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Sample records for blood cell scintigraphy

  1. Incidental detection of a bleeding gastrointestinal stromal tumor on Tc-99m red blood cell scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, Sampath; Bhattacharya, Anish; Gupta, Vikas; Singh, Rajinder; Radotra, Bishan Dass; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2012-10-01

    The role of 99m-technetium labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy in acute gastro-intestinal bleed is well-established. The authors report a case of a bleeding gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) incidentally discovered on Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy.

  2. White blood cell scintigraphy for differentiation of infection and aseptic loosening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Buhl, Anna; Oersnes, Thue;

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of an infected arthroplasty is often difficult. Fever, abnormal physical findings, radiographic changes, findings at bone scintigraphy, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP, and leucocytosis are not specific enough. We evaluated the diagnostic value of white blood cell...

  3. Multifocal peritoneal splenosis in Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cell scintigraphy

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    Yoon, Min Ki; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Choe, Won Sick [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    A 44-year-old man with a past medical history of splenectomy came to hospital because of epigastric pain abdominopelvic computed tomography(CT) showed a soft tissue mass and multifocal variable-sized nodules as well as finding suggestive of cholecystitis. Subsequently, he underwent Tc-99m-labeled heat- denatured red blood cell(RBC) scintigraphy to evaluate the mass and nodules. The scintigraphy confirmed multifocal peritoneal splenosis in the abdominopelvic cavity.

  4. Postoperative osteomyelitis following implant arthroplasty of the foot: diagnosis with indium-111 white blood cell scintigraphy

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    Bakst, R.H.; Kanat, I.O.

    1987-11-01

    Many complications can occur following insertion of silicone elastomer implants into the foot. Postoperative infection may be difficult to distinguish from other conditions such as dislodgment, fracture, ectopic and heterotopic new bone formation, synovitis, and bursitis. White blood cell scintigraphy, in conjunction with the clinical scenario, may prove to be an invaluable tool in the diagnosis of postoperative osteomyelitis, subsequent to implant arthroplasties. 32 references.

  5. Indium-111 labelled white blood cell scintigraphy in cranial and spinal septic lesions

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    Medina, M.; Lucano, A. [Div. of Neurosurgery, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Viglietti, A.L.; Camuzzini, G. [Service of Nuclear Medicine, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Gozzoli, L. [Service of Neuroradiology, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Ravasi, L.; Lucignani, G. [INB-CNR, Univ. of Milan, H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)

    2000-10-01

    Cranial and spinal infections are severe events that require timely diagnosis and treatment. Physical and neurological examination, laboratory tests and radiological imaging may be insufficient for assessing cranial and spinal septic lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) scan in assessing the presence of leucocytes in intracranial and spinal lesions, and in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of primary, post-traumatic and post-surgical infections. One hundred and twenty-four subjects were included in the study (48 with post-traumatic or post-surgical lesions, 73 with primary cerebral lesions, and 3 with spinal lesions). All patients underwent a diagnostic work-up including planar scans with {sup 111}In-labelled WBCs, at 4 and 24 h post tracer injection. All subjects underwent surgical treatment. Patients who did not recover from the infection as suggested by clinical evolution underwent further treatment (up to three times) and further WBC scans (up to four times). WBC scintigraphy correctly identified all the areas of leucocyte accumulation, as confirmed after surgery. WBC scintigraphy also correctly excluded the presence of leucocytes in all other lesions, as demonstrated at surgery. The results of this study confirm the accuracy of WBC scan for the assessment of patients with cranial and spinal lesions, in whom the demonstration of leucocyte accumulation can ease the diagnosis of infection, and indicate that the method is also accurate for the follow-up and management of neurosurgical patients. (orig.)

  6. Extensive gastric varices demonstrated by technetium-99m red blood cell scintigraphy

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    Shih, W.J.; Domstad, P.A.; Loh, F.G.; Pulmano, C.

    1987-04-01

    An alcohol abuse patient complicated by chronic pancreatitis had splenic vein thrombosis leading to gastric varices and underwent abdominal Tc-99m red blood cell scintigraphy. First pass study, sequential images up to 1 hour, and a 2.5 hour image showed abnormal radioactivity in the left side of the abdomen and midabdomen. In 24 hour images, the high level of activity in the left side persisted; in addition, there was accumulation of radioactivity in the cecum, ascending, transverse colon, the splenic flexure, and descending colon. A splenectomy was performed and during the surgical procedure, a large dilated vein in the greater omentum was noted. It is reemphasized that delayed imaging up to 24 hours is important when the results of earlier images are equivocal or negative.

  7. Huge Varicose Inferior Mesenteric Vein: an Unanticipated {sup 99m}Tc-labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy Finding

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    Hoseinzadeh, Samaneh; Shafiei, Babak; Salehian, Mohamadtaghi; Neshandar Asli, Isa; Ghodoosi, Iraj [Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Ectopic varices (EcV) are enlarged portosystemic venous collaterals, which usually develop secondary to portal hypertension (PHT). Mesocaval collateral vessels are unusual pathways to decompress the portal system. Here we report the case of a huge varicose inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) that drained into peri rectal collateral veins, demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy performed for lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a 14-year-old girl. This case illustrates the crucial role of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of rare ectopic lower GI varices.

  8. Inferior vena cava filter thrombus: A possible cause of an unanticipated finding of {sup 99m} Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy

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    Song, Hee Sung; Choi, Joon Hyouk; Kim, Young Suk [Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test, is useful for patients suspected of suffering from active gastrointestinal bleeding. This study follows a case of a patient who was suspected of gastrointestinal bleeding after an inferior vena cava filter was inserted due to a deep vein thrombosis of the femoral vein. To evaluate an exact focus of bleeding, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy was executed. Herein, an unanticipated finding of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy probably due to a thrombus on the inferior vena cava filter is reported.

  9. 99mTechnetium-labelled red blood cell scintigraphy as an alternative to angiography in the investigation of gastrointestinal bleeding: clinical experience in a district general hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearn, P.; Persad, R.; Wilson, N.; Flanagan, J.; Williams, T.

    1992-01-01

    99mTechnetium-labelled red blood cell scintigraphy (99mTc RBC scintigraphy) was used as the second-line investigation to localise bleeding in 23 patients (11 male, 12 female; mean age 67 years) presenting with active bleeding per rectum. Scintigraphy was available on a 24 h basis. A total of 18 patients had positive scans (78%). Surgery was performed urgently in 11 patients and the site of bleeding, as predicted by scintigraphy, was confirmed in 9 (82%). 99mTc RBC scintigraphy was less useful in patients who were not bleeding actively or who were being investigated for chronic anaemia. This study suggests that 99mTc RBC scintigraphy can play a useful role in the preoperative localisation of unexplained gastrointestinal bleeding in hospitals with nuclear medicine facilities, but confirms it has little place in the management of patients unless they are bleeding actively. PMID:1319696

  10. Evaluation of Bone or Soft Tissue Infection with Tc-99m Hmpao White Blood Cell Scintigraphy: Semiquantitative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Aydın

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Aim the aim of this study was to investigate semiquantitatively the diagnostic performance of Tc-99m hexamethypropylene amine oxime labeled white blood cell (Tc-99m HMPAO-WBC scintigraphy in patients with suspected bone or soft tissue infections. Methods: Material and Method twenty one patients who applied to Nuclear Medicine Departmant (for suspected prosthesis infection, diabetic foot, bone infection, graft infection were evaluated retrospectively. Tc-99m HMPAO WBC scintigraphy imaging were performed to all patients. Planar images were taken 1., 2., and 4. hours after injecting the labeled leukocytes. Evaluation of infection with Tc-99m HMPAO WBC scintigraphy was done semiquantitatively. Relative uptake was determined by setting the region of interest (ROI of lesion area on the anterior view. Rectangular ROI was set on the against limb (nonlesion. The ratio of the average pixel count in the lesion (L to that in the non-lesion (NL (L/NL ratio was calculated at 1., 2., and 4. hours images. Final diagnosis was based on histopathology, microbiologic assays, or clinical and imaging follow-up. Results: 0.55 and 1.55±0.74, 1.42±0.55, 1.40±0.55 in positive and control groups, respectively. Positive group revealed a statistically significant increase L/NL values in the data 3 hours images (p=0.002. However, no statistically significant was found between L/NL values in 3 hours imaging data in control group (p=0.223. All the data in the positive group found a statistically increased steadily. Furthermore, statistically significant difference was found between the positive and control group at 2., and 4. hours images (p=0.015, and p=0.006 .±0.43, 2.05±0.35, 1.90±SD values were found to be 1.74±Results of the 21 patients, 11 were found to have infection (positive group, whereas 10 had normal (control group pathologies on histopathology, microbiologic assays, or clinical and imaging follow-up. First, 2., and 4. hours L/NL (mean Conclusion

  11. Evaluation of /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cell scintigraphy for the detection and localization of gastrointestinal bleeding sites

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    Markisz, J.A.; Front, D.; Royal, H.D.; Sacks, B.; Parker, J.A.; Kolodny, G.M.

    1982-08-01

    /sup 99m/Tc labeled red blood cell scintigraphy was performed upon 39 patients with clinical evidence for acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding from an unknown source. Seventeen of 39 patients (44%) had a scan became positive 6 or more h after injection, consistent with intermittent bleeding, in 8 of 17 patients (47%). In the 11 patients in whom the bleeding site was definitely identified by arteriography, surgery, or colonoscopy, scintigraphy correctly localized the bleeding site in 10 of 11 patients (91%). Four of 11 patients (36%) had an active bleeding site identified by arteriography. Ten of 17 patients (58%) with a positive scan required either gelfoam embolization (4 patients) or surgery (6 patients) to control the bleeding, whereas only 1 of 22 patients (5%) required surgery when the scan was negative. Six deaths occurred in the scan-positive patients compared with no deaths in the scan-negative patients. None of the 8 patients who had arteriography and no active bleeding site by scintigraphy had arteriographically demonstrable active bleeding. Scintigraphy provides a reliable noninvasive test to screen patients in whom arteriography is being considered to localize active bleeding sites. If the arteriogram is negative, the scintigraphic findings alone may guide the surgical or arteriographic intervention. In addition, scintigraphy identifies two patient populations which have considerably different morbidity and mortality.

  12. Extensive hemangiomatosis diagnosed by scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in a patient with lower gastrointestinal bleeding

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    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Borges, A.C.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Vecchia, J.F.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: The gastrointestinal bleeding may be caused by vascular tumors and other lesions like inflammatory disorders, intestinal obstruction or vascular malformation. The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome are hemangiomatosis diseases that may involve the gastrointestinal tract and cause recurrent hemorrhage. The signs and symptoms usually appear at childhood. Case report: male patient, 31 years old, presenting three days of gastrointestinal bleeding and an hemorrhage shock (Hb=3,9). Previous reports of small volume bleeding since childhood and schistossomosis. Dilated veins, hemorrhoid and port wine stain lesions were detected at physical examination in perineal region, penis and scrotum. Inferior limbs were symmetric at inspection. The upper endoscopy showed esophageal varices with no signs of active bleeding. The scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cells showed active hemorrhage at recto-sigmoid topography during the first hour of study. Extensive and heterogeneous uptake was seen in gluteus, posterior right thigh and scrotum at the second and fifth hours of study. Then the hypothesis of vascular tumor was considered. The magnetic resonance (MR) of pelvis demonstrated extensive hemangiomatosis at the regions described by the scintigraphy. The clinical and imaging findings suggested the diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Discussion: The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare disease characterized by congenital vascular and lymphatic malformations (port wine stain lesions, congenital varices) and bone growth and soft tissue disorder. Dilated veins may involve abdominal and pelvic structures, with rectal bleeding and haematuria occurring on average of 20%. The clinical investigation must approach the type, the extent and the severity of the malformation, since the morbidity and the mortality depends on the visceral involvement. The Doppler ultrasound, scanometry of lower extremities, MR, angiography and

  13. The role of red blood cell scintigraphy in the multiple-modality imaging diagnosis of a rare case of diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis in an adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Cason

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Angiomas are one of the most common primary tumors of the liver. Diffuse hepatic angiomatosis, however, is quite rare and usually observed in pediatric patients. We report a rare case of diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis in a 33-year-old woman. Case report: The patient presented with abdominal pain and a palpable upper abdominal mass. Abdominal CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings suggested diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis, but this finding was not confirmed by subsequent contrast-enhanced abdominal ultrasonography (US. The patient then underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeling of red blood cells (RBC. This examination revealed increased uptake of labeled erythrocytes in several of the hepatic lesions corresponding to CT and RM findings, thereby confirming the clinical hypothesis of diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis. Discussion: RBC scintigraphy with SPECT/CT can facilitate the comparison of other crosssectional imaging methods such as CT and MRI. This case highlights the importance of a multiple-modality approach in the imaging diagnosis of this condition.

  14. A predominant pelvic gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) mass observed on Tc-99m red blood cell gastrointestinal bleeding scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Ravi; Tee, Shang Ian

    2011-08-01

    A 51-year-old woman presented with recurrent bleeding per rectum. Her earlier endoscopies were negative. Tc-99m RBC GI bleeding scintigraphy was performed. It demonstrated an apparent hypervascular pelvic mass, and active small bowel bleeding. Based on scintigraphic finding of a predominant pelvic mass indicating tumor, CT of the abdomen and pelvis was performed for further gastrointestinal bleeding localization work up instead of an invasive angiography or endoscopy, which detected a small bowel tumor in the pelvis. A small bowel gastrointestinal stromal tumor was resected subsequently.

  15. Diagnostic imaging of musculoskeletal infection. Roentgenography; Gallium, indium-labeled white blood cell, gammaglobulin, bone scintigraphy; and MRI

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    Wegener, W.A.; Alavi, A. (Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1991-07-01

    A great deal of effort has been made to evaluate and define the role of various diagnostic imaging techniques in various clinical settings that complicate the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Except possibly in neonates, bone scintigraphy remains generally recommended when there has been no previous osseous involvement. In other cases of chronic disease, previous fracture or trauma, prosthesis, and diabetic foot, In-WBC scintigraphy is generally accepted as an appropriate imaging technique. MRI will play an increasingly important role in diagnosing osteomyelitis and may prove to be an important adjunct in these cases. Research continues to improve our current diagnostic armamentarium. In-IgG appears to avoid practical deficiencies encountered with 67Ga and In-WBC; it remains to be seen what role this agent will play in routine clinical practice. All agents to date image inflammation, not infection, and most require delayed imaging sessions, usually at 24 hours. These shortcomings necessitate further research to develop new radiotracers that can provide useful images within several hours and that are specific for infection, perhaps ultimately delineating the particular microorganism involved.84 references.

  16. Image acquisition and interpretation criteria for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell scintigraphy: results of a multicentre study

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    Erba, Paola A. [University of Pisa Medical School (Italy). Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Veltman, Niels C. [Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sollini, Martina [Arcisprdale S. Maria Nuova - IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Pacilio, Marta; Galli, Filippo [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Signore, Alberto [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Ospedale S. Andrea Medicina Nucleare

    2014-04-15

    There is no consensus yet on the best protocol for planar image acquisition and interpretation of radiolabelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. This may account for differences in reported diagnostic accuracy amongst different centres. This was a multicentre retrospective study analysing 235 WBC scans divided into two groups. The first group of scans (105 patients) were acquired with a fixed-time acquisition protocol and the second group (130 patients) were acquired with a decay time-corrected acquisition protocol. Planar images were interpreted both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Three blinded readers analysed the images. The most accurate imaging acquisition protocol comprised image acquisition at 3 - 4 h and at 20 - 24 h in time mode with acquisition times corrected for isotope decay. Using this protocol, visual analysis had high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of infection. Semiquantitative analysis could be used in doubtful cases, with no cut-off for the percentage increase in radiolabelled WBC over time, as a criterion to define a positive scan. (orig.)

  17. Gated blood pool scintigraphy in patients with valvular heart disease

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    Breuel, H.P.; Heusinger, J.H.; Hanisch, K.

    1984-10-01

    In 58 patients suffering from either stenosis or insufficiency of a single heart valve, gated blood pool scintigraphy was performed to determine the ejection fraction as well as the peak filling and peak ejection rates. It could be demonstrated that in patients with valvular disorders the ejection fraction was only moderately decreased, generally remaining in the lower reference range. The peak filling and ejection rates showed no pathologic changes with the exception of patients with aortic regurgitation where these rates were significantly decreased. Thus, the estimation of left ventricular peak filling and ejection rates may permit diagnosis of myocardial impairment in patients with valvular disease even under resting conditions.

  18. Case with stenosis of internal carotid artery detected as a region of decreased blood flow by Tc-99m HMPAO cerebral blood flow scintigraphy

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    Hayashida, K.; Nishimura, T.; Uehara, T.; Imakita, S.; Yokota, I.; Ogura, H.; Oka, H.; Hayashi, M.; Kikuchi, H.

    1987-04-01

    Tc-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (= HMPAO) is expected to be an excellent agent as blood flow tracer of brain because it passes through blood brain barrier and is retained in brain parenchyma for several hours. Tc-99m HMPAO scintigraphy was applied to a patient complaining of transient ischemic attack without neurological findings. Left hemispheric hypoperfusion was detected by Tc-99m HMPAO cerebral blood flow scintigraphy. Although it was normal in CT and MRI, it was proved to be a 99 % stenosis of left internal carotid artery by digital subtraction angiography. Tc-99m HMPAO cerebral blood flow scintigraphy is useful for detecting abnormality of cerebral blood flow.

  19. Pethidine-augmented white cell scintigraphy in inflammatory bowel disease

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    Davidson, J.; Poon, F.W.; Bessent, R.G.; Neilly, J.B.; Gray, H.W. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Glasgow Royal Infirmary, Alexander Parade, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2000-06-01

    Technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ({sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO) white cell scintigraphy is invaluable for assessing the presence and extent of disease activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Interpretation of images can be compromised by physiological excretion of tracer into the bowel via the biliary tree. This study assesses the effect of intravenous pethidine administered with the labelled white cells in an attempt to reduce the enterohepatic circulation of the tracer. Ninety-one subjects with proven or suspected inflammatory bowel disease were included in this study, all of whom underwent {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO white cell scintigraphy. The control group of 50 subjects underwent the standard protocol for this study performed in our department. The other 41 subjects received an intravenous injection of 0.3 mg/kg of pethidine at the same time as re-injection of the labelled white cells. Images were graded using a five-point scale at both 1 and 2.5 h and categorised as positive, negative or non-diagnostic. Each scan was also assessed for the presence of a visible gall-bladder. The pethidine group had significantly fewer non-diagnostic scans than the control group (P=0.003), and significantly (P=0.001) more studies in which the gall-bladder was visualised. It is concluded that the use of pethidine appears to reduce biliary excretion of tracer during {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO white cell scintigraphy. This may allow the delayed images, and early images with low-grade tracer uptake in the bowel, to be interpreted with greater confidence and thereby reduce the number of scans classified as non-diagnostic. (orig.)

  20. Detection of bladder hemangioma in a child by blood-pool scintigraphy

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    Ishikawa, Ken; Saitoh, Masahiko; Chida, Shoichi [Department of Pediatrics, Iwate Medical University School of Medicine, 19-1 Uchimaru, Morioka (Japan)

    2003-06-01

    Bladder hemangioma is a rare cause of gross hematuria. A 5-year-old boy was investigated for recurrent episodes of asymptomatic gross hematuria, but no abnormalities were found. Blood-pool scintigraphy using {sup 99m}technetium-human serum albumin combined with diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA) revealed an area of increased activity in the right side of the bladder, which was confirmed by cystoscopy as a bladder hemangioma. Endoscopic laser therapy was used to remove two lesions successfully that were diagnosed histologically as cavernous hemangioma. The patient had no further episodes of hematuria in the 2-year period after this treatment. This case study indicates blood-pool scintigraphy may be a useful technique for detecting bladder hemangiomas. (orig.)

  1. Uteroplacental blood flow measured by placental scintigraphy during epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section

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    Skjoeldebrand, A.; Eklund, J.; Johansson, H.; Lunell, N.-O.; Nylund, L.; Sarby, B.; Thornstroem, S. (Departments of Anaesthesiology, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medical Physics, Karolinska Institute at Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    The uteroplacental blood flow was measured before and during epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in 11 woman. The blood flow was measured with dynamic placental scintigraphy. After an i.v. injection of indium-113m chloride, the gamma radiation over the placenta was recorded with a computer-linked scintillation camera. The uteroplacental blood flow could be calculated from the isotope accumulation curve. The anaesthesia was performed with bupivacaine plain 0.5%, 18-22 ml and a preload of a balanced electrolyte solution 10 ml/kg b.w. was given. The placental blood flow decreased in eight patients and increased in three with a median change of -21%, not being statistically significant. No correlation between maternal blood pressure and placental blood flow was found. (author).

  2. Diffuse Hepatic and Spleen Uptake of Tc-99m MDP on Bone Scintigraphy Resembling Liver-Spleen Scintigraphy in a Patient of Plasma Cell Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravanbod, Mohammad Reza; Nemati, Reza; Javadi, Hamid; Nabipour, Iraj; Assadi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    The present case demonstrates a diffuse intense hepatic and, to a lesser degree, spleen, Tc-99m MDP uptake on a routine bone scintigraphy resembling liver-spleen imaging. A 49-year-old female with a history of anaplastic plasma cell tumor and suffering from bone pain was referred for bone scintigraphy to evaluate possible bone metastases. The bone scintigraphy showed diffuse hepatic and spleen uptake of Tc-99m MDP resembling liver-spleen imaging. Furthermore, bone uptake of Tc-99m MDP was significantly diminished and there were no abnormal foci throughout the skeleton. The bone scintigraphy of the present case of an anaplastic plasma cell tumor suggests the possible presence of amyloidosis.

  3. Two-phase whole-body skeletal scintigraphy in children--revisiting the usefulness of the early blood pool phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatra, Neha; Shalaby-Rana, Eglal; Majd, Massoud

    2013-10-01

    The usefulness of whole-body blood pool imaging as part of Tc-99m methylene diphosphonate (MDP) skeletal scintigraphy in detection of marrow infiltrative processes and unexpected soft-tissue and visceral abnormalities is demonstrated via illustrative case examples. Technical aspects of this simple and fast scanning technique are also highlighted.

  4. Development and testing of a new disposable sterile device for labelling white blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, A.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Malviya, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Prandini, N.; Viglietti, A. L.; De Vries, E. F. J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well eq

  5. Whole-body MRI of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: comparison with radiography and bone scintigraphy

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    Goo, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dong Hyun [Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Ra, Young Shin [Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Song, Joon Sup; Im, Ho Joon; Seo, Jong Jin; Ghim, Thad; Moon, Hyung Nam [Asan Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-10-15

    In Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) evaluation of the extent of disease is one of the major predictors of patient outcome. Historically this is undertaken using plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. Recently, whole-body (WB) MRI has been reported to be useful in detecting skeletal and extraskeletal metastases in both adults and children. To evaluate the usefulness of WB MRI in patients with LCH in comparison with plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. In nine children (1-7 years of age; mean 3.3 years) who had a pathological diagnosis of LCH and had either plain radiography or bone scintigraphy for comparison, 43 WB MR examinations were performed. Skeletal and extraskeletal lesions of the disease on WB MRI were compared with those on plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. LCH showed unifocal single-system involvement in one patient, multifocal single-system involvement in three, and multifocal multisystem disease in five. WB MRI identified additional skeletal lesions in three (38%) of eight patients, compared with plain radiography, and in two (25%) of eight, compared with bone scintigraphy. WB MRI detected extraskeletal lesions of the disease in five (56%) of the nine patients exclusively, except for one patient whose lung lesions were also detected on plain radiography. In two patients, treatment was changed according to WB MRI findings. (orig.)

  6. Distribution of lung blood on modified bilateral Glenn shunt evaluated by Tc-99m-MAA lung perfusion scintigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Biao; Luan, Zhao-sheng; Wang, Tong-jian; Ning, Yan-song; Li, Na; Zhu, Meng; Liu, Zhong-min; Ding, Guang-hong; Qiao, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of lung blood in a modified bilateral Glenn procedure designed in our institute with lung perfusion scintigraphy. Sixteen consecutive patients who underwent modified bilateral Glenn operation from 2011 to 2014 were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 7 patients who underwent bidirectional Glenn shunt. Radionuclide lung perfusion scintigraphy was performed using Tc-99m-macro aggregated albumin (MAA) in all patients. For the patients in modified bilateral Glenn group, the time at which the radioactivity accumulation peaked did not differ significantly between the right and left lung field (t = 0.608, P = 0.554). The incidence of perfusion abnormality in each lung lobe also did not differ significantly (P = 0.426 by Fisher exact test). The radioactive counts were higher in the right lung than in the left lung, but the difference was not statistically significant (t = 1.502, P = 0.157). Radioactive perfusion in the lower lung field was significantly greater than that in the upper field (t = 4.368, P lung to that in left lung was significantly lower in the modified bilateral Glenn group (t = 3.686, P = 0.002). Lung perfusion scintigraphy confirmed the benefit of the modified bilateral Glenn shunt with regard to more balanced blood perfusion in both lungs. PMID:27661042

  7. White Blood Cell Count

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    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  8. [Pulmonary blood flow measurement using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) without contrast medium;comparison of phase contrast MRI and perfusion-ventilation scintigraphy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsuyanagi, Eiji; Sato, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Saito, Hirotsugu

    2014-02-01

    To define the accuracy of pulmonary arterial blood flow (PA-flow) measured by phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI), we compared the PA-flow data of PC-MRI with the data of perfusion-ventilation lung scintigraphy. Eighteen patients who preoperatively underwent PA-flow measurement using PC-MRI and perfusion-ventilation lung scintigraphy were evaluated. The PA-flow (cm3/sec) of MRI was calculated by multiplying maximum velocity (cm/sec) by region of interest (ROI) area (cm2) of measured main pulmonary artery using phase contrast method. The left to right ratio (R/L ratio) of PA-flow measured by PC-MRI was compared with the R/L ratios of the date of perfusion-ventilation lung scintigraphy. The R/L ratios of PC-MRI and perfusion lung scintigraphy were 1.43 ± 1.07 and 1.35 ± 0.82, respectively. Both ratios showed excellent correlation( y=-0.50+1.30x, r=0.99,pperfusion lung scintigraphy in the patients with a past history of lung resection, even if their R/L ratios of perfusion lung scintigraphy differed from those of ventilation lung scintigraphy. These results revealed that the PA-flow could be accurately measured by PC-MRI without contrast medium and nuclear medicine instruments.

  9. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  10. Osteomyelitis and infarction in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies: differentiation by combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amundsen, T.R.; Siegel, M.J.; Siegel, B.A.

    1984-12-01

    Clinical records and scintigrams were reviewed of 18 patients with sickle cell hemoglobinophaties who had undergone combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy during 22 separate episodes of suspected osseous infection. The combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis in four studies. Of 18 studies in patients with infarction, the combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted in 16 and showed either no local accumulation of Ga-67 or less accumulation than that of Tc-99m MDP at symptomatic sites. In the other two studies, the scintigrams were falsely interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis and showed congruent, increased accumulation of both Tc-99, MDP and Ga-67. This pattern must be considered indeterminate. Overall, the results indicate that the combination of technetium and gallium scintigraphy is an effective means to distinguish osteomyelitis from infarction in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies.

  11. Osseous scintigraphy in exploration of fever osteo-articular pain in sickle cell disease; La scintigraphie osseuse dans l'exploration des douleurs osteoarticulaires febriles chez les drepanocytaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ajmi, W.; Slim, I.; Zaabar, L.; Ben Sellem, D.; Letaief, B.; Mhiri, A.; Ben Slimene, M.F. [Institut Salah Azaiez, Service de medecine nucleaire, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-07-01

    Osteo articular complications of sickle cell disease are multiple and can occur in the acute mode, (Bone infarction, acute osteomyelitis) or chronic (osteonecrosis, osteomyelitis).Through 6 cases we present the interest, lack and limitations of planar scintigraphy with bis phosphonates. Two patients underwent an early bone scan supplemented by medullary scintigraphy with nano colloids, the diagnosis was a bone infarction. In two children, the bone scan was performed between 5 and 7 days after the beginning of symptoms and did not objectify image of acute osteo articular complication. In the last patient, abnormal scintigraphy does not allow to differentiate osteomyelitis and bone infarction. The bone scan remains an essential consideration in the exploration of bone manifestations in sickle cell disease. Its association with bone marrow scintigraphy provides better diagnostic accuracy in differentiating osteomyelitis and bone infarction and adjusting the therapeutic management. (N.C.)

  12. Aspects of osteo-articular complications in sickle-cell disease on planar bone scintigraphy (infection excluded). Apropos of three cases; Aspects des complications osteoarticulaires de la drepanocytose en scintigraphie osseuse planaire (infection exclue). A propos de trois observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oufroukhi, Y.; Biyi, A.; Zekri, A.; Doudouh, A. [HMI Med-V, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rabat (Morocco)

    2008-06-15

    Skeletal complications of sickle-cell anemia are multiple and can appear on the acute (osseous infarction, acute osteomyelitis) or chronic mode (osteonecrosis, chronic osteomyelitis). The radio-labelled diphosphonate bone scintigraphy remains an important tool in the early diagnosis and in the follow-up of these complications and must form part of the initial assessment of the disease. Through clinical observations, the authors undertake to sum up the bone scintigraphy aspects of these complications. (author)

  13. Comparative imaging of differential pulmonary blood flow in patients with congenital heart disease: magnetic resonance imaging versus lung perfusion scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roman, Kevin S. [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Cardiology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Kellenberger, Christian J.; Farooq, Saqba; MacGowan, Christopher K.; Gilday, David L.; Yoo, Shi-Joon [Hospital for Sick Children, Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-03-01

    Lung perfusion scintigraphy is considered the gold standard to assess differential pulmonary blood flow while magnetic resonance (MR) has been shown to be an accurate alternative in some studies. The purpose of the study was to assess the accuracy of phase contrast magnetic resonance (PC-MR) in measuring pulmonary blood flow ratio compared with lung perfusion scintigraphy in patients with complex pulmonary artery anatomy or pulmonary hypertension and to document reasons for discrepant results. We identified 25 cases of congenital heart disease between January 2000 and 2003, in whom both techniques of assessing pulmonary blood flow were performed within a 6-month period without an interim surgical or transcatheter intervention. The study group included cases with branch pulmonary artery stenosis, intracardiac shunts, single ventricle circulation, pulmonary venous anomalies and conotruncal defects. The mean age at study was 5.7 years (range 0.33-12) with a mean weight of 20.3 kg (range 6.5-53.6). The two methods were compared using a Bland-Altman analysis, and the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated using the lung scan as the gold standard. Discrepant results were examined by reviewing the source images to elucidate reasons for error by MR. Bland-Altman analysis comparing right pulmonary artery (RPA) blood flow percentage, as measured by each modality, showed a mean difference of 1.43{+-}9.8 (95% limits of agreement: -17.8, 20.6) with a correlation coefficient of r=0.84, P<0.0001. In six (24%) cases a large difference (>10%) was found with a mean difference between techniques of 17.9%. The reasons for discrepant results included MR artifacts, dephasing owing to turbulent flow, site of data acquisition and lobar lung collapse. When using PC-MR to assess pulmonary blood flow ratio, important technical errors occur in a significant proportion of patients who have abnormal pulmonary artery anatomy or pulmonary hypertension. If these technical errors are

  14. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.

    1980-11-01

    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

  15. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  16. Distribution of lung blood on modified bilateral Glenn shunt evaluated by Tc-99m-MAA lung perfusion scintigraphy: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Biao; Luan, Zhao-Sheng; Wang, Tong-Jian; Ning, Yan-Song; Li, Na; Zhu, Meng; Liu, Zhong-Min; Ding, Guang-Hong; Qiao, Bin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of lung blood in a modified bilateral Glenn procedure designed in our institute with lung perfusion scintigraphy. Sixteen consecutive patients who underwent modified bilateral Glenn operation from 2011 to 2014 were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 7 patients who underwent bidirectional Glenn shunt. Radionuclide lung perfusion scintigraphy was performed using Tc-99m-macro aggregated albumin (MAA) in all patients. For the patients in modified bilateral Glenn group, the time at which the radioactivity accumulation peaked did not differ significantly between the right and left lung field (t = 0.608, P = 0.554). The incidence of perfusion abnormality in each lung lobe also did not differ significantly (P = 0.426 by Fisher exact test). The radioactive counts were higher in the right lung than in the left lung, but the difference was not statistically significant (t = 1.502, P = 0.157). Radioactive perfusion in the lower lung field was significantly greater than that in the upper field (t = 4.368, P lung to that in left lung was significantly lower in the modified bilateral Glenn group (t = 3.686, P = 0.002). Lung perfusion scintigraphy confirmed the benefit of the modified bilateral Glenn shunt with regard to more balanced blood perfusion in both lungs.

  17. Storing Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  18. The role of bone scintigraphy in Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; a case report; Interet de la scintigraphie osseuse dans l'histiocytose langerhansienne: a propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzouk, M.; Carrier, P.; Darcourt, J. [Centre TEP, Hopital de l' Archet-1, Service Universitaire de Medecine Nucleaire, 06 - Nice (France); Razzouk, M.; Carrier, P.; Darcourt, J. [Federation interhospitaliere, CHU, CAL universitaire de Nice, 06 - Nice (France); Deville, A. [Hopital de l' Archet, Service d' Hemato-Oncologie Pediatrique, 06 - Nice (France); Cadet, G. [Centre Hospitalier intercommunal de Grasse, Service de Pediatrie, 06 - Grasse (France)

    2008-09-15

    We present one case of bone-Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a three-year-old male child presenting osseous lesions in the skull and the femur, which are very frequent localizations in histiocytosis. Bone scintigraphy is useful for both initial staging and follow-up associated with other imaging modalities. (authors)

  19. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  20. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  1. Insufficiency of Bone Scintigraphy in Vertebral Lesions of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Compared to F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Diagnostic Computed Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Zehra Pınar; Şimşek, Selçuk; Akarsu, Saadet; Balcı, Tansel Ansal; Onur, Mehmet Ruhi; Kepenek, Ferat

    2015-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a benign disorder related to the histiocytes which can infiltrate bone tissue. The most effective method for demonstrating severity of this disease is PET/CT and bone scintigraphy might show bone lesions. We present a seventeen year old male patient with disseminated LCH presented with exophtalmos and having multiple vertebral lesions which were identified by F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and diagnostic CT but not in the bone scintigraphy. PMID:25800594

  2. Insufficiency of Bone Scintigraphy in Vertebral Lesions of Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis Compared to F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography and Diagnostic Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Pınar Koç

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH is a benign disorder related to the histiocytes which can infiltrate bone tissue. The most effective method for demonstrating severity of this disease is PET/CT and bone scintigraphy might show bone lesions. We present a seventeen year old male patient with disseminated LCH presented with exophtalmos and having multiple vertebral lesions which were identified by F-18 FDG PET/CT scan and diagnostic CT but not in the bone scintigraphy

  3. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is primari

  4. New method for measuring myocardial blood flow by high resolution scintigraphy in the excised dog heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C Y; Burow, R D; Scherlag, B J; Basmadjian, G P; Lazzara, R

    1986-10-01

    The standard method for measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) with radioactive microspheres requires processing of selected tissue samples usually from the excised heart, and consequent loss of exact relation to myocardial morphology. A computer-based image processing method was developed by using [99mTc]microspheres (mean particle size 20 microns) for quantitative analysis of MBF in 25 dogs. A computer-controlled gamma camera was used to obtain the images of radioactive microsphere distribution in transaxial slices of the ex vivo heart. Any portion of these slice images could be quantitated by using a computer program based on modification of the formula for determining MBF by the standard microsphere method. Regional myocardial perfusion calculated by this technique correlated well with values obtained with reference microspheres (r = 0.96) over a broad range of MBF. The results show that our new method, accurately and with high resolution, delineated zones of differing MBF and confirmed the increase of MBF in surviving myocardium with healing.

  5. Quantitative comparison of myocardial blood flow in normal and infarcted hearts by high resolution scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, C.Y.; Burow, R.D.; Scherlag, B.J.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Lazzara, R.

    1984-01-01

    The standard method for measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) with radioactive microspheres requires processing of selected tissue samples and consequent loss of exact relation to myocardial morphology. Also, in myocardial infarction (MI) there are inaccuracies due to overlap of tissues from borders of normal and MI. A new method uses Tc-99m labeled microspheres (20..mu..) which were injected into the left atrium in 18 normal dogs and 12 dogs with MI (5 had 1 day and 7 had 4 day old MI). The excised hearts were rinsed and frozen before ''bread-loaf'' sections, 3 mm thick, were cut. Images were acquired on a gamma camera with a volume resolution of 12 mm/sup 3/. A computer program for determining MBF was checked against the conventional microsphere method. The volume resolution of the latter method was 100 mm/sup 3/. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was r=0.96. Average MBF for a given section of normal RV and LV was 95 +- 13 and 119 +- 15 ml/min/100 g of tissue, respectively. Average MBF was compared in normal LV and from ischemic epicardium (IsZ) of the central MI and endocardial infarcted zone (IZ). The authors' new method, accurately and with high resolution, delineates zones of differing MBF and confirms the increase of MBF in surviving myocardium with healing.

  6. New method for measuring myocardial blood flow by high resolution scintigraphy in the excised dog heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, C.Y.; Burow, R.D.; Scherlag, B.J.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Lazzara, R.

    1986-10-01

    The standard method for measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) with radioactive microspheres requires processing of selected tissue samples usually from the excised heart, and consequent loss of exact relation to myocardial morphology. A computer-based image processing method was developed by using (99mTc)microspheres (mean particle size 20 microns) for quantitative analysis of MBF in 25 dogs. A computer-controlled gamma camera was used to obtain the images of radioactive microsphere distribution in transaxial slices of the ex vivo heart. Any portion of these slice images could be quantitated by using a computer program based on modification of the formula for determining MBF by the standard microsphere method. Regional myocardial perfusion calculated by this technique correlated well with values obtained with reference microspheres (r = 0.96) over a broad range of MBF. The results show that our new method, accurately and with high resolution, delineated zones of differing MBF and confirmed the increase of MBF in surviving myocardium with healing.

  7. Scintigraphy of spinal disorders in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, G.A. (Dept. of Medical Imaging, Alfred I. duPont Inst., Wilmington, DE (United States)); Harcke, H.T. (Dept. of Medical Imaging, Alfred I. duPont Inst., Wilmington, DE (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Bone scintigraphy in adolescents is useful in helping to differentiate between developmental (atypical lumbar Scheuermann disease), infectious (discitis, osteomyelitis), neoplastic (osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma), and traumatic (occult fractures, spondylolysis, pseudoarthrosis) disease of the spine. Double-phase (blood pool, delayed images) scintigraphy can characterize the pattern (i.e., linear in fracture, ovoid in nidus of osteoid osteoma). Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be helpful in detecting the subtle presence of stress reaction (spondylolyses) not noted on routine planar scintigraphy and radiography. Bone scintigraphy is most beneficial when correlated with other imaging modalities in refining the diagnosis of spinal diseases. (orig.)

  8. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  9. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC ... I should know? How is it used? Red blood cell (RBC) antibody identification is used as a follow- ...

  10. Importance of Heparin Provocation and SPECT/CT in Detecting Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding on 99mTc-RBC Scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We presented a pediatric case with a history of intermittent melena for 3 years because of angiodyplasia of small intestine. The results of frequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and colonoscopies as well as both 99mTc-red blood cell (RBC) and Meckel's scintigraphies for several times were negative in detection of bleeding site. However, 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) after heparin augmentation detected a s...

  11. Parathyroid scintigraphy during hypocalcaemia in primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgard, Christina G; Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Jakobsen, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) demands high imaging accuracy. By increasing blood flow to the parathyroid adenoma before injection of a perfusion marker, we intended to improve the parathyroid scintigraphy. We have named the technique...

  12. Liver scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

  13. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  14. Rare red blood cell abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give insight in the process of diagnosing rare red blood cell defects, to clarify the relation of a defect with cell function and to extend, in this respect, our knowledge about normal red cell function and biochemistry. It is possible to categorize different red cell ab

  15. Importance of gallium-67 scintigraphy in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: report of two cases;Importancia da cintilografia com galio-67 no linfoma cutaneo primario de celulas B: relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attab, Cyomara Sanches, E-mail: rubinha.attab@terra.com.b [Centro Brasileiro de Medicina Nuclear (CEBRAMEN), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Moriguchi, Sonia Marta [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer; Paton, Eduardo Jose Alencar [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Cancer Hospital. Div. of Hemotherapy and Bone-Marrow Transplant; Alencar, Mario Henrique Leite de [Clinica de Prevencao em Cancer, Goiania, GO, (Brazil); Rocha, Euclides Timoteo da [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Cancer Hospital. Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2010-05-15

    The authors describe two cases of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma where correct staging, treatment and follow-up could be achieved through a combination of conventional imaging studies and gallium-67 scintigraphy. (author)

  16. Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...

  17. Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy manifested with isolated calcaneal periostitis in bone scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralidis, Efstratios; Gerasimou, Georgios; Theodoridou, Athina; Hilidis, Ilias; Mylonaki, Efrosyni; Gotzamani-Psarrakou, Anna

    2010-05-01

    Hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HOA) is an incompletely understood syndrome characterized by digital clubbing and periosteal proliferation of long bones and it is commonly associated with primary lung tumors. Bone scintigraphy is a sensitive method in detecting HOA and characteristic findings have been reported. We present the case of a man with newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer, unremarkable clinical examination and blood tests and no digital clubbing. During disease staging, however, bone scintigraphy showed intense calcaneal cortical proliferation bilaterally without involvement of other parts of the skeleton. Cortical reaction of both calcanei resolved significantly after chemotherapy. This case indicates that HOA may manifest with isolated calcaneal periostitis bilaterally, which is a new addition to the literature.

  18. Diagnostic usefulness of thrombus imaging scintigraphy for blood coagulopathy in the patients with aortic aneurysm. The comparison of /sup 111/In-oxine labelled platelet and sup(99m)Tc-fibrinogen scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakakibara, Yuzuru; Takeda, Toru; Ijima, Hiroshi; Nose, Tadao; Ishikawa, Nobuyoshi; Hori, Motokazu

    1984-07-01

    Eighteen patients with aortic aneurysm were studied to identify intraluminal thrombi using /sup 111/In-oxine labelled platelet and /sup 99m/Tc-fibrinogen scintigraphy. Reliability in the detection of thrombi with /sup 111/In-oxine labelled platelet scintigraphy was higher than that with /sup 99m/Tc-fibrinogen scintigraphy (94.1% vs 76.9%, respectively). Measurement of mean platelet survival time with /sup 111/In-oxine labelled autologous platelets were carried out in eight patients. Seven of them showed focal accumulation of the labelled platelets at the site of aortic aneurysm and mean platelet survival time (6.64 + 1.46 days) was shorter than normal. In the case of abdominal aneurysm, thrombocytopenia was present, his mean platelet survival time was 4.01 days and RI was accumulated at the site of aneurysm. His hematological pathophysiology could be explained as consumption coagulopathy in the abdominal aneurysm. Using scanning electron-microscopy, we found entrapped platelets with fine fibrin network were found indicating platelet consumption at the site of intraluminal thrombi. It was concluded that these imaging techniques using radioisotopes were very useful not only for detecting intraluminal thrombi but for diagnosing consumption coagulopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation even where there is no clinical manifestation.

  19. Scrotal scintigraphy; Hodenperfusionsszintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruss, A. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik; Scheubeck, M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Timm, P. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Hofmockel, G. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Reiners, C. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Frohmueller, H.G.W. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik

    1996-12-01

    Scrotal scintigraphy has two indications in urology; first to prove the vitality of the injured testis after scrotal trauma, second to differentiate the diagnosis of the acute scrotum. The term `acute scrotum` stands for a clinical emergency which needs to be clarified and treated immediately. The most common reason for the acute scrotum is either acute testicular torsion or acute epididymitis. The therapy of both differs totally. Acute testicular torsion requires open surgery within four to six hours in order to prevent loss of the organ, epididymitis will be treated conservatively. It is very difficult to differentiate the diagnosis by the clinical status. In the literature the rate of failure amounts up to 30% because of an unnecessary surgical intervention for the epididymitis or because of a loss of the testicle after a nondiagnosed testicular torsion. Therefore, the use of an additional procedure seems to be necessary to enable a correct assessment of testicular blood supply. Scrotal scintigraphy represents a valuable diagnostic procedure which allows to reduce the rate of clinical failure with an acceptable time expense and a good chance of reproducibility. The sensitivity and specifity of scrotal scintigraphy is 90-96% and 93-100% respectively. Compared to duplex sonography scrotal scintigraphy derives a great advantage form the independance of the investigator and from the painless procedure for the patient. Scrotal scintigraphy is not needed in the clinical definite acute testicular torsion, but it is indicated in each unclear situation especially when a differential diagnosis is not available by palpation. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Fuer die Hodenperfusionsszintigraphie finden sich in der klinischen Urologie zwei Einsatzbereiche: Zum einen ermoeglicht die Hodenperfusionsszintigraphie eine Vitalitaetspruefung des Hodens nach einem Skrotaltrauma und bietet in Kombination mit der Sonographie eine wesentliche Entscheidungshilfe zur operativen oder konservativen

  20. Establishment of an experimental human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1BM with high bone metastases potency by {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Shunfang [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)], E-mail: yzyg@sh163.net; Dong Qianggang [Laboratory of Mol-diagnosis, Shanghai Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yao Ming [Laboratory of Pathology, Shanghai Cancer Institute of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Shi Meiping [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Ye Jianding [Department of Radiology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Zhao Langxiang [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Su Jianzhong; Gu Weiyong [Shanghai Thoracic Tumor Institute, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Xie Wenhui [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shanghai Chest Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Wang Kankan; Du Yanzhi [State Key Laboratory of Medical Genomics, Ruijin Hospital of Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200025 (China); Li Yao [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yan [State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Institute of Genetics, School of Life Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: huangyan@fudan.edu.cn

    2009-04-15

    Background: Bone metastasis is one of the most common clinical phenomena of late stage lung cancer. A major impediment to understanding the pathogenesis of bone metastasis has been the lack of an appropriate animal and cell model. This study aims to establish human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with highly bone metastases potency with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Methods: The human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells SPC-A-1 were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of NIH-Beige-Nude-XID (NIH-BNX) immunodeficient mice. The metastatic lesions of tumor-bearing mice were imaged with {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy on a Siemens multi-single photon emission computed tomography. Pinhole images were acquired on a GZ-B conventional gamma camera with a self-designed pinhole collimator. The mice with bone metastasis were sacrificed under deep anesthesia, and the lesions were resected. Bone metastatic cancer cells in the resected lesions were subjected for culture and then reinoculated into the NIH-BNX mice through left cardiac ventricle. The process was repeated for eight cycles to obtain a novel cell subline SPC-A-1BM. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the gene expression differences in the parental and SPC-A-1BM cells. Results: The bone metastasis sites were successfully revealed by bone scintigraphy. The established bone metastasis cell line SPC-A-1BM had a high potential to metastasize in bone, including mandible, humerus, thoracic vertebra, lumbar, femur, patella, ilium and cartilage rib. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor gene family, Bcl-2 and cell adhesion-related genes ECM1, ESM1, AF1Q, SERPINE2 and FN1 were examined. Gene expression difference was found between parental and bone-seeking metastasis cell SPC-A-1BM, which indicates SPC-A-1BM has metastatic capacity vs. its parental cells. Conclusion: SPC-A-1BM is a bone-seeking metastasis human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Bone scintigraphy may be used as

  1. Findings of Bone Scintigraphy After Leech Theraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Özyurt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, we present a 70 year old female patient who had recieved Leech therapy (hirudotherapy on her leg without informing referring physician. In dynamic bone scintigraphy there was increased perfusion and hyperemia in her left ankle and leg, also in late static images moderate increased uptake was seen in soft tissue region and at the fracture site of ankle. We learned that she had Leech therapy applied on her leg, which could explain the increased perfusion and hyperemia in dynamic and blood pool phases of bone scintigraphy because of Leech therapy’s dilatory effects on superficial veins. Leech therapy may lead to an increase in perfusion and hyperemia in blood pool phase of bone scintigraphy, which may cause confusion in differential diagnosis. To our best knowledge this report is the first case that shows the scintigraphic findigs after Leech therapy.

