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Sample records for blood cell scintigraphy

  1. White blood cell scintigraphy for differentiation of infection and aseptic loosening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Buhl, Anna; Oersnes, Thue

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of an infected arthroplasty is often difficult. Fever, abnormal physical findings, radiographic changes, findings at bone scintigraphy, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP, and leucocytosis are not specific enough. We evaluated the diagnostic value of white blood cell...

  2. Multifocal peritoneal splenosis in Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cell scintigraphy

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    Yoon, Min Ki; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Choe, Won Sick [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    A 44-year-old man with a past medical history of splenectomy came to hospital because of epigastric pain abdominopelvic computed tomography(CT) showed a soft tissue mass and multifocal variable-sized nodules as well as finding suggestive of cholecystitis. Subsequently, he underwent Tc-99m-labeled heat- denatured red blood cell(RBC) scintigraphy to evaluate the mass and nodules. The scintigraphy confirmed multifocal peritoneal splenosis in the abdominopelvic cavity.

  3. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan

  4. White blood cell scintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies in the study of the infected endoprosthesis

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    Sciuk, J.; Puskas, C.; Schober, O. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Greitemann, B. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemeine Orthopaedie)

    1992-07-01

    Forty-three patients with suspected infection of a hip or a knee prosthesis were studied with white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC), using technetium-99m (n=37) or iodine-123 (n=6) labelled monoclonal mouse antibody (MOA). Previously, all patients had undergone skeletal scintigraphy, which was performed as a three-phase study in 33 cases. The final diagnosis was established by open surgery, histology and culture in 37 cases, by puncture and cultere in 3 cases, and by clinical follow-up of at least 6 months in 3 cases. Eighteen prostheses were infected, 25 uninfected. The delayed phase of skeletal scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 24% and an accuracy of 48% in the detection of infection. The perfusion and blood pool activity of the three-phase bone scan had a sensitivity of 67%, a specificity of 71% and an accuracy of 70%. The diagnostic value of WBC was sensitivty 89%, specificity 84% and accuracy 86%. WBC with {sup 99m}-Tc-MOA is easy to perform and always available. Its diagnostic accuracy is similar to conventional WBC scintigraphy with either indium-111 or {sup 99m}-Tc. (orig.).

  5. Evaluation of red blood cell (RBC) labelling procedures in cardiovascular scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkle, G.H.; Reid, R.D.; Shaffer, P.B.; Olsen, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    The clinical images obtained and the percentage of radioactivity associated with the red blood cells at the conclusion of this study provided a method of assessing four technique for preparing 99 mTc-labeled red blood cells for use in cardiovascular scintigraphy. The methods consisted of a totally in vivo preparation, and semi-in vitro and two different cell separation techniques. The semi-in vitro procedure provided the best clinical image with the highest ventricle to spleen and ventricle to lung ratios. Higher count rates in the left ventricle also led to shorter acquisition times and greater efficiency of ejection fraction calculations. A semi-in vitro method of labelling red-blood cells improves the nuclear medicine cardiovascular studies utilized for cardiac function determination

  6. Huge Varicose Inferior Mesenteric Vein: an Unanticipated {sup 99m}Tc-labeled Red Blood Cell Scintigraphy Finding

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    Hoseinzadeh, Samaneh; Shafiei, Babak; Salehian, Mohamadtaghi; Neshandar Asli, Isa; Ghodoosi, Iraj [Shaheed Beheshti Medical University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    Ectopic varices (EcV) are enlarged portosystemic venous collaterals, which usually develop secondary to portal hypertension (PHT). Mesocaval collateral vessels are unusual pathways to decompress the portal system. Here we report the case of a huge varicose inferior mesenteric vein (IMV) that drained into peri rectal collateral veins, demonstrated by {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scintigraphy performed for lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in a 14-year-old girl. This case illustrates the crucial role of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled RBC scintigraphy for the diagnosis of rare ectopic lower GI varices.

  7. Inferior vena cava filter thrombus: A possible cause of an unanticipated finding of 99m Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Hee Sung; Choi, Joon Hyouk; Kim, Young Suk

    2016-01-01

    99m Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test, is useful for patients suspected of suffering from active gastrointestinal bleeding. This study follows a case of a patient who was suspected of gastrointestinal bleeding after an inferior vena cava filter was inserted due to a deep vein thrombosis of the femoral vein. To evaluate an exact focus of bleeding, 99m Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy was executed. Herein, an unanticipated finding of 99m Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy probably due to a thrombus on the inferior vena cava filter is reported

  8. Inferior vena cava filter thrombus: A possible cause of an unanticipated finding of {sup 99m} Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy

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    Song, Hee Sung; Choi, Joon Hyouk; Kim, Young Suk [Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy, a sensitive and specific diagnostic test, is useful for patients suspected of suffering from active gastrointestinal bleeding. This study follows a case of a patient who was suspected of gastrointestinal bleeding after an inferior vena cava filter was inserted due to a deep vein thrombosis of the femoral vein. To evaluate an exact focus of bleeding, {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy was executed. Herein, an unanticipated finding of {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell scintigraphy probably due to a thrombus on the inferior vena cava filter is reported.

  9. Image acquisition and interpretation criteria for Tc-99m-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell scintigraphy : results of a multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erba, Paola A.; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Veltman, Niels C.; Sollini, Martina; Pacilio, Marta; Galli, Filippo; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Signore, Alberto

    Purpose There is no consensus yet on the best protocol for planar image acquisition and interpretation of radiolabelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. This may account for differences in reported diagnostic accuracy amongst different centres. Methods This was a multicentre retrospective study

  10. 99mTc-HMPAO labelled white blood cell scintigraphy in the diagnosis and monitoring of response of the therapy in patients with active bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altiay, G; Cermik, T F

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the role of labelled leukocyte scintigraphy in the diagnosis and monitorization of response to therapy of patients with active bronchiectasis. Twenty patients underwent (99m)Technetium hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) labelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. A second scintigraphy was performed in 13 patients at 10 day of the treatment. Regional (99m)Tc-HMPAO WBC uptake and radiologic imaging findings (high resolution computed tomography or Chest X-Ray) in the lungs were classified into 3 categories in 6 lung areas. scintigraphic, radiological and clinical disease scores were calculated for all patients. An abnormal accumulation was visually observed in 19 of 20 patients on the pre-treatment scans, the scintigraphy showing 95% sensitivity. A significant difference was found between early and late ratios (P=0.001) in the pre-treatment scans. The infected areas revealed a significant decrease in uptake ratios on the post-treatment scans compared to the pre-treatment scans (P=0.001). However, no significant correlation was determined between clinical and radiological scores, clinical and scintigraphic scores and also between scintigraphic and radiological scores (P ≥ 0.05). (99m)Tc-HMPAO WBC scintigraphy may be a useful tool to evaluate response to therapy in patients with active bronchiectasis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  11. Detection of gastritis by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red-blood-cell scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilton, G.P.; Wahl, R.L.; Juni, J.E.; Froelich, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    Gastritis is a common condition, with a variety of causes, that is diagnosed most often by barium upper gastrointestinal tract series or endoscopy. The authors report a case in which gastritis without active bleeding was apparent in scintiscans obtained during the evaluation of GI bleeding using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells (TcRBC). The scintigraphic findings that suggest gastritis are described

  12. The value of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO labelled white blood cell scintigraphy in acute appendicitis patients with an equivocal clinical presentation

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    Colak, T.; Akaydin, M. [Akdeniz Univ. School of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey). Dept. of General Surgery; Guengoer, F.; Oezugur, S.; Yildiz, A.; Boz, A.; Karayalcin, B. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Akdeniz Univ. School of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Bozan, H. [Emergency Dept., Akdeniz Univ. School of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey); Melikoglu, M. [Dept. of Paediatric Surgery, Akdeniz Univ. School of Medicine, Antalya (Turkey)

    2001-05-01

    Various imaging studies can be performed in the evaluation of patients with a clinical presentation equivocal for acute appendicitis. One of these studies is technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and clinical value of {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO WBC scintigraphy in the aforementioned group of patients. Forty-one patients who had acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain with a clinical presentation equivocal for acute appendicitis were included in the study. The anterior abdomen and pelvis were imaged up to 4 h after the injection of 125-300 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO WBCs and the results were immediately reported to the surgeon before a decision was taken on whether to perform laparotomy. Diagnostic accuracy was established by the intra-operative findings and the histopathology in operated patients. In non-operated patients, absence of abdominal symptoms 1 month after scintigraphy and/or identification of another cause of abdominal pain was used to rule out acute appendicitis. There were 16 patients with positive scintigraphy and 81% of these patients were positive within 2 h post injection. There were no false-positive or false-negative results. We operated on 17 (41.4%) patients, and only one patient (5.9%) underwent unnecessary laparotomy. We conclude that {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO WBC scintigraphy is a rapid, highly accurate method for the exclusion of acute appendicitis and that its use can lower the unnecessarily high laparotomy rate in patients with an equivocal clinical presentation. (orig.)

  13. Three-phase bone scan and indium white blood cell scintigraphy following porous coated hip arthroplasty: A prospective study of the prosthetic tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, S.G.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Callaghan, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Although few reports address the use of three-phase bone scanning (TPBS) and 111 In-labeled white blood cell (In-WBC) scintigraphy in hip arthroplasty utilizing a porous coated prosthesis, the literature suggests that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient may differ from that seen in the cemented prosthesis. In an attempt to determine the scintigraphic natural history, 25 uncomplicated porous coated hip arthroplasties in 21 patients were prospectively studied with serial TPBS and In-WBC at approximately 7 days, and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo postoperatively. This report deals with findings related to the prosthetic tip. Only one of 136 flow studies were abnormal and only two of 136 blood-pool images demonstrated focally increased activity. All 25 prostheses (120 of 143 scans) demonstrated increased uptake on the bone phase images. The area about the tip was divided into three segments; increased uptake at 24 mo was noted in the medial, distal, and lateral segments in 16%, 72%, and 56% of prostheses, respectively. Twenty of 25 prostheses (82 of 142 scans) showed uptake on In-WBC scintigraphy, being noted in 48% of prostheses at 24 mo. We conclude that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient with a porous coated prosthesis appear to differ from patterns described in cemented prostheses

  14. Extensive hemangiomatosis diagnosed by scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in a patient with lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Borges, A.C.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Vecchia, J.F.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: The gastrointestinal bleeding may be caused by vascular tumors and other lesions like inflammatory disorders, intestinal obstruction or vascular malformation. The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome are hemangiomatosis diseases that may involve the gastrointestinal tract and cause recurrent hemorrhage. The signs and symptoms usually appear at childhood. Case report: male patient, 31 years old, presenting three days of gastrointestinal bleeding and an hemorrhage shock (Hb=3,9). Previous reports of small volume bleeding since childhood and schistossomosis. Dilated veins, hemorrhoid and port wine stain lesions were detected at physical examination in perineal region, penis and scrotum. Inferior limbs were symmetric at inspection. The upper endoscopy showed esophageal varices with no signs of active bleeding. The scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labeled red blood cells showed active hemorrhage at recto-sigmoid topography during the first hour of study. Extensive and heterogeneous uptake was seen in gluteus, posterior right thigh and scrotum at the second and fifth hours of study. Then the hypothesis of vascular tumor was considered. The magnetic resonance (MR) of pelvis demonstrated extensive hemangiomatosis at the regions described by the scintigraphy. The clinical and imaging findings suggested the diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Discussion: The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare disease characterized by congenital vascular and lymphatic malformations (port wine stain lesions, congenital varices) and bone growth and soft tissue disorder. Dilated veins may involve abdominal and pelvic structures, with rectal bleeding and haematuria occurring on average of 20%. The clinical investigation must approach the type, the extent and the severity of the malformation, since the morbidity and the mortality depends on the visceral involvement. The Doppler ultrasound, scanometry of lower extremities, MR, angiography and

  15. Extensive hemangiomatosis diagnosed by scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in a patient with lower gastrointestinal bleeding

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    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Borges, A.C.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Vecchia, J.F.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: The gastrointestinal bleeding may be caused by vascular tumors and other lesions like inflammatory disorders, intestinal obstruction or vascular malformation. The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome are hemangiomatosis diseases that may involve the gastrointestinal tract and cause recurrent hemorrhage. The signs and symptoms usually appear at childhood. Case report: male patient, 31 years old, presenting three days of gastrointestinal bleeding and an hemorrhage shock (Hb=3,9). Previous reports of small volume bleeding since childhood and schistossomosis. Dilated veins, hemorrhoid and port wine stain lesions were detected at physical examination in perineal region, penis and scrotum. Inferior limbs were symmetric at inspection. The upper endoscopy showed esophageal varices with no signs of active bleeding. The scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cells showed active hemorrhage at recto-sigmoid topography during the first hour of study. Extensive and heterogeneous uptake was seen in gluteus, posterior right thigh and scrotum at the second and fifth hours of study. Then the hypothesis of vascular tumor was considered. The magnetic resonance (MR) of pelvis demonstrated extensive hemangiomatosis at the regions described by the scintigraphy. The clinical and imaging findings suggested the diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Discussion: The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare disease characterized by congenital vascular and lymphatic malformations (port wine stain lesions, congenital varices) and bone growth and soft tissue disorder. Dilated veins may involve abdominal and pelvic structures, with rectal bleeding and haematuria occurring on average of 20%. The clinical investigation must approach the type, the extent and the severity of the malformation, since the morbidity and the mortality depends on the visceral involvement. The Doppler ultrasound, scanometry of lower extremities, MR, angiography and

  16. The role of red blood cell scintigraphy in the multiple-modality imaging diagnosis of a rare case of diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis in an adult

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    Ernesto Cason

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Angiomas are one of the most common primary tumors of the liver. Diffuse hepatic angiomatosis, however, is quite rare and usually observed in pediatric patients. We report a rare case of diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis in a 33-year-old woman. Case report: The patient presented with abdominal pain and a palpable upper abdominal mass. Abdominal CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings suggested diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis, but this finding was not confirmed by subsequent contrast-enhanced abdominal ultrasonography (US. The patient then underwent single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeling of red blood cells (RBC. This examination revealed increased uptake of labeled erythrocytes in several of the hepatic lesions corresponding to CT and RM findings, thereby confirming the clinical hypothesis of diffuse hepatic hemangiomatosis. Discussion: RBC scintigraphy with SPECT/CT can facilitate the comparison of other crosssectional imaging methods such as CT and MRI. This case highlights the importance of a multiple-modality approach in the imaging diagnosis of this condition.

  17. The acetabulum: A prospective study of three-phase bone and indium white blood cell scintigraphy following porous-coated hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, S.G.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Anderson, J.H.; Callaghan, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Although few studies address the use of three-phase bone scanning (TPBS) and indium-111-labeled white blood cell scintigraphy ( 111 In-WBC) in hip arthroplasty utilizing a porous-coated prosthesis, the literature suggests that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient may differ from that seen with the cemented prosthesis. In an attempt to determine the scintigraphic natural history, 25 uncomplicated porous-coated hip arthroplasties in 21 patients were prospectively studied with serial TPBS and 111I n-WBC at approximately 7 days, and 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo postoperatively. This report deals with findings related to the acetabulum. All 25 prostheses (144 of 144 scans) demonstrated increased uptake on the bone-phase images. Although this activity decreased with time, 76% had persistent uptake at 24 mo. Twenty-three of 25 prostheses (126 of 140 scans) showed increased uptake on 111 In-WBC scintigraphy, invariably decreasing with time, but with 37% having significant uptake at 24 mo. Scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated porous-coated hip arthroplasty patient appear to differ from patterns described in cemented prostheses

  18. FDG-PET, {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO white blood cell SPET and bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of painful total knee arthroplasties

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    Van Acker, F.; Nuyts, J.; Maes, A.; Vanquickenborne, B.; Vleugels, S.; Bormans, G.; Mortelmans, L. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Gasthuisberg, Leuven (Belgium); Stuyck, J.; Bellemans, J. [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University Hospital Pellenberg, Leuven (Belgium)

    2001-10-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy and bone scintigraphy were used in the evaluation of total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). We prospectively included 21 patients who had a three-phase bone scan for exclusion of infection of TKAs. Four hours after injection of 185 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs, planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) imaging was performed. Planar imaging was repeated at 24 h p.i. Consecutively images of the knees were obtained with a dedicated PET system 60 min following the injection of 370 MBq of FDG. Focal tracer uptake was scored on SPET and PET visually (0=no uptake, 4=intense uptake). In addition, SUV (standardised uptake value) per voxel was calculated from attenuation-corrected PET images using the MLAA algorithm. Focal uptake at the bone-prosthesis interface was used as the criterion for infection before and after correlation with the third phase of the bone scan. Final diagnosis was based on operative findings, culture and clinical outcome. In the infected TKAs, the WBC scan showed focal activity of grade 2 (n=2), 3 (n=1) or 4 (n=2). PET scan revealed focal activity of grade 4 (n=5) or 3 (n=1). WBC scan alone had a specificity for infection of 53% [positive predictive value (PPV) 42%, sensitivity 100%], compared with 73% for PET scan (PPV 60%, sensitivity 100%). Considering only lesions at the bone-prosthesis interface that were also present on the third phase of the bone scan, we found a specificity of 93% (PPV 83%) for WBC scan. Using these criteria, a specificity of 80% (PPV 67%) was obtained for PET scan. Two out of three false-positive PET scans were due to loosening of the TKA. It is concluded that WBC scintigraphy in combination with bone scintigraphy has a high specificity in the detection of infected TKAs. FDG-PET seems to offer no additional benefit. (orig.)

  19. Abdominal blood pool scintigraphy in the management of acute or intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalff, V.; Kelly, M.J.; Dudley, F.; Metz, G.

    1983-01-01

    Gastrointestinal blood pool scintigraphy, using a modified in-vivo blood cell labelling technique with technetium-99, is a new, easily performed, non-invasive procedure. It is valuable in screening patients with acute or intermittent gastrointestinal blood loss in whom duodenoscopic and sigmoidoscopic findings are unhelpful. This paper reviews the value of this scintigraphic technique over the first eight months of its use in a major teaching hospital, and compares the results with other published data. If used and interpreted appropriately, scintigraphy is sensitive in detecting and localizing the bleeding site, and is very helpful in indicating the optimal timing of emergency contrast angiography

  20. Image acquisition and interpretation criteria for 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell scintigraphy: results of a multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erba, Paola A.; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Veltman, Niels C.; Sollini, Martina; Pacilio, Marta; Galli, Filippo; Signore, Alberto; Sapienza Univ., Rome; Sapienza Univ., Rome

    2014-01-01

    There is no consensus yet on the best protocol for planar image acquisition and interpretation of radiolabelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. This may account for differences in reported diagnostic accuracy amongst different centres. This was a multicentre retrospective study analysing 235 WBC scans divided into two groups. The first group of scans (105 patients) were acquired with a fixed-time acquisition protocol and the second group (130 patients) were acquired with a decay time-corrected acquisition protocol. Planar images were interpreted both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Three blinded readers analysed the images. The most accurate imaging acquisition protocol comprised image acquisition at 3 - 4 h and at 20 - 24 h in time mode with acquisition times corrected for isotope decay. Using this protocol, visual analysis had high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of infection. Semiquantitative analysis could be used in doubtful cases, with no cut-off for the percentage increase in radiolabelled WBC over time, as a criterion to define a positive scan. (orig.)

  1. Image acquisition and interpretation criteria for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell scintigraphy: results of a multicentre study

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    Erba, Paola A. [University of Pisa Medical School (Italy). Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Veltman, Niels C. [Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sollini, Martina [Arcisprdale S. Maria Nuova - IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Pacilio, Marta; Galli, Filippo [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Signore, Alberto [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Ospedale S. Andrea Medicina Nucleare

    2014-04-15

    There is no consensus yet on the best protocol for planar image acquisition and interpretation of radiolabelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. This may account for differences in reported diagnostic accuracy amongst different centres. This was a multicentre retrospective study analysing 235 WBC scans divided into two groups. The first group of scans (105 patients) were acquired with a fixed-time acquisition protocol and the second group (130 patients) were acquired with a decay time-corrected acquisition protocol. Planar images were interpreted both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Three blinded readers analysed the images. The most accurate imaging acquisition protocol comprised image acquisition at 3 - 4 h and at 20 - 24 h in time mode with acquisition times corrected for isotope decay. Using this protocol, visual analysis had high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of infection. Semiquantitative analysis could be used in doubtful cases, with no cut-off for the percentage increase in radiolabelled WBC over time, as a criterion to define a positive scan. (orig.)

  2. Gallium scintigraphy in patients with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Kuniko; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Hoshi, Hiroaki; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1987-01-01

    Gallium scintigraphy was evaluated in 20 patients with Adult T-cell Leukemia-Lymphoma (ATLL). Abnormal high accumulations were observed in 15 cases out of 20 (superficial lymphnode; 3, deep lymphnode; 7, lung; 9, liver; 1, bone; 1). Previously unknown 9 lesions were first detected by gallium scintigraphy (superficial lymphnode; 1, deep lymphnode; 6, liver; 1, bone; 1). White blood cell counts and serum LDH levels were high in patients with positive scan. In conclusion, gallium scintigraphy seemed to be a useful examination to evaluate local lesions in the patients with ATLL. (author)

  3. Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs with scintigraphy of red blood cells labelled with 99m technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbekyan, V.; Novalees-Diaz, J.A.; Lisbona, R.

    1986-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis of leg deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is notoriously unreliable. It must be supplemented by objective techniques which all have drawbacks. 99m Tc-RBC venography also has its limitations, yet it is a simple, safe, and useful test for diagnosing DVT of the lower limb. When done carefully, it is a rewarding procedure with good sensitivity and specificity for the condition both in the calf and ilio-femoral regions. Blood pool venography is readily accessible to all nuclear medicine department for the diagnosis of thrombophlebitis and also the follow-up of treated patients

  4. A large retrospective single-centre study to define the best image acquisition protocols and interpretation criteria for white blood cell scintigraphy with ⁹⁹mTc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes in musculoskeletal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaudemans, Andor W J M; de Vries, Erik F J; Vermeulen, Liliane E M; Slart, Riemer H J A; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; Signore, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    The diagnosis of infection is often based on clinical, pathological and microbiological results. However, these investigations lack specificity. White blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy is considered the gold standard nuclear imaging technique for diagnosing infections in bone and soft tissues (except spondylodiscitis). However, image acquisition and interpretation criteria differ amongst centres throughout the world, leading to differences in reported results. The aim of this study was to identify the most accurate WBC scintigraphy acquisition and interpretation protocols for diagnosis of bone and soft tissue infections. Included in this retrospective study were 297 patients with suspected bone or soft tissue infection who underwent WBC scintigraphy with (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocytes between 2009 and 2012. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of WBC scintigraphy were determined for two different dual time point acquisition protocols (fixed-time acquisition and time decay-corrected acquisition) and five image interpretation methods (visual and semiquantitative with four different reference regions of interest). Final diagnosis was based on pathological and microbiological reports, and when these were not available, on clinical follow-up of at least 6 months. The best acquisition protocol was 4 h and 20 - 24 h dual time-point acquisition with time decay-corrected acquisition. When using this acquisition protocol, visual qualitative interpretation led to a sensitivity of 85.1 %, a specificity of 97.1 %, a diagnostic accuracy of 94.5 %, a positive predictive value of 88.8 % and a negative predictive value of 95.9 %. For semiquantitative analysis, the best results were found when lesion-to-reference ratios were calculated with the contralateral side as the reference tissue, except for osteomyelitis and infected osteosynthesis, for which the contralateral bone marrow was found to be the best reference tissue. Results of the

  5. Utility of 8 h and time decay-corrected acquisition scintigraphy with in-vitro labeled white blood cells for the diagnosis of osteoarticular infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noriega-Álvarez, Edel; Martínez Pimienta, Guillermo A; Benítez Segura, Ana M; Bajén Lázaro, María T; Rodríguez-Gasén, Alba; Rodríguez-Rubio Corona, Julio; Mora-Salvadó, Jaime

    2017-06-01

    Except in the spine, labeled white-blood cell scintigraphy (WBCS) with image acquisition up to 24 h is the nuclear medicine test of choice for diagnosing osteoarticular infection. However, distinguishing between inflammation and infection is a challenge. The first aim of this study was to verify earlier research studies that used 4 and 24 h time decay-corrected acquisition (TDCA) to differentiate infection from inflammation. The second aim was to analyze whether 8 h acquisition (1-day protocol) yielded similar results as 20-24 h acquisition. This was an observational study of 94 patients (22-86 years, 52 women) with suspected osteoarticular infection referred to nuclear medicine to confirm infection. WBCS and TDCA images were obtained at 30 min, 4 h, and 8 h after injection of the labeled leukocytes, with collection times of 5, 8, and 12 min, respectively. Scintigrams were classified into three protocols: protocol 1: experts read only 30 min and 4 h images; protocol 2: experts read the whole set of images (30 min, 4 h, and 8 h) with different pixel intensities (each image normalized to its own maximum activity); protocol 3: experts read the whole set of images with the same pixel intensity. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy were calculated. In patients with orthopedic implants, the interobserver reproducibility for visual analysis was calculated using the κ index. Infection was confirmed in 26 cases. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy, and κ results were as follows: protocol 1: 92.3, 50.0, 41.4, 94.4, 61.7%, 0.79; protocol 2: 92.3, 94.1, 85.7, 97.0, 93.6%, 0.80; protocol 3: 96.2, 97.1, 92.6, 98.5, 96.8%, 0.77. TDCA acquisition of WBCS at 8 h (1-day protocol) enables a faster diagnosis than 24 h acquisition. The use of TDCA with the same pixel intensity in all images enables an accurate diagnostic of osteoarticular infection, with a

  6. Gallium scintigraphy in patients with adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Hiroaki; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Harada, Kuniko; Watanabe, Katsushi

    1988-01-01

    Gallium scintigraphy was evaluated in 25 patients with adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL). Anterior and posterior images were obtained at 72 h after administration of 3 mCi 67 Ga-citrate using a gamma camera (Maxi-Camera 400 T, General Electric Co.) with a medium energy standard parallel hole collimator. Abnormally high accumulations were observed in 17 out of 25 cases (superficial lymph node, 8; hilar and mediastinal lymph node, 7; paraaortic lymph node, 2; lung, 9; liver, 1; bone, 1). There were 10 malignant lesions detected by 67 Ga scintigraphy in 9 out of 17 cases (superficial lymph node, 1; hilar and mediastinal lymph node, 6; paraaortic lymph node, 1; liver, 1; bone, 1). White blood cell count and serum LDH levels were significantly raised in patients with abnormally high accumulations of 67 Ga. In conclusion, 67 Ga scintigraphy seemed to be a useful examination to detect malignant lesions in patients with ATLL. (orig.)

  7. Scintigraphy by sup 99m Tc-in vivo labeled red blood cells. Detection of gastrointestinal bleeding following duodenum-preserving resection of the head of the pancreas. Die Szintigraphie mit sup 99m Tc-in-vivo-markierten Erythrozyten. Nachweis einer intestinalen Blutung nach duodenumerhaltender Pankreaskopfresektion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brecht-Krauss, D. (Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Nuklearmedizin); Schnarkowski, P.; Friedrich, J.M. (Ulm Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik)

    1990-09-01

    Following resection of the head of the pancreas while preserving the duodenum a gastrointestinal haemorrhage was localised by red blood cells labeled in vivo with technetium-99m. The previously performed endoscopy and angiography were normal. The haemorrhage in the region of the pancreaticojejunal anastomosis was confirmed intraoperatively. If intermittent bleedings are suspected, scintigraphy should be performed as a routine measure besides endoscopy and angiography. (orig.).

  8. Lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalenz, Roberto.

    1994-01-01

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies

  9. Uteroplacental blood flow measured by placental scintigraphy during epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skjoeldebrand, A.; Eklund, J.; Johansson, H.; Lunell, N.-O.; Nylund, L.; Sarby, B.; Thornstroem, S. (Departments of Anaesthesiology, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medical Physics, Karolinska Institute at Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    The uteroplacental blood flow was measured before and during epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in 11 woman. The blood flow was measured with dynamic placental scintigraphy. After an i.v. injection of indium-113m chloride, the gamma radiation over the placenta was recorded with a computer-linked scintillation camera. The uteroplacental blood flow could be calculated from the isotope accumulation curve. The anaesthesia was performed with bupivacaine plain 0.5%, 18-22 ml and a preload of a balanced electrolyte solution 10 ml/kg b.w. was given. The placental blood flow decreased in eight patients and increased in three with a median change of -21%, not being statistically significant. No correlation between maternal blood pressure and placental blood flow was found. (author).

  10. The Agreement Between Blood Pool - Delayed Bone Scintigraphy and Tc-99m Human Immunoglobulin G (HIG Scintigraphy in the Determination of the Presence and Severity of Inflammatory Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulizar Kacar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to investigate the agreement between early phase of bone scintigraphy – human immunoglobulin scintigraphy (EPBS-HIG and late phase bone scintigraphy – HIG (LPBS-HIG in the determination of the presence and also the severity of inflammatory arthritis. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight patients (23 female, 5 male; between 19 to 80 years of age with inflammatory arthritis were included in the study. Tc-99m HIG and blood pool/late phase bone scintigraphies were performed in all patients. In scintigraphic examinations, the joints were scored with the degree of accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical by the semiquantitative analysis (0=Background activity, 1=Faint uptake, 2=Moderate uptake, 3=Marked uptake which is called as visually active joint score as severity index of the disease. To estimate the agreement between EPBS – HIG and LPBS - HIG in the determination of the presence and severity of inflammatory arthritis, 2x2 kappa coefficients were calculated. Results: Our results showed good agreement between EPBS - HIG for the presence of inflammation (kappa: 0.72 but not for the severity of the disease (kappa: 0.29, poor agreement between LPBS - HIG for both the presence (kappa: 0.51 and severity (kappa: 0.01 of inflammatory arthritis. Conclusion: The blood pool scintigraphy could be used in the investigation of the presence of inflammatory arthritis because the good agreement with HIG and the lower cost but not for the severity of the disease. (MIRT 2011;20:45-51

  11. 99mTc-RBC subtraction scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru

    1994-01-01

    Sequential abdominal scintigrams with 99m Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) were subtracted for observing a site of gastrointestinal bleeding and calculating the bleeding rate. This method is technically very easy and can detect the site of bleeding with the minimum rate, as low as 0.2 ml/min., in a phantom experiment. In 23 cases with final diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, conventional non-subtraction scintigraphy detected only 30% (7/23), but subtraction scintigraphy detected 61% (14/23). It was concluded that subtraction scintigraphy had higher sensitivity than conventional scintigraphy for early diagnosing bleeding. A combination of non-subtraction and subtraction scintigraphy is recommended to detect a site of gastrointestinal bleeding in a clinical setting. (author)

  12. Lower digestive hemorrhage study algorithm in elderly patients and red cells mark scintigraphy role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abella, O.; Almeida, C.A.; Fitzimons, C.; Rial, M.T.

    2002-01-01

    Aims: Show the utility of this technique in the detection of Lower Digestive Hemorrhage (LDH) in elderly patients and propose a study algorithm. Materials and Methods: We study 39 patients (20 women and 19 men), between 61 and 92 years (media 76,3 years), in the last three years, that we strongly presume they have a LDH. In all of them we lay aside the upper digestive hemorrhage with endoscopies. In all the cases we perform a video-colonoscopy after the scintigraphy adopting in every case if its necessary surgery, medication or expectant conduct. We use the modified red cells mark 'in vivo' method (mark efficiency of 82%). We obtain anterior images of the abdomen with a planar Gamma Camera. Sequential images of 1 minute duration in the first hour post-injection I.V. of 740 MBq of Tc99- pertechnetate -Stannous Chloride and hen static images with 400 K counts at 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes and one image at 24 hours were acquired, in two cases repeat the study. We don't do selective angiographies because we consider this a high risk and low cost / benefit study in elderly patients (high association with cardiopathy). Result: Patient with final diagnosis for VCC or Surgery: Angio dysplasia (38%), Diverticulosis (20%), Ischemic colitis (11%), Ulcerous colitis (8%) and Colon adenocarcinoma (2%). In some cases were two pathologies involved (13%). The scintigraphies were positive in 92% and negative in 8% of the cases. All the positives were in massive or recidivated bleeding and the negatives in intermittent low volume bleedings or patients with discreet melena or hidden blood in feces. The diagnostic efficiency of 92% was compare with non-invasive methods (video-colonoscopy 81% and selective angiography) and we comment the possible causes of false negatives. Conclusion: We propose a study algorithm for intermittent and low intensity LDH cases and another for higher magnitude LDH

  13. Exercise Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy and coronary blood flow velocity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Umamoto, Ikuo; Harada, Yoshiaki (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)) (and others)

    1992-03-01

    In 22 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy not associated with coronary stenosis, findings of exercise Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy were reviewed in relation to coronary blood flow velocity. Blood flow velocity of the left antero-inferior segment was recorded by using a Doppler catheter. From time velocity integration in systolic and diastolic phases, both % systolic fraction (%SF) and %diastolic 1st third fraction (%d1F) were obtained. A decreased perfusion was visually assessed on exercise Tl-201 myocardial images. In addition, transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity was quantitatively assessed by expressing it as a transient dilation index (TDI) for subendocardial ischemia. Coronary blood flow velocity was characterized by a decrease in both %SF and %d1F and negative systolic flow. Both %SF and %d1F were inversely correlated with TDI. Coronary negative systolic flow was frequently associated with a decreased perfusion. These results suggest factors such as left ventricular relaxation impairment, other than coronary small vessel lesions, may also be involved in the occurrence of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (N.K.).

  14. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study.

  15. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bone marrow of bones. Stem cells in the red bone marrow called hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red blood ...

  16. The role of gallium-67 tumour scintigraphy in patients with small, non-cleaved cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandrock, D.; Lastoria, S.; Neumann, R.D.; Magrath, I.T.

    1993-01-01

    Two hundred and thirty-four scintigraphic studies were performed in 34 patients (27 men, 7 women, age 17.3±7.7 years) with small, non-cleaved cell lymphoma who had follow-up for 3-96 months (mean 21.6±21.7 months). Whole-body scintigraphy was performed 48-72 h following i.v. injection of 370 MBq gallium-67 citrate. 'Gold standards' for truth determinations were surgery, autopsy, histology, axial X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and clinical follow-up. Overall, 181 of 234 studies were true negative. Eighty proven sites of disease had true positive 67 Ga uptake (in 21 patients/37 studies). Nineteen sites (in 12 patients/15 studies) were false positive. In addition, 31 benign lesions were detected and interpreted correctly in terms of non-malignancy. Ten lymphoma sites (in 6 patients/10 studies) were missed by scintigraphy. Overall, sensitivity of gallium scintigraphy was 89% when calculated by sites and 79% when calculated by studies. Corresponding specificities were 91% and 92%, respectively. Positive predictive values were 81% (sites) and 71% (studies), and negative predictive values 95% (sites and studies). Thus, gallium scintigraphy proved to be a sensitive and specific method for staging and follow-up in patients with small, non-cleaved cell lymphoma. (orig.)

  17. Renal cortical scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locher, J.Th.

    2002-01-01

    In this report the renal cortical scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic acid) like a 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of pyelonephritis in children is presented. The role of the vesicoureteral reflux, the level of C-reactive protein and other urinary tract anomaly to the pyelonephritis development is considered. The administrated doses for children and adults, procedure of the study and the SPECT possibilities are given. A four-grade scale describing the grade of parenchymal damage is shown. The correlation between the radiopharmaceutical accumulation in the functioning renal cortex and the intrarenal blood flow and proximal tubular cell membrane transport function is discussed. Because of the slow transfer of activity from blood to kidney, imaging should be delayed for 3 hours after injection. The renal cortical scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA is a primary method for an early diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis because animal experiences have demonstrated a high sensitivity and specificity for DMSA scanning when correlated with histopathology. The results from several multiple-center study for the specificity and sensitivity of the method are discussed. The necessity for the renal cortical scintigraphy standardization is outlined

  18. Osteomyelitis and infarction in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies: differentiation by combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, T.R.; Siegel, M.J.; Siegel, B.A.

    1984-01-01

    Clinical records and scintigrams were reviewed of 18 patients with sickle cell hemoglobinophaties who had undergone combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy during 22 separate episodes of suspected osseous infection. The combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis in four studies. Of 18 studies in patients with infarction, the combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted in 16 and showed either no local accumulation of Ga-67 or less accumulation than that of Tc-99m MDP at symptomatic sites. In the other two studies, the scintigrams were falsely interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis and showed congruent, increased accumulation of both Tc-99, MDP and Ga-67. This pattern must be considered indeterminate. Overall, the results indicate that the combination of technetium and gallium scintigraphy is an effective means to distinguish osteomyelitis from infarction in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies

  19. Frequency characteristics of temporal filters used in ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futamura, Yoshihiro; Furuta, Toshiya; Shimokata, Tatsuyuki; Sakakura, Kazuyoshi; Sakurai, Junichi; Senda, Minoru

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency characteristics of several temporal filters used in ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy and to apply the temporal filters to the image processing. The three following filters were analyzed; (1) X'sub(n) = 1/4.Xsub(n-1) + 1/2.Xsub(n) + 1/4.Xsub(n+1) (2) X'sub(n) = 1/10.Xsub(n-2) + 1/5.Xsub(n-1) + 2/5.Xsub(n) + 1/5.Xsub(n+1) + 1/10.Xsub(n+2) (3) f(x) = a 0 + Σsub(m=1)sup(j)asub(m)sin(mx+αsub(m)) where X'n is the averaged pixel count of the n-th frame and Xn is a pixel count of n-th frame. The last equation is Fourier transformation. Sinusoidal waves were generated in the digital computer in order to assess the frequency characteristics of the filters. The sinusoidal waves were sampled by 3,200 Hz and one frame was created by one hundred sampling points. One cycle was composed of thirty two frames as usually used in the gated blood pool study. At the discrete sampling of the sinusoidal waves, the amplitude ratio of input to output signal was almost flat up to 3 Hz. But the ratio oscillated above 3 Hz. This oscillation was created by the discrete sampling and was regarded as the newly produced noise. By using the first filter, the amplitude ratio of input to output was almost flat up to 2 Hz. But above 3 Hz, the amplitude ratio was less than 1 and the cut-off frequency was 7 Hz. By using the second filter the amplitude ratio was already less than 1 at 1 Hz and the cut-off frequency was 5 Hz. By the third filter, the amplitude ratio was almost flat up to 5 Hz and then gradually decreased above 5 Hz. All filters damped the noises created by the discrete sampling of the sinusoidal waves. The third filter had the excellent frequency characteristics. The reasons were (1) the distortion of the output wave was small because of the flat amplitude ratio, and (2) the noises were eliminated by filtering with an abrupt high frequency cut-off. (J.P.N.)

  20. Frequency characteristics of temporal filters used in ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futamura, Yoshihiro; Furuta, Toshiya; Shimokata, Tatsuyuki; Sakakura, Kazuyoshi; Sakurai, Junichi; Senda, Minoru (Meitetsu Hospital, Nagoya (Japan))

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency characteristics of several temporal filters used in ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy and to apply the temporal filters to the image processing. The three following filters were analyzed; (1) X'sub(n) = 1/4.Xsub(n-1) + 1/2.Xsub(n) + 1/4.Xsub(n+1) (2) X'sub(n) = 1/10.Xsub(n-2) + 1/5.Xsub(n-1) + 2/5.Xsub(n) + 1/5.Xsub(n+1) + 1/10.Xsub(n+2) (3) f(x) = a/sub 0/ + ..sigma..sub(m=1)sup(j)asub(m)sin(mx+..cap alpha..sub(m)) where X'n is the averaged pixel count of the n-th frame and Xn is a pixel count of n-th frame. The last equation is Fourier transformation. Sinusoidal waves were generated in the digital computer in order to assess the frequency characteristics of the filters. The sinusoidal waves were sampled by 3,200 Hz and one frame was created by one hundred sampling points. One cycle was composed of thirty-two frames as usually used in the gated blood pool study. At the discrete sampling of the sinusoidal waves, the amplitude ratio of input to output signal was almost flat up to 3 Hz. But the ratio oscillated above 3 Hz. This oscillation was created by the discrete sampling and was regarded as the newly produced noise. By using the first filter, the amplitude ratio of input to output was almost flat up to 2 Hz. But above 3 Hz, the amplitude ratio was less than 1 and the cut-off frequency was 7 Hz. By using the second filter the amplitude ratio was already less than 1 at 1 Hz and the cut-off frequency was 5 Hz. By the third filter, the amplitude ratio was almost flat up to 5 Hz and then gradually decreased above 5 Hz. All filters damped the noises created by the discrete sampling of the sinusoidal waves. The third filter had the excellent frequency characteristics. The reasons were (1) the distortion of the output wave was small because of the flat amplitude ratio, and (2) the noises were eliminated by filtering with an abrupt high frequency cut-off.

  1. 99mTc-stannous colloid white cell scintigraphy in childhood inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Kenneth; Porn, Ute; Howman-Giles, Robert; O'Loughlin, Edward; Uren, Roger; Gaskin, Kevin; Dorney, Stuart; Kamath, Ramanand

    2004-02-01

    99mTc-Labeled white cell scintigraphy (WCS) has been used for the investigation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in adults, but data on children are limited. The most common agent used is (99m) Tc-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO); however, this agent has limitations. In a retrospective study, we assessed the use of (99m)Tc-stannous colloid WCS for the initial evaluation of children with suspected IBD. Diagnostic, endoscopic, and contrast radiography results were retrospectively collected from the medical records. Two experienced nuclear physicians unaware of the patient data interpreted the WCS results, with agreement reached by consensus. Statistical analysis was performed on the ability of WCS to detect active disease and localize it topographically and on a comparison of diagnostic methods, using a combination of clinical features and endoscopy as the reference standard. Between 1996 and 1999, 64 patients (35 male and 29 female; mean age, 12.5 y; age range, 2-19 y) had WCS performed, with IBD subsequently diagnosed in 34 patients. (99m)Tc-Stannous colloid WCS had an 88% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and 8.8 likelihood ratio for initial investigation of IBD. Agreement was poor for topographic localization of disease. Small-bowel series had a 75% sensitivity, 50% specificity, and 1.5 likelihood ratio for detecting endoscopic disease of the terminal ileum and proximal colon. Our results confirm that WCS is a useful imaging technique for the initial evaluation of patients with suspected IBD. (99m)Tc-Stannous colloid had results at least comparable to those of other WCS agents, and in children, (99m)Tc-stannous colloid WCS should be preferred in view of lower cost, shorter preparation time, and the smaller blood volumes required.

  2. Evaluation of left ventricular function during exercise in patients with ischemic heart disease using multigated blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Yoshiaki; Kanoh, Yasushi; Shiotani, Hideyuki; Fujitani, Kazuhiro; Fukuzaki, Hisashi; Kajiya, Teishi; Nakashima, Yoshiharu; Maeda, Kazumi.

    1985-01-01

    Multigated blood pool scintigraphy (exercise RI ventriculography) and exercise stress thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy were performed in 44 ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients (16 with angina pectoris and 28 with old myocardial infarction) and 11 healthy persons. Furthermore, blood circulation was examined in 38 of the subjects. Work load was significantly greater, and the number of diseased vessels and the incidence of indicators for transient ischemia during exercise were significantly lower in the group with a remarkably increased left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) during exercise than in the group with a remarkably decreased EF. In the group with unchanged EF, reginal left ventricular wall movement could be assessed using phase analysis. In IHD patients with a remarkably decreased EF at rest, EF was scarcely changed during exercise, and indicators for transient ischemia were not observed frequently. There was a highly significnat correlation between EF during exercise and pulmonary artery wedge pressure or cardiac index during exercise, suggesting that EF is a noninvasive indicator for coronary circulation during exercise. Exercise RI ventriculography was considered useful for evaluating the physiology of IHD. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    OpenAIRE

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is primarily to investigate whether this policy should change to improve transfusion safety. This thesis explores the risk on red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion in oncohematologic patien...

  4. Osseous scintigraphy in exploration of fever osteo-articular pain in sickle cell disease; La scintigraphie osseuse dans l'exploration des douleurs osteoarticulaires febriles chez les drepanocytaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ajmi, W.; Slim, I.; Zaabar, L.; Ben Sellem, D.; Letaief, B.; Mhiri, A.; Ben Slimene, M.F. [Institut Salah Azaiez, Service de medecine nucleaire, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-07-01

    Osteo articular complications of sickle cell disease are multiple and can occur in the acute mode, (Bone infarction, acute osteomyelitis) or chronic (osteonecrosis, osteomyelitis).Through 6 cases we present the interest, lack and limitations of planar scintigraphy with bis phosphonates. Two patients underwent an early bone scan supplemented by medullary scintigraphy with nano colloids, the diagnosis was a bone infarction. In two children, the bone scan was performed between 5 and 7 days after the beginning of symptoms and did not objectify image of acute osteo articular complication. In the last patient, abnormal scintigraphy does not allow to differentiate osteomyelitis and bone infarction. The bone scan remains an essential consideration in the exploration of bone manifestations in sickle cell disease. Its association with bone marrow scintigraphy provides better diagnostic accuracy in differentiating osteomyelitis and bone infarction and adjusting the therapeutic management. (N.C.)

  5. Aspects of osteo-articular complications in sickle-cell disease on planar bone scintigraphy (infection excluded). Apropos of three cases; Aspects des complications osteoarticulaires de la drepanocytose en scintigraphie osseuse planaire (infection exclue). A propos de trois observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oufroukhi, Y.; Biyi, A.; Zekri, A.; Doudouh, A. [HMI Med-V, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rabat (Morocco)

    2008-06-15

    Skeletal complications of sickle-cell anemia are multiple and can appear on the acute (osseous infarction, acute osteomyelitis) or chronic mode (osteonecrosis, chronic osteomyelitis). The radio-labelled diphosphonate bone scintigraphy remains an important tool in the early diagnosis and in the follow-up of these complications and must form part of the initial assessment of the disease. Through clinical observations, the authors undertake to sum up the bone scintigraphy aspects of these complications. (author)

  6. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy in a patient with sickle cell-thalassemia and recurrent pain attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Gallowitsch, H.-J.; Lind, P.; Jauk, B.; Kaulfersch, W.

    2003-01-01

    The case of an eight years old African boy who suffers from sickle cell-thalassemia is presented. In the course of the disease frequent pain attacks occurred within the abdomen and extremities, recently also within the trunk. Local pain, at some occasions in combination with local swelling and always positive laboratory parameters for inflammation, hindered a solely clinical differentiation between bone infarcts and osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy, eventually in combination with bone marrow scintigraphy, can assist the clinician in the differentiation of aseptic bone infarcts versus secondary osteomyelitis. Based on the presented case scintigraphic results for bone infarcts, osteomyelitis and special scintigraphic pattern seen in sickle cell disease are presented. Furthermore, problems regarding the interpretation of the scintigraphies in relation to the delayed time after the beginning of pain attacks are discussed. (author)

  7. The value of bone scintigraphy in diagnosing of langerhans cells histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Hong; Shi Meihua; Wu Jinchuan

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical value of bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of Langerhans cells histiocytosis (LCH). Methods: Whole-body bone scintigraphy was performed in 23 patients, 16 males and 7 females, average age was 4.5+1.4, with histologic diagnosis of LCH. The clinical presentation varied from local mass (10 cases), tenderness (12 cases), othemorrhea (1 case), limb fatigue (3 cases), restriction of spinal activity (2 cases) to irregular fever, cough and rash (4 cases). 99Tcm-MDP was injected intravenously , the dose modified as age, according to the formula of [ adult dosage x [(age+l)/(age+7)] ] , and sedation was given to the young children who could not cooperate well. After 3 hours of administration whole-body bone scan was performed. Images were acquired using GE Millennium SPR, with a high-resolution low-energy collimator, 8 min/m sweep speed, matrix 1024 x 256, zoom 1. Results: 19 of 23 patients (82.6%) showed positive in their bone scan. 8 cases with cranial abnormal uptake, some of them exhibited peripheral high and central low uptake; clavicle, rib and pelvis involvements were 3 respectively; 2 cases in upper limb, 4 in lower limb, most lesions of limb were located in the diaphysis; spinal abnormal uptakes were seen in 5 patients, and 1 child had photon deficient area in the lower of sternium. Among 19 positive scintigram, single bone lesion was shown in 9 patients (47.3%), the most common lesion located in cranium (5 cases). Conclusion: Some characters of bone scintigraphy in LCH are useful in the diagnosis of this disease, and accompanied with comprehensive sensation of clinical manifestation of LCH, the diagnostic accuracy will be promoted. (authors)

  8. Scintigraphy of cerebral blood flow with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine in cerebrovascular accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, Teruki; Fukunaga, Masao; Otsuka, Nobuaki

    1985-01-01

    In 20 patients with cerebrovascular accident, cerebral blood flow was estimated with N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I]-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) using a rotating gamma camera, and the findings were compared with those of X-CT or angiography. 123 I-IMP study demonstrated the areas of diminished cerebral blood flow in 14 cases. X-CT also demonstrated lesions in 14 cases, however, 123 I-IMP study delineated the lesions more precisely corresponding to the neurological findings. In cases with cerebellar hemorrhage or reversible ischemic neurological deficit (RIND), the lesion could be established only by 123 I-IMP study. It was demonstrated by 123 I-IMP study that vascular stenosis or abnormal vessels seen on angiography in patients with vertebro-basilar insufficiency or venous angioma was not necessarily accompanied by diminished blood flow. It was shown that scintigraphy with 123 I-IMP was a non-invasive, safe and extremely useful method to estimate the regional cerebral blood flow. (author)

  9. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is

  10. Adrenal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1979-01-01

    The following items are discussed:anatomy and physiology of adrenal glands, clinical indications of scintigraphy, radiobiology and radiochemistry, scintigraphic imaging, adrenocortical hyperfunction, aldosteronism and hypertension associated with low renin level, excess of androgen, adrenocortical hyperfunction and future perspectives of adrenal scintigraphy. (M.A.) [pt

  11. [sup 99m]Tc-RBC subtraction scintigraphy; Assessmet of bleeding site and rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1994-03-01

    Sequential abdominal scintigrams with [sup 99m]Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) were subtracted for observing a site of gastrointestinal bleeding and calculating the bleeding rate. This method is technically very easy and can detect the site of bleeding with the minimum rate, as low as 0.2 ml/min., in a phantom experiment. In 23 cases with final diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, conventional non-subtraction scintigraphy detected only 30% (7/23), but subtraction scintigraphy detected 61% (14/23). It was concluded that subtraction scintigraphy had higher sensitivity than conventional scintigraphy for early diagnosing bleeding. A combination of non-subtraction and subtraction scintigraphy is recommended to detect a site of gastrointestinal bleeding in a clinical setting. (author).

  12. Bone scintigraphy in chondroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphry, A.; Gilday, D.L.; Brown, R.G.

    1980-11-01

    Scintigraphy in 3 patients with chondroblastoma showed that the tumors were hyperemic and avidly accumulated the radionuclide. These changes were also present in adjacent normal bone, but to a lesser degree. This suggests that radionuclide uptake in chondroblastoma is a function of the blood supply to the tumor rather than primary matrix extraction.

  13. Adrenal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veen, E.A. van der.

    1978-01-01

    The visualization of functioning adrenocortical tissue by scintigraphy became possible with the introduction of radioiodinated cholesterol derivatives. According to the literature, there is evidence that one of these iodinated cholesterols, 6-β-iodomethyl-nor-cholesterol, concentrates in the adrenal cortex to a much greater extent than 131 I-19-odocholesterol. Results comparing both radiopharmaceuticals are described. The authors investigated the possibility of increasing the uptake of iodinated cholesterol using simultaneous ACTH and the 'cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzymeblocker': aminoglutethimide. The results of adrenal scintigraphy performed in 37 patients are described. Finally, the literature on adrenal scintigraphy is reviewed, and results reported in various studies are compared. (Auth.)

  14. Aspects of osteo-articular complications in sickle-cell disease on planar bone scintigraphy (infection excluded). Apropos of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oufroukhi, Y.; Biyi, A.; Zekri, A.; Doudouh, A.

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal complications of sickle-cell anemia are multiple and can appear on the acute (osseous infarction, acute osteomyelitis) or chronic mode (osteonecrosis, chronic osteomyelitis). The radio-labelled diphosphonate bone scintigraphy remains an important tool in the early diagnosis and in the follow-up of these complications and must form part of the initial assessment of the disease. Through clinical observations, the authors undertake to sum up the bone scintigraphy aspects of these complications. (author)

  15. Prediction of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac functional outcome after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Examination using dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Iwasaki, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Tadashi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi; Oshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2000-07-01

    This study evaluated whether dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy can predict improvement of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function. Sixteen patients (10 men and 6 women, mean age 59{+-}13 years) with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using tracer at 0, 5, 10 and 15 {mu}g/kg/min before treatment. Patients were divided into good responders (LVEF increase {>=}15%) 8 patients (GR Group) and poor responders (LVEF increase <15%) 8 patients (PR Group) after treatment with {beta}-blocker or amiodarone with a background treatment of digitalis, diuretics and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging to evaluate cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and echocardiography were performed before and at one year after treatment. MIBG imaging was obtained 4 hours after tracer injection, and the heart/mediastinum count ratio (H/M ratio) calculated from the anterior planar image and the total defect score (TDS) from the single photon emission computed tomography image. LVEF and left ventricular endo-diastolic dimension (LVDd) were measured by echocardiography and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was evaluated. The GR Group showed TDS decreased from 28{+-}6 to 17{+-}12 (p<0.05), H/M ratio increased from 1.79{+-}0.26 to 2.07{+-}0.32 (p<0.05), LVEF increased from 29{+-}8% to 48{+-}10% (p<0.01), and LVDd decreased from 65{+-}4 mm to 58{+-}5 mm (p<0.05). In contrast, the PR group showed no significant changes in TDS. H/M ratio, LVEF and LVDd. NYHA functional class improved in both groups. The improvement was better in the GR Group than in the PR group. Dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy is useful to predict the improvement of the cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function, and symptoms after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  16. Quantitative comparison of myocardial blood flow in normal and infarcted hearts by high resolution scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, C.Y.; Burow, R.D.; Scherlag, B.J.; Basmadjian, G.P.; Lazzara, R.

