% (3.5-44.5%) on the right side at 7 min, respectively. No significant difference was found in the rCBF responses between at 2 min and 7 min. Therefore, the taming effect does not need to be considered when carrying out a photic stimulation study. (author)

  14. Circulation of Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitani, P.

    2016-01-01

    Since the dawn of man, contemplation of the stars has been a primary impulse in human beings, who proliferated their knowledge of the stars all over the world. Aristotle sees this as the product of primeval and perennial “wonder” which gives rise to what we call science, philosophy, and poetry. Astronomy, astrology, and star art (painting, architecture, literature, and music) go hand in hand through millennia in all cultures of the planet (and all use catasterisms to explain certain phenomena). Some of these developments are independent of each other, i.e., they take place in one culture independently of others. Some, on the other hand, are the product of the “circulation of stars.” There are two ways of looking at this. One seeks out forms, the other concentrates on the passing of specific lore from one area to another through time. The former relies on archetypes (for instance, with catasterism), the latter constitutes a historical process. In this paper I present some of the surprising ways in which the circulation of stars has occurred—from East to West, from East to the Far East, and from West to East, at times simultaneously.

  15. Home blood sugar testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000324.htm Home blood sugar testing To use the sharing features on this ... with their nutrition and activity plans. Check Your Blood Sugar Often Usual times to test your blood sugar ...

  16. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure and should be taken seriously. Over time, consistently high blood pressure weakens and damages ... of landmark NIH blood pressure study confirm that lower blood pressure target can reduce ...

  17. Chaotic time series prediction for prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in umbilical cord blood using the least squares SEATR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xijin; Tang, Qian; Xia, Haiyue; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Chaotic time series prediction based on nonlinear systems showed a superior performance in prediction field. We studied prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by chaotic time series prediction using the least squares self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SEATR) model in umbilical cord blood in an electronic waste (e-waste) contaminated area. The specific prediction steps basing on the proposal methods for prenatal PCB exposure were put forward, and the proposed scheme’s validity was further verified by numerical simulation experiments. Experiment results show: 1) seven kinds of PCB congeners negatively correlate with five different indices for birth status: newborn weight, height, gestational age, Apgar score and anogenital distance; 2) prenatal PCB exposed group at greater risks compared to the reference group; 3) PCBs increasingly accumulated with time in newborns; and 4) the possibility of newborns suffering from related diseases in the future was greater. The desirable numerical simulation experiments results demonstrated the feasibility of applying mathematical model in the environmental toxicology field. PMID:27118260

  18. Chaotic time series prediction for prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in umbilical cord blood using the least squares SEATR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xijin; Tang, Qian; Xia, Haiyue; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Chaotic time series prediction based on nonlinear systems showed a superior performance in prediction field. We studied prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by chaotic time series prediction using the least squares self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SEATR) model in umbilical cord blood in an electronic waste (e-waste) contaminated area. The specific prediction steps basing on the proposal methods for prenatal PCB exposure were put forward, and the proposed scheme’s validity was further verified by numerical simulation experiments. Experiment results show: 1) seven kinds of PCB congeners negatively correlate with five different indices for birth status: newborn weight, height, gestational age, Apgar score and anogenital distance; 2) prenatal PCB exposed group at greater risks compared to the reference group; 3) PCBs increasingly accumulated with time in newborns; and 4) the possibility of newborns suffering from related diseases in the future was greater. The desirable numerical simulation experiments results demonstrated the feasibility of applying mathematical model in the environmental toxicology field.

  19. In vivo measurement of longitudinal relaxation time of human blood by inversion-recovery fast gradient-echo MR imaging at 3T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate longitudinal relaxation time (T1) of arterial blood is important in evaluating blood flow in tissue by arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Few studies have reported the T1 of human arterial blood in vivo, especially using 3-tesla MR imaging. T1 values of human venous blood in vivo have been reported, but they differ from those measured in vitro. We aimed to evaluate the accurate T1 of human arterial blood in vivo. We measured T1 values of blood in 10 healthy volunteers in vivo using an inversion-recovery fast gradient-echo sequence and 3-tesla MR imaging unit. We also measured hematocrit (Hct) values of venous blood samples. After nonselective application of the inversion pulse using a body coil, we obtained MR imaging signals of arterial blood in the abdominal aorta. Similarly, we measured the signals of venous blood in the internal jugular vein. Inversion times varied between 200 and 5000 ms for imaging of the abdominal aorta and 200 and 2500 ms for imaging of the jugular vein. We also acquired signals without the inversion pulse. We estimated T1 values from the data by nonlinear least squares fitting of a 3-parameter model. The T1 value (mean±standard deviation) of arterial blood was 1779±80 ms and of venous blood, 1694±77 ms. The average Hct value was 0.47. The R1 (=1/T1) of arterial blood was related to the Hct value as: R1 =(0.59±0.16)Hct + (0.29±0.07) (mean±standard error) s-1. For the venous blood, R1 =(0.70±0.11)Hct + (0.27±0.05) s-1. We observed a T1 of human arterial blood in vivo of 1779±80 ms at a mean hematocrit value of 0.47 as determined by 3T MR imaging; an even longer T1 value is expected with a hematocrit value less than 0.47. (author)

  20. Assessment of Circulating microRNAs in Plasma of Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Fortunato

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide and numerous ongoing research efforts are directed to identify new strategies for its early detection. The development of non-invasive blood-based biomarkers for cancer detection in its preclinical phases is crucial to improve the outcome of this deadly disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a new promising class of circulating biomarkers for cancer detection and prognosis definition, but lack of consensus on data normalization methods for circulating miRNAs and the critical issue of haemolysis, has affected the identification of circulating miRNAs with diagnostic potential. We describe here an interesting approach for profiling circulating miRNAs in plasma samples based on the evaluation of reciprocal miRNA levels measured by quantitative Real-Time PCR. By monitoring changes of plasma miRNA-ratios, it is possible to assess the deregulation of tumor-related miRNAs and identify signatures with diagnostic and prognostic value. In addition, to avoid bias due to the release of miRNAs from blood cells, a miRNA-ratios signature distinguishing haemolyzed samples was identified. The method described was validated in plasma samples of lung cancer patients, but given its reproducibility and reliability, could be potentially applied for the identification of diagnostic circulating miRNAs in other diseases.

  1. Influence of blood storage time on viral RNA extraction for the detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus in persistently infected cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yingxia; Jie CAO; Zhang, Junjie; Huang, Kai; QI, Changming

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the maximum permissible storage times of blood and serum infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV). Viral RNA was successfully extracted from blood and serum that were stored at room temperature (RT) for 7 days and was detected by 1-step RT-PCR. The results of this study demonstrate that BVDV-infected blood can be stored at RT for 7 days and that serum can be stored for 10 days without influencing the viral RNA extraction for the detection of BVDV.

  2. 'Blood doping' from Armstrong to prehabilitation: manipulation of blood to improve performance in athletes and physiological reserve in patients

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, James O.M.; Otto, James M.; Grocott, Michael P W

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin is the blood’s oxygen carrying pigment and is encapsulated in red blood corpuscles. The concentration of haemoglobin in blood is dependent on both its total mass in the circulation (tHb-mass) and the total plasma volume in which it is suspended. Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen that can be consumed by the body per unit time and is one measure of physical fitness. Observations in athletes who have undergone blood doping or manipulation have revealed a clo...

  3. Validation of a new non-invasive blood pressure measurement method on mice via pulse wave propagation time measurement on a cuff

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Xuan P.; Kronemayer, Ralf; Herrmann, Peter; Mejía, Atila; Daw, Zamira; Nguyen, Xuan D.; Kränzlin, Bettina; Gretz, Norbert

    2011-01-01

    In the present article, we describe the validation of a new non-invasive method for measuring blood pressure (BP) which also enables to determine the three BP values: systolic, diastolic and mean value. Our method is based on the pulse transit time (PTT) measurement along an artery directly at the BP cuff. The accuracy of this method was evaluated by comparison with the direct simultaneous measurement of blood pressure from 40 anesthetized female mice. Close correlation ...

  4. Dry Electrodes for ECG and Pulse Transit Time for Blood Pressure: A Wearable Sensor and Smartphone Communication Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyamkumar, Prashanth

    -invasive, cuff-less Blood pressure estimation based on Pulse Transit Time with multiple synchronized sensor nodes, is implemented with e-nanoflex and the results are discussed.