  2. White blood cell counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  3. Transient transmural reduction of myocardial blood flow, demonstrated by thallium-201 scintigraphy, as a cause of variant angina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maseri, A.; Parodi, O.; Severi, S.; Pesola, A.

    1976-08-01

    In previous studies we demonstrated that variant angina could not be attributed to increased myocardial demands. In order to investigate whether a reduction of regional myocardial blood supply could be responsible for these ischemic episodes, we studied regional myocardial perfusion in six patients admitted to our coronary care unit. Myocardial scintigrams, obtained 5-7 min following i.v. injection of 1 mCi of thallium-201, performed during an episode of ST-segment elevation, showed transmural deficits of tracer uptake in the heart wall corresponding to the leads showing ST-segment elevation. These regional deficits had disappeared by 2 hours because of late uptake in previously ischemic myocardium. One week later, following injections performed in the absence of acute ischemia, no deficit was apparent. Tracer uptake in ischemic areas was 60 percent to 85 percent of that observed a week later. After adjusting for thallium-201 kinetics and counting geometry problems, these scintigrams actually represent large underestimations of actual flow reduction. Thus variant angina appears to be caused by massive transmural reduction of myocardial blood supply.

  4. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use ... high blood pressure, or seizures Continue Reading How Low is too Low? When your blood is tested, ...

  5. A role for gamma scintigraphy in cancer immunology and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, A C; Pimm, M V

    1992-01-01

    Facilities for radiolabelling and gamma scintigraphy are largely restricted to nuclear medicine departments or specialised research institutions and are therefore not widely available to workers in cancer research. Despite this, there is growing interest in gamma scintigraphy, which can provide information relevant to the entire field of cancer immunology. This review discusses the present and future roles of gamma scintigraphy in respect of antibody-targeted, cell-mediated and cytokine therapy. The authors aim to show that gamma scintigraphy is an investigative tool of great potential.

  6. Clinical roles in indium-111 octreotide scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hain, S.F.; Roach, P.J [Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine

    1997-12-01

    Full text: Octreotide is being increasingly used in the assessment of various tumour types, particularly those of neuroendocrine origin. It has even been proposed that octreotide scintigraphy should be used as the first localisation technique in such tumours. We present three cases which show different clinical roles for 111 In- octreotide scintigraphy in both evaluating the extent of disease and assessing likely response to somatostatin therapy. In the first case, a 55-year-old male presented with flushing, diarrhoea, weight loss and elevated urinary 5-HIM levels. Clinical examination showed left supraclavicular Iymphadenopathy and CT revealed only paraaortic Iymphadenopathy. In comparison, octreotide scintigraphy revealed much more extensive disease than noted on CT in both the abdomen and chest. Lesions were histologically confirmed as carcinoid tumour. In the second case, a 52-year-old male underwent scintigraphy for staging of small cell lung carcinoma. Similarly, more extensive disease was noted on octreotide scintigraphy than on CT scanning. In the third case, a 1 6-year-old female underwent debulking surgery for a growth hormone and prolactin producing pituitary tumour. The presence of somatostatin receptors was demonstrated by octreotide scintigraphy. This was performed to determine the potential response to somatostatin therapy which has been reported to reduce tumour size in these patients. These cases show a clinical role for {sup 111}In octreotide scintigraphy in the evaluation of disease extent in neuroendocrine tumours as well as some other tumour sub-types. In the first two cases described, scintigraphy revealed more extensive disease than CT scanning. Indium-111 octreotide can also be used to predict the response of such patients to somatostatin therapy

  7. Usefulness of {sup 99m}Tc-depreotide scintigraphy for the diagnosis of bone metastases in non-small cell lung cancer stage 3-4; Apport de la scintigraphie au {sup 99m}Tc-depreotide pour le diagnostic de lesions osseuses secondaires dans le cancer bronchopulmonaire non a petites cellules stade 3-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costo, S.; Dunet, V.; Agostini, D.; Bouvard, G. [CHU Cote de Nacre, Service de Medecine Nucleaire et Isotopes, 14 - Caen (France); Halley, A. [Centre Havrais d' Imagerie Nucleaire, 76 - Montivilliers (France); Bergot, E.; Porret, E.; Zalcman, G. [CHU Cote de Nacre, Service de Pneumologie, 14 - Caen (France)

    2009-02-15

    Objective In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), metastatic bone involvement is usually assessed using conventional {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP bone scintigraphy, which has a high sensitivity but a poor specificity. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of the {sup 99m}Tc-D scintigraphy for the detection of malignant bone metastases in patients with NSCLC stage III or IV and to compare these results with {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP bone scan findings. Methods Nineteen patients (13 M and 6 F, mean age 59 years) with proven NSCLC, suspected to have stage III or IV were enrolled prospectively. All patients underwent whole body {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP and {sup 99m}Tc-D scintigraphy to detect bone metastases within a mean interval of 14 days. Each focal uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-D or {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP was considered benign or malignant, leading to positive or negative diagnosis for bone involvement. The final diagnosis of bone metastases was established by a lung specialist, on the basis of additional imaging modalities and of 12 months follow-up. Results Twelve bone lesions were identified by {sup 99m}Tc-D scintigraphy, 10 were classified as bone metastases and two were classified as inflammatory bone lesions. Four patients were metastatic. Fifty eight bone lesions were detected by {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP scintigraphy, 26 of whom were considered malignant, eight patients were thus considered metastatic. Thereby, the two nuclear medicine modalities were concordant for 13 patients, that is 68% of cases and were discordant for six patients, representing 32% of cases. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of depreotide scintigraphy and {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP bone scintigraphy were 75% for both, 93.3 and 73.3%, and 89.5 and 73.3% respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that depreotide scintigraphy with the same sensitivity, a better accuracy and specificity than those of {sup 99m}Tc-HMDP bone scan can detect metastatic bone lesions in patients with NSCLC suspected to have stage III or IV

  8. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  9. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants On This Page What are bone marrow ... Considering becoming a bone marrow or a blood stem cell donor? View this video on YouTube. Follow a ...

  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  11. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  12. New strategy in diagnostic, preventive and following way in osteonecrosis of sickle-cell disease in Cote d'Ivoire with bone scintigraphy; Nouvelle strategie dans le diagnostic, la prevention et le suivi de l'osteonecrose drepanocytaire en Cote d'Ivoire a partir de la scintigraphie osseuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouame-Koutouan, A.; Aboukoua-Kouassi, N.; Koffi, D.; Sery, J.M. [Cocody Univ., UFR sciences Medicales (SMA), Service de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Abidjan (Cote d' Ivoire); Meite, M.; Sanogo, I. [Clinique du CHU de Yopougon, Service d' Hematologie (Cote d' Ivoire)

    2009-10-15

    Osteonecrosis is the most frequent complications of sickle-cell disease (S.C.D.) whose prevalence in Cote d'Ivoire is 21%. The main of this study was to compare scintigraphy, clinical and radiological observations to assess earlier diagnosis in S.C.D. osteonecrosis. It was a prospective study about 45 S.C.D. patients who presented coxopathy and had radio-labelled di phosphonates bone scintigraphy. The results revealed 49% of lesions whose 48% appeared with homogeneous hyper fixation, 11% homogeneous hypo fixation, 5% of hypo fixation got round by hyper fixation. Eighty-one percent of lesions concerned femoral head, 6% femoral condyle and 3% humoral head. Fifty percent of osteonecrosis was not visible in radiology and corresponded to the earlier stage. These invisible radiology aspects were observed in 100% hips without lameness, and in 43% permanent lameness. Scintigraphy (sensitive in 100%) isolated 38% more than conventional radiography. In main to improve S.C.D. osteonecrosis prognostic in Cote d'Ivoire, this preliminary study outline that scintigraphy is fundamental in management. (authors)

  13. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  14. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  15. Correlation between left ventricular diastolic function before and after valve replacement surgery and myocardial ultrastructural changes in patients with left ventricular volume-overloaded valvular heart diseases; Evaluation with gated blood pool scintigraphy using [sup 99m]Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Tomiro (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-06-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic functions in 23 patients with aortic regurgitation (AR) and 22 patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) were evaluated by gated blood pool scintigraphy. LV myocardial biopsy was performed during open heart surgery, and LV myocardial ultrastructural changes were evaluated by electron microscope. Correlation between LV diastolic function and myocardial ultrastructural changes was examined. It was suggested that preoperative LV diastolic dysfunction occurred earlier than LV systolic dysfunction in patients with AR and MR. LV early diastolic dysfunction was especially significant in patients with AR. LV systolic function was significantly improved postoperatively compared with LV diastolic function in patients with AR and MR. It was suggested that LV interstitial fibrosis caused LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with AR and MR, and insufficiency of myocardial thickening as compensation in patients with MR. It was presumed that LV diastolic dysfunction was irreversible in patients with AR and MR in the distant postoperative period due to persistence of the preoperative myocardial ultrastructural change, e.g., interstitial fibrosis. These LV diastolic indices measured by gated pool scintigraphy were useful in predicting LV ultrastructural changes and postoperative LV dysfunction in patients with LV volume-overloaded valvular heart disease. (author).

  16. Squeezing red blood cells on an optical waveguide to monitor cell deformability during blood storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh; McCourt, Peter; Oteiza, Ana; Wilkinson, James S; Huser, Thomas R; Hellesø, Olav Gaute

    2015-01-07

    Red blood cells squeeze through micro-capillaries as part of blood circulation in the body. The deformability of red blood cells is thus critical for blood circulation. In this work, we report a method to optically squeeze red blood cells using the evanescent field present on top of a planar waveguide chip. The optical forces from a narrow waveguide are used to squeeze red blood cells to a size comparable to the waveguide width. Optical forces and pressure distributions on the cells are numerically computed to explain the squeezing process. The proposed technique is used to quantify the loss of blood deformability that occurs during blood storage lesion. Squeezing red blood cells using waveguides is a sensitive technique and works simultaneously on several cells, making the method suitable for monitoring stored blood.

  17. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed.

  18. Cord blood stem cell banking and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhot, P S; Nair, V; Swarup, D; Sirohi, D; Ganguli, P

    2003-12-01

    Stem cells have the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells. Cord blood as a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has several advantages as it is easily available, involves non-invasive collection procedure and is better tolerated across the HLA barrier. Since the first cord blood transplant in 1988, over 2500 cord blood HSC transplants have been done world wide. Since then, the advantages of cord blood as a source of hematopietic stem cells for transplantation have become clear. Firstly, the proliferative capacity of HSC in cord blood is superior to that of cells in bone marrow or blood from adults. A 100 ml unit of cord blood contains 1/10th the number of nucleated cells and progenitor cells (CD34+ cells) present in 1000 ml of bone marrow, but because they proliferate rapidly, the stem cell in a single unit of cord blood can reconstitute the entire haematopoietic system. Secondly, the use of cord blood reduces the risk of graft vs host disease. Cord Blood Stem Cell banks have been established in Europe and United States to supply HSC for related and unrelated donors. Currently, more than 65,000 units are available and more than 2500 patients have received transplants of cord blood. Results in children have clearly shown that the number of nucleated cells in the infused cord blood influences the speed of recovery of neutrophils and platelets after myeloablative chemotherapy. The optimal dose is about 2 x 10(7) nucleated cells/kg of body weight. The present study was carried out for collection, separation, enumeration and cryopreservation of cord blood HSC and establishing a Cord Blood HSC Bank. 172 samples of cord blood HSC were collected after delivery of infant prior to expulsion of placenta. The average cord blood volume collected was 101.20 ml. Mononuclear cell count ranged from 7.36 to 25.6 x 10(7)/ml. Viability count of mononuclear cells was 98.1%. After 1 year of cryopreservation, the viability count on

  19. Testicular scintigraphy; Hodenszintigrafie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiling, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    In the clinical situation of an acute scrotum, differentiation between different reasons for scrotal pain may be crucial in certain cases. Beside clinical examination and laboratory tests, Color Doppler sonography is routinely applied. Testicular scintigraphy can only be suggested as a complementary tool if it is available as an emergency procedure. Acute testicular torsion that has already been reliably diagnosed by clinical examination is not an indication for testicular perfusion scintigraphy. This diagnostic procedure is, however, valuable if the clinical findings are equivocal and, especially, if a conservative treatment is planned. The method of and the results obtained with testicular scintigraphy in the differential diagnosis of acute scrotal pain are briefly described in this article. (orig.)

  20. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  1. Isolation of rare cancer cells from blood cells using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Sano, Michael B; Shafiee, Hadi; Stremler, Mark A; Davalos, Rafael V

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the application of contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) for isolating cancer cells from blood cells. Devices with throughput of 0.2 mL/hr (equivalent to sorting 3×10(6) cells per minute) were used to trap breast cancer cells while allowing blood cells through. We have shown that this technique is able to isolate cancer cells in concentration as low as 1 cancer cell per 10(6) hematologic cells (equivalent to 1000 cancer cells in 1 mL of blood). We achieved 96% trapping of the cancer cells at 600 kHz and 300 V(RMS).

  2. Importance of Heparin Provocation and SPECT/CT in Detecting Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding on 99mTc-RBC Scintigraphy: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Gheisari, Farshid; Ghaedian, Tahereh

    2015-08-01

    We presented a pediatric case with a history of intermittent melena for 3 years because of angiodyplasia of small intestine. The results of frequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and colonoscopies as well as both Tc-red blood cell (RBC) and Meckel's scintigraphies for several times were negative in detection of bleeding site. However, Tc-RBC scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) after heparin augmentation detected a site of bleeding in the distal ileum which later was confirmed during surgery with final diagnosis of angiodysplasia.It could be stated that heparin provocation of bleeding before Tc-RBC scintigraphy accompanied by fused SPECT/CT images should be kept in mind for management of intestinal bleeding especially in difficult cases.

  3. Human spleen and red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George; Buffet, Pierre; Dao, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Spleen plays multiple roles in the human body. Among them is removal of old and altered red blood cells (RBCs), which is done by filtering cells through the endothelial slits, small micron-sized openings. There is currently no experimental technique available that allows us to observe RBC passage through the slits. It was previously noticed that people without a spleen have less deformable red blood cells, indicating that the spleen may play a role in defining the size and shape of red blood cells. We used detailed RBC model implemented within the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation framework to study the filter function of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that spleen indeed plays major role in defining the size and shape of the healthy human red blood cells.

  4. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  5. /sup 131/I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy of neuroblastomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munkner, T.

    1985-04-01

    Sixteen neuroblastoma patients have been studied by /sup 131/I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Three patients were possibly cured, and their scintigraphy results were normal. Thirteen patients had tumors and metastases demonstrated by /sup 131/I-MIBG, two of these patients had a normal vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) excretion level. One patient has been treated by /sup 131/I-MIBG, but died. /sup 131/I-MIBG was concentrated in other cells too, eg, in erythrocytes and platelets.

  6. IBCIS:Intelligent blood cell identification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adnan Khashman

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of blood cells in microscope images can provide useful information concerning the health of patients.There are three major blood cell types,namely,erythrocytes (red),leukocytes (white),and platelets.Manual classification is time consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells.This paper presents an intelligent system that simulates a human visual inspection and classification of the three blood cell types.The proposed system comprises two phases:The image preprocessing phase where blood cell features are extracted via global pattern averaging,and the neural network arbitration phase where training is the first and then classification is carried out.Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well in identifying blood cell types regardless of their irregular shapes,sizes and orientation,thus providing a fast,simple and efficient rotational and scale invariant blood cell identification system which can be used in automating laboratory reporting.

  7. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  8. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.

    1980-08-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.

  9. Separation of blood cells using hydrodynamic lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geislinger, T. M.; Eggart, B.; Braunmüller, S.; Schmid, L.; Franke, T.

    2012-04-01

    Using size and deformability as intrinsic biomarkers, we separate red blood cells (RBCs) from other blood components based on a repulsive hydrodynamic cell-wall-interaction. We exploit this purely viscous lift effect at low Reynolds numbers to induce a lateral migration of soft objects perpendicular to the streamlines of the fluid, which closely follows theoretical prediction by Olla [J. Phys. II 7, 1533, (1997)]. We study the effects of flow rate and fluid viscosity on the separation efficiency and demonstrate the separation of RBCs, blood platelets, and solid microspheres from each other. The method can be used for continuous and label-free cell classification and sorting in on-chip blood analysis.

  10. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    CERN Document Server

    Caprio, Di; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume and hemoglobin concentration for individual red blood cells in high-throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.5%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with hemoglobin concentr...

  11. The origin of blood stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Boisset

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe development of cell biology research coincides with the advance of microscopes in the 19th century. It was finally possible to directly observe the various blood cell types and to witness their proliferation and differentiation (Mazzarello, 1999). On the basis of his observations, th

  12. 21 CFR 864.9245 - Automated blood cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell separator. 864.9245 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9245 Automated blood cell separator. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell separator is a device that uses a centrifugal or filtration separation principle...

  13. 21 CFR 864.8200 - Blood cell diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood cell diluent. 864.8200 Section 864.8200 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8200 Blood cell diluent. (a) Identification. A blood cell diluent is a device used to dilute blood for further testing, such as blood...

  14. Deterministic Aperiodic Sickle Cell Blood Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsaves, Louis; Harris, Wesley

    2013-11-01

    In this paper sickle cell blood flow in the capillaries is modeled as a hydrodynamical system. The hydrodynamical system consists of the axisymmetric unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a set of constitutive equations for oxygen transport. Blood cell deformation is not considered in this paper. The hydrodynamical system is reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations that are then transformed into a system of three autonomous non-linear ordinary differential equations and a set of algebraic equations. We examine the hydrodynamical system to discern stable/unstable, periodic/nonperiodic, reversible/irreversible properties of the system. The properties of the solutions are driven in large part by the coefficients of the governing system of equations. These coefficients depend on the physiological properties of the sickle cell blood. The chaotic nature of the onset of crisis in sickle cell patients is identified. Research Assistant.

  15. Detectability of metastatic bone tumor by Ga-67 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Guio; Araki, Tsutomu; Hihara, Toshihiko; Ogata, Hitoshi; Monzawa, Shuichi; Kachi, Kenji; Matsusako, Masaki

    1989-03-01

    Ga-67 scintigrams in patients with malignant diseases sometimes reveal uptake of the tracer in the bone metastases. Detectability of Ga-67 scintigraphy for metastatic bone tumors and benign bone lesions was compared with that of Tc-99m bone scintigraphy. Countable bone metastases detected by bone scintigraphy were evaluated whether the lesion showed apparent, faint, or negative Ga-67 uptake. Of 47 lesions 23 (49%) showed apparent uptake and 17 (36%) showed negative uptake, only 7 (10%) mostly fracture/osteotomy, showed apparent uptake of the tracer. Uptake in the other benign lesions such as trauma of the ribs, spondylosis deformans, and arthrosis deformans was rather faint. In patients with multiple bone metastases, 9 patients (82%) out of 11 showed more prominent abnormal findings in Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy than in Ga-67 scintigraphy; that is, Ga-67 scintigraphy was not able to reveal all metastatic bone lesions. In patients with untreated or recurrent tumors, relation between Ga-67 uptake in the tumors and that in the bone metastases was evaluated. Of 7 patients with negative Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases; that is, there seemed to be little relation between Ga-67 affinity to the primary tumors and that to the bone metastases. Mechanisms of the Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases were discussed. Not only the tumor cells or tissues in the bone metastases but also bone mineral or osteoclasts might be the deposition sites of Ga-67.

  16. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Zitter, F. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Wuertz, F. [Dept. of Pathology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A. [Lysosomal Storage Disorder Unit, Dept. of Academic Haematology, Royal Free and Univ. Coll. Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease.

  17. White blood cell deformation and firm adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmary, Alex; Eggleton, Charles

    2011-11-01

    For a white blood cell (WBC) to arrive at infection sites, it forms chemical attachments with activated endothelial cells. First, it bonds with P-selectin, which holds it to the wall, but weakly; this allows the WBC to roll under the shear flow of the blood around it. Later, the WBCs bond with the stronger intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1); it is these ICAM bonds that allow the WBCs to fully resist the flow and stop rolling, allowing them to crawl through the endothelial wall. We model this numerically. Our model uses the immersed boundary method to represent the interaction of the shear flow with the deformable cell membrane. Receptors are on the tips of microvilli-little fingers sticking off of the cell membrane. The microvilli also deform. The receptors stochastically form and break bonds with molecules on the wall. Using this method, the history of each microvillus and its bonds can be found, as well as the distribution of the adhesion traction forces and how all of these vary with the deformability of the white blood cell. At higher shear rates, the white blood cell membrane deforms more, increasing its contact area with the surface; this effect is larger for softer membranes. We investigate how the deformability of the WBC affects the ease with which it forms firm adhesion.

  18. Red blood cells in retinal vascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Sherwood, Joseph; Chhablani, Jay; Ricchariya, Ashutosh; Kim, Sangho; Jones, Philip H; Balabani, Stavroula; Shima, David

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular circulation plays a vital role in regulating physiological functions, such as vascular resistance, and maintaining organ health. Pathologies such as hypertension, diabetes, or hematologic diseases affect the microcirculation posing a significant risk to human health. The retinal vasculature provides a unique window for non-invasive visualisation of the human circulation in vivo and retinal vascular image analysis has been established to predict the development of both clinical and subclinical cardiovascular, metabolic, renal and retinal disease in epidemiologic studies. Blood viscosity which was otherwise thought to play a negligible role in determining blood flow based on Poiseuille's law up to the 1970s has now been shown to play an equally if not a more important role in controlling microcirculation and quantifying blood flow. Understanding the hemodynamics/rheology of the microcirculation and its changes in diseased states remains a challenging task; this is due to the particulate nature of blood, the mechanical properties of the cells (such as deformability and aggregability) and the complex architecture of the microvasculature. In our review, we have tried to postulate a possible role of red blood cell (RBC) biomechanical properties and laid down future framework for research related to hemorrheological aspects of blood in patients with retinal vascular disorders.

  19. Clinical efficacy of efonidipine hydrochloride, a T-type calcium channel inhibitor, on sympathetic activities. Examination using spectral analysis of heart rate/blood pressure variabilities and {sup 123}I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Kenji; Nomura, Masahiro; Nishikado, Akiyoshi; Uehara, Kouzoh; Nakaya, Yutaka; Ito, Susumu [Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    Dihydropyridine Ca antagonists cause reflex tachycardia related to their hypotensive effects. Efonidipine hydrochloride has inhibitory effects on T-type Ca channels, even as it inhibits reflex tachycardia. In the present study, the influence of efonidipine hydrochloride on heart rate and autonomic nervous function was investigated. Using an electrocardiogram and a tonometric blood pressure measurement, autonomic nervous activity was evaluated using spectral analysis of heart rate/systolic blood pressure variability. Three protocols were used: a single dose of efonidipine hydrochloride was administered orally to healthy subjects with resting heart rate values of 75 beats/min or more (high-heart rate (HR) group) and to healthy subjects with resting heart rate values less than 75 beats/min (low-HR group); efonidipine hydrochloride was newly administered to untreated patients with essential hypertension, and autonomic nervous activity was investigated after a 4-week treatment period; and patients with high heart rate values ({>=}75 beats/min) who had been treated with a dihydropyridine L-type Ca channel inhibitor for 1 month or more were switched to efonidipine hydrochloride and any changes in autonomic nervous activity were investigated. In all protocols, administration of efonidipine hydrochloride decreased the heart rate in patients with a high heart rate, reduced sympathetic nervous activity, and enhanced parasympathetic nervous activity. In addition, myocardial scintigraphy with {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine showed significant improvement in the washout rate and heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio of patients who were switched from other dihydropyridine Ca antagonists to efonidipine hydrochloride. Efonidipine hydrochloride inhibits increases in heart rate and has effects on the autonomic nervous system. It may be useful for treating hypertension and angina pectoris, and may also have a cardiac protective function. (author)

  20. Scintigraphy usefulness in the diagnosis of visceral candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ythier, H.; Legghe, R.; Foucher, C.

    1987-01-01

    From the features of two cases, the authors stress the usefulness of the scintigraphy as regards to the diagnosis of visceral candidial abscesses. Such fungal localisations are not unfrequent, especially in immunodeficient patients (haematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy, lupus, serious visceral illness...). The positive diagnosis is uneasy because of non-specific clinical features and frequent negative blood cultures. Splenic localisation is the most likely. Citrate Gallium scintigraphy together with splenic labelled RBC scan enables us to give a precise view of the splenic involvment and even of the abdominal extension of the fungal abscess. From the literature review and these two cases, the excellent adequacy of the scintigraphy to the follow-up of systemic candidiasis is underlined and is compared to other usual morphological studies such as US scan and CT examination. In both cases, the diagnosis is fully confirmed by mycological examination.

  1. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  2. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully automated or semi-automated device used to make appropriate dilutions of a blood...

  3. Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

  4. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen Preben D; Heerkens Tammy; Koch Thomas G; Betts Dean H

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is lo...

  5. RI scintigraphy in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Yoshikazu; Miyamoto, Mariko (Tokyo Metropolitan Fuchu Hospital (Japan)); Maki, Masako; Yamazaki, Toshiro

    1982-10-01

    35 cases of myasthenia gravis were studied with RI scintigraphy. /sup 67/Ga-citrate was used in 34 patients and /sup 76/Se-selenomethionine in 5 patients for thymus scintigraphy. RI scintigram was negative in non-tumorous thymus, regardless of the severity of illness and it was positive in seven of nine patients with thymomas. RI accumulation in thymus was found both in benign and malignant thymomas. RI seems to accumulated in lymphocytic and mixed thymus more than epithelial type.

  6. [Production of mature red blood cell by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan-Jun; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Ke-Ying; Shang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wei; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Na; Wang, Lin; Cui, Shuang; Ni, Lei; Zhao, Bo-Tao; Wang, Dong-Mei; Gao, Song-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Xin

    2014-10-01

    Most protocols for in vitro producing red blood cells (RBC) use the CD34(+) cells or embryonic stem cells from cord blood, bone marrow or peripheral blood as the start materials. This study was purposed to produce the mature RBC in vitro by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells as start material. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were isolated from buffy coat after blood leukapheresis, the mature red blood cells (RBC) were prepared by a 4-step culture protocol. The results showed that after culture by inducing with the different sets of cytokines and supporting by mouse MS-5 cell line, the expansion of PBMNC reached about 1000 folds at the end of the culture. About 90% of cultured RBC were enucleated mature cells which had the comparable morphological characteristics with normal RBC. Colony-forming assays showed that this culture system could stimulate the proliferation of progenitors in PBMNC and differentiate into erythroid cells. The structure and function analysis indicated that the mean cell volume of in vitro cultured RBC was 118 ± 4 fl, which was slight larger than that of normal RBC (80-100 fl); the mean cell hemoglobin was 36 ± 1.2 pg, which was slight higher than that of normal RBC (27-31 pg); the maximal deformation index was 0.46, which approachs level of normal RBC; the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyrurvate kinase levels was consistant with young RBC. It is concluded that PBMNC are feasble, convenient and low-cost source for producing cultured RBC and this culture system is suitable to generate the RBC from PBMNC.

  7. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  8. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  9. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  10. Automated microscopy system for peripheral blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boev, Sergei F.; Sazonov, Vladimir V.; Kozinets, Gennady I.; Pogorelov, Valery M.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Korobova, Farida V.; Vinogradov, Alexander G.; Verdenskaya, Natalya V.; Ivanova, Irina A.

    2000-11-01

    The report describes the instrument ASPBS (Automated Screening of Peripheral Blood Cells) designed for an automated analysis of dry blood smears. The instrument is based on computer microscopy and uses dry blood smears prepared according to the standard Romanovskii-Giemza procedure. In comparison with the well-known flow cytometry systems, our instrument provides more detailed information and offers an opporunity of visualizing final results. The basic performances of the instrument are given. Software of this instrument is based on digital image processing and image recognition procedures. It is pointed out that the instrument can be used as a fairly universal tool in scientific research, public demonstrations, in medical treatment, and in medical education. The principle used as the basis of the instrument appeared adequate for creating an instrument version serviceable even during space flights where standard manual procedures and flow cytometry systems fail. The benefit of the use of the instrument in clinical laboratories is described.

  11. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in advanced renal cell carcinoma. Results of a phase II-trial of somatostatine analogue therapy in patients with advanced RCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Goerges, R.; Stergar, H.; Bockisch, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Gauler, T.; Bauer, S. [Dept. of Internal Medicine (Cancer Research), Univ. of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Antoch, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Univ. of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Schuette, J. [Dept. of Medical Oncology/Hematology, Marien-Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Aims: objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the role of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with respect to potential therapy with somatostatin analogue (SST-A) and to assess the response rate under therapy with SST-A. Patients, methods: 16 patients with documented progression of histologically confirmed advanced RCC were included. Planar whole-body SRS was performed 4, 24 and 48h post i.v. injection of 175-200 MBq {sup 111}In-pentetreoide. 5 and 25 h p.i. SPECT of thorax and abdomen were performed. Documentation of somatostatin receptor expression via SRS in > 50% of known tumour lesions was the criteria for treatment start with SST-A (Sandostatin LAR {sup registered} -Depot 30mg i.m. every four weeks). Results: in 9/16 of the patients SRS showed at least one metastasis with moderate (n = 5) or intense (n = 4) tracer uptake. Lesion-based SRS evaluation showed only 12.1% (20/165) of all metastases. Most false-negative lesions were located in the lungs. In too patients, the majority of the known metastases was SRS positive and these patients received SST-A therapy. The first radiographic evaluation after a two-month interval showed progressive disease in both patients. Conclusions: we conclude that SRS is of limited value in staging of advanced RCC. In our patients SST-A did not result in a growth control of RCC. Consequently, the use of SST-A in advanced RCC seems to be no relevant therapeutic option. (orig.)

  12. Red blood cell clusters in Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigliotti, Giovanni; Selmi, Hassib; Misbah, Chaouqi; Elasmi, Lassaad

    2011-11-01

    We present 2D numerical simulations of sets of vesicles (closed bags of a lipid bilayer membrane) in a parabolic flow, a setup that mimics red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvasculature. Vesicles, submitted to sole hydrodynamical interactions, are found to form aggregates (clusters) of finite size. The existence of a maximal cluster size is pointed out and characterized as a function of the flow intensity and the swelling ratio of the vesicles. Moreover bigger clusters move at lower velocity, a fact that may prove of physiological interest. These results quantify previous observations of the inhomogeneous distribution of RBCs in vivo (Gaehtgens et al., Blood Cells 6 - 1980). An interpretation of the phenomenon is put forward based on the presence of boli (vortices) between vesicles. Both the results and the explanation can be transposed to the three-dimensional case.

  13. Generation of red blood cells from human embryonic/induced pluripotent stem cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Yasuhiro; Ma, Feng; Tsuji, Kohichiro

    2012-06-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is necessary for many patients with emergency or hematological disorders. However, to date the supply of RBCs remains labile and dependent on voluntary donations. In addition, the transmission of infectious disease via blood transfusion from unspecified donors remains a risk. Establishing a large quantity of safe RBCs would help to address this issue. Human embryonic stem (hES) cells and the recently established human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells represent potentially unlimited sources of donor-free RBCs for blood transfusion, as they can proliferate indefinitely in vitro. Extensive research has been done to efficiently generate transfusable RBCs from hES/iPS cells. Nevertheless, a number of challenges must be overcome before the clinical usage of hES/iPS cell-derived RBCs can become a reality.

  14. Risk of Abnormal Red Blood Cell to Get Malarial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-01-01

    Malarial infection in red blood cell disorder is an interesting topic in tropical medicine. In this work, the author proposes a new idea on the physical property of red blood cell and risk for getting malarial infection. The study on scenario of red blood cell disorders is performed. Conclusively, the author found that physical property of red blood cell is an important determinant for getting malarial infection

  15. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  16. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used...

  17. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity...

  18. Radionuclide scintigraphy of the scrotum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jun Hyung; Park, Young Hee; Lee, Soon Jin; Lee, Sun Wha; Ko, Young Tae; Kim, Soon Yong [Kyung Hee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1984-12-15

    Radionuclide scrotal scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate is an easy, well established, useful and readily available technique for evaluation of acute scrotum. We studied 41 cases of radionuclide scrotal scintigraphy and the results were as follows: 1. The over all diagnostic accuracy of scrotal scintigraphy was 93% (38/41 cases). 2. Scrotal scintigraphy was very useful and accurate in differential diagnosis of epididymo-orchitis and testticular torsion in patient with acute scrotal pain and swelling, while there was some limitation in differential diagnosis of hematoma from acute epididymo-orchitis or torsion. 3. Scintigraphy of epididymo-orchitis showed increased perfusion and radioactivity in the epididymis and/or testis and its diagnosis accuracy was 90% (19/21 cases). 4. Acute testicular torsion showed normal flow in perfusion and cold defect occupying affected testis in static image, while missed torsion showed slightly increased flow in perfusion image and cold defect surrounded by an uniform rim of hyperactivity (halo sign). Diagnostic accuracy of testicular torsion was 86% (6/7 cases)

  19. Mechanosensing Dynamics of Red blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical stress-induced deformation of human red blood cells (RBCs) plays important physiopathological roles in oxygen delivery, blood rheology, transfusion, and malaria. Recent studies demonstrate that, in response to mechanical deformation, RBCs release adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), suggesting the existence of mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs. Most importantly, the released ATP from RBCs regulates vascular tone and impaired release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. To date, however, the mechanisms of mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs remain unclear. Given that RBCs experience shear stresses continuously during the circulation cycle and the released ATP plays a central role in vascular physiopathology, understanding the mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs will provide not only fundamental insights to the role of RBCs in vascular homeostasis but also novel therapeutic strategies for red cell dysfunction and vascular disease. This talk describes the main research in my group on integrating microfluidic-based approaches to study the mechanosensing dynamics of RBCs. Specifically, I will introduce a micro?uidic approach that can probe the dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from RBCs with millisecond resolution and provide quantitative understandings of the mechanosensitive ATP release processes in RBCs. Furthermore, I will also describe our recent findings about the roles of the Piezo1 channel, a newly discovered mechanosensitive cation channel in the mechanotransductive ATP release in RBCs. Last, possible functions of RBCs in the regulation of cerebral blood flow will be discussed.

  20. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results and to make presumptive diagnosis. In this article we have taken 100 samples for comparative study between RBC histograms obtained by automated haematology analyzer with peripheral blood smear. This article discusses some morphological features of dimorphism and the ensuing characteristic changes in their RBC histograms.

  1. Multiscale modeling of blood flow: from single cells to blood rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Mesoscale simulations of blood flow, where the red blood cells are described as deformable closed shells with a membrane characterized by bending rigidity and stretching elasticity, have made much progress in recent years to predict the flow behavior of blood cells and other components in various flows. To numerically investigate blood flow and blood-related processes in complex geometries, a highly efficient simulation technique for the plasma and solutes is essential. In this review, we focus on the behavior of single and several cells in shear and microcapillary flows, the shear-thinning behavior of blood and its relation to the blood cell structure and interactions, margination of white blood cells and platelets, and modeling hematologic diseases and disorders. Comparisons of the simulation predictions with existing experimental results are made whenever possible, and generally very satisfactory agreement is obtained.

  2. Radioiodinated methylene blue--a promising agent for melanoma scintigraphy: labelling, stability and in vitro uptake by melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobal, Grazyna; Rodrigues, Margarida; Sinzinger, Helmut

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma is a tumor of continuously increasing incidence for which new methods of imaging and targeted therapy are widely sought. Radioiodinated methylene blue is a promising tracer, showing selective uptake in human pigmented melanoma cells. We performed 131I-labeling of the tracer using 1% methylene blue injection United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and 131I sodium iodide. For quality control, a Merck high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system was used. We developed a new HPLC procedure using 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid, 90% acetonitrile and 10% water as solvent for isocratic elution of the tracer and applied a TLC method using ITLC-SG strips and the same solvent. The stability of the preparation was studied for 15 min, 3 h and 6 h. In order to evaluate the potential relevance of 131I-labeled methylene blue for melanoma detection, the in vitro uptake of 131I-methylene blue was investigated in SK-MEL 28 and 518A2 melanoma cells. Time and a temperature influence on uptake of 1311 methylene blue by these two melanoma cells were investigated. The radiochemical purity obtained by the HPLC method was 99.97 +/- 0.08% (n=8), while that by the TLC method was 99.88 +/- 0.16% (n=8). This indicates the excellent agreement between these two methods. The stability was persistent over 6 h and amounted to 99.75% +/- 0.21% (n=8). The uptake of 131I methylene blue was time and temperature dependent by both melanoma cells lines. The net cellular uptake on incubation at 37 degrees C of 131I methylene blue by SK-MEL 28 cells was high at 56.3-61.8% and that by 518A2-cells was 36.3-56.0%. Uptake by these cells was also investigated at 22 degrees C. The uptake by both cell types was also high at this temperature, but lower than that at 37 degrees C, amounting to 45.0-51.7% and 25.6-36.3%, respectively. Due to its easy handling and quite high uptake by melanoma cells, we expect that this tracer could be successfully used in routine application for melanoma imaging or eventual

  3. Bone scintigraphy; Scintigraphie osseuse de l'appareil locomoteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyen, B.; Chouteau, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lyon-Sud, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France)

    2003-11-01

    Bone scintigraphy permit to detect the active osteoblastic sites. This technic is widely used in orthopaedic surgery either in adult or children. In Traumatology fatigue fractures are early diagnosed. This is also the case for reflex sympathetic dystrophy and bone necrosis. This technic is used for Paget disease, and articular inflammatory process. For bone tumors some specific aspects are recognized like for osteoid osteoma, malignant bone tumors and secondary bone tumors. In case of septic articular prosthesis the couple use of bone scintigraphy and marked polynuclear appear very useful. (author)

  4. Thyroid scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Gregory B; Neelis, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is performed in cats and dogs and has been used to a limited degree in other species such as the horse. Thyroid scintigraphy is most commonly used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment management of feline hyperthyroidism but is also used in the evaluation of canine hypothyroidism and canine thyroid carcinoma. This article reviews the normal scintigraphic appearance of the thyroid in the cat, the dog, and the horse and the principles of interpretation of abnormal scan results in the cat and the dog. Radioiodine is the treatment of choice for feline hyperthyroidism, and the principles of its use in the cat are reviewed.

  5. Microfluidic Device for Continuous Magnetophoretic Separation of Red Blood Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Iliescu, Ciprian; Avram, Marioara; Xu, G; Avram, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device for magnetophoretic separation red blood cells from blood under contionous flow. The separation method consist of continous flow of a blood sample (diluted in PBS) through a microfluidic channel which presents on the bottom "dots" of feromagnetic layer. By appling a magnetic field perpendicular on the flowing direction, the feromagnetic "dots" generates a gradient of magnetic field which amplifies the magnetic force. As a result, the red blood cells are captured on the bottom of the microfluidic channel while the rest of the blood is collected at the outlet. Experimental results show that an average of 95 % of red blood cells are trapped in the device

  6. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non......-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low......, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal...

  7. Alterations in cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells in stored blood

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusion. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called CPDA-1. With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements of the 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and their progressive alterations in stored RBCs. Our results show that the stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within 2 weeks which was accompanied with significant ...

  8. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris;

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...

  9. Cord blood T cells mediate enhanced antitumor effects compared with adult peripheral blood T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwarkar, Prashant; Qasim, Waseem; Ricciardelli, Ida; Gilmour, Kimberly; Quezada, Sergio; Saudemont, Aurore; Amrolia, Persis; Veys, Paul

    2015-12-24

    Unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) without in vivo T-cell depletion is increasingly used to treat high-risk hematologic malignancies. Following T-replete CBT, naïve CB T cells undergo rapid peripheral expansion with memory-effector differentiation. Emerging data suggest that unrelated CBT, particularly in the context of HLA mismatch and a T-replete graft, may reduce leukemic relapse. To study the role of CB T cells in mediating graft-versus-tumor responses and dissect the underlying immune mechanisms for this, we compared the ability of HLA-mismatched CB and adult peripheral blood (PB) T cells to eliminate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven human B-cell lymphoma in a xenogeneic NOD/SCID/IL2rg(null) mouse model. CB T cells mediated enhanced tumor rejection compared with equal numbers of PB T cells, leading to improved survival in the CB group (P cells that were autologous vs allogeneic to the lymphoma demonstrated that this antitumor effect was mediated by alloreactive rather than EBV-specific T cells. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes demonstrated that CB T cells mediated this enhanced antitumor effect by rapid infiltration of the tumor with CCR7(+)CD8(+) T cells and prompt induction of cytotoxic CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-helper (Th1) T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, in the PB group, this antilymphoma effect is impaired because of delayed tumoral infiltration of PB T cells and a relative bias toward suppressive Th2 and T-regulatory cells. Our data suggest that, despite being naturally programmed toward tolerance, reconstituting T cells after unrelated T-replete CBT may provide superior Tc1-Th1 antitumor effects against high-risk hematologic malignancies.

  10. Novel, high-yield red blood cell production methods from CD34-positive cells derived from human embryonic stem, yolk sac, fetal liver, cord blood, and peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Emmanuel; Qiu, Caihong; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2012-08-01

    The current supply of red blood cells expressing rare blood groups is not sufficient to cover all the existing transfusion needs for chronically transfused patients, such as sickle cell disease homozygous carriers, because of alloimmunization. In vitro production of cultured red blood cells is slowly emerging as a possible complement to the existing collection-based red blood cell procurement system. The yield of cultured red blood cells can theoretically be maximized by amplifying the stem, progenitor, or precursor compartment. Here, we combined methods designed to expand these three compartments to optimize the yield of cultured red blood cells and found that exposing CD34(+) cells to a short pulse of cytokines favorable for erythroid differentiation prior to stem cell expansion followed by progenitor expansion produced the highest yield of erythroid cells. This novel serum-free red blood cell production protocol was efficient on CD34(+) cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, 6-8-week yolk sacs, 16-18-week fetal livers, cord blood, and peripheral blood. The yields of cells obtained with these new protocols were larger by an order of magnitude than the yields observed previously. Globin expression analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that these expansion protocols generally yielded red blood cells that expressed a globin profile similar to that expected for the developmental age of the CD34(+) cells.

  11. Clinical aspects of pulmonary radioactivity observed in radiocolloid liver scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young; Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young; Lee, Won Woo [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    We studied clinical aspects and courses of patients with pulmonary radioactivity on liver scintigraphy and speculated the mechanism of pulmonary uptake of radiocolloids. Forty-nine patients with pulmonary radioactivity were classified into 5 diseases groups-liver disease, infection, cancer, ischemic necrosis of liver, etc.- and their presence of absence of chronic liver disease (CLD), Child-Pugh class, serum levels of AST and ALT, results of follow-up liver scintigraphy and clinical course were checked. Of total 49 patients 25 had CLD; there were 23 liver disease patients, 16 infection patients, 7 advanced cancer patients, 2 ischemic necrosis of liver patients, and 1 hemolytic anemia patient. Reversible rise of serum levels of AST and ALT was observed in all patients with liver disease and ischemic necrosis of liver; on one-way ANOVA, these rise were statistically significant (p<0.01). Serum level of ALT of liver disease group patients without CLD was significantly higher than that of infection group patients without CLD (p<0.05). Among 17 patients who underwent follow-up liver scintigraphy, 13 showed no pulmonary radioactivity. Total 12 patients died during follow-up and most of them were terminal cancer patients or CLD patients of Child-Pugh class C. Pulmonary radioactivity of radiocolloid liver scintigraphy could be attributed to the mobilization of reticuloendothelial system (RES) cells by the activation of RES cells in severe infection and terminal cancer, and also by the extensive liver desctruction in liver diseases.

  12. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  13. Implications of three phase bone scintigraphy for the diagnosis of bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Chae Moon; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Choi, So Young; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Sang Woo; Kwon, Tae Geon; Lee, Jaetae [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    Bisphosphonate (BP) related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a well known serious complication of BP treatment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of three phase bone scintigraphy in patients with BRONJ. Forty one patients (48 lesions)with clinically proven BRONJ (2 males, 39 females, age 74.3{+-}6.7 years)under went Tc 99m HDP bone scintigraphy. Visual interpretation and semiquantitative analysis of uptakes using lesion to contralateral uptake ratios during the blood pool phase (BUR)and during the osseous phase (OUR)were performed, and relations were sought between these and various clinical parameters. Three phase bone scintigraphy showed increased perfusion and blood pooling in 21 (63.6%)and 27 (81.8%)of 33 lesions, respectively. The osseous phase was positive for 45 (93.8%)of the 48 lesions. Of the four inflammatory clinical parameters of BRONJ [pus discharge, pain, swelling, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)], patients with three or more parameters had more positive findings in vascular and blood pool phase images (p=0.033, p=0.027). By semiquantitative analysis, patients with a positive ESR had statistically higher BUR and OUR (both p<0.001). Higher stage BRONJ lesions had higher OUR than lower stage lesions (p=0.003). In addition, bone scintigraphy revealed three clinically covert BRONJ lesions without bone exposure, and four patients were up staged based on bone scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy provides a relatively sensitive means of detecting BRONJ, so it was helpful for accurate BRONJ staging. Furthermore, Increased uptakes in vascular and blood pool phases of three phase bone scintigraphy were related to the inflammatory activity of BRONJ.

  14. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M

    2016-01-04

    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at http://sbrblood.nhgri.nih.gov, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles.

  15. Backward elastic light scattering of malaria infected red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjun; Lu, Wei

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the backward light scattering pattern of healthy and malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) parasitized red blood cells. The spectrum could clearly distinguish between predominant ring stage infected blood cells and healthy blood cells. Further, we found that infected samples mixed with different stages of P. falciparum showed different signals, suggesting that even variance in parasite stages could also be detected by the spectrum. These results together with the backward scattering technique suggest the potential of non-invasive diagnosis of malaria through light scattering of blood cells near the surface of human body, such as using eyes or skin surface.