    1984-01-01

    The standard method for measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) with radioactive microspheres requires processing of selected tissue samples and consequent loss of exact relation to myocardial morphology. Also, in myocardial infarction (MI) there are inaccuracies due to overlap of tissues from borders of normal and MI. A new method uses Tc-99m labeled microspheres (20..mu..) which were injected into the left atrium in 18 normal dogs and 12 dogs with MI (5 had 1 day and 7 had 4 day old MI). The excised hearts were rinsed and frozen before ''bread-loaf'' sections, 3 mm thick, were cut. Images were acquired on a gamma camera with a volume resolution of 12 mm/sup 3/. A computer program for determining MBF was checked against the conventional microsphere method. The volume resolution of the latter method was 100 mm/sup 3/. The correlation coefficient between the two methods was r=0.96. Average MBF for a given section of normal RV and LV was 95 +- 13 and 119 +- 15 ml/min/100 g of tissue, respectively. Average MBF was compared in normal LV and from ischemic epicardium (IsZ) of the central MI and endocardial infarcted zone (IZ). The authors' new method, accurately and with high resolution, delineates zones of differing MBF and confirms the increase of MBF in surviving myocardium with healing.

  17. Scintigraphy of spinal disorders in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandell, G.A.; Harcke, H.T.

    1993-01-01

    Bone scintigraphy in adolescents is useful in helping to differentiate between developmental (atypical lumbar Scheuermann disease), infectious (discitis, osteomyelitis), neoplastic (osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma), and traumatic (occult fractures, spondylolysis, pseudoarthrosis) disease of the spine. Double-phase (blood pool, delayed images) scintigraphy can characterize the pattern (i.e., linear in fracture, ovoid in nidus of osteoid osteoma). Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be helpful in detecting the subtle presence of stress reaction (spondylolyses) not noted on routine planar scintigraphy and radiography. Bone scintigraphy is most beneficial when correlated with other imaging modalities in refining the diagnosis of spinal diseases. (orig.)

  18. Scintigraphy of spinal disorders in adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandell, G.A. (Dept. of Medical Imaging, Alfred I. duPont Inst., Wilmington, DE (United States)); Harcke, H.T. (Dept. of Medical Imaging, Alfred I. duPont Inst., Wilmington, DE (United States))

    1993-08-01

    Bone scintigraphy in adolescents is useful in helping to differentiate between developmental (atypical lumbar Scheuermann disease), infectious (discitis, osteomyelitis), neoplastic (osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma), and traumatic (occult fractures, spondylolysis, pseudoarthrosis) disease of the spine. Double-phase (blood pool, delayed images) scintigraphy can characterize the pattern (i.e., linear in fracture, ovoid in nidus of osteoid osteoma). Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be helpful in detecting the subtle presence of stress reaction (spondylolyses) not noted on routine planar scintigraphy and radiography. Bone scintigraphy is most beneficial when correlated with other imaging modalities in refining the diagnosis of spinal diseases. (orig.)

  19. Dynamic scintigraphy of the liver with 131I-rose bengal and bile acid content in the blood of patients after gastrectomy for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lekhtman, A.M.; Lomtev, N.G.; Modnikov, O.P.

    1987-01-01

    Liver function was studied in patients with operable stomach cancer prior to and at varying time after gastrectomy using dynamic scintigraphy with 131 I-rose bengal and determination by a radioimmunoassay of bile acids in the peripheral blood. A group of patients without signs of focal lesion of the liver and a history of its diseases was examined. It was shown that disorders of hepatocytic function took place before the operation. After gastrectomy the disorders were accompanied by considerable retardiation of the basal secretion of bile into the intestine. At the same time an increase in the concentration of bile acids in the peripheral blood above the discriminant level of healthy persons, i.e. over 0.5 mg/l was observed. Disorders of liver function were of long duration and persistent over 1 year after gastrectomy

  20. Localization of the acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in vivo-in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, E.; Mothe, G.; Wyse, E.

    1984-01-01

    For the detection and localization of acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in vivo-in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc and sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid has been sugested. The procedure for labeling RBC with sup(99m)Tc consisted in injecting IV 1 mg of ClSn; 20 minutes after injection of tin 10 cc of blood were withdrawn in a syringe containing 20 mCi of sup(99m)Tc; this was incubated for 10 minutes and then injected IV. Scintigraphy of the abdominal cavity was done in supine position and performed with a large field gamma camera with a parallel hole-low energy colimator. Computer adquisition of images was started 5 minutes after RBC injection and made at the rate of one enery 5 minutes for 45 minutes. 14 patients were studied divided in: a) control: 6 patients. b) with active gastrointestinal hemorrhage: 4 patients had positive scintigraphy. The hemorrhage was documented with superior mesenteric arteriography, endoscopy and/or necropsy. The sensitivity was 100%. In 4 out of 14 patients scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc RBC compared with simultaneous sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid demonstrated that all patients with positive sup(99m)Tc RBC had also positive sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy. c) without active gastrointestinal hemorrhage: all of them had negative scintigraphy (specificity 100%). Abdominal scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc RBC or sulfur colloid are both sensitive for detection and localization of lower gastrointestinal bleeding and the negative study suggests the absence of active hemorrhage. It is suggested that the sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy should be the initial procedure to study these patients and abdominal arteriography should be performed only in patients with positive abdominal scintigraphy. (M.E.L.) [es

  1. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... sample? Analysis of cell surface proteins Chromosomal analysis Cultures for bacteria Determination of the original arrangement of ...

  2. Myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunko, Hisashi; Hisada, Kinichi

    1982-01-01

    Among the various methods of image diagnosis of the cardiovascular disorder, nuclear cardiology provides noninvasive means for evaluation of myocardial perfusion as well as morphological and functional informations. In this article, clinical application and image diagnosis of myocardial scintigraphy including Tl-201 myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, single photon emission computed tomography with Tl-201, acute myocardial infarction scintigraphy with Tc-99m-pyrophosphate and Ga-67 imaging of the heart, were discussed. Multiplanar imaging of the heart with Tl-201 after stress and at redistribution was the accepted method for detection and evaluation of the ischemic heart disease. Although it achieved high sensitivity and specificity for ischemic heart disease, detection of the small ischemia and quantation of the regional Tl-201 accumulation were difficult with conventional multiplanar imaging. Application of emission computed tomography improved detectability and quantitativity of the ischemia. However, 7-pinhole tomography did not increase the diagnostic accuracy significantly. It had limited clinical applicability due to poor quantitativity in spite of improved image contrast and its tomographic nature. Advantage and limitation of these tomographic imaging and multiplanar imaging were discussed. Problems and prognostic significance of pyrophosphate imaging of the acute myocardial infarction were also discussed. Visualization of the heart with Ga-67 was helpful for identification of the tumor or inflammation of the heart as well as evaluation of the effect of the therapy. (author)

  3. Comparative scintigraphy in oleic acid pulmonary microvascular injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugerman, H.J.; Hirsch, J.I.; Tatum, J.L.; Strash, A.M.; Sharp, D.E.; Greenfield, L.J.

    1982-01-01

    Computerized gamma scintigraphy revealed a significant (p less than 0.001) rising lung:heart radioactivity ratio, which has been called ''slope of injury'' or ''slope index'', with both 99mTechnetium-tagged human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and 99mTechnetium-tagged red blood cells (99Tc-RBC) after 0.05 or 0.2 ml/kg iv oleic acid administration to dogs. This slope index was significantly greater with 99mTc-HSA than 99mTc-RBC (p less than 0.001). These findings verify that the scintigraphic 99mTc-HSA slope of injury is a result of a pulmonary capillary protein leak and not oleic acid induced changes in pulmonary blood or air volume. The leak of red blood cells noted with scintigraphy was confirmed by light microscopy and examination of the tracheal edema fluid. The leak of albumin, however, was much greater than the leak of red blood cells by microscopy and tracheal fluid examination, confirming the scintigraphic data. This study provides further evidence that computerized gamma scintigraphy will be of value for the diagnosis of permeability pulmonary edema and its response to treatment

  4. Cigarette smoking increases white blood cell aggregation in whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Hill, A; Belch, J J

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on white blood cell aggregation, increased aggregation predisposes to microvascular occlusion and damage. Current smokers had significantly increased white blood cell aggregation when compared with non smokers. The presence of chronically activated white blood cells in current smokers may be relevant in the pathogenesis of ischaemic vascular disease.

  5. Changes of arterial blood flow patterns by patients' posture during hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy assessed by [sup 99m]Tc-MAA perfusion scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, Yasuhiro; Arai, Yasuaki; Mukaijo, Toshifumi; Nakatsuka, Atsuhiro; Sasaki, Fumio; Kido, Choichiro (Aichi Cancer Center, Nagoya (Japan))

    1993-11-01

    Hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy (HAPS) with [sup 99m]Tc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) was performed to reveal the effect of patients' posture for the arterial blood flow patterns in hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy. Twenty patients with liver metastases having the percutaneously implanted catheter into the hepatic artery underwent HAPS following administration of [sup 99m]Tc-MAA at the supine and the upright position under one week interval. Ten ml of the saline with radionuclide was injected at a rate of one ml per minute. Acquired two images at the different position of each patient were compared and grouped into three classes: similar, slightly different and different. Of 20 patients, 6 (30%) were judged as similar, 8 (40%) as slightly different, and 6 (30%) as different. These results suggest that the drug distribution can change by patients' posture in case of the slow rate HAI performed with continuous infusion pump. (author).

  6. Parathyroid scintigraphy during hypocalcaemia in primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgard, Christina G; Vestergaard, Henrik; Thomsen, Jørn Bo

    2005-01-01

    Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) demands high imaging accuracy. By increasing blood flow to the parathyroid adenoma before injection of a perfusion marker, we intended to improve the parathyroid scintigraphy. We have named the technique...

  7. Intracoronary Infusion of Autologous CD133+ Cells in Myocardial Infarction and Tracing by Tc99m MIBI Scintigraphy of the Heart Areas Involved in Cell Homing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubaidullo Kurbonov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CD133 mesenchymal cells were enriched using magnetic microbead anti-CD133 antibody from bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry analysis using specific antibodies revealed that these cells were essentially 89 ± 4% CD133+ and 8 ± 5% CD34+. CD133+/CD34+ BMMNCs secrete important bioactive proteins such as cardiotrophin-1, angiogenic and neurogenic factors, morphogenetic proteins, and proinflammatory and remodeling factors in vitro. Single intracoronary infusions of autologous CD133+/CD34+ BMMNCs are effective and reduce infarct size in patients as analyzed by Tc99m MIBI myocardial scintigraphy. The majority of patients were treated via left coronary artery. Nine months after cell therapy, 5 out of 8 patients showed a net positive response to therapy in different regions of the heart. Uptake of Tc99 isotope and revitalization of the heart area in inferoseptal region are more pronounced (P=0.016 as compared to apex and anterosptal regions after intracoronary injection of the stem cells. The cells chosen here have the properties essential for their potential use in cell therapy and their homing can be followed without major difficulty by the scintigraphy. The cell therapy proposed here is safe and should be practiced, as we found, in conjunction with scintigraphic observation of areas of heart which respond optimally to the infusion of autologous CD133+/CD34+ BMMNCs.

  8. Liver scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical applications of indium-111-acetylacetone-labelled blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgi, P.; Sinn, H.; Wellman, H.; Clorius, J.H.; Becker, W.

    1981-01-01

    A method permitting red-cell labelling with 111 In-acetylacetone was reported in 1974 for evaluating intestinal blood loss, the liver-spleen ratio and the red-cell volume. White blood cells can be tagged similarly. In white-cell labelling, simultaneous red-cell or platelet tagging is avoided. Several procedures (dextran separation and gradient centrifugations) have been combined, to develop a highly selective cell separation. In osteomyelitis it may not be as advantageous to use 67 Ga-citrate, as in inflammatory soft tissue processes. The detection of inflammatory processes with labelled leukocytes could be of great importance for the scintigraphic diagnosis of osteomyelitidies. A group of 97 patients with suspected osteomyelitis have been examined using 111 In-acetylacetone-labelled leukocytes ( 111 In-AAL) immediately following positive routine skeletal scintigraphy. Images obtained 24 h post injection usually were the most satisfactory. In the followup group of 70 patients 21 true positives, 43 true negatives, 21 false negatives and 3 false positives were observed. These findings result in a specificity of 92%, sensitivity of 50% and accuracy of 70% with 111 In-AAL for osteomyelitis. Preliminary investigations using 111 In-acetylacetone-labelled thrombocytes ( 111 In-AAT) were carried out to detect rejection of transplanted kidneys. The platelets were separated by means of additional special density gradient centrifugations but no dextran from 15-20 ml of autologous whole blood. Scans have been obtained 15 min, 2.5 h and 24 h post injection in an initial group of 10 patients. In acute rejection, a high transplant uptake has been detected, whereas patients without acute rejection showed no or only a minimum activity accumulation. Patients with chronic rejection have intermediate uptakes

  10. New strategy in diagnostic, preventive and following way in osteonecrosis of sickle-cell disease in Cote d'Ivoire with bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouame-Koutouan, A.; Aboukoua-Kouassi, N.; Koffi, D.; Sery, J.M.; Meite, M.; Sanogo, I.

    2009-01-01

    Osteonecrosis is the most frequent complications of sickle-cell disease (S.C.D.) whose prevalence in Cote d'Ivoire is 21%. The main of this study was to compare scintigraphy, clinical and radiological observations to assess earlier diagnosis in S.C.D. osteonecrosis. It was a prospective study about 45 S.C.D. patients who presented coxopathy and had radio-labelled di phosphonates bone scintigraphy. The results revealed 49% of lesions whose 48% appeared with homogeneous hyper fixation, 11% homogeneous hypo fixation, 5% of hypo fixation got round by hyper fixation. Eighty-one percent of lesions concerned femoral head, 6% femoral condyle and 3% humoral head. Fifty percent of osteonecrosis was not visible in radiology and corresponded to the earlier stage. These invisible radiology aspects were observed in 100% hips without lameness, and in 43% permanent lameness. Scintigraphy (sensitive in 100%) isolated 38% more than conventional radiography. In main to improve S.C.D. osteonecrosis prognostic in Cote d'Ivoire, this preliminary study outline that scintigraphy is fundamental in management. (authors)

  11. Importance of gallium-67 scintigraphy in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: report of two cases;Importancia da cintilografia com galio-67 no linfoma cutaneo primario de celulas B: relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attab, Cyomara Sanches, E-mail: rubinha.attab@terra.com.b [Centro Brasileiro de Medicina Nuclear (CEBRAMEN), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Moriguchi, Sonia Marta [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer; Paton, Eduardo Jose Alencar [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Cancer Hospital. Div. of Hemotherapy and Bone-Marrow Transplant; Alencar, Mario Henrique Leite de [Clinica de Prevencao em Cancer, Goiania, GO, (Brazil); Rocha, Euclides Timoteo da [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Cancer Hospital. Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2010-05-15

    The authors describe two cases of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma where correct staging, treatment and follow-up could be achieved through a combination of conventional imaging studies and gallium-67 scintigraphy. (author)

  12. Red blood cells in thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, James R; Wolberg, Alisa S

    2017-10-19

    Red blood cells (RBCs) have historically been considered passive bystanders in thrombosis. However, clinical and epidemiological studies have associated quantitative and qualitative abnormalities in RBCs, including altered hematocrit, sickle cell disease, thalassemia, hemolytic anemias, and malaria, with both arterial and venous thrombosis. A growing body of mechanistic studies suggests that RBCs can promote thrombus formation and enhance thrombus stability. These findings suggest that RBCs may contribute to thrombosis pathophysiology and reveal potential strategies for therapeutically targeting RBCs to reduce thrombosis. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  13. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Subscribe January 2014 Print this issue Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells En español Send ... Disease When Blood Cells Bend Wise Choices Preventing Anemia To prevent or treat iron-deficiency anemia: Eat ...

  14. Use of blood-pool imaging in evaluation of diffuse activity patterns in technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, M J; Mantle, J A; Rogers, W J; Russell, R O; Rackley, C E; Logic, J R

    1979-06-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse Tc-99m pyrophosphate precordial activity may be due to persistent blood-pool activity in routine delayed views during myocardial imaging. To answer this question, we reviewed myocardial scintigrams recorded 60--90 min following the injection of 12--15 mCi of Tc-99m pyrophosphate for the presence of diffuse precordial activity, and compared these with early images of the blood pool in 265 patients. Diffuse activity in the delayed images was identified in 48 patients: in 20 with acute myocardial infarction and in 28 with no evidence of it. Comparison of these routine delayed images with early views of the blood pool revealed two types of patterns. In patients with acute infarction, 95% had delayed images that were distinguishable from blood pool either because the activity was smaller than the early blood pool, or by the presence of localized activity superimposed on diffuse activity identical to blood pool. In those without infarction, 93% had activity distribution in routine delayed views matching that in the early blood-pool images. The usefulness of the diffuse TcPPi precordial activity in myocardial infarction is improved when early blood-pool imaging is used to exclude persistence of blood-pool activity as its cause. Moreover, it does not require additional amounts of radioactivity nor complex computer processing, a feature that may be of value in the community hospital using the technique to "rule out" infarction 24--72 hr after onset of suggestive symptoms.

  15. Use of blood-pool imaging in evaluation of diffuse activity patterns in technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, M.J.; Mantle, J.A.; Rogers, W.J.; Russell, R.O. Jr.; Rackley, C.E.; Logic, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse 99m Tc pyrophosphate precordial activity may be due to persistent blood-pool activity in routine delayed views during myocardial imaging. To answer this question, we reviewed myocardial scintigrams recorded 60 to 90 min following the injection of 12 to 15 mCi of 99m Tc pyrophosphate for the presence of diffuse precordial activity, and compared these with early images of the blood pool in 265 patients. Diffuse activity in the delayed images was identified in 48 patients: in 20 with acute myocardial infarction and in 28 with no evidence of it. Comparison of these routine delayed images with early views of the blood pool revealed two types of patterns. In patients with acute infarction, 95% had delayed images that were distinguishable from blood pool either because the activity was smaller than the early blood pool, or by the presence of localized activity superimposed on diffuse activity identical to blood pool. In those without infarction, 93% had activity distribution in routine delayed views matching that in the early blood-pool images. The usefulness of the diffuse TcPPi precordial activity in myocardial infarction is improved when early blood-pool imaging is used to exclude persistence of blood-pool activity as its cause. Moreover, it does not require additional amounts of radioactivity nor complex computer processing, a feature that may be of value in the community hospital using the technique to rule out infarction 24 to 72 hr after onset of suggestive symptoms

  16. Red Blood Cell.pm6

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    ABSTRACT. Introduction: The practice of warming blood for transfusion by immersion into a waterbath has been investigated. Objective: To find the maximum waterbath temperature at which blood can be heated effectively without effecting the red blood cell functional and structural integrity. Method: Blood, three days after ...

  17. Assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction by gated blood pool scintigraphy on early and late phase from the onset of acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Yoshiharu; Fukuzaki, Hisashi; Minamiji, Katsumi; Kida, Toru; Okada, Toshio; Yamada, Shigenobu; Goto, Takeshi; Maeda, Kazumi; Yoshida, Yutaka.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the change of left ventricular function after the onset of acute myocardial infarction, gated blood pool scintigraphy was performed in 19 patients on early and late phase (6 days and 1 month on the average). There was a difference in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between patients with anterior and inferior myocardial infarction. Patients with anterior infarction indicated low value of LVEF (31+-7%) on acute phase and its value was increased on chronic phase (37+-8%), whereas patients with inferior infarction had higher value of LVEF not only on acute phase but also on chronic phase (54+-9%→57+-10%), than those with anterior infarction. Left ventricular volume was larger in anterior group than in inferior group and tended to become smaller on chronic phase. In 4 of 10 cases with anterior infarction, a significant improvement of LVEF was found from 28+-6% to 43+-5%, but in 6 cases LVEF was unchanged during the same period. In 3 cases out of improved group, it was demonstrated angiographically that the collateral vessels were developed. It was, thus, suggested that collateral vessels may play an important role in the recovery of myocardial ischemia and wall motion abnormality in the marginal zone of infarcted area. From these results, we concluded that left ventricular function changed serially in most patients from the early phase to the late phase after the onset of acute myocardial infarction. (author)

  18. Radiosynoviorthesis in hemophilic arthropathy: pathologic blood pool imaging on pre-therapeutic bone scintigraphy is not a predictor of treatment success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabet, Amir [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Strauss, Andreas Christian; Schmolders, Jan; Bornemann, Rahel; Pennekamp, Peter Hans [University of Bonn, Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, Bonn (Germany); Sabet, Amin; Biersack, Hans Juergen [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Oldenburg, Johannes [University of Bonn, Department of Experimental Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Saarland University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Increased articular {sup 99m}Tc MDP uptake on blood pool imaging (BPI) of patients with rheumatologic conditions is indicative of active inflammatory changes, and has been suggested as a strong predictor of response to radiosynoviorthesis (RSO). In this study, we aimed to assess the value of pretreatment BPI positivity (i.e. scintigraphic-apparent hyperemia) for successful RSO in hemophilic arthropathy. Thirty-four male patients with painful hemophilic arthropathy underwent RSO after failure of conservative treatment. Treated joints comprised the knee in eight, elbow in five, and ankle in 21 patients. Pretreatment triple-phase bone scintigraphy showed hyperemic joints (pathologic BPI) in 17 patients, whereas 17 patients had no increased tracer uptake on BPI. Response to RSO was evaluated 6 months post-treatment by measuring changes in intensity of arthralgia according to the visual analog scale (VAS), bleeding frequency, and range of motion. The association between hyperemia (pathologic BPI) and treatment outcome was examined using nonparametric tests for independent samples. Clinically evident pain relief occurred in 26 patients (76.5 %), and the mean VAS decreased from 7.7 ± 1.1 to 4.6 ± 2.7 (p < 0.001). Joint bleeding frequency (hemarthrosis) decreased from 4.5 ± 0.6 to 2.1 ± 0.4 during the first 6 months after RSO (p < 0.001). For both parameters (pain relief and bleeding frequency), patients experienced a similar benefit from RSO regardless of pretreatment BPI: arthralgia (p = 0.312) and frequency of hemarthrosis (p = 0.396). No significant improvement was observed for range of motion, but it was significantly more restricted in hyperemic joints both before (p = 0.036) and after treatment (p = 0.022). Hemophilic arthropathy can be effectively treated with RSO regardless of pre-therapeutic BPI. Patients in whom articular hyperemia is not detectable by scintigraphy may have similar (outstanding) outcomes, and thus should not be excluded from treatment. (orig.)

  19. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells remaining...

  20. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  1. Establishment of an experimental human lung adenocarcinoma cell line SPC-A-1BM with high bone metastases potency by 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shunfang; Dong Qianggang; Yao Ming; Shi Meiping; Ye Jianding; Zhao Langxiang; Su Jianzhong; Gu Weiyong; Xie Wenhui; Wang Kankan; Du Yanzhi; Li Yao; Huang Yan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Bone metastasis is one of the most common clinical phenomena of late stage lung cancer. A major impediment to understanding the pathogenesis of bone metastasis has been the lack of an appropriate animal and cell model. This study aims to establish human lung adenocarcinoma cell line with highly bone metastases potency with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy. Methods: The human lung adenocarcinoma cancer cells SPC-A-1 were injected into the left cardiac ventricle of NIH-Beige-Nude-XID (NIH-BNX) immunodeficient mice. The metastatic lesions of tumor-bearing mice were imaged with 99m Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy on a Siemens multi-single photon emission computed tomography. Pinhole images were acquired on a GZ-B conventional gamma camera with a self-designed pinhole collimator. The mice with bone metastasis were sacrificed under deep anesthesia, and the lesions were resected. Bone metastatic cancer cells in the resected lesions were subjected for culture and then reinoculated into the NIH-BNX mice through left cardiac ventricle. The process was repeated for eight cycles to obtain a novel cell subline SPC-A-1BM. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to compare the gene expression differences in the parental and SPC-A-1BM cells. Results: The bone metastasis sites were successfully revealed by bone scintigraphy. The established bone metastasis cell line SPC-A-1BM had a high potential to metastasize in bone, including mandible, humerus, thoracic vertebra, lumbar, femur, patella, ilium and cartilage rib. The expression level of vascular endothelial growth factor gene family, Bcl-2 and cell adhesion-related genes ECM1, ESM1, AF1Q, SERPINE2 and FN1 were examined. Gene expression difference was found between parental and bone-seeking metastasis cell SPC-A-1BM, which indicates SPC-A-1BM has metastatic capacity vs. its parental cells. Conclusion: SPC-A-1BM is a bone-seeking metastasis human lung adenocarcinoma cell line. Bone scintigraphy may be used as an

  2. Hyperemic peripheral red marrow in a patient with sickle cell anemia demonstrated on Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiden, R.A.; Locko, R.C.; Stent, T.R.

    1991-01-01

    A 25-year-old gravid woman, homozygous for sickle cell anemia, with a history of recent deep venous thrombosis, was examined using Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography for recurrent thrombosis. Although negative for thrombus, the study presented an unusual incidental finding: the patient's peripheral bone marrow was hyperemic in a distribution consistent with peripheral red bone marrow expansion. Such a pattern has not been documented before using this technique. This report supports other literature that has demonstrated hyperemia of peripheral red bone marrow in other hemolytic anemias. This finding may ultimately define an additional role of scintigraphy in assessing the pathophysiologic status of the sickle cell patient

  3. A comparative study between pancreas scintigraphy and endoscopic retrograde pancreatic parenchymography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Ryuji; Yoshimoto, Shinjiro; Tadokoro, Jiro; Sugimura, Kazuo; Ushio, Keiji.

    1980-01-01

    Fifteen patients with a suspected pancreatic disease were examined by both pancreatic scintigraphy using 75 Se-selenomethionine and endoscopic retrograde pancreatic parenchymography (ERPP). These two diagnostic procedures have different mechanism of parenchymal imaging. In scintigraphy, uptake of 75 Se-selenomethionine depends on metabolic activity of the pancreatic parenchyma while in ERPP visualization of pancreatic tissue depends on patency of the pancreatic duct, permeability of the periductal tissue and cell function of the pancreatic parenchyma. In comparative study, excellent concordance of findings occurred in 11 of 15 cases. An interesting difference of finding occurred in a case of chronic pancreatitis who had marked involvement of pancreatic duct. In this case, scintigraphy visualized entire pancreas though uptake of the radioisotope was diffusely diminished, while ERPP failed to visualize the body and tail. Another interesting finding was difference of image of pancreatic body. In scintigraphy, a relatively cold area is often seen in body of the pancreas in normal subjects and explained as a result of anatomical thinning of the organ by impression of vertebra and major blood vessels. In our series, 5 cases showed such a finding in scintigraphy, while in ERPP 4 of these 5 cases showed no evidence of localized thinning of the organ. A combination of these two imaging procedures of pancreatic parenchyma with different mechanism provides more detailed anatomical and pathophysiological condition of the pancreatic diseases. (author)

  4. When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe April 2012 Print this issue When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease Send us your ... Diabetes? Sound Health Wise Choices Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

  5. Red Blood Cell Susceptibility to Pneumolysin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Petrov, Peter G.; Khafaji, Mawya A.; Mughal, Muhammad K.; Naylor, Claire E.; Shore, Angela C.; Gooding, Kim M.; Casanova, Francesco; Mitchell, Tim J.; Titball, Richard W.; Winlove, C. Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the plasma membrane as well as membrane morphology on the susceptibility of human red blood cells to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin, a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, using single cell studies. We show a correlation between the physical properties of the membrane (bending rigidity and surface and dipole electrostatic potentials) and the susceptibility of red blood cells to pneumolysin-induced hemolysis. We demonstrate that biochemical modifications of the membrane induced by oxidative stress, lipid scrambling, and artificial cell aging modulate the cell response to the toxin. We provide evidence that the diversity of response to pneumolysin in diabetic red blood cells correlates with levels of glycated hemoglobin and that the mechanical properties of the red blood cell plasma membrane are altered in diabetes. Finally, we show that diabetic red blood cells are more resistant to pneumolysin and the related toxin perfringolysin O relative to healthy red blood cells. Taken together, these studies indicate that the diversity of cell response to pneumolysin within a population of human red blood cells is influenced by the biophysical and biochemical status of the plasma membrane and the chemical and/or oxidative stress pre-history of the cell. PMID:26984406

  6. Evaluation of somatostatin receptors in large cell pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma with 99mTc-EDDA/HYNIC-TOC scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocuń, Anna; Chrapko, Beata; Gołębiewska, Renata; Stefaniak, Bogusław; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta

    2011-06-01

    Large cell pulmonary neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) is a poorly differentiated and high-grade neoplasm. It is positioned between an atypical carcinoid and small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma of the lung in a distinct family of pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of our study was to detect somatostatin receptors in this uncommon malignancy and to evaluate the sensitivity of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in LCNEC staging. We analyzed data of 26 patients (mean age: 61.5±7.9 years) with histologically confirmed diagnosis of LCNEC, including 18 cases not treated surgically and eight patients after the resection of the primary tumor. SRS was carried out with technetium-99m ethylene diamine-diacetic acid/hydrazinonicotinyl-Tyr3-octreotide (Tc-TOC). A visual analysis of scintigraphic images was done with reference to conventional imaging modalities (computed tomography and bone sicintigraphy). SRS sensitivity for the detection of primary lesions, supradiaphragmatic metastases, and infradiaphragmatic metastases was 100, 83.3%, and 0%, respectively. Five out of 13 metastases to the liver appeared on SRS as photopenic foci, visible on the background of physiological hepatic activity. Only one of the nine metastases to the skeletal system was found by SRS with sensitivity as low as 11.1%. The overall SRS sensitivity for the detection of secondary lesions and of all lesions was 54.8 and 62.2%, respectively. Within a rather large series of LCNEC, the primary tumor showed an uptake of Tc-TOC in all cases, whereas some metastases did show Tc-TOC uptake and some others did not.

  7. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  8. Assessment of left ventricular filling in various heart disease, especially in ischemic heart disease, by ECG-gated cardiac blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroaki

    1986-01-01

    Using ECG-gated cardiac blood pool scintigraphy (BPS), left ventricular (LV) diastolic function was evaluated in various heart disease, especially in ischemic heart disease (IHD). LV function indices (2 systolic and 9 diastolic) were obtained from LV time activity curve derived from BPS. Among various diastolic indices, peak filling rate (PFR) and 2 other indices were significantly influenced by heart rate (HR), so corrected values for HR were used for this study. Various degrees of disturbance in diastolic filling were found in many cases without systolic impairment. According to the mechanism responsible for diastolic impairment, LV time activity curve showed a characteristic pattern. In IHD, filling disturbance in early diastole was observed before the impairment of systolic contraction developed, so it was thought to be an early predictor of cardiac failure. In the scar region of myocardial infarction (MI), decrease in regional ejection fraction and asynchrony in wall motion were shown, and these resulted in marked deterioration of early diastolic filling. On the other hand in angina pectoris (AP), such systolic disorders were not shown in the ischemic region perfused by stenotic coronary artery, although the disturbance of regional filling was found. The exercise capacity in AP was more related to the impairment in diastolic function at resting state than in systolic function, and furthermore the reserve of diastolic function as well as of systolic function was shown to be an important determinant of exercise capacity in AP. As HR increased, increase of PFR and decrease in time to peak filling was found, which was thought to be a sort of compensation for the shortening diastolic time due to increase in HR during exercise. Such compensation was decreased in AP with reduced exercise capacity. (J.P.N.)

  9. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The contributions of angioscintigraphy and brain scintigraphy to differential diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, R.; Caballero, O.; Fombellida, J.C.; Esteban, J.; Najera, J.

    1975-01-01

    An extraordinary advance has been made in the differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions with radiotracers. This has been done by the introduction of dynamic studies in brain scintigraphy as a means of obtaining morphological records of radioactive embolism transit across the skull, and the addition of precocious (2 minute) scintigraphies to conventional ones. This study in three steps yields three types of information: - Angioscintigraphy. Microcirculation of lesions; - Precocious scintigraphy. Blood content of lesions and the precocious diffusion of the radionuclide; - Scintigraphy. Localized alterations of the blood-brain barrier. From a diagnostic point of view, the contributions of scintigraphy in three steps can be classified into three groups: diagnosis of brain tumors and their histological nature; differential diagnostic of cerebrovascular accidents; complementary anatomical and functional information. 42 brain tumors were studied in an attempts to distinguish specific patterns for each type of tumor [fr

  11. Findings of Bone Scintigraphy After Leech Theraphy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Özyurt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, we present a 70 year old female patient who had recieved Leech therapy (hirudotherapy on her leg without informing referring physician. In dynamic bone scintigraphy there was increased perfusion and hyperemia in her left ankle and leg, also in late static images moderate increased uptake was seen in soft tissue region and at the fracture site of ankle. We learned that she had Leech therapy applied on her leg, which could explain the increased perfusion and hyperemia in dynamic and blood pool phases of bone scintigraphy because of Leech therapy’s dilatory effects on superficial veins. Leech therapy may lead to an increase in perfusion and hyperemia in blood pool phase of bone scintigraphy, which may cause confusion in differential diagnosis. To our best knowledge this report is the first case that shows the scintigraphic findigs after Leech therapy.

  12. Scintigraphy In skeletal trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-08-05

    Aug 5, 1989 ... A 77-year-old woman presented a week after a fall with pain in the left hip and difficulty in walking. Physical examination revealed pain on movement of the left hip with tenderness on its lateral aspect. Radiographs of the pelvis were reported as normal. Bone scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy was performed.

  13. Isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, Richard.

    1976-01-01

    Isotopic explorations of kidney transplants were performed on sixty-six patients. Three scintigraphic techniques were used: labelled ferrous ascorbate scintigraphy, sequential 99m technetium DTPA scintigraphy and the 131 I hippuran nephrogram. The aim of this study is to analyse the results obtained under different pathological circumstances affecting the transplant, to discuss the advantages of the techniques and to propose a working procedure. The most reliable and accurate technique is the 131 I hippuran nephrogram combined with sequential 99mTc DTPA, by which renal vascularisation may be judged labelled ferrous ascorbate on the other hand is too insensitive. Although the information supplied is mostly contained in the scintigraphic images, the nephrographic curves and the blood radioactivity decay time and rad V/rad R ratio measurements are very helpful in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of complications affecting the transplant. The proper use of isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting should provide optimum conditions for better survival of the transplant at minimum risk to the patient [fr

  14. Biliary scintigraphy in children with sickle cell anemia and acute abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alonzo, W.A. Jr.; Heyman, S.

    1985-01-01

    The patterns of radionuclide hepatobiliary scans in nine children with sickle cell disease and acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain were reviewed. The most common pattern observed was delayed gall bladder visualization, consistent with chronic cholecystitis. The value of hepatobiliary imaging in distinguishing acute cholecystitis from crisis is presented. (orig.)

  15. Glucagon in the scintigraphic diagnosis of small-bowel hemorrhage by Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froelich, J.W.; Juni, J.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve patients undergoing scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells (RBC) exhibited abnormal small-bowel activity and were given glucagon to assess its role in detecting bleeding from the small bowel. Six demonstrated focal accumulation of activity which was not identified prior to glucagon. Endoscopy, barium studies, angiography, and colonoscopy located the small-bowel bleeding site in 4 patients; in the other 2, studies of the colon failed to show the bleeding site and the origin was presumed to be the small bowel. The authors suggest that intravenous glucagon can be beneficial as an adjuvant to Tc-99m-RBC when diagnosing bleeding from the small bowel

  16. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Harvest. Mobilization protocol. G-CSF 10 mcg/Kg / day for 5 days. Pheresis. Cobe Spectra; Haemonetics mcs+. Enumeration. CD34 counts; Cfu-GM assays.

  17. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    White blood cells (WBCs) were counted in 4697 individuals who presented to outpatient malaria clinics in Maesod, Tak Province, Thailand, and Iquitos, Peru, between 28 May and 28 August 1998 and between 17 May and 9 July 1999...

  18. New strategy in diagnostic, preventive and following way in osteonecrosis of sickle-cell disease in Cote d'Ivoire with bone scintigraphy; Nouvelle strategie dans le diagnostic, la prevention et le suivi de l'osteonecrose drepanocytaire en Cote d'Ivoire a partir de la scintigraphie osseuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouame-Koutouan, A.; Aboukoua-Kouassi, N.; Koffi, D.; Sery, J.M. [Cocody Univ., UFR sciences Medicales (SMA), Service de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Abidjan (Cote d' Ivoire); Meite, M.; Sanogo, I. [Clinique du CHU de Yopougon, Service d' Hematologie (Cote d' Ivoire)

    2009-10-15

    Osteonecrosis is the most frequent complications of sickle-cell disease (S.C.D.) whose prevalence in Cote d'Ivoire is 21%. The main of this study was to compare scintigraphy, clinical and radiological observations to assess earlier diagnosis in S.C.D. osteonecrosis. It was a prospective study about 45 S.C.D. patients who presented coxopathy and had radio-labelled di phosphonates bone scintigraphy. The results revealed 49% of lesions whose 48% appeared with homogeneous hyper fixation, 11% homogeneous hypo fixation, 5% of hypo fixation got round by hyper fixation. Eighty-one percent of lesions concerned femoral head, 6% femoral condyle and 3% humoral head. Fifty percent of osteonecrosis was not visible in radiology and corresponded to the earlier stage. These invisible radiology aspects were observed in 100% hips without lameness, and in 43% permanent lameness. Scintigraphy (sensitive in 100%) isolated 38% more than conventional radiography. In main to improve S.C.D. osteonecrosis prognostic in Cote d'Ivoire, this preliminary study outline that scintigraphy is fundamental in management. (authors)

  19. Study of pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia using scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Takeda, Tadashi; Kawashima, Akira; Kubo, Keiji; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiko (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-09-01

    In order to evaluate the pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia, Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy and perfusion lung scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MAA were performed in 19 cases of polycythemia including polycythemia rubra vera and in 11 cases of secondary polycythemia due to pulmonary diseases. Tl-201 lung uptake, right ventricular visualization and pulmonary perfusion impairment were studied. In the 19 cases, Tl-201 lung uptake was observed in all cases and 54.5% of them showed moderate lung uptake. The grade of right ventricular visualization was moderate in one case and slight in 16 cases; right ventricular hypertrophy was shown in 89.5% of all cases by Tl-201 scintigraphy, only one of which showed right ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiography. Abnormalities of lung perfusion consisted of scattered small areas of hypoperfusion in 36.8%, peripheral hypoperfusion in 78.9% and uneven distribution of pulmonary perfusion in 94.7%. The degree of hypoperfusion was slightly related to decrease in FEV 1.0%, V25 and PaO[sub 2] and increase in circulating blood volume and peripheral red blood cell counts. Abnormalities of pulmonary function consisted of increased RV/TLC in 50.0%, increased CV/VC in 35.7% and decreased V25 in 36.8%. Arterial blood gases showed hypoxemia in 57.1%, the degree of which was slightly related to increase in RV/TLC and CV/VC and decrease in V25. Cases of secondary polycythemia due to pulmonary diseases showed more marked right ventricular visualization, pulmonary perfusion impairment and abnormalities of various kinds of pulmonary function than polycythemia rubra vera cases. It seems to be important to evaluate the pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia rubra vera as well as secondary polycythemia due to cardio-pulmonary diseases, because pulmonary perfusion impairment and moderate right ventricular visualization are observed frequently in polycythemia rubra vera. (author).

  20. Study of pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia using scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Takeda, Tadashi; Kawashima, Akira; Kubo, Keiji; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiko

    1993-01-01

    In order to evaluate the pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia, Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy and perfusion lung scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MAA were performed in 19 cases of polycythemia including polycythemia rubra vera and in 11 cases of secondary polycythemia due to pulmonary diseases. Tl-201 lung uptake, right ventricular visualization and pulmonary perfusion impairment were studied. In the 19 cases, Tl-201 lung uptake was observed in all cases and 54.5% of them showed moderate lung uptake. The grade of right ventricular visualization was moderate in one case and slight in 16 cases; right ventricular hypertrophy was shown in 89.5% of all cases by Tl-201 scintigraphy, only one of which showed right ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiography. Abnormalities of lung perfusion consisted of scattered small areas of hypoperfusion in 36.8%, peripheral hypoperfusion in 78.9% and uneven distribution of pulmonary perfusion in 94.7%. The degree of hypoperfusion was slightly related to decrease in FEV 1.0%, V25 and PaO 2 and increase in circulating blood volume and peripheral red blood cell counts. Abnormalities of pulmonary function consisted of increased RV/TLC in 50.0%, increased CV/VC in 35.7% and decreased V25 in 36.8%. Arterial blood gases showed hypoxemia in 57.1%, the degree of which was slightly related to increase in RV/TLC and CV/VC and decrease in V25. Cases of secondary polycythemia due to pulmonary diseases showed more marked right ventricular visualization, pulmonary perfusion impairment and abnormalities of various kinds of pulmonary function than polycythemia rubra vera cases. It seems to be important to evaluate the pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia rubra vera as well as secondary polycythemia due to cardio-pulmonary diseases, because pulmonary perfusion impairment and moderate right ventricular visualization are observed frequently in polycythemia rubra vera. (author)

  1. Radionuclide blood cell survival studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentley, S.A.; Miller, D.T.

    1986-01-01

    Platelet and red cell survival studies are reviewed. The use of 51 Cr and di-isopropylfluoridate labelled with tritium or 32 P is discussed for red cell survival study and 51 Cr and 111 In-oxine are considered as platelet labels. (UK)

  2. Liver and spleen scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of liver and spleen scintigraphy in the early 1950s, it has undergone considerable changes, the most notable being technetium 99m sulfur colloid, the gamma camera, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). What is the role f liver-spleen scintigraphy in this high-technology society? This chapter attempts to address this question by looking at the radiopharmaceuticals, the technique, and most importantly, the application of scintigraphy to the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic and splenic disease

  3. The origin of blood stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Boisset

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe development of cell biology research coincides with the advance of microscopes in the 19th century. It was finally possible to directly observe the various blood cell types and to witness their proliferation and differentiation (Mazzarello, 1999). On the basis of his observations,

  4. Is there a role for Tc-99m HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy in patients with infective endocarditis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellmann, A.; Rubow, S.M.; Erlank, P.; Reuter, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Infective endocarditis is still an important disease in developing countries. Due to the difficult diagnosis, treatment is often delayed or inappropriate. A combination of clinical findings and echocardiography are used most often, but have a low sensitivity. As Tc-99m HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy is used routinely to evaluate patients with suspected infectious processes, it was postulated that this technique may also aid in the diagnosis of acute infective endocarditis in patients with rheumatic heart disease. Materials and Methods: Six patients who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of infective endocarditis, were referred for Tc-99m HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy. The white blood cells were labelled according to standard procedures. Whole body planar imaging, and single photon emission tomography of the chest area, with imaging at 30 minutes, 3 hours and 24 hours after the administration of the labelled leucocytes, were performed on all patients. Results: All the scintigrams were negative. No abnormal concentration of leucocytes could be detected in the region of the heart. This was in spite of clinical findings indicative of active infective endocarditis. Conclusion: Vegetations mainly consist of masses of clotted blood and blood cell debris, containing the causative organisms. Leucocytes do not play a major role in the pathologic process. Although only six patients were studied, it appears that Tc-99m HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy is of no value in the evaluation of patients with infective endocarditis. A study after the administration of radiolabelled antibiotics may be of greater value and should be considered in these patients

  5. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwaan, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  6. Skeleton scintigraphy in trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, M.

    2002-01-01

    Skeletal trauma is common and presents both an opportunity and a problem in skeletal scintigraphy. The opportunity arises in the ability of skeletal scintigraphy to demonstrate abnormalities early after direct trauma. It is well recognized that the early detection of fractures in some sites cannot be reliably achieved by standard radiography, especially in the femoral neck and scaphoid bone. The problem comes in recognizing the effects of skeletal trauma when using skeletal scintigraphy for another purpose, such as the detection of metastatic disease. iatrogenic trauma to either the skeleton or soft tissues may be manifest scintigraphic ally. For example Craniotomy typically leaves a rim pattern at the surgical margin. Rib Retraction during thoracotomy can elicit periosteal reaction. Areas of the skeletal receiving curative levels of ionizing radiation (typically 4000 rads or greater) characteristically demonstrate decreased uptake within 6 months to 1 year after therapy. The generally high sensitivity of the skeletal scintigraphy seems to make it an ideal survey test in cases of suspected child abuse especially in which radiographs are unrevealing. Because of difficulties in obtaining a history of trauma from a preschool child or even eliciting a satisfactory description of the location and nature of the pain, skeletal scintigraphy provides a simple and reliable investigation in these children. Subtle trauma, such as that from stress fractures is often difficult to visualize on a plain radiograph. Skeletal scintigraphy is frequently positive at the time of clinical presentation. Skeletal scintigraphy is exquisitely sensitive to the remodeling process and typically shows abnormalities 1 to 2 weeks or more before the appearance of radiographic changes in stress fractures. The periosteal reaction can be visualized within hours of the injury. Insufficiency and fatigue fractures such as vertebral compression fracture, which is probably the most common consequence of

  7. Blood cells radiolabelling achievements, challanges, and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weininger, Jolie; Trumper, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    A study in performed about the different ways of blood cells radiolabelling. The labelling of red blood cells (RBCs), compared with that of other blood cells, is facilitated by several factors such as a) RBCs are the most abundant of all cellular blood elements, b) they are relatively easy to separate and manipulate in vitro, c) in vitro they are less dependent on energy and nutricional requirements, d) they are easy to label due to the presence of a variety of cellular transport mechanism. 99m Tc was reconized and became as the ideal radioisotope for nuclear medicine imaging. After considerations about RBCs radiolabelling, it is presented a new in vitro technique based on the BNL kit, developed by Srivastava and co-workers. The Sorep optimized one-vial labelling method for 2 ml whole blood. In vivo and in vivo/in vitro labelling are presented too, the last method seems to combine the superior binding efficiency of in vitro labelling with the convenience of in vitro labelling. Lipophilic chelates of 111 In with oxine, acetylacetone, tropolone and mercaptopyridine N-oxide have been used successfully for labelling platelets and leukocytes. A very promising aproach is the labelling of cells with monoclonal antibodies and the developing optimized methods for in vitro labelling with various radionuclides such as 123 I, 125 I, 131 I, 111 I and 99m Tc. The advantages of the antibody technique over conventional cell labelling are shown. (M.E.L.) [es

  8. Significance of thymic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Hiromi; Oshiumi, Yoshihiko; Nakayama, Chikashi; Morita, Kazunori; Koga, Ichinari

    1978-01-01

    Thymic scintigraphy by 67 Ga-citrate and 75 Se-methionine was done on 6 cases of thymoma, and 5 cases of myasthenia gravis. Scan was positive on 5 of 6 cases of thymoma. All patients with malignant thymoma were positive. Among the 7 cases of myasthenia gravis, scintigrams revealed 2 thymomas and 1 hyperplasia on whom no thymic mass suspected. Thymic scintigraphy is useful examination when dealing with myasthenia gravis. (auth.)

  9. In vivo/in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, R.; Langhammer, H.; Pabst, H.W.; Bauer, U.; Sauer, E.

    1981-01-01

    A reliable and stabile in vivo/in vitro labeling technique of red blood cells (RBC) is described. The patients are injected 20% of the content of an unlabeled kit used for bone scintigraphy (TechneScan PYP, Byk-Mallinckrodt). 15 minutes later 3 ml blood are sampled in a heparinized syringe. The blood is incubated together with 30-40 mCi (1-1.5 GBq) sup(99m)Tc for 10 minutes in a water bath at 35-37 0 C. After centrifugation at 500 g a dose of 15-25 mCi (0.6-1 GBq) sup(99m)Tc labeled RBC may be withdrawn in a volume of 1-1.5 ml. Mean labeling efficiency is 88%, without using the first eluat of a Tc-generator the yield is as high as 92%. Due to the small volume, the labeled RBC may be reinjected as bolus and first pass radionuclide angiocardiography can be performed. Using labeled RBC, scintigraphy of the intravasal space is possible up to 20 hours without deterioration in contrast or accumulation of radioactivity in the extravasal space or in other organs. Evaluation of heart function can be performed up to 10 hours. In addition, labeled RBC are useful in detecting unknown gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.) [de

  10. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs

  11. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Red blood cells inhibit tumour cell adhesion to the peritoneum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rossen, M E; Stoop, M P; Hofland, L J; van Koetsveld, P M; Bonthuis, F; Jeekel, J; Marquet, R L; van Eijck, C H

    1999-04-01

    Perioperative blood transfusion has been associated with increased tumour recurrence and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. Blood loss in the peritoneal cavity might be a tumour-promoting factor for local recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether blood in the peritoneal cavity affects local tumour recurrence. In an established in vivo rat model the effect of 1.5 ml syngeneic whole blood on tumour cell adhesion and tumour growth was investigated. In the same model the effect of 1.5 ml pure red blood cell (RBC) concentrate and 1.5 ml RBC-derived substances on tumour cell adhesion was studied. In an established in vitro model the effect of increasing numbers of RBCs (0-250 bx 10(6)) on tumour cell adhesion and tumour growth was assessed. Both the presence of blood and RBC concentrate in the peritoneal cavity prevented tumour cell adhesion in vivo (overall P effect on tumour cell adhesion. In in vitro studies RBCs inhibited tumour cell adhesion but not tumour growth. RBC-derived factors prevent tumour cell adhesion to the peritoneum, and consequently tumour recurrence.

  13. Thallium 201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thallium-201 behaves physiologically as a potassium analog, and when injected intravenously accumulates rapidly within the cells of many organs. Uptake of the isotope reflects both regional perfusion and sodium-potassium pump activity. The main clinical application of 201 Tl scintigraphy has been in myocardial imaging. Abnormalities due to ischemia usually are seen only on the stress image whereas fixed defects in both rest and stress studies usually indicate areas of infarction or scarring. The sensitivity of stress imaging for detecting significant coronary disease is of the order of 80 to 95% though computer processing of the images may be necessary to achieve the higher figure. The main clinical value of 201 Tl myocardial imaging is likely to be in the noninvasive screening of patients with atypical chest pain or with ambiguous findings on stress electrocardiographic tests. It has also proved useful in studying patients with variant angina or following a coronary bypass operation. It is doubtful whether the technique is clinically helpful in most patients with suspected or established acute myocardial infarction. Imaging of organs other than the heart with 201 Tl has received much less attention but has been reported in patients with peripheral vascular disease and various primary and secondary neoplasms

  14. Thallium 201 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKillop, J.H.

    1980-07-01

    Thallium-201 behaves physiologically as a potassium analog, and when injected intravenously accumulates rapidly within the cells of many organs. Uptake of the isotope reflects both regional perfusion and sodium-potassium pump activity. The main clinical application of /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy has been in myocardial imaging. Abnormalities due to ischemia usually are seen only on the stress image whereas fixed defects in both rest and stress studies usually indicate areas of infarction or scarring. The sensitivity of stress imaging for detecting significant coronary disease is of the order of 80 to 95% though computer processing of the images may be necessary to achieve the higher figure. The main clinical value of /sup 201/Tl myocardial imaging is likely to be in the noninvasive screening of patients with atypical chest pain or with ambiguous findings on stress electrocardiographic tests. It has also proved useful in studying patients with variant angina or following a coronary bypass operation. It is doubtful whether the technique is clinically helpful in most patients with suspected or established acute myocardial infarction. Imaging of organs other than the heart with /sup 201/Tl has received much less attention but has been reported in patients with peripheral vascular disease and various primary and secondary neoplasms.

  15. Red blood cell alloimmunization in sickle cell disease patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Alloimmunization is a recognized complication of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and causes delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions and provides problems sourcing compatible blood for future transfusions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of RBC alloimmunization in SCD patients in ...