  5. Experimental study on proteomics of rats with adriamycin-induced nephropathy by tonifying the kidney and promoting blood circulation%益肾活血法干预阿霉素肾病大鼠蛋白质组学的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    艾斯; 郑健; 林青; 吴华嵩; 陈蓉艳; 陈文列

    2011-01-01

    目的:应用蛋白质组学筛选阿霉素肾病(AN)大鼠血清中差异表达的蛋白质,旨在蛋白质分子水平探索原发性肾病综合征(PNS)的诊断标志物及益肾活血中药肾康灵治疗的作用靶点.方法:实验分为正常组(A组)、AN病模组(B组)、AN病模+泼尼松组(C组)、AN病模+肾康灵组(D组)、AN病模+泼尼松+肾康灵组(E组).利用表面增强激光解析-电离飞行时间质谱(SELDI-TOF-MS)联合CM10蛋白质芯片技术检测各组大鼠血蛋白质组质谱的表达,采用PBS Ⅱ-C型蛋白质芯片阅读机自动收集数据.结果:在质荷比值(M/Z)2 000-50 000 Da范围内,P<0.05.质谱仪筛选出B组与A组比较的11种差异蛋白,其中4种差异蛋白在B组中高表达,7种蛋白低表达;蛋白峰 9069、15005、15047Da在B、C、D、E组问比较有显著差异,经鉴定可能分别为Cortexin-1、Interleukin-17A、Podoplanin,其中蛋白峰15005、15047从B组→C组→D、E组→A组呈递减趋势,蛋白峰9069呈递增趋势.结论:SELDI-TOF-MS能有效分析阿霉素肾病大鼠血清蛋白质质谱,益肾活血中药肾康灵干预治疗后蛋白质质谱表达有显著差异.%objective: To analyze the blood proteomic patterns of rats with adriamycin- induced nephropathy by blood proteomics, for discussing the biomarker of primary nephrotic syndrome and target point of medication. Methods: Rats were divided into normal rats (group A), adriamycin-induced nephropathy rats (group B), adriamycin- induced nephropathy rats and prednisone (group C), adriamycin- induced nephropathy rats and prednisone and Shenkangling (clinical density) (group D),adriamycin- induced nephropathy rats and prednisone and Shenkangling (double clinical density) (group E).Surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) CM10 protein clips was used to detect the blood proteomic patterns of every rat,PBS Ⅱ-C protein clips reading machine was applied to collect data

  6. Plants and Photosynthesis: Level III, Unit 3, Lesson 1; The Human Digestive System: Lesson 2; Functions of the Blood: Lesson 3; Human Circulation and Respiration: Lesson 4; Reproduction of a Single Cell: Lesson 5; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells: Lesson 6; The Human Reproductive System: Lesson 7; Genetics and Heredity: Lesson 8; The Nervous System: Lesson 9; The Glandular System: Lesson 10. Advanced General Education Program. A High School Self-Study Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.

    This self-study program for the high-school level contains lessons in the following subjects: Plants and Photosynthesis; The Human Digestive System; Functions of the Blood; Human Circulation and Respiration; Reproduction of a Single Cell; Reproduction by Male and Female Cells; The Human Reproductive System; Genetics and Heredity; The Nervous…

  7. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  8. a New Approach of Dynamic Blood Pressure Measurement Based on the Time Domain Analysis of the Pulse Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimei, Su; Wei, Xu; Hui, Yu; Fei, Du; Jicun, Wang; Kexin, Xu

    2009-08-01

    In this study the pulse wave characteristics were used as a new approach to measure the human blood pressure. Based the principle of pulse wave and theory of the elastic vascular, the authors analyzed the characteristic of the pulse waveforms and revealed the characteristics points which could be used to represent the blood pressure. In this investigation the relevant mathematical feature was used to identify the relationship between the blood pressure and pulse wave parameters in a more accurate way. It also provided an experimental basis to carry out continuing non-invasive blood pressure monitoring using the pulse wave method.

  9. The Hamburg Oceanic Carbon Cycle Circulation Model. Version 1. Version 'HAMOCC2s' for long time integrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinze, C.; Maier-Reimer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)

    1999-11-01

    The Hamburg Ocean Carbon Cycle Circulation Model (HAMOCC, configuration HAMOCC2s) predicts the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (as induced by oceanic processes), production rates of biogenic particulate matter, and geochemical tracer distributions in the water column as well as the bioturbated sediment. Besides the carbon cycle this model version includes also the marine silicon cycle (silicic acid in the water column and the sediment pore waters, biological opal production, opal flux through the water column and opal sediment pore water interaction). The model is based on the grid and geometry of the LSG ocean general circulation model (see the corresponding manual, LSG=Large Scale Geostrophic) and uses a velocity field provided by the LSG-model in 'frozen' state. In contrast to the earlier version of the model (see Report No. 5), the present version includes a multi-layer sediment model of the bioturbated sediment zone, allowing for variable tracer inventories within the complete model system. (orig.)

  10. Reliability of perfusion MR imaging in symptomatic carotid occlusive disease. Cerebral blood volume, mean transit time and time-to-peak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Perfusion MR imaging offers an easy quantitative evaluation of relative regional cerebral blood volume (rrCBV), relative mean transit time (rMTT) and time-to-peak (TTP). The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of these parameters in assessing the hemodynamic disturbance of carotid occlusive disease in comparison with normative data. Material and Methods: Dynamic contrast-enhanced T2*-weighted perfusion MR imaging was performed in 19 patients with symptomatic unilateral internal carotid artery occlusion and 20 control subjects. The three parameters were calculated from the concentration-time curve fitted by gamma-variate function. Lesion-to-contralateral ratios of each parameter were compared between patients and control subjects. Results: Mean±SD of rrCBV, rMTT and TTP ratios of patients were 1.089±0.118, 1.054±0.031 and 1.062±0.039, respectively, and those of control subjects were 1.002±0.045, 1.000±0.006, 1.001±0.006, respectively. The rMTT and TTP ratios of all patients were greater than 2SDs of control data, whereas in only 6 patients (32%), rrCBV ratios were greater than 2SDs of control data. The three parameter ratios of the patients were significantly high compared with those of control subjects, respectively (p<0.01 for rrCBV ratios, p<0.0001 for rMTT ratios, and p<0.0001 for TTP ratios). Conclusion: Our results indicate that rMTT and TTP of patients, in contrast to rrCBV, are distributed in narrow ranges minimally overlapped with control data. The rMTT and TTP could be more reliable parameters than rrCBV in assessing the hemodynamic disturbance in carotid occlusive disease

  11. Assessment of Radiation Risk by Circulating microRNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jufang

    2016-07-01

    Highly energized particles delivered by galactic cosmic rays as well as solar particle events are one of the most severe detrimental factors to the health of crews during long-term space missions. Researches related to the assessment of radiation risk have been carried out with ground-based accelerator facilities all around the world. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) in blood have the advantages of specificity and stability, which could be used as disease biomarkers and potential bio-dosimeters to monitor the radiation risk. Based on this backgroud, circulating miRNAs were isolated from blood after Kunming mice were whole-body exposed to 300MeV/u carbon ion beam which were generated by the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), and the levels of miRNA expression were detected by miRNA PCR array. It was found that more than one hundred of circulating miRNAs were responded to carbon ion irradiation. Among these radiosensitive miRNAs, most of them were closely associated with immune system and hematopoietic system. The miRNA levels changed more than 2-fold were further verified by qRT-PCR analysis following exposure to X rays and iron ion beam. Some miRNAs such as let-7a, miR-34a, miR-223 and miR-150 showed obvious radio-sensitivity and dose-dependent effect, demonstrating that they were potential biomarkers of radiation and could be used as ideal bio-dosimeters. Those findings indicate that with the properties of high radio-sensitivity and time-saving quantification method by standard PCR assay, circulating miRNAs may become potential biomarkers for radiation detection in space exploration.

  12. 血液标本存放时间及存放方式对血糖检测结果的影响%Influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正国

    2015-01-01

    Objective To research and observe the influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result, for providing reference for clinical detection in clinical practice. Methods 20 cases were selected randomly, and the patients were collected blood samples with empty belly. 14mL blood was collected for each patient, and 2mL once. The blood samples were stored in vacuum tubes which were marked as control(1), indoor temperature(2), 37℃thermostatic waterbath(2) and 0℃fridge(2). And the influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result was analyzed. Results The influence of storage time of blood on blood glucose test is very evident. After 6h, the blood glucose level was 60%of the initial value. After 18h, he blood glucose level was 27%of initial value.And the blood glucose level after 24 h is 22%of initial value. The longer blood glucose was stored, the faster the blood glucose level reduced. After blood samples were stored in indoor temperature and 37℃thermostatic waterbath for 2.5h and 5h, the blood glucose testing result had evident difference from the initial value, which had statistical significance. Blood samples are stored in sodium fluoride potassium oxalate tube and separation gel coagulant tube, and the influence of it on blood glucose detection had no evident difference, which had no statistical significance. Conclusion In order to ensure that the result of blood glucose detection is accurate, the blood samples should be stored in the environment with low temperature, and the blood samples should be detected timely, to reduce the error of detection results and ensure that the result is reliable and accurate.%目的:研究和探讨血液标本存放时间和存放方式对血糖检测结果的影响,为日后临床检验提供参考价值。方法随机抽取20例患者,空腹采集血液标本,每位患者共采集14mL,每次2mL,存放于真空