  16. Mechanical damage of red blood cells by rotary blood pumps: selective destruction of aged red blood cells and subhemolytic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Ryuki; Sobajima, Hideo; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Waguri, Satoshi; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Takatani, Setsuo

    2008-10-01

    In this study, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) were measured to quantify RBC damage by rotary blood pumps. Six-hour hemolysis tests were conducted with a Bio-pump BPX-80, a Sarns 15200 roller pump, and a prototype mag-lev centrifugal pump (MedTech Heart) using fresh porcine blood circulated at 5 L/min against a 100 mm Hg head pressure. The temperature of the test and noncirculated control blood was maintained at 37 degrees C. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) of each pump was determined by measuring the plasma-free hemoglobin level. The MCV was measured with a Coulter counter, and MCHC was derived from total hemoglobin and hematocrit. MCH was derived from MCV and MCHC. A multivariance statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed statistically significant differences (n = 15, P < 0.05) in MCV, MCHC, and MCH between the blood sheared by the rotary blood pumps and the nonsheared control blood. Normalized to the control blood, the Bio-pump BPX-80 showed an MCV of 1.04 +/- 0.03, an MCHC of 0.95 +/- 0.04, and an MCH of 0.98 +/- 0.02; the mag-lev MedTech Heart had an MCV of 1.02 +/- 0.02, an MCHC of 0.97 +/- 0.02, and an MCH of 0.99 +/- 0.01; and the roller pump exhibited an MCV of 1.03 +/- 0.03, an MCHC of 0.96 +/- 0.03, and an MCH of 0.99 +/- 0.01. Per 0.01 increase in NIH, the BPX-80 showed a normalized MCV change of +10.1% and a normalized MCHC change of -14.0%; the MedTech Heart demonstrated a +6.9% MCV and -9.5% MCHC change; and the roller pump had a +0.5% MCV and -0.6% MCHC change. Due to shear in the pump circuits, the RBC increased while the MCHC decreased. The likely mechanism is that older RBCs with smaller size and higher hemoglobin concentration were destroyed fast by the shear, leaving younger RBCs with larger size and lower hemoglobin concentration. Subhemolytic trauma caused the intracellular hemoglobin to decrease due to gradual hemoglobin leakage through the micropores formed in the thinned

  17. Infusion of hemolyzed red blood cells within peripheral blood stem cell grafts in patients with and without sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Unno, Hayato; Hathaway, Vincent; Coles, Wynona A; Link, Mary E; Weitzel, R Patrick; Zhao, Xiongce; Wright, Elizabeth C; Stroncek, David F; Kato, Gregory J; Hsieh, Matthew M; Tisdale, John F

    2012-06-14

    Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) infusions are associated with complications such as elevated blood pressure and decreased creatinine clearance. Patients with sickle cell disease experience similar manifestations, and some have postulated release of plasma-free hemoglobin with subsequent nitric oxide consumption as causative. We sought to evaluate whether the infusion of PBSC grafts containing lysed red blood cells (RBCs) leads to the toxicity observed in transplant subjects. We report a prospective cohort study of 60 subjects divided into 4 groups based on whether their infusions contained dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and lysed RBCs, no DMSO and fresh RBCs, DMSO and no RBCs, or saline. Our primary end point, change in maximum blood pressure compared with baseline, was not significantly different among groups. Tricuspid regurgitant velocity and creatinine levels also did not differ significantly among groups. Our data do not support free hemoglobin as a significant contributor to toxicity associated with PBSC infusions. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00631787).

  18. Phenotype and functions of memory Tfh cells in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Bentebibel, Salah-Eddine; Ueno, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    Our understanding of the origin and functions of human blood CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells found in human blood has changed dramatically in the past years. These cells are currently considered to represent a circulating memory compartment of T follicular helper (Tfh) lineage cells. Recent studies have shown that blood memory Tfh cells are composed of phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. Here, we review the current understanding of human blood memory Tfh cells and the subsets within this compartment. We present a strategy to define these subsets based on cell surface profiles. Finally, we discuss how increased understanding of the biology of blood memory Tfh cells may contribute insight into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the mode of action of vaccines.

  19. The treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using umbilical cord blood and menstrual blood-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanberg, Paul R; Eve, David J; Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Tan, Jun; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Allickson, Julie G; Cruz, L Eduardo; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a potentially important means of treatment for a number of disorders. Two different stem cell populations of interest are mononuclear umbilical cord blood cells and menstrual blood-derived stem cells. These cells are relatively easy to obtain, appear to be pluripotent, and are immunologically immature. These cells, particularly umbilical cord blood cells, have been studied as either single or multiple injections in a number of animal models of neurodegenerative disorders with some degree of success, including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Sanfilippo syndrome type B. Evidence of anti-inflammatory effects and secretion of specific cytokines and growth factors that promote cell survival, rather than cell replacement, have been detected in both transplanted cells.

  20. [The position of scintigraphy in traumatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, C; Neck, K; Ritter, R; Glanzmann, C; Schwarz, H

    1978-12-01

    A report on the findings of skeletal scintigraphy in 80 cases of traumatic bone lesions is discussed. After a short survey on the physiological process in the activity ensilage, the assertion of the scintigraphy is compared to the X-ray. The indication which has been approved in practice is discussed and described. In correct indication scintigraphy is a valuable diagnostic measure and it may influence the procedure.

  1. Cost effectiveness of cord blood versus bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bart

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas BartSwiss Blood Stem Cells, Bern, SwitzerlandAbstract: Umbilical cord blood (CB has become, since its first successful use more than two decades ago, an increasingly important source of blood stem cells. In this light, an overview of current usage of CB in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation (HSCT is given. The three main sources of hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow (BM, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC, and cord blood (CB are compared as regards their current quantitative usage in HSCT. A cost analysis of the named three hematopoietic blood stem cell (HSC sources, taking into account various factors, is undertaken. The health economical comparison shows significant differences between CB on the one side, and BM and PBSC on the other. The consequences for the public health side and propositions for a possible health care policy, especially regarding future resource allocation towards the different choices for HSCT products, are discussed. An outlook on the possible future usage of BM, PBSC, and CB and its implications on health systems, donor registries, and CB banks is given.Keywords: health economy, cord blood, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  2. Quality of Red Blood Cells Isolated from Umbilical Cord Blood Stored at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Zhurova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs from cord blood contain fetal hemoglobin that is predominant in newborns and, therefore, may be more appropriate for neonatal transfusions than currently transfused adult RBCs. Post-collection, cord blood can be stored at room temperature for several days before it is processed for stem cells isolation, with little known about how these conditions affect currently discarded RBCs. The present study examined the effect of the duration cord blood spent at room temperature and other cord blood characteristics on cord RBC quality. RBCs were tested immediately after their isolation from cord blood using a broad panel of quality assays. No significant decrease in cord RBC quality was observed during the first 65 hours of storage at room temperature. The ratio of cord blood to anticoagulant was associated with RBC quality and needs to be optimized in future. This knowledge will assist in future development of cord RBC transfusion product.

  3. Segmentation and Analysis of Cancer Cells in Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Nelikanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood cancer is an umbrella term for cancers that affect the blood, bone marrow and lymphatic system. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL is one of the kinds of blood cancer which can be affected at any age in the humans. The analysis of peripheral blood samples is an important test in the procedures for the diagnosis of leukemia. In this paper the blood sample images are used and implementing a clustering algorithm for detection of the cancer cells. This paper also implements morphological operations and feature extraction techniques using MATLAB for the analysis of cancer cells in the images.

  4. Bone scintigraphy in ankylosing spondylitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Nobuaki; Fukunaga, Masao; Tomomitsu, Tatsushi (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)); Morita, Rikushi

    1991-10-01

    Twelve patients with ankylosing spondylitis (11 males and one female) were examined by both bone scintigraphy and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Bone scintigraphy revealed increased accumulation in the sacroiliac joint in 6 patients, the spines in 10, and the other joints, including the sternoclavicular joint, in 8 patients. Each one patient had an intense tracer uptake in the finger and toe joints. In 4 patients in whom DEXA was concurrently performed at the level of 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae, there was no consistent tendency for mean bone mineral density. In 2 of 3 patients receiving DEXA for the radius, bone marrow density was within the normal range. (N.K.).

  5. Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood during cardiac surgery : effect on red blood cell function in concentrated blood compared with diluted blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Y. John; de Vries, Adrianus J.; Hagenaars, J. Ans M.; van Oeveren, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood has been suggested to prevent patients from receiving activated leucocytes during autotransfusion in cardiac surgery. This study examines whether leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood affects the red blood cell (RBC) function and whether there is a

  6. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells hold promise to develop novel patient-specific cell therapies and research models for inherited and acquired diseases. We and others previously reprogrammed human adherent cells, such as postnatal fibroblasts to iPS cells, which resemble adherent embryonic stem cells. Here we report derivation of iPS cells from postnatal human blood cells and the potential of these pluripotent cells for disease modeling. Multiple human iPS ...

  7. Neurological Complications following Blood Transfusions in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawar, Nayaab; Kulpa, Jolanta; Bellin, Anne; Proteasa, Simona; Sundaram, Revathy

    2017-01-01

    In Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) patient blood transfusions are an important part of treatment for stroke and its prevention. However, blood transfusions can also lead to complications such as Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS). This brief report highlights two cases of SCA who developed such neurological complications after a blood transfusion. RLPS should be considered as the cause of neurologic finding in patients with SCA and hypertension following a blood transfusion.

  8. A photonic crystal hydrogel suspension array for the capture of blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Cai, Yunlang; Shang, Luoran; Wang, Huan; Cheng, Yao; Rong, Fei; Gu, Zhongze; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells.Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06368j

  9. CD163 positive subsets of blood dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2006-01-01

    expression in dendritic cells (DCs) was investigated using multicolor flow cytometry in peripheral blood from 31 healthy donors and 15 HIV-1 patients in addition to umbilical cord blood from 5 newborn infants. Total RNA was isolated from MACS purified DCs and CD163 mRNA was determined with real-time reverse...... transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The effect of glucocorticoid and phorbol ester stimulation on monocyte and dendritic cell CD163 and CD91 expression was investigated in cell culture of mononuclear cells using multicolor flow cytometry. We identified two CD163+ subsets in human blood with dendritic cell...

  10. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Nalls (Michael); D. Couper (David); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); D. Toniolo (Daniela); N.A. Zakai (Neil); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); A. Greinacher (Andreas); A.R. Wood (Andrew); M. Garcia (Melissa); P. Gasparini (Paolo); Y. Liu (Yongmei); T. Lumley (Thomas); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); A.P. Reiner (Alex); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); J.F. Felix (Janine); H. Völzke (Henry); N.A. Gouskova (Natalia); A. Biffi (Alessandro); A. Döring (Angela); U. Völker (Uwe); S. Chong (Sean); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); A. Rendon (Augusto); A. Dehghan (Abbas); M. Moore (Matt); K.D. Taylor (Kent); J.G. Wilson (James); G. Lettre (Guillaume); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C. Bis (Joshua); N. Pirastu (Nicola); C.S. Fox (Caroline); C. Meisinger (Christa); J.G. Sambrook (Jennifer); S. Arepalli (Sampath); M. Nauck (Matthias); H. Prokisch (Holger); J. Stephens (Jonathan); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); Y. Okada (Yukinori); A. Takahashi (Atsushi); Y. Kamatani (Yoichiro); K. Matsuda (Koichi); T. Tsunoda (Tatsuhiko); M. Kubo (Michiaki); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); K. Yamamoto (Kazuhiko); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A. Tönjes (Anke); I. Prokopenko (Inga); T. Illig (Thomas); K.V. Patel (Kushang); S.F. Garner (Stephen); B. Kuhnel (Brigitte); M. Mangino (Massimo); B.A. Oostra (Ben); S.L. Thein; J. Coresh (Josef); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); S. Menzel (Stephan); J. Lin; G. Pistis (Giorgio); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A. Teumer (Alexander); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); D. Melzer (David); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); D. Levy (Daniel); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); A. Singleton (Andrew); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.L. Longo (Dan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T.B. Harris (Tamara); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhite blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types.

  11. Computational Biomechanics of Human Red Blood Cells in Hematological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Li, He; Chang, Hung-Yu; Lykotrafitis, George; Em Karniadakis, George

    2017-02-01

    We review recent advances in multiscale modeling of the biomechanical characteristics of red blood cells (RBCs) in hematological diseases, and their relevance to the structure and dynamics of defective RBCs. We highlight examples of successful simulations of blood disorders including malaria and other hereditary disorders, such as sickle-cell anemia, spherocytosis, and elliptocytosis.

  12. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhaohui; Zhan, Huichun; Mali, Prashant; Dowey, Sarah; Williams, Donna M; Jang, Yoon-Young; Dang, Chi V; Spivak, Jerry L; Moliterno, Alison R; Cheng, Linzhao

    2009-12-24

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells hold promise to develop novel patient-specific cell therapies and research models for inherited and acquired diseases. We and others previously reprogrammed human adherent cells, such as postnatal fibroblasts to iPS cells, which resemble adherent embryonic stem cells. Here we report derivation of iPS cells from postnatal human blood cells and the potential of these pluripotent cells for disease modeling. Multiple human iPS cell lines were generated from previously frozen cord blood or adult CD34(+) cells of healthy donors, and could be redirected to hematopoietic differentiation. Multiple iPS cell lines were also generated from peripheral blood CD34(+) cells of 2 patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) who acquired the JAK2-V617F somatic mutation in their blood cells. The MPD-derived iPS cells containing the mutation appeared normal in phenotypes, karyotype, and pluripotency. After directed hematopoietic differentiation, the MPD-iPS cell-derived hematopoietic progenitor (CD34(+)CD45(+)) cells showed the increased erythropoiesis and gene expression of specific genes, recapitulating features of the primary CD34(+) cells of the corresponding patient from whom the iPS cells were derived. These iPS cells provide a renewable cell source and a prospective hematopoiesis model for investigating MPD pathogenesis.

  13. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Preben D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low. The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5°C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. In 4 out of 7 samples colonies with MSC morphology were observed. Cellular morphology varied between monolayers of elongated spindle-shaped cells to layered cell clusters of cuboidal cells with shorter cytoplasmic extensions. Positive Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion We here report, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal model for proof-of-principle studies of cord blood derived MSCs.

  14. A Simulation of Blood Cells in Branching Capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Isfahani, Amir H G; Freund, Jonathan B

    2008-01-01

    The multi-cellular hydrodynamic interactions play a critical role in the phenomenology of blood flow in the microcirculation. A fast algorithm has been developed to simulate large numbers of cells modeled as elastic thin membranes. For red blood cells, which are the dominant component in blood, the membrane has strong resistance to surface dilatation but is flexible in bending. Our numerical method solves the boundary integral equations built upon Green's functions for Stokes flow in periodic domains. This fluid dynamics video is an example of the capabilities of this model in handling complex geometries with a multitude of different cells. The capillary branch geometries have been modeled based upon observed capillary networks. The diameter of the branches varies between 10-20 mum. A constant mean pressure gradient drives the flow. For the purpose of this fluid dynamics video, the red blood cells are initiated as biconcave discs and white blood cells and platelets are initiated as spheres and ellipsoids resp...

  15. Red blood cells and thrombin generation in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelihan, Matthew F; Lim, Ming Y; Key, Nigel S

    2014-05-01

    The prothrombotic nature of sickle cell disease (SCD) is evidenced by the chronically elevated levels of almost all coagulation activation biomarkers, and an increased incidence of certain thrombotic events, including venous thromboembolism. Numerous studies have attempted to define the extent and elucidate the mechanism of the observed increase in thrombin generation in SCD patients in vivo. In general, these studies were performed using thrombin generation assays in platelet poor or platelet rich plasma and showed little difference in endogenous thrombin potential between the SCD cohort and healthy matched controls. In SCD, erythrocytes and monocytes have been demonstrated to exhibit procoagulant characteristics. Thus, the absence of these cellular components in standard thrombin generation assays may fail to reflect global hypercoagulability in the whole blood of patients with SCD. We were therefore surprised to see no difference in net thrombin generation in tissue factor-initiated initiated clotting of whole blood from patients with SCD. However, we are continuing to reconcile these seemingly disparate observations by slight modifications of the whole blood model that include alternative coagulation triggers and a re-examination of the net thrombin generation when the protein/protein S system is simultaneously interrogated.

  16. Microvascular blood flow resistance: Role of red blood cell migration and dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanov, Dinar; Gompper, Gerhard; Fedosov, Dmitry A

    2015-05-01

    Microvascular blood flow resistance has a strong impact on cardiovascular function and tissue perfusion. The flow resistance in microcirculation is governed by flow behavior of blood through a complex network of vessels, where the distribution of red blood cells across vessel cross-sections may be significantly distorted at vessel bifurcations and junctions. In this paper, the development of blood flow and its resistance starting from a dispersed configuration of red blood cells is investigated in simulations for different hematocrit levels, flow rates, vessel diameters, and aggregation interactions between red blood cells. Initially dispersed red blood cells migrate toward the vessel center leading to the formation of a cell-free layer near the wall and to a decrease of the flow resistance. The development of cell-free layer appears to be nearly universal when scaled with a characteristic shear rate of the flow. The universality allows an estimation of the length of a vessel required for full flow development, lc ≲ 25D, for vessel diameters in the range 10 μm red blood cell dispersion at vessel bifurcations and junctions on the flow resistance may be significant in vessels which are shorter or comparable to the length lc. Aggregation interactions between red blood cells generally lead to a reduction of blood flow resistance. The simulations are performed using the same viscosity for both external and internal fluids and the RBC membrane viscosity is not considered; however, we discuss how the viscosity contrast may affect the results. Finally, we develop a simple theoretical model which is able to describe the converged cell-free-layer thickness at steady-state flow with respect to flow rate. The model is based on the balance between a lift force on red blood cells due to cell-wall hydrodynamic interactions and shear-induced effective pressure due to cell-cell interactions in flow. We expect that these results can also be used to better understand the flow

  17. Baseline Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy as a predictor of outcome in children with urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, J. G.; An, Y. S.; Lee, M. H.; Cho, C. W.; Yun, S. N.; Pai, G. S [Ajou University Medical Center, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy is useful in detecting urinary tract obstruction in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). We evaluated the prognostic significance of baseline Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy in children with UTI. Among children, who underwent both baseline/follow-up Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphies and baseline Tc-99m DTP A scintigraphy for evaluation of UTI, 32 patients with unilateral cortical defects on baseline Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy were included in the study. The outcome of cortical defects was evaluated on follow-up Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy by visual analysis. ROIs were drawn on the Tc-99m DPTA scintigraphy for calculation of ipsilateral to contralateral kidney ratio (ICR) at blood flow phase (< 60s, BFP) and cortical uptake phase (1-5 min, CUP). Median follow-up period of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy was 3.2 months (1.4 - 14 months). There were 24 patients with healing cortical defects and 8 with cortical scarring. Average ICRs of patients with healing defects were 1.11 {+-} 0.18 (0.44 - 1.57) at BFP and 0.97 {+-} 0.21 (0.31 - 1.28) at CUP, while those of patients with cortical scarring were 0.97 {+-} 0.47 (0.21 - 0.89) at BFP and 0.75 {+-} 0.49 (0.19 - 1.65) at CUP. ICR more than 0.9 was determined as a good prognostic indicator. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ICR was 83.3%, 100%, 100% and 66.7% at BFP, and 79.0%, 62.5%, 86.4% and 50.0% at CUP. Ipsilateral to contralateral kidney ratio on baseline Tc-99m DPTA renal scintigraphy, especially at blood flow phase, is helpful in predicting outcome of children with UTI.

  18. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from......) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old...

  19. Red blood cells in sports: Effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimo eMairbäurl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During exercise the cardiovascular system has to warrant substrate supply to working muscle. The main function of red blood cells in exercise is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues and the delivery of metabolically produced CO2 to the lungs for expiration. Hemoglobin also contributes to the blood’s buffering capacity, and ATP and NO release from red blood cells contributes to vasodilation and improved blood flow to working muscle. These functions require adequate amounts of red blood cells in circulation. Trained athletes, particularly in endurance sports, have a decreased hematocrit, which is sometimes called sports anemia. This is not anemia in a clinical sense because athletes have in fact an increased total mass of red blood cells and hemoglobin in circulation relative to sedentary individuals. The slight decrease in hematocrit by training is brought about by an increased plasma volume. The mechanisms that increase total red blood cell mass by training are not understood fully. Despite stimulated erythropoiesis, exercise can decrease the red blood cell mass by intravascular hemolysis mainly of senescent red blood cells, which is caused by mechanical rupture when red blood cells pass through capillaries in contracting muscles, and by compression of red cells e.g. in foot soles during running or in hand palms in weightlifters. Together, these adjustments cause a decrease in the average age of the population of circulating red blood cells in trained athletes. These younger red cells are characterized by improved oxygen release and deformability, both of which also improve tissue oxygen supply during exercise.

  20. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr eAlaarg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterised by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely asessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary

  1. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaarg, Amr; Schiffelers, Raymond M; van Solinge, Wouter W; van Wijk, Richard

    2013-12-13

    Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely assessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary hemolytic anemias.

  2. Sodium renders endothelial cells sticky for red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eOberleithner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Negative charges in the glycocalyx of red blood cells (RBC and vascular endothelial cells (EC facilitate frictionless blood flow through blood vessels. Na+ selectively shields these charges controlling surface electronegativity. The question was addressed whether the ambient Na+ concentration controls RBC-EC interaction. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM adhesion forces between RBC and endothelial glycocalyx were quantified. A single RBC, mounted on an AFM cantilever, was brought in physical contact with the endothelial surface and then pulled off. Adhesion forces were quantified (i after enzymatic removal of negative charges in the glycocalyx, (ii under different ambient Na+ and (iii after applying the intracellular aldosterone receptor antagonist spironolactone. Removal of negative surface charges increases RBC-EC interaction forces. A stepwise increase of ambient Na+ from 133 to 140 mM does not affect them. However, beyond 140 mM Na+ adhesion forces increase sharply (10% increase of adhesion force per 1 mM increase of Na+. Spironolactone prevents this response. It is concluded that negative charges reduce adhesion between RBC and EC. Ambient Na+ concentration determines the availability of free negative charges. Na+ concentrations in the low physiological range (below 140 mM allow sufficient amounts of vacant negative charges so that adhesion of RBC to the endothelial surface is small. In contrast, Na+ in the high physiological range (beyond 140 mM saturates the remaining negative surface charges thus increasing adhesion. Aldosterone receptor blockade by spironolactone prevents Na+ induced RBC adhesion to the endothelial glycocalyx. Extrapolation of in vitro experiments to in vivo conditions leads to the hypothesis that high sodium intake is likely to increase the incidence of thrombotic events.

  3. Sodium renders endothelial cells sticky for red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberleithner, Hans; Wälte, Mike; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Negative charges in the glycocalyx of red blood cells (RBC) and vascular endothelial cells (EC) facilitate frictionless blood flow through blood vessels. Na(+) selectively shields these charges controlling surface electronegativity. The question was addressed whether the ambient Na(+) concentration controls RBC-EC interaction. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) adhesion forces between RBC and endothelial glycocalyx were quantified. A single RBC, mounted on an AFM cantilever, was brought in physical contact with the endothelial surface and then pulled off. Adhesion forces were quantified (i) after enzymatic removal of negative charges in the glycocalyx, (ii) under different ambient Na(+) and (iii) after applying the intracellular aldosterone receptor antagonist spironolactone. Removal of negative surface charges increases RBC-EC interaction forces. A stepwise increase of ambient Na(+) from 133 to 140 mM does not affect them. However, beyond 140 mM Na(+) adhesion forces increase sharply (10% increase of adhesion force per 1 mM increase of Na(+)). Spironolactone prevents this response. It is concluded that negative charges reduce adhesion between RBC and EC. Ambient Na(+) concentration determines the availability of free negative charges. Na(+) concentrations in the low physiological range (below 140 mM) allow sufficient amounts of vacant negative charges so that adhesion of RBC to the endothelial surface is small. In contrast, Na(+) in the high physiological range (beyond 140 mM) saturates the remaining negative surface charges thus increasing adhesion. Aldosterone receptor blockade by spironolactone prevents Na(+) induced RBC adhesion to the endothelial glycocalyx. Extrapolation of in vitro experiments to in vivo conditions leads to the hypothesis that high sodium intake is likely to increase the incidence of thrombotic events.

  4. Nomenclature of monocytes and dendritic cells in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ziegler-Heitbrock (Loems); P. Ancuta (Petronela); S. Crowe (Suzanne); M. Dalod (Marc); V. Grau (Veronika); D.N. Hart (Derek); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); Y.J. Liu; G. MacPherson (Gordon); G.J. Randolph (Gwendalyn); J. Scherberich (Juergen); J. Schmitz (Juergen); K. Shortman (Ken); S. Sozzani (Silvano); H. Strobl (Herbert); M. Zembala (Marek); J.M. Austyn (Jonathan); M.B. Lutz (Manfred)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMonocytes and cells of the dendritic cell lineage circulate in blood and eventually migrate into tissue where they further mature and serve various functions, most notably in immune defense. Over recent years these cells have been characterized in detail with the use of cell surface mark

  5. Electrochemical Red Blood Cell Counting: One at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepunaru, Lior; Sokolov, Stanislav V; Holter, Jennifer; Young, Neil P; Compton, Richard G

    2016-08-08

    We demonstrate that the concentration of a red blood cell solution under physiological conditions can be determined by electrochemical voltammetry. The magnitude of the oxygen reduction currents produced at an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode was diagnosed analytically at concentrations suitable for a point-of-care test device. The currents could be further enhanced when the solution of red blood cells was exposed to hydrogen peroxide. We show that the enhanced signal can be used to detect red blood cells at a single entity level. The method presented relies on the catalytic activity of red blood cells towards hydrogen peroxide and on surface-induced haemolysis. Each single cell activity is expressed as current spikes decaying within a few seconds back to the background current. The frequency of such current spikes is proportional to the concentration of cells in solution.

  6. [Promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A G; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2013-10-01

    The current article is dedicated to promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage. The following new technical approaches are presented: (1) erythrocytes storage in strict anaerobic argon-hydrogen environment, (2) lyophilization of erythrocyte suspension by its atomization in nitrogen gas, (3) lyophilization of erythrocytes by directional freezing under the influence of radio frequency radiation, (4) automated pharming of antigen free packed red blood cells from progenitor cell directly at the battlefield.

  7. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yuin-Han; Agarwal, Suneet; Park, In-Hyun; Urbach, Achia; Huo, Hongguang; Heffner, Garrett C; Kim, Kitai; Miller, Justine D; Ng, Kitwa; Daley, George Q

    2009-05-28

    Human dermal fibroblasts obtained by skin biopsy can be reprogrammed directly to pluripotency by the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. Here, we describe the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from CD34+ mobilized human peripheral blood cells using retroviral transduction of OCT4/SOX2/KLF4/MYC. Blood-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells are indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells with respect to morphology, expression of surface antigens, and pluripotency-associated transcription factors, DNA methylation status at pluripotent cell-specific genes, and the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in teratomas. The ability to reprogram cells from human blood will allow the generation of patient-specific stem cells for diseases in which the disease-causing somatic mutations are restricted to cells of the hematopoietic lineage.

  8. A model for red blood cells in simulations of large-scale blood flows

    CERN Document Server

    Melchionna, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are an essential component of blood. A method to include the particulate nature of blood is introduced here with the goal of studying circulation in large-scale realistic vessels. The method uses a combination of the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to account for the plasma motion, and a modified Molecular Dynamics scheme for the cellular motion. Numerical results illustrate the quality of the model in reproducing known rheological properties of blood as much as revealing the effect of RBC structuring on the wall shear stress, with consequences on the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. A role for activated endothelial cells in red blood cell clearance: implications for vasopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fens, Marcel H A M; van Wijk, Richard; Andringa, Grietje

    2012-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylserine exposure by red blood cells is acknowledged as a signal that initiates phagocytic removal of the cells from the circulation. Several disorders and conditions are known to induce phosphatidylserine exposure. Removal of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells gener...... cells play a role in red blood cell clearance in vivo. Significant erythrophagocytosis can induce endothelial cell loss, which may contribute to vasopathological effects as seen, for instance, in sickle cell disease.......Background Phosphatidylserine exposure by red blood cells is acknowledged as a signal that initiates phagocytic removal of the cells from the circulation. Several disorders and conditions are known to induce phosphatidylserine exposure. Removal of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells...... generally occurs by macrophages in the spleen and liver. Previously, however, we have shown that endothelial cells are also capable of erythrophagocytosis. Key players in the erythrophagocytosis by endothelial cells appeared to be lactadherin and αv-integrin. Phagocytosis via the phosphatidylserine...

  10. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Zhu, Jingde; Tian, Geng

    2010-01-01

    strand), we report a comprehensive (92.62%) methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found...

  11. Color contrast of red blood cells on solid substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiziev, Adkham A.

    2013-02-01

    In present study we developed the new method of colour visualization of red blood cells without using any chemical staining. The method based on physical phenomena a white light interference on thin transparent films. It is shown that in the case of thin human blood smears colour interference contrast occurs on solid polished substrates. The best contrast shows substrates with maximal refractive index (Mo, W, Si). These materials have been selected as substrate instead of ordinary microscopic slide in reflected light microscopy. It is shown that reflection of incident white light from blood cell surface and boundary cell-substrate generate two coherent lights. The second one (object signal) after passing through red blood cell gathers additional phase and after interference interaction with reference signal (light reflected from outer cell surface) enables cell image in colour. Number of blood smears of healthy persons (control) and patients who were diagnosed with cancer are presented. It is concluded that the offered method may be used as an effective diagnostic tool to detect early stage blood cells lesion by its interference painting in white light. Offered method may be used in research laboratories, hospitals, diagnostic centres, emergency medicine and other as complementary diagnostic tool to present convenient optical and electron microscopy technique.

  12. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk.

  13. Mechanisms linking red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozos, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk.

  14. Platelet scintigraphy in atherothrombotic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Yoshinari (Osaka National Hospital (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy for the measurement of in vivo thrombogenicity is a useful noninvasive technique with a number of applications. From 1982 to 1989, we explored clinical relevance of this method for 576 consecutive patients with atherothrombotic disease. There was a disease-related difference in the percentage of positive platelet accumulation; 85% in patients with Dacron bifurcation graft, 75% in abdominal or thoracic aneurysm, 40% in intra-cardiac thrombi, 33% in arteriosclerosis obliterans and 25% in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Labelled platelets accumulated frequently in the lesion with severe arteriographic abnormality. Aspirin clearly inhibited platelet accumulation on carotid atheroma but the effect of ticlopidine has been less conclusive. Short-term orally active PGI[sub 2] analogue had inhibitory effects on platelet accumulation in carotid atheroma and platelet aggregability, but did not cause significant reduction in plaque size. The results suggest the usefulness of platelet scintigraphy for monitoring the thrombogenicity in various atherothrombotic diseases. It will be necessary, however, to simplify the labelling procedures and to develop a new [sup 99m]Tc-labelled thrombus imaging agent, if thrombus imaging is to be considered for more generall use for patients with atherosclerosis. (author).

  15. Drawings of Blood Cells Reveal People's Perception of Their Blood Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ramondt

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD and thalassemia are rare but chronic blood disorders. Recent literature showed impaired quality of life (QOL in people with these blood disorders. Assessing one of the determinants of QOL (i.e. illness perceptions therefore, is an important next research area.We aimed to explore illness perceptions of people with a blood disorder with drawings in addition to the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ. Drawings are a novel method to assess illness perceptions and the free-range answers drawings offer can add additional insight into how people perceive their illness.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 17 participants with a blood disorder. Participants' illness perceptions were assessed by the Brief IPQ and drawings. Brief IPQ scores were compared with reference groups from the literature (i.e. people with asthma or lupus erythematosus.Participants with SCD or thalassemia perceived their blood disorder as being more chronic and reported more severe symptoms than people with either asthma or lupus erythematosus. In the drawings of these participants with a blood disorder, a greater number of blood cells drawn was negatively correlated with perceived personal control (P<0.05, indicating that a greater quantity in the drawing is associated with more negative or distressing beliefs.Participants with a blood disorder perceive their disease as fairly threatening compared with people with other chronic illnesses. Drawings can add additional insight into how people perceive their illness by offering free-range answers.

  16. Non-invasive spectroscopy of transfusable red blood cells stored inside sealed plastic blood-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, K; Atkins, C G; Chen, D; Schulze, H G; Devine, D V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2016-03-07

    After being separated from (donated) whole blood, red blood cells are suspended in specially formulated additive solutions and stored (at 4 °C) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood-bags until they are needed for transfusion. With time, the prepared red cell concentrate (RCC) is known to undergo biochemical changes that lower effectiveness of the transfusion, and thus regulations are in place that limit the storage period to 42 days. At present, RCC is not subjected to analytical testing prior to transfusion. In this study, we use Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to probe, non-invasively, the biochemistry of RCC inside sealed blood-bags. The retrieved spectra compare well with conventional Raman spectra (of sampled aliquots) and are dominated by features associated with hemoglobin. In addition to the analytical demonstration that SORS can be used to retrieve RCC spectra from standard clinical blood-bags without breaking the sterility of the system, the data reveal interesting detail about the oxygenation-state of the stored cells themselves, namely that some blood-bags unexpectedly contain measurable amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin after weeks of storage. The demonstration that chemical information can be obtained non-invasively using spectroscopy will enable new studies of RCC degeneration, and points the way to a Raman-based instrument for quality-control in a blood-bank or hospital setting.

  17. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular dise...

  18. Unusual Case of Occult Brucella Osteomyelitis in the Skull Detected by Bone Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lee, Chang Seob [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis. A 47-year-old man, who was a stock breeder, complained of myalgia with fever and chills for 2 weeks. The serology titers and blood cultures for brucellosis were positive. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated a focally increased uptake in the left supra orbital area. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion, and an MRI revealed signal abnormalities in the corresponding site. We present an unusual case of occult Brucella osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of the skull detected by done scintigraphy.

  19. Functional fecal retention visualized by (111)In-DTPA colon transit scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Jose Rafael; Rayo, Juan I; Serrano, Justo; Dominguez, Maria L; Garcia, Lucia; Moreno, Manuel

    2015-06-01

    Constipation is an extremely common problem in children, varying from mild and short-lived to severe and chronic. Chronic constipation is a serious childhood condition and requires further investigation, including blood test, colonoscopy, radio-opaque marker study, and/or scintigraphy. We present small bowel and colon transit scintigraphy of a 14-year-old girl with history of chronic constipation, abdominal pain, weight loss, and poor response to medical treatment. After oral administration of In-DTPA in water, planar and SPECT/CT images showed normal small bowel transit time and functional fecal retention in colon transit study.

  20. Recharging Red Blood Cell Surface by Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kliche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Similar as in vascular endothelium the negatively charged glycocalyx of erythrocytes selectively buffers sodium. Loss of glycocalyx (i.e. loss of negative charges leads to increased erythrocyte sodium sensitivity (ESS quantified by a recently developed salt-blood-test (SBT. The hypothesis was tested whether a regular 4-hour hemodialysis (4h-HD alters ESS. Methods: In 38 patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD ESS was measured before and after 4h-HD, together with standard laboratory and clinical parameters (electrolytes, acid-base status, urea, creatinine, hemoglobin, c-reactive protein and blood pressure. Results: Before 4h-HD, 20 patients (out of 38 were classified as “salt sensitive” by SBT. After 4h-HD, this number decreased to 11. Erythrocyte sodium buffering power remained virtually constant in patients with already low ESS before dialysis, whereas in patients with high ESS, 4h-HD improved the initially poor sodium buffering power by about 20%. No significant correlations could be detected between standard blood parameters and the respective ESS values except for plasma sodium concentration which was found increased by 3.1 mM in patients with high salt sensitivity. Conclusions: 4h-HD apparently recharges “run-down” erythrocytes and thus restores erythrocyte sodium buffering capacity. Besides the advantage of efficient sodium buffering in blood, erythrocytes with sufficient amounts of free negative charges at the erythrocyte surface will cause less (mechanical injury to the negatively charged endothelial surface due to efficient repulsive forces between blood and vessel wall. Hemodialysis improves erythrocyte surface properties and thus may prevent early vascular damage in patients suffering from ESRD.

  1. Is red blood cell rheology preserved during routine blood bank storage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J.; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) units stored for more than 2 weeks at 4 degrees C are currently considered of impaired quality. This opinion has primarily been based on altered RBC rheologic properties (i.e., enhanced aggregability, reduced deformability, and elevated endothelial cell interaction),

  2. Blood flow simulation on a role for red blood cells in platelet adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Kazuyasu; Takagi, Shu

    2016-11-01

    Large-scale blood flow simulations were conducted and a role for red blood cells in platelet adhesion was discussed. The flow conditions and hematocrit values were set to the same as corresponding experiments, and the numerical results were compared with the measurements. Numerical results show the number of platelets adhered on the wall is increased with the increase in hematocrit values. The number of adhered platelets estimated from the simulation was approximately 28 (per 0.01 square millimeter per minute) for the hematocrit value of 20%. These results agree well with the experimental results qualitatively and quantitatively, which proves the validity of the present numerical model including the interaction between fluid and many elastic bodies and the modeling of platelet adhesion. Numerical simulation also reproduces the behavior of red blood cells in the blood flow and their role in platelet adhesion. Red blood cells deform to a flat shape and move towards channel center region. In contrast, platelets are pushed out and have many chances to contact with the wall. As a result, the large number of adhered platelets is observed as hematocrit values becomes high. This result indicates the presence of red blood cells plays a crucial role in platelet adhesion.

  3. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy for early diagnosis of biliary atresia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brittain, Jane Maestri; Kvist, Nina; Johansen, Lars Søndergaard;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity of (99m)Technetium-trimethylbromo-iminodiacetic acid hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HS) for the diagnosis of biliary atresia (BA). METHODS: From January 2005 to December 2009, a total of 47 infants with conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia...... sensitivity and NPV prevent un-necessary surgery. Because of the low specificity of HS in diagnosing BA, it should be part of a multimodality imaging strategy when the result supports a clinical suspicion of BA. In cases with non-draining HS and normal GGTP blood levels, supplemental imaging modalities...

  4. Esophageal scintigraphy: A comparison with esophagoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellen, G.; Andersson, P.; Sandstroem, S.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty consecutive patients with different esophageal symtoms were investigated with esophageal endoscopy, transit scintigraphy, and gastroesophageal (GE) scintigraphy with extra-abdominal compression. Scintigraphic findings were abnormal in 27 of those 31 patients (87%) who were classified as abnormal at endoscopy. A prolonged transit time was the commonest finding, but hiatal hernia and GE reflux were also found. However, the scintigraphic procedure showed abnormalities in 6 of 19 (31%) patients who were classified as normal at endoscopy. Esophageal scintigraphy is recommended as a screening test before endoscopy is decided on. 20 refs.

  5. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells that have been destroyed by high doses of ... EuroStemCell 312,828 views 15:53 Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis ... views 6:48 Stem cell donation from brother saves child from cancer - Duration: ...

  6. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuela, Oscar Andrés; Palomino, Fernando; Gómez, Lina Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin) and control (isotonic buffer solution was added). The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value 6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19 ± 0.05 μmol/L vs. 3.53 ± 0.02 μmol/L; p-value = 0.009). The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77% ± 3.8% vs. 71% ± 2.3%; p-value <0.05), while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4% ± 0.3% vs. 22% ± 0.8%; p-value <0.05). Conclusions Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis. PMID:26969770

  7. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  8. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Sendai Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filipa A C; Pedersen, Roger A; Vallier, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the efficient isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from circulating blood via density gradient centrifugation and subsequent generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells are cultured for 9 days to allow expansion of the erythroblast population. The erythroblasts are then used to derive human induced pluripotent stem cells using Sendai viral vectors, each expressing one of the four reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.

  9. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-10-14

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood--without reagents, electricity, or instruments--is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 10(2)/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries.

  10. Quantification of depletion-induced adhesion of Red Blood Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Patrick; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) are known to form aggregates in the forms of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. Rouleaux formation can be also induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC solution. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly rely on indirect measurements like flow chamber experiments, but on the single cell level data is lacking. Here we present measurements on the dextran induced aggregation of red blood cells by use of atomic force microscopy based single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS). The effects of dextran concentration and molecular weight on the interaction energy of adhering RBCs was determined. The results are in good agreement with a model based on the depletion effect and former experimental studies.

  11. Hematologic assessment in pet rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters.

  12. Blood cell manufacture: current methods and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Nicholas E; Nielsen, Lars K

    2009-07-01

    Blood transfusion depends on availability of donor material, and concerns over supply and safety have spurred development of methods to manufacture blood from stem cells. Current methods could theoretically yield therapeutic doses of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets. However, due to the very large number of cells required to have any impact on supply (currently 10(19) RBC/year in the US), realization of routine manufacture faces significant challenges. Current yields are orders of magnitude too low for production of meaningful quantities, and the physical scale of the problem is a challenge in itself. We discuss these challenges in relation to current methods and how it might be possible to realize limited 'blood pharming' of neutrophils in the near future.

  13. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2013-05-13

    Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis.

  14. Computational modeling of red blood cells: A symplectic integration algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ulf D.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2010-03-01

    Red blood cells can undergo shape transformations that impact the rheological properties of blood. Computational models have to account for the deformability and red blood cells are often modeled as elastically deformable objects. We present a symplectic integration algorithm for deformable objects. The surface is represented by a set of marker points obtained by surface triangulation, along with a set of fiber vectors that describe the orientation of the material plane. The various elastic energies are formulated in terms of these variables and the equations of motion are obtained by exact differentiation of a discretized Hamiltonian. The integration algorithm preserves the Hamiltonian structure and leads to highly accurate energy conservation, hence he method is expected to be more stable than conventional finite element methods. We apply the algorithm to simulate the shape dynamics of red blood cells.

  15. Shear induced diffusion in a red blood cell suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, Thomas; Grandchamp, Xavier; Srivastav, Aparna; Coupier, Gwennou

    2012-11-01

    In the microcirculation, blood exhibits an inhomogeneous structure which results in the well know Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect : the apparent viscosity decreases when the diameter of the capillary decreases due to the formation of a marginal cell depletion layer (known as plasma skimming). This structure is a consequence of several phenomena, which include i) the migration of cells aways from walls due to lift forces and gradients of shear and ii) shear induced diffusion due to collisions and interactions among cells. We investigated these phenomena through experiments in simple shear and microchannel flows, with dilute suspensions of vesicles and blood cells. Pairwise interactions between suspended objects result in non-linear and flow-dependent diffusion, whose properties have been measured in different experiments for vesicles and blood cells. The injection of a sheet of concentrated blood cell suspension in a microchannel with a rectangular cross-section allows, through the measurement of its widening along the channel, to measure the diffusivity of blood cells, both in the local plane of shear and in the vorticity direction.

  16. Thallium-201 scintigraphy for bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuumi, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sunayama, Chiaki; Matsuda, Eizo; Asada, Naohiro; Taki, Junichi; Sumiya, Hisashi; Miyauchi, Tsutomu; Tomita, Katsuro [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of thallium-201 scintigraphy in bone and soft tissue tumors. Pre-therapy scintigraphy was undertaken in a total of 136 patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis, consisting of 74 with malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, 39 with benign ones, 12 with diseases analogous to tumors, and 11 others. Thallium activity was graded on a scale of 0-4: 0=background activity, 1=equivocal activity, 2=definitive activity, but less than myocardium, 3=definite activity equal to myocardium, and 4=activity greater than myocardium. In the group of malignant tumors, thallium-201 uptake was found in 80%, although it was low for chondrosarcoma (2/8) and malignant Schwannoma (one/3). The group of benign tumors, however, showed it in only 41%, being restricted to those with giant cell tumors, chondroblastoma, fibromatosis, and osteoid osteoma. Thallium-201 uptake was also found in all 8 patients with metastatic tumors. In 23 patients undergoing thallium imaging before and after chemotherapy, scintigraphic findings revealed a high correlation with histopathological findings. Thus, thallium-201 scintigraphy may be potentially used to distinguish malignant from benign bone and soft tissue tumors, except for a few histopathological cases, as well as to determine loco-regional metastases and response to chemotherapy. (N.K.).

  17. Cord blood transplants for SCID: better B-cell engraftment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wan-Yin; Roberts, Robert Lloyd; Moore, Theodore B; Stiehm, E Richard

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Despite successful T-cell engraftment in transplanted patients, B-cell function is not always achieved; up to 58% of patients require immunoglobulin therapy after receiving haploidentical transplants. We report 2 half-sibling males with X-linked γ-chain SCID treated with different sources of stem cells. Sibling 1 was transplanted with T-cell-depleted haploidentical maternal bone marrow and sibling 2 was transplanted with 7/8 human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated umbilical cord blood. Both patients received pretransplant conditioning and posttransplant graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis. B-cell engraftment and function was achieved in sibling 1 but not in sibling 2. This disparate result is consistent with a review of 19 other SCID children who received cord blood transplants. B-cell function, as indicated by no need for immunoglobulin therapy, was restored in 42% of patients given haploidentical transplants and in 68% of patients given matched unrelated donor transplants compared with 80% of patients given cord blood transplants. Cord blood is an alternative source of stem cells for transplantation in children with SCID and has a higher likelihood of B-cell reconstitution.

  18. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  19. Malaria and human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2012-11-01

    Invasion by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, brings about extensive changes in the host red cells. These include loss of the normal discoid shape, increased rigidity of the membrane, elevated permeability to a wide variety of ionic and other species and increased adhesiveness, most notably to endothelial surfaces. These effects facilitate survival of the parasite within the host cell and tend to increase the virulence of disease that includes cerebral malaria and anemia. Numerous proteins secreted by the internalized parasite and interacting with red cell membrane proteins are responsible for the changes occurring to the host cell. Anemia, a serious clinical manifestation of malaria, is due to increased destruction of both infected and uninfected red cells due to membrane alterations, as well as ineffective erythropoiesis. There is very good evidence that various red cell disorders including hemoglobinopathies and hereditary ovalocytosis decrease the virulence of disease following parasite infection. A number of mechanism(s) are likely responsible for the protective effect of various red cell abnormalities including decreased invasion, impaired intraerythrocytic development of the parasites and altered interaction between exported parasite proteins and the red cell membrane skeleton.

  20. International Society of Blood Transfusion Working Party on red cell immunogenetics and blood group terminology: Cancun report (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storry, J R; Castilho, L; Daniels, G; Flegel, W A; Garratty, G; de Haas, M; Hyland, C; Lomas-Francis, C; Moulds, J M; Nogues, N; Olsson, M L; Poole, J; Reid, M E; Rouger, P; van der Schoot, E; Scott, M; Tani, Y; Yu, L-C; Wendel, S; Westhoff, C; Yahalom, V; Zelinski, T

    2014-07-01

    The International Society of Blood Transfusion Working Party on red cell immunogenetics and blood group terminology convened during the International congress in Cancun, July 2012. This report details the newly identified antigens in existing blood group systems and presents three new blood group systems.

  1. Challenges for red blood cell biomarker discovery through proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barasa, B.A.; Slijper, M.

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cells are rather unique body cells, since they have lost all organelles when mature, which results in lack of potential to replace proteins that have lost their function. They maintain only a few pathways for obtaining energy and reducing power for the key functions they need to fulfill. T

  2. Control of red blood cell mass during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Alfrey, C. P.; Driscoll, T. B.; Smith, S. M.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1996-01-01

    Data are reviewed from twenty-two astronauts from seven space missions in a study of red blood cell mass. The data show that decreased red cell mass in all astronauts exposed to space for more than nine days, although the actual dynamics of mass changes varies with flight duration. Possible mechanisms for these changes, including alterations in erythropoietin levels, are discussed.