  16. Sorting white blood cells in microfabricated arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelino, Judith Andrea Rose

    Fractionating white cells in microfabricated arrays presents the potential for detecting cells with abnormal adhesive or deformation properties. A possible application is separating nucleated fetal red blood cells from maternal blood. Since fetal cells are nucleated, it is possible to extract genetic information about the fetus from them. Separating fetal cells from maternal blood would provide a low cost noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for genetic defects, which is not currently available. We present results showing that fetal cells penetrate further into our microfabricated arrays than adult cells, and that it is possible to enrich the fetal cell fraction using the arrays. We discuss modifications to the array which would result in further enrichment. Fetal cells are less adhesive and more deformable than adult white cells. To determine which properties limit penetration, we compared the penetration of granulocytes and lymphocytes in arrays with different etch depths, constriction size, constriction frequency, and with different amounts of metabolic activity. The penetration of lymphocytes and granulocytes into constrained and unconstrained arrays differed qualitatively. In constrained arrays, the cells were activated by repeated shearing, and the number of cells stuck as a function of distance fell superexponentially. In unconstrained arrays the number of cells stuck fell slower than an exponential. We attribute this result to different subpopulations of cells with different sticking parameters. We determined that penetration in unconstrained arrays was limited by metabolic processes, and that when metabolic activity was reduced penetration was limited by deformability. Fetal cells also contain a different form of hemoglobin with a higher oxygen affinity than adult hemoglobin. Deoxygenated cells are paramagnetic and are attracted to high magnetic field gradients. We describe a device which can separate cells using 10 μm magnetic wires to deflect the paramagnetic

  17. Pancreatic scintigraphy in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shio, Hiroshi; Ueki, Jyuichi; Nomura, Kozi; Nakamura, Yoshifumi

    1983-01-01

    Pancreatic scintigraphy was performed on 67 diabetic patients (42 males and 25 females) in order to study exocrine pancreatic functions in primary diabetes. Relationships between visualization and the onset age, sex, morbid period, presence or absence of retinitis, good or poor control of blood glucose control and the therapeutic modality of diabetes were examined. Abnormality was detected in 34 cases (50.7%), being frequent among male patients in their 50s. The more serious the diabetes, i.e., with a longer morbid period, poorer blood glucose control and worse retinitis, the higher was the frequency of abnormality in pancreatic visualization. The frequency of abnormality was high in association with insulin treatment, oral tablets and single dietary treatment in that order. The more severe the hypoinsulinism, the higher was the frequency of abnormality. This technique can be used as a screening means for exocrine pancreatic function tests on diabetics. (Chiba, N.)

  18. Value of transoperative scintigraphy in the detection of accessory spleens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezeur, A.; Goujard, F.; Labriolle-Vaylet, C.L. de; Wioland, M.; Douay, L.; Desmarquet, J.

    1990-01-01

    A case of accessory spleen, 1 cm in diameter, responsible for recurrence of an idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura after splenectomy is reported. This case is original in that the accessory spleen could only be detected by transoperative scintigraphy. Transoperative scintigraphy is a simple method to be used when one or several unrecognized accessory spleens are responsible for recurrence of a blood disease after excision of the principal spleen [fr

  19. Photomodification of human immunocompetent blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krylenkov, V.A.; Ogurtsov, R.P.; Osmanov, M.A.; Kholmogorov, V.E.

    1987-10-01

    In this paper, processes of photomodification of lymphoid cells in human blood, developing immediately after exposure to visible radiation and also in the late stages after irradiation, were investigated by methods of spontaneous and immune rosette formation and the blast transformation test, combined with treatment with the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol and the radioactive assessment of spontaneous and stimulated DNA synthesis by tritium-thymidine-labelled cells.

  20. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and suppresses the patient’s immune system to prevent rejection of the transplant. Unlike traditional BMT or PBSCT, ... be given an injection of the donor’s white blood cells. This procedure is called a “ donor ... “tandem transplant” is a type of autologous transplant. This method is being studied ...

  1. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  2. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160 Section 864.6160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... count red blood cells, white blood cells, or blood platelets. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  3. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  4. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  5. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  6. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated

  7. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  8. Comparative study on the effect of radiation on whole blood and isolate red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, N.S.

    2009-01-01

    Assessment of the dielectric properties of red blood cells requires several steps for preparation and isolation from whole blood. These steps may results in changes in the cells properties, and they are time consuming . The present study aims to compare the properties of both whole blood and isolated red blood cells and the effect of gamma radiation on these properties. Adult male rats were exposed to 1, 3.5 and 7 Gy as single dose, from Cs-137 source.The studies dielectric properties, in the frequency range 40 k Hz to 5 MHz, and light scattering studies for suspensions of whole blood and isolated red blood cells from the same groups were measured. The obtained results showed that whole blood and red blood cells suspensions followed the same trend in their response to radiation, which suggests the possibility of using whole blood suspension for the evaluation of the red blood cells properties

  9. Direct subdural scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keren, G.; Barzilay, Z.; Czerniak, P.; Cohen, B.E.

    1980-06-01

    We report a case of pneumococcal meningitis in an 8 weeks old female infant followed by persistent subdural effusion successsfully treated by repeated subdural taps. The initial delineation of the subdural effusion, the decrease in size and the disappearance of the fluid were demonstrated by direct subdural scintigraphy (D.S.S.). The literature of pneumoccocal meningitis, its diagnosis, treatment and complications are reviewed, and it is suggested that direct subdural scintigraphy should be employed as a diagnostic aid in the evaluation and follow up of subdural effusions.

  10. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahn, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  11. Diagnostic role of initial renal cortical scintigraphy in children with the first episode of acute pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, E.; Bogdanovic, R.; Artiko, V.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of the first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has been the subject of debate for many years. Diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) is usually based on clinical and biological data. The clinical usefulness of early Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy remains controversial, although it may influence the type and duration of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the role of initial cortical scintigraphy in the detection of early renal parenchymal damage in children highly suspected of having APN and to compare the scintigraphic findings with selected clinical/laboratory parameters and ultrasonography. A prospective study was conducted in 34 infants and young children (18 boys, 16 girls), aged 1.5-36 months (mean 9.8±8.7 months), hospitalized with a first episode of clinically suspected APN. Within the first 5 days after admission, Tc-99m DMSA renal scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC) and urine analyses were performed. DMSA scintigraphy showed changes consistent with APN in 27/34 (79%) patients, with a mean age of 10.9 months, including 12 males (44%) and 15 (56%) females. Out of 9 febrile children with negative urine culture and supportive evidence of UTI, scintigraphy showed parenchymal involvement in 8 children (24% in the whole group, 30% in scintigraphically documented APN). There were no statistically significant correlations between the frequency or size of the initial scintigraphic abnormalities and age, sex, body temperature, CRP levels or ESR. A CRP level of >54 mg/L and a WBC of >13,300/mm 3 had sensitivities of 56 and 59% and specificities of 86 and 71%, respectively. US showed changes consistent with APN in 7/34 (21%) in the whole group and in 7/27 (26%) patients with positive cortical scan (p<0.05). Initial DMSA renal scintigraphy is a sensitive method for the early diagnosis of APN in young children and is

  12. Responder individuality in red blood cell alloimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körmöczi, Günther F; Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2014-11-01

    Many different factors influence the propensity of transfusion recipients and pregnant women to form red blood cell alloantibodies (RBCA). RBCA may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and may be a complication in transplantation medicine. Antigenic differences between responder and foreign erythrocytes may lead to such an immune answer, in part with suspected specific HLA class II associations. Biochemical and conformational characteristics of red blood cell (RBC) antigens, their dose (number of transfusions and pregnancies, absolute number of antigens per RBC) and the mode of exposure impact on RBCA rates. In addition, individual circumstances determine the risk to form RBCA. Responder individuality in terms of age, sex, severity of underlying disease, disease- or therapy-induced immunosuppression and inflammation are discussed with respect to influencing RBC alloimmunization. For particular high-risk patients, extended phenotype matching of transfusion and recipient efficiently decreases RBCA induction and associated clinical risks.

  13. Hyperemic peripheral red marrow in a patient with sickle cell anemia demonstrated on Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiden, R.A.; Locko, R.C.; Stent, T.R. (Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-03-01

    A 25-year-old gravid woman, homozygous for sickle cell anemia, with a history of recent deep venous thrombosis, was examined using Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography for recurrent thrombosis. Although negative for thrombus, the study presented an unusual incidental finding: the patient's peripheral bone marrow was hyperemic in a distribution consistent with peripheral red bone marrow expansion. Such a pattern has not been documented before using this technique. This report supports other literature that has demonstrated hyperemia of peripheral red bone marrow in other hemolytic anemias. This finding may ultimately define an additional role of scintigraphy in assessing the pathophysiologic status of the sickle cell patient.

  14. Responder Individuality in Red Blood Cell Alloimmunization

    OpenAIRE

    Körmöczi, Günther F.; Mayr, Wolfgang R.

    2014-01-01

    Many different factors influence the propensity of transfusion recipients and pregnant women to form red blood cell alloantibodies (RBCA). RBCA may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and may be a complication in transplantation medicine. Antigenic differences between responder and foreign erythrocytes may lead to such an immune answer, in part with suspected specific HLA class II associations. Biochemical and conformational characteristics of red...

  15. Evaluation of red blood cell stability during immersion blood warming

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Blood, three days after donation (fresh blood), with CPD anticoagulant, was warmed at 37°C, 43°C, 45°C, 47°C, 50°C and 55°C for 10, 20, 30 and 60 minutes and analysed for haemolysis. In addition, the biochemical markers were done on the blood after 34 days of storage at 4°C (old blood). Temperature increase ...

  16. Binding Characteristics Of Ivermectin To Blood Cells | Nweke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The binding characteristics of Ivermectin were determined using scatchard plots. The percentage binding to platelet rich plasma, white blood cells and red blood cells were 90.00 + 1.00, 96-90 + 1.05 and 46.20 + 1.10 S.D respectively. It was found to bind the highest to white blood cells and the least to red blood cells.

  17. Renal intercalated cells and blood pressure regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Wall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl⁻ absorption and HCO₃⁻ secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO₃ administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO₃⁻ secretion modulates acid-base balance. However, the role of pendrin in blood pressure regulation is likely of more physiological or clinical significance. Pendrin regulates blood pressure not only by mediating aldosterone-sensitive Cl⁻ absorption, but also by modulating the aldosterone response for epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC-mediated Na⁺ absorption. Pendrin regulates ENaC through changes in open channel of probability, channel surface density, and channels subunit total protein abundance. Thus, aldosterone stimulates ENaC activity through both direct and indirect effects, the latter occurring through its stimulation of pendrin expression and function. Therefore, pendrin contributes to the aldosterone pressor response. Pendrin may also modulate blood pressure in part through its action in the adrenal medulla, where it modulates the release of catecholamines, or through an indirect effect on vascular contractile force. This review describes how aldosterone and angiotensin II-induced signaling regulate pendrin and the contributory role of pendrin in distal nephron function and blood pressure.

  18. Radiolabeled blood cells: radiation dosimetry and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.

    1986-01-01

    Over the past few years blood cells labeled with In-111 have become increasingly useful in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Indium-111 by the virtue of its physical characteristics and ability to bind to cell cytoplasmic components, provides an excellent cell tracer and thereby, allows investigators to monitor in vivo cell distribution by external imaging and help determine a course of regimen in treating life threatening diseases. Due to natural phenomena such as margination, blood pool, and reticuloendothelial cell activity, in the normal state, depending upon the cell type and the quality of cell preparations, 30%-50% of the administered radioactivity is immediately distributed in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Over a period of time the radioactivity in these organs slightly increases and decays with a physical half-life of In-111. The resulting radiation dose to these organs ranges between 1-25 rads/mCi In-111 administered. The authors have developed a new In-111 labeling technique which preserves platelet ultrastructure and shown that human lymphocytes labeled with In-111 in mixed leukocytes preparations a) are only 0.003% of the total -body lymphocytes population and b) are killed. The consequence if any may be considered insignificant, particularly because 5.6% metaphases from normal men and 6.5% metaphases from normal women in the US have at least one chromosome aberration. Calculations have shown that the risk of fatal hematological malignancy, over a 30 year period, in recipients of 100 million lymphocytes labeled with 100 μCi In-111 is 1/million patients studied. This risk is less than 0.025% of the 1981 spontaneous cancer patient rate in the country. 32 references, 10 tables

  19. Molecular mechanisms of disease in hereditary red blood cell enzymopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, Henricus Anthonius van

    2004-01-01

    Metabolically defective red blood cells are old before their time, and suffer from metabolic progeria. The focus of this thesis was to identify the molecular mechanisms by which inherited enzymopathies of the red blood cell lead to impaired enzyme function and, consequently, shorten red blood cell

  20. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme defects...

  1. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall be...

  2. Scintigraphy of the heart using sup(99m)Tc diphosphonate in combination with selective coronary perfusion scintigraphy and coronaroangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumann, G.; Trenckmann, H.; Duck, H.J.; Katzschmann, R.; Neugebauerova, A.; Schneider, G.; Gottschild, D.

    1980-01-01

    In 45 patients with ischemic heart disease the results obtained by myocardial scintigraphy using technetium-99m diphosphonate (Tc-99m-DP) were compared with those obtained at selective coronary angiography and selective coronary perfusion scintigraphy. The cumulation of activity in the heart muscle was seen in twelve patients. This group is analyzed in the present paper in more detail. The ventriculographic examination of the left ventricle showed disturbed motility of the wall in six patients, of whom five had a positive myocardial scintigram. In view of this, myocardial scintigraphy using Tc-99m-DP may be considered a complementary, non-invasive method for proving significant disturbances of the motility of the heart wall. Positive myocardial scintigrams were also found in angna pectoris, in a patient after aorto-coronary bypass, in cardiomyopathy and myocarditis. In view of the fact that myocardial scintigraphy using Tc-99m-DP is capable of proving disturbances of cells of the heart muscle taking place at the moment, conclusions can be drawn as to the activity in the heart muscle. It further follows that myocardial scintigraphy may be significant in indicating the aorto-coronary bypass. We failed to prove an unequivocal correlation between myocardial scintigraphy, the number of sclerotically changed coronary vessels and the degree of their narrowing. An immediate relationship could not be proved between the extent of perfusion disturbance and the results of myocardial scintigraphy

  3. Red blood cell in simple shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wei; Hew, Yayu; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2013-03-01

    The dynamics of red blood cells (RBC) in blood flow is critical for oxygen transport, and it also influences inflammation (white blood cells), thrombosis (platelets), and circulatory tumor migration. The physical properties of a RBC can be captured by modeling RBC as lipid membrane linked to a cytoskeletal spectrin network that encapsulates cytoplasm rich in hemoglobin, with bi-concave equilibrium shape. Depending on the shear force, RBC elasticity, membrane viscosity, and cytoplasm viscosity, RBC can undergo tumbling, tank-treading, or oscillatory motion. We investigate the dynamic state diagram of RBC in shear and pressure-driven flow using a combined immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method with a multi-scale RBC model that accurately captures the experimentally established RBC force-deformation relation. It is found that the tumbling (TU) to tank-treading (TT) transition occurs as shear rate increases for cytoplasm/outer fluid viscosity ratio smaller than 0.67. The TU frequency is found to be half of the TT frequency, in agreement with experiment observations. Larger viscosity ratios lead to the disappearance of stable TT phase and unstable complex dynamics, including the oscillation of the symmetry axis of the bi-concave shape perpendicular to the flow direction. The dependence on RBC bending rigidity, shear modulus, the order of membrane spectrin network and fluid field in the unstable region will also be discussed.

  4. Mechanosensing Dynamics of Red blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical stress-induced deformation of human red blood cells (RBCs) plays important physiopathological roles in oxygen delivery, blood rheology, transfusion, and malaria. Recent studies demonstrate that, in response to mechanical deformation, RBCs release adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), suggesting the existence of mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs. Most importantly, the released ATP from RBCs regulates vascular tone and impaired release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. To date, however, the mechanisms of mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs remain unclear. Given that RBCs experience shear stresses continuously during the circulation cycle and the released ATP plays a central role in vascular physiopathology, understanding the mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs will provide not only fundamental insights to the role of RBCs in vascular homeostasis but also novel therapeutic strategies for red cell dysfunction and vascular disease. This talk describes the main research in my group on integrating microfluidic-based approaches to study the mechanosensing dynamics of RBCs. Specifically, I will introduce a micro?uidic approach that can probe the dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from RBCs with millisecond resolution and provide quantitative understandings of the mechanosensitive ATP release processes in RBCs. Furthermore, I will also describe our recent findings about the roles of the Piezo1 channel, a newly discovered mechanosensitive cation channel in the mechanotransductive ATP release in RBCs. Last, possible functions of RBCs in the regulation of cerebral blood flow will be discussed.

  5. Platelet adhesion onto artificial red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, N; Kondo, T

    1980-05-01

    Several kinds of polyamide microcapsules containing mammalian hemolysate were prepared by making use of the interfacial polycondensation reaction between diamines and terephthaloyl dichloride and their blood compatibility in terms of platelet adhesion was examined aiming at their ultimate clinical use as artificial red blood cells. It was found that rabbit platelets adhere onto the hemolysate-loaded microcapsules in the presence of the plasma, while no platelet adhesion takes place in the absence of the plasma. This was interpreted as indicating an important role of plasma components in platelet adhesion. Moreover, platelet adhesion was observed to be facilitated by negative charges on the surface of the hemolysate-loaded microcapsules; the more negatively the surface was charge, the more easily the platelets adhered onto the surface. Finally, the present method of assessing platelet adhesion suggested the possibility of its use for kinetic study of platelet adhesion since it allowedus to make numerical evaluation of platelet adhesion as a function of time.

  6. The evaluation of 67Ga-scintigraphy in malignant tumor of the urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Eishoku; Nishibuchi, Shigeo; Katamura, Eiju

    1982-01-01

    67 Ga-scintigraphy was performed in 40 patients with tumor of the urinary tract (18 with renal cell carcinoma, 4 with renal pelvic cancer, 18 with bladder cancer). In patients with renal cell carcinoma, 67 Ga-scintigraphy was positive in 46% of those with primary lesions, and in 80% of those with metastatic lesions. In those with renal pelvic cancer, two with only a primary lesion had a negative 67 Ga-scintigraphy, and one with both primary and metastic lesions and one with only a metastatic lesion after nephrectomy showed distinctly positive 67 Ga-scintigraphy. Among patients with bladder cancer only 31% with primary lesions only had positive 67 Ga-scintigraphy. In conclusion, 67 Ga-scintigraphy is of little use as a diagnostic aid in primary tumors of the urinary tract, but may be useful in the diagnosis of metastatic lesions. (author)

  7. Cryopreservation of Autologous Blood (Red Blood Cells, Platelets and Plasma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebine, Kunio

    Prevention of post-transfusion hepatitis is still a problem in cardiovascular surgery. We initiated the cryopreservation of autologous blood for the transfusion in elective cardiovascular surgery since 1981. This study includes 152 surgical cases in which autologous frozen, allogeneic frozen, and/or allogeneic non-frozen blood were used. In the 152 surgical cases, there were 69 cases in which autologous blood only (Group I) was used; 12 cases with autologous and allogeneic frozen blood (Group II); 46 cases with autologous and allgeneic frozen plus allogeneic non-frozen blood (Group III); and 25 cases with allogeneic frozen plus allogeneic non-frozen blood (Group IV). No hepatitis developed in Groups I (0%) and II (0%), but there was positive hepatitis in Groups III (4.3%) and IV (8.0%) . In 357 cases of those who underwent surgery with allogeneic non-frozen whole blood during the same period, the incidence rate of hepatitis was 13.7% (49/357). Patients awaiting elective surgery can store their own blood in the frozen state. Patients who undergo surgery with the cryoautotransfusion will not produce any infections or immunologic reactions as opposed to those who undergo surgery with the allogeneic non-frozen blood.

  8. Perfusion lung scintigraphy in primary pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogawa, Y.; Hayashida, K.; Uehara, T.; Shimonagata, T.; Nishimura, T.; Osaka Univ., Suita

    1993-01-01

    15 cases of primary pulmonary hypertension were classified into two groups by patterns of perfusion lung scintigraphy. Perfusion scintigrams showed multiple, small, ill-defined defects (mottled + ve) pattern in eight cases, and the remaining seven cases had a normal (mottled - ve) pattern. The mean pulmonary arterial pressure in patients with a mottled pattern (54 ± 10 mmHg) was higher than in those with a normal pattern (42 ± 9 mmHg, p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the two groups in right ventricular ejection fraction, partial pressures of oxygen in the arterial blood or alveolo-arterial oxygen difference. All the patients with a mottled pattern died within 2 years following the lung scintigraphy. There was a significant difference in the survival curves between the two groups. (author)

  9. Thrombocytopenia responding to red blood cell transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, Ahmad A.; Awidi, Abdalla; Rasul, Kakil I.; Al-Homsi, Ussama

    2004-01-01

    Three patients with severe symptomatic iron defficiency anemia and thrombocytopenia had a significant rise in the platelet count a few days following packed red blood cell transfusion. Pretransfusion platelet count of of patient one was 17x10/L. 22x10/Lin patient two and 29x10/L in patient three. On the 6th day of post tranfusion, the platelet count rose to 166x10/Lin patient one, 830x10/L in patient two and 136x10/L in patient three. The possible mechcnism behind such an unreported observation are discussed. (author)

  10. Kit for the selective labeling of red blood cells in whole blood with .sup.9 TC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Suresh C.; Babich, John W.; Straub, Rita; Richards, Powell

    1992-01-01

    Disclosed herein are a method and kit for the preparation of .sup.99m Tc labeled red blood cells using whole blood in a closed sterile system containing stannous tin in a form such that it will enter the red blood cells and be available therein for reduction of technetium.

  11. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinders Folmer, S.C.C.

    1981-01-01

    This thesis deals with the clinical applications of gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy, performed with either a gamma camera or a portable detector system, the nuclear stethoscope. The main goal has been to define the value and limitations of noninvasive measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction as a parameter of cardiac performance in various disease states, both for diagnostic purposes as well as during follow-up after medical or surgical intervention. Secondly, it was attempted to extend the use of the equilibrium bloodpool techniques beyond the calculation of ejection fraction alone by considering the feasibility to determine ventricular volumes and by including the possibility of quantifying valvular regurgitation. In both cases, it has been tried to broaden the perspective of the observations by comparing them with results of other, invasive and non-invasive, procedures, in particular cardiac catheterization, M-mode echocardiography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (Auth.)

  13. Thallium 201 Scintigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKillop, James H.

    1980-01-01

    The radioactive isotope thallium 201 behaves physiologically as a potassium analog, and when injected intravenously accumulates rapidly within the cells of many organs. Uptake of the isotope reflects both regional perfusion and sodium-potassium pump activity. The radionuclide emits 80 keV x-rays which are suitable for scintillation camera imaging. The main clinical application of 201TI scintigraphy has been in myocardial imaging. Abnormal uptake of the isotope results in a cold spot on the myocardial image. In patients with coronary artery disease, the differentiation of ischemic and infarcted myocardium is made by comparing images obtained after injecting the radionuclide at the peak of a maximal exercise test with those obtained after injection at rest. Abnormalities due to ischemia usually are seen only on the stress image whereas fixed defects in both rest and stress studies usually indicate areas of infarction or scarring. Some investigators believe that redistribution images obtained four to six hours after stress injection (without administering further 201TI) give the same information as a separate rest study. The sensitivity of stress imaging for detecting significant coronary disease is of the order of 80 percent to 95 percent, though computer processing of the images may be necessary to achieve the higher figure. The prediction of the extent of coronary disease from 201TI images is less reliable. An abnormal 201TI image is not entirely specific for coronary artery disease and the likelihood of an abnormal image being due to this diagnosis varies according to the clinical circumstances. The main clinical value of 201TI myocardial imaging is likely to be in the noninvasive screening of patients with atypical chest pain or with ambiguous findings on stress electrocardiographic tests. It has also proved useful in studying patients with variant angina or following a coronary bypass operation. It is doubtful whether the technique is clinically helpful in most

  14. Comparison of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with gallium-67 scintigraphy in the initial clinical staging of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Masatoshi; Toyama, Takaaki; Kikuchi, Taku; Kato, Jun; Shimizu, Takayuki; Koda, Yuya; Karigane, Daiki; Yamane, Yusuke; Abe, Ryohei; Yamazaki, Rie; Nakazato, Tomonori; Nakahara, Tadaki; Jinzaki, Masahiro; Okamoto, Shinichiro; Mori, Takehiko

    2018-02-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has been recommended as a complementary tool for the staging of various malignancies, including malignant lymphoma. PET findings often shift patients to higher stages and may affect treatment outcomes. In this study, we retrospectively compared staging and treatment outcomes of newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) assessed by PET (n = 153) or gallium-67 scintigraphy (Ga) (n = 95). In total, Ga upstaged two (2.1%) of 95 patients, whereas PET upstaged 13 (8.5%) of 153 patients. Bone/bone marrow (15 vs. 4%, P = 0.01) and muscle lesion (5 vs. 0%, P = 0.03) were identified more frequently in the PET group than in the Ga group. The estimated 3-year overall and progression-free survival rates did not differ significantly in the two groups at any stage. However, patients with stage III disease tended to have better progression-free survival in the PET group than in the Ga group [92.3 (95% CI 56.6-98.9%) vs. 58.3% (95% CI 27.0-80.1%), P = 0.086]. These results suggest that PET has a greater potential in detecting musculoskeletal lesions of DLBCL as extranodal lesions than Ga, and may contribute to the optimal staging.

  15. Bone scintigraphy in craniosysnostosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchandise, X.; Dhellemmes, P.; Steinling, M.; Pellerin, P.; Dujardin, M.H.

    1981-01-01

    The scintigraphy of the skull has been studied in 49 children. This investigation is awkward to be performed and to be interpretated. The hyperactivity over a suture is far to be univocal. The hypoactivity over a suture can only be picked up under some circumstances. Abnormal parasagittal activities may be seen in craniostenosis. The interest of the scan in the establishment of the diagnosis or surgical indication seems to be limited above 5 years. Pronostic and physiopathologic interest needs more complete investigation [fr

  16. Selective coronary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambini, D.-J.

    1975-01-01

    Isotopic techniques occupy a leading place amongst examinations practicable on coronary patients because of their reliability and the safety and simplicity of their use. The present work reviews the possible applications of selective coronary scintigraphy in pathology. After a brief discussion on scintigraphy, isotopic techniques for myocardium research, coronarography and other methods to study local myocardium perfusion the theoretical bases for the use of the exploration are studied, the techniques and methods employed are reported and the results discussed. Coronary scintigraphy consists of selective injection in the two coronary arteries previously catheterized during a coronarography, of two different populations of microspheres labelled with two physically short-lived indicators: 15μ 99m Tc-labelled serumalbumin microspheres, 10 to 15μ In-labelled siderophiline microspheres. Various studies have shown the complete harmlessness of the exploration when certain precautions are taken regarding the size and number of the spheres. The microspheres disperse into the downstream arterial territory proportionally to the number of capillaries present in the different parts of the irrigated region, and are temporarily stopped in the precapillaries. The preparation of the different images needed to interpret the Face and OAG examination for the left coronary, then for the right coronary, is carried out at the end of the coronarography and lasts about 45 minutes. It is also possible by selective injection in the aorta-coronary bridges to judge their functional condition by observation of the regions they irrigate. 56 patients of the Necker hospital cardiological clinic have been examined [fr

  17. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.; Frankfurt Univ.

    1980-01-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.) [de

  18. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2007-01-01

    . The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results: Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5o......Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non......-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low...

  19. The Radiation Effect on Peripheral Blood Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tae June; Kwon, Hyoung Cheol; Kim, Jung Soo; Im, Sun Kyun; Choi, Ki Chul

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate radiation effect on the hematopoietic system, we analyzed 44 patients who were treated with conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (RT) at Chonbuk National University Hospital. According to the treatment sites, we classified them into three groups: group I as head and neck, group II as thorax, and group III as pelvis. White blood cell, lymphocyte, platelet and hemoglobin were checked before and during RT The results were as follow; 1. White blood cell (WBC) and lymphocyte count were declined from the first week of RT to the third week, and then slightly recovered after the third or fourth week. There was prominent decrease in lymphocyte counts than WBC. 2. Platelet counts were declined until the second week of the RT, showed slight recovery at fourth week in all groups. Hemoglobin values were slightly decreased in the first week and then recovered the level of pretreatment value, gradually. 3. Lymphocyte count were declined significantly on group III(p<0.01), WBC and platelet counts were decreased on group II but statistically not significant

  20. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...

  1. Ecto-ATPase activity of vertebrate blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencic, D C; Yates, T J; Ingermann, R L

    1997-01-01

    Ecto-ATPase activity was measured for red blood cells, white blood cells, and whole blood from a variety of vertebrates. A large range of red blood cell ecto-ATPase activity was observed; for example, at 10 degrees C, red blood cells from a catastomid fish (Catostomus macrocheilus) and a newt (Taricha rivularis) had activities of 56 +/- 9 and 25,000,000 +/- 14,000,000 pmol ATP per 10(6) red blood cells per hour, respectively (mean +/- SD). Several control experiments verified that the measured ATPase activity was not the result of intracellular ATPases released due to cell damage or lysis nor due to the release of intracellular nucleoside triphosphate or uptake of extracellular ATP. Red blood cell ecto-ATPase activity was relatively low within the teleosts, was high within the reptiles, and had the greatest range and single highest value within the amphibians. Within the endotherms, avian red blood cell ecto-ATPase activities were greater than mammalian red blood cell ecto-ATPase activities, which were the lowest for all vertebrates examined. The lowest ecto-ATPase activities measured were for human and skunk red blood cells, which had activities of 13 +/- 1 and 11 +/- 2 pmol ATP per 10(6) red blood cells per hour, respectively, at 35 degrees C. Ecto-ATPase activity was measured in white blood cells of several vertebrate species and appeared generally high and less variable than red blood cell ecto-ATPase activity. Measured whole blood ecto-ATPase activity showed a range of three orders of magnitude and correlated positively with red blood cell ecto-ATPase activities. Ecto-ATPase activity was also determined for red blood cells from fetal, 1-3 d old neonatal, and pregnant garter snakes (Thamnophis elegans); these activities were not significantly different from the activity of red blood cells from nonpregnant adult females. Overall, the data from the present study demonstrate a wide range of red blood cell and whole blood ecto-ATPase activities among vertebrates

  2. Utility of Brain SPECT 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy for the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow changes in patients suffering from dissociative amnesia DA and dissociative motor disorders DMD (previously termed as hysteria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, F.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The aim of the study was to assess the utility of Brain SPECT 99 mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy for the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow changes in patients suffering from dissociative amnesia (DA) and dissociative motor disorders (DMD) (previously termed as Hysteria). Materials and Methods: 20 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 26 years, 08 of them suffering from DA and 12 from DMDs. A consultant psychiatrist on the basis of ICD-10 criteria made the diagnosis. Patients were divided into two categories according to the duration of their illness. Category A; included 10 patients having less than six months duration of illness. Category B; included 10 patients having duration of illness more than six months. Ten normal controls having no signs and symptoms of any psychiatric disorder were also included in the study. Brain SPECT study was carried out using 99 mTc-HMPAO. Semiquantitative analysis was done by calculating cortical and cerebellar ratios in normals and comparing the same in the patients. Results: By comparing regional cerebral blood flow ratios of both the categories with normal group, patients suffering from DA showed hypoperfusion in bilateral temporal lobes, in both frontal association areas and both orbito frontal regions and patients suffering for more than 06 months showed a slightly more exaggerated pattern of hypoperfusion in the same cortical areas. On the other hand in DMD only the patients suffering for more than 06 months showed altered cerebral blood perfusion like hypoperfusion in both of the frontal motor areas, hypoperfusion in both temporal lobes and marked hyperperfusion in both orbito frontal areas. Conclusion: Patients of DA show abnormal cerebral perfusion pattern whether in acute or chronic stage while only chronic DMD states precipitate altered cerebral perfusion patterns and these can be visualized on a Brain SPECT study. (author)

  3. Services to Operate a Red Blood Cell Storage Laboratory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lippert, Lloyd

    1999-01-01

    The Bionetics Corporation staffed and maintained laboratories to support red blood cell preservation research for the Blood Research Detachment, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, initially at 1413 Research Blvd...

  4. Detectability of metastatic bone tumor by Ga-67 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Guio; Araki, Tsutomu; Hihara, Toshihiko; Ogata, Hitoshi; Monzawa, Shuichi; Kachi, Kenji; Matsusako, Masaki

    1989-03-01

    Ga-67 scintigrams in patients with malignant diseases sometimes reveal uptake of the tracer in the bone metastases. Detectability of Ga-67 scintigraphy for metastatic bone tumors and benign bone lesions was compared with that of Tc-99m bone scintigraphy. Countable bone metastases detected by bone scintigraphy were evaluated whether the lesion showed apparent, faint, or negative Ga-67 uptake. Of 47 lesions 23 (49%) showed apparent uptake and 17 (36%) showed negative uptake, only 7 (10%) mostly fracture/osteotomy, showed apparent uptake of the tracer. Uptake in the other benign lesions such as trauma of the ribs, spondylosis deformans, and arthrosis deformans was rather faint. In patients with multiple bone metastases, 9 patients (82%) out of 11 showed more prominent abnormal findings in Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy than in Ga-67 scintigraphy; that is, Ga-67 scintigraphy was not able to reveal all metastatic bone lesions. In patients with untreated or recurrent tumors, relation between Ga-67 uptake in the tumors and that in the bone metastases was evaluated. Of 7 patients with negative Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases; that is, there seemed to be little relation between Ga-67 affinity to the primary tumors and that to the bone metastases. Mechanisms of the Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases were discussed. Not only the tumor cells or tissues in the bone metastases but also bone mineral or osteoclasts might be the deposition sites of Ga-67.

  5. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikosch, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Zitter, F. [Dept. of Internal Medicine II, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Wuertz, F. [Dept. of Pathology, State Hospital Klagenfurt (Austria); Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A. [Lysosomal Storage Disorder Unit, Dept. of Academic Haematology, Royal Free and Univ. Coll. Medical School, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease.

  6. Bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy in Gaucher disease type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Zitter, F.; Gallowitsch, H.J.; Lind, P.; Wuertz, F.; Mehta, A.B.; Hughes, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Scintigraphy is a method for imaging metabolism and should be viewed as complimentary to morphological imaging. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy can particularly contribute to the detection of focal disease in Gaucher disease. In bone crises it can discriminate within three days after pain onset between local infection and aseptic necrosis. A further advantage of bone- and bone marrow scintigraphy is the visualization of the whole skeleton within one setting. Whole body imaging for focal lesions might thus be an objective in GD, in particular in patients complaining of several painful sites. Direct imaging of bone marrow deposits in GD by MIBI scintigraphy might be of special interest in children in whom bone marrow undergoes a developmental conversion from red to yellow marrow in the ap-pendicular skeleton. MRI interpretation in young GD patients is thus difficult in order to estimate the exact amount and extent of bone marrow infiltration by Gaucher cells. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy with its direct visualization of lipid storage could thus add interesting additional information not shown with other methods including MRI. Although MRI is the most accepted imaging modality in assessing the skeletal status in GD, a selective use of scintigraphy for imaging bone and bone marrow may add information in the evaluation of patients with Gaucher disease

  7. Red blood cell transfusion in septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosland, Ragnhild G; Hagen, Marte U; Haase, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treating anaemia with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is frequent, but controversial, in patients with septic shock. Therefore we assessed characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion in this group of high risk patients. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort study at 7...... general intensive care units (ICUs) including all adult patients with septic shock in a 5-month period. RESULTS: Ninety-five of the 213 included patients (45%) received median 3 (interquartile range 2-5) RBC units during shock. The median pre-transfusion haemoglobin level was 8.1 (7.4-8.9) g....../dl and independent of shock day and bleeding. Patients with cardiovascular disease were transfused at higher haemoglobin levels. Transfused patients had higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II (56 (45-69) vs. 48 (37-61), p = 0.0005), more bleeding episodes, lower haemoglobin levels days 1 to 5, higher...

  8. Red blood cell transfusion in septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosland, Ragnhild G; Hagen, Marte U; Haase, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treating anaemia with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is frequent, but controversial, in patients with septic shock. Therefore we assessed characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion in this group of high risk patients. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort study at 7...... general intensive care units (ICUs) including all adult patients with septic shock in a 5-month period. RESULTS: Ninety-five of the 213 included patients (45%) received median 3 (interquartile range 2-5) RBC units during shock. The median pre-transfusion haemoglobin level was 8.1 (7.4-8.9) g...... and SAPS II and SOFA-score on day 1. CONCLUSIONS: The decision to transfuse patients with septic shock was likely affected by disease severity and bleeding, but haemoglobin level was the only measure that consistently differed between transfused and non-transfused patients....

  9. Numerical analysis on cell-cell interaction of red blood cells during sedimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xing

    2017-07-01

    The long-range hydrodynamic interaction among red blood cells plays an important role on the macroscopic behaviors, however, the molecular interaction at such scale is much weaker. In this paper, the sedimentations under external body force of two red blood cells are numerical simulated to investigate the hydrodynamic interaction between cells. The flow is solved by lattice Boltzmann method and the membrane of red blood cell is model by the spring model where the fluid-membrane interaction is coupled by fictitious domain method. It is found that the cells have the tendency to aggregate and may be aligned in a line along the sediment direction. Compared to the properties of a single cell under the same conditions, the sediment velocity of red blood cell group is larger; the leading cell deforms less and the following cell endures larger deformation.

  10. Preoperative blood transfusions for sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Surgical interventions are more common in people with sickle cell disease, and occur at much younger ages than in the general population. Blood transfusions are frequently used prior to surgery and several regimens are used but there is no consensus over the best method or the necessity of transfusion in specific surgical cases. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001. Objectives To determine whether there is evidence that preoperative blood transfusion in people with sickle cell disease undergoing elective or emergency surgery reduces mortality and perioperative or sickle cell-related serious adverse events. To compare the effectiveness of different transfusion regimens (aggressive or conservative) if preoperative transfusions are indicated in people with sickle cell disease. Search methods We searched for relevant trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 23 March 2016. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register: 18 January 2016. Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing preoperative blood transfusion regimens to different regimens or no transfusion in people with sickle cell disease undergoing elective or emergency surgery. There was no restriction by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and the risk of bias and extracted data. Main results Three trials with 990 participants were eligible for inclusion in the review. There were no

  11. Shape-Shifted Red Blood Cells: A Novel Red Blood Cell Stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chico, Verónica; Puente-Marin, Sara; Nombela, Iván; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, María Carmen; Carracedo, Begoña; Villena, Alberto; Mercado, Luis; Coll, Julio; Ortega-Villaizan, María Del Mar

    2018-04-19

    Primitive nucleated erythroid cells in the bloodstream have long been suggested to be more similar to nucleated red cells of fish, amphibians, and birds than the red cells of fetal and adult mammals. Rainbow trout Ficoll-purified red blood cells (RBCs) cultured in vitro undergo morphological changes, especially when exposed to stress, and enter a new cell stage that we have coined shape-shifted RBCs (shRBCs). We have characterized these shRBCs using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs, Wright⁻Giemsa staining, cell marker immunostaining, and transcriptomic and proteomic evaluation. shRBCs showed reduced density of the cytoplasm, hemoglobin loss, decondensed chromatin in the nucleus, and striking expression of the B lymphocyte molecular marker IgM. In addition, shRBCs shared some features of mammalian primitive pyrenocytes (extruded nucleus surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm and phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on cell surface). These shRBCs were transiently observed in heat-stressed rainbow trout bloodstream for three days. Functional network analysis of combined transcriptomic and proteomic studies resulted in the identification of proteins involved in pathways related to the regulation of cell morphogenesis involved in differentiation, cellular response to stress, and immune system process. In addition, shRBCs increased interleukin 8 (IL8), interleukin 1 β (IL1β), interferon ɣ (IFNɣ), and natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) protein production in response to viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). In conclusion, shRBCs may represent a novel cell stage that participates in roles related to immune response mediation, homeostasis, and the differentiation and development of blood cells.

  12. Clinical efficacy of efonidipine hydrochloride, a T-type calcium channel inhibitor, on sympathetic activities. Examination using spectral analysis of heart rate/blood pressure variabilities and 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Kenji; Nomura, Masahiro; Nishikado, Akiyoshi; Uehara, Kouzoh; Nakaya, Yutaka; Ito, Susumu

    2003-01-01

    Dihydropyridine Ca antagonists cause reflex tachycardia related to their hypotensive effects. Efonidipine hydrochloride has inhibitory effects on T-type Ca channels, even as it inhibits reflex tachycardia. In the present study, the influence of efonidipine hydrochloride on heart rate and autonomic nervous function was investigated. Using an electrocardiogram and a tonometric blood pressure measurement, autonomic nervous activity was evaluated using spectral analysis of heart rate/systolic blood pressure variability. Three protocols were used: a single dose of efonidipine hydrochloride was administered orally to healthy subjects with resting heart rate values of 75 beats/min or more (high-heart rate (HR) group) and to healthy subjects with resting heart rate values less than 75 beats/min (low-HR group); efonidipine hydrochloride was newly administered to untreated patients with essential hypertension, and autonomic nervous activity was investigated after a 4-week treatment period; and patients with high heart rate values (≥75 beats/min) who had been treated with a dihydropyridine L-type Ca channel inhibitor for 1 month or more were switched to efonidipine hydrochloride and any changes in autonomic nervous activity were investigated. In all protocols, administration of efonidipine hydrochloride decreased the heart rate in patients with a high heart rate, reduced sympathetic nervous activity, and enhanced parasympathetic nervous activity. In addition, myocardial scintigraphy with 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine showed significant improvement in the washout rate and heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio of patients who were switched from other dihydropyridine Ca antagonists to efonidipine hydrochloride. Efonidipine hydrochloride inhibits increases in heart rate and has effects on the autonomic nervous system. It may be useful for treating hypertension and angina pectoris, and may also have a cardiac protective function. (author)

  13. Self-Sorting of White Blood Cells in a Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert H.; Gabel, Christopher V.; Chan, Shirley S.; Austin, Robert H.; Brody, James P.; James, D. W. Winkelman M.

    1997-09-01

    When a drop of human blood containing red and white blood cells is forced to move via hydrodynamic forces in a lattice of channels designed to mimic the capillary channels, the white cells self-fractionate into the different types of white cells. The pattern of white cells that forms is due to a combination of stretch-activated adhesion of cells with the walls, stochastic sticking probabilities, and heteroavoidance between granulocytes and lymphocytes.

  14. The effects of blood and blood products on the arachnoid cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eric A; Romanova, Liudmila; Janson, Christopher; Lam, Cornelius H

    2017-06-01

    After traumatic brain injury (TBI), large amounts of red blood cells and hemolytic products are deposited intracranially creating debris in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This debris, which includes heme and bilirubin, is cleared via the arachnoid granulations and lymphatic systems. However, the mechanisms by which erythrocytes and their breakdown products interfere with normal CSF dynamics remain poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to model in vitro how blood breakdown products affect arachnoid cells at the CSF-blood barrier, and the extent to which the resorption of CSF into the venous drainage system is mechanically impaired following TBI. Arachnoid cells were grown to confluency on permeable membranes. Rates of growth and apoptosis were measured in the presence of blood and lysed blood, changes in transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured in the presence of blood and hemoglobin, and small molecule permeability was determined in the presence of blood, lysed blood, bilirubin, and biliverdin. These results were directly compared with an established rat brain endothelial cell line (RBEC4) co-cultured with rat brain astrocytes. We found that arachnoid cells grown in the presence of whole or lysed erythrocytes had significantly slower growth rates than controls. Bilirubin and biliverdin, despite their low solubilities, altered the paracellular transport of arachnoid cells more than the acute blood breakdown components of whole and lysed blood. Mannitol permeability was up to four times higher in biliverdin treatments than controls, and arachnoid membranes demonstrated significantly decreased small molecule permeabilities in the presence of whole and lysed blood. We conclude that short-term (5 days) arachnoid cell viability are affected by blood and blood breakdown products, with important consequences for CSF flow and blood clearance after TBI.

  15. Effect on osmotic fragility of red blood cells of whole blood submitted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Whole body vibration (WBV) exercises in oscillating platforms (OP) have emerged in sports and in the rehabilitation procedures of clinical disorders. The aim of this work was to verify the effects of vibrations on the osmotic fragility (OF) of red blood cells (RBC) isolated from whole blood submitted to OP. Heparinized blood ...

  16. Automatic quantitative renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeyre, J.; Deltour, G.; Delisle, M.J.; Bouchard, A.

    1976-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy data may be analyzed automatically by the use of a processing system coupled to an Anger camera (TRIDAC-MULTI 8 or CINE 200). The computing sequence is as follows: normalization of the images; background noise subtraction on both images; evaluation of mercury 197 uptake by the liver and spleen; calculation of the activity fractions on each kidney with respect to the injected dose, taking into account the kidney depth and the results referred to normal values; edition of the results. Automation minimizes the scattering parameters and by its simplification is a great asset in routine work [fr

  17. Phenotype and functions of memory Tfh cells in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Bentebibel, Salah-Eddine; Ueno, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    Our understanding of the origin and functions of human blood CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells found in human blood has changed dramatically in the past years. These cells are currently considered to represent a circulating memory compartment of T follicular helper (Tfh) lineage cells. Recent studies have shown that blood memory Tfh cells are composed of phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. Here, we review the current understanding of human blood memory Tfh cells and the subsets within this compartment. We present a strategy to define these subsets based on cell surface profiles. Finally, we discuss how increased understanding of the biology of blood memory Tfh cells may contribute insight into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the mode of action of vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in advanced renal cell carcinoma. Results of a phase II-trial of somatostatine analogue therapy in patients with advanced RCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Goerges, R.; Stergar, H.; Bockisch, A.; Gauler, T.; Bauer, S.; Antoch, G.; Schuette, J.

    2008-01-01

    Aims: objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the role of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with respect to potential therapy with somatostatin analogue (SST-A) and to assess the response rate under therapy with SST-A. Patients, methods: 16 patients with documented progression of histologically confirmed advanced RCC were included. Planar whole-body SRS was performed 4, 24 and 48h post i.v. injection of 175-200 MBq 111 In-pentetreoide. 5 and 25 h p.i. SPECT of thorax and abdomen were performed. Documentation of somatostatin receptor expression via SRS in > 50% of known tumour lesions was the criteria for treatment start with SST-A (Sandostatin LAR registered -Depot 30mg i.m. every four weeks). Results: in 9/16 of the patients SRS showed at least one metastasis with moderate (n = 5) or intense (n = 4) tracer uptake. Lesion-based SRS evaluation showed only 12.1% (20/165) of all metastases. Most false-negative lesions were located in the lungs. In too patients, the majority of the known metastases was SRS positive and these patients received SST-A therapy. The first radiographic evaluation after a two-month interval showed progressive disease in both patients. Conclusions: we conclude that SRS is of limited value in staging of advanced RCC. In our patients SST-A did not result in a growth control of RCC. Consequently, the use of SST-A in advanced RCC seems to be no relevant therapeutic option. (orig.)

  19. Exercise, training and red blood cell turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J A

    1995-01-01

    Endurance training can lead to what has been termed 'sports anaemia'. Although under normal conditions, red blood cells (RBCs) have a lifespan of about 120 days, the rate of aging may increase during intensive training. However, RBC deficiency is rare in athletes, and sports anaemia is probably due to an expanded plasma volume. Cycling, running and swimming have been shown to cause RBC damage. While most investigators measure indices of haemolysis (for example, plasma haemoglobin or haptoglobin), RBC removal is normally an extravascular process that does not involve haemolysis. Attention is now turning to cellular indices (such as antioxidant depletion, or protein or lipid damage) that may be more indicative of exercise-induced damage. RBCs are vulnerable to oxidative damage because of their continuous exposure to oxygen and their high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids and haem iron. As oxidative stress may be proportional to oxygen uptake, it is not surprising that antioxidants in muscle, liver and RBCs can be depleted during exercise. Oxidative damage to RBCs can also perturb ionic homeostasis and facilitate cellular dehydration. These changes impair RBC deformability which can, in turn, impede the passage of RBCs through the microcirculation. This may lead to hypoxia in working muscle during single episodes of exercise and possibly an increased rate of RBC destruction with long term exercise. Providing RBC destruction does not exceed the rate of RBC production, no detrimental effect to athletic performance should occur. An increased rate of RBC turnover may be advantageous because young cells are more efficient in transporting oxygen. Because most techniques examine the RBC population as a whole, more sophisticated methods which analyse cells individually are required to determine the mechanisms involved in exercise-induced damage of RBCs.

  20. Blood volume measurements in gopher snakes, using autologous 51Cr-labeled red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeller, J M; Bush, M; Seal, U S

    1978-02-01

    Blood volume determinations were performed in 5 anesthetized gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus catenifer) by means of a 51Cr-labeled red blood cell (RBC) method. The mean blood volume was 52.8 ml/kg of body weight (+/- 6.21 SE). Previous blood volume measurements have not been reported for this species. The RBC survival rate was estimated to be greater than 660 days. The RBC survival rate is long, but it cannot be determined accurately by this method.

  1. The treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using umbilical cord blood and menstrual blood-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanberg, Paul R; Eve, David J; Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Tan, Jun; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Allickson, Julie G; Cruz, L Eduardo; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a potentially important means of treatment for a number of disorders. Two different stem cell populations of interest are mononuclear umbilical cord blood cells and menstrual blood-derived stem cells. These cells are relatively easy to obtain, appear to be pluripotent, and are immunologically immature. These cells, particularly umbilical cord blood cells, have been studied as either single or multiple injections in a number of animal models of neurodegenerative disorders with some degree of success, including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Sanfilippo syndrome type B. Evidence of anti-inflammatory effects and secretion of specific cytokines and growth factors that promote cell survival, rather than cell replacement, have been detected in both transplanted cells.

  2. Red blood cell transfusion in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsler, Stefan; Ketter, Ralf; Eichler, Hermann; Schwerdtfeger, Karsten; Steudel, Wolf-Ingo; Oertel, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    The necessity of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in neurosurgical procedures is under debate. Although detailed recommendations exist for many other surgical disciplines, there are very limited data on the probability of transfusions during neurosurgical procedures. Three-thousand and twenty-six consecutive adult patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures at Saarland University Hospital from December 2006 to June 2008 were retrospectively analyzed for administration of RBCs. The patients were grouped into 11 main diagnostic categories for analysis. The transfusion probability and cross-match to transfusion ratio (C/T ratio) were calculated. Overall, the transfusion probability for neurosurgical procedures was 1.7 % (52/3,026). The probability was 6.5 % for acute subdural hematoma (7/108), 6.2 % for spinal tumors (5/80), 4.6 % for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, 4/98), 2.8 % for abscess (3/108), 2.4 % for traumatic brain injury (4/162), 2.3 % for cerebral ischemia (1/44), 1.9 % for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) /aneurysms (4/206), 1.4 % for brain tumors (10/718), 0.8 % for hydrocephalus (2/196), 0.4 % for degenerative diseases of the spine (5/1290), including 3.6 % (3/82) for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and 0 % for epidural hematoma (0/15). The transfusion probabilities for clipping and coiling of SAH were 2.9 % (2/68) and 1.7 % (2/120) respectively. The probability of blood transfusion during neurosurgical procedures is well below the 10 % level which is generally defined as the limit for preoperative appropriation of RBCs. Patients with spinal tumors, acute subdural hematomas or ICH, i.e., patients undergoing large decompressive procedures of bone or soft tissue, had a higher probability of transfusion.

  3. Identification and red blood cell automated counting from blood smear images using computer-aided system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Vasundhara; Kumar, Preetham

    2018-03-01

    Red blood cell count plays a vital role in identifying the overall health of the patient. Hospitals use the hemocytometer to count the blood cells. Conventional method of placing the smear under microscope and counting the cells manually lead to erroneous results, and medical laboratory technicians are put under stress. A computer-aided system will help to attain precise results in less amount of time. This research work proposes an image-processing technique for counting the number of red blood cells. It aims to examine and process the blood smear image, in order to support the counting of red blood cells and identify the number of normal and abnormal cells in the image automatically. K-medoids algorithm which is robust to external noise is used to extract the WBCs from the image. Granulometric analysis is used to separate the red blood cells from the white blood cells. The red blood cells obtained are counted using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. The radius range for the circle-drawing algorithm is estimated by computing the distance of the pixels from the boundary which automates the entire algorithm. A comparison is done between the counts obtained using the labeling algorithm and circular Hough transform. Results of the work showed that circular Hough transform was more accurate in counting the red blood cells than the labeling algorithm as it was successful in identifying even the overlapping cells. The work also intends to compare the results of cell count done using the proposed methodology and manual approach. The work is designed to address all the drawbacks of the previous research work. The research work can be extended to extract various texture and shape features of abnormal cells identified so that diseases like anemia of inflammation and chronic disease can be detected at the earliest.

  4. Scintigraphy usefulness in the diagnosis of visceral candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ythier, H.; Legghe, R.; Foucher, C.

    1987-01-01

    From the features of two cases, the authors stress the usefulness of the scintigraphy as regards to the diagnosis of visceral candidial abscesses. Such fungal localisations are not unfrequent, especially in immunodeficient patients (haematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy, lupus, serious visceral illness...). The positive diagnosis is uneasy because of non-specific clinical features and frequent negative blood cultures. Splenic localisation is the most likely. Citrate Gallium scintigraphy together with splenic labelled RBC scan enables us to give a precise view of the splenic involvment and even of the abdominal extension of the fungal abscess. From the literature review and these two cases, the excellent adequacy of the scintigraphy to the follow-up of systemic candidiasis is underlined and is compared to other usual morphological studies such as US scan and CT examination. In both cases, the diagnosis is fully confirmed by mycological examination.

  5. Scintigraphy usefulness in the diagnosis of visceral candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ythier, H.; Legghe, R.; Foucher, C.