  13. Effect of different proportions of mixed blood exchange transfusion on blood circulation in neonates with ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease%不同比例成分血对新生儿母子ABO血型不合溶血病换血治疗后内环境影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 黄瑞文; 胡月圆; 肖艾青; 廖镇宇

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of different proportions (the O type RBCs vs the AB type plasma)of mixed blood exchange transfusion on blood circulation in neonates with ABO incompatibility hemolytic disease. Methods From Jan. 2009 to Apr. 2010 in Hunan Children's Hospital,forty newborn infants with the disease, treated by exchange transfusion with different proportions of mixed blood (AB type plasma was mixed with 0 type red blood cell), were randomly divided into two groups: 16 patients in treatment group, who used 0 type red blood cells and AB type plasma with the proportion of 3 : 1 ( the 0 type RBCs 300 mL: the AB type plasma 100 mL) during blood transfusion; 24 patients in control group with the proportion of 2: 1. Both of the two groups received the double exchange transfusion in accordance with 150 ~ 180 mL/kg. After exchange, all the patients in controll group received 0 type RBCs transfusion with 15 ~ 20 mlAg (total volume was 60mL), while the other group did not. The other therapies in both of the two groups were the same.The indicators, which included the exchange rate of neonatal serum bilirubin, RBC, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct) , the elctrocyte and gas analysis, were monitored before and after the exchange transfusion. Results The total bilirubin of the two groups were lower after the exchange transfusion, and that the treatment group was even lower(P 0.05), while in the control group the difference was significant (P 0.05). Conclusion The exchange transfusion, using 0 type red blood cells and AB type plasma with the proportion of 3 : 1 inhemolytic disease, can not only decrease the level of bilirubin in blood rapidly but also avoid the anemia.The serum electrolytes and acid-base balance have no signifi-cant differences. It is worth promoting.%目的 探讨不同比例成分血对新生儿母子ABO血型不合溶血病(HDN)换血治疗后内环境的影响.方法 对2009年1月至2010年4月湖南省儿童医院40例HDN达到换血指征的

  14. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound determination of microvascular blood volume in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in man. Evidence for adipose tissue capillary recruitment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tobin, L; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2010-01-01

    The adipose tissue metabolism is dependent on its blood perfusion. During lipid mobilization e.g. during exercise and during lipid deposition e.g. postprandial, adipose tissue blood flow is increased. This increase in blood flow may involve capillary recruitment in the tissue. We investigated the...... basic and postprandial microvascular volume in adipose tissue using real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) imaging in healthy normal weight subjects. In nine subjects, CEU was performed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and in the underlying skeletal muscle after a bolus injection of...... ultrasound contrast agent to establish the reproducibility of the technique. In nine subjects, the effect of an oral glucose load on blood flow and microvascular volume was measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue and forearm skeletal muscle. ¹³³Xe washout and venous occlusion strain...

  15. Nocturnal antihypertensive treatment in patients with type 1 diabetes with autonomic neuropathy and non-dipping of blood pressure during night time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkær, Henrik; Jensen, Tonny; Kofoed, Klaus;

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) and elevated nocturnal blood pressure are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Previously, associations between CAN, non-dipping of nocturnal blood pressure and coronary artery calcification have been...... demonstrated. The present protocol describes a trial to test the efficacy of bedtime dosing of the ACE inhibitor enalapril on night time blood pressure and left ventricular mass in patients with type 1 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over study, 24 normoalbuminuric...... patients with type 1 diabetes with CAN will be treated for 12 weeks with either morning or bedtime dosing of 20 mg enalapril, followed by 12 weeks of switched treatment regimen. During each treatment period, two 24 h ambulatory blood pressure measurements will be performed and after each treatment period...

  16. 多次捐献机采血小板后献血者外周血象的变化%The changes of peripheral blood indexes in donors donating blood several times for apheresis platelet concentrates*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛健民; 赵宏祥; 任素玲; 袁秀珍

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the changes of peripheral blood several times indexes in donors donating blood for apheresis platelet concentrates. Methods 20 donors who donated blood for apheresis platelet concentrates 10 38 times (interval: 1- 2 months), were enrolled and detected for peripheral blood indexes respectively before the first and the last time for donating platelet,and the results were analyzed. Results Of all enrolled donors, the platelet number, red blood cell number, white blood cell number and haemoglobin concentrates and the average value before the last donating blood were not statistical different with those before the first donating(P>0.05) ,but mean platelet volume and platelet large cell rate were decreased(P<0.01). Conclusion Blood do nation could promote hematopoiesis of the bone marrow,and might not be harmful to the body health.%目的 研究多次捐献机采血小板后献血者外周血象的变化情况.方法 选择20名自愿捐献机采血小板达10~38次的献血者(每次间隔期为1~2个月),在首次和末次采集血小板前分别进行外周血象的检测,进行统计分析.结果 多次捐献机采血小板的献血者,末次采集前外周血小板数(PLT)与首次采集前PLT、正常值均数相比,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05),外周血中的红细胞数(RBC)、白细胞数(WBC)、血红蛋白浓度(Hb)并未发生明显的变化,但血小板分布宽度(PDW)增加,血小板平均体积(MPV)、大形血小板比例(P-LCR)下降,且差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 献血可以促进骨髓的造血功能,对机体并无明显不利的影响.

  17. Blood glucose and meal patterns in time-blinded males, after aspartame, carbohydrate, and fat consumption, in relation to sweetness perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, K J; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Campfield, L A; Saris, W H

    1999-12-01

    In a study of the impact of aspartame, fat, and carbohydrate on appetite, we monitored blood glucose continuously for 431 (SE 16) min. Ten healthy males (19-31 years) participated in three time-blinded visits. As blood glucose was monitored, appetite ratings were scored at randomized times. On the first meal initiation, volunteers consumed one of three isovolumetric drinks (aspartame, 1 MJ simple carbohydrate, and 1 MJ high-fat; randomized order). High-fat and high-carbohydrate foods were available ad libitum subsequently. Blood glucose patterns following the carbohydrate drink (+1.78 (SE 0.28) mmol/l in 38 (SE 3) min) and high-fat drink (+0.83 (SE 0.28) mmol/l in 49 (SE 6) min) were predictive of the next intermeal interval (R 0.64 and R 0.97 respectively). Aspartame ingestion was followed by blood glucose declines (40% of subjects), increases (20%), or stability (40%). These patterns were related to the volunteers' perception of sweetness of the drink (R 0.81, P = 0.014), and were predictive of subsequent intakes (R -0.71, P = 0.048). For all drinks combined, declines in blood glucose and meal initiation were significantly associated (chi 2 16.8, P blood glucose responses and intermeal intervals correlated significantly (R 0.715, P = 0.0001), and sweetness perception correlated negatively with hunger suppression (R -0.471, P = 0.015). Effects of fat, carbohydrate, and aspartame on meal initiation, meal size, and intermeal interval relate to blood glucose patterns. Varied blood glucose responses after aspartame support the controversy over its effects, and may relate to sweetness perception. PMID:10690159

  18. Schmallenberg Virus Circulation in Culicoides in Belgium in 2012: Field Validation of a Real Time RT-PCR Approach to Assess Virus Replication and Dissemination in Midges

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Regge, Nick; Madder, Maxime; Deblauwe, Isra; Losson, Bertrand; Fassotte, Christiane; Demeulemeester, Julie; Smeets, François; Tomme, Marie; Cay, Ann Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Indigenous Culicoides biting midges are suggested to be putative vectors for the recently emerged Schmallenberg virus (SBV) based on SBV RNA detection in field-caught midges. Furthermore, SBV replication and dissemination has been evidenced in C. sonorensis under laboratory conditions. After SBV had been detected in Culicoides biting midges from Belgium in August 2011, it spread all over the country by the end of 2011, as evidenced by very high between-herd seroprevalence rates in sheep and cattle. This study investigated if a renewed SBV circulation in midges occurred in 2012 in the context of high seroprevalence in the animal host population and evaluated if a recently proposed realtime RT-PCR approach that is meant to allow assessing the vector competence of Culicoides for SBV and bluetongue virus under laboratory conditions was applicable to field-caught midges. Therefore midges caught with 12 OVI traps in four different regions in Belgium between May and November 2012, were morphologically identified, age graded, pooled and tested for the presence of SBV RNA by realtime RT-PCR. The results demonstrate that although no SBV could be detected in nulliparous midges caught in May 2012, a renewed but short lived circulation of SBV in parous midges belonging to the subgenus Avaritia occured in August 2012 at all four regions. The infection prevalence reached up to 2.86% in the south of Belgium, the region where a lower seroprevalence was found at the end of 2011 than in the rest of the country. Furthermore, a frequency analysis of the Ct values obtained for 31 SBV-S segment positive pools of Avaritia midges showed a clear bimodal distribution with peaks of Ct values between 21–24 and 33–36. This closely resembles the laboratory results obtained for SBV infection of C. sonorensis and implicates indigenous midges belonging to the subgenus Avaritia as competent vectors for SBV. PMID:24466312