  3. Spatial distributions of red blood cells significantly alter local haemodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Sherwood

    Full Text Available Although bulk changes in red blood cell concentration between vessels have been well characterised, local distributions are generally overlooked. Red blood cells aggregate, deform and migrate within vessels, forming heterogeneous distributions which have considerable effect on local haemodynamics. The present study reports data on the local distribution of human red blood cells in a sequentially bifurcating microchannel, representing the branching geometry of the microvasculature. Imaging methodologies with simple extrapolations are used to infer three dimensional, time-averaged velocity and haematocrit distributions under a range of flow conditions. Strong correlation between the bluntness of the velocity and haematocrit profiles in the parent branch of the geometry is observed and red blood cell aggregation has a notable effect on the observed trends. The two branches of the first bifurcation show similar characteristics in terms of the shapes of the profiles and the extent of plasma skimming, despite the difference in geometric configuration. In the second bifurcation, considerable asymmetry between the branches in the plasma skimming relationship is observed, and elucidated by considering individual haematocrit profiles. The results of the study highlight the importance of considering local haematocrit distributions in the analysis of blood flow and could lead to more accurate computational models of blood flow in microvascular networks. The experimental approaches developed in this work provide a foundation for further examining the characteristics of microhaemodynamics.

  4. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  5. Effect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Blood Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Population aging has imposed cost-effective alternatives to blood donations. Artificial blood is still at the preliminary stages of development, and the need for viable cells seems unsurmountable. Because large numbers of viable cells must be promptly available for clinical use, stem cell technologies, expansion, and banking represent ideal tools to ensure a regular supply. Provided key donors can be identified, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine, just as it is already doing in many other fields of medicine. The present review summarizes the current state of research on iPSC technology in the field of blood banking, highlighting hurdles, and promises.

  6. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells ... use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are interested in ...

  7. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License ... - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 33,509 views 49:19 Stem Cell Fraud: ...

  8. Uterine doughnut by intrauterine device-induced photon attenuation on three-phase bone scintigraphy: artifact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    A 44-year-old female underwent three-phase bone scintigraphy for an evaluation of right hip joint pain. The blood-flow and blood-pool images show a pelvic blush with a photopenic center (doughnut) prior to bladder filling. On the three hour delayed image, the pelvic uptake disappeared. The scintigraphic findings indicated the possibility of an early pregnancy. However, plain radiography demonstrated an intrauterine device. A uterine doughnut developed as a result of photon attenuation of intrauterine device.

  9. Length of Storage of Red Blood Cells and Patient Survival After Blood Transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halmin, Märit; Rostgaard, Klaus; Lee, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Possible negative effects, including increased mortality, among persons who receive stored red blood cells (RBCs) have recently garnered considerable attention. Despite many studies, including 4 randomized trials, no consensus exists. Objective: To study the association between...... received transfusions from 2003 to 2012. Measurements: Patients were followed from first blood transfusion. Relative and absolute risks for death in 30 days or 1 year in relation to length of RBC storage were assessed by using 3 independent analytic approaches. All analyses were conducted by using Cox...... proportional hazards regression. Results: Regardless of the analytic approach, no association was found between the length of RBC storage and mortality. The difference in 30-day cumulative mortality between patients receiving blood stored for 30 to 42 days and those receiving blood stored for 10 to 19 days...

  10. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients...... is challenged by the size overlap between cancer cells and the 106 times more abundant WBCs. The size overlap prevents high efficiency separation, however we demonstrate that cell deformability can be exploited in PFF devices to gain higher efficiencies than expected from the size distribution of the cells....... and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood, but they are important for the understanding of metastasis. There is therefore a high interest in developing a method for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples, which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. The separation...

  11. In-vitro red blood cell partitioning of doxycycline

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Deshmukh; Badgujar, P.C.; Gatne, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In-vitro red blood cell (RBC) partitioning of doxycycline was studied to determine whether doxycycline penetrates RBC and its concentration was assayed keeping in view its high lipophilicity. Materials and Methods: Standardization of doxycycline was performed in whole blood and plasma of cattle by microbiological assay using Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633 as indicator organizm. Actual concentration of the drug was obtained by comparing zone inhibition with standard graph and the exte...

  12. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping;

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating...... of the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase family reveals an unusual catalytic mechanism involving NAD+. The enzymatic conversion processes we describe hold promise for achieving the goal of producing universal RBCs, which would improve the blood supply while enhancing the safety of clinical transfusions....

  13. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris; Mortensen, Peter; Mann, Matthias; Thomas, Alan W

    2008-07-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much research has therefore focused on RBC and cardiovascular disorders of mouse and humans. RBCs also host malaria parasites. Recently we presented an in-depth proteome for the human RBC. Here we present directly comparable data for the mouse RBC as membrane-only, soluble-only, and combined membrane-bound/soluble proteomes (comprising, respectively, 247, 232, and 165 proteins). All proteins were identified, validated, and categorized in terms of subcellular localization, protein family, and function, and in comparison with the human RBC, were classified as orthologs, family-related, or unique. Splice isoforms were identified, and polypeptides migrating with anomalous apparent molecular weights were grouped into putatively ubiquitinated or partially degraded complexes. Overall there was close concordance between mouse and human proteomes, confirming the unexpected RBC complexity. Several novel findings in the human proteome have been confirmed here. This comparison sheds light on several open issues in RBC biology and provides a departure point for more comprehensive understanding of RBC function.

  14. Generation of iPS Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Episomal Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ruijun Jeanna; Neises, Amanda; Zhang, Xiao-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral blood is the easy-to-access, minimally invasive, and the most abundant cell source to use for cell reprogramming. The episomal vector is among the best approaches for generating integration-free induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells due to its simplicity and affordability. Here we describe the detailed protocol for the efficient generation of integration-free iPS cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. With this optimized protocol, one can readily generate hundreds of iPS cell colonies from 1 ml of peripheral blood.

  15. Prediction of response to revascularization in patients with renal artery stenosis by Tc-99m-ethylene dicysteine captopril scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugur, O.; Ergun, E.L.; Peksoy, I.; Cekirge, S. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Medical School; Serdengecti, M.; Karacalioglu, O.

    1999-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of captopril scintigraphy with the new renal agent {sup 99m}Tc-ethylene dicysteine ({sup 99m}Tc-EC) for post-interventional improvement in blood pressure. Twelve patients who had persistently high blood pressure with previous demonstration of various degrees of renal artery lesion on angiography were included into the study. Baseline and captopril scintigraphies were performed on the same day at 4 hour intervals after the injection of 74 and 296 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-EC, respectively. All patients had percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), and improvement in blood pressure was evaluated 3-6 months after the intervention. {sup 99m}Tc-EC captopril scintigraphy successfully predicted a positive or negative outcome in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient with captopril induced renal function deterioration, scintigraphy failed to predict post-interventional response. Our preliminary findings showed that {sup 99m}Tc-EC captopril scintigraphy can be used to determine patients who will benefit from revascularization. (author)

  16. Apheresis techniques for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Rainer

    2004-12-01

    The combination of effective mobilisation protocols and efficient use of apheresis machines has caused peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) transplantation to grow rapidly. The development of apheresis technology has improved over the years. Today PBSC procedures have changed towards systems to minimise operator interaction and to reduce the collection of undesired cells such as polymorphonuclear cells and platelets using functionally closed, sterile environments for PBSC collection in keeping with Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines. Blood cell separators with continuous flow technique allow the processing of more blood than intermittent flow devices resulting in higher PBSC yields. Large volume leukapheresis with the processing of 3-4-fold donor's/patient's blood volume can increase the number of collected progenitor cells. Therefore, intermittent flow cell separators are indicated if only single vein access is available. Anticoagulant induced hypocalcaemia is an often observed side effect in long lasting PBPC harvesting and monitoring of electrolytes should be performed especially at the end of the apheresis procedure to supplement low levels of potassium, calcium or magnesium. Refinement and improvement of collection techniques continue to add to the armamentarium of current approaches for cancer and non-malignant conditions and will enable future strategies.

  17. Joint scintigraphy using technetium-99m pyrophosphate in experimental hemarthrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salimi, Z.; Vas, W.; Restrepo, G.

    1986-02-01

    To determine the validity of a method for induction of experimental hemarthrosis in dogs and for the nuclear imaging of hemarthrosis, serial technetium-99m pyrophosphate ((/sup 99m/Tc)PYP) flow and blood-pool scans were performed monthly in eight dogs who received bi-weekly injections of autologous blood into their femoro-tibial joints (also called stifle joint). In four control dogs, one joint was injected with saline while the other joint received only a sham injection. In addition, two dogs received intra-articular injections of autologous blood into their right stifle joint and saline into their left stifle joint. These dogs were studied with /sup 99m/TcO/sub 4/ joint scintigraphy at monthly intervals. The dogs were periodically taken out of the study and explored surgically. Pathologic examination of synovial tissue was performed. Serial radiographs were also obtained and correlated with the scan and surgical findings. There was a striking abnormal increase in blood-pool activity of (/sup 99m/Tc)PYP in the treated stifle joints, commencing at the first examination after 1 mo of blood injections and continuing for the length of the study. All radiographs showed only minimal joint space widening and some soft-tissue swelling. On pathologic examination, both grossly and microscopically, there was profuse pannus formation, with intense inflammatory infiltrate replacing much of the subsynovial fat. The scintigraphic findings correlated well with these pathologic findings. This study not only validates this method for simulating hemophilic hemarthrosis but also suggests that (/sup 99m/Tc)PYP joint scintigraphy is a simple, and noninvasive method for monitoring the early changes in hemophilic arthropathy and is superior to pertechnetate imaging for this disease process.

  18. State of the science of blood cell labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Blood cell labeling can be considered a science in as far as it is based on precise knowledge and can be readily reproduced. This benchmark criterion is applied to all current cell labeling modalities and their relative merits and deficiencies are discussed. Mechanisms are given where they are known as well as labeling yields, label stability, and cell functionality. The focus is on the methodology and its suitability to the clinical setting rather than on clinical applications per se. Clinical results are cited only as proof of efficacy of the various methods. The emphasis is on technetium as the cell label, although comparisons are made between technetium and indium, and all blood cells are covered. 52 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Whole-body MR imaging with the use of parallel imaging for detection of skeletal metastases in pediatric patients with small-cell neoplasms: comparison with skeletal scintigraphy and FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jyoti [Maulana Azad Medical College, Department of Radiology, New Delhi (India); Seith, Ashu; Kumar, Atin; Sharma, Raju [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiology, New Delhi (India); Bakhshi, Sameer [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Medical Oncology, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Rakesh [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India); Agarwala, Sandeep [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Pediatric Surgery, New Delhi (India)

    2008-09-15

    In pediatric patients with small-cell tumors, there is an increasing demand for accurate and early detection of skeletal, especially bone marrow, metastases as new treatment protocols are introduced. Whole-body MR imaging (WB-MR) and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) are new promising imaging methods that can detect metastases before osteoblastic host response occurs, which is the basis for detection of metastases by skeletal scintigraphy (SSC). To assess the ability of WB-MR to detect marrow metastases in children with small-cell neoplasms and compare its performance with that of FDG PET/CT and SSC. During a 16-month period, 26 children and adolescents with histopathologically proven small-cell neoplasms underwent WB-MR, FDG PET/CT and Tc-phosphonate-based SSC in a random order within a 25-day period. Metastases were localized in relation to eight regions of the body. WB-MR revealed metastases in 39 out of a total of 208 regions in 26 patients (sensitivity 97.5%, specificity 99.4%, positive predictive value 97.5%, negative predictive value 99.4%), SSC in 12 regions (sensitivity 30%, specificity 99.4%, PPV 92.3%, NPV 85.6%) and FDG PET/CT in 36 regions (sensitivity 90.0%, specificity 100%, PPV 100%, NPV 97.7%). Both WB-MR and FDG PET/CT showed excellent agreement (kappa) with the final diagnosis (96.9% and 93.6% respectively), whereas SSC showed only moderate agreement (39.6%). Our results suggest that WB-MR and FDG PET/CT studies are robust imaging modalities for screening for skeletal metastases, and are far more accurate than SSC. The lack of radiation is an additional advantage of WB-MR, especially in the pediatric population. (orig.)

  20. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  1. Nanostructured Substrates for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Over the past decade, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become an emerging ``biomarker'' for detecting early-stage cancer metastasis, predicting patient prognosis, as well as monitoring disease progression and therapeutic outcomes. However, isolation of CTCs has been technically challenging due to the extremely low abundance (a few to hundreds per ml) of CTCs among a high number of hematologic cells (109 per mL) in the blood. Our joint research team at UCLA has developed a new cell capture technology for quantification of CTCs in whole blood samples. Similar to most of the existing approaches, epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody (anti-EpCAM) was grafted onto the surfaces to distinguish CTCs from the surrounding hematologic cells. The uniqueness of our technology is the use of nanostructured surfaces, which facilitates local topographical interactions between CTCs and substrates at the very first cell/substrate contacting time point. We demonstrated the ability of these nanostructured substrates to capture CTCs in whole blood samples with significantly improved efficiency and selectivity. The successful demonstration of this cell capture technology using brain, breast and prostate cancer cell lines encouraged us to test this approach in clinical setting. We have been able to bond our first validation study with a commercialized technology based on the use of immunomagnetic nanoparticles. A group of clinically well-characterized prostate cancer patients at UCLA hospital have been recruited and tested in parallel by these two technologies.

  2. [Verification of complete blood cell count (CBC) data from heparinized blood gas samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoguchi, Takafumi; Fujii, Seiji; Inuzumi, Koji; Kaminoh, Yoshiroh; Hirose, Munetaka; Masaki, Mitsuru; Koshiba, Masahiro

    2014-02-01

    Complete blood cell count (CBC) data from heparinized blood gas (H-Gas) samples were verified with primary focus on the platelet count (PLT). When a part of H-Gas sample was taken to a separation tube from the blood collection syringe and CBC of the sample in the separation tube was repeatedly measured (Procedure 1), the PLT from 5 samples relative to that obtained immediately after the separation was gradually reduced to 72.6-94.2% during serial measurements (every 5 minutes, up to 30 minutes). The change in the scattergram pattern suggested that this PLT decrease was due to the formation of platelet clumps. The white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) values did not significantly change during the repeated measurements. On the other hand, PLT was significantly improved to 96.8-99.8% when the H-Gas sample was kept in the blood collection syringe so as to minimizing the exposure to the air, and the sample for the measurement from H-Gas was taken every time to separation tube from the syringe, followed by CBC measurement without delay (Procedure 2). In addition, while there were significant variations (CV: 11.8-18.2%) in PLT reproducibility among H-Gas samples by Procedure 1, measurements utilizing the Procedure 2 resulted in much smaller variations (CV: 2.2-3.7%). Thus the CBC data obtained from H-Gas samples were equivalent to those from EDTA samples when the Procedure 2 was applied. These data suggest that H-Gas samples can be used for the accurate CBC measurement, including PLT, by applying the Procedure 2.

  3. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-03-18

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals.

  4. Evaluation of flow characteristics of soft-tissue vascular malformations using technetium-99m labelled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Yoshikawa, Kohki; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtake, Tohru; Ohtomo, Kuni [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Radiology; Wakita, Shinichi; Kaji, Nobuyuki; Harii, Kiyonori [Dept. of Plastic Surgery, Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-04-29

    The estimation of intralesional haemodynamics is crucial in determining appropriate treatment for soft-tissue vascular malformations. The aim of this study was to develop a method to evaluate the flow characteristics of soft-tissue vascular malformations using technetium-99m labelled red blood cells ({sup 99m}Tc-RBCs). Seventy-nine soft-tissue vascular malformations, including 20 arteriovenous malformations and 59 venous malformations, in 57 patients were examined. Following the intravenous injection of {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs, dynamic imaging was performed for 30 min with the lesion in the field of view ({sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study). A time-activity curve was generated for the lesion, and the lesion was categorized as a high-flow or low-flow lesion by visual inspection of the curve. In low-flow lesions, mean vascular transit time (MTT) was calculated by curve fitting based on a two-compartment model. Twenty-nine lesions in 19 patients were examined twice, and reproducibility was assessed. In 23 venous malformations in 16 patients, {sup 99m}Tc-Sn colloid was percutaneously injected into the intravascular space of the lesion, and dynamic data of 5-min duration were acquired (direct puncture scintigraphy). MTT was estimated from the washout curve and compared with MTT estimated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study. {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study classified all 20 arteriovenous malformations as high-flow lesions and all 59 venous malformations as low-flow lesions. In the low-flow lesions, MTT estimated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study ranged from 61.2 to 2174.9 s. In the reproducibility study, complete concordance in classification and high correlation in MTT were shown between the first and second examinations. MTT estimated by {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study was significantly correlated with that estimated by direct puncture scintigraphy. In summary, {sup 99m}Tc-RBC flow study provides a quantitative indicator of intralesional haemodynamics in low-flow lesions in addition to accurate

  5. Membranotropic photobiomodulation on red blood cell deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang-Yue; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Liu, Song-Hao

    2007-05-01

    To assess modulation of laser on erythrocyte permeability and deformability via cell morphology changes, healthy human echinocytes with shrinking size and high plasmic viscosity due to cellular dehydration were treated with 1 mW, 2 mW, 3 mW, and 5 mW laser power exposure respectively. Image analyzing system on single intact erythrocyte was applied for measuring comprehensive cell morphological parameters (surface area, external membrane perimeter, circle index and elongation index) that were determined by the modulation of erythrocyte water permeability and deformability to detect relationship between erythrocyte water permeability alteration and deformability. Our preliminary experiment showed that exposure under light dose of 5 mW for 5 min could induce more active erythrocyte swelling and deformation. water channel aquaporin-1(AQP-1) was inhibited by the incubation of HgCl II in the presence and absence of 5 mW laser irradiation. The result suggested that osmotic water permeability is a primary factor in the procedure of erythrocyte deformability. In addition, no modulation of laser(5mW) on erythrocyte deformability had been found when the echinocytes were cultured with GDP-β-S (G protein inhibitor).

  6. Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    Stem Cell Transplantation; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Allogeneic Transplantation,; Genetic Diseases; Thalassemia; Pediatrics; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Combined Immune Deficiency; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Metabolic Diseases

  7. Characterization at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples of shear stress preventing red blood cells aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Kinnunen, M; Danilina, A V; Ustinov, V D; Shin, S; Meglinski, I; Priezzhev, A V

    2016-05-03

    The aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is an intrinsic feature of blood that has a strong impact on its microcirculation. For a number of years it has been attracting a great attention in basic research and clinical studies. Here, we study a relationship between the RBC aggregation parameters measured at the individual cell level and in a whole blood sample. The home made optical tweezers were used to measure the aggregating and disaggregating forces for a pair of interacting RBCs, at the individual cell level, in order to evaluate the corresponding shear stresses. The RheoScan aggregometer was used for the measurements of critical shear stress (CSS) in whole blood samples. The correlation between CSS and the shear stress required to stop an RBC pair from aggregating was found. The shear stress required to disaggregate a pair of RBCs using the double channel optical tweezers appeared to be about 10 times higher than CSS. The correlation between shear stresses required to prevent RBCs from aggregation at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples was estimated and assessed quantitatively. The experimental approach developed has a high potential for advancing hemorheological studies.

  8. Magnetic nanoparticle effects on the red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creanga, D E; Nadejde, C; Curecheriu, L [' Al. I. Cuza' University, Faculty of Physics, 11A Blvd. Carol I, Iasi (Romania)], E-mail: dorinacreanga@yahoo.com; Culea, M [' Babes Bolyai' University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Oancea, S [University of Veterinary Medicine ' I. Ionescu de la Brad' , Iasi (Romania); Racuciu, M [' Lucian Blaga' University, Sibiu (Romania)

    2009-05-01

    In vitro tests on magnetite colloidal nanoparticles effects upon animal red blood cells were carried out. Magnetite cores were stabilized with citric acid in the form of biocompatible magnetic fluid administrated in different dilutions in the whole blood samples. The hemolysis extent was found increased up to 2.75 in horse blood and respectively up to 2.81 in the dog blood. The electronic transitions assigned to the heme group were found shifted with about 500 cm{sup -1} or, respectively, affected by supplementary vibronic structures. The Raman vibrations assigned to oxyhemoglobin were much diminished in intensity probably due to the bonding of OH group from citrate shell to the heme iron ion.

  9. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Healthy and Defective Red Blood Cell Settling in Blood Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Z; Rahnama, M; Jafari, S

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to study sedimentation of a red blood cell (RBC) in a plasma-filled tube numerically. Such behaviors are studied for a healthy and a defective cell which might be created due to human diseases, such as diabetes, sickle-cell anemia, and hereditary spherocytosis. Flow-induced deformation of RBC is obtained using finite-element method (FEM), while flow and fluid-membrane interaction are handled using lattice Boltzmann (LB) and immersed boundary methods (IBMs), respectively. The effects of RBC properties as well as its geometry and orientation on its sedimentation rate are investigated and discussed. The results show that decreasing frontal area of an RBC and/or increasing tube diameter results in a faster settling. Comparison of healthy and diabetic cells reveals that less cell deformability leads to slower settling. The simulation results show that the sicklelike and spherelike RBCs have lower settling velocity as compared with a biconcave discoid cell.

  10. Cord Blood as a Source of Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohtesh S Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cord blood (CB offers several unique advantages as a graft source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. The risk of relapse and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD after cord blood transplantation (CBT are lower than what is typically observed after other graft sources with a similar degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatch. Natural killer (NK cells have a well-defined role in both innate and adaptive immunity and as the first lymphocytes to reconstitute after HSCT and CBT, they play a significant role in protection against early relapse. In this article, we highlight the uses of CB NK cells in transplantation and adoptive immunotherapy. First, we will describe differences in the phenotype and functional characteristics of NK cells in CB as compared with peripheral blood. Then, we will review some of the obstacles we face in using resting CB NK cells for adoptive immunotherapy, and discuss methods to overcome them. We will review the current literature on killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR-ligand mismatch and outcomes after CBT. Finally, we will touch on current strategiesfor the use of CB NK cells in cellular immunotherapy.

  11. Conversion to Paradoxical Finding on Technetium-99m-labeled RBC Scintigraphy after Treatment for Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Ari; Ha, Jung-Min; Song, Ho-Chun; Kim, Jahae; Choi, Soo Jin Na

    2013-12-01

    An 18-year-old woman reported that after exposure to cold temperatures her fingers appeared blue and her hands and feet felt cold. Secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) associated with peripheral vascular disease was suspected. Technetium (Tc)-99m-labeled RBC hand scintigraphy after cold change showed decreased blood pool activity in her fingers. The patient's symptoms improved after she received sarpogrelate HCL (200 mg/day) and nifedifine (40 mg/day). Follow-up scintigraphy performed 7 months after the patient started treatment showed paradoxically increased blood pool activity in her fingers after cold challenge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with secondary RP showing paradoxical change on scintigraphy after she received medication that improved her symptoms.

  12. Concise review: programming human pluripotent stem cells into blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Jennifer; Fidanza, Antonella; Forrester, Lesley M

    2016-06-01

    Blood disorders are treated with cell therapies including haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation as well as platelet and red blood cell transfusions. However the source of cells is entirely dependent on donors, procedures are susceptible to transfusion-transmitted infections and serious complications can arise in recipients due to immunological incompatibility. These problems could be alleviated if it was possible to produce haematopoietic cells in vitro from an autologous and renewable cell source. The production of haematopoietic cells in the laboratory from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide a route to realize this goal but it has proven challenging to generate long-term reconstituting HSCs. To date, the optimization of differentiation protocols has mostly relied on the manipulation of extrinsic signals to mimic the in vivo environment. We review studies that have taken an alternative approach to modulate intrinsic signals by enforced expression of transcription factors. Single and combinations of multiple transcription factors have been used in a variety of contexts to enhance the production of haematopoietic cells from human pluripotent stem cells. This programming approach, together with the recent advances in the production and use of synthetic transcription factors, holds great promise for the production of fully functional HSCs in the future.

  13. Mechanopathology of red blood cell diseases—Why mechanics matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    During the onset of a disease a cell may experience alterations in both the composition and organization of its cellular and molecular structures.These alterations may eventually lead to changes in its geometrical and mechanical properties such as cell size and shape,deformability and adhesion.As such,knowing how diseased cells respond to mechanical forces can reveal ways by which they differ from healthy ones.Here,we will present biomechanistic insights into red blood cell related diseases that manifest...

  14. Clinical need for both scintigraphy with technetium-99m GSA and per-rectal portal scintigraphy in some patients with chronic liver disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiomi, Susumu; Iwata, Yoshinori; Sasaki, Nobumitsu [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Medical School] (and others)

    1999-08-01

    Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate with galactosyl human serum albumin ({sup 99m}Tc-GSA) and per-rectal portal scintigraphy are useful for evaluating hepatic functional reserve and portal circulation, respectively. We did the procedures simultaneously in some patients to examine the relationship between hepatic functional reserve and portal circulation in chronic liver disease. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-GSA was done in 10 healthy subjects, 45 patients with chronic hepatitis, and 165 patients with cirrhosis. Fifty-seven patients (13 with hepatitis and 44 with cirrhosis) also underwent per-rectal portal scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate within two weeks. A receptor index was calculated by dividing the radioactivity of the liver region of interest (ROI) by that of the liver-plus-heart ROI at 15 min after the injection of {sup 99m}Tc-GSA. The index of blood clearance was calculated by dividing the radioactivity of the heart ROI at 15 min by that of the heart ROI at 3 min. A solution containing {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate was instilled into the rectum, and serial scintigrams were taken while radioactivity curves for the liver and heart were recorded sequentially. A per-rectal portal shunt index was determined by calculating the ratio of counts for the liver to counts for the heart integrated for 24 seconds immediately after the appearance of the liver time-activity curve. The median receptor index was lower for more severe liver disorders, increasing in the order of chronic hepatitis, compensated cirrhosis and decompensated cirrhosis, and the median index of blood clearance was higher. The median receptor index was significantly lower when a complication (varices, ascites, or encephalopathy) was present, and the median index of blood clearance was higher. The shunt index was correlated significantly with the two other indices, but these values for some one-third of the patients disagreed in either indices. Scintigraphy with {sup 99m

  15. Macromolecular Dynamics in Red Blood Cells Investigated Using Neutron Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stadler, Andreas Maximilian; Demmel, Franz; Artmann, Gerhard; 10.1098/rsif.2010.0306

    2011-01-01

    We present neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of hemoglobin (Hb) in human red blood cells in vivo. Global and internal Hb dynamics were measured in the ps to ns time- and {\\AA} length-scale using quasielastic neutron backscattering spectroscopy. We observed the cross-over from global Hb short-time to long-time self-diffusion. Both short- and long-time diffusion coefficients agree quantitatively with predicted values from hydrodynamic theory of non-charged hard-sphere suspensions when a bound water fraction of around 0.23g H2O/ g Hb is taken into account. The higher amount of water in the cells facilitates internal protein fluctuations in the ps time-scale when compared to fully hydrated Hb powder. Slower internal dynamics of Hb in red blood cells in the ns time-range were found to be rather similar to results obtained with fully hydrated protein powders, solutions and E. coli cells.

  16. Aggregation of Red Blood Cells: From Rouleaux to Clot Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, C; Svetina, S

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux. This aggregation process is believed to be reversible, but there is still no full understanding on the binding mechanism. There are at least two competing models, based either on bridging or on depletion. We review recent experimental results on the single cell level and theoretical analyses of the depletion model and of the influence of the cell shape on the binding strength. Another important aggregation mechanism is caused by activation of platelets. This leads to clot formation which is life saving in the case of wound healing but also a major cause of death in the case of a thrombus induced stroke. We review historical and recent results on the participation of red blood cells in clot formation.

  17. RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal V. Panchbhai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

  18. Use of cryopreserved peripheral mononuclear blood cells in biomonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Lotte; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1999-01-01

    cells (PMBC) obtained from donor blood. Measurements of DNA-repair, mutant frequency, and subcell content were included. Samples for large biomonitoring studies are usually taken from study groups within a short time period of days/weeks and storing of study material for later analysis can be necessary......This study was performed to investigate the effect of storing blood samples by freezing on selected biomarkers and possible implications for biomonitoring. Comparative measurements were performed in order to investigate the use of cryopreserved vs. freshly separated peripheral mononuclear blood....... We measured the DNA repair activity as dimethylsulfate induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in PMBC incubated with either autologous plasma or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Comparison of the hprt mutant frequency by the T cell cloning assay was made in parallel. Finally the content of B...

  19. A spectral and morphologic method for white blood cell classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chang, Li; Zhou, Mei; Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Guo, Fangmin

    2016-10-01

    The identification of white blood cells is important as it provides an assay for diagnosis of various diseases. To overcome the complexity and inaccuracy of traditional methods based on light microscopy, we proposed a spectral and morphologic method based on hyperspectral blood images. We applied mathematical morphology-based methods to extract spatial information and supervised method is employed for spectral analysis. Experimental results show that white blood cells could be segmented and classified into five types with an overall accuracy of more than 90%. Moreover, the experiments including spectral features reached higher accuracy than the spatial-only cases, with a maximum improvement of nearly 20%. By combing both spatial and spectral features, the proposed method provides higher classification accuracy than traditional methods.

  20. Technical aspects of bone scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, M L; O'Connor, M K; Hung, J C; Hayostek, R J

    1993-07-01

    Optimal bone scintigraphy is obtained by using a current generation gamma camera with a high-resolution collimator, minimizing the patient-to-collimator distance, using scatter reduction techniques where possible, and obtaining a 500,000 to 1 million count image for 40-cm field of view camera. Hard copy images from an analog or digital formatter should be optimized to display all intensities either on the same images or, when necessary, to display the low count information on one image and the high count information on another. Additional images using different collimators, such as converging or pinhole collimators, and oblique and lateral views should be obtained when necessary to demonstrate or define the pathologic area. To optimize SPECT imaging, the following parameters should be used: a high-resolution collimator, a 128 x 128 acquisition matrix, and minimum separation between the patient and the collimator, which may require the use of an elliptic orbit. Between 64 and 128 views should be obtained, and depending on preference, the planar data should be prefiltered with a Butterworth, order 8-12 and a cutoff at 0.5 Nyquist. The data should then be reconstructed using a simple ramp filter. This method provides a good technique when one is first beginning to perform bone SPECT. Attenuation correction is not generally beneficial for SPECT bone studies, although sometimes weighted backprojection may improve image contrast and resolution. Finally, the use of volume rendering may help clarify the location of suspect lesions.

  1. Net haemoglobin increase from reinfusion of refrigerated vs. frozen red blood cells after autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashenden, M; Mørkeberg, Jakob Sehested

    2011-01-01

    objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures...... freezing. Nevertheless, frozen storage allowed haemoglobin to fully recover before reinfusion, while the haemoglobin was 10% lower in the refrigerated group compared with baseline. After reinfusion, the haemoglobin levels were 11·5% higher than the baseline values in the group reinfused with frozen blood......, while for the refrigerated group, haemoglobin levels were only 5·2% higher than baseline. CONCLUSION  The relatively larger recovery from anaemia in the frozen group during storage more than compensated for the larger loss of haemoglobin during freezing and resulted in a larger net gain in haemoglobin...

  2. Shear stress-induced improvement of red blood cell deformability

    OpenAIRE

    Meram, Ece; Yılmaz, Bahar D.; Bas, Ceren; Atac, Nazlı; Yalçın, Ö.; Başkurt, Oguz K.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, it is known that red blood cell (RBC) deformability is determined by the geometric and material properties of these cells. Experimental evidence accumulated during the last decade has introduced the concept of active regulation of RBC deformability. This regulation is mainly related to altered associations between membrane skeletal proteins and integral proteins, with the latter serving to anchor the skeleton to the lipid matrix. It has been hypothesized that shear stress induces...

  3. Expansion of human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Song; Chu, Pat; Hwang, William; Lodish, Harvey

    2010-10-08

    A recent Science paper reported a purine derivative that expands human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells in culture (Boitano et al., 2010) by antagonizing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Major problems need to be overcome before ex vivo HSC expansion can be used clinically.

  4. Red blood cell transfusion during septic shock in the ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Smith, S H; Carlsen, S

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) remains controversial in patients with septic shock, but current practice is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate RBC transfusion practice in septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU), and patient characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion....

  5. Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Jonge (Robert); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); M. Smit (Marij); M. de Frankrijker-Merkestijn; R.J. Dolhain; J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); J. Lindemans (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of automated leucocyte (white blood cell; WBC) counting by comparison with manual counting. METHODS: The number of WBC was determined in heparinized synovial fluid samples by the use of (i) a standard urine cytometer (Kova) and a

  6. Hypoxia, hormones, and red blood cell function in chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Stefanie; Baumann, Rosemarie

    2003-04-01

    The red blood cell function of avian embryos is regulated by cAMP. Adenosine A(2A) and beta-adrenergic receptor activation during hypoxic conditions cause changes in the hemoglobin oxygen affinity and CO(2) transport. Furthermore, experimental evidence suggests a general involvement of cAMP in terminal differentiation of avian erythroblasts.

  7. Red blood cells intended for transfusion : quality criteria revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogman, CF; Meryman, HT

    2006-01-01

    Great variation exists with respect to viability and function of fresh and stored red blood cells (RBCs) as well as of the contents of RBC hemoglobin (Hb) in individual units. Improved technology is available for the preparation as well as the storage of RBCs. The authors raise the question whether

  8. The effects of cryopreservation on red blood cell rheologic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Lagerberg, Johan W. M.; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In transfusion medicine, frozen red blood cells (RBCs) are an alternative for liquid-stored RBCs. Little is known about the rheologic properties (i.e., aggregability and deformability) of thawed RBCs. In this study the rheologic properties of high-glycerol frozen RBCs and postthaw stored

  9. Alterations of red blood cell metabolome in overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darghouth, D.; Koehl, B.; Heilier, J.F.; Madalinski, G.; Bovee, P.H.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Delaunay, J.; Junot, C.; Romeo, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, clinically characterized by hemolytic anemia, is a rare disorder of the erythrocyte membrane permeability to monovalent cations, associated with mutations in the Rh-associated glycoprotein gene. We assessed the red blood cell metabolome of 4 patients with this

  10. Red blood cell antibodies in pregnancy and their clinical consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvall, Maria; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine;

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine clinical consequences of various specificities for the infant/fetus. The population was patients referred between 1998 and 2005 to the tertiary center because of detected red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization. Altogether 455 infants were delivered by 390 alloimmunized...

  11. 78 FR 47714 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Health Service Act, as amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises... Advancing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hemoglobinopathies. The Council also will...

  12. 78 FR 23571 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises the Secretary of the... Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hemoglobinopathies. The Council will also hear presentations...

  13. Measuring density and compressibility of white blood cells and prostate cancer cells by microchannel acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    to determine the density and compressibility of individual cells enables the prediction and alteration of the separation outcome for a given cell mixture. We apply the method on white blood cells (WBCs) and DU145 prostate cancer cells (DUCs) aiming to improve isolation of circulating tumor cells from blood......We present a novel method for the determination of density and compressibility of individual particles and cells undergoing microchannel acoustophoresis in an arbitrary 2D acoustic field. Our method is a critical advancement within acoustophoretic separation of biological cells, as the ability......, an emerging tool in the monitoring and characterizing of metastatic cancer....

  14. Acetylsalicylic acid and morphology of red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Natan Grinapel Frydman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of in vitro and in vivo treatment with ASA on the morphology of the red blood cells. Blood samples or Wistar rats were treated with ASA for one hour. Blood samples or animals treated with saline were used as control group. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of red blood cells were evaluated under optical microscopy. Data showed that the in vitro treatment for one hour with ASA at higher dose used significantly (pEste trabalho avaliou o efeito do tratamento in vitro e in vivo com AAS na morfologia dos eritrócitos. Amostras de sangue ou ratos Wistar foram tratadas com AAS por uma hora. Amostras sangüíneas ou animais tratados com salina foram utilizados como grupos controle. Distensões de sangue foram preparadas, fixadas, coradas e a análise morfológica qualitativa e quantitativa dos eritrócitos foi realizada em microscópio óptico. Os dados mostraram que o tratamento in vitro por uma hora com AAS na maior dose utilizada modificou significativamente (p<0.05 a relação perímetro/área dos eritrócitos. Não foram obtidas alterações morfológicas com o tratamento in vivo. O uso do AAS em doses altas poderia interferir na forma dos eritrócitos.

  15. Differentiation of Human Cord Blood and Stromal Derived Stem Cells into Neuron Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Pamukçu Baran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew indefinitely and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue types. Umbilical cord blood has been utilized for human hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as an alternative source to bone marrow.The experiments show that Wharton’s jelly cells are easily attainable and can be expanded in vitro, maintained in culture, and induced to differentiate into neural cells. Almost recent studies it has been discovered that the cord blood-derived cells can differantiate not only to blood cells but also to various somatic cells like neuron or muscle cell with the signals taken from the envoirenment.Interestingly, neural cells obtained from umbilical cord blood show a relatively high spontaneous differentiation into oligodendrocytes, Embryonic stem cells proliferate indefinitely and can differentiate spontaneously into all tissue types.It has been shown that embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons and glia by treatment with retinoic acid or basic fibroblast growth factor. It has been studied that the diseases as Motor Neuron Disease, Parkinson, Alzheimer and degeneration of medulla spinalis and also paralysises could be treated with transplantation of cord blood-dericed stem cells.

  16. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: comparison of pulmonary CT angiography and lung scintigraphy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare the diagnostic adequacy of lung scintigraphy with that of pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) in the care of pregnant patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient characteristics, radiology report content, additional imaging performed, final diagnosis, and diagnostic adequacy were recorded for pregnant patients consecutively referred for lung scintigraphy or pulmonary CTA according to physician preference. Measurements of pulmonary arterial enhancement were performed on all pulmonary CTA images of pregnant patients. Lung scintigraphy and pulmonary CTA studies deemed inadequate for diagnosis at the time of image acquisition were further assessed, and the cause of diagnostic inadequacy was determined. The relative contribution of the inferior vena cava to the right side of the heart was measured on nondiagnostic CTA images and compared with that on CTA images of age-matched nonpregnant women, who were the controls. RESULTS: Twenty-eight pulmonary CTA examinations were performed on 25 pregnant patients, and 25 lung scintigraphic studies were performed on 25 pregnant patients. Lung scintigraphy was more frequently adequate for diagnosis than was pulmonary CTA (4% vs 35.7%) (p = 0.0058). Pulmonary CTA had a higher diagnostic inadequacy rate among pregnant than nonpregnant women (35.7% vs 2.1%) (p < 0.001). Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava was identified in eight of 10 nondiagnostic pulmonary CTA studies. CONCLUSION: We found that lung scintigraphy was more reliable than pulmonary CTA in pregnant patients. Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava is a common finding at pulmonary CTA of pregnant patients.

  17. Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    1999-11-01

    A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

  18. Hemoglobin Aggregation in Single Red Blood Cells of Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Izumi; Tanaka, Toyoichi; Sun, Shao-Tang; Imanishi, Yuri; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.

    1983-06-01

    A laser light scattering technique was used to observe the extent of hemoglobin aggregation in solitary red blood cells of sickle cell anemia. Hemoglobin aggregation was confirmed in deoxygenated cells. The light scattering technique can also be applied to cytoplasmic studies of any biological cell.

  19. Flow of Red Blood Cells in Stenosed Microvessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2016-06-01

    A computational study is presented on the flow of deformable red blood cells in stenosed microvessels. It is observed that the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect is significantly enhanced due to the presence of a stenosis. The apparent viscosity of blood is observed to increase by several folds when compared to non-stenosed vessels. An asymmetric distribution of the red blood cells, caused by geometric focusing in stenosed vessels, is observed to play a major role in the enhancement. The asymmetry in cell distribution also results in an asymmetry in average velocity and wall shear stress along the length of the stenosis. The discrete motion of the cells causes large time-dependent fluctuations in flow properties. The root-mean-square of flow rate fluctuations could be an order of magnitude higher than that in non-stenosed vessels. Several folds increase in Eulerian velocity fluctuation is also observed in the vicinity of the stenosis. Surprisingly, a transient flow reversal is observed upstream a stenosis but not downstream. The asymmetry and fluctuations in flow quantities and the flow reversal would not occur in absence of the cells. It is concluded that the flow physics and its physiological consequences are significantly different in micro- versus macrovascular stenosis.

  20. Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells. Who has the right word?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Laporta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze bioethical and legal aspects related to the cryopreservation of cord blood stem cells in Argentina. To unify definitions, the concept and variety of stem cells, together with the understanding of the means to obtain and store umbilical cord blood stem cells, are provided.  Options that arise in our country, mainly analyzing the conceptual differences underlying legal body and parts by public and private biobanks, are described. Additionally, the current Argentinean legislation and circumstances arising from a resolution which INCUCAI sought to regulate private biobanks, is analyzed. This analysis leads to thoughts on the way conflicts are solved when the health and life of people are judicialized. In this particular case, the appearance of a complex new topic which gives rise to new social and healthcare scenarios, must be further understood.

  1. Structural analysis of red blood cell aggregates under shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnutt, J K W; Marshall, J S

    2010-03-01

    A set of measures of red blood cell (RBC) aggregates are developed and applied to examine the aggregate structure under plane shear and channel flows. Some of these measures are based on averages over the set of red blood cells which are in contact with each other at a given time. Other measures are developed by first fitting an ellipse to the planar projection of the aggregate, and then examining the area and aspect ratio of the fit ellipse as well as the orientations of constituent RBCs with respect to the fit ellipse axes. The aggregate structural measures are illustrated using a new mesoscale computational model for blood cell transport, collision and adhesion. The sensitivity of this model to change in adhesive surface energy density and shear rate on the aggregate structure is examined. It is found that the mesoscale model predictions exhibit reasonable agreement with experimental and theoretical data for blood flow in plane shear and channel flows. The new structural measures are used to examine the differences between predictions of two- and three-dimensional computations of the aggregate formation, showing that two-dimensional computations retain some of the important aspects of three-dimensional computations.

  2. Biomechanics and biorheology of red blood cells in sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Dao, Ming; Lykotrafitis, George; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited blood disorder that causes painful crises due to vaso-occlusion of small blood vessels. The primary cause of the clinical phenotype of SCA is the intracellular polymerization of sickle hemoglobin resulting in sickling of red blood cells (RBCs) in deoxygenated conditions. In this review, we discuss the biomechanical and biorheological characteristics of sickle RBCs and sickle blood as well as their implications toward a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of SCA. Additionally, we highlight the adhesive heterogeneity of RBCs in SCA and their specific contribution to vaso-occlusive crisis. PMID:27876368

  3. Biomechanics and biorheology of red blood cells in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Dao, Ming; Lykotrafitis, George; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-01-04

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited blood disorder that causes painful crises due to vaso-occlusion of small blood vessels. The primary cause of the clinical phenotype of SCA is the intracellular polymerization of sickle hemoglobin resulting in sickling of red blood cells (RBCs) in deoxygenated conditions. In this review, we discuss the biomechanical and biorheological characteristics of sickle RBCs and sickle blood as well as their implications toward a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of SCA. Additionally, we highlight the adhesive heterogeneity of RBCs in SCA and their specific contribution to vaso-occlusive crisis.

  4. Erythropoietic Potential of CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Human Cord Blood and G-CSF-Mobilized Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglian Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC supply for transfusion has been severely constrained by the limited availability of donor blood and the emergence of infection and contamination issues. Alternatively, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from human organs have been increasingly considered as safe and effective blood source. Several methods have been studied to obtain mature RBCs from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells via in vitro culture. Among them, human cord blood (CB and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized adult peripheral blood (mPB are common adult stem cells used for allogeneic transplantation. Our present study focuses on comparing CB- and mPB-derived stem cells in differentiation from CD34+ cells into mature RBCs. By using CD34+ cells from cord blood and G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood, we showed in vitro RBC generation of artificial red blood cells. Our results demonstrate that CB- and mPB-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells have similar characteristics when cultured under the same conditions, but differ considerably with respect to expression levels of various genes and hemoglobin development. This study is the first to compare the characteristics of CB- and mPB-derived erythrocytes. The results support the idea that CB and mPB, despite some similarities, possess different erythropoietic potentials in in vitro culture systems.

  5. Guidelines for radioiodinated MIBG scintigraphy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Pierre; Colarinha, Paula; Fettich, Jure; Fischer, Sibylle; Frökier, Jörgen; Giammarile, Francesco; Gordon, Isky; Hahn, Klaus; Kabasakal, Levent; Mann, Mike; Mitjavila, Mercedes; Piepsz, Amy; Porn, Ute; Sixt, Rune; van Velzen, Jeannette

    2003-05-01

    These guidelines on the use of radioiodinated (99m)Tc-MIBG scintigraphy in children, which summarise the views of the Paediatric Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine, provide a framework which may prove helpful to nuclear medicine teams in daily practice. They have been influenced by the conclusions of the "Consensus Guidelines for MIBG Scintigraphy" (Paris, November 6, 1997) of the European Neuroblastoma Group and by those of the Oncological Committee of the French Society of Nuclear Medicine. The guidelines should be taken in the context of "good practice" and any local/national rules which apply to nuclear medicine examinations.

  6. Bone-scintigraphy in painful bipartite patella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iossifidis, A. [Orthopaedic Academic Unit, St. Thomas` Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Brueton, R.N. [Orthopaedic Academic Unit, St. Thomas` Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Nunan, T.O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, St. Thomas` Hospital, London (United Kingdom)

    1995-10-01

    Although, the use of technetium scintigraphy in the assessment of anterior knee pain has been described, no reference has been made to the scintigraphic appearances of painful bipartite patella. We report the scintigraphic-appearances of painful bipartite patella in 25-year-old man a 2 1/2 years history of unexplained patellar pain. Painful bipartite patella is a rare cause of chronic post-traumatic patellar pain. Bone scintigraphy, by demonstrating increased uptake by the painful accessory bipartite fragment, appears to be an imaging method of choice in the diagnosis of this condition. (orig./MG)

  7. Colovesical fistula demonstrated on renal cortical scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathaki, Maria; Vamvakas, Lampros; Papadaki, Emmanouela; Papadimitraki, Elisavet; Tsaroucha, Angeliki; Karkavitsas, Nikolaos

    2012-11-01

    A 70-year-old man with a history of weight loss, changes in bowel habits, and hematochezia had rectal adenocarcinoma. He was palliated with diverting colostomy, followed by radiochemotherapy. Bilateral hydronephrosis was found incidentally on lower abdominal CT scan. He underwent 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid scan prior to percutaneous nephrostomy tube placement. Apart from the renal cortex, scintigraphy showed activity in the ascending colon continuous to the activity of the bladder. This indicated urine extravasation on account of a colovesical fistula, complicating postoperative radiation treatment. Here we highlight the contribution of renal cortical scintigraphy in the detection of colovesical fistulas.