    1987-01-01

    From the features of two cases, the authors stress the usefulness of the scintigraphy as regards to the diagnosis of visceral candidial abscesses. Such fungal localisations are not unfrequent, especially in immunodeficient patients (haematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy, lupus, serious visceral illness...). The positive diagnosis is uneasy because of non-specific clinical features and frequent negative blood cultures. Splenic localisation is the most likely. Citrate Gallium scintigraphy together with splenic labelled RBC scan enables us to give a precise view of the splenic involvment and even of the abdominal extension of the fungal abscess. From the literature review and these two cases, the excellent adequacy of the scintigraphy to the follow-up of systemic candidiasis is underlined and is compared to other usual morphological studies such as US scan and CT examination. In both cases, the diagnosis is fully confirmed by mycological examination [fr

  6. I-123 IMP brain scintigraphies in asphyxiated newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hisatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Kuriyama, Masanori; Ishii, Yasushi; Sudo, Masakatsu

    1987-01-01

    Brain scintigraphies with N-Isopropyl (I-123) p-Iodoamphetamine (I-123 IMP) were conducted in eight patients who had asphyxia at the time of birth. Two patients, 15 and 26 year-old, had local defects and diffuse low cerebral uptakes. Two children, 70 day and 2 year-old, had no cerebral uptake. Brain scintigraphies were carried out twice in three among four newborns. Only slight I-123 IMP brain uptakes were observed in the first 10 days. The lateral views of the brain scintigraphies showed increased uptake in the middle region of the brain between 10 to 30 days and reached almost equally distributed in frontal, middle and posterior regions after 30 days. These results were thought to represent rather developmental changes of the cerebral blood flow after ischemic attacks at birth. (author)

  7. Risk-benefit of dipyridamole loading thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueshima, Kenji; Ogiu, Naonori; Musha, Takehiko; Moriai, Naoki; Miyakawa, Tomohisa; Nakai, Kenji; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the accuracy of dipyridamole-stressed thallium-201 scintigraphy in the detection of myocardial ischemia, as well as the associated complications and their background factors. Fifty consecutive patients (33 men and 17 women; a mean age of 67 years) unable to undergo exercise thallium imaging were examined. R waves on resting ECG, the occurrence of ischemic changes on exercise ECG, asynergy on left ventriculography and dobutamine-stressed two-dimensional echocardiography, uptake of FEG on PET, and coronary angiographic findings were comprehensively assessed to determine the accuracy of the present scintigraphy. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 60.4%, 94.2%, 89.7%, 83.0%, and 82.9%, respectively. These findings yielded satisfactory detectability of dipyridamole-stressed thallium-201 scintigraphy for myocardial ischemia. The present scintigraphy had a high sensitivity and specificity for the left anterior descending artery; however, it had a high specificity but low sensitivity for the other arteries. A majority of complications during the scintigraphy was transient, mild decrease in blood pressure, which was found especially when ischemia was present in the left circumflex artery and chest pain occurred during dipyridamole stress. Dipyridamole stress is considered to be contraindicated for patients with unstable angina. (N.K.)

  8. Cost effectiveness of cord blood versus bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bart

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas BartSwiss Blood Stem Cells, Bern, SwitzerlandAbstract: Umbilical cord blood (CB has become, since its first successful use more than two decades ago, an increasingly important source of blood stem cells. In this light, an overview of current usage of CB in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation (HSCT is given. The three main sources of hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow (BM, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC, and cord blood (CB are compared as regards their current quantitative usage in HSCT. A cost analysis of the named three hematopoietic blood stem cell (HSC sources, taking into account various factors, is undertaken. The health economical comparison shows significant differences between CB on the one side, and BM and PBSC on the other. The consequences for the public health side and propositions for a possible health care policy, especially regarding future resource allocation towards the different choices for HSCT products, are discussed. An outlook on the possible future usage of BM, PBSC, and CB and its implications on health systems, donor registries, and CB banks is given.Keywords: health economy, cord blood, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  9. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vlad.vinnikov@mail.ru [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine (Ukraine); Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards of the Health Protection Agency of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G{sub 0}-stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors' blood irradiated in vitro to 0-40 Gy acute {gamma}-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 Degree-Sign C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 {+-} 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 {+-} 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 {+-} 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2-4 Gy and 16.7 {+-} 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6-10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  10. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr; Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G 0 -stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors’ blood irradiated in vitro to 0–40 Gy acute γ-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 °C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 ± 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 ± 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 ± 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2–4 Gy and 16.7 ± 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6–10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  11. Red blood cell alloimmunization in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moise, Kenneth J

    2005-07-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization in pregnancy continues to occur despite the widespread use of both antenatal and postpartum Rhesus immune globulin (RhIG), due mainly to inadvertent omissions in administration as well as antenatal sensitization prior to RhIG given at 28 weeks' gestation. Additional instances are attributable to the lack of immune globulins to other RBC antigens. Evaluation of the alloimmunized pregnancy begins with the maternal titer. Once a critical value [32 for anti-Rh(D) and other irregular antibodies; 8 for anti-K and -k] is reached, fetal surveillance using serial Doppler ultrasound measurements of the peak velocity in the fetal middle cerebral artery (MCA) is standard. In the case of a heterozygous paternal phenotype, amniocentesis can be performed to detect the antigen-negative fetus that requires no further evaluation. MCA velocities greater than 1.5 multiples of the median necessitate cordocentesis, and if fetal anemia is detected, intrauterine transfusion therapy is initiated. A perinatal survival of greater than 85% with normal neurologic outcome is now expected. Future therapies will target specific immune manipulations in the pregnant patient.

  12. Signaling pathways regulating red blood cell aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravyov, Alexei; Tikhomirova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of red blood cells (RBC) to some hormones (epinephrine, insulin and glucagon) and agonists of α- and β-adrenergic receptors (phenylephrine, clonidine and isoproterenol) may modify RBC aggregation (RBCA). Prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) significantly decreased RBCA, and PGE2 had a similar but lesser effect. Adenylyl cyclase (AC) stimulator forskolin added to RBC suspension, caused a decrease of RBCA. More marked lowering of RBCA occurred after RBC treatment by dB-cAMP. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors markedly reduced RBCA. Ca2+ influx stimulated by A23187 was accompanied by an increase of RBCA. The blocking of Ca2+ entry into the RBC by verapamil or the chelation of Ca2+ by EGTA led to a significant RBCA decrease. Lesser changes of aggregation were found after RBC incubation with protein kinase C stimulator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA). A significant inhibitory effect of tyrosine protein kinase (TPK) activator cisplatin on RBCA was revealed, while selective TPK inhibitor, lavendustin, eliminated the above mentioned effect. Taken together, the data demonstrate that changes in RBCA are connected with activation of different intracellular signaling pathways. We suggest that alterations in RBCA are mainly associated with the crosstalk between the adenylyl cyclase-cAMP system and Ca2+ control mechanisms.

  13. Multifactorial aspects of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapur, R.

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on diseases of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction via FcγRs on phagocytes, in particular regarding platelets in fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and red blood cells (RBC) in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN).

  14. Magnetophoretic separation of blood cells at the microscale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlani, E P

    2007-01-01

    We present a method and model for the direct and continuous separation of red and white blood cells in plasma. The method is implemented at the microscale using a microfluidic system that consists of an array of integrated soft-magnetic elements embedded adjacent to a microfluidic channel. The microsystem is passive and is activated via application of a bias field that magnetizes the elements. Once magnetized, the elements produce a nonuniform magnetic field distribution in the microchannel, which gives rise to a force on blood cells as they pass through the microsystem. In whole blood, white blood cells behave as diamagnetic microparticles while red blood cells exhibit diamagnetic or paramagnetic behaviour depending on the oxygenation of their haemoglobin. We develop a mathematical model for predicting the motion of blood cells in the microsystem that takes into account the dominant magnetic, fluidic and buoyant forces on the cells. We use the model to study red/white blood cell transport, and our analysis indicates that the microsystem is capable of rapid and efficient red/white blood cell separation

  15. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Nalls (Michael); D. Couper (David); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); D. Toniolo (Daniela); N.A. Zakai (Neil); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); A. Greinacher (Andreas); A.R. Wood (Andrew); M. Garcia (Melissa); P. Gasparini (Paolo); Y. Liu (YongMei); T. Lumley (Thomas); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); A.P. Reiner (Alex); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); J.F. Felix (Janine); H. Völzke (Henry); N.A. Gouskova (Natalia); A. Biffi (Alessandro); A. Döring (Angela); U. Völker (Uwe); S. Chong (Sean); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); A. Rendon (Augusto); A. Dehghan (Abbas); M. Moore (Matt); K.D. Taylor (Kent); J.G. Wilson (James); G. Lettre (Guillaume); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C. Bis (Joshua); N. Pirastu (Nicola); C.S. Fox (Caroline); C. Meisinger (Christa); J.G. Sambrook (Jennifer); S. Arepalli (Sampath); M. Nauck (Matthias); H. Prokisch (Holger); J. Stephens (Jonathan); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); Y. Okada (Yukinori); A. Takahashi (Atsushi); Y. Kamatani (Yoichiro); K. Matsuda (Koichi); T. Tsunoda (Tatsuhiko); M. Kubo (Michiaki); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); K. Yamamoto (Kazuhiko); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A. Tönjes (Anke); I. Prokopenko (Inga); T. Illig (Thomas); K.V. Patel (Kushang); S.F. Garner (Stephen); B. Kuhnel (Brigitte); M. Mangino (Massimo); B.A. Oostra (Ben); S.L. Thein; J. Coresh (Josef); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); S. Menzel (Stephan); J. Lin; G. Pistis (Giorgio); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A. Teumer (Alexander); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); D. Melzer (David); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); D. Levy (Daniel); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); A. Singleton (Andrew); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.L. Longo (Dan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T.B. Harris (Tamara); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhite blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types.

  16. HCV RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been found to infect peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), using them as a reservoir, which might contribute to the development of resistance to treatment. Objectives: To study hepatitis virus C (HCV) RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with ...

  17. HCV RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) as a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abdel Fatah Fahmy Hanno

    2013-06-27

    Jun 27, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been found to infect peripheral blood mono- nuclear cells (PBMCs), using them as a reservoir, which might contribute to the development of resistance to treatment. Objectives: To study hepatitis virus C (HCV) RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

  18. Effect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Blood Banking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele

    2016-01-01

    Summary Population aging has imposed cost-effective alternatives to blood donations. Artificial blood is still at the preliminary stages of development, and the need for viable cells seems unsurmountable. Because large numbers of viable cells must be promptly available for clinical use, stem cell technologies, expansion, and banking represent ideal tools to ensure a regular supply. Provided key donors can be identified, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine, just as it is already doing in many other fields of medicine. The present review summarizes the current state of research on iPSC technology in the field of blood banking, highlighting hurdles, and promises. Significance The aging population in Western countries is causing a progressive reduction of blood donors and a constant increase of blood recipients. Because blood is the main therapeutic option to treat acute hemorrhage, cost-effective alternatives to blood donations are being actively investigated. The enormous replication capability of induced pluripotent stem cells and their promising results in many other fields of medicine could be an apt solution to produce the large numbers of viable cells required in transfusion and usher in a new era in transfusion medicine. The present report describes the potentiality, technological hurdles, and promises of induced pluripotent stem cells to generate red blood cells by redifferentiation. PMID:26819256

  19. A microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping of white blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingdong; Chen, Di; Yuan, Tao; Xie, Yao; Chen, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Blood analysis plays a major role in medical and science applications and white blood cells (WBCs) are an important target of analysis. We proposed an integrated microfluidic chip for direct and rapid trapping WBCs from whole blood. The microfluidic chip consists of two basic functional units: a winding channel to mix and arrays of two-layer trapping structures to trap WBCs. Red blood cells (RBCs) were eliminated through moving the winding channel and then WBCs were trapped by the arrays of trapping structures. We fabricated the PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) chip using soft lithography and determined the critical flow velocities of tartrazine and brilliant blue water mixing and whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer mixing in the winding channel. They are 0.25 μl/min and 0.05 μl/min, respectively. The critical flow velocity of the whole blood and red blood cell lysis buffer is lower due to larger volume of the RBCs and higher kinematic viscosity of the whole blood. The time taken for complete lysis of whole blood was about 85 s under the flow velocity 0.05 μl/min. The RBCs were lysed completely by mixing and the WBCs were trapped by the trapping structures. The chip trapped about 2.0 × 103 from 3.3 × 103 WBCs. PMID:24404026

  20. Specific features of red blood cell morphology in hemolytic disease neonates undergoing intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the characteristics of red blood cell morphology in infants who have undergone intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion for hemolytic disease of the fetus. The infants are shown to have a reduction in the mean volume of red blood cells and in their mean level of hemoglobin, a decrease in the fraction of fetal hemoglobin and an increase in oxygen tension at half saturation. The above morphological characteristics of red blood cells remain decreased during the neonatal period after exchange transfusion or others, as clinically indicated, which seems to suggest that the compensatory-adaptive mechanisms to regulate hematopoiesis are exhausted and a donor’s red blood cells continue to be predominant.

  1. Osseous scintigraphy and auxiliary graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelifa, F.; Siles, S.; Puech, B.

    1992-01-01

    The scintigraphy could be a good way to survey the osseous graft: three cases are studied in which were recognized the presence of a graft, surinfection, graft lysis, pseudo-arthrosis, algodystrophy. 8 refs., 5 figs

  2. Exercise-induced blood lactate increase does not change red blood cell deformability in cyclists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Simmonds

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of exercise-induced lactate production on red blood cell deformability and other blood rheological changes is controversial, given heavy-exercise induces biochemical processes (e.g., oxidative stress known to perturb haemorheology. The aim of the present study was to examine the haemorheological response to a short-duration cycling protocol designed to increase blood lactate concentration, but of duration insufficient to induce significant oxidative stress. METHODS: Male cyclists and triathletes (n = 6; 27±7 yr; body mass index: 23.7±3.0 kg/m²; peak oxygen uptake 4.02±0.51 L/min performed unloaded (0 W, moderate-intensity, and heavy-intensity cycling. Blood was sampled at rest and during the final minute of each cycling bout. Blood chemistry, blood viscosity, red blood cell aggregation and red blood cell deformability were measured. RESULTS: Blood lactate concentration increased significantly during heavy-intensity cycling, when compared with all other conditions. Methaemoglobin fraction did not change during any exercise bout when compared with rest. Blood viscosity at native haematocrit increased during heavy-intensity cycling at higher-shear rates when compared with rest, unloaded and moderate-intensity cycling. Heavy-intensity exercise increased the amplitude of red blood cell aggregation in native haematocrit samples when compared with all other conditions. Red blood cell deformability was not changed by exercise. CONCLUSION: Acute exercise perturbs haemorheology in an intensity dose-response fashion; however, many of the haemorheological effects appear to be secondary to haemoconcentration, rather than increased lactate concentration.

  3. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr eAlaarg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterised by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely asessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary

  4. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaarg, Amr; Schiffelers, Raymond M.; van Solinge, Wouter W.; van Wijk, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely assessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary hemolytic anemias. PMID

  5. Measuring density and compressibility of white blood cells and prostate cancer cells by microchannel acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    to determine the density and compressibility of individual cells enables the prediction and alteration of the separation outcome for a given cell mixture. We apply the method on white blood cells (WBCs) and DU145 prostate cancer cells (DUCs) aiming to improve isolation of circulating tumor cells from blood......, an emerging tool in the monitoring and characterizing of metastatic cancer....

  6. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Rosenthal, J.S.; Winston, A.; Stern, A.

    1988-01-01

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  7. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  8. Prevalence of irregular red blood cell antibodies among healthy blood donors in Delhi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neeraj; Sharma, Tanya; Singh, Bharat

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of the anti-red blood cell antibodies among healthy blood donors. Antibody screening of all voluntary blood donor serum was performed as routine immunohematological procedure. Positive sera were further investigated to identify the specificity of irregular erythrocyte antibody by commercially available red cell panel (ID-Dia Panel, Diamed-ID Microtyping System). A total of 47,450 donors were screened for the presence of irregular erythrocyte antibodies. A total of forty-six donors showed presence of alloantibodies in their serum (46/47,450%, 0.09%), yielding a prevalence of 0.09%. Most frequent alloantibodies identified were of MNS blood group system. The results showed statistically a higher prevalence of RBC alloantibodies in females than in males. Screening for presence of alloantibodies in donor blood is important to provide compatible blood products and to avoid transfusion reactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of Red Blood Cell Aggregation on the Apparent Viscosity of Blood Flow in Tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Darren L.; Lowe, Mary L.

    1996-11-01

    In arterioles and venules (20-200μ diameter), the low shear rates enable red blood cells to form aggregate structures of varying sizes and morphology. The size and distribution of the aggregates affect the flow impedance within a microvascular network; this effect may be characterized by an "apparent viscosity". In this study, we measure the apparent viscosity of blood flow in 50μ glass tubes as a function of shear rate and red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit); for a fixed tube geometry and an imposed flow rate, the viscosity is determined by measuring the pressure drop across the tube. To correlate the apparent viscosity with the size and spatial distribution of the aggregates in the flow, video images of the flow are recorded and analyzed using power spectral techniques. Pig blood and sheep blood are used as the models for aggregating and non-aggregating blood, respectively. Supported by NSF PFF Award CTS-9253633

  10. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating this techno......Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating...

  11. Nucleated red blood cells in infants of mothers with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littner, Yoav; Mandel, Dror; Sheffer-Mimouni, Galit; Mimouni, Francis B; Deutsch, Varda; Dollberg, Shaul

    2003-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the absolute nucleated red blood cell and lymphocyte count is elevated in term, appropriate-for-gestational-age infants born to women with asthma. We compared absolute nucleated red blood cell counts taken during the first 12 hours of life in two groups of term, vaginally delivered, appropriate-for-gestational-age infants; one group was born to mothers with active asthma during pregnancy (n = 28 infants), and the other group was born to control mothers (n = 29 infants). Asthma severity was classified according to the National Asthma Education and Prevention Program. We excluded infants of women with diabetes mellitus, hypertension, alcohol, and tobacco or drug abuse and infants with fetal heart rate abnormalities, hemolysis, blood loss, or chromosomal anomalies. There were no differences between groups in birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, gravidity, parity, maternal analgesia during labor, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, and infant sex. The hematocrit level, red blood cell count, absolute nucleated red blood cell count, and corrected leukocyte and lymphocyte counts were significantly higher in the asthma group than in the control group. The platelet count was not significantly different between groups. The absolute nucleated red blood cell count correlated significantly with the asthma severity score (r (2) = 28%, P cell count with the presence of asthma and its severity (P mothers with asthma have increased circulating absolute nucleated red blood cell and lymphocyte counts compared with control infants.

  12. A role for activated endothelial cells in red blood cell clearance: implications for vasopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fens, Marcel H A M; van Wijk, Richard; Andringa, Grietje

    2012-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylserine exposure by red blood cells is acknowledged as a signal that initiates phagocytic removal of the cells from the circulation. Several disorders and conditions are known to induce phosphatidylserine exposure. Removal of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells gener...... cells play a role in red blood cell clearance in vivo. Significant erythrophagocytosis can induce endothelial cell loss, which may contribute to vasopathological effects as seen, for instance, in sickle cell disease.......Background Phosphatidylserine exposure by red blood cells is acknowledged as a signal that initiates phagocytic removal of the cells from the circulation. Several disorders and conditions are known to induce phosphatidylserine exposure. Removal of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells...... generally occurs by macrophages in the spleen and liver. Previously, however, we have shown that endothelial cells are also capable of erythrophagocytosis. Key players in the erythrophagocytosis by endothelial cells appeared to be lactadherin and αv-integrin. Phagocytosis via the phosphatidylserine...

  13. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients...... and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood, but they are important for the understanding of metastasis. There is therefore a high interest in developing a method for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples, which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. The separation...

  14. White blood cell count - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the hand. The puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic, and a tourniquet (an elastic band) or blood ... or young child: The area is cleansed with antiseptic and punctured with a sharp needle or a ...

  15. Natural killer cells for immunotherapy – Advantages of cell lines over blood NK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eKlingemann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells are potent cytotoxic effector cells for cancer therapy and potentially for severe viral infections. However, there are technical challenges to obtain sufficient numbers of functionally active NK cells form a patient’s blood since they represent only 10% of the lymphocytes. Especially, cancer patients are known to have dysfunctional NK cells. The alternative is to obtain cells from a healthy donor, which requires depletion of the allogeneic T-cells. Establishing cell lines from donor blood NK cells have not been successful, in contrast to blood NK cells obtained from patients with a clonal NK cell lymphoma. Those cells can be expanded in culture in the presence of IL-2. However, except for the NK-92 cell line none of the other six known cell lines has consistent and reproducibly high anti-tumor cytotoxicity, nor can they be easily genetically manipulated to recognize specific tumor antigens or to augment monoclonal antibody activity through ADCC. NK-92 is also the only cell line product that has been widely given to patients with advanced cancer with demonstrated efficiency and minimal side effects.

  16. The Effect of Shape Memory on Red Blood Cell Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xiting; Shi, Lingling; Pan, Tsorng-Whay; Glowinski, Roland

    2013-11-01

    An elastic spring model is applied to study the effect of the shape memory on the motion of red blood cell in flows. In shear flow, shape memory also plays an important role to obtain all three motions: tumbling, swinging, and tank-treading. In Poiseuille flow, cell has an equilibrium shape as a slipper or parachute depending on capillary number. To ensure the tank-treading motion while in slippery shape, a modified model is proposed by introducing a shape memory coefficient which describes the degree of shape memory in cells. The effect of the coefficient on the cell motion of red blood cell will be presented.

  17. Image classification of unlabeled malaria parasites in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng Zhang; Ong, L L Sharon; Kong Fang; Matthew, Athul; Dauwels, Justin; Ming Dao; Asada, Harry

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a method to detect unlabeled malaria parasites in red blood cells. The current "gold standard" for malaria diagnosis is microscopic examination of thick blood smear, a time consuming process requiring extensive training. Our goal is to develop an automate process to identify malaria infected red blood cells. Major issues in automated analysis of microscopy images of unstained blood smears include overlapping cells and oddly shaped cells. Our approach creates robust templates to detect infected and uninfected red cells. Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOGs) features are extracted from templates and used to train a classifier offline. Next, the ViolaJones object detection framework is applied to detect infected and uninfected red cells and the image background. Results show our approach out-performs classification approaches with PCA features by 50% and cell detection algorithms applying Hough transforms by 24%. Majority of related work are designed to automatically detect stained parasites in blood smears where the cells are fixed. Although it is more challenging to design algorithms for unstained parasites, our methods will allow analysis of parasite progression in live cells under different drug treatments.

  18. Color contrast of red blood cells on solid substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiziev, Adkham A.

    2013-02-01

    In present study we developed the new method of colour visualization of red blood cells without using any chemical staining. The method based on physical phenomena a white light interference on thin transparent films. It is shown that in the case of thin human blood smears colour interference contrast occurs on solid polished substrates. The best contrast shows substrates with maximal refractive index (Mo, W, Si). These materials have been selected as substrate instead of ordinary microscopic slide in reflected light microscopy. It is shown that reflection of incident white light from blood cell surface and boundary cell-substrate generate two coherent lights. The second one (object signal) after passing through red blood cell gathers additional phase and after interference interaction with reference signal (light reflected from outer cell surface) enables cell image in colour. Number of blood smears of healthy persons (control) and patients who were diagnosed with cancer are presented. It is concluded that the offered method may be used as an effective diagnostic tool to detect early stage blood cells lesion by its interference painting in white light. Offered method may be used in research laboratories, hospitals, diagnostic centres, emergency medicine and other as complementary diagnostic tool to present convenient optical and electron microscopy technique.

  19. Methemoglobin reductase activity in intact fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank B; Nielsen, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) possess methemoglobin reductase activity that counters the ongoing oxidation of hemoglobin (Hb) to methemoglobin (metHb), which in circulating blood is caused by Hb autoxidation or reactions with nitrite. We describe an assay for determining metHb reductase activity in intact...

  20. Frequency and specificity of red blood cell alloantibodies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood transfusion usually results in production of alloantibody against one or more foreign red blood cell antigens which may complicate subsequent transfusions. The probability of alloimmunization depends on number and frequency of transfusion, antigen immunogenicity, recipient immune response and ...

  1. RISK OF RED BLOOD CELL ALLOIMMUNISATION IN RWANDA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-04

    Apr 4, 2013 ... EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) vacutainer test tubes. Within 12 hours, samples underwent centrifugation at 3000 rpm lasting three minutes. Plasma samples were extracted and kept at -30ºC and red blood cell samples at 2 to 6ºC in the Regional. Blood Centre of Rwamagana in Eastern Province.

  2. Risk of red blood cell alloimmunisation in Rwanda: Assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Screening of alloantibodies in patients is not yet done in district hospitals of Rwanda. The practice is to transfuse ABO/D compatible blood following an immediate spin crossmatch (IS-XM) or indirect antiglobulin test crossmatch (IAT-XM). Objectives: To assess the risk of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunisation ...

  3. Certain Red Blood Cell Indices of Maternal and Umbilical Cord ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    blood samples were obtained immediately after delivery of the baby. The umbilical blood samples were collected from the umbilical cord of the baby at the end of the second stage of labour. The haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and packed cell volume (PCV) were determined using standard procedures. The mean ...

  4. The Rh complex exports ammonium from human red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemker, Mirte B.; Cheroutre, Goedele; van Zwieten, Rob; Maaskant-van Wijk, Petra A.; Roos, Dirk; Loos, Johannes A.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; von dem Borne, Albert E. G. Kr

    2003-01-01

    The Rh blood group system represents a major immunodominant protein complex on red blood cells (RBC). Recently, the Rh homologues RhAG and RhCG were shown to promote ammonium ion transport in yeast. In this study, we showed that also in RBC the human Rh complex functions as an exporter of ammonium

  5. DNA damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and neutrophils ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the apoptotic process in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) in dairy cattle during the transition period. Blood samples were collected from 4 dairy cattle at 3 weeks before the expected parturition (wk -3), parturition (wk 0) ...

  6. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... differences with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 31 trials totalling 9813 randomised patients were included. The proportion of patients receiving red blood cells (relative risk 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.63, 8923 patients, 24 trials) and the number of red blood cell units transfused (mean...... were associated with a reduction in the number of red blood cell units transfused and number of patients being transfused, but mortality, overall morbidity, and myocardial infarction seemed to be unaltered. Restrictive transfusion strategies are safe in most clinical settings. Liberal transfusion...

  7. Safety and radiation risks in the labelling of blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Risk in the management of radioactive material and biological exposition to infectious agents. Protocols and normative to observe GOOD RADIOPHARMACY Practices. Main infectious agents that may be transmitted during preparation of a blood cell radiopharmaceutical. Problems of contamination

  8. Micronuclei in red blood cells of armored catfish Hypostomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-03

    n = 30). ... test in red blood cells and lymphocytes can be used as an indicator of toxic effects in determined target populations (Berces et al., 1993). Since DNA repair .... tion in the increase of breaks in DNA strands by.

  9. Detection of melanoma cells suspended in mononuclear cells and blood plasma using photoacoustic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradling, Emily M.; Viator, John A.

    2009-02-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Although the initial malignant cells are removed, it is impossible to determine whether or not the cancer has metastasized until a secondary tumor forms that is large enough to detect with conventional imaging. Photoacoustic detection of circulating melanoma cells in the bloodstream has shown promise for early detection of metastasis that may aid in treatment of this aggressive cancer. When blood is irradiated with energy from an Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm, photoacoustic signals are created and melanoma cells can be differentiated from the surrounding cells based on waveforms produced by an oscilloscope. Before this can be used as a diagnostic technique, however, we needed to investigate several parameters. Specifically, the current technique involves the in vitro separation of blood through centrifugation to isolate and test only the white blood cell layer. Using this method, we have detected a single cultured melanoma cell among a suspension of white blood cells. However, the process could be made simpler if the plasma layer were used for detection instead of the white blood cell layer. This layer is easier to obtain after blood separation, the optical difference between plasma and melanoma cells is more pronounced in this layer than in the white blood cell layer, and the possibility that any stray red blood cells could distort the results is eliminated. Using the photoacoustic apparatus, we detected no melanoma cells within the plasma of whole blood samples spiked with cultured melanoma cells.

  10. Novel automated blood separations validate whole cell biomarkers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas E Burger

    Full Text Available Progress in clinical trials in infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer is stymied by a dearth of successful whole cell biomarkers for peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs. Successful biomarkers could help to track drug effects at early time points in clinical trials to prevent costly trial failures late in development. One major obstacle is the inaccuracy of Ficoll density centrifugation, the decades-old method of separating PBLs from the abundant red blood cells (RBCs of fresh blood samples.To replace the Ficoll method, we developed and studied a novel blood-based magnetic separation method. The magnetic method strikingly surpassed Ficoll in viability, purity and yield of PBLs. To reduce labor, we developed an automated platform and compared two magnet configurations for cell separations. These more accurate and labor-saving magnet configurations allowed the lymphocytes to be tested in bioassays for rare antigen-specific T cells. The automated method succeeded at identifying 79% of patients with the rare PBLs of interest as compared with Ficoll's uniform failure. We validated improved upfront blood processing and show accurate detection of rare antigen-specific lymphocytes.Improving, automating and standardizing lymphocyte detections from whole blood may facilitate development of new cell-based biomarkers for human diseases. Improved upfront blood processes may lead to broad improvements in monitoring early trial outcome measurements in human clinical trials.

  11. Novel automated blood separations validate whole cell biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Douglas E; Wang, Limei; Ban, Liqin; Okubo, Yoshiaki; Kühtreiber, Willem M; Leichliter, Ashley K; Faustman, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    Progress in clinical trials in infectious disease, autoimmunity, and cancer is stymied by a dearth of successful whole cell biomarkers for peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). Successful biomarkers could help to track drug effects at early time points in clinical trials to prevent costly trial failures late in development. One major obstacle is the inaccuracy of Ficoll density centrifugation, the decades-old method of separating PBLs from the abundant red blood cells (RBCs) of fresh blood samples. To replace the Ficoll method, we developed and studied a novel blood-based magnetic separation method. The magnetic method strikingly surpassed Ficoll in viability, purity and yield of PBLs. To reduce labor, we developed an automated platform and compared two magnet configurations for cell separations. These more accurate and labor-saving magnet configurations allowed the lymphocytes to be tested in bioassays for rare antigen-specific T cells. The automated method succeeded at identifying 79% of patients with the rare PBLs of interest as compared with Ficoll's uniform failure. We validated improved upfront blood processing and show accurate detection of rare antigen-specific lymphocytes. Improving, automating and standardizing lymphocyte detections from whole blood may facilitate development of new cell-based biomarkers for human diseases. Improved upfront blood processes may lead to broad improvements in monitoring early trial outcome measurements in human clinical trials.

  12. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA......), self-reported medically healthy. RESULTS: Bacterial growth was observed on plates inoculated with plasma or RBCs from 62% of the blood donations. Growth was evident in 21 (35%) of 60 RBC-fractions and in 32 (53%) of 60 plasma-fractions versus 8 of 60 negative controls (p = 0.005 and p = 2.6x10......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from...

  13. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Mozos, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular dise...

  14. Red blood cells inhibit tumour cell adhesion to the peritoneum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.E. van Rossen (Marie Elma); M.P.O. Stoop (M. P O); L.J. Hofland (Leo); P.M. van Koetsveld (Peter); F. Bonthuis (Fred); J. Jeekel (Hans); R.L. Marquet (Richard); C.H.J. van Eijck (Casper)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Perioperative blood transfusion has been associated with increased tumour recurrence and poor prognosis in colorectal cancer. Blood loss in the peritoneal cavity might be a tumour-promoting factor for local recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether blood in

  15. Bone scintigraphy; Scintigraphie osseuse de l'appareil locomoteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyen, B.; Chouteau, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lyon-Sud, 69 - Pierre-Benite (France)

    2003-11-01

    Bone scintigraphy permit to detect the active osteoblastic sites. This technic is widely used in orthopaedic surgery either in adult or children. In Traumatology fatigue fractures are early diagnosed. This is also the case for reflex sympathetic dystrophy and bone necrosis. This technic is used for Paget disease, and articular inflammatory process. For bone tumors some specific aspects are recognized like for osteoid osteoma, malignant bone tumors and secondary bone tumors. In case of septic articular prosthesis the couple use of bone scintigraphy and marked polynuclear appear very useful. (author)

  16. Influence of microwaves and electron beam on red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, A.; Martin, D.; Popescu, A.; Butan, C.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of 6 MeV electron beam and of 2.45 GHz microwaves on the osmotic fragility of frozen cryoprotected human red blood cell membranes are presented. The changes in the properties of the red blood cell membranes were estimated by measuring the radiation induced haemoglobin release from the red blood cells (haemolysis) and the osmotic fragility of the membranes, determined by postirradiation induced osmotic stress. We obtained no haemolysis induced by accelerated electrons in the range 0 - 400 Gy, whereas the microwave irradiated red blood cells showed in the ranges 1 - 2 min and 400 - 500 W values of very small haemolysis, down to 50 % from the control. The osmotic stress experiments indicated a significant increase in the osmotic fragility for 200 - 400 Gy electron doses, whereas the 100 Gy irradiated sample showed a haemolysis down to 35 % from the control. Similarly, the microwave irradiated red blood cells showed values down to 60% from the control for (1 min, 850 W). Both radiations induced at definite parameters values of very small haemolysis, suggesting a stabilisation of the membranes and an increase in the osmotic resistance. Our preliminary results on simultaneous irradiation of the frozen red blood cells seem to indicate a significant contribution of the microwaves in haemolysis evolution, while the successive irradiation procedure did not allow so far a clear interpretation, further studies being necessary to elucidate the physico-chemical mechanisms induced. (authors)

  17. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  18. Is red blood cell rheology preserved during routine blood bank storage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J.; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem

    BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) units stored for more than 2 weeks at 4 degrees C are currently considered of impaired quality. This opinion has primarily been based on altered RBC rheologic properties (i.e., enhanced aggregability, reduced deformability, and elevated endothelial cell interaction),

  19. Red blood cell phenotype prevalence in blood donors who self-identify as Hispanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheppard, Chelsea A; Bolen, Nicole L; Eades, Beth

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genotyping platforms provide a quick, high-throughput method for identifying red blood cell units for patients on extended phenotype-matching protocols, such as those with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Most of the antigen prevalence data reported are for non-Hispanic ...

  20. Non-invasive spectroscopy of transfusable red blood cells stored inside sealed plastic blood-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, K; Atkins, C G; Chen, D; Schulze, H G; Devine, D V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2016-03-07

    After being separated from (donated) whole blood, red blood cells are suspended in specially formulated additive solutions and stored (at 4 °C) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood-bags until they are needed for transfusion. With time, the prepared red cell concentrate (RCC) is known to undergo biochemical changes that lower effectiveness of the transfusion, and thus regulations are in place that limit the storage period to 42 days. At present, RCC is not subjected to analytical testing prior to transfusion. In this study, we use Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to probe, non-invasively, the biochemistry of RCC inside sealed blood-bags. The retrieved spectra compare well with conventional Raman spectra (of sampled aliquots) and are dominated by features associated with hemoglobin. In addition to the analytical demonstration that SORS can be used to retrieve RCC spectra from standard clinical blood-bags without breaking the sterility of the system, the data reveal interesting detail about the oxygenation-state of the stored cells themselves, namely that some blood-bags unexpectedly contain measurable amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin after weeks of storage. The demonstration that chemical information can be obtained non-invasively using spectroscopy will enable new studies of RCC degeneration, and points the way to a Raman-based instrument for quality-control in a blood-bank or hospital setting.

  1. CD163 positive subsets of blood dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2006-01-01

    expression in dendritic cells (DCs) was investigated using multicolor flow cytometry in peripheral blood from 31 healthy donors and 15 HIV-1 patients in addition to umbilical cord blood from 5 newborn infants. Total RNA was isolated from MACS purified DCs and CD163 mRNA was determined with real-time reverse...... transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The effect of glucocorticoid and phorbol ester stimulation on monocyte and dendritic cell CD163 and CD91 expression was investigated in cell culture of mononuclear cells using multicolor flow cytometry. We identified two CD163+ subsets in human blood with dendritic cell...... characteristics, CD163lo and CD163hi, together constituting a substantial fraction of DCs. Both subsets were characterized as [lin]- CD4+ ILT3+ HLA-DR+ CD11c+ by flow cytometry, and CD163 mRNA was readily detectable in MACS purified human DCs. CD163 on DCs was upregulated by glucocorticoid, and treatment...

  2. Quantitative assessment of limb blood flow using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Shougase, Takashi; Kawamura, Naoyuki; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Nakada, Kunihiro; Sakuma, Makoto; Furudate, Masayori

    1987-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of limb blood flow using a non-diffusible radioindicator, Tc-99m labeled red blood cells, was reported. This was an application of venous occlusion plethysmography using radionuclide which was originally proposed by M. Fukuoka et al. The peripheral blood flow (mean ± s.e.) of 30 legs in a normal control group was 1.87 ± 0.08 ml/100 ml/min. In heart diseases (46 legs), it was 1.49 ± 0.13 ml/100 ml/min. The limb blood flow between a control group and heart diseases was statistically significant (p < 0.01) in the t-test. The peripheral blood flow at rest between diseased legs and normal legs in occlusive arterial disorders was also statistically significant (p < 0.01) in a paired t-test. RAVOP was done after the completion of objective studies such as radionuclide angiography or ventriculography. Technique and calculation of a blood flow were very easy and simple. RAVOP study which was originally proposed by Fukuoka et al. was reappraised to be hopeful for quantitative measurement of limb blood flow as a non-invasive technique using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells. (author)

  3. Evaluation of hepatic hemangioma by Tc-99 m red blood cell hepatic blood pool scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver, with a prevalence estimated as high as 7%. Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) hepatic blood pool scan with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is extremely useful for the confirmation or exclusion of hepatic hemangiomas. The classic finding of absent or decreased perfusion and increased blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool mismatch') is the key diagnostic element in the diagnosis of hemangiomas. The combination of early arterial flow and delayed blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool match') is shown uncommonly. In giant hemangioma, filling with radioactivity appears first in the periphery, with progressive central fill-in on sequential RBC blood pool scan. However, the reverse filling pattern, which begins first in the center with progressive peripheral filling, is also rarely seen. Studies with false-positive blood pooling have been reported infrequently in nonhemangiomas, including hemangiosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic adenoma, and metastatic carcinomas (adenocarcinma of the colon, small cell carcinoma of the lung, neruroendocrine carcinoma). False-negative results have been also reported rarely except for small hemagniomas that are below the limits of spatial resolution of gamma camera.

  4. Drawings of Blood Cells Reveal People's Perception of Their Blood Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ramondt

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD and thalassemia are rare but chronic blood disorders. Recent literature showed impaired quality of life (QOL in people with these blood disorders. Assessing one of the determinants of QOL (i.e. illness perceptions therefore, is an important next research area.We aimed to explore illness perceptions of people with a blood disorder with drawings in addition to the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ. Drawings are a novel method to assess illness perceptions and the free-range answers drawings offer can add additional insight into how people perceive their illness.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 17 participants with a blood disorder. Participants' illness perceptions were assessed by the Brief IPQ and drawings. Brief IPQ scores were compared with reference groups from the literature (i.e. people with asthma or lupus erythematosus.Participants with SCD or thalassemia perceived their blood disorder as being more chronic and reported more severe symptoms than people with either asthma or lupus erythematosus. In the drawings of these participants with a blood disorder, a greater number of blood cells drawn was negatively correlated with perceived personal control (P<0.05, indicating that a greater quantity in the drawing is associated with more negative or distressing beliefs.Participants with a blood disorder perceive their disease as fairly threatening compared with people with other chronic illnesses. Drawings can add additional insight into how people perceive their illness by offering free-range answers.

  5. Evaluation of hepatic hemangioma by Tc-99 m red blood cell hepatic blood pool scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee

    2005-01-01

    Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver, with a prevalence estimated as high as 7%. Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) hepatic blood pool scan with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is extremely useful for the confirmation or exclusion of hepatic hemangiomas. The classic finding of absent or decreased perfusion and increased blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool mismatch') is the key diagnostic element in the diagnosis of hemangiomas. The combination of early arterial flow and delayed blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool match') is shown uncommonly. In giant hemangioma, filling with radioactivity appears first in the periphery, with progressive central fill-in on sequential RBC blood pool scan. However, the reverse filling pattern, which begins first in the center with progressive peripheral filling, is also rarely seen. Studies with false-positive blood pooling have been reported infrequently in nonhemangiomas, including hemangiosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic adenoma, and metastatic carcinomas (adenocarcinma of the colon, small cell carcinoma of the lung, neruroendocrine carcinoma). False-negative results have been also reported rarely except for small hemagniomas that are below the limits of spatial resolution of gamma camera

  6. Gastrointestinal scintigraphy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.D.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Milk scans are by far the commonest GI study we perform. All babies regurgitate to a greater or lesser extent and there is no clear distinction between normal and abnormal. In addition gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) is not the only cause of regurgitation; regurgitation may be due to abnormal oesophageal transit, GOR or slow gastric emptying. The milk scan can detect and quantify these abnormalities. It may also detect pulmonary aspiration if this occurs during the study period. Short bowel syndrome, soiling and a constipation are the commonest indications for small and large bowel transit studies. Children with feeding difficulties and short bowel syndrome often have a segment at which hold up occurs while most children with soiling have normal or even rapid transit through small and large bowel. Ingestion of caustic substances by young children is a frequent cause of presentation at paediatric emergency centers and about 20% of these patients have significant oesophageal injury requiring ongoing therapy to prevent stricture formation. A 99m Tc sucralfate swallow is an accurate method for assessing the oesophageal injury and may be used to document healing. The methods for labeling sucralfate and performing the scan are simple. Meckel's scans are useful but require careful preparation of the patient and attention to detail. GI bleeding studies with colloid or labeled red blood cells are often requested but I find accurate localization of the bleeding site extremely difficult. (author)

  7. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  8. Differentiation of blood T cells: Reprogramming human induced pluripotent stem cells into neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ping-Hsing; Chang, Yun-Ching; Lee, Yi-Yen; Ko, Yu-Ling; Yang, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Chun-Fu; Chang, Yuh-Lih; Yu, Wen-Chung; Shih, Yang-Hsin; Chen, Ming-Teh

    2015-06-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) morphologically and functionally resemble human embryonic stem cells, which presents the opportunity to use patient-specific somatic cells for disease modeling and drug screening. In order to take one step closer to clinical applications, it is important to generate iPSCs through a less invasive approach and from any accessible tissue, including peripheral blood. Meanwhile, how to differentiate blood cell-derived iPSCs into neuron-like cells is still unclear. We utilized Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1-based episomal vectors, a nonviral system that can reprogram somatic cells into iPSCs in both feeder-dependent and feeder-free conditions, to generate iPSCs from T cells via electroporation and then induce them into neuronal cells. We successfully isolated sufficient T cells from 20 mL peripheral blood of the donors and reprogrammed these T cells into iPSCs within 4 weeks. These iPSCs could be stably passaged to at least 50 passages, and exhibited the abilities of pluripotency and multiple-lineage differentiation. Notably, under the medium induction for 21 days, these T-cell-derived iPSCs could be differentiated into Nestin (neural progenitor marker)-, GFAP (glial cell marker)-, and MAP2 (neuron cell marker)-positive cells detected by immunofluorescence methods. We have developed a safer method to generate integration-free and nonviral human iPSCs from adult somatic cells. This induction method will be useful for the derivation of human integration-free iPSCs and will also be applicable to the generation of iPSCs-derived neuronal cells for drug screening or therapeutics in the near future. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  9. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2013-05-13

    Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. White Blood Cell Counts and Malaria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McKenzie, F. E; Prudhomme, Wendy A; Magill, Alan J; Forney, J. R; Permpanich, Barnyen; Lucas, Carmen; Gasser, Jr., Robert A; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2005-01-01

    .... In Thailand, one-sixth of the P. falciparum infected patients had WBC counts of !4000 cells/mL. Leukopenia may confound population studies that estimate parasite densities on the basis of an assumed WBC count of 8000 cells/mL...

  11. Scintigraphy of the cerebrospinal fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touya, E.; Perillo, W.; Paez, A.; Osorio, A.; Ferrando, R.; Lago, G.; Garcia Guelfi, A.; Ferrari, M.

    1977-01-01

    Eight years of experience in scintigraphy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) with 113 Insup(m)-colloid is reported. Two hundred cases are discussed. On the basis of the clinical diagnosis, the cases are divided into five groups: (1) spinal cord compression; (2) hydrocephalus of the adult and child; (3) control of extracranial CSF shunts; (4) CSF fistula; and (5) brain tumour. It is concluded that the radiopharmaceutical used has no limitations except in the study of the hydrocephalus of the adult. For those services remote from the production centres, it is a convenient option for CSF scintigraphy. (author)

  12. Filter characteristics influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A W Coumans

    Full Text Available A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of whole blood spiked with cells from tumor cell lines were passed through silicon nitride microsieves, polymer track-etched filters and metal TEM grids with various pore sizes. The recovery and size of 9 different culture cell lines was determined and compared to the size of EpCAM+CK+CD45-DNA+ CTC from patients with metastatic breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. The 8 µm track-etched filter and the 5 µm microsieve had the best performance on MDA-231, PC3-9 and SKBR-3 cells, enriching >80% of cells from whole blood. TEM grids had poor recovery of ∼25%. Median diameter of cell lines ranged from 10.9-19.0 µm, compared to 13.1, 10.7, and 11.0 µm for breast, prostate and colorectal CTC, respectively. The 11.4 µm COLO-320 cell line had the lowest recovery of 17%. The ideal filter for CTC enrichment is constructed of a stiff, flat material, is inert to blood cells, has at least 100,000 regularly spaced 5 µm pores for 1 ml of blood with a ≤10% porosity. While cell size is an important factor in determining recovery, other factors must be involved as well. To evaluate a filtration procedure, cell lines with a median size of 11-13 µm should be used to challenge the system.

  13. [The scintigraphy of somatostatin receptors in the carcinoid tumor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banzo, J; Abós, M D; Prats, E; Delgado , M; Razola, P; García, S; Gomollón, F; García, F

    2001-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic utility of 111In-DTPA-D-Phe1-octreotide scintigraphy in the different situations that can be present when an examination is requested during the clinical course of the carcinoid tumor (CT). We have performed 41 scintigraphies with 111In-octreotide (145-185 MBq) in 35 patients (19 females and 16 males) with clinically suspected or confirmed CT. The patients were classified into five groups: Group A: Indolent symptoms of CT (n=9); B: CT staging located in lung (n=4), stomach (n=2), cecum (n=1), thymus (n=1) and pancreas (n=1); C: Carcinoid syndrome (n=1); D: CT staging after surgery located in pancreas (n=1), ovary (n=1), cecum (n=1), stomach (n=1), appendix (n=1) and ileum (n=1); and E: Post-treatment follow-up (n=13), with CT located in bronchial tree (n=5), small intestine (n=3), appendix (n=2), thymus (n=1), ovary (n=1) and unknown primary tumor (n=1). Three patients of this group had one scintigraphic study before the treatment. Head and neck, thorax and abdomen images were obtained at 4 and 24 h in all of the patients and SPECT images of the abdomen (n=14), thorax (n=10), and brain (n=1) were obtained at 24 h in 25 patients. Group A: In the 3 patients with a positive scintigraphy, the definitive diagnosis was meningioma, Hurtle cell's carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma. The clinical follow-up in the six other patients, at least during one year, did not show any evidence of CT. Group B: Six of the 9 CT were detected with the scintigraphy. In 2 cases of bronchial CT, the scan showed sarcoidotic regional lymph node involvement and CT hepatic and bone metastases, respectively. Group C: The scintigraphy detected hepatic metastases from an unknown primary tumor. Group D: The scintigraphy was positive in 3 cases (hepatic or/and abdominal metastases) and was normal in the other 3. The scintigraphy was negative in one patient with peritoneal metastases. Group E: The scintigraphy was normal in 7 patients in concordance with the

  14. Shape memory of human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Thomas M

    2004-05-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spheres. Shape excursions were induced by shear flow. In virtually all red cells, a shape memory was found. After stop of flow and during the return of the latex spheres to the original location, the red cell shape was biconcave. The return occurred by a tank-tread motion of the membrane. The memory could not be eliminated by deforming the red cells in shear flow up to 4 h at room temperature as well as at 37 degrees C. It is suggested that 1). the characteristic time of stress relaxation is >80 min and 2). red cells in vivo also have a shape memory.

  15. Net haemoglobin increase from reinfusion of refrigerated vs. frozen red blood cells after autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashenden, M; Mørkeberg, Jakob Sehested

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES  Two main blood storage procedures can be used for storing red blood cells: refrigeration and freezing. Nevertheless, the efficiency of these procedures measured as the increase in haemoglobin after reinfusion compared with baseline has never been examined. The main...... objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures...... of circulating haemoglobin by carbon monoxide rebreathing provided an opportunity to monitor recovery from anaemia, as well as the net increase in circulating haemoglobin after transfusion. RESULTS  The post-thaw yield of haemoglobin in the bags was 72% after refrigerated storage compared with only 52% after...

  16. Shape Memory of Human Red Blood Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Thomas M.

    2004-01-01

    The human red cell can be deformed by external forces but returns to the biconcave resting shape after removal of the forces. If after such shape excursions the rim is always formed by the same part of the membrane, the cell is said to have a memory of its biconcave shape. If the rim can form anywhere on the membrane, the cell would have no shape memory. The shape memory was probed by an experiment called go-and-stop. Locations on the membrane were marked by spontaneously adhering latex spher...

  17. Mechanisms of red blood cell transfusion-related immunomodulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remy, Kenneth E.; Hall, Mark W.; Cholette, Jill; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Nicol, Kathleen; Doctor, Allan; Blumberg, Neil; Spinella, Philip C.; Norris, Philip J.; Dahmer, Mary K.; Muszynski, Jennifer A.

    2018-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is common in critically ill, postsurgical, and posttrauma patients in whom both systemic inflammation and immune suppression are associated with adverse outcomes. RBC products contain a multitude of immunomodulatory mediators that interact with and alter immune cell

  18. Filter characteristics influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, F.A.W.; van Dalum, Guus; Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leonardus Wendelinus Mathias Marie

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of

  19. Filter Characteristics Influencing Circulating Tumor Cell Enrichment from Whole Blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, Frank A. W.; van Dalum, Guus; Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    A variety of filters assays have been described to enrich circulating tumor cells (CTC) based on differences in physical characteristics of blood cells and CTC. In this study we evaluate different filter types to derive the properties of the ideal filter for CTC enrichment. Between 0.1 and 10 mL of

  20. HIV-1 isolation from infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dispinseri, Stefania; Saba, Elisa; Vicenzi, Elisa; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) allows retrieval of replication-competent viral variants. In order to impose the smallest possible selective pressure on the viral isolates, isolation must be carried out in primary cultures of cells and

  1. Challenges for red blood cell biomarker discovery through proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barasa, B.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341538353; Slijper, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/146303989

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cells are rather unique body cells, since they have lost all organelles when mature, which results in lack of potential to replace proteins that have lost their function. They maintain only a few pathways for obtaining energy and reducing power for the key functions they need to fulfill.

  2. Determinants of resting cerebral blood flow in sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bush, Adam M.; Borzage, Matthew T.; Choi, Soyoung; Václavů, Lena; Tamrazi, Benita; Nederveen, Aart J.; Coates, Thomas D.; Wood, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is common in children with sickle cell disease and results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is increased in patients with sickle cell disease to compensate for their anemia, but adequacy of their oxygen delivery has not been systematically demonstrated.

  3. Effects of Septrin Administration on Blood Cells Parameters in Humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results showed that the packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophils and platelets were significantly decreased (p<0.05), especially after 7-10 days of septrin administration, compared to the control values. On the other hand, the reticulocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils and prothrombin time ...

  4. Blood thixotropy in patients with sickle cell anaemia: role of haematocrit and red blood cell rheological properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Vent-Schmidt

    Full Text Available We compared the blood thixotropic/shear-thinning properties and the red blood cells' (RBC rheological properties between a group of patients with sickle cell anaemia (SS and healthy individuals (AA. Blood thixotropy was determined by measuring blood viscosity with a capillary viscometer using a "loop" protocol: the shear rate started at 1 s-1 and increased progressively to 922 s-1 and then re-decreased to the initial shear rate. Measurements were performed at native haematocrit for the two groups and at 25% and 40% haematocrit for the AA and SS individuals, respectively. RBC deformability was determined by ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties by laser backscatter versus time. AA at native haematocrit had higher blood thixotropic index than SS at native haematocrit and AA at 25% haematocrit. At 40% haematocrit, SS had higher blood thixotropic index than AA. While RBC deformability and aggregation were lower in SS than in AA, the strength of RBC aggregates was higher in the former population. Our results showed that 1 anaemia is the main modulator of blood thixtropy and 2 the low RBC deformability and high RBC aggregates strength cause higher blood thixotropy in SS patients than in AA individuals at 40% haematocrit, which could impact blood flow in certain vascular compartments.

  5. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  6. IL2rg Cytokines Enhance Umbilical Cord Blood CD34+ Cells Differentiation to T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyari, Zeynab; Soleimanirad, Sara; Sayyah Melli, Manizheh; Tayefi Nasrabadi, Hamid; Nozad Charoudeh, Hojjatollah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an alternative source of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation for the treatment of patients with leukemia if matched donor is not available. CD34+ is a pan marker for human hematopoietic stem cells, including umbilical cord blood stem cell. In comparison to other sources, cord blood CD34+ cells proliferate more rapidly and produce large number of progeny cells. For ex vivo expansion of Umbilical Cord Blood- HSCs/HPCs, different combinations of cytokines have been used in many laboratories. IL2rg cytokines, including IL2, IL7 and IL15, are key cytokines in the regulation of differentiation, proliferation and survival of immune cells. IL2 is important cytokine for T cell survival and proliferation, IL7 involve in B cell development and IL15 is a key cytokine for NK cell development. In this study we evaluated the generation of T cells derived from CD34+ and CD34- cord blood mononuclear cells by using combination of cytokines including IL2, IL7 and IL15. Methods: Cultured cord blood mononuclear cells were evaluated at distinct time points during 21 days by using flow cytometry. Results: Present study showed that differentiation of T cells derived from CD34+ cord blood mononuclear cells increased by using IL2 and IL7 at different time points. In the other hand IL15 did not show any significant role in generation of T cells from CD34+ cord blood mononuclear cells. Conclusion: Taken together, our data illustrated that either IL2 or IL7 versus other cytokine combinations, generate more T cell from cord blood CD34 cells, probably this cytokines can be the best condition for ex vivo expansion of UCB HSCs. PMID:26793606

  7. Effect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Blood Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Population aging has imposed cost-effective alternatives to blood donations. Artificial blood is still at the preliminary stages of development, and the need for viable cells seems unsurmountable. Because large numbers of viable cells must be promptly available for clinical use, stem cell technologies, expansion, and banking represent ideal tools to ensure a regular supply. Provided key donors can be identified, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine, just as it is already doing in many other fields of medicine. The present review summarizes the current state of research on iPSC technology in the field of blood banking, highlighting hurdles, and promises. ©AlphaMed Press.