  19. 益气活血利水不同配伍对慢性心衰大鼠AT1、ERK2影响的实验研究%Effect of Benefiting Qi, activating blood circulation and diuresis Chinese herbs compound prescription on AT1, ERK2 expression in rats with chronic heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖佳丹; 张艳; 宫丽鸿; 王晨

    2012-01-01

    目的:通过研究血管紧张素1型受体(AT1)及心肌细胞外信号调节激酶(ERK2)信号通路在慢性心衰中的作用,从分子生物学角度探讨中药对慢性心衰心室重构的影响,并进一步阐明其作用机理.方法:以冠脉结扎法配合力竭式游泳、减食等方法造成大鼠慢性心衰动物模型,对造模成功大鼠分为模型组、西药组、益气中药组、活血中药组、益气活血中药组和益气活血利水中药组,没有进行左冠脉结扎手术的假手术大鼠为正常组.利用实时荧光定量PCR技术及SABC免疫组化法检测慢性心衰大鼠AT1、ERK2的变化情况.结果:慢性心衰动物模型组大鼠心肌AT1、ERK2表达明显升高,与假手术组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);经过治疗,各用药组大鼠心肌组织AT1、ERK2表达明显降低,其中益气活血组、益气活血利水组中药与西药组比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),且益气活血利水组疗效明显优于益气活血组(P<0.01).结论:证明益气、活血、利水中药复方可通过抑制心肌组织中AT1、ERK2的表达,抑制或逆转心室重构的过程,从而达到治疗慢性心衰的目的.%Objective: By investigating the effects of angiotensin receptor type 1 (ATI) and extracellular regulated protein2 (ERK2) signaling pathway in chronic heart failure (CHF) , we studied the effect of traditional Chinese medicine on further mechanism of ventricular remodeling in CHF on the role of molecular biological sense. Methods: The experiment with coronary artery ligation method with exhaustion, reduce feed etc of swimming caused by chronic heart failure rats method . Divided CHF rats method into model group , west medicine control group , Qi -treated group,activating blood group, supplementing Qi and .activating blood group,Yiqi huoxue Iishui treatment group and no left coronary artery ligation for normal group. Using real -time quantitative PCR technique and SABC

  20. The impact of storage time of transfused blood on postoperative infectious complications in rectal cancer surgery. Danish RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, T; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection, and pneumo......BACKGROUND: We have studied the impact of storage time of transfused allogeneic blood together with other known risk factors on postoperative infectious complications after operation for rectal cancer. METHODS: Intra-abdominal abscess, anastomotic leakage, septicaemia, wound infection...... and storage time of saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol (SAGM) blood, administered to each patient, were recorded retrospectively. RESULTS: The overall infection rate was 24% in 78 non-transfused and 40% in 225 transfused patients (P = 0.011). The proportion of SAGM blood stored for > or = 21 days administered...... to each transfused patient was a median of 60% in patients developing postoperative infections versus 25% (P = 0.037) in patients without infections. A multivariate analysis of significant risk variables showed weight > 75 kg (odds ratio, 2.0 versus blood stored > or = 21...

  1. Cognitive problems related to vertebrobasilar circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçer, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by decreased regional cerebral blood flow. Supporting this concept, both cognitive training exercises and physical activity promote blood flow increase and correlate with healthy cognitive aging. The terminal branches of the posterior circulation supply blood to areas of the brain, such as the thalamus, hippocampus, occipital lobe, and cerebellum, involved with important intellectual functions, particularly recent memory, visual-spatial functioning, and visuomotor adaptations. Amnesia and visual agnosia may be a complication of not only posterior circulation infarctions but also vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) without accompanying structural infarcts. The cognitive impairment maybe a manifestation of transient attacks and may persist beyond resolution of symptoms related to ischemia. Early recognition of cognitive deficits in the VBI patient is important because several recent reports show stent placements or medical treatment may improve cognition. PMID:26738337

  2. A new method to study changes in microvascular blood volume in muscle and adipose tissue: Real time imaging in humans and rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøberg, Kim Anker; Rattigan, Stephen; Hiscock, Natalie J;

    2011-01-01

    We employed and evaluated a new application of contrast enhanced ultrasound for real time imaging of changes in microvascular blood volume (MVB) in tissues in females, males and rat. Continuous real time imaging was performed using contrast enhanced ultrasound to quantify infused gas filled micro...... real time imaging the method has wide applications for determining MBV in different organs during various physiological or pathophysiological conditions....

  3. Sensing and enumerating rare circulating cells with diffuse light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettergren, Eric; Vickers, Dwayne; Niedre, Mark

    2011-02-01

    Detection and quantification of circulating cells in live animals is a challenging and important problem in many areas of biomedical research. Current methods involve extraction of blood samples and counting of cells ex-vivo. Since only small blood volumes are analyzed at specific time points, monitoring of changes in cell populations over time is difficult and rare cells often escape detection. The goal of this research is to develop a method for enumerating very rare circulating cells in the bloodstream non-invasively. This would have many applications in biomedical research, including monitoring of cancer metastasis and tracking of hematopoietic stem cells. In this work we describe the optical configuration of our instrument which allows fluorescence detection of single cells in diffusive media at the mesoscopic scale. Our instrument design consists of two continuous wave laser diode sources and an 8-channel fiber coupled multi-anode photon counting PMT. Fluorescence detector fibers were arranged circularly around the target in a miniaturized ring configuration. Cell-simulating fluorescent microspheres and fluorescently-labeled cells were passed through a limb mimicking phantom with similar optical properties and background fluorescence as a limb of a mouse. Our data shows that we are able to successfully detect and count these with high quantitative accuracy. Future work includes characterization of our instrument using fluorescently labeled cells in-vivo. If successful, this technique would allow several orders of magnitude in vivo detection sensitivity improvement versus current approaches.

  4. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of 86Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with 141Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO2) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines

  5. Changes in dry state hemoglobin over time do not increase the potential for oxidative DNA damage in dried blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April Marrone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hemoglobin (Hb is the iron-containing oxygen transport protein present in the red blood cells of vertebrates. Ancient DNA and forensic scientists are particularly interested in Hb reactions in the dry state because both regularly encounter aged, dried bloodstains. The DNA in such stains may be oxidatively damaged and, in theory, may be deteriorated by the presence of Hb. To understand the nature of the oxidative systems potentially available to degrade DNA in the presence of dried Hb, we need to determine what molecular species Hb forms over time. These species will determine what type of iron (i.e. Fe(2+/Fe(3+/Fe(4+ is available to participate in further chemical reactions. The availability of "free" iron will affect the ability of the system to undergo Fenton-type reactions which generate the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (OH*. The OH* can directly damage DNA. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Oxygenated Hb (oxyHb converts over time to oxidized Hb (metHb, but this happens more quickly in the dry state than in the hydrated state, as shown by monitoring stabilized oxyHb. In addition, dry state oxyHb converts into at least one other unknown species other than metHb. Although "free" iron was detectable as both Fe(2+ and Fe(3+ in dry and hydrated oxyHb and metHb, the amount of ions detected did not increase over time. There was no evidence that Hb becomes more prone to generating OH* as it ages in either the hydrated or dry states. CONCLUSIONS: The Hb molecule in the dried state undergoes oxidative changes and releases reactive Fe(II cations. These changes, however, do not appear to increase the ability of Hb to act as a more aggressive Fenton reagent over time. Nevertheless, the presence of Hb in the vicinity of DNA in dried bloodstains creates the opportunity for OH*-induced oxidative damage to the deoxyribose sugar and the DNA nucleobases.