  8. Multiscale Modeling of Red Blood Cells Squeezing through Submicron Slits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Lu, Huijie

    2016-11-01

    A multiscale model is applied to study the dynamics of healthy red blood cells (RBCs), RBCs in hereditary spherocytosis, and sickle cell disease squeezing through submicron slits. This study is motivated by the mechanical filtration of RBCs by inter-endothelial slits in the spleen. First, the model is validated by comparing the simulation results with experiments. Secondly, the deformation of the cytoskeleton in healthy RBCs is investigated. Thirdly, the mechanisms of damage in hereditary spherocytosis are investigated. Finally, the effects of cytoplasm and membrane viscosities, especially in sickle cell disease, are examined. The simulations results provided guidance for future experiments to explore the dynamics of RBCs under extreme deformation.

  9. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  10. [Morphometry and electrophoretic mobility of red blood cells from patients with asthma in the intravenous blood laser irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarycheva, T G; Tsybzhitova, E B; Popova, O V; Aleksandrov, O V

    2009-03-01

    The morphometry and electrophoretic mobility of red blood cells from patients with infection-dependent asthma were comparatively studied prior to and following treatment. The patients who had underwent intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) in addition to conventional therapy had better morphofunctional parameters of red blood cells, by restoring their normal forms, decreasing their transitional ones, and increasing their electrophoretic mobility to normal values. Those who received traditional drug therapy showed no considerable morphofunctional changes of erythrocytes. Thus, in asthmatic patients, the changes in the morphology and function of red blood cells may suggest their membranous structural changes for whose correction ILIB should used.

  11. Cell-cell interaction in blood flow in patients with coronary heart disease (in vitro study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions are one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. We have chosen the method of reconstruction of pulsative blood flow in vitro in the experimental set. Blood flow structure was studied by PC integrated video camera with following slide by slide analysis. Studied flow was of constant volumetric blood flow velocity (1 ml/h). Diameter of tube in use was comparable with coronary arteries diameter. Glucose solution and unfractured heparin were used as the nonspecial irritants of studied flow. Erythrocytes space structure in flow differs in all groups of patients in our study (men with stable angina pectoris (SAP), myocardial infarction (MI) and practically healthy men (PHM). Intensity of erythrocytes aggregate formation was maximal in patients with SAP, but time of their "construction/deconstruction" at glucose injection was minimal. Phenomena of primary clotting formation in patients with SAP of high function class was reconstructed under experimental conditions. Heparin injection (10 000 ED) increased linear blood flow velocity both in patients with SAP, MI and PHP but modulated the cell profile in the flow. Received data correspond with results of animal model studies and noninvasive blood flow studies in human. Results of our study reveal differences in blood flow structure in patients with coronary heart disease and PHP under irritating conditions as the possible framework of metabolic model of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  12. Characterization of red blood cells (RBCs) using dual Brillouin/Raman micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Bustamante-Lopez, Sandra C.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2016-04-01

    Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, transport oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body's tissues and organs. Red blood cell mechanical properties are altered in a number of diseases such as sickle cell anaemia and malaria. Additionally, mechanically modified red blood cell ghosts are being considered as a long-term, biocompatible carrier for drug delivery and for blood analyte sensing. Brillouin spectroscopy enables viscoelastic characterization of samples at the microscale. In this report, Brillouin spectroscopy is applied to characterize the mechanical properties of red blood cells and red blood cell ghosts.

  13. Saving the leftovers: models for banking cord blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Kimberly J

    2009-01-01

    Each year there are over four million live births in the United States. Each birth produces umbilical cord blood stem cells, which are usually discarded. The author argues that rather than discarding the umbilical cord, this valuable resource of cord blood should be banked and used for research and therapeutic purposes. Umbilical cord blood could provide a solution to the critical need to find matching donors for hematopoietic transplants in patients who have no matching bone marrow donors. Creating a system of universal donation to a public bank will greatlyincrease the number of donors and therefore, the number of matches for patients. Such a system will facilitate the development and use of new technologies and transplant procedures, while providing an opportunity for treatment to individuals who would otherwise not be able to find suitable donors.

  14. Mobility Enhancement of Red Blood Cells with Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Daiki; Oikawa, Noriko; Kurita, Rei

    2016-03-01

    Adhesion of red blood cells (RBC) to substrates are one of crucial problems for a blood clot. Here we investigate the mobility of RBC between two glass substrates in saline with polymer systems. We find that RBCs are adhered to the glass substrate with PEG, however the mobility steeply increases with fibrinogen and dextran, which are biopolymers. We also find that the mobility affects an aggregation dynamics of RBCs, which is related with diseases such as influenza, blood clot and so on. The Brownian motion helps to increase probability of contact with each other and to find a more stable condition of the aggregation. Thus the biopolymers play important roles not only for preventing the adhesion but also for the aggregation.

  15. Osseous scintigraphy and auxiliary graft. Scintigraphie osseuse et greffe d'appoint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelifa, F.; Siles, S. (Hopital de la Timone, 13 - Marseille (France)); Puech, B.

    1992-12-01

    The scintigraphy could be a good way to survey the osseous graft: three cases are studied in which were recognized the presence of a graft, surinfection, graft lysis, pseudo-arthrosis, algodystrophy. 8 refs., 5 figs.

  16. 2-D Model for Normal and Sickle Cell Blood Microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekleab, Yonatan; Harris, Wesley

    2011-11-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that alters the red blood cell (RBC) structure and function such that hemoglobin (Hb) cannot effectively bind and release oxygen. Previous computational models have been designed to study the microcirculation for insight into blood disorders such as SCD. Our novel 2-D computational model represents a fast, time efficient method developed to analyze flow dynamics, O2 diffusion, and cell deformation in the microcirculation. The model uses a finite difference, Crank-Nicholson scheme to compute the flow and O2 concentration, and the level set computational method to advect the RBC membrane on a staggered grid. Several sets of initial and boundary conditions were tested. Simulation data indicate a few parameters to be significant in the perturbation of the blood flow and O2 concentration profiles. Specifically, the Hill coefficient, arterial O2 partial pressure, O2 partial pressure at 50% Hb saturation, and cell membrane stiffness are significant factors. Results were found to be consistent with those of Le Floch [2010] and Secomb [2006].

  17. Axial dispersion in flowing red blood cell suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, Thomas; Losserand, Sylvain; Coupier, Gwennou

    2016-11-01

    A key parameter in blood microcirculation is the transit time of red blood cells (RBCs) through an organ, which can influence the efficiency of gas exchange and oxygen availability. A large dispersion of this transit time is observed in vivo and is partly due to the axial dispersion in the flowing suspension. In the classic Taylor-Aris example of a solute flowing in a tube, the combination of molecular diffusion and parabolic velocity profile leads to enhanced axial dispersion. In suspensions of non-Brownian deformable bodies such as RBCs, axial dispersion is governed by a combination of shear induced migration and shear-induced diffusion arising from hydrodynamic interactions. We revisit this problem in the case of RBC pulses flowing in a microchannel and show that the axial dispersion of the pulse eventually saturates with a final extension that depends directly on RBC mechanical properties. The result is especially interesting in the dilute limit since the final pulse length depends only on the channel width, exponent of the migration law and dimensionless migration velocity. In continuous flow, the dispersion of transit times is the result of complex cell-cell and cell-wall interactions and is strongy influenced by the polydispersity of the blood sample. The authors acknowledge support from LabEx TEC21 and CNES.

  18. Effects of chronic kidney disease on blood cells membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderjakova, Z; Lajdova, I; Horvathova, M; Morvova, M; Sikurova, L

    2012-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is progressive loss of renal function associated among others with increased intracellular calcium concentration. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of CKD on cell membrane properties such as human red blood cell Ca(2+) ATPase activity, lymphocyte plasma membrane P2X(7) receptor expression and function. This could help us in elucidating the origin of increased calcium concentration in blood cells. We found out Ca(2+) ATPase activity is decreased in early stage CKD patients resulting in altered calcium removal from cytoplasm. By means of flow cytometry we assessed that P2X(7) receptor expression on lymphocyte membrane is 1.5 fold increased for CKD patients. Moreover, we detected an increased uptake of ethidium bromide through this receptor in CKD at basal conditions. It means CKD lymphocyte membranes contain more receptors which are more permeable thus allowing increased calcium influx from extracellular milieu. Finally, we can state alterations in blood cell membranes are closely linked to CKD and may be responsible for intracellular calcium accumulation.

  19. Quantification of Cell-Free DNA in Red Blood Cell Units in Different Whole Blood Processing Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W. Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Whole blood donations in Canada are processed by either the red cell filtration (RCF or whole blood filtration (WBF methods, where leukoreduction is potentially delayed in WBF. Fresh WBF red blood cells (RBCs have been associated with increased in-hospital mortality after transfusion. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA is released by neutrophils prior to leukoreduction, degraded during RBC storage, and is associated with adverse patient outcomes. We explored cfDNA levels in RBCs prepared by RCF and WBF and different storage durations. Methods. Equal numbers of fresh (stored ≤14 days and older RBCs were sampled. cfDNA was quantified by spectrophotometry and PicoGreen. Separate regression models determined the association with processing method and storage duration and their interaction on cfDNA. Results. cfDNA in 120 RBC units (73 RCF, 47 WBF were measured. Using PicoGreen, WBF units overall had higher cfDNA than RCF units (p=0.0010; fresh WBF units had higher cfDNA than fresh RCF units (p=0.0093. Using spectrophotometry, fresh RBC units overall had higher cfDNA than older units (p=0.0031; fresh WBF RBCs had higher cfDNA than older RCF RBCs (p=0.024. Conclusion. Higher cfDNA in fresh WBF was observed compared to older RCF blood. Further study is required for association with patient outcomes.

  20. Pyruvate effects on red blood cells during in vitro cardiopulmonary bypass with dogs' blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, DaMing; Tan, HongJing; Cai, HuiJun; Zhou, FangQiang

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effects of pyruvate (Pyr) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) in red blood cells (RBCs) during the cardiopulmonary bypass procedure (CPB), blood, 500 mL, was collected from each of 10 healthy dogs (weight 12-18 kg). The blood was divided into two parts (250 mL each) and randomly assigned into the control group (Group C, n = 10) or the Pyr group (Group P, n = 10). The blood was commingled with an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl and pyruvated isotonic solution (Pyr 50 mM) in the extracorporeal circuit in the two groups, respectively. The CPB procedure was fixed at 120 min, and the transferring flow was 4 L/min. Contents of ATP in RBCs, eNOS activities, and NO productions in plasma were measured before CPB and during CPB at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min in both groups. The ATP level, eNOS activity, and NO production were not different prior to CPB between the two groups. A decline of ATP levels was shown in both groups but remained significantly higher in Group P than in Group C at the same time points during in vitro CPB (P dogs' RBCs in the ATP level, eNOS activity, and NO production, in vitro, but Pyr effectively protected RBCs in these functions during CPB. Pyr would be clinically protective for RBCs during CPB.

  1. Pleomorphic Structures in Human Blood Are Red Blood Cell-Derived Microparticles, Not Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Adam J.; Gray, Warren D.; Schroeder, Max; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette V.; Dillard, Rebecca S.; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Stephens, David; Roback, John D.; Searles, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are a common, life-saving therapy for many patients, but they have also been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We identified unusual, pleomorphic structures in human RBC transfusion units by negative-stain electron microscopy that appeared identical to those previously reported to be bacteria in healthy human blood samples. The presence of viable, replicating bacteria in stored blood could explain poor outcomes in transfusion recipients and have major implications for transfusion medicine. Here, we investigated the possibility that these structures were bacteria. Results Flow cytometry, miRNA analysis, protein analysis, and additional electron microscopy studies strongly indicated that the pleomorphic structures in the supernatant of stored RBCs were RBC-derived microparticles (RMPs). Bacterial 16S rDNA PCR amplified from these samples were sequenced and was found to be highly similar to species that are known to commonly contaminate laboratory reagents. Conclusions These studies suggest that pleomorphic structures identified in human blood are RMPs and not bacteria, and they provide an example in which laboratory contaminants may can mislead investigators. PMID:27760197

  2. Red cell properties after different modes of blood transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Makhro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extend has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 hours of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin and citrate-based CPDA for two temperatures (4oC and room temperature were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination, red blood cell (RBC volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations and formation of micro vesicles, Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameter may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature. Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+ handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4oC. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using optimized shipment protocol the majority of parameters were stable within 24 hours, the condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for the as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the

  3. Effect of propranolol on portal vein pressure in patients with chronic liver disease: evaluation by perrectal portal scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rho, Young Ho; Han, Shin; Kim, Hak Su [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [and others

    1999-08-01

    Propranolol is known to decrease portal pressure by reducing blood flow of portal vein. Per-rectal portal scintigraphy with Tc-99m pertechnetate has been introduced to evaluate the portal circulation and early diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. We evaluated the effects of propranolol on portal circulation by using per-rectal portal scintigraphy. We analyzed the portal hemodynamics by per-rectal portal scintigraphy in 51 patients with liver cirrhosis, 10 chronic hepatitis and 10 normal subjects. 38 patients with cirrhosis underwent per-rectal portal scintigraphy before and after propranolol medication. Per-rectal portal scintigraphy was performed after per-rectal administration of 370 MBq of Tc-99m pertechnetate. The shunt index was calculated as the ratio, expressed as a percentage of heart radioactivity to the sum of heart and liver radioactivity during the first 30 seconds. The shunt index in 40 patients with cirrhosis (59.8{+-}27.2%) was significantly higher than that of normal control (5.0{+-}1.2%, p<0.01) and chronic hepatitis (11.4{+-}3.5%, p<0.01). Shunt index was significantly different according to Child's classification and the degree of esophgageal varix (p<0.01). After propranolol medication, shunt index was significantly decreased from 59.9{+-}27.3% to 51.3{+-}15.3% (p<0.01) in 38 patients with liver cirrhosis. There was no significant difference of the amount of shunt index reduction after propranolol according to Child's classification and the degree of esophageal varix. The effect of propranolol on portal circulation was demonstrated as decreasing shunt index on per-rectal portal scintigraphy in patients with liver cirrhosis. Per-rectal portal scintigraphy may be useful to evaluate the portal circulation and to predict the effect of propranolol in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  4. Blood cell telomere length is a dynamic feature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Svenson

    Full Text Available There is a considerable heterogeneity in blood cell telomere length (TL for individuals of similar age and recent studies have revealed that TL changes by time are dependent on TL at baseline. TL is partly inherited, but results from several studies indicate that e.g. life style and/or environmental factors can affect TL during life. Collectively, these studies imply that blood cell TL might fluctuate during a life time and that the actual TL at a defined time point is the result of potential regulatory mechanism(s and environmental factors. We analyzed relative TL (RTL in subsequent blood samples taken six months apart from 50 individuals and found significant associations between RTL changes and RTL at baseline. Individual RTL changes per month were more pronounced than the changes recorded in a previously studied population analyzed after 10 years' follow up. The data argues for an oscillating TL pattern which levels out at longer follow up times. In a separate group of five blood donors, a marked telomere loss was demonstrated within a six month period for one donor where after TL was stabilized. PCR determined RTL changes were verified by Southern blotting and STELA (single telomere elongation length analysis. The STELA demonstrated that for the donor with a marked telomere loss, the heterogeneity of the telomere distribution decreased considerably, with a noteworthy loss of the largest telomeres. In summary, the collected data support the concept that individual blood cell telomere length is a dynamic feature and this will be important to recognize in future studies of human telomere biology.

  5. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Of Leukemic Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, U.; Harms, H.; Haucke, M.; Aus, H. M.; ter Meulen, V.

    1982-11-01

    In a first clinical test, computer programs are being used to diagnose leukemias. The data collected include blood samples from patients suffering from acute myelomonocytic-, acute monocytic- and acute promyelocytic, myeloblastic, prolymphocytic, chronic lymphocytic leukemias and leukemic transformed immunocytoma. The proper differentiation of the leukemic cells is essential because the therapy depends on the type of leukemia. The algorithms analyse the fine chromatin texture and distribution in the nuclei as well as size and shape parameters from the cells and nuclei. Cells with similar nuclei from different leukemias can be distinguished from each other by analyzing the cell cytoplasm images. Recognition of these subtle differences in the cells require an image sampling rate of 15-30 pixel/micron. The results for the entire data set correlate directly to established hematological parameters and support the previously published initial training set .

  6. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Alexandra; Olmer, Ruth; Schwanke, Kristin; Wunderlich, Stephanie; Merkert, Sylvia; Hess, Christian; Zweigerdt, Robert; Gruh, Ina; Meyer, Johann; Wagner, Stefan; Maier, Lars S; Han, Dong Wook; Glage, Silke; Miller, Konstantin; Fischer, Philipp; Schöler, Hans R; Martin, Ulrich

    2009-10-02

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may represent an ideal cell source for future regenerative therapies. A critical issue concerning the clinical use of patient-specific iPSCs is the accumulation of mutations in somatic (stem) cells over an organism's lifetime. Acquired somatic mutations are passed onto iPSCs during reprogramming and may be associated with loss of cellular functions and cancer formation. Here we report the generation of human iPSCs from cord blood (CB) as a juvenescent cell source. CBiPSCs show characteristics typical of embryonic stem cells and can be differentiated into derivatives of all three germ layers, including functional cardiomyocytes. For future therapeutic production of autologous and allogeneic iPSC derivatives, CB could be routinely harvested for public and commercial CB banks without any donor risk. CB could readily become available for pediatric patients and, in particular, for newborns with genetic diseases or congenital malformations.

  7. Continuous-flow microfluidic blood cell sorting for unprocessed whole blood using surface-micromachined microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Weiqiang; Liu, Guangyu; Lu, Wei; Fu, Jianping

    2014-07-21

    White blood cells (WBCs) constitute about 0.1% of the blood cells, yet they play a critical role in innate and adaptive immune responses against pathogenic infections, allergic conditions, and malignancies and thus contain rich information about the immune status of the body. Rapid isolation of WBCs directly from whole blood is a prerequisite for any integrated immunoassay platform designed for examining WBC phenotypes and functions; however, such functionality is still challenging for blood-on-a-chip systems, as existing microfluidic cell sorting techniques are inadequate for efficiently processing unprocessed whole blood on chip with concurrent high throughput and cell purity. Herein we report a microfluidic chip for continuous-flow isolation and sorting of WBCs from whole blood with high throughput and separation efficiency. The microfluidic cell sorting chip leveraged the crossflow filtration scheme in conjunction with a surface-micromachined poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfiltration membrane (PMM) with high porosity. With a sample throughput of 1 mL h(-1), the microfluidic cell sorting chip could recover 27.4 ± 4.9% WBCs with a purity of 93.5 ± 0.5%. By virtue of its separation efficiency, ease of sample recovery, and high throughput enabled by its continuous-flow operation, the microfluidic cell sorting chip holds promise as an upstream component for blood sample preparation and analysis in integrated blood-on-a-chip systems.

  8. Harvesting, processing and inventory management of peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijovic Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2003, 97% autologous transplants and 65% of allogeneic transplants in Europe used mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC. Soon after their introduction in the early 1990′s, PBSC were associated with faster haemopoietic recovery, fewer transfusions and antibiotic usage, and a shorter hospital stay. Furthermore, ease and convenience of PBSC collection made them more appealing than BM harvests. Improved survival has hitherto been demonstrated in patients with high risk AML and CML. However, the advantages of PBSC come at a price of a higher incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. In order to be present in the blood, stem cells undergo the process of "mobilisation" from their bone marrow habitat. Mobilisation, and its reciprocal process - homing - are regulated by a complex network of molecules on the surface of stem cells and stromal cells, and enzymes and cytokines released from granulocytes and osteoclasts. Knowledge of these mechanisms is beginning to be exploited for clinical purposes. In current practice, stem cell are mobilised by use of chemotherapy in conjunction with haemopoietic growth factors (HGF, or with HGF alone. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor has emerged as the single most important mobilising agent, due to its efficacy and a relative paucity of serious side effects. Over a decade of use in healthy donors has resulted in vast experience of optimal dosing and administration, and safety matters. PBSC harvesting can be performed on a variety of cell separators. Apheresis procedures are nowadays routine, but it is important to be well versed in the possible complications in order to avoid harm to the patient or donor. To ensure efficient collection, harvesting must begin when sufficient stem cells have been mobilised. A rapid, reliable, standardized blood test is essential to decide when to begin harvesting; currently, blood CD34+ cell counting by flow cytometry fulfils these criteria. Blood CD34+ cell counts strongly

  9. Detection of orchitis and sacroiliitis due to brucellosis by 99mTc polyclonal human immunoglobulin scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadanali, Ayten; Uslu, Hatice; Bayraktar, Rezan; Varoglu, Erhan

    2012-07-01

    Here, we report 1 case of Brucella orchitis detected by 99mTc human immunoglobulin scintigraphy and confirmed by testicular ultrasound. A 29-year-old farmer was admitted to our hospital with fever, fatigue, arthralgia, and painful scrotal swelling that had appeared 12 days before admission. Clinically, right sacroiliitis was recorded through the Fabere test Unilateral sacroiliitis and orchitis were detected by 99mTc human immunoglobulin scintigraphy. Hypoechoic left testicular lesions and swelling of the concurrent epididymis were seen on a testicular ultrasound examination. Wright agglutination test and blood specimen culture for Brucella species were positive.

  10. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  11. Peripheral red blood cell split chimerism as a consequence of intramedullary selective apoptosis of recipient red blood cells in a case of sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Marco; Isgrò, Antonella; Sodani, Pietro; Gaziev, Javid; Fraboni, Daniela; Paciaroni, Katia; Gallucci, Cristiano; Alfieri, Cecilia; Roveda, Andrea; De Angelis, Gioia; Cardarelli, Luisa; Ribersani, Michela; Andreani, Marco; Lucarelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic cellular gene therapy through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only radical cure for congenital hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Persistent mixed hematopoietic chimerism (PMC) has been described in thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Here, we describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl who had received bone marrow transplant for sickle cell anemia. After the transplant, the patient showed 36% donor hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, whereas in the peripheral blood there was evidence of 80% circulating donor red blood cells (RBC). The analysis of apoptosis at the Bone Marrow level suggests that Fas might contribute to the cell death of host erythroid precursors. The increase in NK cells and the regulatory T cell population observed in this patient suggests that these cells might contribute to the condition of mixed chimerism.

  12. Cesarean section imprints cord blood immune cell distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie;

    2014-01-01

    Immune programming in early life may affect the risk of developing immune-related diseases later in life. Children born by cesarean section seem to be at higher risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and type-1 diabetes. We hypothesized that delivery by cesarean section may affect immune maturation...... in newborns. The objective of the study was to profile innate and adaptive immune cell subsets in cord blood of children born by cesarean section or natural birth....

  13. Bone scintigraphy in painful os peroneum syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Jensen, Frank K; Falborg, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    Lateral foot pain may be caused by various entities including the painful os peroneum syndrome. A case of a 68-year-old man is presented, who experienced a trauma with distortion of the right foot. Nine months later, he still had pain in the lateral part of the right foot. Bone scintigraphy showed...

  14. Design of a sedimentation hole in a microfluidic channel to remove blood cells from diluted whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Chiaki; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Ashiba, Hiroki; Fujimaki, Makoto; Awazu, Koichi; Makishima, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    With the aim of developing a sensor for rapidly detecting viruses in a drop of blood, in this study, we analyze the shape of a hole in a microfluidic channel in relation to the efficiency of sedimentation of blood cells. The efficiency of sedimentation is examined on the basis of our calculation and experimental results for two types of sedimentation hole, cylindrical and truncated conical holes, focusing on the Boycott effect, which can promote the sedimentation of blood cells from a downward-facing wall. As a result, we demonstrated that blood cells can be eliminated with an efficiency of 99% or higher by retaining a diluted blood sample of about 30 µL in the conical hole for only 2 min. Moreover, we succeeded in detecting the anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibody in blood using a waveguide-mode sensor equipped with a microfluidic channel having the conical sedimentation hole.

  15. Cocaine induces a reversible stomatocytosis of red blood cells and increases blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagienard, F; Schulzki, T; Furlong, P; Reinhart, W H

    2013-01-01

    Severe side effects of cocaine consumption are vasoocclusive events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. We have hypothesized that cocaine could affect red blood cells (RBCs) and alter the rheological behaviour of blood. Heparinized blood from healthy volunteers was incubated with a final hematocrit of 45% with increasing cocaine concentrations: 0, 10, 100, 1000, and 10'000 μmol/L plasma. Time dependence of the shape change was tested in phosphate buffered saline containing cocaine. RBCs were fixed in 1% glutaraldehyde for morphological analysis. Blood viscosity was measured with a Couette Viscometer (Contraves LS 30) at 37°C and a shear rate of 69.5 s⁻¹. RBC aggregation was assessed with a Myrenne aggregometer. Cocaine induced a dose-dependent stomatocytic shape transformation of RBCs, which was more pronounced in buffer than in plasma (plasma protein binding of the drug). Stomatocytosis occurs when a drug intercalates preferentially in the inner half of the membrane lipid bilayer. It was a time-dependent process with two components, an almost instant shape change occurring within 1 s, followed by a gradual further shape change during 10 min. Stomatocytosis was reversible by resuspension of the RBCs in cocaine-free buffer. This stomatocytic shape change increased whole blood viscosity at high shear rate from 5.69±0.31 mPa.s to 6.39±0.34 mPa.s for control and 10'000 μmol/L cocaine, respectively (p<0.01). RBC aggregation was not affected by the shape change. These effects occurred at a cocaine concentration, which is several-fold above those measured in vivo. Therefore, it is unlikely that hemorheological factors are involved in vascular events after cocaine consumption.

  16. Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Lee, Sangyun; Ji, Misuk; Kim, Kyoohyun; Son, Yonghak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-10-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusions. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1 (CPDA-1). With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements for 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and progressive alterations of stored RBCs. Our results show that stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within two weeks which was accompanied by significant decreases in cell deformability and cell surface area, and increases in sphericity. However, the stored RBCs with CPDA-1 maintained their morphology and deformability for up to 6 weeks.

  17. RED BLOOD CELL ABNORMALITIES IN DECOMPENSATED CHRONIC LIVER DISEASE (DCLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbazhagan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver plays an important role in normal erythropoiesis, especially in formation and destruction of RBC’s. Chronic liver diseases are frequently associated with hematological abnormalities. Anemia of diverge etiology occurs in about 75% patients with DCLD ( 36. This can ultimately culminate in grave complications. AIM OF THE STUDY: To detect various abnormalities in Red Blood Cells and to assess the type of anemia in DCLD. METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 patients of DCLD, in Meenakshi Medical College. A detailed History, clinical examination and also Ultrasound Abdomen, GI endoscopy to establish DCLD and complete Red Blood Cell assessment was done. RESULTS AND OBSERVATION : Among the 50 patients, 40 patients (80% had anemia and only 10 pts had normal h emoglobin above 13 gms%. About 15 patients (30% had severe Anemia of less than 6 gm%. Among the 40 patients, 25 patients had normocytic normochronic anemia, 10 patients had microcytic anemia, and 4 patients had macrocytosis and only one had dimorphic anem ia. CONCLUSION : Most common Red Blood Cell abnormality in DCLD is anemia (80% and most common anemia is normochronic normocytic anemia (62.5%, while microcytic anemia and macrocytosis were common among females and Alcoholics, respectively

  18. Tissue engineering of blood vessels with endothelial cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN XU; MIN XIONG SHEN; DONG ZHU MA; LI YING WANG; XI LIANG ZHA

    2003-01-01

    Endothelial cells (TEC3 cells) derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were used as seed cells to construct blood vessels. Tissue engineered blood vessels were made by seeding 8 × l06 smooth muscle cells (SMCs) obtained from rabbit arteries onto a sheet of nonwoven polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers, which was used as a biodegradable polymer scaffold. After being cultured in DMEM medium for 7 days in vitro, SMCs grew well on the PGA fibers, and the cell-PGA sheet was then wrapped around a silicon tube, and implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 6~8 weeks, the silicon tube was replaced with another silicon tube in smaller diameter, and then the TEC3 cells (endothelial cells differentiated from mouse ES cells) were injected inside the engineered vessel tube as the test group. In the control group only culture medium was injected. Five days later, the engineered vessels were harvested for gross observation, histological and immunohistochemical analysis. The preliminary results demonstrated that the SMC-PGA construct could form a tubular structure in 6~8 weeks and PGA fibers were completely degraded. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the newly formed tissue revealed a typical blood vessel structure, including a lining of endothelial cells (ECs) on the lumimal surface and the presence of SMC and collagen in the wall. No EC lining was found in the tubes of control group. Therefore, the ECs differentiated from mouse ES cells can serve as seed cells for endothelium lining in tissue engineered blood vessels.

  19. Metabolic profiling of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during proliferation and differentiation into red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Hasbullah; Browne, Susan; Al-Majmaie, Rasoul; Murphy, William; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2016-01-25

    An understanding of the metabolic profile of cell proliferation and differentiation should support the optimization of culture conditions for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation, differentiation, and maturation into red blood cells. We have evaluated the key metabolic parameters during each phase of HSPC culture for red blood cell production in serum-supplemented (SS) and serum-free (SF) conditions. A simultaneous decrease in growth rate, total protein content, cell size, and the percentage of cells in the S/G2 phase of cell cycle, as well as an increase in the percentage of cells with a CD71(-)/GpA(+) surface marker profile, indicates HSPC differentiation into red blood cells. Compared with proliferating HSPCs, differentiating HSPCs showed significantly lower glucose and glutamine consumption rates, lactate and ammonia production rates, and amino acid consumption and production rates in both SS and SF conditions. Furthermore, extracellular acidification was associated with late proliferation phase, suggesting a reduced cellular metabolic rate during the transition from proliferation to differentiation. Under both SS and SF conditions, cells demonstrated a high metabolic rate with a mixed metabolism of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in early and late proliferation, an increased dependence on OXPHOS activity during differentiation, and a shift to glycolytic metabolism only during maturation phase. These changes indicate that cell metabolism may have an important impact on the ability of HSPCs to proliferate and differentiate into red blood cells.

  20. Parameters Obtained by Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy Have Significant Correlation with Biochemical Factors Early After Liver Transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kansoul, H.A.; Axelsson, R.; Yamamoto, S.; Savicheva, I.; Aspelin, P.; Ericzon, B.G.; Gjertsen, H. [Div. of Transplantation Surgery and Div. of Radiology, Dept. of Clinical Science, Intervention, and Technology, Karolinska Inst., Karolinska Univ. Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Background: Early postoperative hepatobiliary scintigraphy after liver transplantation is performed worldwide, but data on its significance for graft function are currently limited. Purpose: To examine the correlation between the result of early postoperative hepatobiliary scintigraphy and pre- and postoperative biochemical parameters in liver transplantation (LTx) patients. Material and Methods: Six parameters of hepatobiliary scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc mebrofenin were statistically analyzed in 108 LTx patients: 1) half-life of the activity of elimination of mebrofenin from the blood; 2) total clearance of mebrofenin from the blood due to all possible routes; 3) half-life of the activity due to liver uptake; 4) clearance of mebrofenin from the blood due to liver uptake; 5) time to maximal uptake in the liver; and 6) the hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) and biochemical data. Analysis between patients with preoperative normal liver function, familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP), and end-stage liver disease (non-FAP) was also performed. Results: Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that total bilirubin postoperative day 3 correlated with all three scintigraphic parameters, and peak aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase correlated with HEF. The analysis between patients with FAP and non-FAP revealed no significant difference of scintigraphic data between the two groups. Conclusion: A significant correlation between early postoperative scintigraphic results and biochemical parameters was demonstrated.

  1. 77 FR 22791 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Health Service Act, as amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises... Thawing and Washing, (4) Access to Transplantation, and (5) Advancing Hematopoietic Stem...

  2. Blood Cell Mitochondrial DNA Content and Premature Ovarian Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca; Arosio, M.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Biondi, M.; Bione, S.; Bruni, V.; Brigante, C.; Cannavo`, S.; Cavallo, L.; Cisternino, M.; Colombo, I.; Corbetta, S.; Crosignani, P.G.; D'Avanzo, M.G.; Dalpra, L.; Danesino, C.; Di Battista, E.; Di Prospero, F.; Donti, E.; Einaudi, S.; Falorni, A.; Foresta, C.; Fusi, F.; Garofalo, N.; Giotti, I.; Lanzi, R.; Larizza, D.; Locatelli, N.; Loli, P.; Madaschi, S.; Maghnie, M.; Maiore, S.; Mantero, F.; Marozzi, A.; Marzotti, S.; Migone, N.; Nappi, R.; Palli, D.; Patricelli, M.G.; Pisani, C.; Prontera, P.; Petraglia, F.; Radetti, G.; Renieri, A.; Ricca, I.; Ripamonti, A.; Rossetti, R.; Russo, G.; Russo, S.; Tonacchera, M.; Toniolo, D.; Torricelli, F.; Vegetti, W.; Villa, N.; Vineis, P.; Wasniewsk, M.; Zuffardi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  3. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bonomi

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH, and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF and 42 poor responders (PR to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001 in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  4. Interleukin-15 Promotes the Commitment of Cord Blood CD34+ Stem Cells into NK Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建; 夏青; 孙汭; 田志刚

    2004-01-01

    To explore the effect of rhlL-15 on CB-CD34+ stem cells committing to NK cells, CD34+ stem cells were obtained from cord blood (CB) by magnetic-assisted cell sorting (MACS) method. CD3, CD16 and CD56 molecules expressed on cell surface were detected by flow cytometer. MTF method was used to test the cytotoxicity of NK cells. The results were that stem cell factor (SCF) alone has no effect on CD34+ stem cells. IL-15 stimulated CD34+ stem cells commit to NK cells, and SCF showed strong synergistic effect with IL-15. It was concluded that IL-15 and SCF played different roles during NK cell development, llr15 promoted CD34+ stem cells differentiate to NK cell precursor and SCF improved the effectsof IL-15 on NK cell differentiation.

  5. In-vitro stem cell derived red blood cells for transfusion: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ok

    2014-03-01

    To date, the use of red blood cells (RBCs) produced from stem cells in vitro has not proved practical for routine transfusion. However, the perpetual and widespread shortage of blood products, problems related to transfusion-transmitted infections, and new emerging pathogens elicit an increasing demand for artificial blood. Worldwide efforts to achieve the goal of RBC production through stem cell research have received vast attention; however, problems with large-scale production and cost effectiveness have yet to prove practical usefulness. Some progress has been made, though, as cord blood stem cells and embryonic stem cells have shown an ability to differentiate and proliferate, and induced pluripotent stem cells have been shown to be an unlimited source for RBC production. However, transfusion of stem cell-derived RBCs still presents a number of challenges to overcome. This paper will summarize an up to date account of research and advances in stem cell-derived RBCs, delineate our laboratory protocol in producing RBCs from cord blood, and introduce the technological developments and limitations to current RBC production practices.

  6. Blood Flow through an Open-Celled Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jason; Maitland, Duncan

    2011-11-01

    The Hazen-Dupuit-Darcy (HDD) equation is commonly used in engineering applications to model the pressure gradient of flow through a porous media. One major advantage of this equation is that it simplifies the complex geometric details of the porous media into two coefficients: the permeability, K, and form factor, C. However through this simplification, the flow details within the porous media are no longer accessible, making it difficult to study the phenomena that contribute to changes in K and C due to clotting of blood flow. To obtain a more detailed understanding of blood flow through a porous media, a direct assessment of the complex interstitial geometry and flow is required. In this study, we solve the Navier-Stokes equations for Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood flow through an open-celled foam geometry obtained from a micro-CT scan. The nominal strut size of the foam sample is of O(10e-5) m and the corresponding Reynolds number based upon this length ranges up to O(10). Fitting the pressure gradient vs. Darcy velocity data with the HDD equation demonstrates that both viscous and inertial forces play an important role in the flow through the foam at these Reynolds numbers. Recirculation zones are observed to form in the wake of the pore struts, producing regions of flow characterized by both low shear rates and long fluid residence times, factors of which have been shown in previous studies to promote blood clotting.

  7. Some technetium complexes for labelling red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to produce technetium labelled red blood cells, used routinely in diagnostic nuclear medicine, is reported. The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA), present in erythrocytes, is strongly inhibited by primary aromatic sulphonamides, which bind at the enzyme active site. Three types of ligand able to coordinate to technetium and suitable for modification to include a primary aromatic sulphonamide group were studied; bis(thiosemicarbazones), Schiff bases and some propylene amine oximes. The experimental conditions needed to label the ligands were determined. Both the thiosemicarbazone and propyleneamine oxime derivatives were labelled, but under no conditions attempted were the Schiff bases complexed by Technetium. The two major isozymes of Human Carbonic Anhydrase, HCA I and HCA II, were isolated from blood. The strength of binding of the free ligands SET, PN130 and PN135 with each of the isozymes was measured and expressed as the Dissociation Constant K{sub d}. The rate of uptake of the technetium complexes into washed RBCs and whole blood was measured and found to be much slower in whole blood. The biodistribution of both TcPN130 and TcPN135 in rats was determined and scintigraphic images for the TcPN130 complex were recorded. Attempts to synthesise the Tc-99 analogues on the milligram scale to allow chemical characterisation of these complexes were unsuccessful. (author).

  8. CD1c+ blood dendritic cells have Langerhans cell potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Paul; Bigley, Venetia; Gunawan, Merry; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Collin, Matthew

    2015-01-15

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are self-renewing in the steady state but repopulated by myeloid precursors after injury. Human monocytes give rise to langerin-positive cells in vitro, suggesting a potential precursor role. However, differentiation experiments with human lineage-negative cells and CD34(+) progenitors suggest that there is an alternative monocyte-independent pathway of LC differentiation. Recent data in mice also show long-term repopulation of the LC compartment with alternative myeloid precursors. Here we show that, although monocytes are able to express langerin, when cultured with soluble ligands granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), CD1c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) become much more LC-like with high langerin, Birbeck granules, EpCAM, and E-cadherin expression under the same conditions. These data highlight a new potential precursor function of CD1c(+) DCs and demonstrate an alternative pathway of LC differentiation that may have relevance in vivo.

  9. Transplantation? Peripheral Stem Cell/Bone Marrow/Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itır Sirinoglu Demiriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of peripheral stem cell (PSC and cord blood (CB as an alternative to bone marrow (BM recently has caused important changes on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT practice. According to the CIBMTR data, there has been a significant decrease in the use of bone marrow and increase in the use of PSC and CB as the stem cell source for HSCT performed during 1997–2006 period for patients under the age of 20. On the other hand, the stem cell source in 70% of the HSCT procedures performed for patients over the age of 20 was PSC and the second most preferred stem cell source was bone marrow. CB usage is very limited for the adult population. Primary disease, stage, age, time and urgency of transplantation, HLA match between the patient and the donor, stem cell quantity, and the experience of the transplantation center are some of the associated factors for the selection of the appropriate stem cell source. Unfortunately, there is no prospective randomized study aimed to facilitate the selection of the correct source between CB, PSC, and BM. In this paper, we would like to emphasize the data on stem cell selection in light of the current knowledge for patient populations according to their age and primary disease.

  10. Spring-network-based model of a red blood cell for simulating mesoscopic blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masanori; Bessho, Sadao; Wada, Shigeo

    2013-01-01

    We developed a mechanical model of a red blood cell (RBC) that is capable of expressing its characteristic behaviors in shear flows. The RBC was modeled as a closed shell membrane consisting of spring networks in the framework of the energy minimum concept. The fluid forces acting on RBCs were modeled from Newton's viscosity law and the conservation of momentum. In a steady shear flow, the RBC model exhibited various behaviors, depending on the shear rate; it tumbled, tank-treaded, or both. The transition from tumbling to tank-treading occurred at a shear rate of 20 s( - 1). The simulation of an RBC in steady and unsteady parallel shear flows (Couette flows) showed that the deformation parameters of the RBC were consistent with experimental results. The RBC in Poiseuille flow migrated radially towards the central axis of the flow channel. Axial migration became faster with an increase in the viscosity of the media, qualitatively consistent with experimental results. These results demonstrate that the proposed model satisfies the essential conditions for simulating RBC behavior in blood flow. Finally, a large-scale RBC flow simulation was implemented to show the capability of the proposed model for analyzing the mesoscopic nature of blood flow.

  11. Red-blood-cell alloimmunisation in relation to antigens' exposure and their immunogenicity: a cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, D.; Middelburg, R.A.; Haas, M. de; Zalpuri, S.; Vooght, K.M. De; Kerkhof, D. van de; Visser, O; Pequeriaux, N.C.V.; Hudig, F.; Schonewille, H.; Zwaginga, J.J.; Bom, J.G. Van Der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Matching donor red blood cells based on recipient antigens prevents alloimmunisation. Knowledge about the immunogenicity of red-blood-cell antigens can help optimise risk-adapted matching strategies. We set out to assess the immunogenicity of red-blood-cell antigens. METHODS: In an incid

  12. Utilization and quality of cryopreserved red blood cells in transfusion medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, S.; Noorman, F.; Badloe, J. F.; Lagerberg, J. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreserved (frozen) red blood cells have been used in transfusion medicine since the Vietnam war. The main method to freeze the red blood cells is by usage of glycerol. Although the usage of cryopreserved red blood cells was promising due to the prolonged storage time and the limited cellular det

  13. MEASUREMENT OF REGIONAL BONE BLOOD FLOW IN THE CANINE MANDIBULAR RAMUS USING RADIOLABELLED TOAD RED BLOOD CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛驰; 王翰章

    1994-01-01

    Toad red blood cells were used to measure regional bone blood flow in the canine mandibular ramus.The blood cells were labelled with sodium pertechnetate and fixed in 10% formalin;they were 22×15 μm in size and had a specific gravity close to that of dog red blood cells.These cells had no discernible effect on systemic hemody-namics after injection,did not agglutinate,were well mixed and evenly distributed throughout the body,and were completely extracted in one circulation through the mandible.The mandibular ramus was divided into six regions,and the blood flow rates in each were found to be similar to those reported in previous studies with radiolabelled carbonized,microspheres.Furthermore,the blood flow distribution pattern of the mandibular ramus determined in this study was identical to that of our previous study using the bone-seeking radionuclide method.We suggest that radiolabelled toad red blood cells are an ideal marker for measuring regional blood flow in the canine mandible.

  14. Utilization and quality of cryopreserved red blood cells in transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkelman, S; Noorman, F; Badloe, J F; Lagerberg, J W M

    2015-02-01

    Cryopreserved (frozen) red blood cells have been used in transfusion medicine since the Vietnam war. The main method to freeze the red blood cells is by usage of glycerol. Although the usage of cryopreserved red blood cells was promising due to the prolonged storage time and the limited cellular deterioration at subzero temperatures, its usage have been hampered due to the more complex and labour intensive procedure and the limited shelf life of thawed products. Since the FDA approval of a closed (de) glycerolization procedure in 2002, allowing a prolonged postthaw storage of red blood cells up to 21 days at 2-6°C, cryopreserved red blood cells have become a more utilized blood product. Currently, cryopreserved red blood cells are mainly used in military operations and to stock red blood cells with rare phenotypes. Yet, cryopreserved red blood cells could also be useful to replenish temporary blood shortages, to prolong storage time before autologous transfusion and for IgA-deficient patients. This review describes the main methods to cryopreserve red blood cells, explores the quality of this blood product and highlights clinical settings in which cryopreserved red blood cells are or could be utilized.

  15. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuna Zoe de Back

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC. During steady state haematopoiesis, approximately 1010 red blood cells are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages.

  16. Isolation of rare tumor cells from blood cells with buoyant immuno-microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixin Shi

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are exfoliated at various stages of cancer, and could provide invaluable information for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. There is an urgent need for the development of cost-efficient and scalable technologies for rare CTC enrichment from blood. Here we report a novel method for isolation of rare tumor cells from excess of blood cells using gas-filled buoyant immuno-microbubbles (MBs. MBs were prepared by emulsification of perfluorocarbon gas in phospholipids and decorated with anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM antibody. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (85% and rapidly (within 15 minutes bound to various epithelial tumor cells suspended in cell medium. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (88% isolated frequent tumor cells that were spiked at 100,000 cells/ml into plasma-depleted blood. Anti-EpCAM MBs efficiently (>77% isolated rare mouse breast 4T1, human prostate PC-3 and pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells spiked into 1, 3 and 7 ml (respectively of plasma-depleted blood. Using EpCAM targeted MBs CTCs from metastatic cancer patients were isolated, suggesting that this technique could be developed into a valuable clinical tool for isolation, enumeration and analysis of rare cells.

  17. Intrasplenic masses of ``preserved`` functioning splenic tissue in sickle cell disease: correlation of imaging findings (CT, ultrasound, MRI, and nuclear scintigraphy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, T.L. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Berdon, W.E. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Haller, J.O. [Department of Radiology, SUNY Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, New York (United States); Ruzal-Shapiro, C. [Department of Radiology, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, 3959 Broadway, BHN 3-318, New York, NY 10032 (United States); Hurlet-Jenson, A. [Department of Pediatrics, Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Babies and Children`s Hospital of New York, New York (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Purpose. We studied six patients with sickle cell disease (SSD), five homozygous for sickle cell anemia and one with sickle beta-thalassemia, in whom rounded intrasplenic masses proved to be preserved functioning splenic tissue. Materials and methods. Available images including computed tomography, ultrasonography, bone scans (Tc-99m MDP), liver spleen scans (Tc-99m sulfur colloid), and MRI were evaluated. Results. The masses were low density on CT (in an otherwise calcified spleen), hypoechoic relative to the echogenic spleen on US, and had the imaging characteristics of normal spleen on MRI. They failed to accumulate Tc-99m MDP but did demonstrate uptake of Tc-99m sulfur colloid. Conclusion. In a patient with SSD and intrasplenic masses, proper correlation of multiple imaging modalities will establish the diagnosis of functioning splenic tissue and avoid mistaken diagnosis of splenic abscess or infarction. (orig.). With 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Lowering of blood pressure by increasing hematocrit with non nitric oxide scavenging red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Vázquez, Beatriz Y; Cabrales, Pedro; Tsai, Amy G; Johnson, Paul C; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2008-02-01

    Isovolemic exchange transfusion of 40% of the blood volume in awake hamsters was used to replace native red blood cells (RBCs) with RBCs whose hemoglobin (Hb) was oxidized to methemoglobin (MetHb), MetRBCs. The exchange maintained constant blood volume and produced different final hematocrits (Hcts), varying from 48 to 62% Hct. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) did not change after exchange transfusion, in which 40% of the native RBCs were replaced with MetRBCs, without increasing Hct. Increasing Hct with MetRBCs lowered MAP by 12 mm Hg when Hct was increased 12% above baseline. Further increases of Hct with MetRBCs progressively returned MAP to baseline, which occurred at 62% Hct, a 30% increase in Hct from baseline. These observations show a parabolic "U" shaped distribution of MAP against the change in Hct. Cardiac index, cardiac output divided by body weight, increased between 2 and 17% above baseline for the range of Hcts tested. Peripheral vascular resistance (VR) was decreased 18% from baseline when Hct was increased 12% from baseline. VR and MAP were above baseline for increases in Hct higher than 30%. However, vascular hindrance, VR normalized by blood viscosity (which reflects the contribution of vascular geometry), was lower than baseline for all the increases in Hct tested with MetRBC, indicating prevalence of vasodilation. These suggest that acute increases in Hct with MetRBCs increase endothelium shear stress and stimulate the production of vasoactive factors (e.g., nitric oxide [NO]). When MetRBCs were compared with functional RBCs, vasodilation was augmented for MetRBCs probably due to the lower NO scavenging of MetHb. Consequently, MetRBCs increased the viscosity related hypotension range compared with functional RBCs as NO shear stress vasodilation mediated responses are greater.