  8. Spatial-spectral blood cell classification with microscopic hyperspectral imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, Qiong; Chang, Lan; Li, Wei; Xu, Xiaofeng

    2017-10-01

    Microscopic hyperspectral images provide a new way for blood cell examination. The hyperspectral imagery can greatly facilitate the classification of different blood cells. In this paper, the microscopic hyperspectral images are acquired by connecting the microscope and the hyperspectral imager, and then tested for blood cell classification. For combined use of the spectral and spatial information provided by hyperspectral images, a spatial-spectral classification method is improved from the classical extreme learning machine (ELM) by integrating spatial context into the image classification task with Markov random field (MRF) model. Comparisons are done among ELM, ELM-MRF, support vector machines(SVM) and SVMMRF methods. Results show the spatial-spectral classification methods(ELM-MRF, SVM-MRF) perform better than pixel-based methods(ELM, SVM), and the proposed ELM-MRF has higher precision and show more accurate location of cells.

  9. Clinical aspects of pulmonary radioactivity observed in radiocolloid liver scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young; Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young; Lee, Won Woo [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    We studied clinical aspects and courses of patients with pulmonary radioactivity on liver scintigraphy and speculated the mechanism of pulmonary uptake of radiocolloids. Forty-nine patients with pulmonary radioactivity were classified into 5 diseases groups-liver disease, infection, cancer, ischemic necrosis of liver, etc.- and their presence of absence of chronic liver disease (CLD), Child-Pugh class, serum levels of AST and ALT, results of follow-up liver scintigraphy and clinical course were checked. Of total 49 patients 25 had CLD; there were 23 liver disease patients, 16 infection patients, 7 advanced cancer patients, 2 ischemic necrosis of liver patients, and 1 hemolytic anemia patient. Reversible rise of serum levels of AST and ALT was observed in all patients with liver disease and ischemic necrosis of liver; on one-way ANOVA, these rise were statistically significant (p<0.01). Serum level of ALT of liver disease group patients without CLD was significantly higher than that of infection group patients without CLD (p<0.05). Among 17 patients who underwent follow-up liver scintigraphy, 13 showed no pulmonary radioactivity. Total 12 patients died during follow-up and most of them were terminal cancer patients or CLD patients of Child-Pugh class C. Pulmonary radioactivity of radiocolloid liver scintigraphy could be attributed to the mobilization of reticuloendothelial system (RES) cells by the activation of RES cells in severe infection and terminal cancer, and also by the extensive liver desctruction in liver diseases.

  10. Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillin, M Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Tuchin, V V; Wang, R K; Myllylae, R

    2005-01-01

    In this work, Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain model optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals from a horizontally orientated blood layer at different stages of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and sedimentation processes. The parameters for aggregating and sedimenting blood cells were chosen based on the data available from the literature and our earlier experimental studies. We consider two different cases: a suspension of washed RBCs in physiological solution (where aggregation does not take place) and RBCs in blood plasma (which provides necessary conditions for aggregation). Good agreement of the simulation results with the available experimental data shows that the chosen optical parameters are reasonable. The dependence of the numbers of photons contributing to the OCT signal on the number of experienced scattering events was analysed for each simulated signal. It was shown that the maxima of these dependences correspond to the peaks in the OCT signals related to the interfaces between the layers of blood plasma and blood cells. Their positions can be calculated from the optical thicknesses of the layers, and the absorption and scattering coefficients of the media

  11. Filtration Parameters Influencing Circulating Tumor Cell Enrichment from Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Markus; Terstappen, Leon W. M. M.

    2013-01-01

    Filtration can achieve circulating tumor cell (CTC) enrichment from blood. Key parameters such as flow-rate, applied pressure, and fixation, vary largely between assays and their influence is not well understood. Here, we used a filtration system, to monitor these parameters and determine their relationships. Whole blood, or its components, with and without spiked tumor cells were filtered through track-etched filters. We characterize cells passing through filter pores by their apparent viscosity; the viscosity of a fluid that would pass with the same flow. We measured a ratio of 5·104∶102∶1 for the apparent viscosities of 15 µm diameter MDA-231 cells, 10 µm white cells and 90 fl red cells passing through a 5 µm pore. Fixation increases the pressure needed to pass cells through 8 µm pores 25-fold and halves the recovery of spiked tumor cells. Filtration should be performed on unfixed samples at a pressure of ∼10 mbar for a 1 cm2 track-etched filter with 5 µm pores. At this pressure MDA-231 cells move through the filter in 1 hour. If fixation is needed for sample preservation, a gentle fixative should be selected. The difference in apparent viscosity between CTC and blood cells is key in optimizing recovery of CTC. PMID:23658615

  12. Filtration parameters influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A W Coumans

    Full Text Available Filtration can achieve circulating tumor cell (CTC enrichment from blood. Key parameters such as flow-rate, applied pressure, and fixation, vary largely between assays and their influence is not well understood. Here, we used a filtration system, to monitor these parameters and determine their relationships. Whole blood, or its components, with and without spiked tumor cells were filtered through track-etched filters. We characterize cells passing through filter pores by their apparent viscosity; the viscosity of a fluid that would pass with the same flow. We measured a ratio of 5·10(4∶10(2∶1 for the apparent viscosities of 15 µm diameter MDA-231 cells, 10 µm white cells and 90 fl red cells passing through a 5 µm pore. Fixation increases the pressure needed to pass cells through 8 µm pores 25-fold and halves the recovery of spiked tumor cells. Filtration should be performed on unfixed samples at a pressure of ∼10 mbar for a 1 cm(2 track-etched filter with 5 µm pores. At this pressure MDA-231 cells move through the filter in 1 hour. If fixation is needed for sample preservation, a gentle fixative should be selected. The difference in apparent viscosity between CTC and blood cells is key in optimizing recovery of CTC.

  13. Red blood cell image enhancement techniques for cells with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quality or challenging conditions of the images such as poor illumination of blood smear and most importantly overlapping RBC. The algorithm comprises of two RBC segmentation that can be selected based on the image quality, circle mask technique and grayscale blood smear image processing. Detail explanations ...

  14. Bone scintigraphy in children: trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harcke, H.T. (Alfred I. du Pont Institute, Wilmington, DE (USA))

    1983-12-01

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging in identifying skeletal trauma in children has been established. Growth plates present a set of problems unique to pediatric studies and diagnotic accuracy is very technique dependent. Imaging for sports injuries and suspected child abuse has been productive. An expanding role for bone scintigraphy in the management of orthopedic problems post-trauma is developing.

  15. Bone scintigraphy in children: trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harcke, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging in identifying skeletal trauma in children has been established. Growth plates present a set of problems unique to pediatric studies and diagnotic accuracy is very technique dependent. Imaging for sports injuries and suspected child abuse has been productive. An expanding role for bone scintigraphy in the management of orthopedic problems post-trauma is developing [fr

  16. Measuring osmosis and hemolysis of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodhead, Lauren K; MacMillan, Frances M

    2017-06-01

    Since the discovery of the composition and structure of the mammalian cell membrane, biologists have had a clearer understanding of how substances enter and exit the cell's interior. The selectively permeable nature of the cell membrane allows the movement of some solutes and prevents the movement of others. This has important consequences for cell volume and the integrity of the cell and, as a result, is of utmost clinical importance, for example in the administration of isotonic intravenous infusions. The concepts of osmolarity and tonicity are often confused by students as impermeant isosmotic solutes such as NaCl are also isotonic; however, isosmotic solutes such as urea are actually hypotonic due to the permeant nature of the membrane. By placing red blood cells in solutions of differing osmolarities and tonicities, this experiment demonstrates the effects of osmosis and the resultant changes in cell volume. Using hemoglobin standard solutions, where known concentrations of hemoglobin are produced, the proportion of hemolysis and the effect of this on resultant hematocrit can be estimated. No change in cell volume occurs in isotonic NaCl, and, by placing blood cells in hypotonic NaCl, incomplete hemolysis occurs. By changing the bathing solution to either distilled water or isosmotic urea, complete hemolysis occurs due to their hypotonic effects. With the use of animal blood in this practical, students gain useful experience in handling tissue fluids and calculating dilutions and can appreciate the science behind clinical scenarios. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Allogeneic red blood cell transfusions: efficacy, risks, alternatives and indications

    OpenAIRE

    Madjdpour, C.; Spahn, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    Careful assessment of risks and benefits has to precede each decision on allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Currently, a number of key issues in transfusion medicine are highly controversial, most importantly the influence of different transfusion thresholds on clinical outcome. The aim of this article is to review current evidence on blood transfusions, to highlight ‘hot topics' with respect to efficacy, outcome and risks, and to provide the reader with transfusion guidelines. In a...

  18. In vivo red blood cell compatibility testing using indium-113m tropolone-labeled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, G.J.; Gravelle, D.; Dietz, G.; Driedger, A.A.; King, M.; Cradduck, T.D.

    1988-01-01

    In vivo radionuclide crossmatch is a method for identifying compatible blood for transfusion when allo- or autoantibodies preclude the use of conventional crossmatching techniques. A technique for labeling small volumes of donor red blood cells with [/sup 113m/In]tropolone is reported. The use of /sup 113m/In minimizes the accumulation of background radioactivity and the radiation dose especially so when multiple crossmatches are performed. Labeling red cells with [/sup 113m/In]tropolone is faster and easier to perform than with other radionuclides. Consistently high labeling efficiencies are obtained and minimal /sup 113m/In activity elutes from the labeled red blood cells. A case study involving 22 crossmatches is presented to demonstrate the technique. The radiation dose equivalent from /sup 113m/In is significantly less than with other radionuclides that may be used to label red cells

  19. Potential uses for cord blood mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrabi, Morteza; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Abroun, Saeid; Sadeghi, Bahareh

    2014-01-01

    Stem cell therapy is a powerful technique for the treatment of a number of diseases. Stem cells are derived from different tissue sources, the most important of which are the bone marrow (BM), umbilical cord (UC) blood and liver. Human UC mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) are multipotent, non-hematopoietic stem cells that have the ability to self-renew and differentiate into other cells and tissues such as osteoblasts, adipocytes and chondroblasts. In a number of reports, human and mouse models of disease have hUC-MSCs treatments. In this article, we review studies that pertain to the use of hUC-MSCs as treatment for diseases.

  20. Chaotic Dynamics of Red Blood Cells in a Sinusoidal Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupire, Jules; Abkarian, Manouk; Viallat, Annie

    2010-04-01

    We show that the motion of individual red blood cells in an oscillating moderate shear flow is described by a nonlinear system of three coupled oscillators. Our experiments reveal that the cell tank treads and tumbles either in a stable way with synchronized cell inclination, membrane rotation and hydrodynamic oscillations, or in an irregular way, very sensitively to initial conditions. By adapting our model described previously, we determine the theoretical diagram for the red cell motion in a sinusoidal flow close to physiological shear stresses and flow variation frequencies and reveal large domains of chaotic motions. Finally, fitting our observations allows a characterization of cell viscosity and membrane elasticity.

  1. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-Chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-10-01

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood—without reagents, electricity, or instruments—is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 102/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries.

  2. Use of cryopreserved peripheral mononuclear blood cells in biomonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Lotte; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1999-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of storing blood samples by freezing on selected biomarkers and possible implications for biomonitoring. Comparative measurements were performed in order to investigate the use of cryopreserved vs. freshly separated peripheral mononuclear blood...... cells (PMBC) obtained from donor blood. Measurements of DNA-repair, mutant frequency, and subcell content were included. Samples for large biomonitoring studies are usually taken from study groups within a short time period of days/weeks and storing of study material for later analysis can be necessary...

  3. Scintigraphy in thyroid carcinoma; Szintigraphie beim Schilddruesenkarzinom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pink, R.; Bockisch, A. [Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany); Pink, V. [Gemeinschaftspraxis Radiologie/Nuklearmedizin, Essen (Germany)

    2004-06-01

    Primary thyroid exploration is to find the rare malignant nodule (in Germany 1/1000 in all nodular thyroids), which is capable to decrease significantly life quality and survival rate. Cervical sonography as basic examination determines the following steps with scintigraphy in nodules > 10 mm, aspiration fine needle biopsy in ''cold'' nodules and thyroidectomy in case of finding malignant cells. After surgical resection of organoid thyroid tumors and ablation of residual tissue by radioiodine follow-up is possible by sonography and serum thyreoglobulin. In case of relapse high dose radioiodine offers highly effective curative therapy of tumor and/or metastases, when the malignant tissue is avid for radioiodine. Compared to {sup 131}I-scintigraphy is PET-CT with {sup 124}I clearly superior because of better spatial resolution, precise localisation even of small metastases und new technical approaches for individual dosimetry. In case of increasing serum thyroglobuline levels and radioiodine negative metastases as well as in case of increasing serum calcitonin levels after medullary carcinoma, {sup 18}F-FDG-PET or -PET-CT is well suited as an alternate diagnostic approach. Radiolabelled somatostatin analogues may serve as diagnostic as well as therapeutic agents. (orig.)

  4. 99m Technetium pyrophosphate myocardium scintigraphy. First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toussaint, Paul.

    1976-01-01

    99m technetium pyrophosphate myocardium scintigraphy is a very recent examination technique. This work gives the results obtained on 61 patients. As a vector of the isotope, pyrophosphate has the advantage over polyphosphate of a fast bone uptake there it should be stressed that a 90 minute pause is necessary between the intraveinous injection of the isotope and the photographic recording so that the reading is not troubled by the labelled intracardiac blood pool image, an image quality criterion being the estimation of a good costal fixation which in fact appears sooner or later according to the subject. The role of pyrophosphate, chelator of calcium in fixation of the isotope on the myocardium, could be explained by the fast appearance of 'dense bodies', made up of calcium hydroxyapathice crystals, in the mitochondria of myocardium cells having undergone an irreversible necrotic process. The choice of 99 m technetium is based on its ease of use: 6 hour half-life, high-energy pure gamma emission at 140 keV. The fixed image studied under two incidences, front and left anterior oblique, is obtained from mobile images given by the scintillation camera used in connection with a data processing system. Several facts are underlined, explaining the disadvantages, advantages and indications of the method [fr

  5. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Mamoru; Hiraki, Yoshio; Takeda, Yoshihiro; Kohno, Yoshihiro; Niiya, Harutaka; Aono, Kaname; Yorimitsu, Seiichi; Takahashi, Isao

    1988-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy with indium chloride ( 111 In) was performed in fifty-one patients with the hematological diseases. The results of the investigation were that 1) in all patients, as well as in patients with aplastic anemia, no correlation was there between the degree of the indium chloride accumulation and peripheral blood counts, 2) in patients with aplastic anemia and pure red cell aplasia (PRCA) a tendency to reduction in uptake of indium chloride in bone marrow, 3) in patients with these two good correlation between the degree of indium chloride accumulation and histology of the erythroid bone marrow, but in patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and atypical leukemia no correlation between the two, so it seemed unlikely that indium chloride should reflect the effective production of erythrocytes, 4) four patients with leukemia were studied with indium chloride bone marrow imaging two times to evaluate their responses to chemotherapy, and peripheral expansion was no change or reduced in two patients with acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) and one patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) who obtained complete remission, but on the other hand, it enlarged in one patient with acute myelocytic leukemia who obtained partial remission, and 5) in two patients with chronic myelocytic leukemia it enlarged up to the ankle joints, which was considerably specific. (author)

  6. White blood cell subtypes and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Weiwei; Niu, Yixin; Li, Xiaoyong; Qin, Li; Su, Qing

    2017-01-01

    It is reported that total white blood cell is associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. The present study is to investigate the relationship of white blood cell subsets with incidence of type 2 diabetes at baseline and 3year follow-up. We chose individuals without diabetes history as our study population; 8991 individuals were included at baseline. All of the participants underwent a 75-g OGTT at baseline. White blood cell count including all the subsets were measured along with all the other laboratory indices. The participants who were not diagnosed with type 2 diabetes according to the WHO 1999 diagnostic criteria underwent another 75-g OGTT at 3year follow-up. The total WBC count, neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count were significantly increased in subjects newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus compared to non-DM subjects at baseline (all ptype 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. State of the science of blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Blood cell labeling can be considered a science in as far as it is based on precise knowledge and can be readily reproduced. This benchmark criterion is applied to all current cell labeling modalities and their relative merits and deficiencies are discussed. Mechanisms are given where they are known as well as labeling yields, label stability, and cell functionality. The focus is on the methodology and its suitability to the clinical setting rather than on clinical applications per se. Clinical results are cited only as proof of efficacy of the various methods. The emphasis is on technetium as the cell label, although comparisons are made between technetium and indium, and all blood cells are covered. 52 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Phagocytotic labelling of migratory blood cells and it clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberhausen, E.; Schroth, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A method for the labelling of monocytes and granulocytes with 99m-Tc-Sn-colloid in whole blood is described. The basis of the method is the phagocytosis of the Sn-colloid by the monocytes and granulocytes. There is the disadvantage that more than half of the activity is accumulated in the liver and spleen after the reinjection of labelled cells. Experiments in rats have revealed that about 90% of the administered cell bound activity were removed from the circulation and were taken up in the liver and spleen. By venipuncture of such a rat it was possible to remove circulating labelled cells of which, on reinjection into a second rat, about one half remiained in the circulation. This evidence indicated that phagocytotic tagging of white blood cells with 99m-Tc-Sn-colloid yielded viable, labelled cells. (Auth.)

  9. Cytomegalovirus in Australian blood donors: seroepidemiology and seronegative red blood cell component inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancini, Daniel V; Faddy, Helen M; Ismay, Sue; Chesneau, Stuart; Hogan, Chris; Flower, Robert L

    2016-06-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can lead to severe disease in high-risk subpopulations. To prevent transfusion-transmitted CMV in these patient groups, the Australian Red Cross Blood Service maintains inventories of CMV-seronegative fresh blood components. Donor demographic data and CMV seroscreening results for all blood donations and blood components issued in Australia between financial years (FYs) 2008/09 to 2012/13 inclusive were obtained. Population estimates were also extracted for the calculation of age-weighted seroprevalence estimates. Linear regression was used to model trends in red blood cell (RBC) component acquisition and demand. The estimated age-weighted seroprevalence of CMV in 20- to 69-year old Australians was 76.12 ± 0.13%, with higher seroprevalence in females and older age groups. Seroprevalence decreased over the study period, while the demand for CMV-seronegative RBC components increased. It was predicted that component acquisition may be insufficient by FY 2017/18 if current trends persist. These findings represent an evaluation of CMV seroepidemiology in Australia and form a basis to predict the future status of CMV-seronegative RBC component inventories. The results will serve to guide Blood Service operations and inform current international debate on CMV-safe blood components. © 2016 AABB.

  10. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Zhu, Jingde; Tian, Geng

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome) analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per...... strand), we report a comprehensive (92.62%) methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found...

  11. SMIM1 underlies the Vel blood group and influences red blood cell traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvejic, Ana; Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; Stephens, Jonathan C

    2013-01-01

    The blood group Vel was discovered 60 years ago, but the underlying gene is unknown. Individuals negative for the Vel antigen are rare and are required for the safe transfusion of patients with antibodies to Vel. To identify the responsible gene, we sequenced the exomes of five individuals negative...... and expression of the Vel antigen on SMIM1-transfected cells confirm SMIM1 as the gene underlying the Vel blood group. An expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL), the common SNP rs1175550 contributes to variable expression of the Vel antigen (P = 0.003) and influences the mean hemoglobin concentration of red...... blood cells (RBCs; P = 8.6 × 10(-15)). In vivo, zebrafish with smim1 knockdown showed a mild reduction in the number of RBCs, identifying SMIM1 as a new regulator of RBC formation. Our findings are of immediate relevance, as the homozygous presence of the deletion allows the unequivocal identification...

  12. Daily variation in radiosensitivity of circulating blood cells and bone marrow cell density in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabai, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Mice on a 12/12 light/dark cycle were bled during a twenty-four hour period each week for eight weeks to establish daily values of circulating blood cells. No significant daily variation was found in total red blood cells, hematocrit, or percentage of reticulocytes. A significant (P < 0.001) daily variation was found in total white blood cells, with the minimum occurring at 8 PM and the maximum occurring during the daylight hours from 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. Mice were then exposed to 0 R, 20 R, 50 R, or 100 R of x-radiation to determine what dose significantly reduces the total white cell count in circulating blood. It was found that 100 R significantly (P < .05) reduces the total white cell count over a four week period post-exposure. To determine if circulating blood cells and bone marrow cells show a diurnal radiosensitivity, mice were exposed to 100 R or 200 R of x-radiation at noon or midnight. Hematocrits, reticulocyte and white blood cell counts, daily white blood cell rhythm, and bone marrow cell density indicate that these mice were more radiosensitive at night

  13. A color and shape based algorithm for segmentation of white blood cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Salim; Ozyurek, Emel; Gunduz-Demir, Cigdem

    2014-06-01

    Computer-based imaging systems are becoming important tools for quantitative assessment of peripheral blood and bone marrow samples to help experts diagnose blood disorders such as acute leukemia. These systems generally initiate a segmentation stage where white blood cells are separated from the background and other nonsalient objects. As the success of such imaging systems mainly depends on the accuracy of this stage, studies attach great importance for developing accurate segmentation algorithms. Although previous studies give promising results for segmentation of sparsely distributed normal white blood cells, only a few of them focus on segmenting touching and overlapping cell clusters, which is usually the case when leukemic cells are present. In this article, we present a new algorithm for segmentation of both normal and leukemic cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images. In this algorithm, we propose to model color and shape characteristics of white blood cells by defining two transformations and introduce an efficient use of these transformations in a marker-controlled watershed algorithm. Particularly, these domain specific characteristics are used to identify markers and define the marking function of the watershed algorithm as well as to eliminate false white blood cells in a postprocessing step. Working on 650 white blood cells in peripheral blood and bone marrow images, our experiments reveal that the proposed algorithm improves the segmentation performance compared with its counterparts, leading to high accuracies for both sparsely distributed normal white blood cells and dense leukemic cell clusters. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  14. Structural Changes in the Surface of Red Blood Cell Membranes during Long-Term Donor Blood Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study changes in the surface of red blood cell membranes of donor blood at the macro- and ultrastructural level during its storage for 30 days and to evaluate the functional state of the red blood cell membrane during the whole storage period. Material and methods. The investigation was conducted on human whole blood and packed red blood cells placed in the specialized packs containing the preservative CPDA-1, by using calibrated electroporation and atomic force microscopy and measuring plasma pH. Conclusion. The long-term, up to 30-day, storage of whole blood and packed red blood cells at 4°C was attended by lower plasma pH and increased hemolysis rate constant during calibrated electroporation and by the development of oxidative processes. The hemolysis rate constant was also higher in the packed red blood cells than that in the whole blood. On days 5—6, the membrane structure showed defects that developed, as the blood was stored, and caused irreversible cell membrane damage by day 30. Key words: donor blood, red blood cell membranes, atomic force microscopy.

  15. Partitioning of red blood cell aggregates in bifurcating microscale flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliviotis, E.; Sherwood, J. M.; Balabani, S.

    2017-03-01

    Microvascular flows are often considered to be free of red blood cell aggregates, however, recent studies have demonstrated that aggregates are present throughout the microvasculature, affecting cell distribution and blood perfusion. This work reports on the spatial distribution of red blood cell aggregates in a T-shaped bifurcation on the scale of a large microvessel. Non-aggregating and aggregating human red blood cell suspensions were studied for a range of flow splits in the daughter branches of the bifurcation. Aggregate sizes were determined using image processing. The mean aggregate size was marginally increased in the daughter branches for a range of flow rates, mainly due to the lower shear conditions and the close cell and aggregate proximity therein. A counterintuitive decrease in the mean aggregate size was apparent in the lower flow rate branches. This was attributed to the existence of regions depleted by aggregates of certain sizes in the parent branch, and to the change in the exact flow split location in the T-junction with flow ratio. The findings of the present investigation may have significant implications for microvascular flows and may help explain why the effects of physiological RBC aggregation are not deleterious in terms of in vivo vascular resistance.

  16. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •RBCs were migrated faster than WBCs and blood pellets by laser photophoresis. •Photophoretic efficiency of RBC and WBC was simulated by the Mie scattering theory. •Spontaneous orientation of RBC parallel to the migration direction was elucidated. •Laser photophoretic separation of RBC and WBC was possible in a tip flow system. -- Abstract: Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis

  17. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi, E-mail: watarai@chem.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2013-05-13

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •RBCs were migrated faster than WBCs and blood pellets by laser photophoresis. •Photophoretic efficiency of RBC and WBC was simulated by the Mie scattering theory. •Spontaneous orientation of RBC parallel to the migration direction was elucidated. •Laser photophoretic separation of RBC and WBC was possible in a tip flow system. -- Abstract: Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis.

  18. Contribution of the bone scintigraphy in unexplained pains of the thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oufroukhi, Y.; Ech Charraq, I.; Ben Rais, N.

    2006-01-01

    Mr. R.N. 32 year's old, high level sportsman, without particular pathological antecedents, consults for pains of the area above the knee of the left thigh, of mechanical pace being exacerbated with the effort. The clinical examination notes pains induced by the deep of the left thigh. The biological assessment, in particular blood cell formula and CRP were normal. The standard radiography of the femurs did not find an anomaly of the osseous structure. Because of the persistence of the pains, an osseous scintiscan was carried out and orientated towards pathology of soft tissues. The doppler and the TDM made it possible to pose the diagnosis of intra-tissues muscular hemangioma. The early times of the bone scintigraphy appears important in the approach diagnosis of many osseous disease of the sportsman. (author)

  19. Determination of blood cell subtype concentrations from frozen whole blood samples using TruCount beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenskiöld, Cecilia; Mellgren, Karin; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Bemark, Mats

    2016-06-24

    In many studies it would be advantageous if blood samples could be collected and analyzed using flow cytometry at a later stage. Ideally, sample collection should involve little hands-on time, allow for long-term storage, and minimally influence the samples. Here we establish a flow cytometry antibody panel that can be used to determine granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocyte subset concentrations in fresh and frozen whole blood using TruCount technology. The panel can be used on fresh whole-blood samples as well as whole-blood samples that have been frozen after mixing with 10% DMSO. Concentrations in frozen and fresh sample is highly correlated both when frozen within 4 h and the day after collection (r ≥ 0.98), and the estimated concentration in frozen samples was between 91 and 94% of that in fresh samples for all cell types. Using this method whole-blood samples can be frozen using a simple preparation method, and stored long-term before accurate determination of cell concentration. This allows for standardized analysis of the samples at a reference laboratory in multi-center studies. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  20. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Generation from Blood Cells Using Sendai Virus and Centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rim, Yeri Alice; Nam, Yoojun; Ju, Ji Hyeon

    2016-12-21

    The recent development of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) proved that mature somatic cells can return to an undifferentiated, pluripotent state. Now, reprogramming is done with various types of adult somatic cells: keratinocytes, urine cells, fibroblasts, etc. Early experiments were usually done with dermal fibroblasts. However, this required an invasive surgical procedure to obtain fibroblasts from the patients. Therefore, suspension cells, such as blood and urine cells, were considered ideal for reprogramming because of the convenience of obtaining the primary cells. Here, we report an efficient protocol for iPSC generation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). By plating the transduced PBMCs serially to a new, matrix-coated plate using centrifugation, this protocol can easily provide iPSC colonies. This method is also applicable to umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs). This study presents a simple and efficient protocol for the reprogramming of PBMCs and CBMCs.

  1. Classification of blood cells and tumor cells using label-free ultrasound and photoacoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Eric M; Kolios, Michael C

    2015-08-01

    A label-free method that can identify cells in a blood sample using high frequency photoacoustic and ultrasound signals is demonstrated. When the wavelength of the ultrasound or photoacoustic wave is similar to the size of a single cell (frequencies of 100-500 MHz), unique periodic features occur within the ultrasound and photoacoustic power spectrum that depend on the cell size, structure, and morphology. These spectral features can be used to identify different cell types present in blood, such as red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and circulating tumor cells. Circulating melanoma cells are ideal for photoacoustic detection due to their endogenous optical absorption properties. Using a 532 nm pulsed laser and a 375 MHz transducer, the ultrasound and photoacoustic signals from RBCs, WBCs, and melanoma cells were individually measured in an acoustic microscope to examine how the signals change between cell types. A photoacoustic and ultrasound signal was detected from RBCs and melanoma cells; only an ultrasound signal was detected from WBCs. The different cell types were distinctly separated using the ultrasound and photoacoustic signal amplitude and power spectral periodicity. The size of each cell was also estimated from the spectral periodicity. For the first time, sound waves generated using pulse-echo ultrasound and photoacoustics have been used to identify and size single cells, with applications toward counting and identifying cells, including circulating melanoma cells. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  2. Nanoparticle encapsulation in red blood cells enables blood-pool magnetic particle imaging hours after injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmer, J; Gleich, B; Borgert, J; Antonelli, A; Sfara, C; Magnani, M; Tiemann, B; Weizenecker, J

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging approach that is based on the nonlinear magnetization response of super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) injected into the blood stream. To date, real-time MPI of the bolus passage of an approved MRI SPIO contrast agent injected into the tail vein of living mice has been demonstrated. However, nanoparticles are rapidly removed from the blood stream by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Therefore, imaging applications for long-term monitoring require the repeated administration of bolus injections, which complicates quantitative comparisons due to the temporal variations in concentration. Encapsulation of SPIOs into red blood cells (RBCs) has been suggested to increase the blood circulation time of nanoparticles. This work presents first evidence that SPIO-loaded RBCs can be imaged in the blood pool of mice several hours after injection using MPI. This finding is supported by magnetic particle spectroscopy performed to quantify the iron concentration in blood samples extracted from the mice 3 and 24 h after injection of SPIO-loaded RBCs. Based on these results, new MPI applications can be envisioned, such as permanent 3D real-time visualization of the vessel tree during interventional procedures, bleeding monitoring after stroke, or long-term monitoring and treatment control of cardiovascular diseases. (paper)

  3. White blood cell counting analysis of blood smear images using various segmentation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safuan, Syadia Nabilah Mohd; Tomari, Razali; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Othman, Nurmiza

    2017-09-01

    In white blood cell (WBC) diagnosis, the most crucial measurement parameter is the WBC counting. Such information is widely used to evaluate the effectiveness of cancer therapy and to diagnose several hidden infection within human body. The current practice of manual WBC counting is laborious and a very subjective assessment which leads to the invention of computer aided system (CAS) with rigorous image processing solution. In the CAS counting work, segmentation is the crucial step to ensure the accuracy of the counted cell. The optimal segmentation strategy that can work under various blood smeared image acquisition conditions is remain a great challenge. In this paper, a comparison between different segmentation methods based on color space analysis to get the best counting outcome is elaborated. Initially, color space correction is applied to the original blood smeared image to standardize the image color intensity level. Next, white blood cell segmentation is performed by using combination of several color analysis subtraction which are RGB, CMYK and HSV, and Otsu thresholding. Noises and unwanted regions that present after the segmentation process is eliminated by applying a combination of morphological and Connected Component Labelling (CCL) filter. Eventually, Circle Hough Transform (CHT) method is applied to the segmented image to estimate the number of WBC including the one under the clump region. From the experiment, it is found that G-S yields the best performance.

  4. Red Blood Cell Parameters as Indices of Susceptibility to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The anaemia recorded in infected cattle by 38 days post-infection (pi) was mildest in WF and most severe in SG. It was concluded that low red blood cell values (PCV, Hb and RBC) are some of the markers that are consistently associated with susceptibility of cattle to trypanosomosis. Of the three cattle breeds studied, the ...

  5. Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Jonge (Robert); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); M. Smit (Marij); M. de Frankrijker-Merkestijn; R.J. Dolhain; J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); J. Lindemans (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of automated leucocyte (white blood cell; WBC) counting by comparison with manual counting. METHODS: The number of WBC was determined in heparinized synovial fluid samples by the use of (i) a standard urine cytometer (Kova) and a

  6. effects of septrin administration on blood cells parameters in humans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    honey

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... RESEARCH PAPER. EFFECTS OF SEPTRIN ADMINISTRATION ON BLOOD CELLS PARAMETERS IN. HUMANS. *1Onyebuagu P.C., 2Kiridi K. and 1Pughikumo D.T.. 1Department of Human Physiology, Niger Delta University, Bayelsa, Nigeria. 2Department of Radiology, Niger. Delta University, Bayelsa ...

  7. Red blood cell transfusion during septic shock in the ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Smith, S H; Carlsen, S

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) remains controversial in patients with septic shock, but current practice is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate RBC transfusion practice in septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU), and patient characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion....

  8. Sorting of White Blood Cells in a Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert; Chan, Shirley; Gabel, Chris; Austin, Robert

    1997-03-01

    White blood cells represent a heterogenous population of differentially sticky and deformable objects. We examine here experiemnts where the hydrodynamic flow of such a population in a lattice of obstacles results in the fractionation of the objects, and will present modeling of the observed fractionation of the objects.

  9. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-13

    Feb 13, 2014 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 2. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using optoelectronic tweezers ... We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by lightinduced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles.

  10. Correlation between Malaria and the Red Blood Cell Indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to determine the level of malaria endemicity and correlate between malaria parasitaemia and the red blood cell indices of the pregnant women in the Buea and Tiko health districts of the south west region of Cameroon. Samples were drawn from: The CDC Central Clinic Tiko, the Mutengene Baptist ...

  11. Red blood cells intended for transfusion : quality criteria revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogman, CF; Meryman, HT

    Great variation exists with respect to viability and function of fresh and stored red blood cells (RBCs) as well as of the contents of RBC hemoglobin (Hb) in individual units. Improved technology is available for the preparation as well as the storage of RBCs. The authors raise the question whether

  12. Prolonged storage of red blood cells affects aminophospholipid translocase activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A. J.; Hilarius, P. M.; Dekkers, D. W. C.; Lagerberg, J. W. M.; de Korte, D.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Loss of phospholipid asymmetry in the membrane of red blood cells (RBC) results in exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) and to subsequent removal from the circulation. In this study, we investigated the effect of long-term storage of RBCs on two activities affecting

  13. Assessment of Red Blood Cell Parameters and Peripheral Smear at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold agglutination disease (CAD) is characterized by an auto‑antibody which is able to agglutinate red blood cells (RBCs) at temperatures lower than that of the body, and subsequently to activate the complement system responsible for lysis of RBCs. Patients show hemolytic anemia of varying degrees of severity, which ...

  14. Use of hydroxyethyl starch for inducing red blood cell aggregation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van der Mei, Henny C.; Busscher, Henk J.

    2012-01-01

    Aggregation of human red blood cells (RBC) remains of biological and clinical interest. Replacement of plasma proteins by polymers to induce RBC aggregation may help to unravel the fundamentals of the aggregation process. Two theories exist to explain RBC aggregation mechanisms: a depletion and a

  15. Micronuclei in red blood cells of armored catfish Hypostomus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present work aims to evaluate the impact of potassium dichromate in armored catfishes' (Hypostomus plecotomus) erythropoiesis, using piscine micronucleus test. Armored catfishes (n = 30) were subjected to 12 mg/L of potassium dichromate, with an equal control group (n = 30). For each 2,000 red blood cells of ...

  16. Vascular Cell Senescence Contributes to Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamazaki, Y.; Baker, D.J.; Tachibana, M.; Liu, C.C.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Brott, T.G.; Bu, G.; Kanekiyo, T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Age-related changes in the cerebrovasculature, including blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, are emerging as potential risks for diverse neurological conditions. Because the accumulation of senescent cells in tissues is increasingly recognized as a critical step leading to

  17. Diet induced gene expression in rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caimari, A.; Oliver, P.; Rodenburg, W.; Keijer, Jaap; Palou, A.

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression of rat peripheral blood mononuclear cells was analyzed by microarray analysis in normoweight and in diet-induced obese rats (cafeteria rats). The aim of this study was to identify genes involved in energy homeostasis that are altered in the obese state.

  18. Shape of red blood cells in contact with artificial surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzhibovskis, Richards; Krämer, Elisabeth; Bernhardt, Ingolf; Kemper, Björn; Zanden, Carl; Repin, Nikolay V; Tkachuk, Bogdan V; Voinova, Marina V

    2017-03-01

    The phenomenon of physical contact between red blood cells and artificial surfaces is considered. A fully three-dimensional mathematical model of a bilayer membrane in contact with an artificial surface is presented. Numerical results for the different geometries and adhesion intensities are found to be in agreement with experimentally observed geometries obtained by means of digital holographic microscopy.

  19. Alterations of red blood cell metabolome in overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darghouth, D.; Koehl, B.; Heilier, J.F.; Madalinski, G.; Bovee, P.H.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Delaunay, J.; Junot, C.; Romeo, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, clinically characterized by hemolytic anemia, is a rare disorder of the erythrocyte membrane permeability to monovalent cations, associated with mutations in the Rh-associated glycoprotein gene. We assessed the red blood cell metabolome of 4 patients with this

  20. Characteristic point algorithm in laser ektacytometry of red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, S. Yu.; Ustinov, V. D.

    2018-01-01

    We consider the problem of measuring red blood cell deformability by laser diffractometry in shear flow (ektacytometry). A new equation is derived that relates the parameters of the diffraction pattern to the width of the erythrocyte deformability distribution. The numerical simulation method shows that this equation provides a higher accuracy of measurements in comparison with the analogous equation obtained by us earlier.

  1. Radiolabelled blood elements techniques and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    Over the past few years, in nuclear medicine, the diagnostic applications of radiolabelled blood elements in general, and of radiolabelled white blood cells in particular, have become increasingly popular. This is primarily due to the introduction of lipid soluble 111 In-oxine as an agent, which not only is an excellent and a reliable tracer for blood cells but also enables the investigators to study the in vivo cell kinetics and map the localization of labelled cells by external gamma scintigraphy. The tracer has the modest half life of 67 hours and decays with the emission of two gamma photons (173 and 247 keV) in high abundance. This technique has provided a powerful tool to study the in vivo cell kinetics in health and localize abnormal lesions in diseases which invoke intense focal cellular concentration

  2. Whole-blood leukoreduction filters are a source for cryopreserved cells for phenotypic and functional investigations on peripheral blood lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Néron, Sonia; Dussault, Nathalie; Racine, Claudia

    2006-04-01

    Leukoreduction of blood is now widely performed by blood banks, and the possibility of recovering 10(8) to 10(9) white blood cells (WBCs) from leukoreduction filters, which are usually discarded, represents a promising source for normal human cells. Previous studies with these filters to prepare WBCs have performed their experimentation with fresh cells only. Whether these filter-derived cells could also be used to prepare frozen cell banks to facilitate work organization and open new avenues for their utilization as references in physiological studies and clinical investigations was investigated. Blood samples or whole-blood leukoreduction filters were obtained, after informed consent, from volunteers or blood donors, respectively. The proportions of CD3+, CD14+, CD16+, CD19+, and CD45+ cells within peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) were determined by flow cytometry from all samples. B cells were isolated and their functional responses were evaluated in vitro. The yield of PBMNCs recovered from whole-blood leukoreduction filters was lower (50%) than the one with fresh blood samples but still provided 2 x 10(8) to 4 x 10(8) PBMNCs per unit. After one cycle of freezing-thawing, the proportions of B- and T-cell populations were similar to normal blood values. Purified B cells issued from whole-blood leukoreduction filters displayed normal phenotypes and functions. Leukoreduction filters represent a valuable source of PBMNCs. These cells could be easily recovered to prepare frozen cell banks useful in basic phenotypic and functional analyses involving the main subsets of B cells and the global T-cell population.

  3. Lung perfusion scintigraphy by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Takanobu

    1990-01-01

    The initial study reports the characteristic performance using lung segmental phantom filled in Tc-99m pertechnetate. To evaluate the segmental defect in lung perfusion scintigraphy, we applied Bull's-eye analysis in addition to planar image set. Bull's-eye analysis especially facilitated the interpretation in both middle and lower lobes. Subsequently, to evolute the clinical application of Bull's-eye analysis, pulmonary scintigraphy was performed on 10 normal subjects and 60 patients with several pulmonary diseases. Of interest, Bull's-eye analysis, however, encouraged the interpretation in both lower lobes. To calculate the extention and severity of perfusion defect, the present study describes Bull's-eye analysis. Quantitative scoring showed higher in patients with lung cancer than those with pulmonary tuberculosis. The present study focus that Bull's-eye analysis can be useful for evaluating perfusion in patients with a couple of pulmonary diseases. (author)

  4. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Majano, V.; Miskew, D.; Sansi, P.

    1981-01-01

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of 99 sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections. (orig.) [de

  5. Parathyroid Scintigraphy in Renal Hyperparathyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taïeb, David; Ureña-Torres, Pablo; Zanotti-Fregonara, Paolo; Rubello, Domenico; Ferretti, Alice; Henter, Ioline; Henry, Jean-François; Schiavi, Francesca; Opocher, Giuseppe; Blickman, Johan G.; Colletti, Patrick M.; Hindié, Elif

    2015-01-01

    Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is a major complication for patients with end-stage renal disease on long-term hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. When the disease is resistant to medical treatment, patients with severe sHPT are typically referred for parathyroidectomy (PTx), which usually improves biological parameters as well as clinical signs and symptoms. Unfortunately, early surgical failure with persistent disease may occur in 5%–10% of patients and recurrence reaches 20%–30% at 5 years. Presently, the use of parathyroid scintigraphy in sHPT is usually limited to the management of surgical failures after initial PTx. This review describes the strengths and limitations of typical 99mTc-sestamibi imaging protocols, and highlights the potential benefits of using parathyroid scintigraphy in the initial workup of surgical patients. PMID:23751837

  6. Cellular function reinstitution of offspring red blood cells cloned from the sickle cell disease patient blood post CRISPR genome editing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jianguo; Tao, Wenjing; Hao, Suyang; Zu, Youli

    2017-06-13

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a disorder of red blood cells (RBCs) expressing abnormal hemoglobin-S (HbS) due to genetic inheritance of homologous HbS gene. However, people with the sickle cell trait (SCT) carry a single allele of HbS and do not usually suffer from SCD symptoms, thus providing a rationale to treat SCD. To validate gene therapy potential, hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from the SCD patient blood and treated with CRISPR/Cas9 approach. To precisely dissect genome-editing effects, erythroid progenitor cells were cloned from single colonies of CRISPR-treated cells and then expanded for simultaneous gene, protein, and cellular function studies. Genotyping and sequencing analysis revealed that the genome-edited erythroid progenitor colonies were converted to SCT genotype from SCD genotype. HPLC protein assays confirmed reinstallation of normal hemoglobin at a similar level with HbS in the cloned genome-edited erythroid progenitor cells. For cell function evaluation, in vitro RBC differentiation of the cloned erythroid progenitor cells was induced. As expected, cell sickling assays indicated function reinstitution of the genome-edited offspring SCD RBCs, which became more resistant to sickling under hypoxia condition. This study is an exploration of genome editing of SCD HSPCs.

  7. Cellular function reinstitution of offspring red blood cells cloned from the sickle cell disease patient blood post CRISPR genome editing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Wen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell disease (SCD is a disorder of red blood cells (RBCs expressing abnormal hemoglobin-S (HbS due to genetic inheritance of homologous HbS gene. However, people with the sickle cell trait (SCT carry a single allele of HbS and do not usually suffer from SCD symptoms, thus providing a rationale to treat SCD. Methods To validate gene therapy potential, hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from the SCD patient blood and treated with CRISPR/Cas9 approach. To precisely dissect genome-editing effects, erythroid progenitor cells were cloned from single colonies of CRISPR-treated cells and then expanded for simultaneous gene, protein, and cellular function studies. Results Genotyping and sequencing analysis revealed that the genome-edited erythroid progenitor colonies were converted to SCT genotype from SCD genotype. HPLC protein assays confirmed reinstallation of normal hemoglobin at a similar level with HbS in the cloned genome-edited erythroid progenitor cells. For cell function evaluation, in vitro RBC differentiation of the cloned erythroid progenitor cells was induced. As expected, cell sickling assays indicated function reinstitution of the genome-edited offspring SCD RBCs, which became more resistant to sickling under hypoxia condition. Conclusions This study is an exploration of genome editing of SCD HSPCs.

  8. Photoacoustic measurements of red blood cell oxygen saturation in blood bags in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ruben N.; Bagga, Karan; Douplik, Alexandre; Acker, Jason P.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2017-03-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a critical component of the health care services. RBCs are stored in blood bags in hypothermic temperatures for a maximum of 6 weeks post donation. During this in vitro storage period, RBCs have been documented to undergo changes in structure and function due to mechanical and biochemical stress. Currently, there are no assessment methods that monitor the quality of RBCs within blood bags stored for transfusion. Conventional assessment methods require the extraction of samples, consequently voiding the sterility of the blood bags and potentially rendering them unfit for transfusions. It is hypothesized that photoacoustic (PA) technology can provide a rapid and non-invasive indication of RBC quality. In this study, a novel PA setup was developed for the acquisition of oxygen saturation (SO2) of two blood bags in situ. These measurements were taken throughout the lifespan of the blood bags (42 days) and compared against the clinical gold standard method of the blood gas analyzer (BGA). SO2 values of the blood bags increased monotonically throughout the storage period. A strong correlation between PA SO2 and BGA SO2 was found, however, PA values were on average 3.5% lower. Both techniques found the bags to increase by an SO2 of approximately 20%, and measured very similar rates of SO2 change. Future work will be focused on determining the cause of discrepancy between SO2 values acquired from PA versus BGA, as well as establishing links between the measured SO2 increase and other changes in RBC in situ.

  9. The in-vitro study of human blood leukemic cells by pulsed NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkarnaen, M.; Munawir; Wibowo, Tono; Suyitno, Gogot

    1983-01-01

    The diagram of leukemic cells in human blood has been studied by using the NMR longitudinal relaxation technique. The observation was treated in whole blood, serum and blood cell. Every result was compared with previous observation and show that the values of the proton longitudinal relaxation in the leukemic whole blood almost twice or more that of normal blood, while in the serum and the blood cell, the values are nearly the same. (author)

  10. Red blood cell phenotype prevalence in blood donors who self-identify as Hispanic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheppard, Chelsea A; Bolen, Nicole L; Eades, Beth

    2017-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genotyping platforms provide a quick, high-throughput method for identifying red blood cell units for patients on extended phenotype-matching protocols, such as those with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Most of the antigen prevalence data reported are for non-Hispanic ......CONCLUSIONS: Molecular genotyping platforms provide a quick, high-throughput method for identifying red blood cell units for patients on extended phenotype-matching protocols, such as those with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. Most of the antigen prevalence data reported are for non......-Hispanic populations. Therefore, this study sought to determine the phenotype prevalence in a single blood center's Hispanic population and to compare those results with previously reported rates in non-Hispanic donor populations. We performed a retrospective review of all serologic and molecular typing from donors....... The most prevalent probable Rh phenotypes were R1r (26.6%), R1R2 (21.5%), and R1R1 (20.7%); rr was found in 7.8 percent of donors tested. The percentage of K+ donors in this population was 2.8 percent. The most prevalent Duffy phenotypes were Fy(a+b+) (35.9%), Fy(a+b-) (35.6%), and Fy(a-b+) (27...

  11. Blood on the tracks: hematopoietic stem cell-endothelial cell interactions in homing and engraftment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlin, Julie R; Sporrij, Audrey; Zon, Leonard I

    2017-08-01

    Cells of the hematopoietic system undergo rapid turnover. Each day, humans require the production of about one hundred billion new blood cells for proper function. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are rare cells that reside in specialized niches and are required throughout life to produce specific progenitor cells that will replenish all blood lineages. There is, however, an incomplete understanding of the molecular and physical properties that regulate HSC migration, homing, engraftment, and maintenance in the niche. Endothelial cells (ECs) are intimately associated with HSCs throughout the life of the stem cell, from the specialized endothelial cells that give rise to HSCs, to the perivascular niche endothelial cells that regulate HSC homeostasis. Recent studies have dissected the unique molecular and physical properties of the endothelial cells in the HSC vascular niche and their role in HSC biology, which may be manipulated to enhance hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapies.

  12. A Framework for White Blood Cell Segmentation in Microscopic Blood Images Using Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Evaluation of blood smear is a commonly clinical test these days. Most of the time, the hematologists are interested on white blood cells (WBCs) only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. For example, disease like acute leukemia is detected based on the amount and condition of the WBC. The main objective of this paper is to segment the WBC to its two dominant elements: nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using a proposed segmentation framework that consists of an integration of several digital image processing algorithms. Twenty microscopic blood images were tested, and the proposed framework managed to obtain 92% accuracy for nucleus segmentation and 78% for cytoplasm segmentation. The results indicate that the proposed framework is able to extract the nucleus and cytoplasm region in a WBC image sample. PMID:19517206

  13. ABO blood group mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekgündüz, Sibel Akpınar; Özbek, Namık

    2016-02-01

    Apart from solid organ transplantations, use of ABO-blood group mismatched (ABO-mismatched) donors is acceptable in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) patients. About 20-40% of allogeneic HSCT recipients will receive grafts from ABO-mismatched donors. ABO incompatible HSCT procedures are associated with immediate and late consequences, including but not restricted to acute or delayed hemolytic reactions, delayed red blood cell recovery, pure red cell aplasia and graft-versus-host disease. This review summarizes the current knowledge about consequences of ABO-mismatched HSCT in terms of associated complications and will evaluate its impact on important outcome parameters of HSCT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Current state of the art of blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.; Gil, M.C.

    1985-01-01

    An update on some recent developments in the area of blood cell labeling is provided. Specific topics covered include red cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc, platelet labeling using an antiplatelet monoclonal antibody, and the labeling of leukocytes with /sup 99m/Tc. Mechanistic information, where available, is discussed. A critical evaluation of current techniques, their pitfalls as well as advantages, and the problems that remain to be resolved, is presented. The promise shown by recent results using the antibody approach for cell labeling is emphasized. An assessment of the progress made in these areas is presented. 38 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Multiscale Modeling of Red Blood Cells Squeezing through Submicron Slits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Lu, Huijie

    2016-11-01

    A multiscale model is applied to study the dynamics of healthy red blood cells (RBCs), RBCs in hereditary spherocytosis, and sickle cell disease squeezing through submicron slits. This study is motivated by the mechanical filtration of RBCs by inter-endothelial slits in the spleen. First, the model is validated by comparing the simulation results with experiments. Secondly, the deformation of the cytoskeleton in healthy RBCs is investigated. Thirdly, the mechanisms of damage in hereditary spherocytosis are investigated. Finally, the effects of cytoplasm and membrane viscosities, especially in sickle cell disease, are examined. The simulations results provided guidance for future experiments to explore the dynamics of RBCs under extreme deformation.

  16. Cholesterol metabolism in blood cells of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novoselova, E.G.; Kulagina, T.P.; Potekhina, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    Cholesterol metabolism in blood erythrocytes and lymphocytes of irradiated rats has been investigated. It has been found that at all terms and doses of irradiation, a suppression of the synthesis of erythrocyte cholesterol is observed. The increase of cholesterol quantiy in erythrocytes upon total gamma irradiation in the 10 Gr dose possibly is the result of growth of cholesterol transfer from plasma into erythrocyte cells. The study of the cholesterol synthesis in suspension of lymphocytes elminated from peripheral blood of control and irradiated rats has shown that at irradiation doses of 4 and 10 Gr in an hour acivation of cholesterol synthesis in vitro takes places

  17. The measurement of limb blood flow using technetium-labelled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, A; Robinson, P.J.; Wiggins, P.A.; Leveson, S.H.; Salter, M.C.P.; Matthews, I.F.; Ware, F.M.