  6. Microchip-based immunomagnetic detection of circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Kazunori; Huang, Yu-Yen; Lane, Nancy; Huebschman, Michael; Uhr, Jonathan W; Frenkel, Eugene P; Zhang, Xiaojing

    2011-10-21

    Screening for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood has been an object of interest for evidence of progressive disease, status of disease activity, recognition of clonal evolution of molecular changes and for possible early diagnosis of cancer. We describe a new method of microchip-based immunomagnetic CTC detection, in which the benefits of both immunomagnetic assay and the microfluidic device are combined. As the blood sample flows through the microchannel closely above arrayed magnets, cancer cells labeled with magnetic nanoparticles are separated from blood flow and deposited at the bottom wall of the glass coverslip, which allows direct observation of captured cells with a fluorescence microscope. A polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microchannel fixed on a glass coverslip was used to screen blood samples. The thin, flat dimensions of the microchannel, combined with the sharp magnetic field gradient in the vicinity of arrayed magnets with alternate polarities, lead to an effective capture of labeled cells. Compared to the commercially available CellSearch™ system, fewer (25%) magnetic particles are required to achieve a comparable capture rate, while the screening speed (at an optimal blood flow rate of 10 mL h(-1)) is more than five times faster than those reported previously with a microchannel-based assay. For the screening experiment, blood drawn from healthy subjects into CellSave™ tubes was spiked with cultured cancer cell lines of COLO205 and SKBR3. The blood was then kept at room temperature for 48 hours before the screening, emulating the actual clinical cases of blood screening. Customized Fe(3)O(4) magnetic nanoparticles (Veridex Ferrofluid™) conjugated to anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) antibodies were introduced into the blood samples to label cancer cells, and the blood was then run through the microchip device to capture the labelled cells. After capture, the cells were stained with fluorescent labelled anti

  7. Microwave circulator design

    CERN Document Server

    Linkhart, Douglas K

    2014-01-01

    Circulator design has advanced significantly since the first edition of this book was published 25 years ago. The objective of this second edition is to present theory, information, and design procedures that will enable microwave engineers and technicians to design and build circulators successfully. This resource contains a discussion of the various units used in the circulator design computations, as well as covers the theory of operation. This book presents numerous applications, giving microwave engineers new ideas about how to solve problems using circulators. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate how to apply the information to real-world design tasks.

  8. Development and Characterization of Probe-Based Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR Assays for Detection and Serotyping of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Viruses Circulating in West Eurasia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed M Jamal

    Full Text Available Rapid and accurate diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD and virus serotyping are of paramount importance for control of this disease in endemic areas where vaccination is practiced. Ideally this virus characterization should be achieved without the need for virus amplification in cell culture. Due to the heterogeneity of FMD viruses (FMDVs in different parts of the world, region specific diagnostic tests are required. In this study, hydrolysable probe-based real time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR assays were developed for specific detection and serotyping of the FMDVs currently circulating in West Eurasia. These assays were evaluated, in parallel with pan-FMDV diagnostic assays and earlier serotype-specific assays, using field samples originating from Pakistan and Afghanistan containing FMD viruses belonging to different sublineages of O-PanAsia, A-Iran05 and Asia-1 (Group-II and Group-VII (Sindh-08. In addition, field samples from Iran and Bulgaria, containing FMDVs belonging to the O-PanAsiaANT-10 sublineage were also tested. Each of the three primer/probe sets was designed to be specific for just one of the serotypes O, A and Asia-1 of FMDV and detected the RNA from the target viruses with cycle threshold (CT values comparable with those obtained with the serotype-independent pan-FMDV diagnostic assays. No cross-reactivity was observed in these assays between the heterotypic viruses circulating in the region. The assays reported here have higher diagnostic sensitivity (100% each for serotypes O and Asia-1, and 92% [95% CI = 81.4-100%] for serotype A positive samples and specificity (100% each for serotypes O, A and Asia-1 positive samples for the viruses currently circulating in West Eurasia compared to the serotyping assays reported earlier. Comparisons of the sequences of the primers and probes used in these assays and the corresponding regions of the circulating viruses provided explanations for

  9. In vivo acoustic and photoacoustic focusing of circulating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Viegas, Mark G.; Malinsky, Taras I.; Melerzanov, Alexander V.; Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-03-01

    In vivo flow cytometry using vessels as natural tubes with native cell flows has revolutionized the study of rare circulating tumor cells in a complex blood background. However, the presence of many blood cells in the detection volume makes it difficult to count each cell in this volume. We introduce method for manipulation of circulating cells in vivo with the use of gradient acoustic forces induced by ultrasound and photoacoustic waves. In a murine model, we demonstrated cell trapping, redirecting and focusing in blood and lymph flow into a tight stream, noninvasive wall-free transportation of blood, and the potential for photoacoustic detection of sickle cells without labeling and of leukocytes targeted by functionalized nanoparticles. Integration of cell focusing with intravital imaging methods may provide a versatile biological tool for single-cell analysis in circulation, with a focus on in vivo needleless blood tests, and preclinical studies of human diseases in animal models.

  10. In vivo acoustic and photoacoustic focusing of circulating cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanzha, Ekaterina I.; Viegas, Mark G.; Malinsky, Taras I.; Melerzanov, Alexander V.; Juratli, Mazen A.; Sarimollaoglu, Mustafa; Nedosekin, Dmitry A.; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2016-01-01

    In vivo flow cytometry using vessels as natural tubes with native cell flows has revolutionized the study of rare circulating tumor cells in a complex blood background. However, the presence of many blood cells in the detection volume makes it difficult to count each cell in this volume. We introduce method for manipulation of circulating cells in vivo with the use of gradient acoustic forces induced by ultrasound and photoacoustic waves. In a murine model, we demonstrated cell trapping, redirecting and focusing in blood and lymph flow into a tight stream, noninvasive wall-free transportation of blood, and the potential for photoacoustic detection of sickle cells without labeling and of leukocytes targeted by functionalized nanoparticles. Integration of cell focusing with intravital imaging methods may provide a versatile biological tool for single-cell analysis in circulation, with a focus on in vivo needleless blood tests, and preclinical studies of human diseases in animal models. PMID:26979811

  11. Monitoring time course of human whole blood coagulation using a microfluidic dielectric sensor with a 3D capacitive structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Debnath; Suster, Michael A; Stavrou, Evi; Gurkan, Umut A; Mohseni, Pedram

    2015-08-01

    This paper reports on the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfluidic sensor for dielectric spectroscopy (DS) of human whole blood during coagulation. The sensor employs a three-dimensional (3D), parallel-plate, capacitive sensing structure with a floating electrode integrated into a microfluidic channel. Using an impedance analyzer and after a 5-point calibration, the sensor is shown to measure the real part of complex relative dielectric permittivity of human whole blood in a frequency range of 10kHz to 100MHz. The temporal variation of dielectric permittivity at 1MHz for human whole blood from three different healthy donors shows a peak in permittivity at ~ 4 to 5 minutes, which also corresponds to the onset of CaCl2-initiated coagulation of the blood sample verified visually. PMID:26737635

  12. Patterns of self-monitoring of blood glucose in insulin-treated diabetes: analysis of a Scottish population over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, D; Harris, F M; Evans, J M M

    2016-07-01

    Analysis of a diabetes clinical information system in Tayside, Scotland, shows that a significant proportion of insulin-treated patients with diabetes are not self-monitoring blood glucose according to current clinical guidance and recommendations, with some not self-monitoring their blood glucose at all. Although there has been an increase in the number of reagent strips dispensed over the past decade, this increase is mainly accounted for by increased testing frequency among people with diabetes already testing. PMID:26990502

  13. Platelet Function During Hypothermia in Experimental Mock Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Poucke, Sven; Stevens, Kris; Kicken, Cécile; Simons, Antoine; Marcus, Abraham; Lancé, Marcus

    2016-03-01

    Alterations in platelet function are a common finding in surgical procedures involving cardiopulmonary bypass and hypothermia. Although the combined impact of hypothermia and artificial circulation on platelets has been studied before, the ultimate strategy to safely minimize the risk for bleeding and thrombosis is yet unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a mock circulation loop to study the impact of hypothermia for platelet-related hemostatic changes. Venous blood was collected from healthy adult humans (n = 3). Closed mock circulation loops were assembled, each consisting of a centrifugal pump, an oxygenator with integrated heat exchanger, and a hardshell venous reservoir. The experiment started with the mock circulation temperature set at 37°C (T0 [0 h]). Cooling was then initiated at T1 (+2 h), where temperature was adjusted from 37°C to 32°C. Hypothermia was maintained from T2 (+4 h) to T3 (+28 h). From that point in time, rewarming from 32°C to 37°C was initiated with similar speed as cooling. From time point T4 (+30 h), normothermia (37°C) was maintained until the experiment ended at T5 (+32 h). Blood samples were analyzed in standard hematological tests: light transmission aggregometry (LTA) (arachidonic acid [AA], adenosine diphosphate [ADP], collagen [COL], thrombin-receptor-activating-peptide-14 [TRAP]), multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) (AA, ADP, COL, TRAP), and rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) (EXTEM, FIBTEM, PLTEM). Hemoglobin, hematocrit, and platelet count decrease more substantially during temperature drop (37-32°C) than during hypothermia maintenance. Hb and Hct continue to follow this trend during active rewarming (32-37°C). PC increase from the moment active rewarming was initiated. None of the values return to the initial values. LTA values demonstrate a similar decrease in aggregation after stimulation with the platelet agonists between the start of the mock circulation and the start of

  14. Radioisotopic evaluation of portal circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of a radio-tracer of portal circulation through the intestine, should prevent cruel punctures in the portal-vein or spleen as it is usually the case with traditional methods in the study of portal-system. The absorption of I-131 and Tc-99m, previously cheked in rabbits presented similar results in dogs. The time of circulation between terminal large-intestine and the liver (t-RF) was determined by external counting at hepatic level by recording radioactivity variation-time. In healthy animals the t-RF was from 20to 60 seconds, with average time of 42 seconds. In 2 animals with partial binding of portal-vein the t-RF went up to 110 and 120 seconds. (Author)

  15. Coagulation competence and fluid recruitment after moderate blood loss in young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Morten; Mørkeberg, Jakob; Pott, Frank C;

    2014-01-01

    blood cell count (4.80 ± 0.33 to 4.64 ± 0.37 × 10(12) cells l(-1), P < 0.05) indicating that 218 ± 173 ml fluid was recruited to the circulation. Withdrawing 450 ml blood reduced the time until initial fibrin formation (R: 6.5 ± 0.9 to 5.1 ± 1.0 min, P < 0.01), whereas the rate of clot formation...