  19. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  20. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyo Eun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Sun, E-mail: dslmd@kumc.or.kr [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  1. Simulation of red blood cell aggregation in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, B; Bascom, P A; Cobbold, R S

    1997-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed for red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in shear flow. It is based on a description of the collision rates of RBC, the probability of particles sticking together, and the breakage of aggregates by shear forces. The influence of shear rate, hematocrit, aggregate fractal dimension, and binding strength on aggregation kinetics were investigated and compared to other theoretical and experimental results. The model was used to simulate blood flow in a long large diameter tube under steady flow conditions at low Reynolds numbers. The time and spatial distribution of the state of aggregation are shown to be in qualitative agreement with previous B-mode ultrasound studies in which a central region of low echogenicity was noted. It is suggested that the model can provide a basis for interpreting prior measurements of ultrasound echogenicity and may help relate them to the local state of aggregation.

  2. Analysis of White Blood Cell Dynamics in Nailfold Capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquard, Aurélien; Butterworth, Ian; Sánchez-Ferro, Alvaro; Giancardo, Luca; Soenksen, Luis; Cerrato, Carolina; Flores, Rafael; Castro-González, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Based on video data acquired with low-cost, portable microscopy equipment, we introduce a semi-automatic method to count visual gaps in the blood flow as a proxy for white blood cells (WBC) passing through nailfold capillaries. Following minimal user interaction and a pre-processing stage, our method consists in the spatio-temporal segmentation and analysis of capillary profiles. Besides the mere count information, it also estimates the speed associated with every WBC event. The accuracy of our algorithm is validated through the analysis of two capillaries acquired from one healthy subject. Results are compared with manual counts from four human raters and confronted with related physiological data reported in literature. PMID:26738019

  3. Metabolic pathways that correlate with post-transfusion circulation of stored murine red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolski, Karen; Fu, Xiaoyoun; Dumont, Larry J; Roback, John D; Waterman, Hayley; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Howie, Heather L; Zimring, James C

    2016-05-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells is a very common inpatient procedure, with more than 1 in 70 people in the USA receiving a red blood cell transfusion annually. However, stored red blood cells are a non-uniform product, based upon donor-to-donor variation in red blood cell storage biology. While thousands of biological parameters change in red blood cells over storage, it has remained unclear which changes correlate with function of the red blood cells, as opposed to being co-incidental changes. In the current report, a murine model of red blood cell storage/transfusion is applied across 13 genetically distinct mouse strains and combined with high resolution metabolomics to identify metabolic changes that correlated with red blood cell circulation post storage. Oxidation in general, and peroxidation of lipids in particular, emerged as changes that correlated with extreme statistical significance, including generation of dicarboxylic acids and monohydroxy fatty acids. In addition, differences in anti-oxidant pathways known to regulate oxidative stress on lipid membranes were identified. Finally, metabolites were identified that differed at the time the blood was harvested, and predict how the red blood cells perform after storage, allowing the potential to screen donors at time of collection. Together, these findings map out a new landscape in understanding metabolic changes during red blood cell storage as they relate to red blood cell circulation.

  4. Why and how does collective red blood cells motion occur in the blood microcirculation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigliotti, Giovanni; Selmi, Hassib; Asmi, Lassaad El; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2012-10-01

    The behaviour of red blood cells (RBCs), modelled as vesicles, in Poiseuille flow, mimicking the microvasculature, is studied with numerical simulations in two dimensions. RBCs moving in the centre of the Poiseuille flow (as in blood capillaries) are shown to attract each other and form clusters only due to hydrodynamic interactions, provided that their distance at a given time is below a certain critical value. This distance depends on physical parameters, such as the flow strength. Our simulations reveal that clusters are unstable above a threshold value in the number of forming RBCs, beyond which one or few cells escape the pack by a self-regulating mechanism that select the marginally stable size. This size selection depends on the flow strength as well as on the RBC swelling ratio. The results are interpreted via the analysis of the perturbation of the flow field induced by the vesicles and the interplay with bending and tension forces. This sheds a novel light on the process of collective motion of RBCs observed in vivo.

  5. Manipulation on human red blood cells with femtosecond optical tweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhou; Haifeng Yang; Jianke Di; Enlan Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Different types of femtosecond optical tweezers have become a powerful tool in the modern biological field. However, how to control the irregular targets, including biological cells, using femtosecond optical tweezers remains to be explored. In this study, human red blood cells (hRBCs) are manipulated with femtosecond optical tweezers, and their states under different laser powers are investigated. The results indicate that optical potential traps only can capture the edge of hRBCs under the laser power from 1.4 to 2.8 mW, while it can make hRBCs turn over with the laser power more than 2.8 roW. It is suggested that femtosecond optical tweezers could not only manipulate biological cells, but also subtly control its states by adjusting the laser power.

  6. Application of whole-body bone scintigraphy in diagnosis and staging of Langerhans cell histiocytosis in infants%全身骨显像在婴幼儿朗格汉斯组织细胞增多症诊断和分期中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁献敏; 刘保平; 韩星敏; 程兵; 阮翘

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨全身骨显像在婴幼儿朗格汉斯组织细胞增多症(LCH)诊断和分期中的应用价值.方法 对20例经手术病理或骨髓穿刺、皮疹压片细胞学确诊为LCH的婴幼儿行全身骨显像检查,对骨显像阳性者加行局部X线或CT检查.利用ROI技术计算全身骨显像阳性病灶的F/N比值并求出位于相同部位病灶的F/N比值均值.结果 20例患儿全身骨显像10例阳性,4例为多发病灶,6例为单发病灶.单纯颅骨放射分布异常3例,颅骨合并其他部位骨3例,肩胛骨2例,肋骨1例,下肢骨1例;单发颅骨病灶的F/N比值均值为0.36,长骨病灶的F/N比值均值为3.52.结论 全身骨显像有助于婴幼儿LCH的诊断及分期.%Objective To assess the application value of whole-body bone scintigraphy in diagnosis and staging of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) in infants. Methods Whole-body bone scintigraphy was performed in 20 infants of LCH confirmed with surgical pathology or bone marrow aspiration and laboratory data. The infants with positive bone scintigraphy underwent X-ray or CT, and the F/N value of positive lesions and lesions located in the same area were calculated by ROI technology. Results Ten of 20 patients showed positive in bone scans, including 4 with multi-focal lesions and 6 with single lesion. Among 10 patients with positive scintigrams, there were 3 patients with abnormal bone uptakes limited to cranial, 3 with cranial and other parts of abnormal bone uptakes, 2 with scapula abnormal uptakes, as well as rib and lower limb bone involvement (each n= 1). The average ratios of F/N on cranial alone was 0. 36, while focused on long bones was 3. 52. Conclusion Whole-body bone scintigraphy is useful in the diagnosis and staging of LCH in infants.

  7. Stem Cell Heterogeneity of Mononucleated Cells from Murine Peripheral Blood: Molecular Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dain Yazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to determine the heterogeneity of primary isolated mononucleated cells that originated from the peripheral blood system by observing molecular markers. The isolated cells were cultured in complete medium for 4 to 7 days prior to the separation of different cell types, that is, adherent and suspension. Following a total culture time of 14 days, adherent cells activated the Cd105 gene while suspension cells activated the Sca-1 gene. Both progenitor markers, Cbfa-1 and Ostf-1, were inactivated in both suspension and adherent cells after 14-day culture compared to cells cultured 3 days in designated differentiation medium. In conclusion, molecular analyses showed that primary mononucleated cells are heterogeneous, consisting of hematopoietic stem cells (suspension and mesenchymal stem cells (adherent while both cells contained no progenitor cells.

  8. Production of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Reprogramming of Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Zia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood cells are the simple, efficient and economical source for the production of induced pluripotent cells. The discovery of induced pluripotent cells was not novel; it was pedestal on the scientific principals and technologies which have been developed over last six decades. These are nuclear transfer and the cloning of Animals, Pluripotent cell lines and fusion hybrids and Transcription Factors and lineage switching. The use of human embryonic stem cells in regenerative medicines was a breakthrough but make use of these cells arise ethical issues as they are obtained from human embryos. An alternative advancement using induced pluripotent stem cells, which mimics the embryonic stem cells has the significant gain that they replaced the embryonic stem cells. The pluripotent cells can be induced from terminally differentiated somatic cells by the Induction of only four defined factors including c-Myc, klf4, Oct4 and Sox2 which are enough to alter the fate of cell.

  9. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ibitokou

    Full Text Available Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study, both in Benin and Tanzania, including ∼1000 pregnant women in each site with systematic follow-up at scheduled antenatal visits until delivery. We used ex vivo flow cytometry to identify peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC profiles that are associated with PAM and anaemia, determining the phenotypic composition and activation status of PBMC in selected sub-groups with and without PAM both at inclusion and at delivery in a total of 302 women. Both at inclusion and at delivery PAM was associated with significantly increased frequencies both of B cells overall and of activated B cells. Infection-related profiles were otherwise quite distinct at the two different time-points. At inclusion, PAM was associated with anaemia, with an increased frequency of immature monocytes and with a decreased frequency of regulatory T cells (Treg. At delivery, infected women presented with significantly fewer plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC, more myeloid DC expressing low levels of HLA-DR, and more effector T cells (Teff compared to uninfected women. Independent associations with an increased risk of anaemia were found for altered antigen-presenting cell frequencies at inclusion, but for an increased frequency of Teff at delivery. Our findings emphasize the prominent role played by B cells during PAM whenever it arises during pregnancy, whilst also revealing signature changes in other circulating cell types that, we conclude, primarily reflect the relative duration of the infections. Thus, the acute, recently-acquired infections present at delivery were marked by changes in DC and Teff frequencies, contrasting with infections at inclusion, considered chronic in

  10. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Peripheral Blood of Cardiac Catheterization Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheir Korraa1, Tawfik M.S.1, Mohamed Maher 2 and Amr Zaher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rejuvenation capacity among cardiac catheterization technicians occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Subjects and methods: The individual annual collective dose information was measured by thermoluminscent personal dosimeters (TLD for those technicians and found to be ranging between 2.16 and 8.44 mSv/y. Venous blood samples were obtained from 30 cardiac catheterization technicians exposed to X-ray during fluoroscopy procedures at the National Heart Institute in Embaba. The control group involved 25 persons not exposed to ionizing radiation and not working in hospitals in addition to 20 persons not exposed to ionizing radiation and working in hospitals. Blood samples were assayed for total and differential blood counts, micronucleus formation (FMN plasma stromal derived growth factor-1α (SDF-1 α and cell phenotype of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, whose surface markers were identified as the CD34, CD133 and kinase domain receptors (KDR. Results: SDF-1α (2650± 270 vs. 2170 ± 430 pg/ml and FMN (19.9 ± 5.5 vs. 2.8 ± 1.4/1000 cells were significantly higher among cardiac catheterization staff compared to those of the controls respectively. Similarly, EPCs: CD34 (53 ± 3.9 vs. 48 ± 8.5/105 mononuclear cells, CD133 (62.4 ± 4.8 vs. 54.2 ± 10.6 /105 mononuclear cells KDR (52.7 ± 10.6 vs.43.5± 8.2 /105 mononuclear cells were also significantly higher among cardiac catheterization staff compared to the values of controls respectively. Smoking seemed to have a positive effect on the FMN and SDF-1 but had a negative effect on EPCs. It was found that among cardiac catheterization staff, the numbers of circulating progenitor cells had increased and accordingly there was an increased capacity for tissue repair. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present work shows that occupational exposure to radiation, well within permissible levels, leaves a genetic mark on the

  11. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I;

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB...

  12. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, Monica Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Geller, Mauro [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Fisiologia Humana

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  13. Diagnosis, characterisation and evaluation of treatment response of frostbite using pertechnetate scintigraphy: a prospective study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatnagar, Aseem; Sawroop, Krishan; Chopra, M.K.; Sinha, Noaline; Kashyap, Ravi [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India); Sarker, B.B. [Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, Delhi (India)

    2002-02-01

    In the present study, we performed early blood pool scintigraphy with technetium-99m pertechnetate in 20 patients (10-180 days after frostbite injury; 71 clinical lesions) referred for a topical treatment protocol for mild to moderately severe frostbite, and in 22 asymptomatic controls. The aims of the study were to define the ''normal'' microcirculation of the hands and feet, to characterise the appearances of frostbite lesions on scintigraphy and correlate these with the clinical presentation, and to evaluate the usefulness of scintigraphy for assessing the treatment response. Six patients were ''fresh'', 12 had been undergoing conservative treatment (topical homeopathic) for several weeks and two had permanent fibrotic hand phalanges. Nine patients on treatment underwent serial scintigraphy a total of 22 times. Eleven patients were imaged only once, including the two with permanent fixed defects. Three distinct physiological microcirculation patterns were evident in control hands or feet: right- or left-handedness (seven subjects), subclinical inflammatory foci correlating with callosity or pressure points (36 lesions) and distinctly increased pooling of radiotracer at the thenar or hypothenar region (eight subjects). In frostbite patients, 128 lesions (48 inflammatory, 80 ischaemic) were seen on the scan. This number included all 71 lesions identified clinically, the rest being subclinical. Subclinical frostbite lesion as an entity has not been described previously. Microvasculature of normal muscle groups (in the hands, elbow or feet) was shown on scintigraphy to improve after topical treatment. The treatment resulted in improved or normalised perfusion scan in 25 of 45 ischaemic segments with matching clinical improvement, and reduction or normalisation of uptake in inflammatory lesions (n=30). The data confirm the vasodilator and anti-inflammatory action of the topical preparation, and the sensitivity of the

  14. Manipulation of red blood cells with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Manipulation of bioparticles and macromolecules is the central task in many biological and biotechnological processes. The current methods for physical manipulation takes advantage of different forces such as acoustic, centrifugal, magnetic, electromagnetic, and electric forces, as well as using optical tweezers or filtration. Among all these methods, however, the electrical forces are particularly attractive because of their favorable scale up with the system size which makes them well-suited for miniaturization. Currently the electric field is used for transportation, poration, fusion, rotation, and separation of biological cells. The aim of the current research is to gain fundamental understanding of the effect of electric field on the human red blood cells (RBCs) using direct numerical simulation. A front tracking/finite difference technique is used to solve the fluid flow and electric field equations, where the fluid in the cell and the blood (plasma) is modeled as Newtonian and incompressible, and the interface separating the two is treated as an elastic membrane. The behavior of RBCs is investigated as a function of the controlling parameters of the problem such as the strength of the electric field.

  15. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  16. General coarse-grained red blood cell models: I. Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    FEDOSOV, DMITRY A.; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a rigorous procedure to derive coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) models, which lead to accurate mechanical properties of realistic RBCs. Based on a semi-analytic theory linear and non-linear elastic properties of the RBC membrane can be matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. In addition, we develop a nearly stress-free model which avoids a number of pitfalls of existing RBC models, such as non-biconcave equilibrium shape and dependence of RBC mech...

  17. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using optoelectronic tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Verma; R Dasgupta; N Kumar; S Ahlawat; A Uppal; P K Gupta

    2014-02-01

    We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by lightinduced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles. We used thermal evaporation technique for coating the organic polymer, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as a photoconductive layer on ITO-coated glass slide. Compare to the conventional optical tweezers, the technique requires optical power in W range and provides a manipulation area of a few mm2. The set-up was used to manipulate the polystyrene microspheres and red blood cells (RBCs). The RBCs could be attracted or repelled by varying the frequency of the applied AC bias.

  18. Swinging of red blood cells under shear flow

    CERN Document Server

    Abkarian, M; Viallat, A; Abkarian, Manouk; Faivre, Magalie; Viallat, Annie

    2007-01-01

    We reveal that under moderate shear stress (of the order of 0.1 Pa) red blood cells present an oscillation of their inclination (swinging) superimposed to the long-observed steady tanktreading (TT) motion. A model based on a fluid ellipsoid surrounded by a visco-elastic membrane initially unstrained (shape memory) predicts all observed features of the motion: an increase of both swinging amplitude and period (1/2 the TT period) upon decreasing the shear stress, a shear stress-triggered transition towards a narrow shear stress-range intermittent regime of successive swinging and tumbling, and a pure tumbling motion at lower shear stress-values.

  19. The nature of multiphoton fluorescence from red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saytashev, Ilyas; Murphy, Michael; Osseiran, Sam; Spence, Dana M.; Evans, Conor L.; Dantus, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    We report on the nature of multiphoton excited fluorescence observed from human erythrocytes (red blood cells RBC's) and their "ghosts" following 800nm sub-15 fs excitation. The detected optical signal is assigned as two-photon excited fluorescence from hemoglobin. Our findings are supported by wavelength-resolved fluorescence lifetime decay measurements using time-correlated single photon counting system from RBC's, their ghosts as well as in vitro samples of various fluorophores including riboflavin, NADH, NAD(P)H, hemoglobin. We find that low-energy and short-duration pulses allow two-photon imaging of RBC's, but longer more intense pulses lead to their destruction.

  20. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Dzumabaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19 is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis germs, thus to reduce the pancytopenia associating complications in this population. 

  1. DETERMINANTS OF RED-BLOOD-CELL DEFORMABILITY IN RELATION TO CELL AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOSCH, FH; WERRE, JM; ROERDINKHOLDERSTOELWINDER, B; HULS, T; WILLEKENS, FLA; WICHERS, G; HALIE, MR

    1994-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined with an ektacytometer in fractions separated on the basis of differences in cell volume or density. Deformability was measured with ektacytometry (rpm-scan and osmo-scan). We studied three groups of RBC fractions:l. By counterflow centrifugation we o

  2. Efficient induction of pluripotent stem cells from menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Xiaoni; Zhao, Hongxi; Feng, Ruopeng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Tai, Dapeng; An, Guangyu; Wen, Jinhua; Tan, Jichun

    2013-04-01

    The technology to reprogram human somatic cells back to pluripotency allows the production of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and holds a great promise for regenerative medicine. Choosing the most suitable cell type for induction and reducing the risk of viral transgene activation, especially oncogene activation, are important for iPSC research. To date, human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) are the most frequent cell source used for iPSC generation, but they have several limitations. An invasive skin biopsy must be performed to obtain HDFs, and HDFs must be cultured for a prolonged period before they can be used for experiments. Thus, in an effort to develop a suitable source for iPSC studies to avoid the limitations mentioned above, we have here identified stromal cells derived from menstrual blood (MenSCs) as suitable candidates. In the present study, we found that MenSCs can be reprogrammed to pluripotent status by doxycycline-inducible lentiviral transduction of OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4. Additionally, we found that MenSCs have a significantly higher reprogramming efficiency than HDFs. The combination of OCT4 and SOX2 is sufficient to reprogram MenSCs into iPSCs without the use of c-MYC or KLF4. The resulting MenSC-iPSCs showed the same characteristics as human embryonic stem cells with regard to morphology, pluripotent markers, gene expression, and the epigenetic status of pluripotent-cell-specific genes. These cells were able to differentiate into various cell types of all 3 germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, MenSCs may be a preferred candidate for generation of iPSCs.

  3. A role for gamma scintigraphy in cancer immunology and immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, A.C. (Nottingham Univ. Hospital (United Kingdom). Dept. of Medical Physics); Pimm, M.V. (Nottingham Univ. (United Kingdom). Cancer Research Campaign Labs.)

    1992-12-01

    Facilities for radiolabelling and gamma scintigraphy are largely restricted to nuclear medicine departments or specialised research institutions and are therefore not widely available to workers in cancer research. Despite this, there is growing interest in gamma scintigraphy, which can provide information relevant to the entire field of cancer immunology. This review discusses the present and future roles of gamma scintigraphy in respect of antibody-targeted, call-mediated and cytokine therapy. The authors aim to show that gamma scintigraphy is an investigated tool of great potential. (orig.).

  4. Photodynamic treatment of red blood cell concentrates for virus inactivation enhances red blood cell aggregation: protection with antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hur, E; Barshtein, G; Chen, S; Yedgar, S

    1997-10-01

    Photodynamic treatment (PDT) using phthalocyanines and red light appears to be a promising procedure for decontamination of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates for transfusion. A possible complication of this treatment may be induced aggregation of RBC. The production of RBC aggregates was measured with a novel computerized cell flow properties analyzer (CFA). The PDT of RBC concentrates with sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AIPcS4) and the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 under virucidal conditions markedly enhanced RBC aggregation and higher shear stress was required to disperse these aggregates. The clusters of cells were huge and abnormally shaped, unlike the rouleaux formed by untreated RBC. This aggregation was prevented when a mixture of antioxidants was included during PDT. Addition of the antioxidants after PDT reduced aggregation only partially. It is concluded that inclusion of antioxidants during PDT of RBC concentrates prior to transfusion may reduce or eliminate the hemodynamic risk that the virucidal treatment may present to the recipient.

  5. Esophageal transit scintigraphy in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnowski, Marek; Kobylecka, Małgorzata; Olesińska, Marzena

    2016-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disease, distinctive features of which are fibrosis and microangiopathy. The esophagus is one of the most commonly involved internal organs. Most patients experience dysphagia, difficulties in swallowing and gastro-esophageal reflux. However, in up to one third of cases, the initial onset of esophageal disease may be clinically silent. There are several diagnostic modalities available for assessing both morphological and functional abnormalities of the esophagus. If structural abnormalities are suspected, endoscopy is the method of choice. Functional evaluation is best achieved with manometry. Both endoscopy and manometry are invasive techniques, with low patient acceptance. Barium-contrast study is well tolerated, but qualitative assessment of functional abnormalities is imprecise. Esophageal scintigraphy is an easy, non-invasive, sensitive and specific diagnostic modality. It can detect esophageal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. In patients already diagnosed with systemic sclerosis, scintigraphy is useful in evaluating severity and progression of the disease.

  6. Cartilage Calcification Mimics Polychondritis in Bone Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Atilgan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available 58 year-old male patient with sternal pain was referred to our Nuclear Medicine Clinic for bone scintigraphy for 2.5 months. Markedly increased activity accumulation in the first bilateral sternocostal junction and increased activity accumulations in 3rd, 4th, 5th sternocostal junctions and lateral portion of inferior part of corpus sterni were seen in late static images without increased perfusion and hyperemia. Soft tissue density and lytic lesions were seen bilaterally in bilateral first costa, sternocostal joints and in right side of xiphoid in his 3D computed tomography (CT. Sternocostal lesions that were seen in bone scintigraphy and CT, was reported as normal in biopsy.

  7. A micro-scale simulation of red blood cell passage through symmetric and asymmetric bifurcated vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2016-01-01

    Blood exhibits a heterogeneous nature of hematocrit, velocity, and effective viscosity in microcapillaries. Microvascular bifurcations have a significant influence on the distribution of the blood cells and blood flow behavior. This paper presents a simulation study performed on the two-dimensionalmotions and deformation of multiple red blood cells in microvessels with diverging and converging bifurcations. Fluid dynamics and membrane mechanics were incorporated. Effects of cell shape, hematocrit, and deformability of the cell membrane on rheological behavior of the red blood cells and the hemodynamics have been investigated. It was shown that the blood entering the daughter branch with a higher flow rate tended to receive disproportionally more cells. The results also demonstrate that red blood cells in microvessels experienced lateral migration in the parent channel and blunted velocity profiles in both straight section and daughter branches, and this effect was influenced by the shape and the initial posit...

  8. Biological effects of the electrostatic field: red blood cell-related alterations of oxidative processes in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Hayk A.; Sahakyan, Gohar V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine activities of pro-/antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and oxidative modification of proteins and lipids in red blood cells (RBCs) and blood plasma of rats exposed to electrostatic field (200 kV/m) during the short (1 h) and the long periods (6 day, 6 h daily). Short-term exposure was characterized by the increase of oxidatively damaged proteins in blood of rats. This was strongly expressed in RBC membranes. After long-term action, RBC content in peripheral blood was higher than in control ( P < 0.01) and the attenuation of prooxidant processes was shown.

  9. Cell differentiation mediated by co-culture of human umbilical cord blood stem cells with murine hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Maria; Wulf-Goldenberg, Annika; Purfürst, Bettina; Siegert, Antje; Keil, Marlen; Eckert, Klaus; Fichtner, Iduna

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, purified human cord blood stem cells were co-cultivated with murine hepatic alpha mouse liver 12 (AML12) cells to compare the effect on endodermal stem cell differentiation by either direct cell-cell interaction or by soluble factors in conditioned hepatic cell medium. With that approach, we want to mimic in vitro the situation of preclinical transplantation experiments using human cells in mice. Cord blood stem cells, cultivated with hepatic conditioned medium, showed a low endodermal differentiation but an increased connexin 32 (Cx32) and Cx43, and cytokeratin 8 (CK8) and CK19 expression was monitored by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Microarray profiling indicated that in cultivated cord blood cells, 604 genes were upregulated 2-fold, with the highest expression for epithelial CK19 and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin). On ultrastructural level, there were no major changes in the cellular morphology, except a higher presence of phago(ly)some-like structures observed. Direct co-culture of AML12 cells with cord blood cells led to less incisive differentiation with increased sex-determining region Y-box 17 (SOX17), Cx32 and Cx43, as well as epithelial CK8 and CK19 expressions. On ultrastructural level, tight cell contacts along the plasma membranes were revealed. FACS analysis in co-cultivated cells quantified dye exchange on low level, as also proved by time relapse video-imaging of labelled cells. Modulators of gap junction formation influenced dye transfer between the co-cultured cells, whereby retinoic acid increased and 3-heptanol reduced the dye transfer. The study indicated that the cell-co-cultured model of human umbilical cord blood cells and murine AML12 cells may be a suitable approach to study some aspects of endodermal/hepatic cell differentiation induction.

  10. Polymer/hemoglobin assemblies: biodegradable oxygen carriers for artificial red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taihang; Jing, Xiabin; Huang, Yubin

    2011-07-07

    In routine clinical procedures, blood transfusion is now suffering from the defects of the blood products, like cross-matching, short storage time and virus infection. Various blood substitutes have been designed by researchers through continual efforts. With recent progress in nanotechnology, new types of artificial red blood cells with cellular structure are available. This article aims to describe some artificial red blood cells which encapsulate or conjugate hemoglobin molecules through various approaches, especially the nanoscale self-assembly technique, to mitigate the adverse effects of free hemoglobin molecules. These types of artificial red blood cell systems, which make use of biodegradable polymers as matrix materials, show advantages over the traditional types.

  11. Comparison of instruments for investigation of microcirculatory blood flow and red blood cell concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Jim; McNamara, Paul; Clancy, Neil T.; Enfield, Joey G.; Leahy, Martin J.

    2009-05-01

    The use of laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI) is well known in the noninvasive investigation of microcirculatory blood flow. This work compares the two techniques with the recently developed tissue viability (TiVi) imaging system, which is proposed as a useful tool to quantify red blood cell concentration in microcirculation. Three systems are evaluated with common skin tests such as the use of vasodilating and vasoconstricting drugs (methlynicotinate and clobetasol, respectively) and a reactive hyperaemia maneuver (using a sphygmomanometer). The devices investigated are the laser Doppler line scanner (LDLS), the laser speckle perfusion imager (FLPI)-both from Moor Instruments (Axminster, United Kingdom)-and the TiVi imaging system (WheelsBridge AB, Linköping, Sweden). Both imaging and point scanning by the devices are used to quantify the provoked reactions. Perfusion images of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction are acquired with both LDLS and FLPI, while TiVi images are acquired with the TiVi imager. Time acquisitions of an averaged region of interest are acquired for temporal studies such as the reactive hyperaemia. In contrast to the change in perfusion over time with pressure, the TiVi imager shows a different response due its measurement of blood concentration rather than perfusion. The responses can be explained by physiological understanding. Although the three devices sample different compartments of tissue, and output essentially different variables, comparisons can be seen between the three systems. The LDLS system proves to be suited to measurement of perfusion in deeper vessels, while FLPI and TiVi showed sensitivity to more superficial nutritional supply. LDLS and FLPI are insensitive to the action of the vasoconstrictor, while TiVi shows the clear boundaries of the reaction. Assessment of the resolution, penetration depth, and acquisition rate of each instrument show complimentary features that should

  12. Blood analyte sensing using fluorescent dye-loaded red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Shao, Xiaole; Cooley, Nicholas; Milanick, Mark A.; Glass, Timothy E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of blood analytes provides crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Due to analyte transporters on red blood cell (RBC) membranes that equilibrate intracellular and extracellular analyte levels, RBCs serve as an attractive alternative for encapsulating analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, the functionalized RBCs may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed sensing system utilizes the ability of the RBCs to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before lysis, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. While at low temperature, analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution diffuse into the perforated RBCs and become entrapped upon restoration of temperature and osmolarity. Since the fluorescent signal from the entrapped dye reports on changes in the analyte level of the extracellular solution via the RBC transporters, interactions between the RBCs and the dye are critical to the efficacy of this technique. In this work, we study the use of a near infrared pH sensitive dye encapsulated within RBCs and assess the ability to measure dye fluorescence in vivo.

  13. Mid-trimester fetal blood-derived adherent cells share characteristics similar to mesenchymal stem cells but full-term umbilical cord blood does not

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinjunYu; ZhifengXiao; LiShen; LingsongLi

    2005-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a promising treatment for many conditions.Although stem cells can be isolated from many tissues, blood is the ideal source of these cells due to the ease of collection. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been paid increased attention because of their powerful proliferation and pluripotent differentiating ability. But whether MSCs reside in blood (newborn umbilical cord blood and fetal or adult peripheral blood) is also debatable. The present study showed that MSC-like cells could be isolated and expanded from 16-26 weeks fetal blood but were not acquired efficiently from full-term infants' umbilical cord blood (UCB). Adherent cells separated from postnatal UCB were heterogeneous in cell morphology. Their proliferation capacity was limited and they were mainly CD45+, which indicated their haematopoietic derivation. On the contrary, MSC-like cells shared a similar phenotype to bone marrow MSCs. They were CD34- CD45- CD44+ CD71+ CD90+ CD105+. They could be induced to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic and neural lineage cells. Single cell clones also showed similar phenotype and differentiation ability. Our results suggest that early fetal blood is rich in MSCs but term UCB is not.

  14. Recent Stem Cell Advances: Cord Blood and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell for Cardiac Regeneration- a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhekar, Sheetal Kashinath; Shende, Vikas Suresh; Chincholkar, Anjali Baburao

    2016-05-30

    Stem cells are primitive self renewing undifferentiated cell that can be differentiated into various types of specialized cells like nerve cell, skin cells, muscle cells, intestinal tissue, and blood cells. Stem cells live in bone marrow where they divide to make new blood cells and produces peripheral stem cells in circulation. Under proper environment and in presence of signaling molecules stem cells begin to develop into specialized tissues and organs. These unique characteristics make them very promising entities for regeneration of damaged tissue. Day by day increase in incidence of heart diseases including left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality. However infracted tissue cannot regenerate into healthy tissue. Heart transplantation is only the treatment for such patient. Due to limitation of availability of donor for organ transplantation, a focus is made for alternative and effective therapy to treat such condition. In this review we have discussed the new advances in stem cells such as use of cord stem cells and iPSC technology in cardiac repair. Future approach of CB cells was found to be used in tissue repair which is specifically observed for improvement of left ventricular function and myocardial infarction. Here we have also focused on how iPSC technology is used for regeneration of cardiomyocytes and intiating neovascularization in myocardial infarction and also for study of pathophysiology of various degenerative diseases and genetic disease in research field.

  15. New agents for scintigraphy in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bois, M.H.W. de [Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands); Pauwels, E.K.J. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands); Breedveld, F.C. [Department of Rheumatology, University Hospital, Leiden (Netherlands)

    1995-11-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals have been used as investigative tools for the detection and treatment of arthritis activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) since the 1950s. Against the background of the pathophysiology of RA, the current status of joint scintigraphy and possible future developments are reviewed. Both non-specific (radiolabelled leucocytes and technetium-99m labelled human immunoglobulin) and specific targeting radiopharmaceuticals (including radiolabelled antibodies) are considered. The use of radiopharmaceuticals in the detection of arthritis activity has the advantages of allowing direct imaging of joints by means of whole-body scintigraphy and of joints that are difficult to assess clinically or radiographically. Promising results have been obtained with radiolabelled anti-CD4 and anti-E-selectin antibodies and with somatostatin receptor imaging, but more data are available regarding {sup 99m}Tc-IgG scintigraphy, which differentiates between the various degrees of arthritis activity and thus facilitates the choice of antirheumatic drug. Newer promising approaches to the imaging of RA include the use of radiolabelled J001 and cytokines, though studies on these are limited at present. (orig.)

  16. Stretching and relaxation of malaria-infected red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2013-09-03

    The invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by malaria parasites is a complex dynamic process, in which the infected RBCs gradually lose their deformability and their ability to recover their original shape is greatly reduced with the maturation of the parasites. In this work, we developed two types of cell model, one with an included parasite, and the other without an included parasite. The former is a representation of real malaria-infected RBCs, in which the parasite is treated as a rigid body. In the latter, where the parasite is absent, the membrane modulus and viscosity are elevated so as to produce the same features present in the parasite model. In both cases, the cell membrane is modeled as a viscoelastic triangular network connected by wormlike chains. We studied the transient behaviors of stretching deformation and shape relaxation of malaria-infected RBCs based on these two models and found that both models can generate results in agreement with those of previously published studies. With the parasite maturation, the shape deformation becomes smaller and smaller due to increasing cell rigidity, whereas the shape relaxation time becomes longer and longer due to the cell's reduced ability to recover its original shape.

  17. Red blood cell cluster separation from digital images for use in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hidalgo, Manuel; Guerrero-Peña, F A; Herold-García, S; Jaume-I-Capó, Antoni; Marrero-Fernández, P D

    2015-07-01

    The study of cell morphology is an important aspect of the diagnosis of some diseases, such as sickle cell disease, because red blood cell deformation is caused by these diseases. Due to the elongated shape of the erythrocyte, ellipse adjustment and concave point detection are applied widely to images of peripheral blood samples, including during the detection of cells that are partially occluded in the clusters generated by the sample preparation process. In the present study, we propose a method for the analysis of the shape of erythrocytes in peripheral blood smear samples of sickle cell disease, which uses ellipse adjustments and a new algorithm for detecting notable points. Furthermore, we apply a set of constraints that allow the elimination of significant image preprocessing steps proposed in previous studies. We used three types of images to validate our method: artificial images, which were automatically generated in a random manner using a computer code; real images from peripheral blood smear sample images that contained normal and elongated erythrocytes; and synthetic images generated from real isolated cells. Using the proposed method, the efficiency of detecting the two types of objects in the three image types exceeded 99.00%, 98.00%, and 99.35%, respectively. These efficiency levels were superior to the results obtained with previously proposed methods using the same database, which is available at http://erythrocytesidb.uib.es/. This method can be extended to clusters of several cells and it requires no user inputs.

  18. Geometric localization of thermal fluctuations in red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur A.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Popescu, Gabriel; Levine, Alex J.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal fluctuations of membranes and nanoscale shells affect their mechanical characteristics. Whereas these fluctuations are well understood for flat membranes, curved shells show anomalous behavior due to the geometric coupling between in-plane elasticity and out-of-plane bending. Using conventional shallow shell theory in combination with equilibrium statistical physics we theoretically demonstrate that thermalized shells containing regions of negative Gaussian curvature naturally develop anomalously large fluctuations. Moreover, the existence of special curves, “singular lines,” leads to a breakdown of linear membrane theory. As a result, these geometric curves effectively partition the cell into regions whose fluctuations are only weakly coupled. We validate these predictions using high-resolution microscopy of human red blood cells (RBCs) as a case study. Our observations show geometry-dependent localization of thermal fluctuations consistent with our theoretical modeling, demonstrating the efficacy in combining shell theory with equilibrium statistical physics for describing the thermalized morphology of cellular membranes. PMID:28242681

  19. Geometric localization of thermal fluctuations in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur A; Bhaduri, Basanta; Popescu, Gabriel; Levine, Alex J

    2017-02-27

    The thermal fluctuations of membranes and nanoscale shells affect their mechanical characteristics. Whereas these fluctuations are well understood for flat membranes, curved shells show anomalous behavior due to the geometric coupling between in-plane elasticity and out-of-plane bending. Using conventional shallow shell theory in combination with equilibrium statistical physics we theoretically demonstrate that thermalized shells containing regions of negative Gaussian curvature naturally develop anomalously large fluctuations. Moreover, the existence of special curves, "singular lines," leads to a breakdown of linear membrane theory. As a result, these geometric curves effectively partition the cell into regions whose fluctuations are only weakly coupled. We validate these predictions using high-resolution microscopy of human red blood cells (RBCs) as a case study. Our observations show geometry-dependent localization of thermal fluctuations consistent with our theoretical modeling, demonstrating the efficacy in combining shell theory with equilibrium statistical physics for describing the thermalized morphology of cellular membranes.

  20. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrui Li

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per strand, we report a comprehensive (92.62% methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found that 68.4% of CpG sites and 80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE. These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs. Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies.

  1. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis multiprotein biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nardo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic/prognostic test and therapy. Specific molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate clinical studies and speed up the development of effective treatments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach to identify in easily accessible clinical samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, a panel of protein biomarkers that are closely associated with ALS. Validations and a longitudinal study were performed by immunoassays on a selected number of proteins. The same proteins were also measured in PBMC and spinal cord of a G93A SOD1 transgenic rat model. We identified combinations of protein biomarkers that can distinguish, with high discriminatory power, ALS patients from healthy controls (98%, and from patients with neurological disorders that may resemble ALS (91%, between two levels of disease severity (90%, and a number of translational biomarkers, that link responses between human and animal model. We demonstrated that TDP-43, cyclophilin A and ERp57 associate with disease progression in a longitudinal study. Moreover, the protein profile changes detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ALS patients are suggestive of possible intracellular pathogenic mechanisms such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, nitrative stress, disturbances in redox regulation and RNA processing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that PBMC multiprotein biomarkers could contribute to determine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease severity and progression, and may help to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms.

  2. 75 FR 62843 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Act, as amended) the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises the.... L. 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Council on Blood...

  3. Quantification of the fraction poorly deformable red blood cells using ektacytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streekstra, G.J.; Dobbe, J.G.G.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method to obtain the fraction of poorly deformable red blood cells in a blood sample from the intensity pattern in an ektacytometer. In an ektacytometer red blood cells are transformed into ellipsoids by a shear flow between two transparent cylinders. The intensity pattern, due to a la

  4. Development of a microfluidic device for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Kumar, B S; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2015-12-01

    This work presents design, fabrication and test of a microfluidic device which employs Fahraeus-Lindqvist and Zweifach-Fung effects for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation. The device design comprises a straight main channel with a series of branched channels placed symmetrically on both sides of the main channel. The design implements constrictions before each junction (branching point) in order to direct cells that would have migrated closer to the wall (naturally or after liquid extraction at a junction) towards the centre of the main channel. Theoretical and numerical analysis are performed for design of the microchannel network to ensure that a minimum flow rate ratio (of 2.5:1, main channel-to-side channels) is maintained at each junction and predict flow rate at the plasma outlet. The dimensions and location of the constrictions were determined using numerical simulations. The effect of presence of constrictions before the junctions was demonstrated by comparing the performances of the device with and without constrictions. To demonstrate the performance of the device, initial experiments were performed with polystyrene microbeads (10 and 15 μm size) and droplets. Finally, the device was used for concentration of HL60 cells and separation of plasma and cells in diluted blood samples. The cell concentration and blood-plasma purification efficiency was quantified using Haemocytometer and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). A seven-fold cell concentration was obtained with HL60 cells and a purification efficiency of 70 % and plasma recovery of 80 % was observed for diluted (1:20) blood sample. FACS was used to identify cell lysis and the cell viability was checked using Trypan Blue test which showed that more than 99 % cells are alive indicating the suitability of the device for practical use. The proposed device has potential to be used as a sample preparation module in lab on chip based diagnostic platforms.

  5. Regulation of red blood cell deformability is independent of red blood cell-nitric oxide synthase under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grau, Marijke; Lauten, Alexander; Hoeppener, Steffen; Goebel, Bjoern; Brenig, Julian; Jung, Christian; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank

    2016-09-12

    The aim was to study impacts of mild to severe hypoxia on human red blood cell (RBC)-nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent NO production, protein S-nitrosylation and deformability.Ambient air oxygen concentration of 12 healthy subjects was step-wisely reduced from 20.95% to 16.21%, 12.35%, 10% and back to 20.95%. Additional in vitro experiments involved purging of blood (±sodium nitrite) with gas mixtures corresponding to in vivo intervention.Vital and hypoxia-associated parameters showed physiological adaptation to changing demands. Activation of RBC-NOS decreased with increasing hypoxia. RBC deformability, which is influenced by RBC-NOS activation, decreased under mild hypoxia, but surprisingly increased at severe hypoxia in vivo and in vitro. This was causatively induced by nitrite reduction to NO which increased S-nitrosylation of RBC α- and β-spectrins -a critical step to improve RBC deformability. The addition of sodium nitrite prevented decreases of RBC deformability under hypoxia by sustaining S-nitrosylation of spectrins suggesting compensatory mechanisms of non-RBC-NOS-produced NO.The results first time indicate a direct link between maintenance of RBC deformability under severe hypoxia by non-enzymatic NO production because RBC-NOS activation is reduced. These data improve our understanding of physiological mechanisms supporting adequate blood and, thus, oxygen supply to different tissues under severe hypoxia.

  6. Angiography-based prediction of outcome after coronary artery bypass surgery versus changes in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eckardt, Rozy; Kjeldsen, Bo Juel; Haghfelt, Torben;

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the clinical prediction of the effect of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) on coronary blood flow and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) with changes in gated myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. A prospective group of 92 patients underwent myocardial perfusion...... predicted and observed regional changes in coronary blood flow and perfusion defects were poor. LVEF increased (by over five ejection fraction units) in almost half of the patients, but with no correlation between the predicted and the observed changes. Based on clinical and angiographic findings...... scintigraphy before and 6 months after CABG, the results being kept secret from the surgeon. Based on clinical and angiographic findings, the surgeons filled in a questionnaire indicating the predicted changes in coronary blood flow in each of the three coronary artery territories and in the LVEF. Symptomatic...

  7. Cerebral blood flow in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.

    1984-05-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 (/sup 133/Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the /sup 133/Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The /sup 133/Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke.

  8. 76 FR 19101 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    .... Bill Young Cell Transplantation Program (Program) and the National Cord Blood Inventory (NCBI) Program...; National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) Analysis of National Cord Blood Inventory (NCBI) and Non-NCBI...

  9. Red blood cells serve as intravascular carriers of myeloperoxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Matti; Gajdova, Silvie; Kolarova, Hana; Kubala, Lukas; Lau, Denise; Geisler, Anne; Ravekes, Thorben; Rudolph, Volker; Tsao, Philip S; Blankenberg, Stefan; Baldus, Stephan; Klinke, Anna

    2014-09-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme enzyme abundantly expressed in polymorphonuclear neutrophils. MPO is enzymatically capable of catalyzing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the consumption of nitric oxide (NO). Thus MPO has both potent microbicidal and, upon binding to the vessel wall, pro-inflammatory properties. Interestingly, MPO - a highly cationic protein - has been shown to bind to both endothelial cells and leukocyte membranes. Given the anionic surface charge of red blood cells, we investigated binding of MPO to erythrocytes. Red blood cells (RBCs) derived from patients with elevated MPO plasma levels showed significantly higher amounts of MPO by flow cytometry and ELISA than healthy controls. Heparin-induced MPO-release from patient-derived RBCs was significantly increased compared to controls. Ex vivo experiments revealed dose and time dependency for MPO-RBC binding, and immunofluorescence staining as well as confocal microscopy localized MPO-RBC interaction to the erythrocyte plasma membrane. NO-consumption by RBC-membrane fragments (erythrocyte "ghosts") increased with incrementally greater concentrations of MPO during incubation, indicating preserved catalytic MPO activity. In vivo infusion of MPO-loaded RBCs into C57BL/6J mice increased local MPO tissue concentrations in liver, spleen, lung, and heart tissue as well as within the cardiac vasculature. Further, NO-dependent relaxation of aortic rings was altered by RBC bound-MPO and systemic vascular resistance significantly increased after infusion of MPO-loaded RBCs into mice. In summary, we find that MPO binds to RBC membranes in vitro and in vivo, is transported by RBCs to remote sites in mice, and affects endothelial function as well as systemic vascular resistance. RBCs may avidly bind circulating MPO, and act as carriers of this leukocyte-derived enzyme.

  10. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  11. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  12. Conversion to Paradoxical Finding on Technetium-99m-labeled RBC Scintigraphy after Treatment for Secondary Raynaud's Phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chong, Ari; Ha, Jungmin; Song, Hochun; Kim, Jahae; Choi, Soo Jin Na [Chosun Univ. Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    An 18-year-old woman reported that after exposure to cold temperatures her fingers appeared blue and her hands and feet felt cold. Secondary Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) associated with peripheral vascular disease was suspected. Technetium (Tc)-99m-labeled RBC hand scintigraphy after cold change showed decreased blood pool activity in her fingers. The patient's symptoms improved after she received sarpogrelate HCL (200 mg/day) and nifedifine (40 mg/day). Follow-up scintigraphy performed 7 months after the patient started treatment showed paradoxically increased blood pool activity in her fingers after cold challenge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of a patient with secondary RP showing paradoxical change on scintigraphy after she received medication that improved her symptoms.

  13. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Subset Studies in Multiple Sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oturai, D B; Søndergaard, H B; Börnsen, L;

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) involves the need of a proper standard for normalizing the gene expression data. Different studies have shown the validity of reference genes to vary greatly depending on tissue, cell subsets and experimental context. This study aimed at the identification...... of suitable reference genes for qPCR studies using different peripheral blood cell subsets (whole blood (WB) cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and PBMC subsets (CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, NK cells, monocytes, B cells and dendritic cells) from healthy controls (HC), patients with relapsing...... stable combination for analyses of cell subsets between HC and RRMS patients, while the combination of UBC and YWHAZ was superior for analysis of cell subsets between HC, RRMS and RRMS-IFN-β groups. GAPDH was generally unsuitable for blood cell subset studies in multiple sclerosis. In conclusion, we...

  14. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Nalls

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count-6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count-17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count-6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count-2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2, including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across

  15. The relationship between stroke mortality and red blood cell parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Hatamian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors influence on the outcome of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was determination the relationship between stroke mortality and red blood cell parameters.This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2011 July to June 2012. For all patients with ischemic stroke in middle cerebral artery (MCA territory, the cell blood count test was performed. We recorded their mortality on the 1(st week and the 1(st month after ischemic stroke. Data analysis was performed using t-test, χ(2, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve in SPSS for Windows 19.0.A total of 98 subjects (45.9% men and 54.1% women with the mean age of 71.0 ± 13.9 years were assessed, while 67.3% of them were anemic. The prevalence of 1(st week mortality among anemic and non-anemic patients was 40.9% and 34.4% (P = 0.534. The prevalence of mortality after 1(st week till 1(st month was 19.6% and 21.0% respectively (P = 0.636. In univariant analysis, only 1(st month mortality had a significant relationship with red blood cell (RBC count (P = 0.022. However, the result of logistic regression model showed that RBC (P = 0.012 and mean corpuscular volume (MCV (P = 0.021 remained as predictors of the 1(st week and the 1(st month mortality (P = 0.011 and P = 0.090 respectively. The best cutoff point of RBC for the prediction of the 1(st week mortality with 44.7% specificity and 69.5% sensitivity was estimated 4.07 million/μl and for the 1(st month mortality with 46.6% specificity and 72.2% sensitivity was estimated 4.16 million/μl.The RBC count and MCV are independent predictors of ischemic stroke short-term mortality.