    1986-01-01

    A method for measuring blood flow below the knee during reactive hyperaemia induced by 3 min of arterial occlusion has been developed. Subjects are positioned with lower limbs within the field of view of a gamma camera and pneumatic cuffs are placed below the knees to isolate the blood and induce a hyperaemic response. The remaining blood pool is labelled with 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled red cells. Blood flows have been derived from the initial gradients of time-activity curves and from equilibrium blood sampling. The technique has been validated using a tissue-equivalent leg phantom and peristaltic pump. The method has been applied to a small group of patients with peripheral vascular disease and to normal controls. The mean value (+-SD) of limb perfusion for normal controls was found to be 16.4+-3.0 ml/100 ml/min and for patients with intermittent claudication was 5.1+-2.6 ml/100 ml/min. Flow measurements are found to correlate with clinical findings and with symptoms. Reproducibility (established by repeated measurements) is high. The method is well tolerated even by patients suffering from rest pain. (author)

  18. A cell transportation solution that preserves live circulating tumor cells in patient blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Steingrimur; Adams, Daniel L; Ershler, William B; Le, Huyen; Ho, David H

    2016-05-06

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are typically collected into CellSave fixative tubes, which kills the cells, but preserves their morphology. Currently, the clinical utility of CTCs is mostly limited to their enumeration. More detailed investigation of CTC biology can be performed on live cells, but obtaining live CTCs is technically challenging, requiring blood collection into biocompatible solutions and rapid isolation which limits transportation options. To overcome the instability of CTCs, we formulated a sugar based cell transportation solution (SBTS) that stabilizes cell viability at ambient temperature. In this study we examined the long term viability of human cancer cell lines, primary cells and CTCs in human blood samples in the SBTS for transportation purposes. Four cell lines, 5 primary human cells and purified human PBMCs were tested to determine the viability of cells stored in the transportation solution at ambient temperature for up to 7 days. We then demonstrated viability of MCF-7 cells spiked into normal blood with SBTS and stored for up to 7 days. A pilot study was then run on blood samples from 3 patients with metastatic malignancies stored with or without SBTS for 6 days. CTCs were then purified by Ficoll separation/microfilter isolation and identified using CTC markers. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue or CellTracker™ live cell stain. Our results suggest that primary/immortalized cell lines stored in SBTS remain ~90% viable for > 72 h. Further, MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood remain viable when stored with SBTS for up to 7 days. Finally, live CTCs were isolated from cancer patient blood samples kept in SBTS at ambient temperature for 6 days. No CTCs were isolated from blood samples stored without SBTS. In this proof of principle pilot study we show that viability of cell lines is preserved for days using SBTS. Further, this solution can be used to store patient derived blood samples for eventual isolation of viable CTCs after

  19. Studies on ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) using sheep red blood cells as target cells, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yukinobu; Takaya, Masatoshi; Arimori, Shigeru

    1979-01-01

    A non-specific cytotoxic mediator from effector cells (human peripheral blood leukocytes) was investigated in the ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) system using antibody-coated sheep red blood cells (SRBC) as target cells. 51 Cr-labelled homologous (sheep) or heterologous (human) red blood cells were used as adjacent cells. Either crude lymphocyte fraction, phagocyte depleted fraction or granulocyte rich fraction separated from human peripheral leukocytes showed moderate cytotoxic effect on homologous adjacent cells, however no cytotoxic activity on heterologous adjacent cells was demonstrated in any leukocyte fraction. This suggests that the cytotoxic effects on homologous adjacent cells were resulted from the translocation of antibody molecules to adjacent cells from antibody-coated target cells. We concluded that the cytotoxic mechanism in this ADCC system was not mediated by non-specific soluble factors released from either human peripheral lymphocytes, monocytes or granulocytes. (author)

  20. Characterization of red blood cells (RBCs) using dual Brillouin/Raman micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Bustamante-Lopez, Sandra C.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2016-04-01

    Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, transport oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body's tissues and organs. Red blood cell mechanical properties are altered in a number of diseases such as sickle cell anaemia and malaria. Additionally, mechanically modified red blood cell ghosts are being considered as a long-term, biocompatible carrier for drug delivery and for blood analyte sensing. Brillouin spectroscopy enables viscoelastic characterization of samples at the microscale. In this report, Brillouin spectroscopy is applied to characterize the mechanical properties of red blood cells and red blood cell ghosts.

  1. Erythropoietic Potential of CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Human Cord Blood and G-CSF-Mobilized Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglian Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC supply for transfusion has been severely constrained by the limited availability of donor blood and the emergence of infection and contamination issues. Alternatively, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from human organs have been increasingly considered as safe and effective blood source. Several methods have been studied to obtain mature RBCs from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells via in vitro culture. Among them, human cord blood (CB and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized adult peripheral blood (mPB are common adult stem cells used for allogeneic transplantation. Our present study focuses on comparing CB- and mPB-derived stem cells in differentiation from CD34+ cells into mature RBCs. By using CD34+ cells from cord blood and G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood, we showed in vitro RBC generation of artificial red blood cells. Our results demonstrate that CB- and mPB-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells have similar characteristics when cultured under the same conditions, but differ considerably with respect to expression levels of various genes and hemoglobin development. This study is the first to compare the characteristics of CB- and mPB-derived erythrocytes. The results support the idea that CB and mPB, despite some similarities, possess different erythropoietic potentials in in vitro culture systems.

  2. Peripheral Red Blood Cell Split Chimerism as a Consequence of Intramedullary Selective Apoptosis of Recipient Red Blood Cells in a Case of Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marziali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic cellular gene therapy through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only radical cure for congenital hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Persistent mixed hematopoietic chimerism (PMC has been described in thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Here, we describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl who had received bone marrow transplant for sickle cell anemia. After the transplant, the patient showed 36% donor hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, whereas in the peripheral blood there was evidence of 80%  circulating donor red blood cells (RBC. The analysis of apoptosis at the Bone Marrow  level suggests that Fas might contribute to the cell death of host erythroid precursors. The increase in NK cells and the regulatory T cell population observed in this patient suggests that these cells might contribute to the condition of mixed chimerism.

  3. Cobalt uptake and binding in human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lars Ole; Brown, Anthony M; Harbak, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A23187 mediates a rapid equilibration of Co(2+) across the cell membrane leading to a marked accumulation, reflecting effective cytoplasmic buffering. The fraction (a(Co)) of total cell cobalt being present as free, ionized Co(2+) is estimated at a(Co)=0.01 from the equilibrium distribution...... reversibly bound, being releasable by excess extracellular EGTA in the presence of A23187, and partly tightly bound, remaining in the cells even at high ionophore concentrations. The tightly bound fraction builds up over time, and is larger and develops earlier in fed cells compared to ATP-depleted cells......, compared with timed or in-competition whole-blood and serum analysis, an average value for the exposure over the last couple of months....

  4. HIV-1 isolation from infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispinseri, Stefania; Saba, Elisa; Vicenzi, Elisa; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) allows retrieval of replication-competent viral variants. In order to impose the smallest possible selective pressure on the viral isolates, isolation must be carried out in primary cultures of cells and not in tumor derived cell lines. The procedure involves culture of PBMCs from an infected patient with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC from seronegative donors, which provide susceptible target cells for HIV replication. HIV can be isolated from the bulk population of PBMCs or after cloning of the cells to obtain viral biological clones. Viral production is determined with p24 antigen (Ag) detection assays or with reverse transcriptase (RT) activity assay. Once isolated, HIV-1 can be propagated by infecting PHA-stimulated PBMCs from healthy donors. Aliquots from culture with a high production of virus are stored for later use.

  5. Thymic scintigraphy using 201Tl-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Teruo; Itami, Michimasa; Sawa, Hisashi; Furukawa, Takashi; Harada, Shigeru

    1980-01-01

    Thymic scintigraphy using Thallium-201 Chloride ( 201 TlCl) was performed on 3 cases of thymoma (2 malignant mediastinal thymomas and 1 benign cervical thymoma). All of the 3 cases exhibited high abnormal activities corresponding to the tumor on the scintigram. Thus it is useful to perform the scintigraphy using 201 TlCl for the detection of thymoma. (author)

  6. Harvesting, processing and inventory management of peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijovic Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2003, 97% autologous transplants and 65% of allogeneic transplants in Europe used mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC. Soon after their introduction in the early 1990′s, PBSC were associated with faster haemopoietic recovery, fewer transfusions and antibiotic usage, and a shorter hospital stay. Furthermore, ease and convenience of PBSC collection made them more appealing than BM harvests. Improved survival has hitherto been demonstrated in patients with high risk AML and CML. However, the advantages of PBSC come at a price of a higher incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. In order to be present in the blood, stem cells undergo the process of "mobilisation" from their bone marrow habitat. Mobilisation, and its reciprocal process - homing - are regulated by a complex network of molecules on the surface of stem cells and stromal cells, and enzymes and cytokines released from granulocytes and osteoclasts. Knowledge of these mechanisms is beginning to be exploited for clinical purposes. In current practice, stem cell are mobilised by use of chemotherapy in conjunction with haemopoietic growth factors (HGF, or with HGF alone. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor has emerged as the single most important mobilising agent, due to its efficacy and a relative paucity of serious side effects. Over a decade of use in healthy donors has resulted in vast experience of optimal dosing and administration, and safety matters. PBSC harvesting can be performed on a variety of cell separators. Apheresis procedures are nowadays routine, but it is important to be well versed in the possible complications in order to avoid harm to the patient or donor. To ensure efficient collection, harvesting must begin when sufficient stem cells have been mobilised. A rapid, reliable, standardized blood test is essential to decide when to begin harvesting; currently, blood CD34+ cell counting by flow cytometry fulfils these criteria. Blood CD34+ cell counts strongly

  7. Scintigraphy of renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Seiichiro; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Dannoura, Ryujiro

    1986-01-01

    1. Tc-99m DTPA renogram curve in the cases that serum creatinine value was more than about 3.0 mg/dl showed no functional pattern with a few exception. When the DTPA-GFR required Gates method fell below about 30 ml/min, or the serum creatinine value rise above about 3.0 mg/dl, the relation between the DTPA-GFR and the serum creatinine was impaired. 2. The role of nuclear medicine against evaluation of transplanted renal function direct after the transplantation was for early detection of complication and for diagnosis of the existence of blood flow to the transplanted kidney. 3. Bone scintigram with Tc-99m MDP in the patients being dialyzed was classified into 5 types. (author)

  8. Reduction of prion infectivity in packed red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Rodrigo; Buytaert-Hoefen, Kimberley A.; Gonzalez-Romero, Dennisse; Castilla, Joaquin; Hansen, Eric T.; Hlavinka, Dennis; Goodrich, Raymond P.; Soto, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The link between a new variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and the consumption of prion contaminated cattle meat as well as recent findings showing that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion have raised public health concerns. Currently, a reliable test to identify prions in blood samples is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to remove scrapie prion protein (PrP Sc ) and infectivity from red blood cell (RBC) suspensions by a simple washing procedure using a cell separation and washing device. The extent of prion removal was assessed by Western blot, PMCA and infectivity bioassays. Our results revealed a substantial removal of infectious prions (≥3 logs of infectivity) by all techniques used. These data suggest that a significant amount of infectivity present in RBC preparations can be removed by a simple washing procedure. This technology may lead to increased safety of blood products and reduce the risk of further propagation of prion diseases.

  9. Aging: a portrait from gene expression profile in blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabria, Elisa; Mazza, Emilia Maria Cristina; Dyar, Kenneth Allen; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Bruseghini, Paolo; Morandi, Carlo; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Gelati, Matteo; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Bicciato, Silvio; Schiaffino, Stefano; Schena, Federico; Capelli, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The availability of reliable biomarkers of aging is important not only to monitor the effect of interventions and predict the timing of pathologies associated with aging but also to understand the mechanisms and devise appropriate countermeasures. Blood cells provide an easily available tissue and gene expression profiles from whole blood samples appear to mirror disease states and some aspects of the aging process itself. We report here a microarray analysis of whole blood samples from two cohorts of healthy adult and elderly subjects, aged 43±3 and 68±4 years, respectively, to monitor gene expression changes in the initial phase of the senescence process. A number of significant changes were found in the elderly compared to the adult group, including decreased levels of transcripts coding for components of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, which correlate with a parallel decline in the maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max), as monitored in the same subjects. In addition, blood cells show age-related changes in the expression of several markers of immunosenescence, inflammation and oxidative stress. These findings support the notion that the immune system has a major role in tissue homeostasis and repair, which appears to be impaired since early stages of the aging process.

  10. The application of 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jianhua; Li Xiaoping; Li Chaolong; He Xu; Lin Zhiqi; Zhu Weibing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To affirm the application value of 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation. Methods: The graft was transplanted in the right subhepatic space of recipient to establish pig auxiliary liver transplantation model. The artery blood supplies were the very same in all grafts and the portal vein (PV) blood flows were differently controlled by trussing the host PV at the site neared host liver. According to the constriction degree, PV blood supplies were divided into three groups including A (constricted by 1/3), B (constricted by 1/2) and C(not constricted). The blood flows of the graft liver and the host liver were measured by 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy and livers functions were estimated after auxiliary liver transplantation. Contrasted with its histological findings the reflection of graft survival with 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy was investigated. Results: It was detected by 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy that the blood flows were almost equilibrated and abundant in grafts and host liver' in group A, and were abundant in grafts of group B and host livers of group C and were significantly decreased in host livers of group B and grafts of group C. Histological work-up demonstrated that the liver was not atrophic while the blood flow was abundant and the liver was atrophic while the blood flow was decreased. Conclusion: 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy could accurately reflect the survival and function of grafts and host livers after auxiliary liver transplantation and it is a reliable technique which can be used to estimate the survival and function of the grafts and host livers

  11. Red Cell Properties after Different Modes of Blood Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhro, Asya; Huisjes, Rick; Verhagen, Liesbeth P; Mañú-Pereira, María Del Mar; Llaudet-Planas, Esther; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Wang, Jue; Eichler, Hermann; Bogdanova, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Vives-Corrons, Joan-Lluís; Kaestner, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing, or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extent has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 h of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin, and citrate-based CPDA) for two temperatures (4°C and room temperature) were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination), red blood cell (RBC) volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations, and formation of micro vesicles), Ca(2+) handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes, and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameters may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature). Most of the parameters except for ion (Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+)) handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4°C. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca(2+) cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, the majority of Ca(2+)-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using an optimized shipment protocol, the majority of parameters were stable within 24 h, a condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the

  12. Red cell properties after different modes of blood transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Makhro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extend has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 hours of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin and citrate-based CPDA for two temperatures (4oC and room temperature were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination, red blood cell (RBC volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations and formation of micro vesicles, Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameter may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature. Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+ handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4oC. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using optimized shipment protocol the majority of parameters were stable within 24 hours, the condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for the as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the

  13. Thallium 201 Scintigraphy

    OpenAIRE

    McKillop, James H.

    1980-01-01

    The radioactive isotope thallium 201 behaves physiologically as a potassium analog, and when injected intravenously accumulates rapidly within the cells of many organs. Uptake of the isotope reflects both regional perfusion and sodium-potassium pump activity. The radionuclide emits 80 keV x-rays which are suitable for scintillation camera imaging.

  14. Reprogramming of blood cells into induced pluripotent stem cells as a new cell source for cartilage repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueying; Liu, Tie; Van Halm-Lutterodt, Nicholas; Chen, JiaYu; Su, Qingjun; Hai, Yong

    2016-02-17

    An attempt was made to reprogram peripheral blood cells into human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSCs) as a new cell source for cartilage repair. We generated chondrogenic lineage from human peripheral blood via hiPSCs using an integration-free method. Peripheral blood cells were either obtained from a human blood bank or freshly collected from volunteers. After transforming peripheral blood cells into iPSCs, the newly derived iPSCs were further characterized through karyotype analysis, pluripotency gene expression and cell differentiation ability. iPSCs were differentiated through multiple steps, including embryoid body formation, hiPSC-mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cell expansion, and chondrogenic induction for 21 days. Chondrocyte phenotype was then assessed by morphological, histological and biochemical analysis, as well as the chondrogenic expression. hiPSCs derived from peripheral blood cells were successfully generated, and were characterized by fluorescent immunostaining of pluripotent markers and teratoma formation in vivo. Flow cytometric analysis showed that MSC markers CD73 and CD105 were present in monolayer cultured hiPSC-MSC-like cells. Both alcian blue and toluidine blue staining of hiPSC-MSC-chondrogenic pellets showed as positive. Immunohistochemistry of collagen II and X staining of the pellets were also positive. The sulfated glycosaminoglycan content was significantly increased, and the expression levels of the chondrogenic markers COL2, COL10, COL9 and AGGRECAN were significantly higher in chondrogenic pellets than in undifferentiated cells. These results indicated that peripheral blood cells could be a potential source for differentiation into chondrogenic lineage in vitro via generation of mesenchymal progenitor cells. This study supports the potential applications of utilizing peripheral blood cells in generating seed cells for cartilage regenerative medicine in a patient-specific and cost-effective approach.

  15. Exploring the relationship of peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin with blood pressure during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Tian; Yang, Song; Yang, Ya-Ming; Zhao, Hai-Long; Chen, Yan-Chun; Zhao, Xiang-Hai; Wen, Jin-Bo; Tian, Yuan-Rui; Yan, Wei-Li; Shen, Chong

    2017-11-04

    Total bilirubin is beneficial for protecting cardiovascular diseases in adults. The authors aimed to investigate the association of total bilirubin, red blood cell, and hemoglobin levels with the prevalence of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. A total of 3776 students (aged from 6 to 16 years old) were examined using cluster sampling. Pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure were respectively defined as the point of 90th and 95th percentiles based on the Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were standardized into z-scores. Peripheral total bilirubin, red blood cell and hemoglobin levels were significantly correlated with age, and also varied with gender. Peripheral total bilirubin was negatively correlated with systolic blood pressure in 6- and 9-year-old boys, whilst positively correlated with diastolic blood pressure in the 12-year-old boys and 13- to 15-year-old girls (p0.05). Total bilirubin could be weakly correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as correlations varied with age and gender in children and adolescents; in turn, the increased levels of red blood cell and hemoglobin are proposed to be positively associated with the prevalence of high blood pressure. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Shed-blood-separation and cell-saver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Adrian; Hausmann, Harald; Schaarschmidt, Jan

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The postoperative systemic inflammatory response after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is still an undesirable side-effect after cardiac surgery. It is most likely caused by blood contact with foreign surfaces and by the surgical trauma itself. However, the recirculation of activated shed...... of a cell-saver (TNF-α ng/l post-ECC 10 min: 9.5±3.5 vs. 19.7±14.5, p

  17. Stored red blood cell transfusions: iron, inflammation, immunity, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitalnik, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Emily Cooley was a highly regarded medical technologist and morphologist. The "Emily Cooley Lectureship and Award" was established to honor her, in particular, and medical technologists, in general. This article reviews some basic concepts about the "life of a red blood cell" (RBC) and uses these to discuss the actual and potential consequences that occur in patients after clearance of transfused refrigerator storage-damaged RBCs by extravascular hemolysis. © 2014 AABB.

  18. Cesarean section imprints cord blood immune cell distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie

    2014-01-01

    Immune programming in early life may affect the risk of developing immune-related diseases later in life. Children born by cesarean section seem to be at higher risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and type-1 diabetes. We hypothesized that delivery by cesarean section may affect immune maturation...... in newborns. The objective of the study was to profile innate and adaptive immune cell subsets in cord blood of children born by cesarean section or natural birth....

  19. Red Blood Cell Membrane-Cloaked Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Cody Westcott

    Herein we describe the development of the Red Blood Cell coated nanoparticle, RBC-NP. Purified natural erythrocyte membrane is used to coat drug-loaded poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Synthetic PLGA co-polymer is biocompatible and biodegradable and has already received US FDA approval for drug-delivery and diagnostics. This work looks specifically at the retention of immunosuppressive proteins on RBC-NPs, right-sidedness of natural RBC membranes interfacing with synthetic polymer nanoparticles, sustained and retarded drug release of RBC-NPs as well as further surface modification of RBC-NPs for increased targeting of model cancer cell lines.

  20. Magnetic properties of tunicate blood cells. II. Ascidia ceratodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kustin, K; Robinson, W E; Frankel, R B; Spartalian, K

    1996-08-15

    The magnetic properties of intact blood cells of the tunicate Ascidia ceratodes have been measured up to 50 kOe with a SQUID susceptometer. Analysis of total metal contents by plasma emission spectroscopy and V(IV) content by epr indicates that approximately 5% of the accumulated vanadium is +4 vanadyl ion. Measured values of the magnetic moment Mp at different values of the applied magnetic field H over the temperature range T = 2-100 K depend on the magnitude of the field indicating magnetic anisotropy of the ground state. The slope of the Mp vs. H/T curve at high temperature is significantly higher than expected from electron spin S = 1 per vanadium(III) ion. The model that fits these data best is a dimer with one V(III) S = 1 ion ferromagnetically coupled to a second V(III) S = 1 ion, with spin-coupling constant J = 3.5 cm-1, and 5% of the total vanadium content in the form of a V(IV) S = 1/2 ion. Since vanadium in A. ceratodes is known to reside in at least three different types of blood cell, the excellent fit indicates that the metal is stored predominantly as a dimer regardless of blood cell type. Ferromagnetic coupling implies that the two vanadium ions in the dimer are connected by an unprotonated mu-oxo bridge.

  1. Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cell Transplantation in Neuroregenerative Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galieva, Luisa R.; Mukhamedshina, Yana O.; Arkhipova, Svetlana S.; Rizvanov, Albert A.

    2017-01-01

    At present there is no effective treatment of pathologies associated with the death of neurons and glial cells which take place as a result of physical trauma or ischemic lesions of the nervous system. Thus, researchers have high hopes for a treatment based on the use of stem cells (SC), which are potentially able to replace dead cells and synthesize neurotrophic factors and other molecules that stimulate neuroregeneration. We are often faced with ethical issues when selecting a source of SC. In addition to precluding these, human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) presents a number of advantages when compared with other sources of SC. In this review, we consider the key characteristics of hUCB, the results of various studies focused on the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis), ischemic (stroke) and traumatic injuries of the nervous system and the molecular mechanisms of hUCB-derived mononuclear and stem cells. PMID:28951720

  2. An ultrafiltration technique for labeling red blood cells with Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendershott, L.R.; Gatson, R.C.; Ordway, F.S.; Ahmad, M.; Saint Louis Univ., MO; Saint Louis Univ., MO

    1979-01-01

    This method automates the preparation of autologous Tc-99m labeled red blood cells utilizing the Amicon on-line column eluate concentrator to separate the plasma from the red blood cells. The red blood cells were pre-tinned with stannous diphosphonate and continuously recirculated over a 0.6 μ filter until all of the plasma was removed and the red blood cells remained suspended in a solution of 0.9% sodium chloride. Once the plasma has been removed the red blood cells are incubated with Tc-99m pertechnetate. The above Tc-99m red blood cells were compared to Tc-99m red blood cells produced in a similar manner except that centrifugation was used to separate the red blood cells from the plasma. Both preparations had a tagging efficiency of 98% or greater and rat distribution studies demonstrate that both preparations are equally stable as an in vivo intravascular agent. (orig.) [de

  3. Emergency transfusion of patients with unknown blood type with blood group O Rhesus D positive red blood cell concentrates: a prospective, single-centre, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleng, Kathleen; Jenichen, Gregor; Denker, Kathrin; Selleng, Sixten; Müllejans, Bernd; Greinacher, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Emergency patients with unknown blood type usually receive O Rhesus D negative (RhD-) red blood cell concentrates until their blood group is determined to prevent RhD+ related adverse transfusion reactions. As 85% of individuals are RhD+, this consumption of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates contributes to shortages of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates, sometimes forcing transfusion of known RhD- patients with RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. Here we report the outcome of this transfusion policy transfusing all emergency patients with unknown blood type with O RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. In this prospective single-centre observational study done between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, we assessed all consecutive RhD- patients at the University Medicine Greifswald who received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates (emergency patients with unknown blood type; and RhD- patients receiving RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages). No patients were excluded. The primary endpoint was anti-D allo-immunisation at 2 months follow-up or later. Patients were followed up and tested for immunisation against red blood cell antigens using the direct antiglobulin test and an antibody screen every 3-5 days for 4 weeks or until death, or hospital discharge. Surviving patients were screened for development of anti-D antibodies for up to 12 months (at the predefined timepoints 2, 3, 6, and 12 months) after RhD+ red blood cell transfusion. 437 emergency patients, of whom 85 (20%) were RhD-, received 2836 RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. The overall risk of inducing anti-D antibodies (in all 437 recipients) was 17 (4%, 95% CI 2·44-6·14) of 437 (assuming all patients lost to follow-up developed anti-D allo-immunisation). During this period, 110 known RhD- patients received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages. Of these, 29 (26%; 95% CI 19·0-35·3) developed anti-D allo-immunisation (assuming all

  4. Skeletal scintigraphy following incidental trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Keyes, J.W. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The significance of antecedent trauma in skeletal scintigraphy was assessed in 503 patients, of whom 241 (46%) had prior fracture or tooth extraction. In patients with sufficiently accurate histories for site-by-site analysis, 33 of 131 fracture sites and 16 of 83 dental-procedure sites were positive scintigraphically. In general, the frequency of scan positivity diminished as the interval between trauma and scanning increased, but a significant number of patients showed prolonged uptake at fracture sites. Several patterns of uptake suggested trauma rather than metastatic disease. Knowledge of a history of trauma is often critical in bone scan interpretation

  5. Prospective study evaluating the relative sensitivity of 18F-NaF PET/CT for detecting skeletal metastases from renal cell carcinoma in comparison to multidetector CT and 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy, using an adaptive trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerety, E L; Lawrence, E M; Wason, J; Yan, H; Hilborne, S; Buscombe, J; Cheow, H K; Shaw, A S; Bird, N; Fife, K; Heard, S; Lomas, D J; Matakidou, A; Soloviev, D; Eisen, T; Gallagher, F A

    2015-10-01

    The detection of occult bone metastases is a key factor in determining the management of patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), especially when curative surgery is considered. This prospective study assessed the sensitivity of (18)F-labelled sodium fluoride in conjunction with positron emission tomography/computed tomography ((18)F-NaF PET/CT) for detecting RCC bone metastases, compared with conventional imaging by bone scintigraphy or CT. An adaptive two-stage trial design was utilized, which was stopped after the first stage due to statistical efficacy. Ten patients with stage IV RCC and bone metastases were imaged with (18)F-NaF PET/CT and (99m)Tc-labelled methylene diphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scintigraphy including pelvic single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Images were reported independently by experienced radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians using a 5-point scoring system. Seventy-seven lesions were diagnosed as malignant: 100% were identified by (18)F-NaF PET/CT, 46% by CT and 29% by bone scintigraphy/SPECT. Standard-of-care imaging with CT and bone scintigraphy identified 65% of the metastases reported by (18)F-NaF PET/CT. On an individual patient basis, (18)F-NaF PET/CT detected more RCC metastases than (99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigraphy/SPECT or CT alone (P = 0.007). The metabolic volumes, mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUV mean and SUV max) of the malignant lesions were significantly greater than those of the benign lesions (P < 0.001). (18)F-NaF PET/CT is significantly more sensitive at detecting RCC skeletal metastases than conventional bone scintigraphy or CT. The detection of occult bone metastases could greatly alter patient management, particularly in the context when standard-of-care imaging is negative for skeletal metastases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology.

  6. Preliminary study on mononuclear cells insulin receptor in porcine blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalimunthe, D.; Hara, Hitoshi; Hayashi, Hirofumi; Mito, Kazuyo; Kawate, Ryoso

    1980-01-01

    Insulin receptor of porcine mononuclear cells was investigated. After passaging over a Boyum method gradient, mononuclear cells from freshly collected heparinized blood were isolated and 1 x 10 7 /ml mononuclear cells were incubated for 24 hrs at 4 0 C in Tris-salt buffer pH 8.0 with 125 I-insulin (2.2 ng/ml) and a range of native insulin concentration from 0 to 1 x 10 3 ng/ml. γ-globulin-polyethylene glycol was used to separate the unbound 125 I-insulin from the incubation mixture. After centrifugation the supernatant was discarded, the radioactivity of the cell pellets were counted in a gammacounter and the percentage of 125 I-insulin bound could be determined. The result demonstrated that circulating porcine mononuclear cells prepared from Ficoll-Conray gradient readily bound with 125 I-insulin. The binding of 125 I-insulin to porcine mononuclear cells was rapid and reversible process, and could be inhibited by physiological amount of native insulin. 125 I-insulin binding to porcine mononuclear cells was a linear function of cell concentration and a saturable ability of native insulin to displace the binding of 125 I-insulin. (author)

  7. Glutaraldehyde fixation of sodium transport in dog red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The large increase in passive Na flux that occurs when dog red blood cells are caused to shrink is amiloride sensitive and inhibited when Cl is replaced by nitrate or thiocyanate. Activation and deactivation of this transport pathway by manipulation of cell volume is reversible. Brief treatment of the cells with 0.01-0.03% glutaraldehyde can cause the shrinkage-activated transporter to become irreversibly activated or inactivated, depending on the volume of the cells at the time of glutaraldehyde exposure. Thus, if glutaraldehyde is applied when the cells are shrunken, the amiloride-sensitive Na transporter is activated and remains so regardless of subsequent alterations in cell volume. If the fixative is applied to swollen cells, no amount of subsequent shrinkage will turn on the Na pathway. In its fixed state, the activated transporter is fully amiloride sensitive, but it is no longer inhibited when Cl is replaced by thiocyanate. The action of glutaraldehyde thus allows one to dissect the response to cell shrinkage into two phases. Activation of the pathway is affected by anions and is not prevented by amiloride. Once activated and fixed, the anion requirement disappears. Amiloride inhibits movement of Na through the activated transporter. These experiments demonstrate how a chemical cross-linking agent may be used to study the functional properties of a regulable transport pathway

  8. Transplantation? Peripheral Stem Cell/Bone Marrow/Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itır Sirinoglu Demiriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of peripheral stem cell (PSC and cord blood (CB as an alternative to bone marrow (BM recently has caused important changes on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT practice. According to the CIBMTR data, there has been a significant decrease in the use of bone marrow and increase in the use of PSC and CB as the stem cell source for HSCT performed during 1997–2006 period for patients under the age of 20. On the other hand, the stem cell source in 70% of the HSCT procedures performed for patients over the age of 20 was PSC and the second most preferred stem cell source was bone marrow. CB usage is very limited for the adult population. Primary disease, stage, age, time and urgency of transplantation, HLA match between the patient and the donor, stem cell quantity, and the experience of the transplantation center are some of the associated factors for the selection of the appropriate stem cell source. Unfortunately, there is no prospective randomized study aimed to facilitate the selection of the correct source between CB, PSC, and BM. In this paper, we would like to emphasize the data on stem cell selection in light of the current knowledge for patient populations according to their age and primary disease.

  9. Blood Cell Mitochondrial DNA Content and Premature Ovarian Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca; Arosio, M.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Biondi, M.; Bione, S.; Bruni, V.; Brigante, C.; Cannavo`, S.; Cavallo, L.; Cisternino, M.; Colombo, I.; Corbetta, S.; Crosignani, P.G.; D'Avanzo, M.G.; Dalpra, L.; Danesino, C.; Di Battista, E.; Di Prospero, F.; Donti, E.; Einaudi, S.; Falorni, A.; Foresta, C.; Fusi, F.; Garofalo, N.; Giotti, I.; Lanzi, R.; Larizza, D.; Locatelli, N.; Loli, P.; Madaschi, S.; Maghnie, M.; Maiore, S.; Mantero, F.; Marozzi, A.; Marzotti, S.; Migone, N.; Nappi, R.; Palli, D.; Patricelli, M.G.; Pisani, C.; Prontera, P.; Petraglia, F.; Radetti, G.; Renieri, A.; Ricca, I.; Ripamonti, A.; Rossetti, R.; Russo, G.; Russo, S.; Tonacchera, M.; Toniolo, D.; Torricelli, F.; Vegetti, W.; Villa, N.; Vineis, P.; Wasniewsk, M.; Zuffardi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  10. Resting blood lactate in individuals with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petto, Jefferson; de Jesus, Jaqueline Brito; Vasques, Leila Monique Reis; Pinheiro, Renata Leão Silva; Oliveira, Aila Mascarenhas; Spinola, Kelly Aparecida Borges; Silva, Wellington dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Background The most common hereditary hemoglobin disorder, affecting 20 million individuals worldwide, is sickle cell disease. The vascular obstruction resulting from the sickling of cells in this disease can produce local hypoxemia, pain crises and infarction in several tissues, including the bones, spleen, kidneys and lungs. Objective To determine red blood group genes in a Brazilian populations. Methods The present study is characterized as a case control study, with the aim of identifying the baseline blood lactate concentration in individuals with hemoglobin SS and SC diseases. One-way ANOVA with the Tukey post-test was used to analyze the results and a p-value < 0.05 was considered significant. Calculations were made using the INSTAT statistical program. The graphs were generated using the ORING program. The study sample was composed of 31 men and women residing in the city of Santo Antônio de Jesus, Bahia, Brazil. The individuals were divided into two groups: Group GC of 16 subjects who did not present with any type of structural hemoglobinopathy; and Group GE composed of 15 individuals with ages between 2 and 35 years old, who had the SS and SC genotypes. Sample analyses were performed with 3 mL of blood during fasting. Results The baseline blood lactate concentration of the SS and SC individuals was higher than that of the control group (p<0.001) with means of 4.86 ± 0.95; 3.30 ± 0.33; 1.31 ± 0.08 IU/L for SS, SC and controls, respectively. This corroborates the initial research hypothesis. Conclusion The baseline blood lactate of SS and SC individuals is 3 to 4 times higher than that of healthy subjects, probably due to the fact that these patients have a metabolic deviation to the anaerobic pathway. PMID:23284239

  11. Length of Storage of Red Blood Cells and Patient Survival After Blood Transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halmin, Märit; Rostgaard, Klaus; Lee, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    received transfusions from 2003 to 2012. Measurements: Patients were followed from first blood transfusion. Relative and absolute risks for death in 30 days or 1 year in relation to length of RBC storage were assessed by using 3 independent analytic approaches. All analyses were conducted by using Cox......Background: Possible negative effects, including increased mortality, among persons who receive stored red blood cells (RBCs) have recently garnered considerable attention. Despite many studies, including 4 randomized trials, no consensus exists. Objective: To study the association between...... the length of RBC storage and mortality in a large population-based cohort of patients who received transfusions, allowing detection of small yet clinically significant effects. Design: Binational cohort study. Setting: All transfusion recipients in Sweden and Denmark. Patients: 854 862 adult patients who...

  12. Stem Cell Heterogeneity of Mononucleated Cells from Murine Peripheral Blood: Molecular Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dain Yazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to determine the heterogeneity of primary isolated mononucleated cells that originated from the peripheral blood system by observing molecular markers. The isolated cells were cultured in complete medium for 4 to 7 days prior to the separation of different cell types, that is, adherent and suspension. Following a total culture time of 14 days, adherent cells activated the Cd105 gene while suspension cells activated the Sca-1 gene. Both progenitor markers, Cbfa-1 and Ostf-1, were inactivated in both suspension and adherent cells after 14-day culture compared to cells cultured 3 days in designated differentiation medium. In conclusion, molecular analyses showed that primary mononucleated cells are heterogeneous, consisting of hematopoietic stem cells (suspension and mesenchymal stem cells (adherent while both cells contained no progenitor cells.

  13. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyo Eun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Sun, E-mail: dslmd@kumc.or.kr [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  14. Volume-dependent K+ transport in rabbit red blood cells comparison with oxygenated human SS cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rohil, N.; Jennings, M.L.

    1989-07-01

    In this study the volume-dependent or N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-stimulated, ouabain-insensitive K+ influx and efflux were measured with the tracer 86Rb+ in rabbit red blood cells. The purpose of the work was to examine the rabbit as a potential model for cell volume regulation in human SS red blood cells and also to investigate the relationship between the NEM-reactive sulfhydryl group(s) and the signal by which cell swelling activates the transport. Ouabain-resistant K+ efflux and influx increase nearly threefold in cells swollen hypotonically by 15%. Pretreatment with 2 mM NEM stimulates efflux 5-fold and influx 10-fold (each measured in an isotonic medium). The ouabain-resistant K+ efflux was dependent on the major anion in the medium. The anion dependence of K+ efflux in swollen or NEM-stimulated cells was as follows: Br- greater than Cl- much greater than NO3- = acetate. The magnitudes of both the swelling- and the NEM-stimulated fluxes are much higher in young cells (density separated but excluding reticulocytes) than in older cells. Swelling- or NEM-stimulated K+ efflux in rabbit red blood cells was inhibited 50% by 1 mM furosemide, and the inhibitory potency of furosemide was enhanced by extracellular K+, as is known to be true for human AA and low-K+ sheep red blood cells. The swelling-stimulated flux in both rabbit and human SS cells has a pH optimum at approximately 7.4. We conclude that rabbit red blood cells are a good model for swelling-stimulated K+ transport in human SS cells.

  15. MORPHOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RED BLOOD CELLS OF Telestes metohiensis (Steindachner, 1901)

    OpenAIRE

    Radoslav Dekić; Aleksander Ivanc; Milica Lukač; Josip Krnić

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents the morphometric characteristics of red blood cells of endemic fish species of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Telestes metohiensis (Steindachner, 1901) inhabiting the Vrijeka river in the Dabar field. A total of 30 fish were sampled during August, 2010. Morphological measurements included the following parameters: axes of the red blood cells and nuclei, the surface of the red blood cells and nuclei and the thickness of the red blood cells. Morphometric characteristics of the eryth...

  16. Gallium scintigraphy in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Wall, Hans; Provan, I.; Murray, C.; Dwyer, M.; Jones, P.D.

    1990-01-01

    Gallium-67 scanning, indicated either for the elucidation of symptoms or for the assessment of appropriate therapy, was performed in 56 AIDS patients who underwent a total of 77 scans from 1986 to 1988. The age range of the patients was 13-66 years with an average age of 39 years. The majority of patients (95%) were male homosexuals. Gallium scanning has been applied to a wide spectrum of malignancies and to the detection of occult infections. Several mechanisms of uptake have been postulated for the localization of gallium. In general, gallium-67 acts as an analogue of the ferric ion, binding to transferrin soon after intravenous injection. It is believed that it is bound to transferrin receptors on the surface of tumour cells with subsequent intracellular transport. In infection, the association is probably with lactoferrin elaborated by polymorphonuclear cells and siderophores elaborated by bacteria. Gallium-67 is normally distributed to bone and bone marrow, liver, spleen, breast and bowel. In particular, the concentration in the ascending and transverse colon necessitates adequate bowel preparation. Lacrimal, nasopharyngeal and genital activity may also be seen. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  17. Bioactive compounds from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cells induced apoptotic cell death in hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patathananone, Supawadee; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Chung, Jing Gung; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-08-01

    Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts (WBCex) were examined for anticancer activity in HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay. The percentage viability of HeLa cells significantly deceased after treatment with WBCex in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 dose was suggested to be approximately 225 μg/mL protein. Apoptotic cell death occurred in a time-dependent manner based on investigation by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. DAPI nucleic acid staining indicated increased chromatin condensation. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities also increased, suggesting the induction of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) of HeLa cells was lost as a result of increasing levels of Bax and reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and XIAP. The decreased ΔΨm led to the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the nuclei, and endonuclease G (Endo G) was released from the mitochondria. These results suggest that anticancer agents in WBCex can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 986-997, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Intraoperative blood salvage may shorten the lifespan of red blood cells within 3 days postoperatively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xin-Yi; Zuo, Shan-Shan; Meng, Wen-Tong; Zhang, Jie; Huang, Qin; Gou, Da-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intraoperative blood salvage (IBS) recovers most lost blood, and is widely used in the clinic. It is unclear why IBS does not reduce long-term postoperative requirements for red blood cells (RBCs), and 1 possibility is that IBS affects RBC lifespan. Methods: Prospectively enrolled patients who underwent spine, pelvic, or femur surgery not involving allogeneic RBC transfusion were grouped based on whether they received IBS or not. Volumes of blood lost and of RBCs salvaged during surgery were recorded. Total blood cell counts, levels of plasma-free hemoglobin, and CD235a-positive granulocytes were determined perioperatively. Results: Although intraoperative blood loss was higher in the IBS group (n = 45) than in the non-IBS group (n = 52) (P < .001), hemoglobin levels were similar between groups (P = .125) at the end of surgery. Hemoglobin levels increased in non-IBS patients (4 ± 11 g/L), but decreased in IBS patients (−7 ± 12 g/L) over the first 3 postoperative days. Nadir hemoglobin levels after surgery were higher in the non-IBS group (107 ± 12 g/L) than in the IBS group (91 ± 12 g/L). Salvaged RBC volume correlated with hemoglobin decrease (r = 0.422, P = .004). In multivariate analysis, salvaged RBC volume was an independent risk factor for hemoglobin decrease (adjusted odds ratio 1.002, 95% confidence interval 1.001–1.004, P = .008). Flow cytometry showed the numbers of CD235a-positive granulocytes after surgery to be higher in the IBS group than in the non-IBS group (P < .05). Conclusion: IBS may shorten the lifespan of RBCs by triggering their engulfment upon re-infusion (China Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-OCH-14005140). PMID:28953650

  19. Blood transfusion in children with sickle cell disease undergoing tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Carlyn M; Gnagi, Sharon H; Teufel, Ronald J; Nguyen, Shaun A; White, David R

    2017-12-01

    Tonsillectomy is the second most common surgery in children with sickle cell disease. These children are at an increased risk of perioperative complications due to vaso-occlusive events. Although controversial, preoperative blood transfusions are sometimes given in an effort to prevent such complications. The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in the use of blood transfusion for management of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing tonsillectomy in a national database. Patients in the 1997-2012 KID with a primary procedure matching the ICD-9 procedure code for tonsillectomy (28.2-28.3) and diagnosis code for SCD (282.60-282.69) were examined. Patients were split into groups by blood transfusion status and compared across variables including complication rate, length of stay (LOS), and hospital charges. Statistical analysis included chi-square test for trend, Mann-Whitney U test, and independent t-test. 1133 patients with SCD underwent tonsillectomy. There was a strong positive correlation between increasing chronologic year and the proportion of patients receiving blood transfusions, 47 (30.1%) in 1997 to 78 (42.5%) in 2012 (r = 0.94, p = 0.005). During this period, there was no significant change in the rate of complications (r = -0.1, p = 0.87). Overall, patients receiving blood transfusion had a longer mean LOS (3.1 ± 2.4 days vs. 2.5 ± 2.2 days, p blood transfusion. The rate of complications in the transfusion group, 18 of 352(5.1%), was not significantly different (p = 0.48) from the group without transfusion, 40 of 626 (6.4%). From 1997 to 2012, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients with SCD receiving perioperative blood transfusions for tonsillectomy. While the frequency of transfusion rose, those who received a transfusion had similar complication rates with increased charges and length of hospital stays compared to those who did not receive a transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  20. Cell Phone Information Seeking Explains Blood Pressure in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lenette M; Veinot, Tiffany C; Pressler, Susan J

    2018-05-01

    Although cell phone use and Internet access via cell phone is not marked by racial disparities, little is known about how cell phone use relates to blood pressure and health information seeking behaviors. The purposes of this study were to (a) describe Internet activities, cell phone use, and information seeking; (b) determine differences in blood pressure and information seeking between cell phone information seekers and nonseekers; and (c) examine cell phone information seeking as a predictor of blood pressure in African American women. Participants ( N = 147) completed a survey and had their blood pressure measured. Independent-sample t tests showed a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in cell phone information seekers and nonseekers. Linear regression revealed cell phone information seeking as an independent predictor of systolic blood pressure, despite confounders. It is possible that cell phone information seekers were using health information to make decisions about self-management of blood pressure.

  1. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuna Zoe de Back

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC. During steady state haematopoiesis, approximately 1010 red blood cells are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages.

  2. Comparative study of red blood cell method in rat and calves blood as alternatives of Draize eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagarto, A; Vega, R; Vega, Y; Guerra, I; González, R

    2006-06-01

    Red blood cell assay (RBC) is used to estimate potential irritation of tensioactive agents and detergents. Cell membrane lysis and cell protein denaturation are measured photometrically. This study was aimed to determine if rat blood cells can be used to predict eye potential irritation in the same way of calves blood cells in RBC assay. We evaluated 20 cosmetic formulations using rat and calves blood according to INVITOX protocol No 37. Data of media hemolysis concentration, denaturation index and the ratio of both parameters were compared with in vivo data of eye irritancy. There was a significant difference (ptest. The RBC assay using calves blood showed better results. Several test substances were false negatives with rat blood. This high false negative rate would be correctly identified by the animal test but it may also lead to increased animal consumption. For that RBC assay with calf blood cells is preferable to the employment of rat blood as screening method with a reduction and refinement strategy.

  3. Unusual Case of Occult Brucella Osteomyelitis in the Skull Detected by Bone Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lee, Chang Seob

    2010-01-01

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis. A 47-year-old man, who was a stock breeder, complained of myalgia with fever and chills for 2 weeks. The serology titers and blood cultures for brucellosis were positive. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated a focally increased uptake in the left supra orbital area. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion, and an MRI revealed signal abnormalities in the corresponding site. We present an unusual case of occult Brucella osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of the skull detected by done scintigraphy.

  4. Unusual Case of Occult Brucella Osteomyelitis in the Skull Detected by Bone Scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lee, Chang Seob [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Brucellosis is a worldwide infectious disease of animals that can be transmitted to humans. Osteoarticular involvement is the most common complication of brucellosis. A 47-year-old man, who was a stock breeder, complained of myalgia with fever and chills for 2 weeks. The serology titers and blood cultures for brucellosis were positive. Bone scintigraphy demonstrated a focally increased uptake in the left supra orbital area. Plain radiographs showed an osteolytic lesion, and an MRI revealed signal abnormalities in the corresponding site. We present an unusual case of occult Brucella osteomyelitis in the frontal bone of the skull detected by done scintigraphy.

  5. Utilization and quality of cryopreserved red blood cells in transfusion medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, S.; Noorman, F.; Badloe, J. F.; Lagerberg, J. W. M.

    Cryopreserved (frozen) red blood cells have been used in transfusion medicine since the Vietnam war. The main method to freeze the red blood cells is by usage of glycerol. Although the usage of cryopreserved red blood cells was promising due to the prolonged storage time and the limited cellular

  6. Blood cell-derived tissue factor influences host response during murine endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoenmakers, Saskia H. H. F.; Groot, Angelique P.; Florquin, Sandrine; Reitsma, Pieter H.; Spek, C. Arnold

    2004-01-01

    During endotoxemia, blood coagulation becomes activated due to tissue factor (TF) expression on leukocytes and/or endothelial cells. We investigated the influence of blood cell-derived tissue factor on murine endotoxemia. Therefore, we generated mice that lack tissue factor on their blood cells by

  7. The impact of storage on red cell function in blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almac, Emre; Ince, Can

    2007-01-01

    Despite the common use of red-blood-cell transfusions in clinical practice, actual beneficial effects of red blood cells have never been demonstrated. On the contrary, several studies suggest that red-blood-cell transfusions are associated with higher risks of morbidity and mortality. The effects of

  8. Fetal red blood cell parameters in thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnpean, Rossarin; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan; Ratanasiri, Thawalwong

    2013-01-01

    With the lack of fetal blood specimens in routine practice, little is known about red blood cell (RBC) parameters of fetuses with various thalassemia syndromes. This study aimed to describe these in various forms of thalassemia. The study was performed on 93 fetal blood specimens obtained from pregnant women by cordocentesis during 18-24 weeks of gestation. RBC parameters were recorded on automated analyzer. Hemoglobin (Hb) and DNA analyses were performed for definite genotyping. No significant difference in RBC parameters was observed between non-thalassemic fetuses and those with β-thalassemia trait, Hb E trait, homozygous Hb E and β-thalassemia/Hb E disease. However, in those with α(0)-thalassemia trait and double heterozygous α(0)-thalassemia/Hb E, slight reduction in mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was noted. Fetuses with the Hb H disease showed significant reductions in Hb, MCV and mean corpuscular Hb (MCH). Marked reductions in Hb, hematocrit, MCH and mean cell Hb concentration and increased RBC distribution width with numerous nucleated RBC were clearly observed in Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis. Simple analysis of fetal RBC parameters is useful for making presumptive prenatal diagnosis of α-thalassemia syndromes including Hb H disease and Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis which can then be confirmed by Hb and DNA analyses. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Nucleated red blood cells in infants of smoking mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeruchimovich, M; Dollberg, S; Green, D W; Mimouni, F B

    1999-03-01

    To evaluate whether the absolute nucleated red blood cell (RBC) count is elevated in term, appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants born to smoking women. We compared absolute nucleated RBC counts taken during the first 12 hours of life in two groups of term, vaginally delivered, AGA infants, one group born to mothers who smoked during pregnancy (n = 30) and the other born to mothers who did not smoke (n = 30). We excluded infants of women with diabetes, hypertension, or alcohol or drug abuse, and infants with heart rate abnormalities, hemolysis, blood loss, or chromosomal anomalies. There were no differences between the groups in birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, gravidity, parity, maternal analgesia during labor, 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores, corrected white blood cell counts, lymphocyte counts, or hematocrits. The median absolute nucleated RBC count in infants of smoking mothers was 0.5 x 10(9)/L (range 0 to 5.0) versus 0.0005 x 10(9)/L (range 0 to 0.6) in nonsmoking controls (P mothers have increased circulating absolute nucleated RBC counts compared with controls. The absolute nucleated RBC count in newborns correlates with the number of cigarettes smoked during pregnancy.

  10. Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Adriana; Alexandre de Thomaz, Andre; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; de Lourdes Barjas-Castro, Maria; Brandao, Marcelo M.; Saad, Sara T. O.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the red blood cell (RBC) membrane overall elasticity μ by measuring the deformation of the cells when dragged at a constant velocity through a plasma fluid by an optical tweezers. The deformability of erythrocytes is a critical determinant of blood flow in the microcirculation. We tested our method and hydrodynamic models, which included the presence of two walls, by measuring the RBC deformation as a function of drag velocity and of the distance to the walls. The capability and sensitivity of this method can be evaluated by its application to a variety of studies, such as, the measurement of RBC elasticity of sickle cell anemia patients comparing homozygous (HbSS), including patients taking hydroxyrea (HU) and heterozygous (HbAS) with normal donors and the RBC elasticity measurement of gamma irradiated stored blood for transfusion to immunosupressed patients as a function of time and dose. These studies show that the technique has the sensitivity to discriminate heterozygous and homozygous sickle cell anemia patients from normal donors and even follow the course of HU treatment of Homozygous patients. The gamma irradiation studies show that there is no significant change in RBC elasticity over time for up to 14 days of storage, regardless of whether the unit was irradiated or not, but there was a huge change in the measured elasticity for the RBC units stored for more than 21 days after irradiation. These finds are important for the assessment of stored irradiated RBC viability for transfusion purposes because the present protocol consider 28 storage days after irradiation as the limit for the RBC usage.

  11. Radionuclide scintigraphy of bacterial nephritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.; Weiss, S.C.; Shkolnik, A.; Yogev, R.; Firlit, C.; Traisman, E.S.

    1984-01-01

    Pyelonephritis is a leading cause of renal failure and is expected to cost as much as three billion dollars in 1984. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection is usually not difficult. However, localization of the infection within the renal parenchyma as opposed to the collecting system is much more difficult. Flank pain, fever, bacteiuria and evidence of parenchymal involvement by intravenous urography may be absent or unrecognized particularly in the infant. Ultrasound and Nuclear Medicine are advocated as better methods to define parenchymal involvement. Such definition is important in the consideration of treatment since parenchymal involvement of the kidney carries a much more ominous potential outcome than infection restricted to within the collecting system. 38 children with a clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection were studied. 26 of the patients demonstrated abnormal renal parenchymal findings with Gallium-67 Citrate or Tc-99m Glucoheptonate scintigraphy. Intravenous urography was notably ineffective with only 5 of the 20 interpreted as abnormal due to parenchymal disease or decreased function. 11 were entirely normal while only 5 demonstrated scars or hydronephrosis. Only 10 of 17 patients demonstrated intranvesicoureteral reflux on x-ray or nuclear cystography. Ultrasound depicted 6 of 20 patients as having parenchymal abnormalities. Seven were normal. Nonspecific findings such as dilitation of the renal pelvis or renal enlargement was noted in 11 of the 20 patients. Radionuclide Scintigraphy is the most efficacious modality to detect since acute bacterial nephritis.

  12. Platelet scintigraphy in atherothrombotic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaka, Yoshinari (Osaka National Hospital (Japan))

    1993-01-01

    Indium-111 platelet scintigraphy for the measurement of in vivo thrombogenicity is a useful noninvasive technique with a number of applications. From 1982 to 1989, we explored clinical relevance of this method for 576 consecutive patients with atherothrombotic disease. There was a disease-related difference in the percentage of positive platelet accumulation; 85% in patients with Dacron bifurcation graft, 75% in abdominal or thoracic aneurysm, 40% in intra-cardiac thrombi, 33% in arteriosclerosis obliterans and 25% in ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Labelled platelets accumulated frequently in the lesion with severe arteriographic abnormality. Aspirin clearly inhibited platelet accumulation on carotid atheroma but the effect of ticlopidine has been less conclusive. Short-term orally active PGI[sub 2] analogue had inhibitory effects on platelet accumulation in carotid atheroma and platelet aggregability, but did not cause significant reduction in plaque size. The results suggest the usefulness of platelet scintigraphy for monitoring the thrombogenicity in various atherothrombotic diseases. It will be necessary, however, to simplify the labelling procedures and to develop a new [sup 99m]Tc-labelled thrombus imaging agent, if thrombus imaging is to be considered for more generall use for patients with atherosclerosis. (author).