  16. Attenuation of systolic blood pressure and pulse transit time hysteresis during exercise and recovery in cardiovascular patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Yan, Bryan P; Yu, Cheuk-Man; Zhang, Yuan-Ting; Poon, Carmen C Y

    2014-02-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) is a cardiovascular parameter of emerging interest due to its potential to estimate blood pressure (BP) continuously and without a cuff. Both linear and nonlinear equations have been used in the estimation of BP based on PTT. This study, however, demonstrates that there is a hysteresis phenomenon between BP and PTT during and after dynamic exercise. A total of 46 subjects including 16 healthy subjects, 13 subjects with one or more cardiovascular risk factors, and 17 patients with cardiovascular disease underwent graded exercise stress test. PTT was measured from electrocardiogram and photoplethysmogram of the left index finger of the subject, i.e., a pathway that includes predominately aorta, brachial, and radial arteries. The results of this study showed that, for the same systolic BP (SBP), PTT measured during exercise was significantly larger than PTT measured during recovery for all subject groups. This hysteresis was further quantified as both normalized area bounded by the SBP-PTT relationship (AreaN) and SBP difference at PTT during peak exercise plus 20 ms (ΔSBP20). Significant attenuation of both AreaN (p <; 0.05) and ΔSBP20 (p <; 0.01) is observed in cardiovascular patients compared with healthy subjects, independent of resting BP. Since the SBP-PTT relationship are determined by the mechanical properties of arterial wall, which is predominately mediated by the sympathetic nervous system through altered vascular smooth muscle (VSM) tone during exercise, results of this study are consistent with the previous findings of autonomic nervous dysfunction in cardiovascular patients. We further conclude that VSM tone has a nonnegligible influence on the BP-PTT relationship and thus should be considered in the PTT-based BP estimation. PMID:24158470

  17. Pulse Arrival Time Based Cuff-Less and 24-H Wearable Blood Pressure Monitoring and its Diagnostic Value in Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yali; Poon, Carmen C Y; Yan, Bryan P; Lau, James Y W

    2016-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and management of hypertension. Current standard ABPM devices use an oscillometric cuff-based method which can cause physical discomfort to the patients with repeated inflations and deflations, especially during nighttime leading to sleep disturbance. The ability to measure ambulatory BP accurately and comfortably without a cuff would be attractive. This study validated the accuracy of a cuff-less approach for ABPM using pulse arrival time (PAT) measurements on both healthy and hypertensive subjects for potential use in hypertensive management, which is the first of its kind. The wearable cuff-less device was evaluated against a standard cuff-based device on 24 subjects of which 15 have known hypertension. BP measurements were taken from each subject over a 24-h period by the cuff-less and cuff-based devices every 15 to 30 minutes during daily activities. Mean BP of each subject during daytime, nighttime and over 24-h were calculated. Agreement between mean nighttime systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measured by the two devices evaluated using Bland-Altman plot were -1.4 ± 6.6 and 0.4 ± 6.7 mmHg, respectively. Receiver operator characteristics (ROC) statistics was used to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the cuff-less approach in the detection of BP above the hypertension threshold during nighttime (>120/70 mmHg). The area under ROC curves were 0.975/0.79 for nighttime. The results suggest that PAT-based approach is accurate and promising for ABPM without the issue of sleep disturbances associated with cuff-based devices. PMID:27447469

  18. Western Indian Ocean circulation and climate variability on different time scales. A study based on stable oxygen and carbon isotopes, benthic foraminiferal assemblages and Mg/Ca paleothermometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romahn, Sarah

    2014-08-19

    In order to understand the Earth's climate evolution it is crucial to evaluate the role of low-latitude oceans in the global climate system, as they are connected to both hemispheres via atmospheric and oceanic circulation and thus hold the potential to disentangle the asynchronicity of short-term Pleistocene climate variability. However, the potential of low latitude oceans to respond to and force large-scale changes of the climate system is still debated. The aim of this thesis is to examine and to understand the causal relationship of both atmospheric and oceanic changes in the tropical western Indian Ocean on centennial-, millennial and glacial-interglacial timescales. For this purpose I investigated stable oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of both planktic and benthic foraminiferal tests, Mg/Ca ratios of planktic foraminiferal tests as well as benthic foraminiferal assemblages and sedimentary geochemical parameters on two sediment cores (GeoB12615-4, 446 m and GeoB12616-4, 1449 m) from the continental slope off Tanzania, East Africa.

  19. Changes in the micro-circulation of skeletal muscle due to varied isometric exercise assessed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To quantitatively assess local muscle micro-circulation with real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) during different exercises and compare the results with performed muscle work and global blood flow. Materials and methods: Sixteen low mechanical index CEUS examinations of the right lower leg flexors of healthy volunteers were performed using a continuous infusion of SonoVue (4.8 mL/300 s). Several muscle perfusion parameters were extracted from derived CEUS signal intensity time curves during different isometric exercises (10-50% of maximum individual strength for 20-30 s) and then correlated with the performed muscle work or force, and the whole lower leg blood flow which we measured simultaneously by venous occlusion plethysmography (VOP). Results: The shapes of the CEUS curve during and after exercise differed individually depending on the performed muscle work. The maximum blood volume MAX was observed only after exercise cessation and was significantly correlated with the performed muscle force (r = 0.77, p < 0.0001). The blood volume over exercise time was inversely correlated with the spent muscle work (r = -0.60, p = 0.006). CEUS and VOP measurements correlated only at rest and after the exercise. During exercise, mean CEUS local blood volume decreased (from 3.48 to 2.19 (∼mL)), while mean VOP global blood flow increased (mean, from 3.96 to 7.71 mL/100 mg/min). Conclusion: Real-time low-MI CEUS provides complementary information about the local muscle micro-circulation compared to established blood flow measures. CEUS may be used for a better understanding of muscle perfusion physiology and in the diagnosis of micro-circulation alterations such as in peripheral arterial occlusive disease or diabetic angiopathy.

  20. Inflammatory reactions in placental blood of Plasmodium falciparum-infected women and high concentrations of soluble E-selectin and a circulating P. falciparum protein in the cord sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Rasheed, F N; Bulmer, J N; Theisen, M; Ridley, R G; Greenwood, B M

    1998-01-01

    significance. P. falciparum exoantigen, GLURP, was detected in cord blood indicating transplacental passage of malarial antigens. Concentrations of E-selectin were higher in cord blood samples compared with peripheral blood samples. This appeared to be associated with development of cord endothelial cells and...... falciparum protein, glutamate-rich protein (GLURP) and antibodies to P. falciparum rhoptry-associated protein-1 were measured among 105 Gambian women and their neonates. Peripheral blood concentrations of IL-10, soluble cytokine receptors and soluble adhesion molecules were found to be different from those...... immunoprivileged site. Concentrations of soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1), potential adhesion receptors for malaria parasites, were associated with an active P. falciparum infection in the placenta although the associations did not reach...

  1. Identification of pathogenic microorganisms directly from positive blood vials by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nonnemann, Bettina; Tvede, Michael; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a promising and fast method for identifying fungi and bacteria directly from positive blood cultures. Various pre-treatment methods for MALDI-TOF MS identification have been reported for this purpose. In...

  2. Effects of Time-Specific F-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum Inoculation Overlays on Prelay ts-11-strain M. gallisepticum Vaccination on Blood Characteristics of Commercial Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two trials were conducted to determine the effects of a prelay ts-11-strain Mycoplasma gallisepticum (ts-11MG) vaccination alone or in combination with subsequent time specific F-strain M. gallisepticum (FMG) inoculations on the blood characteristics of commercial laying hens. The following 4 treat...