  16. An artificial blood vessel implanted three-dimensional microsystem for modeling transvascular migration of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Ying; Pei, Ying; Xie, Min; Jin, Zi-He; Xiao, Ya-Shi; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Li-Na; Li, Yan; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2015-02-21

    Reproducing a tumor microenvironment consisting of blood vessels and tumor cells for modeling tumor invasion in vitro is particularly challenging. Here, we report an artificial blood vessel implanted 3D microfluidic system for reproducing transvascular migration of tumor cells. The transparent, porous and elastic artificial blood vessels are obtained by constructing polysaccharide cellulose-based microtubes using a chitosan sacrificial template, and possess excellent cytocompatibility, permeability, and mechanical characteristics. The artificial blood vessels are then fully implanted into the collagen matrix to reconstruct the 3D microsystem for modeling transvascular migration of tumor cells. Well-defined simulated vascular lumens were obtained by proliferation of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) lining the artificial blood vessels, which enables us to reproduce structures and functions of blood vessels and replicate various hemodynamic parameters. Based on this model, the adhesion and transvascular migration of tumor cells across the artificial blood vessel have been well reproduced.

  17. Modifying the red cell surface: towards an ABO-universal blood supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Martin L; Clausen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Eliminating the risk for ABO-incompatible transfusion errors and simplifying logistics by creating a universal blood inventory is a challenging idea. Goldstein and co-workers pioneered the field of enzymatic conversion of blood group A and B red blood cells (RBCs) to O (ECO). Using alpha-galactos......Eliminating the risk for ABO-incompatible transfusion errors and simplifying logistics by creating a universal blood inventory is a challenging idea. Goldstein and co-workers pioneered the field of enzymatic conversion of blood group A and B red blood cells (RBCs) to O (ECO). Using alpha...

  18. [Allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with unrelated cord blood: report of three cases from the Chilean cord blood bank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Francisco; Wietstruck, Angélica; Rojas, Nicolás; Bertin, Pablo; Pizarro, Isabel; Carmona, Amanda; Guilof, Alejandro; Rojas, Iván; Oyarzún, Enrique

    2013-08-01

    Public cord blood banks are a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients with hematological diseases who lack a family donor and need allogeneic transplantation. In June 2007 we started a cord blood bank with units donated in three maternity wards in Santiago, Chile. We report the first three transplants done with cord blood units form this bank. Cord blood units were obtained by intrauterine collection at delivery. They were depleted of plasma and red cells and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tests for total nucleated cells, CD34 cell content, viral serology, bacterial cultures and HLA A, B and DRB1 were done. Six hundred cord blood units were stored by March 2012. Three patients received allogeneic transplant with cord blood from our bank, two with high risk lymphoblastic leukemia and one with severe congenital anemia. They received conditioning regimens according to their disease and usual supportive care for unrelated donor transplantation until full hematopoietic and immune reconstitution was achieved. The three patients had early engraftment of neutrophils and platelets. The child corrected his anemia and the leukemia patients remain in complete remission. The post-transplant course was complicated with Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and BK virus infection. Two patients are fully functional 24 and 33 months after transplant, the third is still receiving immunosuppression.

  19. Differentiation of human menstrual blood-derived endometrial mesenchymal stem cells into oocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dongmei; Guo, Ying; Zhang, Qiuwan; Chen, Yifei; Xiang, Charlie

    2016-11-01

    Human endometrial mesenchymal stem cells (EnSCs) derived from menstrual blood are a unique stem cell source. Evidence suggests that EnSCs exhibit a multi-lineage potential and have attracted extensive attention in regenerative medicine. However, the potential of EnSCs to differentiate into germline cells in vitro remains unclear. In this study, EnSCs were induced to differentiate into germ cells in a differentiation medium supplemented with 20% human follicular fluid. Our results demonstrated that EnSCs derived from human menstrual blood form oocyte-like cells and express germ cell markers. The induced cell aggregates contained not only oocyte-like structures but also cells expressing follicle stimulating hormone receptor and luteotropic hormone receptor, and produced estrogen and progesterone regulated by gonodatropin, suggesting that granulosa-like and theca-like cells were also induced. We further found that granulosa cells promote the development of oocyte-like cells and activate the induction of blastocyst-like structures derived from EnSCs. In conclusion, EnSCs may potentially represent an in vitro system for the investigation of human folliculogenesis.

  20. Red Blood Cell Antigen Genotyping for Sickle Cell Disease, Thalassemia, and Other Transfusion Complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Ross M; Chou, Stella T

    2016-10-01

    Since the discovery of the ABO blood group in the early 20th century, more than 300 blood group antigens have been categorized among 35 blood group systems. The molecular basis for most blood group antigens has been determined and demonstrates tremendous genetic diversity, particularly in the ABO and Rh systems. Several blood group genotyping assays have been developed, and 1 platform has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration as a "test of record," such that no phenotype confirmation with antisera is required. DNA-based red blood cell (RBC) phenotyping can overcome certain limitations of hemagglutination assays and is beneficial in many transfusion settings. Genotyping can be used to determine RBC antigen phenotypes in patients recently transfused or with interfering allo- or autoantibodies, to resolve discrepant serologic typing, and/or when typing antisera are not readily available. Molecular RBC antigen typing can facilitate complex antibody evaluations and guide RBC selection for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), thalassemia, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. High-resolution RH genotyping can identify variant RHD and RHCE in patients with SCD, which have been associated with alloimmunization. In the future, broader access to cost-efficient, high-resolution RBC genotyping technology for both patient and donor populations may be transformative for the field of transfusion medicine.

  1. Sodium pertechnetate scintigraphy in detection of Meckel's diverticulum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, K A; Qvist, N

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of 99mTc-Na-pertechnetate scintigraphy in children presenting with symptoms suspicious of Meckel's diverticulum (MD). METHOD: Retrospective study. A total of 55 99mTc-Na-pertechnetate scintigraphies in 53 patients were compared with the results from surgery and ...

  2. Effects of blood products on inflammatory response in endothelial cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Urner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusing blood products may induce inflammatory reactions within the vascular compartment potentially leading to a systemic inflammatory response. Experiments were designed to assess the inflammatory potential of different blood products in an endothelial cell-based in vitro model and to compare baseline levels of potentially activating substances in transfusion products. METHODS: The inflammatory response from pre-activated (endotoxin-stimulated and non-activated endothelial cells as well as neutrophil endothelial transmigration in response to packed red blood cells (PRBC, platelet concentrates (PC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP was determined. Baseline inflammatory mediator and lipid concentrations in blood products were evaluated. RESULTS: Following incubation with all blood products, an increased inflammatory mediator release from endothelial cells was observed. Platelet concentrates, and to a lesser extent also FFP, caused the most pronounced response, which was accentuated in already pre-stimulated endothelial cells. Inflammatory response of endothelial cells as well as blood product-induced migration of neutrophils through the endothelium was in good agreement with the lipid content of the according blood product. CONCLUSION: Within the group of different blood transfusion products both PC and FFP have a high inflammatory potential with regard to activation of endothelial cells. Inflammation upon blood product exposure is strongly accentuated when endothelial cells are pre-injured. High lipid contents in the respective blood products goes along with an accentuated inflammatory reaction from endothelial cells.

  3. Perioperative Red Blood Cell Transfusion: What We Do Not Know

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong Lei; Li-Ze Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Blood transfusion saves lives but may also increase the risk of injury.The objective of this review was to evaluate the possible adverse effects related to transfusion of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates stored for prolonged periods.Data Sources:The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English up to February 2015.Study Selection:Clinical and basic research articles were selected according to their relevance to this topic.Results:The ex vivo changes to RBC that occur during storage are collectively called storage lesion.It is still inconclusive if transfusion of RBC with storage lesion has clinical relevance.Multiple ongoing prospective randomized controlled trials are aimed to clarify this clinical issue.It was observed that the adverse events related to stored RBC transfusion were prominent in certain patient populations,including trauma,critical care,pediatric,and cardiac surgery patients,which leads to the investigation of underlying mechanisms.It is demonstrated that free hemoglobin toxicity,decreasing of nitric oxide bioavailability,and free iron-induced increasing of inflammation may play an important role in this process.Conclusion:It is still unclear whether transfusion of older RBC has adverse effects,and if so,which factors determine such clinical effects.However,considering the magnitude of transfusion and the widespread medical significance,potential preventive strategies should be considered,especially for the susceptible recipients.

  4. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON RED BLOOD CELL IMMUNE AND T-CELL SUBGROUP IN THE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高巍; 黄裕新; 陈洪; 孙大勇; 张洪新

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on immune system was observed in the rat by using micro- whole blood direct immunofluorescence Staining assay to detect changes of the peripheral blood T lymphocyte subgroup and employing red blood cell (RBC) C3b receptor- yeast rosette test and red blood cell-IC rosette test to analyze erythrocytic immune function. Resuits showed that after EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36), CD4+, RBC-C3bRR and RBC-ICR in the peripheral blood of the normal rats increased significantly while CDs+ had no any considerable changes and a positive correlation between CD~ and RBC-C3bRR was found. In immtttaosuppression model rats, the values of CD4+ and RBC-C3bRR were obviously lower than those of the normal control group while CD8+ had no any striking changes; but after EA treatment, there were no evident differences between EAgroup and normal control group in the above-mentioned indexes. There were also no any significant differences between non-acupoint group and normal control group in those indexes. Results suggest that EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36) can raise T cell immune function and RBC adhesion function in both normal rats and immunosuppression model rats, both of which present a positive correlation.

  5. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON RED BLOOD CELL IMMUNE AND T-CELL SUBGROUP IN THE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoWei; HuangYuxin; ChenHong; SunDayong; ZhangHongxin

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on immune system was observed in the rat by using micro- whole blood direct immunofluoreseence Staining assay to detect changes of the peripheral blood T lymphocyte subgroup and employing red blood cell (RBC) C3b receptor- yeast rosette test and red blood cell-IC rosette test to analyze erythroeytic immune function. Results showed that after EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36), CD4+, RBC-C3bRR and RBC-ICR in the peripheral blood of the normal rats increased significantly while CD8+ had no any considerable changes and a positive correlation between CD4+ and RBC-C3bRR was found. In immuoosuppression model rats, the values of CD4+ and RBC-C3bRR were obviously lower than those of the normal control group while CD8+ had no any striking changes; but after EA treatment, there were no evident differences between EA group and normal control group in the above-mentioned indexes. There were also no any significant differences between non-acupoint group and normal control group in those indexes. Results suggest that EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36) can raise T cell immune function and RBC adhesion function in both normal rats and immunosuppression model rats, both of which present a positive correlation.

  6. Fragmented red cells reference range (Sysmex XN(®) automated blood cell counter).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesesve, Jean-François; Daigney, Amandine; Henry, Sylvain; Speyer, Elodie

    2015-01-01

    Fragmented red cells (FRCs) is a new parameter automatedly determined by recent blood cell counters. Their count might be of interest because FRCs are supposed to reflect schistocytes counts measured on a stained peripheral blood smear observed under the microscope. But FRCs depend from the technical procedure used to detect them and thus reference ranges are device-dependent. The XN-9000(®) is one of the last model from Sysmex series. We aimed to establish reference range for FRCs, from 2389 controls. The mean ± SD was 0.32% ± 0.81, the median 0.02% (95% confidence interval ot the mean: 0.29-0.35%). We observed that the percentage of red blood cells with less than 17 pg of hemoglobin content (Hypo-He) was correlated to FRC increase, Hypo-He increase resulting in spurious FRCs majoration. FRCs reference range should be useful for: 1) laboratory staff in order to select which blood smears to check optically; 2) Sysmex company to set-up more optimal rules proposed with the counter (automated making of blood smear).

  7. Cobalt uptake and binding in human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Lars Ole; Brown, Anthony M; Harbak, Henrik; Kristensen, Berit I; Bennekou, Poul

    2011-04-15

    is not observed in the case of (54)Mn. Tightly bound and the major part of reversibly bound (57)Co co-migrate with hemoglobin in Sephadex column chromatography of a lysate of (57)Co-loaded cells. (57)Co also co-migrates with hemoglobin when added to a lysate of unlabeled cells or to a solution of purified hemoglobin, in both cases with a time-dependent development of tight binding. Cobalt is known to bind to the globin moiety of hemoglobin. The results imply that during long-term cobalt exposure in vivo cobalt will be taken up practically irreversibly in the red cells during their 120 days life span. Thus, for biomonitoring of cobalt exposure, it could be appropriate to measure the cobalt content in red cells to give, compared with timed or in-competition whole-blood and serum analysis, an average value for the exposure over the last couple of months.

  8. Diagnosis and epidemiology of red blood cell enzyme disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Wijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The red blood cell possess an active metabolic machinery that provides the cell with energy to pump ions against electrochemical gradients, to maintain its shape, to keep hemoglobin iron in the reduced (ferrous form, and to maintain enzyme and hemoglobin sulfhydryl groups. The main source of metabolic energy comes from glucose. Glucose is metabolized through the glycolytic pathway and through the hexose monophosphate shunt. Glycolysis catabolizes glucose to pyruvate and lactate, which represent the end products of glucose metabolism in the erythrocyte. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP is phosphorylated to adenosine triphosphate (ATP, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is reduced to NADH in glycolysis. 2,3- Bisphosphoglycerate, an important regulator of the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin, is generated during glycolysis by the Rapoport-Luebering shunt. The hexose monophosphate shunt oxidizes glucose-6-phosphate, reducing NADP+ to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH. The red cell lacks the capacity for de novo purine synthesis but has a salvage pathway that permits synthesis of purine nucleotides from purine bases...

  9. A multiscale model for red blood cell mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Dirk

    2010-02-01

    The objective of this article is the derivation of a continuum model for mechanics of red blood cells via multiscale analysis. On the microscopic level, we consider realistic discrete models in terms of energy functionals defined on networks/lattices. Using concepts of Gamma-convergence, convergence results as well as explicit homogenisation formulae are derived. Based on a characterisation via energy functionals, appropriate macroscopic stress-strain relationships (constitutive equations) can be determined. Further, mechanical moduli of the derived macroscopic continuum model are directly related to microscopic moduli. As a test case we consider optical tweezers experiments, one of the most common experiments to study mechanical properties of cells. Our simulations of the derived continuum model are based on finite element methods and account explicitly for membrane mechanics and its coupling with bulk mechanics. Since the discretisation of the continuum model can be chosen freely, rather than it is given by the topology of the microscopic cytoskeletal network, the approach allows a significant reduction of computational efforts. Our approach is highly flexible and can be generalised to many other cell models, also including biochemical control.

  10. [Molecular basis of red blood cell adhesion to endothelium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wautier, J-L; Wautier, M-P

    2011-01-01

    The extent of red blood cell adhesion is correlated with the incidence of vascular complications and the severity of the disease. Patients with sickle cell anemia (HbSS) experience vasoocclusive episodes. The adhesion of RBCs from HbSS patients is increased and related to VLA-4 exposure, which binds to vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1). Inter Cellular Adhesion Molecule (ICAM-1), CD31, CD36 and glycans are potential receptors for PfEMP1 of RBCs parasited by plasmodium falciparum. The incidence of vascular complications is very high in patients with diabetes mellitus. RBC adhesion is increased and statistically correlated with the severity of the angiopathy. Glycation of RBC membrane proteins is responsible for binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Polycythemia Vera (PV) is the most frequent myeloproliferative disorder and characterized by a high occurrence of thrombosis of mesenteric and cerebral vessels. PV is due to a mutation of the Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 V617F). This mutation stimulates erythropoiesis and is the cause of Lu/BCAM (CD239) phosphorylation, which potentiated the interaction with laminin alpha 5. The couple laminin alpha 5 endothelial and phosphorylated Lu/BCAM explained the increased adhesion of RBCs from patients PV to endothelium.

  11. Absence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells priming in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the proinflammatory environment occurring in dialytic patients, cytokine overproduction has been implicated in hemodialysis co-morbidity. However, there are discrepancies among the various studies that have analyzed TNF-alpha synthesis and the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC priming in this clinical setting. We measured bioactive cytokine by the L929 cell bioassay, and evaluated PBMC TNF-alpha production by 32 hemodialysis patients (HP and 51 controls. No difference in TNF-alpha secretion was observed between controls and HP (859 ± 141 vs 697 ± 130 U/10(6 cells. Lipopolysaccharide (5 µg/ml did not induce any further TNF-alpha release, showing no PBMC priming. Paraformaldehyde-fixed HP PBMC were not cytotoxic to L929 cells, suggesting the absence of membrane-anchored TNF-alpha. Cycloheximide inhibited PBMC cytotoxicity in HP and controls, indicating lack of a PBMC TNF-alpha pool, and dependence on de novo cytokine synthesis. Actinomycin D reduced TNF-alpha production in HP, but had no effect on controls. Therefore, our data imply that TNF-alpha production is an intrinsic activity of normal PBMC and is not altered in HP. Moreover, TNF-alpha is a product of de novo synthesis by PBMC and is not constitutively expressed on HP cell membranes. The effect of actinomycin D suggests a putative tighter control of TNF-alpha mRNA turnover in HP. This increased dependence on TNF-alpha RNA transcription in HP may reflect an adaptive response to hemodialysis stimuli.

  12. Current issues relating to the transfusion of stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimrin, A B; Hess, J R

    2009-02-01

    The development of blood storage systems allowed donation and transfusion to be separated in time and space. This separation has permitted the regionalization of donor services with subsequent economies of scale and improvements in the quality and availability of blood products. However, the availability of storage raises the question of how long blood products can and should be stored and how long they are safe and effective. The efficacy of red blood cells was originally measured as the increment in haematocrit and safety began with typing and the effort to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination. Appreciation of a growing list of storage lesions of red blood cells has developed with our increasing understanding of red blood cell physiology and our experience with red blood cell transfusion. However, other than frank haemolysis, rare episodes of bacterial contamination and overgrowth, the reduction of oxygen-carrying capacity associated with the failure of some transfused cells to circulate, and the toxicity of lysophospholipids released from membrane breakdown, storage-induced lesions have not had obvious correlations with safety or efficacy. The safety of red blood cell storage has also been approached in retrospective epidemiologic studies of transfused patients, but the results are frequently biased by the fact that sicker patients are transfused more often and blood banks do not issue blood products in a random order. Several large prospective studies of the safety of stored red blood cells are planned.

  13. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, G.S.; Pereira, M.O. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Benarroz, M.O.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, M.J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Fisiologia, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Biomedico, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Rua Frei Caneca, 94, Rio de Janeiro 20211040 (Brazil); Medeiros, A.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Coordenadoria de Pesquisa Basica, Praca Cruz Vermelha, 23, 20230130 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  14. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... trials, SilverPlatter Medline (1950 to date), SilverPlatter Embase (1980 to date), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to present). Reference lists of identified trials and other systematic reviews were assessed, and authors and experts in transfusion were contacted to identify additional trials....... TRIAL SELECTION: Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials that evaluated a restrictive compared with a liberal transfusion strategy in adults or children, irrespective of language, blinding procedure, publication status, or sample size. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently screened...

  15. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according...... to linear kinetics in 24 patients with cirrhosis and 14 healthy controls. The sodium efflux was modified by ouabain (O), furosemide (F) and a combination of O and F (O + F). RBC sodium was significantly decreased (4·6 versus control 6·3 mmol l(-1) , Psodium (r = 0·57, P......sodium efflux was higher in patients with cirrhosis (+46%, Psodium buffers showed that the F-insensitive sodium efflux was twice as high in cirrhosis as in controls (P = 0...

  16. Stretching Behavior of Red Blood Cells at High Strain Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Jordan; Ristenpart, William

    2016-11-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this work, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that a simple viscoelastic model captures the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 1000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  17. The Antioxidant Effect of Erythropoietin on Thalassemic Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Amer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of its stimulating effect on RBC production, erythropoietin (Epo is used to treat anemia, for example, in patients on dialysis or on chemotherapy. In β-thalassemia, where Epo levels are low relative to the degree of anemia, Epo treatment improves the anemia state. Since RBC and platelets of these patients are under oxidative stress, which may be involved in anemia and thromboembolic complications, we investigated Epo as an antioxidant. Using flow-cytometry technology, we found that in vitro treatment with Epo of blood cells from these patients increased their glutathione content and reduced their reactive oxygen species, membrane lipid peroxides, and external phosphatidylserine. This resulted in reduced susceptibility of RBC to undergo hemolysis and phagocytosis. Injection of Epo into heterozygous (Hbbth3/+ β-thalassemic mice reduced the oxidative markers within 3 hours. Our results suggest that, in addition to stimulating RBC and fetal hemoglobin production, Epo might alleviate symptoms of hemolytic anemias as an antioxidant.

  18. Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia and Red Blood Cell Autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quist, Erin; Koepsell, Scott

    2015-11-01

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare disorder caused by autoreactive red blood cell (RBC) antibodies that destroy RBCs. Although autoimmune hemolytic anemia is rare, RBC autoantibodies are encountered frequently and can complicate transfusion workups, impede RBC alloantibody identification, delay distribution of compatible units, have variable clinical significance that ranges from benign to life-threatening, and may signal an underlying disease or disorder. In this review, we discuss the common presenting features of RBC autoantibodies, laboratory findings, ancillary studies that help the pathologist investigate the clinical significance of autoantibodies, and how to provide appropriate patient care and consultation for clinical colleagues. Pathologists must be mindful of, and knowledgeable about, this entity because it not only allows for direct clinical management but also can afford an opportunity to preemptively treat an otherwise silent malignancy or disorder.

  19. Availability of /sup 111/In-labeled platelet scintigraphy in patients with postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, Takatoshi; Kubota, Masahiro; Iwakubo, Akifumi and others

    1989-03-01

    Eighteen patients with postinfarction left ventricular aneurysm (LVA) were examined with indium-111-labeled autologous platelet scintigraphy to identify intracardiac thrombi and to investigate the effect of antithrombotic agents on thrombogenesitiy within the LVA. Indium-111-platelet scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 60% and a specificity of 100% in detecting LVA mural thrombi. Among 6 patients showing false-negative scintigraphic studies, 4 was managed on antiplatelet therapy. Of 9 patients showing active platelet deposition on initial study, including 8 not receiving antiplatelet therapy, 5 were treated with tichlopidine (300 mg/day) for 29.8+-5.0 days. For the 5 patients, 2 had resolution and the 3 others had interruption of intraaneurysmal deposition in the second platelet study. For one patient receiving the third platelet study after warfarin therapy, it took two weeks to completely interrupt platelet deposition within the LVA. ECG gated radionuclide ventriculography and thallium-201 myocardial SPECT were also performed to assess left ventricular wall motion of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and myocardial blood perfusion. Thallium-201 SPECT showed apical or anteroapical perfusion defects. Radionuclide ventriculography pinpointed all 18 apical and anteroseptal aneurysms. A comparison between the thrombus positive group and the thrombus negative group revealed no statistical differences in LVEF and the period from the last myocardial infarction to the initial platelet scanning. These results suggest that indium-111 labeled platelet scintigraphy may be useful for identifying active left ventricular mural thrombi and for judging antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy. (Namekawa, K).

  20. Endothelial progenitor cell differentiation using cryopreserved, umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-ho JANG; Hugh C KIM; Sun-kyung KIM; Jeong-eun CHOI; Young-jin KIM; Hyun-woo LEE; Seok-yun KANG; Joon-seong PARK; Jin-hyuk CHOI; Ho-yeong LIM

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the endothelial differentiation potentiality of umbilical cord blood (UCB), we induced the differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC)from cryopreserved UCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNC). Methods: MNC from cryopreserved UCB and peripheral blood (PB) were cultured in M199 medium with endothelial cell growth supplements for 14 d. EPC were characterized by RT-PCR,flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry analysis. The proliferation of differen-tiated EPC was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTI') assay, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentra-tion was measured using an ELISA kit. Characteristics of UCB-derived EPC were compared with those of PB-derived EPC. Results: A number of round-shaped cells were loosely attached to the bottom after 24 h culture, and numerous spindle-shaped cells began to appear from the round-shaped ones on d 7. Those cells expressed endothelial markers such as, Fit-1/VEGFR-1, ecNOS, VE-cadherin, yon Willebrand factor, and secreted VEGF. The patterns of endothelial markers of EPC from PB and UCB did not show striking differences. The results of the prolifera-tion and secretion of VEGF were also similar. Conclusion: We successfully cul-tured UCB cells stored at -196 ℃ into cells with the quality of endothelial cells.Those EPC could be used for angiogenic therapeutics by activating adjacent endothelial cells and enhancing angiogenesis.

  1. Derivation of blood-brain barrier endothelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Ethan S; Azarin, Samira M; Kay, Jennifer E; Nessler, Randy A; Wilson, Hannah K; Al-Ahmad, Abraham; Palecek, Sean P; Shusta, Eric V

    2012-08-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is crucial to the health of the brain and is often compromised in neurological disease. Moreover, because of its barrier properties, this endothelial interface restricts uptake of neurotherapeutics. Thus, a renewable source of human BBB endothelium could spur brain research and pharmaceutical development. Here we show that endothelial cells derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) acquire BBB properties when co-differentiated with neural cells that provide relevant cues, including those involved in Wnt/β-catenin signaling. The resulting endothelial cells have many BBB attributes, including well-organized tight junctions, appropriate expression of nutrient transporters and polarized efflux transporter activity. Notably, they respond to astrocytes, acquiring substantial barrier properties as measured by transendothelial electrical resistance (1,450 ± 140 Ω cm2), and they possess molecular permeability that correlates well with in vivo rodent blood-brain transfer coefficients.

  2. Effect of polyclonal activators on cytokine production by blood cells and by malignant breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunts, T A; Karpukhina, K V; Mikhaylova, E S; Marinkin, I O; Varaksin, N A; Autenshlyus, A I; Lyakhovich, V V

    2016-01-01

    The production of cytokines by peripheral blood cells and biopsy specimens of tumors stimulated by polyclonal activators (PAs) was evaluated in 34 patients with invasive ductal breast carcinoma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive correlation between the stimulation index of polyclonal activators (SIPA) for IL-18 production by the tumor and the relative content of poorly differentiated cells was revealed. The latter, in turn, was positively correlated with the numbers of normal and pathologic mitoses and the degree of malignancy. Cancer cells can produce IL-18, which is involved in the process of angiogenesis, stimulates invasion and metastasis. Decrease in SIPA for the production of IL-6 and GCSF by peripheral blood cells could serve as an indicator of malignant progression in invasive ductal breast carcinoma.

  3. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes.

  4. Study on the induction and differentiation of megakaryocyte progenitor cell derived from umbilical cord blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳

    2014-01-01

    Objective To build a protocol of separation and induction of megakaryocytes derived from cord blood mononuclear cells.Methods Red blood cells were precipitated by hydroxyethyl starch(HES).Mononuclear cells were obtained by density gradient centrifugation with Ficoll.The inducing efficiencies of megakaryocytes using different cytokine cocktails and culture media were analyzed.Results The best choice for erythrocyte sedimenta-

  5. 75 FR 14175 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... sciences; basic scientists with expertise in the biology of adult stem cells; ethicists; hematology and transfusion medicine researchers with expertise in adult blood stem cells; persons with expertise in...

  6. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  7. Effect of blood bank storage on the rheological properties of male and female donor red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Amanda; Raval, Jay S; Waters, Jonathan H; Yazer, Mark H; Kameneva, Marina V

    2014-01-01

    It was previously demonstrated that red blood cell (RBC) deformability progressively decreases during storage along with other changes in RBC mechanical properties. Recently, we reported that the magnitude of changes in RBC mechanical fragility associated with blood bank storage in a variety of additive solutions was strongly dependent on the donor gender [15]. Yet, the potential dependence of changes in the deformability and relaxation time of stored blood bank RBCs on donor gender is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of donor gender and blood bank storage on RBC deformability and relaxation time through the measurement of RBC suspension viscoelasticity. Packed RBC units preserved in AS-5 solution from 12 male and 12 female donors (three from each ABO group) were obtained from the local blood center and tested at 1, 4 and 7 weeks of storage at 1-6°C. At each time point, samples were aseptically removed from RBC units and hematocrit was adjusted to 40% before assessment of cell suspension viscoelasticity. RBC suspensions from both genders demonstrated progressive increases (p blood bank storage may reduce tissue perfusion and RBC lifespan in patients receiving blood bank RBCs.

  8. Measurement of interaction forces between red blood cells in aggregates by optical tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maklygin, A Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Karmenian, A; Nikitin, Sergei Yu; Obolenskii, I S; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Kisun Li

    2012-06-30

    We have fabricated double-beam optical tweezers and demonstrated the possibility of their use for measuring the interaction forces between red blood cells (erythrocytes). It has been established experimentally that prolonged trapping of red blood cells in a tightly focused laser beam does not cause any visible changes in their shape or size. We have measured the interaction between red blood cells in the aggregate, deformed by optical tweezers.

  9. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  10. Characterization of Microvesicles Released from Human Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Bach Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are spherical fragments of cell membrane released from various cell types under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Based on their size and origin, EVs are classified as exosome, microvesicles (MVs and apoptotic bodies. Recently, the release of MVs from human red blood cells (RBCs under different conditions has been reported. MVs are released by outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. However, the outward budding process itself, the release of MVs and the physical properties of these MVs have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the formation process, isolation and characterization of MVs released from RBCs under conditions of stimulating Ca2+ uptake and activation of protein kinase C. Methods: Experiments were performed based on single cell fluorescence imaging, fluorescence activated cell sorter/flow cytometer (FACS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The released MVs were collected by differential centrifugation and characterized in both their size and zeta potential. Results: Treatment of RBCs with 4-bromo-A23187 (positive control, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA in the presence of 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ led to an alteration of cell volume and cell morphology. In stimulated RBCs, exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS and formation of MVs were observed by using annexin V-FITC. The shedding of MVs was also observed in the case of PMA treatment in the absence of Ca2+, especially under the transmitted bright field illumination. By using SEM, AFM and DLS the morphology and size of stimulated RBCs, MVs were characterized. The sizes of the two populations of MVs were 205.8 ± 51.4 nm and 125.6 ± 31.4 nm, respectively. Adhesion of stimulated RBCs and MVs was observed. The zeta potential of MVs was determined in the range from - 40 mV to - 10 m

  11. Ethyl Pyruvate Combats Human Leukemia Cells but Spares Normal Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Susanne; Bigl, Marina; Buchold, Martin; Thieme, Rene; Wichmann, Gunnar; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl pyruvate, a known ROS scavenger and anti-inflammatory drug was found to combat leukemia cells. Tumor cell killing was achieved by concerted action of necrosis/apoptosis induction, ATP depletion, and inhibition of glycolytic and para-glycolytic enzymes. Ethyl lactate was less harmful to leukemia cells but was found to arrest cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. Both, ethyl pyruvate and ethyl lactate were identified as new inhibitors of GSK-3β. Despite the strong effect of ethyl pyruvate on leukemia cells, human cognate blood cells were only marginally affected. The data were compiled by immune blotting, flow cytometry, enzyme activity assay and gene array analysis. Our results inform new mechanisms of ethyl pyruvate-induced cell death, offering thereby a new treatment regime with a high therapeutic window for leukemic tumors. PMID:27579985

  12. Generation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor protein-deficient blood cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xuan; Braunstein, Evan M; Ye, Zhaohui; Liu, Cyndi F; Chen, Guibin; Zou, Jizhong; Cheng, Linzhao; Brodsky, Robert A

    2013-11-01

    PIG-A is an X-linked gene required for the biosynthesis of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchors; thus, PIG-A mutant cells have a deficiency or absence of all GPI-anchored proteins (GPI-APs). Acquired mutations in hematopoietic stem cells result in the disease paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and hypomorphic germline PIG-A mutations lead to severe developmental abnormalities, seizures, and early death. Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) can differentiate into cell types derived from all three germ layers, providing a novel developmental system for modeling human diseases. Using PIG-A gene targeting and an inducible PIG-A expression system, we have established, for the first time, a conditional PIG-A knockout model in human iPSCs that allows for the production of GPI-AP-deficient blood cells. PIG-A-null iPSCs were unable to generate hematopoietic cells or any cells expressing the CD34 marker and were defective in generating mesodermal cells expressing KDR/VEGFR2 (kinase insert domain receptor) and CD56 markers. In addition, PIG-A-null iPSCs had a block in embryonic development prior to mesoderm differentiation that appears to be due to defective signaling through bone morphogenetic protein 4. However, early inducible PIG-A transgene expression allowed for the generation of GPI-AP-deficient blood cells. This conditional PIG-A knockout model should be a valuable tool for studying the importance of GPI-APs in hematopoiesis and human development.

  13. Targeted Application of Human Genetic Variation Can Improve Red Blood Cell Production from Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giani, Felix C; Fiorini, Claudia; Wakabayashi, Aoi; Ludwig, Leif S; Salem, Rany M; Jobaliya, Chintan D; Regan, Stephanie N; Ulirsch, Jacob C; Liang, Ge; Steinberg-Shemer, Orna; Guo, Michael H; Esko, Tõnu; Tong, Wei; Brugnara, Carlo; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Weiss, Mitchell J; Zon, Leonard I; Chou, Stella T; French, Deborah L; Musunuru, Kiran; Sankaran, Vijay G

    2016-01-07

    Multipotent and pluripotent stem cells are potential sources for cell and tissue replacement therapies. For example, stem cell-derived red blood cells (RBCs) are a potential alternative to donated blood, but yield and quality remain a challenge. Here, we show that application of insight from human population genetic studies can enhance RBC production from stem cells. The SH2B3 gene encodes a negative regulator of cytokine signaling and naturally occurring loss-of-function variants in this gene increase RBC counts in vivo. Targeted suppression of SH2B3 in primary human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells enhanced the maturation and overall yield of in-vitro-derived RBCs. Moreover, inactivation of SH2B3 by CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in human pluripotent stem cells allowed enhanced erythroid cell expansion with preserved differentiation. Our findings therefore highlight the potential for combining human genome variation studies with genome editing approaches to improve cell and tissue production for regenerative medicine.

  14. Peripheral blood cell variations in cirrhotic portal hypertension patients with hypersplenism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Fu Lu; Xin-Qiu Li; Xiao-Yu Han; Xiao-Guang Gong; Shun-Wu Chang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore peripheral blood cell variations in hepatic cirrhosis portal hypertension patients with hypersplenism. Methods: Clinical data of 322 hypersplenism patients with decreased peripheral blood cells, admitted with cirrhotic portal hypertension, was retrospectively studied over the last 17 years. Results:In 64% (206/322) of patients, more than 2 kinds of blood cell were decreased, including 89 cases of pancytopenia (43.2%), 52 cases of WBC+PLT decrease (25.2%), 29 cases of RBC + PLT decrease (14.1%), and 36 cases of WBC + RBC decrease (17.5%);in 36% (116/322) of patients, single type blood cell decrease occurred, including 31 cases of PLT decrease (26.7%), 29 cases of WBC decrease (25%) and 56 cases of RBC decrease (48.3%). Of 227 routine bone marrow examinations, bone marrow hyperplasia was observed in 118 cases (52.0%), the remainder showed no hyperplasia. For the distinct scope and extent of peripheralblood cell decreases, preoperative blood component transfusions were carried out, then treated by surgery, after whole group splenectomy, the peripheral blood cell count was significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusions: Of portal hypertensive patients with splenomegaly and hypersplenism, 64%have simultaneous decrease in various blood cells, 36%have decrease in single type blood cells, 52%of patients have bone marrow hyperplasia. A splenectomy can significantly increase the reduction of peripheral blood cells.

  15. New algorithm and system for measuring size distribution of blood cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuiping Yao(姚翠萍); Zheng Li(李政); Zhenxi Zhang(张镇西)

    2004-01-01

    In optical scattering particle sizing, a numerical transform is sought so that a particle size distribution can be determined from angular measurements of near forward scattering, which has been adopted in the measurement of blood cells. In this paper a new method of counting and classification of blood cell, laser light scattering method from stationary suspensions, is presented. The genetic algorithm combined with nonnegative least squared algorithm is employed to inverse the size distribution of blood cells. Numerical tests show that these techniques can be successfully applied to measuring size distribution of blood cell with high stability.

  16. Studies on bone scintigraphy in renal osteodystrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchimochi, Makoto (Nippon Dental Univ., Niigata)

    1983-12-01

    Bone scintigraphy was superior over roentgenography for detection of abnormal bone findings in chronic dialysis patients. According to the type of scintigraphic findings, an increase in the hot area in the cranium or the mandibule seemed to express fibrous osteitis due to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Multiple coin-shaped hot areas in ribs were thought to indicate advanced osteomalacia or osteomalacia in patients with aluminum poisoning. The 4 hr-B/St ratio of the cranium was thought to serve as a quantitative indicator of the status of fibrous osteitis due to secondary hyperparathyroidism to show the progress and therapeutic course of the disease.

  17. Bone scintigraphy in painful os peroneum syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Johanne B; Jensen, Frank K; Falborg, Bettina;

    2011-01-01

    Lateral foot pain may be caused by various entities including the painful os peroneum syndrome. A case of a 68-year-old man is presented, who experienced a trauma with distortion of the right foot. Nine months later, he still had pain in the lateral part of the right foot. Bone scintigraphy showe...... uptake in the area where an os peroneum was located and thus confirmed the clinical assumption of painful os peroneum syndrome. Familiarity with the clinical and imaging findings can prevent undiagnosed lateral foot pain....

  18. A Comprehensive Fluid Dynamic-Diffusion Model of Blood Microcirculation with Focus on Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floch, Francois; Harris, Wesley L.

    2009-11-01

    A novel methodology has been developed to address sickle cell disease, based on highly descriptive mathematical models for blood flow in the capillaries. Our investigations focus on the coupling between oxygen delivery and red blood cell dynamics, which is crucial to understanding sickle cell crises and is unique to this blood disease. The main part of our work is an extensive study of blood dynamics through simulations of red cells deforming within the capillary vessels, and relies on the use of a large mathematical system of equations describing oxygen transfer, blood plasma dynamics and red cell membrane mechanics. This model is expected to lead to the development of new research strategies for sickle cell disease. Our simulation model could be used not only to assess current researched remedies, but also to spur innovative research initiatives, based on our study of the physical properties coupled in sickle cell disease.

  19. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated to exercise and fetal gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta;

    were then stained with a cocktail of fetal cell-specific antibodies, identified and counted. Results: Participants carrying male fetuses had higher median number of fcmbs per 30 mL blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p=0.004). Exercise within 3 hours (1.5 vs. 4, p=0.02) and 24 hours (2......Introduction: We have established a robust method to specifically identify and isolate a placental fetal cell in maternal blood (fcmbs) at a gestational age of 12 weeks. The concentration of these cells, however, varies considerably among pregnant women (median 3 fcmbs/30 mL blood, range 0...... activity was obtained by a questionnaire and a structured interview. The number of fcmbs was assessed in 30 mL blood processed by a proprietary method developed in-house. Fetal cells in the blood, binding to fetal cell specific antibodies, were initially isolated by magnetic cell sorting. The fetal cells...

  20. P2X and P2Y receptor signaling in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Purinergic signaling involves the activation of cell surface P1 and P2 receptors by extracellular nucleosides and nucleotides such as adenosine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respectively. P2 receptors comprise P2X and P2Y receptors, and have well-established roles in leukocyte and platelet biology. Emerging evidence indicates important roles for these receptors in red blood cells. P2 receptor activation stimulates a number of signaling pathways in progenitor red blood cells resulting in microparticle release, reactive oxygen species formation, and apoptosis. Likewise, activation of P2 receptors in mature red blood cells stimulates signaling pathways mediating volume regulation, eicosanoid release, phosphatidylserine exposure, hemolysis, impaired ATP release, and susceptibility or resistance to infection. This review summarizes the distribution of P2 receptors in red blood cells, and outlines the functions of P2 receptor signaling in these cells and its implications in red blood cell biology.

  1. Dynamics of Red Blood Cells through submicronic splenic slits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Emmanuele; Gambhire, Priya; Atwell, Scott; Bedu, Frederic; Ozerov, Igor; Viallat, Annie; Charrier, Anne; Badens, Catherine; Centre de reference Thalassemie, Badens Team; Physics; Engineering of Living Systems Team

    2016-11-01

    Red Blood Cells (RBCs) are periodically monitored for changes in their deformability by the spleen, and are entrapped and destroyed if unable to pass through the splenic interendothelial slits (IESs). In particular, in sickle cell disease (SCD), where hemoglobin form fibers inside the RBCs, and in hereditary spherocytosis (HS), where RBCs are more spherical and membrane-cytoskekeleton bonds are weakened, the loss of RBC deformability leads to spleen dysfunction. By combining photolithography and anisotropic wet etching techniques, we developed a new on-chip PDMS device with channels replicating the submicronic physiological dimensions of IESs to study the mechanisms of deformation of the RBCs during their passage through these biomimetic slits. For the first time, with HS RBCs, we show the disruption of the links between the RBC membrane and the underlying spectrin network. In the case of SCD RBCs we show the appearance of a tip at the front of the RBC with a longer time relaxation due to the increased cytoplasmic viscosity. This work has been carried out thanks to the support of the A*MIDEX project (n° ANR-11-IDEX-0001-02) funded by the «Investissements d'Avenir». French Government program, managed by ANR.

  2. Fish peripheral blood mononuclear cells preparation for future monitoring applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierrard, Marie-Aline; Roland, Kathleen; Kestemont, Patrick; Dieu, Marc; Raes, Martine; Silvestre, Frédéric

    2012-07-15

    Fish species possess many specific characteristics that support their use in ecotoxicology. Widely used in clinical research, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) can reasonably be exploited as relevant target cells in the assessment of environmental chemical toxicity. The current article focuses on the methods necessary to isolate, characterize, and culture fish PBMCs. These procedures were successfully applied on an endangered species, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla L.), and on an economically important and worldwide exported species, the Asian catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus S.). Proteomic approaches can be useful to screen xenobiotic exposure at the protein expression level, giving the opportunity to develop early warning signals thanks to molecular signatures of toxicity. To date, a major limitation of proteomic analyses is that most protein expression profiles often reveal the same predominant and frequently differentially expressed families of proteins regardless of the experimental stressing conditions. The current study describes a methodology to get a postnuclear fraction of high quality isolated from fish PBMCs in order to perform subsequent subproteomic analyses. Applied on samples from eel, the subproteomic analysis (two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis) allowed the identification by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and searches in the full NCBInr (National Center for Biotechnology Information nonredundant) database of 66 proteins representing 36 different proteins validated through Peptide and Protein Prophet of Scaffold software.

  3. Intracellular trehalose improves the survival of human red blood cells by freeze-drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hui; LIU Baolin; HUA Zezhao; LI Chuan; WU Zhengzheng

    2007-01-01

    Freeze-drying of human red blood cells has a potential important application for blood transfusion.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects ofintracellular trehalose on the survival of red blood cells after freeze-drying and rehydration.Fresh red blood cells were incubated in trehalose solutions of various concentrations at 37℃ for 7 h following freeze-drying.Polyvinylpyrrolidone,Trehalose,sodium citrate,and human serum albumin were used as extracellular protective agents for the freeze-drying of red blood cells.The results indicated that the intracellular trehalose concentration was increased with increasing concentration of extracellular trehalose solution,and the maximum concen tration of intracellular trehalose reached 35 mmol/L.The viability of freeze-dried red blood cells increased with the increment of intracellular trehalose concentration.

  4. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  5. Under-filled blood collection tubes containing K2EDTA as anticoagulant are acceptable for automated complete blood counts, white blood cell differential, and reticulocyte count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M; Robbe, V A; Jack, R M; Rutledge, J C

    2010-10-01

    Current laboratory standards from Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and manufacturer's (Becton Dickinson) data indicate that under-filling K(2)EDTA blood collection tubes can result in erroneous hematology values. To accommodate under-filled tubes and reduce collection volumes while optimizing our automation, we explored the acceptable limit of under-filled tubes for hematology values. We collected 8.0 ml of blood from 30 normal adult volunteers. Each donation was aliquoted in the following volumes: 4.0, 2.0, 1.0, 0.5 ml x 2. These samples were analyzed within 1 h of blood collection on Sysmex XE-2100 (Sysmex America Inc., Mundelein, IL, USA) for complete blood count, reticulocyte, and white blood cell differentials. Results of the under-filled tubes were compared to those of the standard volume. The Deming regression analysis show excellent correlation for all parameters between each under-filled blood collection volume compared to a standard 4 ml volume. The Bland and Altman analysis shows good agreement between both 1.0 and 2.0 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume. The 0.5 ml compared to a 4.0 ml volume, however, shows increased variation on many parameters. In addition all three collection volumes show negative bias compared to the standard volume for platelet count, but the difference is considered insignificant with a percent difference of 5.5%, 3.2%, and 1.5% for 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 ml collection volume respectively. Finally for 0.5 ml collection volume we noticed a low level of false positive flagging rate for white blood cell. Acceptable complete blood count values of under-filled powdered K(2)EDTA tubes can be obtained with as little as 1.0 ml of blood.

  6. Increased adhesive and inflammatory properties in blood outgrowth endothelial cells from sickle cell anemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tatiana Mary; Lanaro, Carolina; Ozelo, Margareth Castro; Garrido, Vanessa Tonin; Olalla-Saad, Sara Teresinha; Conran, Nicola; Costa, Fernando Ferreira

    2013-11-01

    The endothelium plays an important role in sickle cell anemia (SCA) pathophysiology, interacting with red cells, leukocytes and platelets during the vaso-occlusive process and undergoing activation and dysfunction as a result of intravascular hemolysis and chronic inflammation. Blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) can be isolated from adult peripheral blood and have been used in diverse studies, since they have a high proliferative capacity and a stable phenotype during in vitro culture. This study aimed to establish BOEC cultures for use as an in vitro study model for endothelial function in sickle cell anemia. Once established, BOECs from steady-state SCA individuals (SCA BOECs) were characterized for their adhesive and inflammatory properties, in comparison to BOECs from healthy control individuals (CON BOECs). Cell adhesion assays demonstrated that control individual red cells adhered significantly more to SCA BOEC than to CON BOEC. Despite these increased adhesive properties, SCA BOECs did not demonstrate significant differences in their expression of major endothelial adhesion molecules, compared to CON BOECs. SCA BOECs were also found to be pro-inflammatory, producing a significantly higher quantity of the cytokine, IL-8, than CON BOECs. From the results obtained, we suggest that BOEC may be a good model for the in vitro study of SCA. Data indicate that endothelial cells of sickle cell anemia patients may have abnormal inflammatory and adhesive properties even outside of the chronic inflammatory and vaso-occlusive environment of patients.