  13. Generation of erythroid cells from polyploid giant cancer cells: re-thinking about tumor blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhigang; Yao, Hong; Fei, Fei; Li, Yuwei; Qu, Jie; Li, Chunyuan; Zhang, Shiwu

    2018-04-01

    During development and tumor progression, cells need a sufficient blood supply to maintain development and rapid growth. It is reported that there are three patterns of blood supply for tumor growth: endothelium-dependent vessels, mosaic vessels, and vasculogenic mimicry (VM). VM was first reported in highly aggressive uveal melanomas, with tumor cells mimicking the presence and function of endothelial cells forming the walls of VM vessels. The walls of mosaic vessels are randomly lined with both endothelial cells and tumor cells. We previously proposed a three-stage process, beginning with VM, progressing to mosaic vessels, and eventually leading to endothelium-dependent vessels. However, many phenomena unique to VM channel formation remain to be elucidated, such as the origin of erythrocytes before VM vessels connect with endothelium-dependent vessels. In adults, erythroid cells are generally believed to be generated from hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. In contrast, embryonic tissue obtains oxygen through formation of blood islands, which are largely composed of embryonic hemoglobin with a higher affinity with oxygen, in the absence of mature erythrocytes. Recent data from our laboratory suggest that embryonic blood-forming mechanisms also exist in cancer tissue, particularly when these tissues are under environmental stress such as hypoxia. We review the evidence from induced pluripotent stem cells in vitro and in vivo to support this previously underappreciated cell functionality in normal and cancer cells, including the ability to generate erythroid cells. We will also summarize the current understanding of tumor angiogenesis, VM, and our recent work on polyploid giant cancer cells, with emphasis on their ability to generate erythroid cells and their association with tumor growth under hypoxia. An alternative embryonic pathway to obtain oxygen in cancer cells exists, particularly when they are under hypoxic conditions.

  14. DETERMINANTS OF RED-BLOOD-CELL DEFORMABILITY IN RELATION TO CELL AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOSCH, FH; WERRE, JM; ROERDINKHOLDERSTOELWINDER, B; HULS, T; WILLEKENS, FLA; WICHERS, G; HALIE, MR

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined with an ektacytometer in fractions separated on the basis of differences in cell volume or density. Deformability was measured with ektacytometry (rpm-scan and osmo-scan). We studied three groups of RBC fractions:l. By counterflow centrifugation we

  15. Early occurrence of red blood cell alloimmunization in patients with sickle cell disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sins, Joep W. R.; Biemond, Bart J.; van den Bersselaar, Sil M.; Heijboer, H.; Rijneveld, Anita W.; Cnossen, Marjon H.; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis H.; van Meurs, Alfred H.; von Ronnen, F. B.; Zalpuri, Saurabh; de Rijke, Yolanda B.; Ellen van der Schoot, C.; de Haas, Masja; van der Bom, Johanna G.; Fijnvandraat, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a major complication of transfusion therapy in sickle cell disease (SCD). Identification of high-risk patients is hampered by lack of studies that take the cumulative transfusion exposure into account. In this retrospective cohort study among previously

  16. Physiologic basics and clinical experience with somatostatin-receptor-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henze, E.; Eberhardt, J.U.; Bohuslavizki, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    The introduction of radiolabelled octreotide, an analogon to the receptor binding hormone Somatostatin, has markedly increased the ability to detect structures and tumours carrying somatostatin receptors by nuclear medicine imaging with high sensitivity and specificity. It has been shown that in vitro receptor density and in vivo scintigraphic results correlate well in particular in tumours of neuroendocrine origin of the GI tract such as insulinomas, gastrinomas, glucagonomas, carcionoids, but also in paragangliomas, small cell lung cancer and meningiomas. As receptors were also shown to be present on so called activated leucocytes granulomas, lymphomas and autoimmune disease have been imaged with octreotide successfully. The specific tracer (In-111-DTPA-D-PHE-Octreotide, Octreoscan R ) is rapidly cleared from the blood pool by the kidneys and, partially, via the liver providing a high target to background ratio. Physiologic uptake is usually observed in the pituitary and thyroid glands, in spleen and liver. Optimum tracer accumulation for tumour scintigraphy is seen on the 24-h-images with the best target to background ratios. Additional SPECT-imaging is recommended in particular in the abdominal regions. The sensitivity in imaging the above named tumours ranges from 70 up to 100%. In-111 octreotide imaging is of diagnostic impact both for the primary diagnostic evaluation as well as for detecting or excluding secondary manifestations in known tumour sites. Of specific value is the information on relative receptor density in the tumour to be treated as may be obtained by quantitative In-111 octreotide imaging for decision making whether or not to use cold octreotide (Sandostatin R ) as a receptor blocking drug for therapy as well as for treatment follow-up studies. (author)

  17. Cerebral blood flow mapping in children with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numaguchi, Y.; Humbert, J.R.; Robinson, A.E.; Lindstrom, W.W.; Gruenauer, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    A cerebral blood flow mapping system was applied to the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 21 patients with sickle cell cerebrovascular disease, by means of a Picker xenon computed tomographic (CT) scanner. Results indicate that (1) xenon CT is a safe and reliable procedure in children with cerebrovascular diseases; (2) CBF in the gray matter of children seems to be higher than in previously reported data obtained with use of isotopes; and (3) regional CBF can be altered significantly by changing the size of the region of interest (ROI). The term regional CBF probably has to be carefully defined in xenon CT flow mapping. Correlation with anatomy by means of CT or magnetic resonance imaging and comparison with the ROI of the contralateral side and/or adjacent sections is important

  18. The Effect of Pulsatile Versus Nonpulsatile Blood Flow on Viscoelasticity and Red Blood Cell Aggregation in Extracorporeal Circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Chi Bum; Kang, Yang Jun; Kim, Myoung Gon; Yang, Sung; Lim, Choon Hak; Son, Ho Sung; Kim, Ji Sung; Lee, So Young; Son, Kuk Hui; Sun, Kyung

    2016-06-01

    Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) can induce alterations in blood viscoelasticity and cause red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of pump flow pulsatility on blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation. Mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: a nonpulsatile pump group (n=6) or a pulsatile pump group (n=6). After ECC was started at a pump flow rate of 80 mL/kg/min, cardiac fibrillation was induced. Blood sampling was performed before and at 1, 2, and 3 hours after ECC commencement. To eliminate bias induced by hematocrit and plasma, all blood samples were adjusted to a hematocrit of 45% using baseline plasma. Blood viscoelasticity, plasma viscosity, hematocrit, arterial blood gas analysis, central venous O2 saturation, and lactate were measured. The blood viscosity and aggregation index decreased abruptly 1 hour after ECC and then remained low during ECC in both groups, but blood elasticity did not change during ECC. Blood viscosity, blood elasticity, plasma viscosity, and the aggregation index were not significantly different in the groups at any time. Hematocrit decreased abruptly 1 hour after ECC in both groups due to dilution by the priming solution used. After ECC, blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation were not different in the pulsatile and nonpulsatile groups in the adult dog model. Furthermore, pulsatile flow did not have a more harmful effect on blood viscoelasticity or RBC aggregation than nonpulsatile flow.

  19. The use of autologous 111In-labelled platelets and scintigraphy to illustrate enhanced platelet activity during erection in the chacma baboon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormehl, I.C.; Du Plessis, M.; Maree, M.; Bornman, M.S.; Du Plessis, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    The demonstration of thrombelastographic hypercoagulability in the penile blood during erection, and the accompanying deposition of fibrin onto the endothelial layer of the deep penile artery and trabecular surface inspired this investigation of the possible role that platelets might play in the process. The bloodpooling pattern in the penis during and after erection from electro-stimulation was studied in 9 male adult baboons (Papio ursinus) using in vivo sup(99m)Tc-labelled red blood cells and scintigraphy. Platelet activity was similarly investigated after administering autologous 111 In-labelled platelets to the baboons. The results indicate an enhanced platelet concentration with respect to blood-pooling during erection, and an entrapment of platelets after erection. (orig.) [de

  20. Abnormal bone scintigraphy and silent radiography in localized reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuertero-Plaza, A.; Martinez-Miralles, E.; Sanz Marin, M.P. (Hospital Universitari del Mar, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine); Benito-Ruiz, P.; Martinez-Pardo, S. (Hospital Universitari del Mar, Barcelona (Spain). Div. of Rheumatology)

    1992-05-01

    Typical, definite forms of the reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome present no diagnostic problems, but the diagnosis of localized or very localized forms is very difficult. In the absence of characteristic roentgenographic evidence of acute, patchy, bony demineralization in the affected extremity, scintigraphy has proven to be a valuable examination. A retrospective analysis of 6 patients with a partial form of reflex sympathetic dystrophy with negative roentgenogram results who were evaluated by bone scintigraphy is presented. In the initial clinical stages, the predominant scintigraphic pattern was a very localized and intense hyperactivity in the internal femoral condyle and/or tibial plate of the affected joint on both blood pool and static images. The increased periarticular activity showed a marked decrease in association with remission of the clinical symptoms. In conclusion, bone scintigraphy was found to be a useful tool in the diagnosis and assessment of the therapeutic response. (orig.).

  1. Imaging the heart: cardiac scintigraphy and echocardiography in US hospitals (1983)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPhee, S.J.; Garnick, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The rapid growth of cardiac catheterization has raised questions about the availability of less costly, noninvasive tests such as cardiac scintigraphy and echocardiography. To assess their availability and rates of use, we surveyed 3778 non-federal short-term US hospitals in June, 1983. Overall, 2605 hospitals (69%) offered 201 Tl myocardial perfusion scans, 2580 (68%) 99mTc equilibrium gated blood pool scans, and 2483 (67%) cardiac shunt scans; 1679 hospitals (44%) offered M-mode and/or 2-dimensional echocardiography, and 768 (20%) pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Volumes of procedures varied enormously among hospitals capable of performing them. High volumes of both scintigraphy and echocardiography were performed in a small number of hospitals. Larger, voluntary, and teaching hospitals performed higher volumes of both procedures. Despite widespread availability of these noninvasive technologies, high volumes of both cardiac scintigraphy and echocardiography procedures are concentrated in a small number of US hospitals

  2. Method using CO for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitensky, Mark W.

    1995-01-01

    Method using CO for extending the useful shelf-life of refrigerated red blood cells. Carbon monoxide is utilized for stabilizing hemoglobin in red blood cells to be stored at low temperature. Changes observed in the stored cells are similar to those found in normal red cell aging in the body, the extent thereof being directly related to the duration of refrigerated storage. Changes in cell buoyant density, vesiculation, and the tendency of stored cells to bind autologous IgG antibody directed against polymerized band 3 IgG, all of which are related to red blood cell senescence and increase with refrigerated storage time, have been substantially slowed when red blood cells are treated with CO. Removal of the carbon monoxide from the red blood cells is readily and efficiently accomplished by photolysis in the presence of oxygen so that the stored red blood cells may be safely transfused into a recipient.

  3. Esophageal scintigraphy: A comparison with esophagoscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellen, G.; Andersson, P.; Sandstroem, S.

    1987-01-01

    Fifty consecutive patients with different esophageal symtoms were investigated with esophageal endoscopy, transit scintigraphy, and gastroesophageal (GE) scintigraphy with extra-abdominal compression. Scintigraphic findings were abnormal in 27 of those 31 patients (87%) who were classified as abnormal at endoscopy. A prolonged transit time was the commonest finding, but hiatal hernia and GE reflux were also found. However, the scintigraphic procedure showed abnormalities in 6 of 19 (31%) patients who were classified as normal at endoscopy. Esophageal scintigraphy is recommended as a screening test before endoscopy is decided on. 20 refs.

  4. Methylene blue modulates transendothelial migration of peripheral blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Werner

    Full Text Available Vasoplegia is a severe complication after cardiac surgery. Within the last years the administration of nitric oxide synthase inhibitor methylene blue (MB became a new therapeutic strategy. Our aim was to investigate the role of MB on transendothelial migration of circulating blood cells, the potential role of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS in this process, and the influence of MB on endothelial cell apoptosis. Human vascular endothelial cells (HuMEC-1 were treated for 30 minutes or 2 hours with different concentrations of MB. Inflammation was mimicked by LPS stimulation prior and after MB. Transmigration of PBMCs and T-Lymphocytes through the treated endothelial cells was investigated. The influence of MB upon the different subsets of PBMCs (Granulocytes, T- and B-Lymphocytes, and Monocytes was assessed after transmigration by means of flow-cytometry. The effect of MB on cell apoptosis was evaluated using Annexin-V and Propidium Iodide stainings. Analyses of the expression of cyclic cGMP, eNOS and iNOS were performed by means of RT-PCR and Western Blot. Results were analyzed using unpaired Students T-test. Analysis of endothelial cell apoptosis by MB indicated a dose-dependent increase of apoptotic cells. We observed time- and dose-dependent effects of MB on transendothelial migration of PBMCs. The prophylactic administration of MB led to an increase of transendothelial migration of PBMCs but not Jurkat cells. Furthermore, HuMEC-1 secretion of cGMP correlated with iNOS expression after MB administration but not with eNOS expression. Expression of these molecules was reduced after MB administration at protein level. This study clearly reveals that endothelial response to MB is dose- and especially time-dependent. MB shows different effects on circulating blood cell-subtypes, and modifies the release patterns of eNOS, iNOS, and cGMP. The transendothelial migration is modulated after treatment with MB. Furthermore, MB provokes apoptosis of endothelial

  5. Thallium-201 scintigraphy for bone and soft tissue tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuumi, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sunayama, Chiaki; Matsuda, Eizo; Asada, Naohiro; Taki, Junichi; Sumiya, Hisashi; Miyauchi, Tsutomu; Tomita, Katsuro [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-05-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of thallium-201 scintigraphy in bone and soft tissue tumors. Pre-therapy scintigraphy was undertaken in a total of 136 patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis, consisting of 74 with malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, 39 with benign ones, 12 with diseases analogous to tumors, and 11 others. Thallium activity was graded on a scale of 0-4: 0=background activity, 1=equivocal activity, 2=definitive activity, but less than myocardium, 3=definite activity equal to myocardium, and 4=activity greater than myocardium. In the group of malignant tumors, thallium-201 uptake was found in 80%, although it was low for chondrosarcoma (2/8) and malignant Schwannoma (one/3). The group of benign tumors, however, showed it in only 41%, being restricted to those with giant cell tumors, chondroblastoma, fibromatosis, and osteoid osteoma. Thallium-201 uptake was also found in all 8 patients with metastatic tumors. In 23 patients undergoing thallium imaging before and after chemotherapy, scintigraphic findings revealed a high correlation with histopathological findings. Thus, thallium-201 scintigraphy may be potentially used to distinguish malignant from benign bone and soft tissue tumors, except for a few histopathological cases, as well as to determine loco-regional metastases and response to chemotherapy. (N.K.).

  6. Scintigraphy of bone marrow for neoplastic lesions in breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, J.; Zimacek, J.; Wagnerova, M.; Szabova, J.; Sirakova, I.; Frolo, D.

    1989-01-01

    Bone marrow scintigraphy was performed in 259 patients including 124 females with breast carcinoma using the technique of 99m Tc-labelled colloid retention by phagocytizing cells, thus visualizing the reticuloendothelial component of the bone marrow. The objective was to early diagnose hematogenic metastases. In five patients, simultaneous skeleton scintiscanning was not performed. The technique was shown to play a role in early diagnosis of bone metastases and of bone lesions in less usual loci and especially in the differential diagnosis of nonmalignant bone disease, such as arthrosis. Its constraints include an intensive cumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in the liver and the splenic reticuloendothelial systems, which precludes the assessment of the bone marrow in the adjacent areas; further a difficult interpretation of the results, high cost and long time of examination. It has no role in patients with disseminated forms of the disease with multiple bone metastases already shown by scintigraphy. Bone marrow scintigraphy alone is not a reliable method for early diagnosis of breast carcinoma (L.O.)

  7. Thallium-201 scintigraphy for bone and soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuumi, Yuji; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki; Sunayama, Chiaki; Matsuda, Eizo; Asada, Naohiro; Taki, Junichi; Sumiya, Hisashi; Miyauchi, Tsutomu; Tomita, Katsuro

    1995-01-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the usefulness of thallium-201 scintigraphy in bone and soft tissue tumors. Pre-therapy scintigraphy was undertaken in a total of 136 patients with histologically confirmed diagnosis, consisting of 74 with malignant bone and soft tissue tumors, 39 with benign ones, 12 with diseases analogous to tumors, and 11 others. Thallium activity was graded on a scale of 0-4: 0=background activity, 1=equivocal activity, 2=definitive activity, but less than myocardium, 3=definite activity equal to myocardium, and 4=activity greater than myocardium. In the group of malignant tumors, thallium-201 uptake was found in 80%, although it was low for chondrosarcoma (2/8) and malignant Schwannoma (one/3). The group of benign tumors, however, showed it in only 41%, being restricted to those with giant cell tumors, chondroblastoma, fibromatosis, and osteoid osteoma. Thallium-201 uptake was also found in all 8 patients with metastatic tumors. In 23 patients undergoing thallium imaging before and after chemotherapy, scintigraphic findings revealed a high correlation with histopathological findings. Thus, thallium-201 scintigraphy may be potentially used to distinguish malignant from benign bone and soft tissue tumors, except for a few histopathological cases, as well as to determine loco-regional metastases and response to chemotherapy. (N.K.)

  8. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Red Blood Cells and Platelet Concentrates: From Bench to Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Focosi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells and platelets are anucleate blood components indispensable for oxygen delivery and hemostasis, respectively. Derivation of these blood elements from induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells has the potential to develop blood donor-independent and genetic manipulation-prone products to complement or replace current transfusion banking, also minimizing the risk of alloimmunization. While the production of erythrocytes from iPS cells has challenges to overcome, such as differentiation into adult-type phenotype that functions properly after transfusion, platelet products are qualitatively and quantitatively approaching a clinically-applicable level owing to advances in expandable megakaryocyte (MK lines, platelet-producing bioreactors, and novel reagents. Guidelines that assure the quality of iPS cells-derived blood products for clinical application represent a novel challenge for regulatory agencies. Considering the minimal risk of tumorigenicity and the expected significant demand of such products, ex vivo production of iPS-derived blood components can pave the way for iPS translation into the clinic.

  9. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Red Blood Cells and Platelet Concentrates: From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele; Amabile, Giovanni

    2017-12-27

    Red blood cells and platelets are anucleate blood components indispensable for oxygen delivery and hemostasis, respectively. Derivation of these blood elements from induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells has the potential to develop blood donor-independent and genetic manipulation-prone products to complement or replace current transfusion banking, also minimizing the risk of alloimmunization. While the production of erythrocytes from iPS cells has challenges to overcome, such as differentiation into adult-type phenotype that functions properly after transfusion, platelet products are qualitatively and quantitatively approaching a clinically-applicable level owing to advances in expandable megakaryocyte (MK) lines, platelet-producing bioreactors, and novel reagents. Guidelines that assure the quality of iPS cells-derived blood products for clinical application represent a novel challenge for regulatory agencies. Considering the minimal risk of tumorigenicity and the expected significant demand of such products, ex vivo production of iPS-derived blood components can pave the way for iPS translation into the clinic.

  10. Lung scintigraphy in children with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Hideki

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated 37 patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) with Tc-99mMAA lung scintigraphy (LS) and compared findings of LS with those of cardiac catheterization (cath) and lung histology. Findings of LS were graded to 4 groups according to the degree of mottling of LS; M0: normal, M1: slight, M2: moderate, M3: severe. The patient group was divided to two groups according to the cath findings; R: reactive to oxygen and tolazoline, N: not reactive to them. Histological findings were evaluated according to Heath-Edwards classification. Most patients with LS findings of M0 and M1 belonged to R group. Their pulmonary arterial mean pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance increased consistent with mottling of LS. Ten out of 12 patients with LS findings of M2 and M3 had H-E III changes histologically. Thus pulmonary blood flow pattern in patients with PH was precisely evaluated by LS, and its findings correlated well to cath and histological findings. These findings suggested that LS can evaluate pulmonary vascular bed non invasively, and LS can be one of the useful diagnosis method of PH. (author)

  11. Manipulation of red blood cells with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Manipulation of bioparticles and macromolecules is the central task in many biological and biotechnological processes. The current methods for physical manipulation takes advantage of different forces such as acoustic, centrifugal, magnetic, electromagnetic, and electric forces, as well as using optical tweezers or filtration. Among all these methods, however, the electrical forces are particularly attractive because of their favorable scale up with the system size which makes them well-suited for miniaturization. Currently the electric field is used for transportation, poration, fusion, rotation, and separation of biological cells. The aim of the current research is to gain fundamental understanding of the effect of electric field on the human red blood cells (RBCs) using direct numerical simulation. A front tracking/finite difference technique is used to solve the fluid flow and electric field equations, where the fluid in the cell and the blood (plasma) is modeled as Newtonian and incompressible, and the interface separating the two is treated as an elastic membrane. The behavior of RBCs is investigated as a function of the controlling parameters of the problem such as the strength of the electric field.

  12. White blood cell counting on smartphone paper electrochemical sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinhao; Lin, Guohong; Cui, Guangzhe; Zhou, Xiangfei; Liu, Gang Logan

    2017-04-15

    White blood cell (WBC) analysis provides rich information in rapid diagnosis of acute bacterial and viral infections as well as chronic disease management. For patients with immune deficiency or leukemia WBC should be persistently monitored. Current WBC counting method relies on bulky instrument and trained personnel and is time consuming. Rapid, low-cost and portable solution is in highly demand for point of care test. Here we demonstrate a label-free smartphone based electrochemical WBC counting device on microporous paper with patterned gold microelectrodes. WBC separated from whole blood was trapped by the paper with microelectrodes. WBC trapped on the paper leads to the ion diffusion blockage on microelectrodes, therefore cell concentration is determined by peak current on the microelectrodes measured by a differential pulse voltammeter and the quantitative results are collected by a smartphone wirelessly within 1min. We are able to rapidly quantify WBC concentrations covering the common physiological and pathological range (200-20000μL -1 ) with only 10μL sample and high repeatability as low as 10% in CoV (Coefficient of Variation). The unique smartphone paper electrochemical sensor ensures fast cell quantification to achieve rapid and low-cost WBC analysis at the point-of-care under resource limited conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Sickle cell disease biochip: a functional red blood cell adhesion assay for monitoring sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALAPAN, YUNUS; KIM, CEONNE; ADHIKARI, ANIMA; GRAY, KAYLA E.; GURKAN-CAVUSOGLU, EVREN; LITTLE, JANE A.; GURKAN, UMUT A.

    2016-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) afflicts millions of people worldwide and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Chronic and acute vaso-occlusion are the clinical hallmarks of SCD and can result in pain crisis, widespread organ damage, and early movtality. Even though the molecular underpinnings of SCD were identified more than 60 years ago, there are no molecular or biophysical markers of disease severity that are feasibly measured in the clinic. Abnormal cellular adhesion to vascular endothelium is at the root of vaso-occlusion. However, cellular adhesion is not currently evaluated clinically. Here, we present a clinically applicable microfluidic device (SCD biochip) that allows serial quantitative evaluation of red blood cell (RBC) adhesion to endothelium-associated protein-immobilized microchannels, in a closed and preprocessing-free system. With the SCD biochip, we have analyzed blood samples from more than 100 subjects and have shown associations between the measured RBC adhesion to endothelium-associated proteins (fibronectin and laminin) and individual RBC characteristics, including hemoglobin content, fetal hemoglobin concentration, plasma lactate dehydrogenase level, and reticulocyte count. The SCD biochip is a functional adhesion assay, reflecting quantitative evaluation of RBC adhesion, which could be used at baseline, during crises, relative to various long-term complications, and before and after therapeutic interventions. PMID:27063958

  14. Evaluation of thromboembolic disease using single dose dual phase scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, A.R.; Charan, S.; Silva, I.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Clinical presentation of thromboembolic disease (TED) is caused by three mechanisms 1) obstruction to venous outflow 2) vascular inflammation and 3) pulmonary emboli. Single Dose (Tc-99m MAA) Dual Phases (Veno-Pulmonary) scintigraphy is theoretically capable of evaluating two of three above mentioned patho-physiological factors. Therefore, a prospective study was designed to explore potential of Single Dose Dual Phase (SDDP) scintigraphy in the evaluation of thromboembolic disease. Materials and methods: Sixty consecutive patients with high clinical likelihood of thromboembolic disease (onset of painful and edematous lower limb, chest pain, shortness of breath, presence of risk factors for DVT, H/o of previous episode of DVT, right ventricular strain on ECHO, hypoxaemia on blood gas analysis), were included in this study. There were 43 men and 17 women (mean age 36 years). They were subjected to single dose dual phase (SDDP) scintigraphy using Tc-99m MAA (4 mci). Firstly venous phase of imaging was obtained with simultaneous injection of Tc-99m MAA diluted in 10 ml normal saline in syringe into superficial veins of dorsum of both feet (large volume continuous flow technique) in whole body acquisition mode on Dual Detectors Gamma Camera; followed by lung perfusion scintigraphy in conventional projections as second phase of study. Venous phase (Venography) was interpreted as per Ziffer's criteria in four venous segments (Unpaired- Inferior Vena Cava, 3 paired - Iliac, Femoral and Popliteal). Interpretation of lung perfusion scan was made as per PIOPED Criteria. Results: Forty-one of sixty patients (67%) showed scintigraphic evidence of venous occlusion (DVT) during venous phase. Out of these, 17 patients eventually had high probability lung scan for pulmonary embolism (29%). None of the patient with negative venous phase (n=19) showed perfusion defects on lung perfusion scan. Venous thrombosis most commonly affected the left lower limb (n=29, 71%). In 5

  15. Monolithic Chip for High-throughput Blood Cell Depletion to Sort Rare Circulating Tumor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachin, Fabio; Spuhler, Philipp; Martel-Foley, Joseph M; Edd, Jon F; Barber, Thomas A; Walsh, John; Karabacak, Murat; Pai, Vincent; Yu, Melissa; Smith, Kyle; Hwang, Henry; Yang, Jennifer; Shah, Sahil; Yarmush, Ruby; Sequist, Lecia V; Stott, Shannon L; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A; Kapur, Ravi; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-09-07

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a treasure trove of information regarding the location, type and stage of cancer and are being pursued as both a diagnostic target and a means of guiding personalized treatment. Most isolation technologies utilize properties of the CTCs themselves such as surface antigens (e.g., epithelial cell adhesion molecule or EpCAM) or size to separate them from blood cell populations. We present an automated monolithic chip with 128 multiplexed deterministic lateral displacement devices containing ~1.5 million microfabricated features (12 µm-50 µm) used to first deplete red blood cells and platelets. The outputs from these devices are serially integrated with an inertial focusing system to line up all nucleated cells for multi-stage magnetophoresis to remove magnetically-labeled white blood cells. The monolithic CTC-iChip enables debulking of blood samples at 15-20 million cells per second while yielding an output of highly purified CTCs. We quantified the size and EpCAM expression of over 2,500 CTCs from 38 patient samples obtained from breast, prostate, lung cancers, and melanoma. The results show significant heterogeneity between and within single patients. Unbiased, rapid, and automated isolation of CTCs using monolithic CTC-iChip will enable the detailed measurement of their physicochemical and biological properties and their role in metastasis.

  16. Clustering of red blood cells using digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaferzadeh, K.; Ahmadzadeh, E.; Moon, I.; Gholami, S.

    2017-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy can provide quantitative phase images (QPIs) of 3D profile of red blood cell (RBC) with nanometer accuracy. In this paper we propose applying k-means clustering method to cluster RBCs into two groups of young and old RBCs by using a four-dimensional feature vector. The features are RBC thickness average, surface area-volume ratio, sphericity coefficient and RBC perimeter that can be obtained from QPIs. The proposed features are related to the morphology of RBC. The experimental result shows that by utilizing the proposed method two groups of sphero-echinocytes (old RBCs) and non-spheroechinocytes RBCs can be perfectly clustered.

  17. Steady state peripheral blood provides cells with functional and metabolic characteristics of real hematopoietic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdieu, Antonin; Avalon, Maryse; Lapostolle, Véronique; Ismail, Sadek; Mombled, Margaux; Debeissat, Christelle; Guérinet, Marianne; Duchez, Pascale; Chevaleyre, Jean; Vlaski-Lafarge, Marija; Villacreces, Arnaud; Praloran, Vincent; Ivanovic, Zoran; Brunet de la Grange, Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which are located in the bone marrow, also circulate in cord and peripheral blood. Despite high availability, HSCs from steady state peripheral blood (SSPB) are little known and not used for research or cell therapy. We thus aimed to characterize and select HSCs from SSPB by a direct approach with a view to delineating their main functional and metabolic properties and the mechanisms responsible for their maintenance. We chose to work on Side Population (SP) cells which are highly enriched in HSCs in mouse, human bone marrow, and cord blood. However, no SP cells from SSBP have as yet been characterized. Here we showed that SP cells from SSPB exhibited a higher proliferative capacity and generated more clonogenic progenitors than non-SP cells in vitro. Furthermore, xenotransplantation studies on immunodeficient mice demonstrated that SP cells are up to 45 times more enriched in cells with engraftment capacity than non-SP cells. From a cell regulation point of view, we showed that SP activity depended on O 2 concentrations close to those found in HSC niches, an effect which is dependent on both hypoxia-induced factors HIF-1α and HIF-2α. Moreover SP cells displayed a reduced mitochondrial mass and, in particular, a lower mitochondrial activity compared to non-SP cells, while they exhibited a similar level of glucose incorporation. These results provided evidence that SP cells from SSPB displayed properties of very primitive cells and HSC, thus rendering them an interesting model for research and cell therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Hubungan Antara Red Blood Cell Count (Rbc) Dan Retinopati Diabetik Pada Pasien Diabetes Melitus Tipe 2

    OpenAIRE

    Irmayani

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetic retinopathy is main complications of diabetes. Some studies suggest a relation between red blood cell count (RBC) and diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic retinopathy is diagnosed with funduscopic examination, while red blood cell count can be seen from the peripheral blood examination, with the result is a relation of a decreased red blood cell count with diabetic retinopathy. Objective: To determine the relation between RBC count and diabetic retinopathy in diabetic type...

  19. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood, as discussed in the following paragraphs. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells carry oxygen from ... leaks out, and its levels in your blood rise. For example, blood levels of troponin rise when ...

  20. 3D morphometry of red blood cells by digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memmolo, Pasquale; Miccio, Lisa; Merola, Francesco; Gennari, Oriella; Netti, Paolo Antonio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2014-12-01

    Three dimensional (3D) morphometric analysis of flowing and not-adherent cells is an important aspect for diagnostic purposes. However, diagnostics tools need to be quantitative, label-free and, as much as possible, accurate. Recently, a simple holographic approach, based on shape from silhouette algorithm, has been demonstrated for accurate calculation of cells biovolume and displaying their 3D shapes. Such approach has been adopted in combination with holographic optical tweezers and successfully applied to cells with convex shape. Nevertheless, unfortunately, the method fails in case of specimen with concave surfaces. Here, we propose an effective approach to achieve correct 3D shape measurement that can be extended in case of cells having concave surfaces, thus overcoming the limit of the previous technique. We prove the new procedure for healthy red blood cells (RBCs) (i.e., discocytes) having a concave surface in their central region. Comparative analysis of experimental results with a theoretical 3D geometrical model of RBC is discussed in order to evaluate accuracy of the proposed approach. Finally, we show that the method can be also useful to classify, in terms of morphology, different varieties of RBCs. © 2014 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  1. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benarroz, Monica Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Geller, Mauro; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99m Tc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with 99 mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  2. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, Monica Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Geller, Mauro [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Fisiologia Humana

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  3. Prompt cytomolecular identification of chromosome aberration in irradiated blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Akbar Moosavi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: understanding the genomic alteration induced by ionizing radiation still remains to be a methodological challenge in genetic field. The energy released from this type of radiation can potentially causes structural and numerical alterations in lymphocytes, which in turn converts them into abnormal tumor cells. Chromosomal abnormalities associated with specific type of hematological malignancies are determinant factors in evaluation of radiation dose and its potential in harming the body. None the less early detection of chromosomal aberration (CA is crucial in prognosis and selection of therapy for the people exposed to irradiations. The aim of this study was to explore a swift and accurate genetic test that identifies CAs in radiologist exposed to X-rays. In addition synergistic effect of other clastogens in irradiated workers was also evaluated. Material and methods: thirty four heparinized blood samples were obtained from radiology workers exposed to X-rays. Blood samples were cultured in RPMI 1640 and F-10 Medias with and without PHA stimulation. Lymphocytes were harvested, separated and arrested at metaphase and their chromosomes were analyzed by solid and G-Banding techniques. Lymphocytic CA was also analyzed through whole chromosome painting FISH. Results: of the 37 blood sample from workers, 60% had various structural aberrations in which both the frequency and type of CAs were intensified among tobacco smokers. Conclusion: the results did not show any significant differences between the genders but other carcinogen like smoking can significantly increases the rate of CAs

  4. Guidelines for MIBG-scintigraphy in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, P.; Colarinha, P.; Fettich, J.; Fischer, S.; Hahn, K.; Porn, U.; Froekier, J.; Giammarile, F.; Gordon, I.; Kabasakal, L.; Mann, M.; Mitjavila, M.; Piepsz, A.; Sixt, R.; Velzen, J. van

    2002-01-01

    These ''Empfehlungen'' are the german translation of the Guidelines on MIBG-Scintigraphy in Children, which were published by the Paediatric Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine. (orig.) [de

  5. Removal of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells from whole blood by leukoreduction filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardo, Lisa J; Salata, Jeanne; Wilder, Donna

    2009-02-01

    There has been an unexplained decrease in the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria in recent years. The decrease in incidence has paralleled the increasing use of leukoreduction filters. Malaria-infected red blood cells (RBCs) share surface characteristics of hemoglobin S-containing cells. Because units collected from donors with sickle trait do not filter optimally due to adherence of RBCs to the filters, the possibility that malaria-infected RBCs may also adhere to filters was investigated. Malaria-infected whole blood or calcium ionophore (A25187)-treated and control RBCs were filtered with leukoreduction filters. Quantitation of malaria-infected RBCs before and after filtration was performed by flow cytometry to determine the presence of DNA within RBCs, indicating malaria infection. Annexin V binding was also determined before and after filtration of RBCs treated with A25187. Immediately after filtration, filters were fixed and examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. There were at least three configurations of adherence of malaria-infected RBCs demonstrated within the filters. The first was direct adherence of infected RBCs to filter fibers; the second involved adherence of malaria-infected RBCs to platelets, which were adherent to filter fibers; and the third was adherence of infected RBCs to other RBCs. Filtration also resulted in preferential removal of phosphatidylserine (PS)-expressing cells as seen by the reduction of annexin V binding after filtration. This was further confirmed by electron micrographic examination of the filters in which untreated RBCs sit within the filter resting on top of filter fibers; however, calcium ionophore-treated RBCs are seen to cling tightly to the fibers. PS expression by RBCs leads to their adherence within leukoreduction filters. Malaria-infected RBCs are retained via more than one mechanism. The efficiency of removal requires further study.

  6. Urinary hydroxyproline excretion as a marker of bone metastasis in prostatic cancer. 2. Correlation between extent of metastatic lesions in whole body bone scintigraphy of patients with prostatic cancer and tumor markers in blood and urine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Shin-ichi; Rinsho, Kenji (Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1984-01-01

    In 25 patients with prostatic cancer confirmed histologically, 24 patients had bone metastasis on the whole body bone scintigraphy. The extent of bone metastasis was estimated quantitatively by the computerized digitizer. At the same time, the number of the metastatic lesions was counted. The correlations between the area of metastatic lesions on the sup(99m)Tc-MDP bone scintigrams and ESR, LDH, total acid phosphatase, prostatic acid phosphatase, ALP and urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were further investigated. The number of the metastatic lesions was also investigated with the same tumor markers. The results are as follows: 1) The extent of the metastatic lesions was showed more accurately by the area measured with the computerized digitalizer than by the number of metastatic lesions. 2) The correlation between the area of metastatic lesions and serum ALP levels was relatively high (..gamma.. = 0.75). But almost all were within normal limits. 3) As for the relation between the area of the metastatic lesions and the urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine levels, the correlation was high (..gamma.. = 0.78). And the hydroxyproline/creatinine levels were almost over the upper limit. Therefore, the urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine was considered as a good marker of the extent of bone metastasis.

  7. Uterine doughnut by intrauterine device-induced photon attenuation on three-phase bone scintigraphy: artifact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    A 44-year-old female underwent three-phase bone scintigraphy for an evaluation of right hip joint pain. The blood-flow and blood-pool images show a pelvic blush with a photopenic center (doughnut) prior to bladder filling. On the three hour delayed image, the pelvic uptake disappeared. The scintigraphic findings indicated the possibility of an early pregnancy. However, plain radiography demonstrated an intrauterine device. A uterine doughnut developed as a result of photon attenuation of intrauterine device.

  8. Flow characteristics of soft-tissue vascular anomalies evaluated by direct puncture scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Yusuke; Ohtake, Tohru; Wakita, Shinichi; Yoshioka, Naoki; Furuya, Fujio; Nishikawa, Junichi; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Harii, Kiyonori

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a new method, direct puncture scintigraphy, to evaluate in detail the haemodynamics of vascular anomalies under conditions simulating sclerotherapy. Twenty-six soft-tissue vascular anomalies in 21 patients were studied. After 30 MBq of technetium-99m Sn colloid was injected percutaneously into the intravascular space of the lesion, dynamic imaging was performed for 5 min. A time-activity curve for the lesion was generated, with the infiltrated activity on injection subtracted. A monoexponential curve was fitted to the declining phase of the time-activity curve, and mean vascular transit time (MTT) was obtained. The lesions were classified into high-flow and low-flow lesions based on radionuclide angiography with intravenous injection of 99m Tc-labelled red blood cells, and estimates of MTT in the two groups were compared. The imaging procedures were carried out with no major complications, and broad intralesional diffusion of 99m Tc-Sn colloid was achieved in most lesions. The high-flow lesions (six lesions) had a short MTT, ranging from 1.6 to 3.4 s, while the low-flow lesions (20 lesions) had a longer MTT, with no overlap between the groups. MTT showed a wide range in low-flow lesions: it was less than 30 s in six lesions and more than 10 min in five other lesions. Direct puncture scintigraphy provides a quantitative indicator of the flow characteristics of soft-tissue vascular anomalies, and may aid in determining treatment strategies for patients with vascular anomalies. (orig./VHE). With 4 figs

  9. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references

  10. Radionuclide bone scintigraphy in pediatric orthopedics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, J.J.

    1986-12-01

    Radionuclide bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing the musculoskeletal disorders of childhood. Conditions such as neonatal osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, diskitis of childhood, Legg-Calve-Perthes disease, the osteochondroses, the toddler's fracture, sports injuries, spondylolysis, myositis ossificians, and reflex sympathetic dystrophy are readily defined. High-quality state-of-the-art scintigraphy is essential in infants and young children. 64 references.

  11. Dynamic renal scintigraphy at hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrov, T.; Chukov, I.; Svrakova, E.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the clinical relevance and accuracy of dynamic renal scintigraphy (DRS) in case of obstructed kidneys as hydronephrosis is among the complications at different renal diseases, like nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis. Twenty-one patients mainly with unilateral hydronephrosis were studied. DRS with 99m Tc-MAG3 or 99m Tc-EC was done and quantitative parameters of the morphological and functional status of every kidney were assessed. At 24 % of the patients accumulation curves typical for obstructed by hydronephrosis kidneys were obtained. At 38 % the type of renograms of the affected kidneys was intermediate one, closer to that at the cases with nephrosclerosis, with lower uptake and severe parenchymal changes. The rest 38 % of the cases showed normal renograms or slightly delayed downslope. DRS is a very precise and sensitive method for evaluation of the degree of kidney damage in cases with hydronephrosis

  12. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1986-01-01

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99m Tc-pertechnetate scans or 123 I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201 Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.) [de

  13. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis multiprotein biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nardo

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic/prognostic test and therapy. Specific molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate clinical studies and speed up the development of effective treatments.We used a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach to identify in easily accessible clinical samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, a panel of protein biomarkers that are closely associated with ALS. Validations and a longitudinal study were performed by immunoassays on a selected number of proteins. The same proteins were also measured in PBMC and spinal cord of a G93A SOD1 transgenic rat model. We identified combinations of protein biomarkers that can distinguish, with high discriminatory power, ALS patients from healthy controls (98%, and from patients with neurological disorders that may resemble ALS (91%, between two levels of disease severity (90%, and a number of translational biomarkers, that link responses between human and animal model. We demonstrated that TDP-43, cyclophilin A and ERp57 associate with disease progression in a longitudinal study. Moreover, the protein profile changes detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ALS patients are suggestive of possible intracellular pathogenic mechanisms such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, nitrative stress, disturbances in redox regulation and RNA processing.Our results indicate that PBMC multiprotein biomarkers could contribute to determine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease severity and progression, and may help to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms.

  14. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

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    Yingrui Li

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per strand, we report a comprehensive (92.62% methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found that 68.4% of CpG sites and 80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE. These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs. Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies.

  15. Attenuation of Red Blood Cell Storage Lesions with Vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Sanford

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stored red blood cells (RBCs undergo oxidative stress that induces deleterious metabolic, structural, biochemical, and molecular changes collectively referred to as “storage lesions”. We hypothesized that vitamin C (VitC, reduced or oxidized would reduce red cell storage lesions, thus prolonging their storage duration. Whole-blood-derived, leuko-reduced, SAGM (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol-preserved RBC concentrates were equally divided into four pediatric storage bags and the following additions made: (1 saline (saline; (2 0.3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Lo VitC; (3 3 mmol/L reduced VitC (Hi VitC; or (4 0.3 mmol/L oxidized VitC (dehydroascorbic acid, DHA as final concentrations. Biochemical and rheological parameters were serially assessed at baseline (prior to supplementation and Days 7, 21, 42, and 56 for RBC VitC concentration, pH, osmotic fragility by mechanical fragility index, and percent hemolysis, LDH release, glutathione depletion, RBC membrane integrity by scanning electron microscopy, and Western blot for β-spectrin. VitC exposure (reduced and oxidized significantly increased RBC antioxidant status with varying dynamics and produced trends in reduction in osmotic fragility and increases in membrane integrity. Conclusion: VitC partially protects RBC from oxidative changes during storage. Combining VitC with other antioxidants has the potential to improve long-term storage of RBC.

  16. Vitamin E nanoemulsion activity on stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C A L; Azevedo Filho, C A; Pereira, G; Silva, D C N; Castro, M C A B; Almeida, A F; Lucena, S C A; Santos, B S; Barjas-Castro, M L; Fontes, A

    2017-06-01

    Stored red blood cells (RBCs) undergo numerous changes that have been termed RBC storage lesion, which can be related to oxidative damage. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant, acting on cell lipids. Thus, this study aimed to investigate vitamin E activity on stored RBCs. We prepared a vitamin E nanoemulsion that was added to RBC units and stored at 4 °C. Controls, without vitamin E, were kept under the same conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored for up to 35 days of storage. RBC elasticity was also evaluated using an optical tweezer system. Vitamin E-treated samples presented a significant decrease in ROS production. Additionally, the elastic constant for vitamin E-treated RBCs did not differ from the control. Vitamin E decreased the amount of ROS in stored RBCs. Because vitamin E acts on lipid oxidation, results suggest that protein oxidation should also be considered a key factor for erythrocyte elastic properties. Thus, further studies combining vitamin E with protein antioxidants deserve attention, aiming to better preserve overall stored RBC properties. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  17. Survival of red blood cells after transfusion: processes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giel eBosman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The currently available data suggest that efforts towards improving the quality of red blood cell (RBC blood bank products should concentrate on: (1 preventing the removal of a considerable fraction of the transfused RBCs that takes place within the first hours after transfusion; (2 minimizing the interaction of the transfused RBCs with the patient's immune system. These issues are important in reducing the number and extent of the damaging side effects of transfusions, such as generation of alloantibodies and autoantibodies and iron accumulation, especially in transfusion-dependent patients. Thus, it becomes important for blood bank research not only to assess the classical RBC parameters for quality control during storage, but even more so to identify the parameters that predict RBC survival, function and behaviour in the patient after transfusion. These parameters are likely to result from elucidation of the mechanisms that underly physiological RBC aging in vivo, and that lead to the generation of senescent cell antigens and the accumulation of damaged molecules in vesicles. Also, study of RBC pathology-related mechanisms, such as encountered in various hemoglobinopathies and membranopathies, may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying a storage-associated increase in susceptibility to physiological stress conditions. Recent data indicate that a combination of new approaches in vitro to mimick RBC behaviour in vivo, the growing knowledge of the signaling networks that regulate RBC structure and function, and the rapidly expanding set of proteomic and metabolomic data, will be instrumental to identify the storage-associated processes that control RBC survival after transfusion.

  18. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  19. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijing; Lu, Shi-Jiang; Lu, Yan; Tan, Xiaohua; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yang, Minlan; Zhang, Fuming; Li, Yulin; Quan, Chengshi

    2015-01-01

    Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes) can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs) by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  20. Clinical significance of scintigraphy in pulmonary aspergilloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Nakatsuka, Tatsuya; Takeda, Tadashi; Yoshimura, Kazuhiko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro

    1992-01-01

    In order to study the scintigraphic findings related to the pathophysiology of pulmonary aspergilloma, chest scintigraphy with Tl-201 chloride and perfusion lung scintigraphy were performed in 18 and 19 patients with pulmonary aspergilloma, respectively. In Tl-201 scintigraphy, accumulation of Tl-201 in the diseased areas related to Aspergillus infection was observed in 18 of 19 foci. Roentgenographic findings related to the accumulation of Tl-201 in the lesion were thickness of the cavity wall and pleural thickening adjacent to the cavity, but they showed no relation to the size of the fungus ball, and 2 cases without fungus ball showed positive results. Moreover, in Tl-201 single photon emission computed tomography, accumulation of Tl-201 was demonstrated in the area surrounding fungus ball. In addition, findings of inflammation such as leukocytosis, elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, positive CRP and fever were observed in more than 50% of all cases. These results suggest that tissues surrounding the fungus ball, including the cavity wall and thickned pleura undergo inflammatory process secondary to infection by Aspergillus. Perfusion lung scintigrams showed decreased perfusion in all of 19 cases, which was more marked than that expected from the chest radiograph in many cases. In Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy, visualization of the right ventricle was observed in 15 of 18 cases. Tl-201 chest scintigraphy and perfusion lung scintigraphy are useful for evaluation of the activity of the disease process, right ventricular overloading, and regional perfusion in pulmonary aspergilloma. (author)

  1. Scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbot, J.N.

    1986-01-01

    The following aspects of scintiscanning were developed: radioactive tracers effective for imaging applications; radiation safety for patient and personnel; development of a clinical scintigraphic examination and application of scintiscanning to various body areas (head and neck, thorax, abdomen, total-body); clinical investigations using positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals; position of scintiscanning among other medical imaging techniques (biomedical radiography, computerized tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging) [fr

  2. Impairments in the Nanostructure of Red Blood Cell Membranes in Acute Blood Loss and Their Correction with Perfluorocarbon Emulsion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study impairments in the nanostructure of red blood cell membranes in acute blood loss and methods to correct the membrane structures with perfluorocarbon emulsion. Materials and methods. Experiments were carried out on Nembutal-anesthesized outbred rats. The model of a terminal state was 60-minute hypovolemic hypotension, followed by blood reinfusion and addition of perfluorane or Ringer’s solution. Images of fragments of the red blood cell membrane surface structure were obtained using a Femtoscan atomic force microscope (AFM. Twenty-seven experiments were performed; 186 cells were scanned on the AFM, which provided 720 images of three orders. Results. The paper shows the time course of changes in the index hi for different phases of an experiment. After 5-minute hypotension, h1 increased by more than 4.3 times and after 60-minute hypotension, this value decreased to 4.7 nm. The second-order height rose linearly at the stages: control — at 5 minutes — at 60 minutes of hypotension. At 60 minutes of hypotension, the first- and second-order heights were similar. At 5 minutes of hypotension, the third-order surface slightly changed — it increased by 1.5-fold. But at 60 minutes of hypotension, the changes in the fine structures of the membrane became great — h3 increased by 6.3 times. Conclusion. Blood loss has shown to induce impairments in the microstructure of red blood cell membranes at all levels of its organization: flick in the range of 600—1000 nm, spectrin matrix at 150—350 nm, proteins, band 3, at 30—80 nm. The per-fluorocarbon emulsion «Perftoran» exerts a pronounced modulatory effect on the red blood cell membrane nanostructure at all steps of its organization, by restoring the membrane nanostructure practically to the control level. Key words: blood loss, red blood cell membrane, nanostructure, atomic force microscopy.

  3. Cerebral blood flow in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huttenlocher, P.R.; Moohr, J.W.; Johns, L.; Brown, F.D.

    1984-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 ( 133 Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the 133 Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The 133 Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke

  4. 123I-β-methyl-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid myocardial scintigraphy in diabetic patients without overt ischemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinmura, Ken; Tani, Masato; Suganuma, Yukako; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Masatoshi; Nakamura, Yoshiro; Hashimoto, Jun; Kubo, Atsushi

    1995-01-01

    We evaluated 123 I-β-methyl-iodophenyl-pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) myocardial scintigraphy in 15 diabetes mellitus patients without overt coronary heart disease. Patients with overt coronary heart disease were excluded by careful history taking, resting electrocardiography, treadmill exercise testing echocardiography and resting 201 Tl scintigraphy. Patients with remarkably impaired left ventricular (LV) systolic function (%FS 2 , FBS: 178 vs 114 mg/dl, HbA1c: 7.6 vs 6.2%, IRI: 18.5 vs 9.5 μU/ml, LVEDD: 52 vs 44 mm). 123 I-metaiodobenzyl-guanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy in the 5 patients with abnormal BMIPP uptake showed more severe defects than in the 10 patients with normal BMIPP imaging. BMIPP scintigraphy demonstrated a significant correlation between H/M and L/M by BMIPP (r=0.74). Correlation between H/M by BMIPP scintigraphy and clinical parameters (BMI, systolic blood pressure, FBS, HbA1c, IRI) were found, suggesting that diabetes mellitus patients without over coronary heart disease show abnormal BMIPP imaging when their general glucose utility and 123 I-MIBG uptake are severely impaired (progression of insulin resistance and sympathetic nerve involvement). BMIPP scintigraphy may be useful in investigating the pathogenesis and subclinical abnormality of diabetic heart. (J.P.N.)

  5. Prediction of response to revascularization in patients with renal artery stenosis by Tc-99m-ethylene dicysteine captopril scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ugur, O.; Ergun, E.L.; Peksoy, I.; Cekirge, S. [Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Medical School; Serdengecti, M.; Karacalioglu, O.

    1999-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of captopril scintigraphy with the new renal agent {sup 99m}Tc-ethylene dicysteine ({sup 99m}Tc-EC) for post-interventional improvement in blood pressure. Twelve patients who had persistently high blood pressure with previous demonstration of various degrees of renal artery lesion on angiography were included into the study. Baseline and captopril scintigraphies were performed on the same day at 4 hour intervals after the injection of 74 and 296 MBq of {sup 99m}Tc-EC, respectively. All patients had percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), and improvement in blood pressure was evaluated 3-6 months after the intervention. {sup 99m}Tc-EC captopril scintigraphy successfully predicted a positive or negative outcome in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient with captopril induced renal function deterioration, scintigraphy failed to predict post-interventional response. Our preliminary findings showed that {sup 99m}Tc-EC captopril scintigraphy can be used to determine patients who will benefit from revascularization. (author)

  6. Fracture healing: Quantitative three-phase bone scintigraphy as a prognostic factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodig, D.; Kasal, B.; Kragic-Pranic, A.; Predic, P.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Careful clinical examination and conventional radiography, together with other standard methods for evaluation of bone fracture healing, are frequently inconclusive. Furthermore, it is difficult to predict the complications of healing on the basis of clinical and radiographic findings only. Bone scintigraphy plays an important role in detecting bone fractures. This method is very sensitive, but not enough specific. The aim of this work was to evaluate the role of three-phase bone scintigraphy in the healing prognosis of long bone fractures. Material and Methods: We evaluated the three elements (perfusion, blood pool and static image) of three-phase bone scintigraphy in early prognosis of the course of fracture healing in patients with fractures of femur or tibia. Three-phase bone scintigraphy was performed in 73 patients. The patients were divided into 4 groups according to X-ray and clinical examination: 1) Non operated patients with stable fracture, 2) Operated patients with unstable fracture (infection), 3) Fractures with delayed union, 4) Patients with pseudoarthrosis. Using region of interest (ROI) method we compared the activity on the site of fracture with the activity on the symmetrical place in the healthy bone. The relative indices for each group of patients and for each element of three-bone scintigraphy were calculated in order to make possible the follow up of the fracture healing and to obtain data for prognosis and evaluation of possible complications. Results: The most valuable results were obtained by quantitative analysis of perfusion data immediately after trauma and 2-3 weeks later. Our results show a high diagnostic accuracy in identifying infection by perfusion scintigrams immediately after trauma. The perfusion indices obtained immediately and after 2-3 weeks could predict delayed union after the trauma. Quantitative analysis of blood pool phase gave no data of clinical significance in distinguishing various pathologies. Conclusion: Our

  7. Filters in autologous blood retransfusion systems affect the amount of blood cells retransfused in total knee arthroplasty: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonen, Adrianus F C M; Pilot, Peter; Meijers, Wil G H; Waelen, Richard A J; Leers, Mathie P G; Grimm, Bernd; Heyligers, Ide C

    2008-04-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to evaluate whether filters integrated in postoperative retransfusion systems affect the amount of blood cells retransfused after total knee arthroplasty. Twenty-two consecutive patients received either the Donor retransfusion system (n=12 patients) or the Bellovac ABT retransfusion system (n=10). Both systems differ with respect to the type of filter, a Pall Lipiguard filter and a Sangopur filter, respectively. At the beginning of the retransfusion, blood samples were taken before and after the filter. The filter of the Donor system significantly decreased the amount of leukocytes and erythrocytes, whereas the filter of the Bellovac system did not. As a result the haemoglobin level of retransfused blood with the Donor system was significantly lower than with the Bellovac system. It can be concluded that the type of filter integrated in two postoperative autologous blood retransfusion systems significantly affected the amount of blood cells retransfused in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty.