  3. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  4. Activity of neutron-induced Na-24 in NaCl solution to simulate human blood: effects of the sample-source distance and the irradiation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an accident of neutron radiation, the neutron dose can be estimated by measuring radioactivity of 24Na in blood of the patients. In this work, NaCl solution as simulated blood was irradiated by a 252Cf neutron source, and measured by a low background γ-ray measurement system. The 24Na activity was measured at different source-sample distances for different irradiation hours. The 24Na activity after decay correction decreases exponentially with increasing distance, but increases linearly with irradiation time. (authors)

  5. Noninvasive tracking of systolic arterial blood pressure using pulse transit time measured with ECG and carotid doppler signals with intermittent calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Yoshihisa

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a non-invasive blood pressure measurement system using pulse transit time (PTT) from the heart to the common carotid artery, measured by using an electrocardiogram (ECG) R-wave and carotid arterial Doppler signals at the anterior neck. In this study, we examined the validity of our system by comparing PTT derived systolic blood pressure (Dopp_SBP) with invasive radial systolic arterial pressure (Inv_SBP) with calibration every 15 min in the ICU setting.Methods: 17 patients u...

  6. Concomitant detection of IFNα signature and activated monocyte/dendritic cell precursors in the peripheral blood of IFNα-treated subjects at early times after repeated local cytokine treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizza Paola

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferons alpha (IFNα are the cytokines most widely used in clinical medicine for the treatment of cancer and viral infections. Among the immunomodulatory activities possibly involved in their therapeutic efficacy, the importance of IFNα effects on dendritic cells (DC differentiation and activation has been considered. Despite several studies exploiting microarray technology to characterize IFNα mechanisms of action, there is currently no consensus on the core signature of these cytokines in the peripheral blood of IFNα-treated individuals, as well as on the existence of blood genomic and proteomic markers of low-dose IFNα administered as a vaccine adjuvant. Methods Gene profiling analysis with microarray was performed on PBMC isolated from melanoma patients and healthy individuals 24 hours after each repeated injection of low-dose IFNα, administered as vaccine adjuvant in two separate clinical trials. At the same time points, cytofluorimetric analysis was performed on CD14+ monocytes, to detect the phenotypic modifications exerted by IFNα on antigen presenting cells precursors. Results An IFNα signature was consistently observed in both clinical settings 24 hours after each repeated administration of the cytokine. The observed modulation was transient, and did not reach a steady state level refractory to further stimulations. The molecular signature observed ex vivo largely matched the one detected in CD14+ monocytes exposed in vitro to IFNα, including the induction of CXCL10 at the transcriptional and protein level. Interestingly, IFNα ex vivo signature was paralleled by an increase in the percentage and expression of costimulatory molecules by circulating CD14+/CD16+ monocytes, indicated as natural precursors of DC in response to danger signals. Conclusions Our results provide new insights into the identification of a well defined molecular signature as biomarker of IFNα administered as immune adjuvants, and

  7. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Salamon; Martin Hofmann; Caroline Jung; Michael Gerhard Kaul; Franziska Werner; Kolja Them; Rudolph Reimer; Peter Nielsen; Annika Vom Scheidt; Gerhard Adam; Tobias Knopp; Harald Ittrich

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer. Materials and Methods A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superp...

  8. Noninvasive Antenatal Determination of Fetal Blood Group Using Next-Generation Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieneck, Klaus; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2015-01-01

    Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN) is a condition characterized by a decreased lifespan of fetal red blood cells caused by maternally produced allospecific antibodies transferred to the fetus during pregnancy. The antibodies bind to the corresponding blood group antigens on fetal red...... blood cells and induce hemolysis. Cell-free DNA derived from the conceptus circulates in maternal blood. Using next-generation sequencing (NGS), it can be determined if this cell-free fetal DNA encodes the corresponding blood group antigen that is the target of the maternal allospecific antibodies....... This determination carries no risk to the fetus. It is important to determine if the fetus is at risk of hemolysis to enable timely intervention. Many tests for blood groups are based solely on the presence or absence of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). Antenatal determination of fetal blood group by NGS...

  9. The Beliefs, Myths, and Reality Surrounding the Word Hema (Blood from Homer to the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Meletis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available All ancient nations hinged their beliefs about hema (blood on their religious dogmas as related to mythology or the origins of religion. The Hellenes (Greeks especially have always known hema as the well-known red fluid of the human body. Greek scientific considerations about blood date from Homeric times. The ancient Greeks considered hema as synonymous with life. In Greek myths and historical works, one finds the first references to the uninterrupted vascular circulation of blood, the differences between venous and arterial blood, and the bone marrow as the site of blood production. The Greeks also speculated about mechanisms of blood coagulation and the use of blood transfusion to save life.

  10. The beliefs, myths, and reality surrounding the word hema (blood) from homer to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meletis, John; Konstantopoulos, Kostas

    2010-01-01

    All ancient nations hinged their beliefs about hema (blood) on their religious dogmas as related to mythology or the origins of religion. The Hellenes (Greeks) especially have always known hema as the well-known red fluid of the human body. Greek scientific considerations about blood date from Homeric times. The ancient Greeks considered hema as synonymous with life. In Greek myths and historical works, one finds the first references to the uninterrupted vascular circulation of blood, the differences between venous and arterial blood, and the bone marrow as the site of blood production. The Greeks also speculated about mechanisms of blood coagulation and the use of blood transfusion to save life. PMID:21490910

  11. Direct identification of bacteria in positive blood culture bottles by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard La Scola

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With long delays observed between sampling and availability of results, the usefulness of blood cultures in the context of emergency infectious diseases has recently been questioned. Among methods that allow quicker bacterial identification from growing colonies, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was demonstrated to accurately identify bacteria routinely isolated in a clinical biology laboratory. In order to speed up the identification process, in the present work we attempted bacterial identification directly from blood culture bottles detected positive by the automate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We prospectively analysed routine MALDI-TOF identification of bacteria detected in blood culture by two different protocols involving successive centrifugations and then lysis by trifluoroacetic acid or formic acid. Of the 562 blood culture broths detected as positive by the automate and containing one bacterial species, 370 (66% were correctly identified. Changing the protocol from trifluoroacetic acid to formic acid improved identification of Staphylococci, and overall correct identification increased from 59% to 76%. Lack of identification was observed mostly with viridans streptococci, and only one false positive was observed. In the 22 positive blood culture broths that contained two or more different species, only one of the species was identified in 18 samples, no species were identified in two samples and false species identifications were obtained in two cases. The positive predictive value of bacterial identification using this procedure was 99.2%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: MALDI-TOF MS is an efficient method for direct routine identification of bacterial isolates in blood culture, with the exception of polymicrobial samples and viridans streptococci. It may replace routine identification performed on colonies, provided improvement for the specificity of blood culture

  12. Nanoparticle encapsulation in red blood cells enables blood-pool magnetic particle imaging hours after injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging approach that is based on the nonlinear magnetization response of super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) injected into the blood stream. To date, real-time MPI of the bolus passage of an approved MRI SPIO contrast agent injected into the tail vein of living mice has been demonstrated. However, nanoparticles are rapidly removed from the blood stream by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Therefore, imaging applications for long-term monitoring require the repeated administration of bolus injections, which complicates quantitative comparisons due to the temporal variations in concentration. Encapsulation of SPIOs into red blood cells (RBCs) has been suggested to increase the blood circulation time of nanoparticles. This work presents first evidence that SPIO-loaded RBCs can be imaged in the blood pool of mice several hours after injection using MPI. This finding is supported by magnetic particle spectroscopy performed to quantify the iron concentration in blood samples extracted from the mice 3 and 24 h after injection of SPIO-loaded RBCs. Based on these results, new MPI applications can be envisioned, such as permanent 3D real-time visualization of the vessel tree during interventional procedures, bleeding monitoring after stroke, or long-term monitoring and treatment control of cardiovascular diseases. (paper)

  13. Long term survival following the detection of circulating tumour cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for detecting circulating tumor cells in the peripheral blood of patients with head and neck cancers may identify individuals likely to benefit from early systemic treatment. Reconstruction experiments were used to optimise immunomagnetic enrichment and RT-PCR detection of circulating tumor cells using four markers (ELF3, CK19, EGFR and EphB4). This method was then tested in a pilot study using samples from 16 patients with advanced head and neck carcinomas. Seven patients were positive for circulating tumour cells both prior to and after surgery, 4 patients were positive prior to but not after surgery, 3 patients were positive after but not prior to surgery and 2 patients were negative. Two patients tested positive for circulating cells but there was no other evidence of tumor spread. Given this patient cohort had mostly advanced disease, as expected the detection of circulating tumour cells was not associated with significant differences in overall or disease free survival. For the first time, we show that almost all patients with advanced head and neck cancers have circulating cells at the time of surgery. The clinical application of techniques for detection of spreading disease, such as the immunomagnetic enrichment RT-PCR analysis used in this study, should be explored further