  7. Macromolecular depletion modulates the binding of red blood cells to activated endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Koo, Stephanie; Lin, Cheryl Shuyi; Neu, Björn

    2010-09-01

    Adhesion of red blood cells (RBCs) to endothelial cells (ECs) is usually insignificant but an enhanced adhesion has been observed in various diseases associated with vascular complications. This abnormal adhesion under pathological conditions such as sickle cell disease has been correlated with increased levels of various plasma proteins but the detailed underlying mechanism(s) remains unclear. Usually it is assumed that the proadhesive effects of plasma proteins originate from ligand interactions cross-linking receptors on adjacent cells, but explicit results detailing binding sites or receptors for some proteins (e.g., fibrinogen) on either RBC or EC surfaces that would support this model are missing. In this study, the authors tested whether there is an alternative mechanism. Their results demonstrate that dextran 2 MDa promotes the adhesion of normal RBCs to thrombin-activated ECs and that this effect becomes more pronounced with increasing thrombin concentration or with prolonged thrombin incubation time. It is concluded that depletion interaction originating from nonadsorbing macromolecules (i.e., dextran) can modulate the adhesion of red blood cells to thrombin-activated EC. This study thereby suggests macromolecular depletion as an alternative mechanism for the adhesion-promoting effects of nonadsorbing plasma proteins. These findings should not only aid in getting a better understanding of diseases associated with vascular complications but should also have many potential applications in biomedical or biotechnological areas that require the control of cell-cell or cell surface interactions.

  8. Derivation of autism spectrum disorder-specific induced pluripotent stem cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRosa, Brooke A; Van Baaren, Jessica M; Dubey, Gaurav K; Lee, Joycelyn M; Cuccaro, Michael L; Vance, Jeffery M; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Dykxhoorn, Derek M

    2012-05-10

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold tremendous potential both as a biological tool to uncover the pathophysiology of disease by creating relevant cell models and as a source of stem cells for cell-based therapeutic applications. Typically, iPSCs have been derived by the transgenic overexpression of transcription factors associated with progenitor cell or stem cell function in fibroblasts derived from skin biopsies. However, the need for skin punch biopsies to derive fibroblasts for reprogramming can present a barrier to study participation among certain populations of individuals, including children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). In addition, the acquisition of skin punch biopsies in non-clinic settings presents a challenge. One potential mechanism to avoid these limitations would be the use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as the source of the cells for reprogramming. In this article we describe, for the first time, the derivation of iPSC lines from PBMCs isolated from the whole blood of autistic children, and their subsequent differentiation in GABAergic neurons.

  9. Prenatal diagnosis of trisomy 13 on fetal cells obtained from maternal blood after minor enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterwijk, JC; Mesker, WE; Ouwerkerk-Van Velzen, MCM; Knepfle, CFHM; Wiesmeijer, KC; Beverstock, GC; Van Ommen, GJB; Tanke, HJ; Kanhai, HHH

    1998-01-01

    In a pilot study to establish fetal nucleated red blood cell (NRBC) detection in maternal blood, trisomy 13 was diagnosed by FISH analysis at 11 weeks' gestation. The NRBCs were detected after a single-step ficoll density gradient enrichment. In blood samples taken both before and after CVS, 52 and

  10. Washing of stored red blood cells by an autotransfusion device before transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vroege, R.; Wildevuur, W. R.; Muradin, J. A. G.; Graves, D.; van Oeveren, W.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives The use of an autotransfusion device to wash blood of the incision site is increasing. After washing, this blood is retransfused without side effects caused by activated plasma factors and cell release products. This procedure could be extended to washing of donor blood, wh

  11. The correlation between T regulatory cells and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Pınar Erçetin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Multiple myeloma (MM is characterized by malignant proliferation of plasmocytes and their precursors. T regulatory cells (Tregs have a role in immunosuppression and control of autoimmunity, and are currently an important topic in the study of immune response to tumor cells. The correlation between Tregs and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT in MM has not been studied. The aim of this study was to compare CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg, CD200, and PD-1 levels in MM patients that did and did not undergo APBSCT. Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 28 MM patients ranging in age from 41 to 78 years for analysis of CD4CD25+ FOXP3+ Tregs, PD-1 (CD279, and CD200. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated via density gradient centrifugation. Four-color flow cytometry was performed. Using a sequential gating strategy, Tregs were identified as CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T-cells. Results were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U non-parametric test and a compare means test. p values 0.05. Conclusion: Treg levels were higher in the patients that underwent APBSCT. Tregs are crucial for the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance to self-antigens. In addition, Tregs can suppress immune responses to tumor antigens; however, APBSCT and Treg levels were not correlated with CD200 or PD-1 expression. Relationship of Tregs with prognosis needs to be determined by studies that include larger cohorts.

  12. Cell type-specific responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greulich, C; Diendorf, J; Gessmann, J; Simon, T; Habijan, T; Eggeler, G; Schildhauer, T A; Epple, M; Köller, M

    2011-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP) are increasingly used in biomedical applications because of their remarkable antimicrobial activity. In biomedicine, Ag-NP are coated onto or embedded in wound dressings, surgical instruments and bone substitute biomaterials, such as silver-containing calcium phosphate cements. Free Ag-NP and silver ions are released from these coatings or after the degradation of a biomaterial, and may come into close contact with blood cells. Despite the widespread use of Ag-NP as an antimicrobial agent, there is a serious lack of information on the biological effects of Ag-NP on human blood cells. In this study, the uptake of Ag-NP by peripheral monocytes and lymphocytes (T-cells) was analyzed, and the influence of nanosilver on cell biological functions (proliferation, the expression of adhesion molecules, cytokine release and the generation of reactive oxygen species) was studied. After cell culture in the presence of monodispersed Ag-NP (5-30μgml(-1) silver concentration), agglomerates of nanoparticles were detected within monocytes (CD14+) but not in T-cells (CD3+) by light microscopy, flow cytometry and combined focused ion beam/scanning electron microscopy. The uptake rate of nanoparticles was concentration dependent, and the silver agglomerates were typically found in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, a concentration-dependent activation (e.g. an increased expression of adhesion molecule CD54) of monocytes at Ag-NP concentrations of 10-15μgml(-1) was observed, and cytotoxicity of Ag-NP-treated monocytes was observed at Ag-NP levels of 25μgml(-1) and higher. However, no modulation of T-cell proliferation was observed in the presence of Ag-NP. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence for a cell-type-specific uptake of Ag-NP by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the resultant cellular responses after exposure.

  13. Evaluation of an additive solution for preservation of canine red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, K J; Owen, T J; Meyers, K M

    1994-01-01

    The effect of an additive preservative solution on canine red blood cell posttransfusion viability (PTV) and on selected canine red blood cell biochemical parameters was studied. One unit (450 mL) of blood was collected from 6 clinically normal dogs into the anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose, centrifuged, and the plasma removed. The red blood cells were then suspended in 100 mL of a saline, adenine, dextrose, and mannitol solution and stored at 4 degrees C. Aliquots were removed for study at 1, 10, 20, 30, 37, and 44 days. The 24-hour PTV of autologous red blood cells was determined using a sodium chromate (51Cr) label. Red blood cell concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), and pH were also determined. Canine red blood cell PTV, pH, ATP, and 2,3-DPG concentrations decreased during storage (P Food and Drug Administration (FDA) minimum standard for human red blood cells, the PTV was substandard in 75% of the day 44 units. The FDA standard was exceeded in 83% of the day 37 units. It was concluded that 37-day-old canine red blood cells preserved with a saline, adenine, dextrose, and mannitol solution are of acceptable quality for transfusion.

  14. Cryopreserved packed red blood cells in surgical patients: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex; Kim, Young; Hoehn, Richard; Jernigan, Peter; Pritts, Timothy

    2016-09-08

    Since the advent of anticoagulation and component storage of human blood products, allogeneic red blood cell transfusion has been one of the most common practices in modern medicine. Efforts to reduce the biochemical effects of storage, collectively known as the red blood cell storage lesion, and prolong the storage duration have led to numerous advancements in erythrocyte storage solutions. Cryopreservation and frozen storage of red blood cells in glycerol have been successfully utilised by many civilian and military institutions worldwide. Through progressive improvements in liquid storage of erythrocytes in novel storage solutions, the logistical need for cryopreserved red blood cells in the civilian setting has diminished. A growing body of current literature is focused on the clinical consequences of packed red blood cell age. Modern cryopreservation techniques show promise as a cost-effective method to ameliorate the negative effect of the red blood cell storage lesion, while meeting the technical and logistical needs of both civilian and military medicine. This review outlines the history of red blood cell cryopreservation, the clinical impact of red cell storage, and highlights the current literature on frozen blood and its impact on modern transfusion.

  15. Vesiculation of healthy and defective red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Lykotrafitis, George

    2015-07-01

    Vesiculation of mature red blood cells (RBCs) contributes to removal of defective patches of the erythrocyte membrane. In blood disorders, which are related to defects in proteins of the RBC membrane, vesiculation of the plasma membrane is intensified. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain RBC vesiculation but the exact underlying mechanisms and what determines the sizes of the vesicles are still not completely understood. In this work, we apply a two-component coarse-grained molecular dynamics RBC membrane model to study how RBC vesiculation is controlled by the membrane spontaneous curvature and by lateral compression of the membrane. Our simulation results show that the formation of small homogeneous vesicles with a diameter less than 40 nm can be attributed to a large spontaneous curvature of membrane domains. On the other hand, compression on the membrane can cause the formation of vesicles with heterogeneous composition and with sizes comparable with the size of the cytoskeleton corral. When spontaneous curvature and lateral compression are simultaneously considered, the compression on the membrane tends to facilitate formation of vesicles originating from curved membrane domains. We also simulate vesiculation of RBCs with membrane defects connected to hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) and to hereditary spherocytosis (HS). When the vertical connectivity between the lipid bilayer and the membrane skeleton is elevated, as in normal RBCs, multiple vesicles are shed from the compressed membrane with diameters similar to the cytoskeleton corral size. In HS RBCs, where the connectivity between the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton is reduced, larger-size vesicles are released under the same compression ratio as in normal RBCs. Lastly, we find that vesicles released from HE RBCs can contain cytoskeletal filaments due to fragmentation of the membrane skeleton while vesicles released from the HS RBCs are depleted of cytoskeletal filaments.

  16. Assessment of an evolutive tertiary syphilis by bone scintigraphy. A case report; Evaluation d'une syphilis tertiaire evolutive en scintigraphie osseuse. A propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriamisandratsoa, N.; Scheiber, C.; Grucker, D. [Faculte de Medecine, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Institut de Physique Biologique, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Dery, M. [Medecine Generale, Geriatrie, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2003-10-01

    One patient complained of persisting diffuse bone pain, with greater intensity in the pelvis. HDP {sup 99m}Tc bone scintigraphy showed increased uptake around the right sacro-iliac joint and in the right iliac area due to increased osteoblastic activity, thereby providing functional information about the evolutive nature of the bone lesion. The X-scanner only revealed osteolysis in the same location. A blood test confirmed the diagnosis of tertiary syphilis. (author)

  17. Red Blood Cell Susceptibility to Pneumolysin: CORRELATION WITH MEMBRANE BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Petrov, Peter G; Khafaji, Mawya A; Mughal, Muhammad K; Naylor, Claire E; Shore, Angela C; Gooding, Kim M; Casanova, Francesco; Mitchell, Tim J; Titball, Richard W; Winlove, C Peter

    2016-05-06

    This study investigated the effect of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the plasma membrane as well as membrane morphology on the susceptibility of human red blood cells to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin, a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, using single cell studies. We show a correlation between the physical properties of the membrane (bending rigidity and surface and dipole electrostatic potentials) and the susceptibility of red blood cells to pneumolysin-induced hemolysis. We demonstrate that biochemical modifications of the membrane induced by oxidative stress, lipid scrambling, and artificial cell aging modulate the cell response to the toxin. We provide evidence that the diversity of response to pneumolysin in diabetic red blood cells correlates with levels of glycated hemoglobin and that the mechanical properties of the red blood cell plasma membrane are altered in diabetes. Finally, we show that diabetic red blood cells are more resistant to pneumolysin and the related toxin perfringolysin O relative to healthy red blood cells. Taken together, these studies indicate that the diversity of cell response to pneumolysin within a population of human red blood cells is influenced by the biophysical and biochemical status of the plasma membrane and the chemical and/or oxidative stress pre-history of the cell.

  18. Adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells transdifferentiate in vitro and integrate into the retina in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qian; Guan, Liping; Huang, Bing; Li, Weihua; Su, Qiao; Yu, Minbin; Xu, Xiaoping; Luo, Ting; Lin, Shaochun; Sun, Xuerong; Chen, Mengfei; Chen, Xigu

    2011-06-01

    Adult peripheral blood-derived cells are able to differentiate into a variety of cell types, including nerve cells, liver-like cells and epithelial cells. However, their differentiation into retina-like cells is controversial. In the present study, transdifferentiation potential of human adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells into retina-like cells and integration into the retina of mice were investigated. Freshly isolated adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells were divided into two groups: cells in group I were cultured in neural stem cell medium, and cells in group II were exposed to conditioned medium from rat retinal tissue culture. After 5 days, several distinct cell morphologies were observed, including standard mononuclear, neurons with one or two axons and elongated glial-like cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of neural stem cell, neuron and retina cell markers demonstrated that cells in both groups were nestin-, MAP2 (microtubule-associated protein)- and GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein)-positive. Flow cytometry results suggested a significant increase in nestin-, MAP2- and CD16-positive cells in group I and nestin-, GFAP-, MAP2-, vimentin- and rhodopsin-positive cells in group II. To determine survival, migration and integration in vivo, cell suspensions (containing group I or group II cells) were injected into the vitreous or the peritoneum. Tissue specimens were obtained and immunostained 4 weeks after transplantation. We found that cells delivered by intravitreal injection integrated into the retina. Labelled cells were not detected in the retina of mice receiving differentiated cells by intraperitoneal injection, but cells (groups I and II) were detected in the liver and spleen. Our findings revealed that human adult peripheral blood mononuclear cells could be induced to transdifferentiate into neural precursor cells and retinal progenitor cells in vitro, and the differentiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells can migrate and integrate

  19. In vitro transdifferentiation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to photoreceptor-like cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukari Komuta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Direct reprogramming is a promising, simple and low-cost approach to generate target cells from somatic cells without using induced pluripotent stem cells. Recently, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs have attracted considerable attention as a somatic cell source for reprogramming. As a cell source, PBMCs have an advantage over dermal fibroblasts with respect to the ease of collecting tissues. Based on our studies involving generation of photosensitive photoreceptor cells from human iris cells and human dermal fibroblasts by transduction of photoreceptor-related transcription factors via retrovirus vectors, we transduced these transcription factors into PBMCs via Sendai virus vectors. We found that retinal disease-related genes were efficiently detected in CRX-transduced cells, most of which are crucial to photoreceptor functions. In functional studies, a light-induced inward current was detected in some CRX-transduced cells. Moreover, by modification of the culture conditions including additional transduction of RAX1 and NEUROD1, we found a greater variety of retinal disease-related genes than that observed in CRX-transduced PBMCs. These data suggest that CRX acts as a master control gene for reprogramming PBMCs into photoreceptor-like cells and that our induced photoreceptor-like cells might contribute to individualized drug screening and disease modeling of inherited retinal degeneration.

  20. Renal scintigraphy in infants with antenatally diagnosed renal pelvis dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajdinović Boris

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction and vesicoureteral reflux are the most frequent entities identified on the basis of antenatal hydronephrosis. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and pattern of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings in postnatal investigation of children with antenatal hydronephrosis. Methods. Twenty four infants (19 boys and five girls presented with antenatal hydronephrosis and mild to moderate hydronephrosis on ultrasound in newborn period were referred for renal scintigraphy. Ten patients with vesicoureteral reflux documented on micturating cystoureterography underwent 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy and 14 patients were subjected to 99mTc-DTPA scintigraphy. Results. Anteroposterior pelvic diameter on ultrasound ranged from 11 to 24 mm. Renal DMSA scans identified congenital scars in two boys with bilateral reflux of grade V and unilateral reflux of grade III. Relative kidney uptake (RKU less than 40% was found in three, and poor kidney function (RKU less than 10% in two patients. Significant obstruction was shown on DTPA diuretic renal scintigraphy in 6/14 patients. Some slowing in dranaige (T1/2 greater than 10 minutes with no reduction in differential renal function was identified in three patients. Differential renal function less than 10% was obtained in one case. Conclusion. A high percent of abnormal renal scintigraphy findings was obtained. Renal scintigraphy was useful in determination of underlying cause of antenatally detected hydronephrosis.

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  8. Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy in carotid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branchereau, A.; Bernard, P.J.; Ciosi, G.; Bazan, M.; de Laforte, C.; Elias, A.; Bouvier, J.L.

    1988-07-01

    Forty-five patients (35 men, 10 women) undergoing carotid surgery had Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy as part of their preoperative work-up. Imaging was performed within three hours after injection of the Indium-111. A second series of views was obtained 24 hours later and repeated at 24 hour intervals for two days. Of 54 scintigrams, 22 were positive and 32 negative. Positive results were defined as a twofold or more increase in local activity on a visualized carotid after 24 hours. The sensitivity of the method was 41%, intraoperatively, and the specificity, 100%. The low sensitivity places this method behind sonography and duplex-scanning for screening patients for surgery. We believe that indications for platelet scintigraphy are limited to: 1. Repeated transient ischemic attacks in the same territory with minimal lesions on arteriography and non-homogeneous plaque on duplex scan; 2. Symptomatic patients being treated medically as a possible argument for surgery; 3. Determining therapeutic policy for patients having experienced a transient ischemic attack with a coexisting intracardiac thrombus.

  9. Optimum Energy Window In Liver Scintigraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Sadremomtaz

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In liver scintigraphy radioactive tracers in addition to liver are accumulated in other organs such as spleen. It leads to the presence of secondary source which affects image quality. Therefore knowing the influence of the noise arising from the secondary source and trying to reduce the additional data is necessary. In nuclear medicine imaging using of energy window is a useful way to reduce the noise. In this paper we try to find an optimum energy window to reduce the noise for two different low energy collimators. Liver scintigraphy images with and without activity in spleen were simulated by SIMIND software with different energy window percentages and with Low-Energy High-Resolution LEHR and Low-Energy General-Purpose LEGP collimators. We used with activity of 190 MBq. Spleen was outside of the camera field of view so that just its noise effects on the liver image is examined. Finally the images of liver with activity in spleen were compared with that without activity in spleen by MATLAB code.

  10. Differentiation of smooth muscle progenitor cells in peripheral blood and its application in tissue engineered blood vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shang-zhe XIE; Ning-tao FANG; Shui LIU; Ping ZHOU; Yi ZHANG; Song-mei WANG; Hong-yang GAO; Luan-feng PAN

    2008-01-01

    Background: A major shortcoming in tissue engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) is the lack of healthy and easily attainable smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Smooth muscle progenitor cells (SPCs), especially from peripheral blood, may offer an alternative cell source for tissue engineering involving a less invasive harvesting technique. Methods: SPCs were isolated from 5-ml fresh rat peripheral blood by density-gradient centrifugation and cultured for 3 weeks in endothelial growth medium-2-MV (EGM-2-MV) medium containing platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF BB). Before seeded on the synthesized scaffold, SPC-derived smooth muscle outgrowth cell (SOC) phenotypes were assessed by immuno-fluorescent staining, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The cells were seeded onto the silk fibroin-modified poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (SF-PHBHHx) scaffolds by 6×104 cells/cm'2 and cultured under the static con-dition for 3 weeks. The growth and proliferation of the seeded cells on the scaffold were analyzed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Results: SOCs displayed specific "hill and valley" morphology, expressed the specific markers of the SMC lineage: protein, and extracellular matrix components elastin and matrix Gla protein (MGP), as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). After seeded on the SF-PHBHHx scaffold, the cells showed excellent metabolic activity and proliferation. Conclusion: SPCs isolated from peripheral blood can be differentiated into the SMCs in vitro and have an impressive growth potential in the biodegradable synthesized scaffold. Thus, SPCs may be a promising cell source for constructing TEBVs.

  11. Abnormal gastrointestinal accumulation of radiotracer by gastric bleeding during {sup 99m}Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Kyung A.; Lee, Sang Woo; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [College of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    We present a case in which a patient with acute hemorrhagic gastritis demonstrated abnormal gastrointestinal accumulation of radiotracer during {sup 99m}Tc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) skeletal scintigraphy. A hemorrhagic gastritis was subsequently demonstrated by endoscopy. The mechanism for the intestinal localization of {sup 99m}Tc-MDP in this patients is not clear, but we guess that the extravasated blood containing the radiopharmaceutical cannot recirculate and stays at the bleeding site, so we can see the intestinal activity.

  12. The foetal distress decreases the number of stem cells in umbilical cord blood

    OpenAIRE

    Pafumi, Carlo; PALUMBO, M A; LEANZA, V; TEODORO, M C; COCO, L; RISOLETI, E VI; VIZZINI S; Belvedere, G.; ZARBO, G

    2010-01-01

    The authors evaluated the blood volume of foetal blood remaining in the placenta after giving birth with the foetal distress and after a physiological delivery While the amount of blood collected did non differ between groups, the number of CD34 cells was grater in the physiological may be the foetal distress during labour leads to a shift of blood from the placenta to the foetal circulation compartment.

  13. Characterization of Adherent Nonhematopoietic Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安小惠; 蔡国平

    2003-01-01

    To confirm and characterize the adherent fibroblast-like progenitors in human umbilical cord blood, we isolated mononuclear cells from human umbilical cord blood by Ficoll-Hypaque.Two main morphologically different kinds of cells were formed by culturing the cells in collagen-coated 24-well plastic dishes and flasks.One type was the adherent fibroblast-like cells, while the other was loosely adherent clonally expanded round cells.Our experiments demonstrate that the adherent fibroblast-like cells possess multilineage potential, including the ability to differentiate into endothelial-like cells and to express the mesenchymal cell marker.

  14. Postoperative infection and natural killer cell function following blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Andersen, A J; Christiansen, P M

    1992-01-01

    The frequency of infection in 197 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery and having either no blood transfusion, transfusion with whole blood, or filtered blood free from leucocytes and platelets was investigated in a prospective randomized trial. Natural killer cell function was measured...... before operation and 3, 7 and 30 days after surgery in 60 consecutive patients. Of the patients 104 required blood transfusion; 48 received filtered blood and 56 underwent whole blood transfusion. Postoperative infections developed in 13 patients transfused with whole blood (23 per cent, 95 per cent...... function was significantly (P less than 0.001) impaired up to 30 days after surgery in patients transfused with whole blood. These data provide a strong case against the use of whole blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. Udgivelsesdato: 1992-Jun...

  15. Theory to predict shear stress on cells in turbulent blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Khandakar Niaz; Bark, David; Forleo, Marcio; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Shear stress on blood cells and platelets transported in a turbulent flow dictates the fate and biological activity of these cells. We present a theoretical link between energy dissipation in turbulent flows to the shear stress that cells experience and show that for the case of physiological turbulent blood flow: (a) the Newtonian assumption is valid, (b) turbulent eddies are universal for the most complex of blood flow problems, and (c) shear stress distribution on turbulent blood flows is possibly universal. Further we resolve a long standing inconsistency in hemolysis between laminar and turbulent flow using the theoretical framework. This work demonstrates that energy dissipation as opposed to bulk shear stress in laminar or turbulent blood flow dictates local mechanical environment of blood cells and platelets universally.

  16. Advanced feeder-free generation of induced pluripotent stem cells directly from blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trokovic, Ras; Weltner, Jere; Nishimura, Ken; Ohtaka, Manami; Nakanishi, Mahito; Salomaa, Veikko; Jalanko, Anu; Otonkoski, Timo; Kyttälä, Aija

    2014-12-01

    Generation of validated human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for biobanking is essential for exploring the full potential of iPSCs in disease modeling and drug discovery. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are attractive targets for reprogramming, because blood is collected by a routine clinical procedure and is a commonly stored material in biobanks. Generation of iPSCs from blood cells has previously been reported using integrative retroviruses, episomal Sendai viruses, and DNA plasmids. However, most of the published protocols require expansion and/or activation of a specific cell population from PBMCs. We have recently collected a PBMC cohort from the Finnish population containing more than 2,000 subjects. Here we report efficient generation of iPSCs directly from PBMCs in feeder-free conditions in approximately 2 weeks. The produced iPSC clones are pluripotent and transgene-free. Together, these properties make this novel method a powerful tool for large-scale reprogramming of PBMCs and for iPSC biobanking.

  17. The "hot nose" sign on brain death nuclear scintigraphy: where does the flow really go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelt, Eric A; Song, Won S; Phillips, William T; Metter, Darlene F; Salman, Umber A; Blumhardt, Ralph

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear scintigraphy has been used in patients with brain death since the 1970s. Many studies report a "hot nose" sign as predictive of brain death and lack of cerebral flow. Current nuclear medicine textbooks state that increased flow to the nose occurs secondary to occlusion of the internal carotid artery with flow rerouted to the nose via the external carotid artery. This explanation has been provided for decades assuming that the blood flow is actually increased to the nose. We performed a study to determine whether flow is really seen in the nose when a hot nose sign is present.

  18. Differentiation and tumorigenicity of neural stem cells from human cord blood mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xiang; Changming Wang; Jingzhou Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into a variety of tissues and exhibit low immunogenicity.OBJECTIVE:To investigate isolation and in vitro cultivation methods of human cord blood MSCs,to observe expression of neural stem cell (NSC) marker mRNA under induction,and to detect tumorigenicity in animals.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A cell biological,in vitro trial and a randomized,controlled,in vivo experiment were performed at the Department of Neurology,Daping Hospital at the Third Military Medical University of Chinese PLA from August 2006 to May 2008.MATERIALS:Umbilical cord blood was collected from full-term-delivery fetus at the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of DapJng Hospital,China.Eighteen BALB/C nu/nu nude mice were randomly assigned to three groups:back subcutaneous,cervical subcutaneous,and control,with 6 mice in each group.METHODS:Monocytes were isolated from heparinized human cord blood samples by density gradient centrifugation and then adherent cultivated in vitro to obtain MSC clones.After the cord blood MSCs were cultured for 7 days with nerve growth factor and retinoic acid to induce differentiation into NSCs,the cells (adjusted density of 1×10~7/mL) were prepared into cell suspension.In the back subcutaneous and cervical subcutaneous groups,nude mice were hypodermically injected with a 0.5-mL cell suspension into the back and cervical regions,respectively.In the control group,nude mice received a subcutaneous injection of 0.5 mL physiological saline into the back or cervical regions,respectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Cellular morphology was observed by inverted microscopy,cultured cord blood MSCs were examined by flow cytometry,expression of nestin and musashi-1 mRNA was detected by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction prior to and after induction,and tumorigenicity following cord blood MSC transplantation was assayed by hematoxylin-eosin staining.RESULTS:Following adherent cultivation

  19. Relative deformability of red blood cells in sickle cell trait and sickle cell anemia by trapping and dragging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Rance; Cooper, James; Welker, Gabriel; Aguilar, Elaura; Flanagan, Brooke; Pennycuff, Chelsey; Scott, David; Farone, Anthony; Farone, Mary; Erenso, Daniel; Mushi, Robert; del Pilar Aguinaga, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Genetic mutation of the β-globin gene or inheritance of this mutated gene changes the chemical composition of the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin molecule that could lead to either the heterozygote genotype, resulting in sickle cell trait (SCT), or the homozygote genotype, resulting in sickle cell anemia (SCA). These mutations could affect the reversible elastic deformations of the red blood cells (RBCs) which are vital for biological functions. We have investigated this effect by studying the differences in the deformability of RBCs from blood samples of an individual with SCT and an untreated patient with SCA along with hemoglobin quantitation of each blood sample. Infrared 1064 nm laser trap force along with drag shear force are used to induce deformation in the RBCs. Ultra2-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is used for the hemoglobin quantitation.

  20. Localization of a pheochromocytoma using I-123 MIBG adrenal scintigraphy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkare S

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available In a patient with the clinical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma, the localization of the tumor is essential for planning treatment. Recently, we have performed I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG adrenal scintigraphy in a patient presenting with a history of paroxysmal hypertension. Scintigraphy accurately located an ectopic unilateral pheochromocytoma. The scintigraphic diagnosis was confirmed by surgery and a diagnosis of ectopic unilateral pheochromocytoma was made by histopathological examination. This case report illustrates the specific diagnosis of pheochromocytoma by I-123 MIBG scintigraphy which is especially useful when other diagnostic procedures are equivocal.

  1. 3-D refractive index tomograms and deformability of individual human red blood cells from cord blood of newborn infants and maternal blood

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Kim, Kyoohyun; Lee, Sangyun; Kook, Songyi; Lee, Dongheon; Suh, In Bum; Nab, Sunghun; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) from the cord blood of newborn infants have distinctive functions for fetal and infant development. To systematically investigate the biophysical characteristics of individual cord RBCs in newborn infants, a comparative study was performed of RBCs from cord blood of newborn infants, and of adult RBCs from mothers or non-pregnant women, employing optical holographic micro-tomography. Optical measurements of 3-D refractive index distributions, and of dynamic membrane fluctuations of individual RBCs, enabled retrieval of the morphological, biochemical, and mechanical properties of cord, maternal, and adult RBCs at the individual cell level. The volume and surface area of the cord RBCs were significant larger than those of RBCs from non-pregnant women, and cord RBCs have more flattened shapes than RBCs in adults. In addition, the Hb content in the cord RBCs of newborns was significantly greater. The Hb concentration in cord RBCs was higher than for non-pregnant women or maternal RBCs, but t...

  2. Effect of Packed Red Blood Cell Cryopreservation on Development of the Storage Lesion and Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    liquid storage on development of the biochemical, metabolic, and morphologic changes collectively known as the red blood cell storage lesion is unknown...adjunct to standard blood banking techniques. The post-thaw characteristics are markedly different than fresh packed red blood cells, and the...Drug Administration currently restricts their use to 14 days after thawing. The effect of longer term liquid storage on development of the

  3. Hematological Assessment in Pet Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcellus): Blood Sample Collection and Blood Cell Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kurt; Moore, David M; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-09-01

    Pet guinea pigs are presented to veterinary clinics for routine care and treatment of clinical diseases. In addition to obtaining clinical history and exam findings, diagnostic testing may be required, including hematological assessments. This article describes common blood collection methods, including venipuncture sites, the volume of blood that can be safely collected, and handling of the blood. Hematological parameters for normal guinea pigs are provided for comparison with in-house or commercial test results. A description of the morphology of guinea pig leukocytes is provided to assist in performing a differential count.

  4. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency from human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Gu, Qi; Hao, Jie; Bai, Donghui; Liu, Lei; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Liu, Zhonghua; Wang, Liu; Zhou, Qi

    2013-10-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine. Generating iPSCs from immunologically immature newborn umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMCs) is of great significance. Here we report generation of human iPSCs with great efficiency from UCBMCs using a dox-inducible lentiviral system carrying four Yamanaka factors. We generated these cells by optimizing the existing iPSC induction protocol. The UCBMC-derived iPSCs (UCB-iPSCs) have characteristics that are identical to pluripotent human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). This study highlights the use of UCBMCs to generate highly functional human iPSCs that could accelerate the development of cell-based regenerative therapy for patients suffering from various diseases.

  5. Direct detection of red blood cell fragments: a new flow cytometric method to evaluate hemolysis in blood pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linneweber, J; Chow, T W; Takano, T; Maeda, T; Nonaka, K; Schulte-Eistrup, S; Kawahito, S; Elert, O; Moake, J L; Nosé, Y

    2001-01-01

    Pump induced hemolysis is presently evaluated by measuring plasma free hemoglobin (fHb). However, this method has disadvantages because quantification of fHb depends on hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (Hb) levels. The aim of this work was to devise a hemoglobin independent method, capable of quantifying cell trauma directly by measuring the number of red blood cell (RBC) fragments. Whole blood flow cytometry was used to quantify circulating RBC fragments derived from a roller pump (Sarns, Inc. Model 2 M 6,002) and a centrifugal pump (Gyro C1E3, Kyocera Corp.). The pumps were tested in a mock circuit for 2 hr (5 L/min flow against 100 mm Hg pressure head). Red blood cell fragments were quantified by a phycoerythrin (PE) labeled glycophorin A antibody specific for erythrocytes. Red blood cell fragments were smaller than the intact RBC population and overlapped in size with the platelet population (based on forward- and side-light scattering measurements). For the roller pump, the values for RBC fragments increased from 1,090 +/- 260/microl at 0 min to 14,880 +/- 5,900/microl after 120 min. In contrast, using the centrifugal pump, there was little increase in RBC fragments (from 730 +/- 270/microl at 0 min to 1,400 +/- 840/microl after 120 min). Flow cytometry can be used for the rapid, sensitive, hemoglobin independent evaluation of pump induced RBC trauma.

  6. The effects of non-leukoreduced red blood cell transfusions on microcirculation in mixed surgical patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayhan, B.; Yuruk, K.; Koene, S.; Sahin, A.; Ince, C.; Aypar, U.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The impact of the storage process on oxygen-carrying properties of red blood cells and the efficacy of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions concerning tissue oxygenation remain an issue of debate in transfusion medicine. Storage time and leukocyte content probably interact since longer stor

  7. Preoperative factors associated with red blood cell transfusion in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Medom; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Norgaard, Astrid;

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a frequently used treatment in patients admitted with a fractured hip, but the use remains an area of much debate. The aim of this study was to determine preoperative factors associated with the risk of receiving a red blood cell transfusion in hip fracture...

  8. Phenotypic, ultra-structural and functional characterization of bovine peripheral blood dendritic cell subsets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dendritic cells (DC) are multifunctional cells that bridge the gap between innate and adaptive immune systems. In bovine, significant information is lacking on the precise identity and role of peripheral blood DC subsets. In this study, we identify and characterize bovine peripheral blood DC subsets...

  9. Hypomethylating agents after allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rautenberg, Christina; Haas, Rainer; Kobbe, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic blood stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with myeloid malignancies such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), but relapse remains the major cause of treatment failure. So far, therapeutic options for patients with AML or MDS who relapse after allo-SCT generally consisted of palliative care, low-dose or intensive chemotherapy as well as cellular therapies such as donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) and second transplantation in selected cases. Nevertheless, the prognosis of patients with myeloid malignancies relapsing after allo-SCT remains dismal therefore asking for novel treatment strategies. Considering their well-balanced profile of good efficacy and moderate toxicity in the non-transplant setting, the hypomethylating agents (HMA) azacitidine (Aza) and decitabine (DAC) have also been tested either alone or in combination with DLI in the post-transplant period. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of these two HMA as pre-emptive, salvage or consolidation therapy mostly retrieved from retrospective studies but also from a few prospective trials. Within this review, we also comment on some practical issues such as optimal dose and schedule, the choice of HMA candidates and the role of additional cellular interventions. Finally, we also give an overview on the assumed mode of actions, ongoing research, clinical studies and potential combination partners aiming to improve this treatment approach. PMID:28066786

  10. CYTOMEGALOVIRUS INTERSTITIAL PNEUMONITIS FOLLOWING ALLOGENEIC PERIPHERAL BLOOD STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiao-hua; HUANG Lian-sheng; ZHANG Xiao-hong; ZHU Kang-er; XU Yang; WU Dong; ZHAO Xiao-ying

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the risk factors and prophylaxis and treatment of cytomegalovirus interstitial pneumonitis(CMV-IP) after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (allo-PBSCT). Methods: 43 patients who received allo-PBSCT were allocated to either a Gancyclovir(GCV)-prophylaxis group (n=19) or a non-GCV prophylaxis group (n=24).A comparison was made of the incidence of CMV-IP in patients given or not given prophylactic gancyclovir. Results: 9patients in non-GCV prophylaxis group developed late CMV-IP (P<0.05). Graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) may be associated with a high risk of CMV-IP. 5 cases of CMV-IP were successfully treated with GCV, but 3 cases died of CMV-IP.The most common adverse event of GCV was neutropenia, but was reversible. Conclusion: CMV infection was a major cause of interstitial pneumonitis after allo-PBSCT, which correlated strongly with the severity of GVHD. Gancyclovir was shown to be effective in both prophylaxis and treatment of CMV-IP.

  11. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  12. Human red blood cells deformed under thermal fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Ji-Jinn; Chan, Vincent; Feng, Zhi-Qin; Liu, Kuo-Kang

    2006-03-01

    The flow-induced mechanical deformation of a human red blood cell (RBC) during thermal transition between room temperature and 42.0 degrees C is interrogated by laser tweezer experiments. Based on the experimental geometry of the deformed RBC, the surface stresses are determined with the aid of computational fluid dynamics simulation. It is found that the RBC is more deformable while heating through 37.0 degrees C to 42.0 degrees C, especially at a higher flow velocity due to a thermal-fluid effect. More importantly, the degree of RBC deformation is irreversible and becomes softer, and finally reaches a plateau (at a uniform flow velocity U > 60 microm s(-1)) after the heat treatment, which is similar to a strain-hardening dominated process. In addition, computational simulated stress is found to be dependent on the progression of thermotropic phase transition. Overall, the current study provides new insights into the highly coupled temperature and hydrodynamic effects on the biomechanical properties of human erythrocyte in a model hydrodynamic flow system.

  13. Characterization of Red Blood Cells with Multiwavelength Transmission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia M. Serebrennikova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiwavelength transmission (MWT spectroscopy was applied to the investigation of the morphological parameters and composition of red blood cells (RBCs. The MWT spectra were quantitatively analyzed with a Mie theory based interpretation model modified to incorporate the effects of the nonsphericity and orientation of RBCs. The MWT spectra of the healthy and anemic samples were investigated for the RBC indices in open and blinded studies. When MWT performance was evaluated against a standard reference system, very good agreement between two methods, with R2>0.85 for all indices studied, was demonstrated. The RBC morphological parameters were used to characterize three types of anemia and to draw an association between RBC morphology and anemia severity. The MWT spectra of RBCs infected with malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum at different life cycle stages were analyzed for RBC morphological parameters. The changes in the RBC volume, surface area, aspect ratio, and hemoglobin composition were used to trace the morphological and compositional alterations in the infected RBCs occurring with parasites’ development and to provide insights into parasite-host interactions. The MWT method was shown to be reliable for determination of the RBC morphological parameters and to be valuable for identification of the RBC pathologic changes and disease states.

  14. Aggregation of red blood cells in patients with Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adar, Tomer; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Elstein, Deborah; Zimran, Ari; Berliner, Shlomo; Yedgar, Saul; Barshtein, Gershon

    2006-08-01

    Gaucher disease is associated with increased red blood cell (RBC) aggregation, but the pathophysiological significance of this phenomenon and its correlation with disease manifestations are unclear. RBC aggregation was evaluated in 43 patients with Gaucher disease and 53 healthy controls. Dynamic RBC aggregation was examined in a narrow-gap flow chamber at varying shear stress. Compared with the controls, RBC aggregation in Gaucher disease was increased by 25%. Comparison of RBC aggregation in autologous plasma and in dextran (500 kDa) showed an increase both in plasma-dependent (extrinsic) and -independent (intrinsic) RBC aggregation. Subgroup analysis revealed that increased RBC aggregation was limited to patients with an intact spleen. RBC aggregation in patients did not correlate with plasma fibrinogen concentration, disease severity, enzyme replacement therapy or genotype. We conclude that RBC aggregation is increased in patients with Gaucher disease and an intact spleen, possibly reflecting the accumulation of glucocerebroside and other substances in the plasma and RBC membranes of these patients. Our results do not support a role for RBC aggregation in the pathogenesis of vascular complications of Gaucher disease.

  15. Red blood cell lifespan, erythropoiesis and hemoglobin control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Anja; Uehlinger, Dominik E; Gotch, Frank; Kotanko, Peter; Levin, Nathan W

    2008-01-01

    Erythropoietin (EPO) and iron deficiency as causes of anemia in patients with limited renal function or end-stage renal disease are well addressed. The concomitant impairment of red blood cell (RBC) survival has been largely neglected. Properties of the uremic environment like inflammation, increased oxidative stress and uremic toxins seem to be responsible for the premature changes in RBC membrane and cytoskeleton. The exposure of antigenic sites and breakdown of the phosphatidylserine asymmetry promote RBC phagocytosis. While the individual response to treatment with EPO-stimulating agents (ESA) depends on both the RBC's lifespan and the production rate, uniform dosing algorithms do not meet that demand. The clinical use of mathematical models predicting ESA-induced changes in hematocrit might be greatly improved once independent estimates of RBC production rate and/or lifespan become available, thus making the concomitant estimation of both parameters unnecessary. Since heme breakdown by the hemoxygenase pathway results in carbon monoxide (CO) which is exhaled, a simple CO breath test has been used to calculate hemoglobin turnover and therefore RBC survival and lifespan. Future research will have to be done to validate and implement this method in patients with kidney failure. This will result in new insights into RBC kinetics in renal patients. Eventually, these findings are expected to improve our understanding of the hemoglobin variability in response to ESA.

  16. MicroRNA Expression in Alzheimer Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyman M. Schipper

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Various coding genes representing multiple functional categories are downregulated in blood mononuclear cells (BMC of patients with sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD. Noncoding microRNAs (miRNA regulate gene expression by degrading messages or inhibiting translation. Using BMC as a paradigm for the study of systemic alterations in AD, we investigated whether peripheral miRNA expression is altered in this condition. MicroRNA levels were assessed using the microRNA microarray (MMChip containing 462 human miRNA, and the results validated by real time PCR. Sixteen AD patients and sixteen normal elderly controls (NEC were matched for ethnicity, age, gender and education. The expression of several BMC miRNAs was found to increase in AD relative to NEC levels, and may differ between AD subjects bearing one or two APOE4 alleles. As compared to NEC, miRNAs signifi cantly upregulated in AD subjects and confi rmed by qPCR were miR-34a and 181b. Predicted target genes downregulated in Alzheimer BMC that correlated with the upregulated miRNAs were largely represented in the functional categories of Transcription/Translation and Synaptic Activity. Several miRNAs targeting the same genes were within the functional category of Injury response/Redox homeostasis. Taken together, induction of microRNA expression in BMC may contribute to the aberrant systemic decline in mRNA levels in sporadic AD.

  17. Generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells from postnatal blood mononuclear cells by plasmid vector expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Sarah N; Huang, Xiaosong; Chou, Bin-Kuan; Ye, Zhaohui; Cheng, Linzhao

    2012-11-01

    Several human postnatal somatic cell types have been successfully reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) offer several advantages compared with other cell types. They are easily isolated from umbilical cord blood (CB) or adult peripheral blood (PB), and can be used fresh or after freezing. A short culture allows for more efficient reprogramming, with iPSC colonies forming from blood MNCs in 14 d, compared with 28 d for age-matched fibroblastic cells. The advantages of briefly cultured blood MNCs may be due to favorable epigenetic profiles and gene expression patterns. Blood cells from adults, especially nonlymphoid cells that are replenished frequently from intermittently activated blood stem cells, are short-lived in vivo and may contain less somatic mutations than skin fibroblasts, which are more exposed to environmental mutagens over time. We describe here a detailed, validated protocol for effective generation of integration-free human iPSCs from blood MNCs by plasmid vectors.

  18. Comparison of ectopic bone formation of embryonic stem cells and cord blood stem cells in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschel, Jörg; Naujoks, Christian; Langenbach, Fabian; Berr, Karin; Depprich, Rita A; Ommerborn, Michelle A; Kübler, Norbert R; Brinkmann, Matthias; Kögler, Gesine; Meyer, Ulrich

    2010-08-01

    Cell-based reconstruction therapies promise new therapeutic opportunities for bone regeneration. Unrestricted somatic stem cells (USSC) from cord blood and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can be differentiated into osteogenic cells. The purpose of this in vivo study was to compare their ability to induce ectopic bone formation in vivo. Human USSCs and murine ESCs were cultured as both monolayer cultures and micromasses and seeded on insoluble collagenous bone matrix (ICBM). One week and 1, 2, and 3 months after implanting the constructs in immune-deficient rats, computed tomography scans were performed to detect any calcification. Subsequently, the implanted constructs were examined histologically. The radiological examination showed a steep increase in the mineralized bone-like tissue in the USSC groups. This increase can be considered as statistically significant compared to the basic value. Moreover, the volume and the calcium portion measured by computed tomography scans were about 10 times higher than in the ESC group. The volume of mineralization in the ESC group increased to a much smaller extent over the course of time, and the control group (ICBM without cells) showed almost no alterations during the study. The histological examinations parallel the radiological findings. Cord blood stem cells in combination with ICBM-induced ectopic bone formation in vivo are stronger than ESCs.

  19. From artificial red blood cells, oxygen carriers, and oxygen therapeutics to artificial cells, nanomedicine, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Thomas M S

    2012-06-01

    The first experimental artificial red blood cells have all three major functions of red blood cells (rbc). However, the first practical one is a simple polyhemoglobin (PolyHb) that only has an oxygen-carrying function. This is now in routine clinical use in South Africa and Russia. An oxygen carrier with antioxidant functions, PolyHb-catalase-superoxide dismutase, can fulfill two of the three functions of rbc. Even more complete is one with all three functions of rbc in the form of PolyHb-catalase-superoxide dismutase-carbonic anhydrase. The most advanced ones are nanodimension artificial rbc with either PEG-lipid membrane or PEG-PLA polymer membrane. Extensions into oxygen therapeutics include a PolyHb-tyrosinase that suppresses the growth of melanoma in a mice model. Another is a PolyHb-fibrinogen that is an oxygen carrier with platelet-like function. Research has now extended well beyond the original research on artificial rbc into many areas of artificial cells. These include nanoparticles, nanotubules, lipid vesicles, liposomes, polymer-tethered lipid vesicles, polymersomes, microcapsules, bioencapsulation, nanocapules, macroencapsulation, synthetic cells, and others. These are being used in nanotechnology, nanomedicine, regenerative medicine, enzyme/gene therapy, cell/stem cell therapy, biotechnology, drug delivery, hemoperfusion, nanosensers, and even by some groups in agriculture, industry, aquatic culture, nanocomputers, and nanorobotics.

  20. Novel single-cell functional analysis of red blood cells using laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy: application for sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Mao, Ziliang; Matthews, Dennis L; Li, Chin-Shang; Chan, James W; Satake, Noriko

    2013-07-01

    Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the oxygenation response of single normal adult, sickle, and cord blood red blood cells (RBCs) to an applied mechanical force. Individual cells were subjected to different forces by varying the laser power of a single-beam optical trap, and the intensities of several oxygenation-specific Raman spectral peaks were monitored to determine the oxygenation state of the cells. For all three cell types, an increase in laser power (or mechanical force) induced a greater deoxygenation of the cell. However, sickle RBCs deoxygenated more readily than normal RBCs when subjected to the same optical forces. Conversely, cord blood RBCs were able to maintain their oxygenation better than normal RBCs. These results suggest that differences in the chemical or mechanical properties of fetal, normal, and sickle cells affect the degree to which applied mechanical forces can deoxygenate the cell. Populations of normal, sickle, and cord RBCs were identified and discriminated based on this mechanochemical phenomenon. This study demonstrates the potential application of laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy as a single-cell, label-free analytical tool to characterize the functional (e.g., mechanical deformability, oxygen binding) properties of normal and diseased RBCs.