  8. Clinical evaluation of a 51Cr-labeled red blood cell survival test for in vivo blood compatibility testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineda, A.A.; Dharkar, D.D.; Wahner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Modified red blood cell survival studies with use of 51Cr were performed in three groups of subjects. Group 1 consisted of normal subjects who were given labeled autologous blood, group 2 were subjects in need of blood transfusions and given labeled ABO and Rh crossmatch-compatible blood, and group 3 were patients in need of blood transfusion but in whom problems arose in finding compatible blood. The results of the studies suggest that for patients with blood compatibility problems, normal red blood cell survival values at 1 hour do not exclude the possibility of severe hemolysis 24 hours later. Thus, if a 1-hour test result is normal, the procedure should be extended routinely to 24 hours. Moreover, the test can be used to evaluate the clinical importance of antibodies. We showed that anti-Yka and anti-Lan were clinically significant, but high-titer, low-avidity antibodies, anti-Kna, anti-I, and anti-HI were clinically insignificant in the cases studied. This finding emphasizes the importance of an in vivo test for the final compatibility evaluation in complicated blood replacement problems

  9. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB) and......) and haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in order to identify different practices and to explore whether recommendations can be made for harmonization.......A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB...

  10. Detection of tumor-associated cells in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples for retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peixuan; Stanton, Melissa L; Castle, Erik P; Joseph, Richard W; Adams, Daniel L; Li, Shuhong; Amstutz, Platte; Tang, Cha-Mei; Ho, Thai H

    2016-07-02

    Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are commonly collected in biobanks. However, little data exist regarding the preservation of tumor-associated cells in cryopreserved collections. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using the CellSieve™ microfiltration assay for the isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating cancer-associated macrophage-like cells (CAMLs) from cryopreserved PBMC samples. Blood samples spiked with breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC-3), and renal (786-O) cancer cell lines were used to establish analytical accuracy, efficiency, and reproducibility after cryopreservation. The spiked samples were processed through Ficoll separation, and cryopreservation was followed by thawing and microfiltration. MCF-7 cells were successfully retrieved with recovery efficiencies of 90.5 % without cryopreservation and 87.8 and 89.0 %, respectively, on day 7 and day 66 following cryopreservation. The corresponding recovery efficiencies of PC-3 cells were 83.3 % without cryopreservation and 85.3 and 84.7 %, respectively, after cryopreservation. Recovery efficiencies of 786-O cells were 92.7 % without cryopreservation, and 82.7 and 81.3 %, respectively, after cryopreservation. The recovered cells retained the morphologic characteristics and immunohistochemical markers that had been observed before freezing. The protocols were further validated by quantitation of CAMLs in blood samples from two patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The recovery rates of CTCs and CAMLs from cryopreserved samples were not statistically significant different (P > 0.05) from matched fresh samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report that CAMLs could be cryopreserved and analyzed after thawing with microfiltration technology. The application of microfiltration technology to cryopreserved samples will enable much greater retrospective study of cancer patients in relation to long-term outcomes.

  11. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Nalls

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count-6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count-17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count-6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count-2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2, including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across

  12. Multiple Loci Are Associated with White Blood Cell Phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiong; Greinacher, Andreas; Wood, Andrew R.; Garcia, Melissa; Gasparini, Paolo; Liu, Yongmei; Lumley, Thomas; Folsom, Aaron R.; Reiner, Alex P.; Gieger, Christian; Lagou, Vasiliki; Felix, Janine F.; Völzke, Henry; Gouskova, Natalia A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Döring, Angela; Völker, Uwe; Chong, Sean; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Rendon, Augusto; Dehghan, Abbas; Moore, Matt; Taylor, Kent; Wilson, James G.; Lettre, Guillaume; Hofman, Albert; Bis, Joshua C.; Pirastu, Nicola; Fox, Caroline S.; Meisinger, Christa; Sambrook, Jennifer; Arepalli, Sampath; Nauck, Matthias; Prokisch, Holger; Stephens, Jonathan; Glazer, Nicole L.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Okada, Yukinori; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kamatani, Yoichiro; Matsuda, Koichi; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Stumvoll, Michael; Tönjes, Anke; Prokopenko, Inga; Illig, Thomas; Patel, Kushang V.; Garner, Stephen F.; Kuhnel, Brigitte; Mangino, Massimo; Oostra, Ben A.; Thein, Swee Lay; Coresh, Josef; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Menzel, Stephan; Lin, JingPing; Pistis, Giorgio; Uitterlinden, André G.; Spector, Tim D.; Teumer, Alexander; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Bandinelli, Stefania; Frayling, Timothy M.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Melzer, David; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Levy, Daniel; Boerwinkle, Eric; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Longo, Dan L.; Soranzo, Nicole; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Harris, Tamara B.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Ganesh, Santhi K.

    2011-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count—6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count—17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count—6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count—2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2), including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across populations

  13. An artificial blood vessel implanted three-dimensional microsystem for modeling transvascular migration of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Ying; Pei, Ying; Xie, Min; Jin, Zi-He; Xiao, Ya-Shi; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Li-Na; Li, Yan; Huang, Wei-Hua

    2015-02-21

    Reproducing a tumor microenvironment consisting of blood vessels and tumor cells for modeling tumor invasion in vitro is particularly challenging. Here, we report an artificial blood vessel implanted 3D microfluidic system for reproducing transvascular migration of tumor cells. The transparent, porous and elastic artificial blood vessels are obtained by constructing polysaccharide cellulose-based microtubes using a chitosan sacrificial template, and possess excellent cytocompatibility, permeability, and mechanical characteristics. The artificial blood vessels are then fully implanted into the collagen matrix to reconstruct the 3D microsystem for modeling transvascular migration of tumor cells. Well-defined simulated vascular lumens were obtained by proliferation of the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) lining the artificial blood vessels, which enables us to reproduce structures and functions of blood vessels and replicate various hemodynamic parameters. Based on this model, the adhesion and transvascular migration of tumor cells across the artificial blood vessel have been well reproduced.

  14. The morphological classification of normal and abnormal red blood cell using Self Organizing Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmat, R. F.; Wulandari, F. S.; Faza, S.; Muchtar, M. A.; Siregar, I.

    2018-02-01

    Blood is an essential component of living creatures in the vascular space. For possible disease identification, it can be tested through a blood test, one of which can be seen from the form of red blood cells. The normal and abnormal morphology of the red blood cells of a patient is very helpful to doctors in detecting a disease. With the advancement of digital image processing technology can be used to identify normal and abnormal blood cells of a patient. This research used self-organizing map method to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the digital image. The use of self-organizing map neural network method can be implemented to classify the normal and abnormal form of red blood cells in the input image with 93,78% accuracy testing.

  15. One year review of the blood cell separator programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y O; Kueh, Y K; Suri, R; Oon, C J; Ng, H W; Goh, C N; Ong, Y W

    1981-07-01

    Using the Haemonetic Model 30 intermittent continuous flow centrifuge, 142 procedures, including 64 granulocytes and platelets, 68 platelet collection, 8 therapeutic leukapheresis and 2 plasmapheresis were performed. Granulocyte transfusions (mean collection 1.39 x 10(10) granulocytes) were given to 27 neutropenic patients for febrile episodes which were unresponsive to systemic antibiotics. Thirty-eight thrombocytopenic patients received a mean of 4.2 x 10(11) platelets per collection. Bleeding was controlled in most of the patients who received transfusion with a mean rise in platelet count of 30.6 x 10(9)/L. Therapeutic leukapheresis were performed on 3 patients with chronic leukaemias. A mean of 2.53 x 10(11) cells were collected per run with a mean fall of 58.2 x 10(9)/L in the patients' white blood cell count. Plasmapheresis was used to treat 1 patient with multiple myeloma. The authors' experience demonstrates that cell separator support is essential for patients with bone marrow depression and that the therapeutic leukapheresis is effective therapy for selected patients with chronic leukaemias. Plasmapheresis is effective in patients with hyperviscosity syndrome.

  16. WHITE BLOOD CELLS IN POLISH ATHLETES OF VARIOUS SPORTS DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Orysiak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity of white blood cell (WBC counts and their subsets (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes among competitive athletes of different sports disciplines. The blood samples were collected from 608 healthy, medically examined athletes (181 females and 427 males aged 20.1 ± 5.1 years, who represented five sport disciplines: canoeing, judo, rowing, swimming and volleyball. All blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein in the morning, after overnight fasting, in a seated position. Haematological analyses were conducted using a haematology analyser (ADVIA 120, Siemens. Neutropenia (defined as neutrophil count <2.0 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup] was found in athletes of both sexes in each discipline. There was no incident of lymphopenia (defined as a lymphocyte count <1.0 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup]. Monocytopenia (defined as a monocyte count <0.2 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup] was seen only in male athletes, except judo athletes. Differences in WBC and their subset counts were related to sport disciplines: in volleyball players WBC counts were significantly higher than in athletes of canoeing and rowing (in females; neutrophil counts were the lowest in swimming athletes; lymphocyte counts were lower in athletes of canoeing than in volleyball and swimming, but only in females; monocyte counts were lower in athletes of canoeing than swimming (in females and judo (in males. In women, counts of neutrophils were greater and counts of monocytes were smaller than in men. It seems that prevalence of neutropenia and monocytopenia and differences in WBC counts and their subsets among disciplines could be related to the adaptive response to physical exercise.

  17. Assessment of leucoreduction of sickle cell trait blood: quality of the filtered product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amar, Karim Ould; Bourdonné, Olivier; Bruneau, Sylvie; Sellami, Fatiha; Richard, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background With the implementation of universal leucoreduction of blood components in several industrialised countries, the problems associated with leucocyte filtration of sickle cell trait blood have been reconsidered. In this study, we assessed the use of high performance filters for leucoreduction of packed red blood cells donated from subjects with sickle cell trait and evaluated the incidence and recurrence of altered red blood cell filterability. Materials and methods Twenty-one volunteer donors with HbAS were compared to 21 donors with HbAA selected at random. The main parameters analysed were residual white blood cell count and post-filtration haemolysis. Filtration times, flow, volume and haemoglobin loss of the packed red blood cells were also determined. Results In all, 33% of HbAS red blood cell units with slow flow and prolonged filtration time had high residual white blood cell counts. In 7.7% of cases, despite flow through the filter, the units were not leucoreduced properly. Haemoglobin and volume loss were significantly greater in the slow filtration group. Significant post-filtration haemolysis was present in half of the units with high residual white blood cell counts. Discussion Despite the development of new technology for filtration, the problem of filterability of blood from donors with sickle cell trait is not yet resolved. Altered filterability of blood from sickle cell trait donors cannot be predicted from the donors’ characteristics and recurrence of the problem is not observed between donations. Screening blood donors for sickle cell trait to ensure the safety and quality of blood products for transfusion does, therefore, remain a relevant issue. PMID:23149143

  18. Effects of blood products on inflammatory response in endothelial cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Urner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusing blood products may induce inflammatory reactions within the vascular compartment potentially leading to a systemic inflammatory response. Experiments were designed to assess the inflammatory potential of different blood products in an endothelial cell-based in vitro model and to compare baseline levels of potentially activating substances in transfusion products. METHODS: The inflammatory response from pre-activated (endotoxin-stimulated and non-activated endothelial cells as well as neutrophil endothelial transmigration in response to packed red blood cells (PRBC, platelet concentrates (PC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP was determined. Baseline inflammatory mediator and lipid concentrations in blood products were evaluated. RESULTS: Following incubation with all blood products, an increased inflammatory mediator release from endothelial cells was observed. Platelet concentrates, and to a lesser extent also FFP, caused the most pronounced response, which was accentuated in already pre-stimulated endothelial cells. Inflammatory response of endothelial cells as well as blood product-induced migration of neutrophils through the endothelium was in good agreement with the lipid content of the according blood product. CONCLUSION: Within the group of different blood transfusion products both PC and FFP have a high inflammatory potential with regard to activation of endothelial cells. Inflammation upon blood product exposure is strongly accentuated when endothelial cells are pre-injured. High lipid contents in the respective blood products goes along with an accentuated inflammatory reaction from endothelial cells.

  19. Relationship of CD34+ cells infused and red blood cell transfusion requirements after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplants: a novel method of analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Lindsay C; Heller, Gillian Z

    2012-04-01

    CD34+ cells infused predicts myeloid and platelet engraftment at the time of autologous stem cell transplantation. An association between the number of CD34+ cells infused and erythroid engraftment has yet to be established. Red blood cells transfused after autologous transplantation were compared with the number of CD34+ cells infused. Myeloid engraftment was assessed to confirm that normal engraftment kinetics occurred. Logistic regression established that the logarithm of the number of CD34+ cells infused (p = 0.0498) and admission hemoglobin (Hb; p < 0.001) predicted the need for transfusion. In those patients who required transfusion, standard regression methods were not valid. A novel model demonstrated that the initial Hb (p < 0.001) and diagnosis (p = 0.047) were significant predictors of transfusion requirements in patients needing transfusion. However, the number of CD34+ cells infused did not predict transfusion requirements in this group (p = 0.226). As myeloid engraftment demonstrated kinetics that have been previously described, it can be inferred that erythroid engraftment was not atypical. The number of CD34+ cells infused predicted the need for transfusion, although it did not predict the number of RBCs transfused in those patients having transfusion during their admission for autologous stem cell transplant. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. Stretching of red blood cells at high strain rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, J. E.; Ristenpart, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    Most work on the mechanical behavior of red blood cells (RBCs) in flow has focused on simple shear flows. Relatively little work has examined RBC deformations in the physiologically important extensional flow that occurs at the entrance to a constriction. In particular, previous work suggests that RBCs rapidly stretch out and then retract upon entering the constriction, but to date no model predicts this behavior for the extremely high strain rates typically experienced there. In this Rapid Communication, we use high speed video to perform systematic measurements of the dynamic stretching behavior of RBCs as they enter a microfluidic constriction. We demonstrate that both the Kelvin-Voigt and Skalak viscoelastic models capture the observed stretching dynamics, up to strain rates as high as 2000 s-1. The results indicate that the effective elastic modulus of the RBC membrane at these strain rates is an order of magnitude larger than moduli measured by micropipette aspiration or other low strain rate techniques.

  1. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... trials, SilverPlatter Medline (1950 to date), SilverPlatter Embase (1980 to date), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to present). Reference lists of identified trials and other systematic reviews were assessed, and authors and experts in transfusion were contacted to identify additional trials....... TRIAL SELECTION: Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials that evaluated a restrictive compared with a liberal transfusion strategy in adults or children, irrespective of language, blinding procedure, publication status, or sample size. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently screened...

  2. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according...... to linear kinetics in 24 patients with cirrhosis and 14 healthy controls. The sodium efflux was modified by ouabain (O), furosemide (F) and a combination of O and F (O + F). RBC sodium was significantly decreased (4·6 versus control 6·3 mmol l(-1) , Psodium (r = 0·57, P......sodium efflux was higher in patients with cirrhosis (+46%, Psodium buffers showed that the F-insensitive sodium efflux was twice as high in cirrhosis as in controls (P = 0...

  3. Duration of red blood cell storage and inflammatory marker generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Caroline; Tariket, Sofiane; Chou, Ming Li; Garraud, Olivier; Laradi, Sandrine; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Seghatchian, Jerard; Burnouf, Thierry; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a life-saving treatment for several pathologies. RBCs for transfusion are stored refrigerated in a preservative solution, which extends their shelf-life for up to 42 days. During storage, the RBCs endure abundant physicochemical changes, named RBC storage lesions, which affect the overall quality standard, the functional integrity and in vivo survival of the transfused RBCs. Some of the changes occurring in the early stages of the storage period (for approximately two weeks) are reversible but become irreversible later on as the storage is extended. In this review, we aim to decipher the duration of RBC storage and inflammatory marker generation. This phenomenon is included as one of the causes of transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM), an emerging concept developed to potentially elucidate numerous clinical observations that suggest that RBC transfusion is associated with increased inflammatory events or effects with clinical consequence. PMID:28263172

  4. The Antioxidant Effect of Erythropoietin on Thalassemic Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Amer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of its stimulating effect on RBC production, erythropoietin (Epo is used to treat anemia, for example, in patients on dialysis or on chemotherapy. In β-thalassemia, where Epo levels are low relative to the degree of anemia, Epo treatment improves the anemia state. Since RBC and platelets of these patients are under oxidative stress, which may be involved in anemia and thromboembolic complications, we investigated Epo as an antioxidant. Using flow-cytometry technology, we found that in vitro treatment with Epo of blood cells from these patients increased their glutathione content and reduced their reactive oxygen species, membrane lipid peroxides, and external phosphatidylserine. This resulted in reduced susceptibility of RBC to undergo hemolysis and phagocytosis. Injection of Epo into heterozygous (Hbbth3/+ β-thalassemic mice reduced the oxidative markers within 3 hours. Our results suggest that, in addition to stimulating RBC and fetal hemoglobin production, Epo might alleviate symptoms of hemolytic anemias as an antioxidant.

  5. Importância da cintilografia com gálio-67 no linfoma cutâneo primário de células B: relato de dois casos Importance of gallium-67 scintigraphy in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyomara Sanches Attab

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de linfoma cutâneo de células B, nos quais o correto estadiamento, tratamento e seguimento foram possíveis graças à combinação de exames convencionais e a cintilografia com gálio-67.The authors describe two cases of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma where correct staging, treatment and follow-up could be achieved through a combination of conventional imaging studies and gallium-67 scintigraphy.

  6. Quantitative assessment of limb blood flow using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells. Radionuclide venous occlusion plethysmography (RAVOP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Shougase, Takashi; Kawamura, Naoyuki; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Nakada, Kunihiro; Sakuma, Makoto; Furudate, Masayori

    1987-10-01

    A quantitative assessment of limb blood flow using a non-diffusible radioindicator, Tc-99m labeled red blood cells, was reported. This was an application of venous occlusion plethysmography using radionuclide which was originally proposed by M. Fukuoka et al. The peripheral blood flow (mean +- s.e.) of 30 legs in a normal control group was 1.87 +- 0.08 ml/100 ml/min. In heart diseases (46 legs), it was 1.49 +- 0.13 ml/100 ml/min. The limb blood flow between a control group and heart diseases was statistically significant (p < 0.01) in the t-test. The peripheral blood flow at rest between diseased legs and normal legs in occlusive arterial disorders was also statistically significant (p < 0.01) in a paired t-test. RAVOP was done after the completion of objective studies such as radionuclide angiography or ventriculography. Technique and calculation of a blood flow were very easy and simple. RAVOP study which was originally proposed by Fukuoka et al. was reappraised to be hopeful for quantitative measurement of limb blood flow as a non-invasive technique using Tc-99m labeled red blood cells.

  7. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes.

  8. On the shape memory of red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordasco, Daniel; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2017-04-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) undergo remarkably large deformations when subjected to external forces but return to their biconcave discoid resting shape as the forces are withdrawn. In many experiments, such as when RBCs are subjected to a shear flow and undergo the tank-treading motion, the membrane elements are also displaced from their original (resting) locations along the cell surface with respect to the cell axis, in addition to the cell being deformed. A shape memory is said to exist if after the flow is stopped the RBC regains its biconcave shape and the membrane elements also return to their original locations. The shape memory of RBCs was demonstrated by Fischer ["Shape memory of human red blood cells," Biophys. J. 86, 3304-3313 (2004)] using shear flow go-and-stop experiments. Optical tweezer and micropipette based stretch-relaxation experiments do not reveal the complete shape memory because while the RBC may be deformed, the membrane elements are not significantly displaced from their original locations with respect to the cell axis. Here we present the first three-dimensional computational study predicting the complete shape memory of RBCs using shear flow go-and-stop simulations. The influence of different parameters, namely, membrane shear elasticity and bending rigidity, membrane viscosity, cytoplasmic and suspending fluid viscosity, as well as different stress-free states of the RBC is studied. For all cases, the RBCs always exhibit shape memory. The complete recovery of the RBC in shear flow go-and-stop simulations occurs over a time that is orders of magnitude longer than that for optical tweezer and micropipette based relaxations. The response is also observed to be more complex and composed of widely disparate time scales as opposed to only one time scale that characterizes the optical tweezer and micropipette based relaxations. We observe that the recovery occurs in three phases: a rapid compression of the RBC immediately after the flow is stopped

  9. Characterization of Microvesicles Released from Human Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Bach Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are spherical fragments of cell membrane released from various cell types under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Based on their size and origin, EVs are classified as exosome, microvesicles (MVs and apoptotic bodies. Recently, the release of MVs from human red blood cells (RBCs under different conditions has been reported. MVs are released by outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. However, the outward budding process itself, the release of MVs and the physical properties of these MVs have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the formation process, isolation and characterization of MVs released from RBCs under conditions of stimulating Ca2+ uptake and activation of protein kinase C. Methods: Experiments were performed based on single cell fluorescence imaging, fluorescence activated cell sorter/flow cytometer (FACS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The released MVs were collected by differential centrifugation and characterized in both their size and zeta potential. Results: Treatment of RBCs with 4-bromo-A23187 (positive control, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA in the presence of 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ led to an alteration of cell volume and cell morphology. In stimulated RBCs, exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS and formation of MVs were observed by using annexin V-FITC. The shedding of MVs was also observed in the case of PMA treatment in the absence of Ca2+, especially under the transmitted bright field illumination. By using SEM, AFM and DLS the morphology and size of stimulated RBCs, MVs were characterized. The sizes of the two populations of MVs were 205.8 ± 51.4 nm and 125.6 ± 31.4 nm, respectively. Adhesion of stimulated RBCs and MVs was observed. The zeta potential of MVs was determined in the range from - 40 mV to - 10 m

  10. Plasticity of Cells and Ex Vivo Production of Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Hiroyama

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The supply of transfusable red blood cells (RBCs is not sufficient in many countries. If transfusable RBCs could be produced abundantly from certain resources, it would be very useful. Our group has developed a method to produce enucleated RBCs efficiently from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells present in umbilical cord blood. More recently, it was reported that enucleated RBCs could be abundantly produced from human embryonic stem (ES cells. The common obstacle for application of these methods is that they require very high cost to produce sufficient number of RBCs that are applicable in the clinic. If erythroid cell lines (immortalized cell lines able to produce transfusable RBCs ex vivo were established, they would be valuable resources. Our group developed a robust method to obtain immortalized erythroid cell lines able to produce mature RBCs. To the best of our knowledge, this was the first paper to show the feasibility of establishing immortalized erythroid progenitor cell lines able to produce enucleated RBCs ex vivo. This result strongly suggests that immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines able to produce mature RBCs ex vivo can also be established.

  11. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  12. Effects of ozone on isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larini, A; Bocci, V

    2005-02-01

    We have investigated the release of cytokines from isolated peripheral human blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) exposed to various ozone concentrations for 10 min and the release of both proinflammatory and immunosuppressive cytokine after 24, 48 and 76 h incubation. Ozonation was performed by exposing for 10 min equal cell numbers and volumes of cell suspension to equal volumes of a gas mixture (1:1 ratio) composed of oxygen-ozone with precise ozone concentrations ranging from 1.0 up to 80 microg/ml (0.02 up to 1.68 mM). Markers of oxidative stress showed a significant relationship between ozone doses and both lipid peroxidation and protein thiol groups content. With the exception of the lowest ozone concentration, the cytokine production of PBMC was depressed particularly at concentrations from 40 mug/ml upwards. There was no significant effect on IL-6 production between exposed or unexposed cells, up to 72 h of incubation. IL-4 production was markedly affected by ozone exposure, showing a marked decrease even at the lowest ozone concentration (2.5 microg/ml) already after 24 h incubation. On the other hand, production of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha was slightly stimulated by the lowest ozone dose either at all times or only after 72 h incubation, respectively. Analysis of the proliferation index (PI) is consistent with these results showing that, while the lowest concentration stimulates it, progressively increasing O(3) concentrations inhibit the PI. These data show that there is a significant relationship between cytokine production and ozone concentrations and that PBMC are very sensitive to oxidation particularly in presence of serum with low antioxidant capacity.

  13. Cord blood erythropoietin and cord blood nucleated red blood cells for prediction of adverse neonatal outcome associated with maternal obesity in term pregnancy: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mahmoud H; Moustafa, Asmaa N; Saedii, Ahmed A Fadil; Hassan, Ebtesam E

    2017-09-01

    To determine the adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and we measure cord blood erythropoietin and NRBC count as indices of hypoxia and predictors of neonatal outcome. This prospective cohort study was done in Minia University Hospital, carried out from May 2015 to April 2016. Two hundred and seventy full-term neonates born to mothers of various body mass indices were included. Excluded were neonates with major factors known to be associated with a potential increase in fetal erythropoiesis. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI was calculated from maternally reported weight and height. Cord blood erythropoietin and nucleated red blood cells were measured. There is a significant increase of various adverse pregnancy outcomes as cesarean section. Postpartum hemorrhage and macrosomia with the increase of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Significant positive correlations between cord blood erythropoietin and nucleated red blood cells with maternal BMI. The increase in the maternal pre-pregnancy BMI is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes. Cord blood erythropoietin and nucleated red blood cells can predict the poor neonatal outcome.

  14. Cross-stream distribution of red blood cells in sickle-cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Lam, Wilbur; Graham, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Experiments revealed that in blood flow, red blood cells (RBCs) tend to migrate away from the vessel walls, leaving a cell-free layer near the walls, while leukocytes and platelets tend to marginate towards the vessel walls. This segregation behavior of different cellular components in blood flow can be driven by their differences in stiffness and shape. An alteration of this segregation behavior may explain endothelial dysfunction and pain crisis associated with sickle-cell disease (SCD). It is hypothesized that the sickle RBCs, which are considerably stiffer than the healthy RBCs, may marginate towards the vessel walls and exert repeated damage to the endothelial cells. Direct simulations are performed to study the flowing suspensions of deformable biconcave discoids and stiff sickles representing healthy and sickle cells, respectively. It is observed that the sickles exhibit a strong margination towards the walls. The biconcave discoids in flowing suspensions undergo a so-called tank-treading motion, while the sickles behave as rigid bodies and undergo a tumbling motion. The margination behavior and tumbling motion of the sickles may help substantiate the aforementioned hypothesis of the mechanism for the SCD complications and shed some light on the design of novel therapies.

  15. Blood shortage situation: An audit of red blood cells order and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work is to audit blood utilization by different specialties in the hospital using the Cross-match ratio as a guide to achieving effective transfusion practices. This was a prospective study. The blood bank of University Teaching Hospital in Benin City, Nigeria was used for the study. We analysed all blood ...

  16. Radionuclide assay of membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity of peserved red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusov, V.V.; Zelenin, A.A.; Marizin, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The radionuclide tests were used to investigate the influence of varying blood preservatives on erythrocylic membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity in samples of whole blood and packed red blood cells from normal donors prepared by standard methods. The tests were performed before and after seven days of preservation under standard conditions. It was found that blood preservations lowered membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity: its minimum reduction was recorded with citroglucopnosphate, while glugicir induced a significant drop in Na + , K + -ATPase activity of preserved red blood cells regardless of the type of the blood transfusion solution. The assay of membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity of preserved red blood cells with the use of 86 Rb could be recommended as an evaluation test for preserved blood and its components

  17. Differentiation potential of menstrual blood- versus bone marrow-stem cells into glial-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azedi, Fereshteh; Kazemnejad, Somaieh; Zarnani, Amir Hassan; Behzadi, Gila; Vasei, Mohammad; Khanmohammadi, Manijeh; Khanjani, Sayeh; Edalatkhah, Haleh; Lakpour, Niknam

    2014-05-01

    Menstrual blood is easily accessible, renewable, and inexpensive source of stem cells that have been interested for cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we showed conversion of menstrual blood stem cells (MenSCs) into clonogenic neurosphere- like cells (NSCs), which can be differentiated into glial-like cells. Moreover, differentiation potential of MenSCs into glial lineage was compared with bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs). Differentiation potential of individual converted NSCs derived from MenSCs or BMSCs into glial-like cells was investigated using immunofluorescence staining and real-time polymerase chain reaction.The fibroblastic morphology of both MenSCs and BMSCs was turned into NSCs shape during first step of differentiation. NSCs derived from both BMSCs and MenSCs expressed higher levels of Olig-2 and Nestin markers compared to undifferentiated cells. The expression levels of myelin basic protein (MBP) mRNA up regulated only in BMSCs-NSCs no in MenSCs-NSCs. However, outgrowth of individual NSCs derived from both MenSCs and BMSCs into glial-like cells led to significant up regulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein,Olig-2 and MBP at mRNA and protein level accompanied with down regulation of Nestin protein.This is the first study demonstrating that MenSCs can be converted to NSCs with differentiation ability into glial-like cells. Accumulative data show different expression pattern of glial markers in differentiated MenSCs compared to BMSCs. The comparable differentiation potential, more accessibility and no invasive technique for sample collection of MenSCs in comparison with BMSCs introduce MenSCs as an apt, consistent and safe alternative to BMSCs for cell therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  18. Recent advances in gastric emptying scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.C.; Mayeur, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Gastric emptying scintigraphy was introduced more than 25 years ago by Grittith and still remains the gold standard to assess gastric emptying. Test meals, radiopharmaceuticals and acquisition procedures have been refined and optimized over the years and the test procedure is now pretty well standardized. However, in its most common use, gastric emptying scintigraphy provides little information on gastric physiology. Over the last decade, modelling of the liquid and solid emptying curves have brought some insight in the complex gastric physiology. Compartmental analysis of the stomach has also provided information on the pathophysiological mechanisms of delayed gastric emptying. Over the past 5 years, the most dramatic development in gastric emptying scintigraphy has been the introduction of Digital Antral Scintigraphy (DAS). Digital Antral scintigraphy basically consists in dynamically imaging of the stomach and the use of a refined Fourier transform processing method. This new procedure allows for the visualization of antral contractions and, alike manometry, permits quantitative characterization on the frequency and amplitude of these contractions. Overall, this new procedure provides a unique, non invasive tool to characterize gastric motility, to define the pathophysiologic mechanisms of gastric motor disorders and to evaluate the effect of new gastro-kinetic compounds. (authors). 241 refs., 5 figs

  19. Bayesian analysis of stress thallium-201 scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variation of the diagnostic value of stress T1-201 scintigraphy with prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the population has been investigated using Bayesian reasoning. From scintigraphic and arteriographic data obtained in 100 consecutive patients presenting with chest pain, the sensitivity of stress T1-201 scintigraphy for the detection of significant CHD was 90% and the specificity was 88%. From Bayes' Theorem, the posterior probability of having CHD for a given test result was calculated for prevalences of CHD ranging from 1% to 99%. the discriminant value of stress T1-201 scintigraphy was best when the prevalence of CHD lay between 30% and 70% and maximum for a prevalence of 52%. Thus, stress T1-201 scintigraphy would be an unsuitable diagnostic test where the prior probability of CHD is low, e.g., population screening programmes, and would add little where the clinical probability of having CHD is intermediate stress T1-201 scintigraphy may provide valuable diagnostic information. (orig.)

  20. Thermal analysis of cryoprotective solutions for red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, T

    1998-05-01

    A differential scanning calorimeter was used to study the thermal behavior of glycerol-water solutions (binary system) and the more complex glycerol-based cryoprotective solutions that are used clinically in order to examine the cryoprotective role of glycerol in preserving frozen red blood cells. The melting and glass transition temperatures for the clinically used cryoprotective solutions were as expected, based on the nonequilibriumphase diagram for cryoprotective solutions incorporating isotonic phosphate-buffered saline. Two zones were identified in which solidification occurred without the formation of ice crystals: a glassy state that is crystallographically amorphous was found for glycerol concentrations between 40 and 55% in the binary system and between 45 and 60% in the complex system; a glassy state in the complete absence of ice was found at glycerol concentrations greater than 55% for the binary system or 60% for the complex system. In clinical practice, cryoprotectants are used at initial concentrations lower than those at which these two glassy states occur but there is an increase in the effective glycerol concentration inside and outside the cells as ice forms during the freezing process.

  1. Does Erythropoietin Regulate TRPC Channels in Red Blood Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Danielczok

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cation channels play an essential role in red blood cells (RBCs ion homeostasis. One set of ion channels are the transient receptor potential channels of canonical type (TRPC channels. The abundance of these channels in primary erythroblasts, erythroid cell lines and RBCs was associated with an increase in intracellular Ca2+ upon stimulation with Erythropoietin (Epo. In contrast two independent studies on Epo-treated patients revealed diminished basal Ca2+ concentration or reduced phosphatidylserine exposure to the outer membrane leaflet. Methods: To resolve the seemingly conflicting reports we challenged mature human and mouse RBCs of several genotypes with Epo and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and recorded the intracellular Ca2+ content. Next Generation Sequencing was utilised to approach a molecular analysis of reticulocytes. Results/Conclusions: Our results allow concluding that Epo and PGE2 regulation of the Ca2+ homeostasis is distinctly different between murine and human RBCs and that changes in intracellular Ca2+ upon Epo treatment is a primary rather than a compensatory effect. In human RBCs, Epo itself has no effect on Ca2+ fluxes but inhibits the PGE2-induced Ca2+ entry. In murine mature RBCs functional evidence indicates TRPC4/C5 mediated Ca2+ entry activated by Epo whereas PGE2 leads to a TRPC independent Ca2+ entry.

  2. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, G.S.; Pereira, M.O.; Benarroz, M.O.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.J.; Fonseca, A.S.; Medeiros, A.C.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na 99m TcO 4 ) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with 99m Tc ( 99m Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na 99m TcO 4 and 99m Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  3. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, G.S.; Pereira, M.O. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Benarroz, M.O.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, M.J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Fisiologia, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Biomedico, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Rua Frei Caneca, 94, Rio de Janeiro 20211040 (Brazil); Medeiros, A.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Coordenadoria de Pesquisa Basica, Praca Cruz Vermelha, 23, 20230130 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  4. Gamma-scintigraphy; La gammascintigraphie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgrez, H.A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1960-06-15

    Gamma-scintigraphy is a medical technique making it possible to fix the image of certain organs after the concentration in these of emitting radioactive products. It is already widely used in the case of the thyroid gland with iodine-132 by applying the isotope iodine 131. The study of the liver and gall bladder is carried out using colloidal gold 198 and Bengal pink marked with iodine 131. Serum albumin marked with iodine 131 makes it possible to study rachidian blockages. Other applications can already be foreseen in this direction. (author) [French] La gammascintigraphie est une technique medicale permettant de faire l'image de certains organes apres concentration dans ceux-ci de produits radioactifs emetteurs. Son utilisation deja repandue en ce qui concerne la thyroidine et l'iode-131 est possible avec l'iode-132 pour cette meme glande. Avec l'or colloidal 198 et le rose bengale marque a l'iode-131, on pratique des etudes du foie et de la vesicule biliaire. La serumalbumine marquee a l'iode-131 permet d'etudier les blocages rachidiens. D'autres possibilites sont des maintenant envisageables dans cette direction. (auteur)

  5. Functional scintigraphy of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baehre, M.; Emrich, D.

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain more diagnostic information by thyroid scintigraphy we used a gamma camera with a high resolution collimator and a computer. This led to an improvement of thyroid scintigrams and their documentation. Additionally it allowed to obtain values for global and regional uptake of pertechnetate before and under suppression. The usefulness of this method was proven by investigation of 50 individuals with normal thyroid function and 32 euthyroid patients with pathological suppressibility in an area of iodine deficiency. In normals global thyroid uptake and its suppression correlated with the FT 4 I and Δ TSH after TRH in dependence of their iodine excretion. Three types of pathological reaction under suppression could be delineated: 1. pure focal autonomy, 2. generalized (disseminated) autonomy, 3. combined focal and disseminated autonomy. The means of Δ TSH decreased stepwise from group 1 to 3 indicating increasing autonomy. The method is predominantly helpful to detect autonomy in euthyroid goitre. It is superior to qualitative evaluation of scintigrams. Additionally it is useful for decisions in therapy, especially for functionally orientated operation. (orig.) [de

  6. A Comprehensive Fluid Dynamic-Diffusion Model of Blood Microcirculation with Focus on Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floch, Francois; Harris, Wesley L.

    2009-11-01

    A novel methodology has been developed to address sickle cell disease, based on highly descriptive mathematical models for blood flow in the capillaries. Our investigations focus on the coupling between oxygen delivery and red blood cell dynamics, which is crucial to understanding sickle cell crises and is unique to this blood disease. The main part of our work is an extensive study of blood dynamics through simulations of red cells deforming within the capillary vessels, and relies on the use of a large mathematical system of equations describing oxygen transfer, blood plasma dynamics and red cell membrane mechanics. This model is expected to lead to the development of new research strategies for sickle cell disease. Our simulation model could be used not only to assess current researched remedies, but also to spur innovative research initiatives, based on our study of the physical properties coupled in sickle cell disease.

  7. Different cell moieties and white blood cell (WBC) integrity in In-111 labeled WBC preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, G.B.; Feiglin, D.H.I.; McMahon, J.T.; Go, R.T.; O'Donnell, J.K.; MacIntyre, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled white blood cells (WBC) have become very popular in detecting inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this paper is to determine the distribution of different types of cells in WBC preparation for In-111 oxine labeling, and also to assess the histological integrity of WBC's after labeling with In-111 oxine. Forty to fifty cc of blood was collected from each patient and WBC's were separated by sedimentation and centrifugation. After labeling with In-111 oxine, an aliquot of the WBC sample was used for cell counting and a second aliquot was used for electron microscopic (EM) examination. The different cell moieties were counted, and the mean and standard deviation of twelve determinations calculated. Cells were prepared by the standard technique for electron microscopic examination and images of the cells were obtained at different magnifications (X8,000-25,000). The EM images revealed that although minimal cytoplasmic vacuolization occurred in the WBC's due to the labeling process, the overall histological integrity of the cells remained intact. The relative labeling efficiency of WBC's is greater than those of RBC's and platelets (J Nuc) Med 25:p98, 1984) and, therefore, even a comparatively low population of WBC's gives optimal imaging due to their increased tracer uptake

  8. Bone marrow scintigraphy with 111In-chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, Masayasu; Miyamae, Tatsuya

    1977-01-01

    111 In-chloride as a useful bone marrow-scanning agent has been used for various hematological diseases. We also have studied the distribution of indium-111 by scintigraphy in 28 patients with systemic hematopoietic disorders and other: 4 with aplastic anemia, 8 with leucemia, 3 with iron-deficiency anemia, one with pernicious anemia, 2 with myelofibrosis, 3 with multiple myeloma, one with malignant lymphoma, 3 with liver cirrhosis or Banti-syndrome and 3 with seminoma received post operative irradiation. The results of scintigraphy (the image of bone marrow, liver, spleen, kidney and intestine) were compared with bone marrow biopsies, ferrokinetic data and Se.I./TIBC. The bone marrow image was interpreted on a three-point scale: normal distribution of activity (+), abnormal distribution (+-), body back ground level (-). In the cases of iron-deficiency anemia and pernicious anemia with hyperplastic erythroid marrow, regardless of its severe anemia, the scintigrams showed clearly delineated bone marrow images and normal organ distribution of indium. On the other hand, the scan images revealed severe suppressions of bone marrow activity and markedly increased renal activity in some cases of aplastic anemia, acute leucemia and malignant lymphoma with hypoplastic and/or tumour-cell infiltrative marrows. Thus, it may be said that the bone marrow uptake of indium-111 correlates well with the degree of erythroid elements, no correlation with nucleated cell counts, and there is a strong tendency to increased renal activity in the cases of markedly decreased erythropoietic cell counts. (auth.)

  9. The effect of increased centrifugation temperature on the quality of red-blood-cell concentrates of automated whole blood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, C; Rummler, S; Barz, D

    2013-10-01

    There are manual and automated methods to separate whole blood (WB) available. The Atreus whole blood processing system is an automated method, which combines centrifugation and expression of components into a single device. A major difference to conventional methods is that centrifugation temperature is not controlled at 22°C. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of increased centrifugation temperatures on the quality of red-blood-cell concentrates (RCC) after active cooling of WB prior to processing. A total of 28 WB were processed: 16 at centrifugation temperatures of up to 28°C (1st protocol) and 12 at 34°C (2nd protocol). RCC quality parameters were tested weekly for 42 days. Red-blood-cell concentrates (RCC) quality complied with the European and German guidelines. Haemolysis was not significantly different throughout storage. Significant statistical differences were detected between both protocols in potassium concentration at the end of storage and in ATP levels at the day of processing. Centrifugation temperatures of up to 34°C are well tolerated by the red blood cells with minimal interference with the RCC quality parameters. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  10. Quantitative Analysis of Human Red Blood Cell Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Agata H; Wiśniewski, Jacek R

    2017-08-04

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are the most abundant cell type in the human body. RBCs and, in particular, their plasma membrane composition have been extensively studied for many years. During the past decade proteomics studies have extended our knowledge on RBC composition; however, these studies did not provide quantitative insights. Here we report a large-scale proteomics investigation of RBCs and their "white ghost" membrane fraction. Samples were processed using the multienzyme digestion filter-aided sample preparation (MED-FASP) and analyzed using Q-Exactive mass spectrometer. Protein abundances were computed using the total protein approach (TPA). The validation of the data with stable isotope-labeled peptide-based protein quantification followed. Our in-depth analysis resulted in the identification of 2650 proteins, of which 1890 occurred at more than 100 copies per cell. We quantified 41 membrane transporter proteins spanning an abundance range of five orders of magnitude. Some of these, including the drug transporter ABCA7 and choline transporters SLC44A1 and SLC44A2, have not previously been identified in RBC membranes. Comparison of protein copy numbers assessed by proteomics showed a good correlation with literature data; however, abundances of several proteins were not consistent with the classical references. Because we validated our findings by a targeted analysis using labeled standards, our data suggest that some older reference data from a variety of biochemical approaches are inaccurate. Our study provides the first "in-depth" quantitative analysis of the RBC proteome and will promote future studies of erythrocyte structure, functions, and disease.

  11. Red Blood Cell Susceptibility to Pneumolysin: CORRELATION WITH MEMBRANE BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Petrov, Peter G; Khafaji, Mawya A; Mughal, Muhammad K; Naylor, Claire E; Shore, Angela C; Gooding, Kim M; Casanova, Francesco; Mitchell, Tim J; Titball, Richard W; Winlove, C Peter

    2016-05-06

    This study investigated the effect of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the plasma membrane as well as membrane morphology on the susceptibility of human red blood cells to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin, a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, using single cell studies. We show a correlation between the physical properties of the membrane (bending rigidity and surface and dipole electrostatic potentials) and the susceptibility of red blood cells to pneumolysin-induced hemolysis. We demonstrate that biochemical modifications of the membrane induced by oxidative stress, lipid scrambling, and artificial cell aging modulate the cell response to the toxin. We provide evidence that the diversity of response to pneumolysin in diabetic red blood cells correlates with levels of glycated hemoglobin and that the mechanical properties of the red blood cell plasma membrane are altered in diabetes. Finally, we show that diabetic red blood cells are more resistant to pneumolysin and the related toxin perfringolysin O relative to healthy red blood cells. Taken together, these studies indicate that the diversity of cell response to pneumolysin within a population of human red blood cells is influenced by the biophysical and biochemical status of the plasma membrane and the chemical and/or oxidative stress pre-history of the cell. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Relative deformability of red blood cells in sickle cell trait and sickle cell anemia by trapping and dragging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Rance; Cooper, James; Welker, Gabriel; Aguilar, Elaura; Flanagan, Brooke; Pennycuff, Chelsey; Scott, David; Farone, Anthony; Farone, Mary; Erenso, Daniel; Mushi, Robert; del Pilar Aguinaga, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Genetic mutation of the β-globin gene or inheritance of this mutated gene changes the chemical composition of the oxygen-carrying hemoglobin molecule that could lead to either the heterozygote genotype, resulting in sickle cell trait (SCT), or the homozygote genotype, resulting in sickle cell anemia (SCA). These mutations could affect the reversible elastic deformations of the red blood cells (RBCs) which are vital for biological functions. We have investigated this effect by studying the differences in the deformability of RBCs from blood samples of an individual with SCT and an untreated patient with SCA along with hemoglobin quantitation of each blood sample. Infrared 1064 nm laser trap force along with drag shear force are used to induce deformation in the RBCs. Ultra2-High Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC) is used for the hemoglobin quantitation.

  13. Renal 99M-technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdinovic, B.; Jaukovic, L.; Jankovic, Z.; Krstic, Z.

    2004-01-01

    99m-Technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) whose ligand was used as a radioprotective agent and as a chelating compound for metal poisoning was reported to be an excellent renal imaging agent. As 99mTc-DMSA concentrates actively in the proximal convoluted tubule, it gives an image functional renal mass. Its integrity is dependent upon several factors, predominently intrarenal blood flow and intact enzyme function.Considering low radiation dose delivered by 99mTc DMSA and wide pediatric use of this radiopharmaceutical we calculate abnormal findings incidence (%).Results of 592 99m Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy (348 children), which were classified as: 1. normal, 2. probably normal, 3. equivocal, 4. probably abnormal, 5. abnormal, are presented.Normal results were found in 269 patients (45,4%), 25% of whom was normal and 75% probably normal. Equivocal findings were found in 47 patients (7,9%). Abnormal results were presented in 276 patients (82% abnormal, 18% probably abnormal).The highest abnormal findings incidence was found in patients with congenital anomaly (88%), calculosis (87%) and policystic renal disease (79,3%). The lowest abnormal findings percentage was present in patients with urinary tract infection (12,9%) and arterial hypertension (17,3%)The role 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in pathology is clear in pyelonephrifis, hydronephrotic kidneys, and pediatric disease (urinary tract infections, congenital anomalies) and is confirmed by our results. (authors)

  14. Gamma scintigraphy in the evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, S.S.; Hardy, J.G.; Newman, S.P.; Wilding, I.R. (Pharmaceutical Profiles Ltd., Nottingham (United Kingdom))

    1992-11-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is applied extensively in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. It is used particularly for monitoring formulations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The radiolabelling is generally achieved by the incorporation of an appropriate technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled radiopharmaceutical into the formulation. In the case of complex dosage forms, such as enteric-coated tablets, labelling is best undertaken by the addition of a non-radioactive tracer such as samarium-152 or erbium-170 followed by neutron activation of the final product. Systems investigated include tablets and multiparticulates for oral administration, enemas and suppositories, metered dose inhalers and nebulisers, and nasal sprays and drops. Gamma-scintigraphy provides information on the deposition, dispersion and movement of the formulation. The combination of such studies with the assay of drug levels in blood or urine specimens, pharmacoscintigraphy, provides information concerning the sites of drug release and absorption. Data acquired from the scintigraphic evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms are now being used increasingly at all stages of product development, from the assessment of prototype delivery systems to supporting the product licence application. (orig.).

  15. Gamma scintigraphy in the evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, S.S.; Hardy, J.G.; Newman, S.P.; Wilding, I.R.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma-scintigraphy is applied extensively in the development and evaluation of pharmaceutical drug delivery systems. It is used particularly for monitoring formulations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts. The radiolabelling is generally achieved by the incorporation of an appropriate technetium-99m or indium-111 labelled radiopharmaceutical into the formulation. In the case of complex dosage forms, such as enteric-coated tablets, labelling is best undertaken by the addition of a non-radioactive tracer such as samarium-152 or erbium-170 followed by neutron activation of the final product. Systems investigated include tablets and multiparticulates for oral administration, enemas and suppositories, metered dose inhalers and nebulisers, and nasal sprays and drops. Gamma-scintigraphy provides information on the deposition, dispersion and movement of the formulation. The combination of such studies with the assay of drug levels in blood or urine specimens, pharmacoscintigraphy, provides information concerning the sites of drug release and absorption. Data acquired from the scintigraphic evaluation of pharmaceutical dosage forms are now being used increasingly at all stages of product development, from the assessment of prototype delivery systems to supporting the product licence application. (orig.)

  16. Utility of time activity curve of scrotal scintigraphy in varicoceles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukaijo, Toshifumi; Harada, Masafumi; Tanouchi, Miki; Kitsukawa, Kaoru; Tokuyama, Noritami; Sui, Osamu; Nishitani, Hiromu (Tokushima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-03-01

    Scrotal scintigraphy was performed in 37 patients with suspected varicocele. Time activity curves (TAC) were prepared and were divided into three types: Type I in which radioactivity was increased in the left testis rapidly after iv injection (n=7), Type II in which a significantly increased RI pooling was seen in the left testis after gradual RI increase (n=20), and Type III in which there was no bilateral difference in RI pooling (n=10). Because ten patients in the group of Type II showed bilateral difference in RI pooling during the static phase (after the first 120 seconds), collecting data for at least 3 to 4 minutes was considered necessary for the detection of abnormality. Among 30 patients with clinical varicocele, 25 patients (83%) had bilateral difference on TAC, as compared with 67% (20/30) for visual method on scintigrams. In addition, 2 other subclinical patients had it on TAC, although visual method failed to detect it in any of the subclinical patients. An average number of spermatozoa was larger for Type I than Type II, suggesting that factors other than reflux from the renal vein might be involved in spermatogenic function. Since scrotal scintigraphy reflects physical blood circulation, it seems to be useful in searching for the relationship between varicocele and male infertility. (N.K.).

  17. Pulmonary embolism in pregnancy: comparison of pulmonary CT angiography and lung scintigraphy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ridge, Carole A

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to retrospectively compare the diagnostic adequacy of lung scintigraphy with that of pulmonary CT angiography (CTA) in the care of pregnant patients with suspected pulmonary embolism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient characteristics, radiology report content, additional imaging performed, final diagnosis, and diagnostic adequacy were recorded for pregnant patients consecutively referred for lung scintigraphy or pulmonary CTA according to physician preference. Measurements of pulmonary arterial enhancement were performed on all pulmonary CTA images of pregnant patients. Lung scintigraphy and pulmonary CTA studies deemed inadequate for diagnosis at the time of image acquisition were further assessed, and the cause of diagnostic inadequacy was determined. The relative contribution of the inferior vena cava to the right side of the heart was measured on nondiagnostic CTA images and compared with that on CTA images of age-matched nonpregnant women, who were the controls. RESULTS: Twenty-eight pulmonary CTA examinations were performed on 25 pregnant patients, and 25 lung scintigraphic studies were performed on 25 pregnant patients. Lung scintigraphy was more frequently adequate for diagnosis than was pulmonary CTA (4% vs 35.7%) (p = 0.0058). Pulmonary CTA had a higher diagnostic inadequacy rate among pregnant than nonpregnant women (35.7% vs 2.1%) (p < 0.001). Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava was identified in eight of 10 nondiagnostic pulmonary CTA studies. CONCLUSION: We found that lung scintigraphy was more reliable than pulmonary CTA in pregnant patients. Transient interruption of contrast material by unopacified blood from the inferior vena cava is a common finding at pulmonary CTA of pregnant patients.

  18. Extending the Refrigerated Storage of Red Blood Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bitensky, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Oxygen removal increases shelf-life and quality of refrigerated blood. The shelf life of our blood has been prolonged to a minimum of 12 weeks with survival equal to or greater than that of conventional 6 week storage...

  19. Scientific problems in the regulation of red blood cell products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, John R

    2012-08-01

    For the past 30 years, red blood cell (RBC) storage systems have been licensed in the United States based on the demonstration that 24-hour in vivo recovery was greater than 75% and hemolysis was less than 1%. Now additional requirements for storage system licensure have being added. The meaning and value of these new requirements have been questioned. The literature regarding the performance of present and suggested new tests for RBC licensure was reviewed. (51) Cr 24-hr in vivo recovery has an intrinsic 4% error of measurement whereas the error in measures of hemolysis is less than 0.1%. Both measures have large donor-dependent end-of-storage variability; nevertheless, they have successfully guided RBC storage system development for six decades. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate are difficult to measure accurately and international shared-sample studies suggest 6 and 11% coefficients of variation across laboratories. There is no readily available way to measure the oxygen equilibrium curve accurately. The new failure criteria provide no useful information and randomly fail good products. Attempts to expand the useful regulatory requirements for RBC storage system licensure are limited by poor understanding of the storage lesion and its effect of RBC performance. Measures of (51) Cr 24-hour in vivo recovery remain critical and resources for this measure are limiting. The interaction between limited testing resources and large donor variability remains a major limit on RBC storage system development. It is important that new required tests contribute meaningful information and not make development and licensure of better products more difficult. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  20. Red Blood Cell Mechanical Fragility Test for Clinical Research Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Luke A; Olia, Salim E; Kameneva, Marina V

    2017-07-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) susceptibility to mechanically induced hemolysis, or RBC mechanical fragility (MF), is an important parameter in the characterization of erythrocyte membrane health. The rocker bead test (RBT) and associated calculated mechanical fragility index (MFI) is a simple method for the assessment of RBC MF. Requiring a minimum of 15.5 mL of blood and necessitating adjustment of hematocrit (Ht) to a "standard" value (40%), the current RBT is not suitable for use in most studies involving human subjects. To address these limitations, we propose a 6.5 mL reduced volume RBT and corresponding modified MFI (MMFI) that does not require prior Ht adjustment. This new method was assessed for i) correlation to the existing text, ii) to quantify the effect of Ht on MFI, and iii) validation by reexamining the protective effect of plasma proteins on RBC MF. The reduced volume RBT strongly correlated (r = 0.941) with the established large volume RBT at matched Hts, and an equation was developed to calculate MMFI: a numerical estimation (R 2  = 0.923) of MFI if performed with the reduced volume RBT at "standard" (40%) Ht. An inversely proportional relationship was found between plasma protein concentration and RBC MF using the MMFI-reduced volume method, supporting previous literature findings. The new reduced volume RBT and modified MFI will allow for the measurement of RBC MF in clinical and preclinical studies involving humans or small animals. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.