  14. Analysis of mtDNT 4977bp deletion induced by ionizing radiation in human peripheral blood nucleated cells using real-time PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To detect mitochondrial DNA(mtDNA) 4977bp deletion(triangle open mtDNA4977) in human peripheral blood nucleated cells exposed to ionizing radiation in vitro by using real-time PCR, and explore possibility of the index as biodosimetry for estimating biological dose in radiation accident,six healthy individuals' peripheral blood was collected,and the blood samples were irradiated with 0,1,2,3,4 and 5 Gy 60Co gamma-ray. The triangle open mtDNA4977 and total mtDNA copy number(mtDNAtotal) in the mtDNA samples were detected, and then the deletion rates were calculated. The results showed that the mtDNAtotal and triangle open mtDNA4977 copy number, and the deletion rates of mtDNA 4977bp in the mtDNA samples from 6 healthy individuals' blood exposed to 1-5 Gy radiation were higher than that with the samples exposed to 0 Gy radiation(p0.05). The results indicated that ionizing radiation can induce accumulation of the triangle open mtDNA4977 and increase of mtDNAtotal copy number in human peripheral blood nucleated cells,but both the mtDNA 4977bp deletion and exposure dose(0-5 Gy) were not obviously correlated. (authors)

  15. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA in peripheral blood and aqueous humor of patients with Toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis using real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Felipe dos Santos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the ability of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR for detectingToxoplasma gondii DNA in the peripheral blood and aqueous humor of patients with toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis. Methods: Fifty-five patients with infectious uveitis seen from 2009 to 2013 at the Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences of the Federal University of São Paulo were enrolled in this study. Forty-three patients had toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis, and the remaining 12 had non-toxoplasmic infectious uveitis and served as controls. qPCR analysis forT. gondii DNA was performed on the patients' peripheral blood and aqueous humor samples. Results: The qPCR was positive for T. gondii DNA in 37.21% (16/43 of the aqueous humor samples and 2.33% (1/43 of the peripheral blood samples; further, 16.27% (7/43 of the patients had positive results in both their blood and aqueous humor samples. Conclusion: qPCR was able to detect T. gondii DNA in patients with toxoplasmic active focal necrotizing retinochoroiditis in the blood as well as the aqueous humor and can help with the diagnosis of the disease.

  16. Detection and Characterization of Circulating Tumor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Richard

    2009-03-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) occur in blood below the concentration of 1 cell in a hundred thousand white blood cells and can provide prognostic and diagnostic information about the underlying disease. While numeration of CTCs has provided useful information on progression-free and overall survival, it does not provide guidance of treatment choice. Since CTCs are presumed contain features of the metastatic tissue, characterization of cancer markers on these cells could help selection of treatment. At such low concentrations, reliable location and identification of these cells represents a significant technical challenge. Automated digital microscopy (ADM) provides high levels of sensitivity, but the analysis time is prohibitively long for a clinical assay. Enrichment methods have been developed to reduce sample size but can result in cell loss. A major barrier in reliable enrichment stems from the biological heterogeneity of CTCs, exhibited in a wide range of genetic, biochemical, immunological and biological characteristics. We have developed an approach that uses fiber-optic array scanning technology (FAST) to detect CTCs. Here, laser-printing optics are used to excite 300,000 cells/sec, and fluorescence from immuno-labels is collected in an array of optical fibers that forms a wide collection aperture. The FAST cytometer can locate CTCs at a rate that is 500 times faster than an ADM with comparable sensitivity and improved specificity. With this high scan rate, no enrichment of CTCs is required. The target can be a cytoplasm protein with a very high expression level, which reduces sensitivity to CTC heterogeneity. We use this method to measure expression levels of multiple markers on CTCs to help predict effective cancer treatment.

  17. Adenosine diphosphate-decorated chitosan nanoparticles shorten blood clotting times, influencing the structures and varying the mechanical properties of the clots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tze-Wen; Lin, Pei-Yi; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Chen, Yen-Fung

    2014-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (NPs) decorated with adenosine diphosphate (ADP) (ANPs) or fibrinogen (FNPs) were used to fabricate hemostatic NPs that can shorten blood clotting time and prevent severe local hemorrhage. The structure and mechanical properties of the blood clot induced with ANP (clot/ANP) or FNP (clot/FNP) were also investigated. The NPs, ANPs, and FNPs, which had particle sizes of 245.1 ± 14.0, 251.0 ± 9.8, and 326.5 ± 14.5 nm and zeta potentials of 24.1 ± 0.5, 20.6 ± 1.9, and 15.3 ± 1.5 mV (n=4), respectively, were fabricated by ionic gelation and then decorated with ADP and fibrinogen. The zeta potentials and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of the NPs confirmed that their surfaces were successfully coated with ADP and fibrinogen. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs of the structure of the clot induced with "undecorated" chitosan NPs (clot/NP), clot/ANP, and clot/FNP (at 0.05 wt%) were different, after citrated bloods had been recalcified by a calcium chloride solution containing NPs, ANPs, or FNPs. This indicated that many NPs adhered on the membrane surfaces of red blood cells, that ANPs induced many platelet aggregates, and that FNPs were incorporated into the fibrin network in the clots. Measurements of the blood clotting times (Tc) of blood clot/NPs, clot/ANPs, and clot/FNPs, based on 90% of ultimate frequency shifts measured on a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), were significantly (Pcompressibility in clot/NPs and clot/ANPs (Pcompression flow properties of the clot. Hence, ANPs have potential applications for preventing severe local hemorrhage. PMID:24729701

  18. Relationship between time to positivity of blood culture with clinical characteristics and hospital mortality in patients with Escherichia coli bacteremia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BO Shi-ning; BO Jian; NING Yong-zhong; ZHAO Yu; LU Xiao-lin; YANG Ji-yong; ZHU Xi; YAO Gai-qi

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies indicated that the time to positivity (TTP) of blood culture is a parameter correlating with degree of the bacteremia and outcome in patients with bloodstream infections caused by Escherichia coli (E.co/i). The objective of this study was to further investigate the diagnostic and prognostic power of using TTP to predict E. coli bacteremia.Methods A retrospective cohort study at two university hospitals was conducted. We retrieved all the medical records of those with E. coli bloodstream infection according to the records generated by their microbiology departments.Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to identify clinical factors correlating with fast bacterial growth and significant prognostic factors for hospital mortality.Results Medical records of 353 episodes of E. coli bacteremia diagnosed between January 1,2007 and December 31,2009 were retrieved in the investigation. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the TTP≤7 hours group is associated with higher incidence of active malignancies (41.7% vs. 27.2%, P=0.010), neutropenia (30% vs.14.3%, P=0.007), primary bacteremia (55.0% vs. 33.4%, P=0.002), and poorer outcome (hospital mortality 43.3% vs.11.9%, P=0.000) than the TTP >7 hours group. Multivariate analysis revealed that the significant predictors of hospital mortality, in rank order from high to low, were TTP (for TTP <7 hours, odds ratio (OR): 4.886; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.572-9.283; P=0.000),neutropenia (OR: 2.800; 95% CI:1.428-5.490; P=0.003), comedication of steroids or immunosuppressive agents (OR:2.670; 95% CI: 0.971-7.342; P=0.057).Conclusions Incidence of malignancies, neutropenia and primary bacterernia correlates with fast bacterial growth in patients with E. coli bacteremia. The parameter of TTP has been identified as a variable of highest correlation to hospital mortality and therefore can be potentially utilized as a mortality prognostic marker.

  19. Real-time intraoperative full-range complex FD-OCT guided cerebral blood vessel identification and brain tumor resection in neurosurgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kang; Huang, Yong; Pradilla, Gustavo; Tyler, Betty; Kang, Jin U.

    2011-03-01

    This work utilized an ultra-high-speed full-range complex-conjugate-free optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) system to perform real-time intraoperative imaging to guide two common neurosurgical procedures: the cerebral blood vessel identification and the brain tumor resection. The cerebral blood vessel identification experiment is conducted ex vivo on human cadaver specimen. Specific cerebral arteries and veins in different positions of the specimen are visualized and the spatial relations between adjacent vessels are indentified through real-time 3D visualization. The brain tumor resection experiment is conducted in vivo on 9L gliomas established in rat brains. The normal brain-tumor margin can be clearly identified in depth of the tissue from sagittal, coronal and axial slices of the intraoperatively acquired 3D data set. The real-time full-range FD-OCT guided in vivo rat flank tumor resection is also conducted.

  20. Talk with Your Health Care Provider about High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Circulation Talk With Your Health Care Provider About High Blood Pressure Why is high blood pressure dangerous? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... pur-TEN-shun”). If it is not controlled, high blood pressure can cause: yy Stroke yy Kidney yy Heart ...