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Sample records for blood cell scintigraphy

  1. Tc-99m Labeled HMPAO white Blood Cell Scintigraphy in Pediatric Patients

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    Funda Aydın; Arzu Kın Cengiz; Fırat Güngör

    2012-01-01

    Objective: 99mTc labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy is a frequently used option for acute infection, particularly in pediatric patients. This scintigraphy is applied to detect sites of infection/inflammation in patients with fever of unknown origin, to find and follow up osteomyelitis, and to detect suspicion of acute appendicitis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the value of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy in pediatric...

  2. Multifocal peritoneal splenosis in Tc-99m-labeled heat-denatured red blood cell scintigraphy

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    Yoon, Min Ki; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Choe, Won Sick [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    A 44-year-old man with a past medical history of splenectomy came to hospital because of epigastric pain abdominopelvic computed tomography(CT) showed a soft tissue mass and multifocal variable-sized nodules as well as finding suggestive of cholecystitis. Subsequently, he underwent Tc-99m-labeled heat- denatured red blood cell(RBC) scintigraphy to evaluate the mass and nodules. The scintigraphy confirmed multifocal peritoneal splenosis in the abdominopelvic cavity.

  3. Tc-99m Labeled HMPAO white Blood Cell Scintigraphy in Pediatric Patients

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    Funda Aydın

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: 99mTc labeled hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO white blood cell (WBC scintigraphy is a frequently used option for acute infection, particularly in pediatric patients. This scintigraphy is applied to detect sites of infection/inflammation in patients with fever of unknown origin, to find and follow up osteomyelitis, and to detect suspicion of acute appendicitis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the value of 99mTc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy in pediatric patients. Material and Methods: The study was conducted between January 2006 and December 2008 and included 13 patients (5 boys, 8 girls; mean age 6.9±6.2 years. Those patients who had suspicion of bone infection (n=7, fever of unknown origin (n=3, and suspicion of acute appendicitis (n=3 were evaluated retrospectively. 99mTc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy imaging was performed to all patients. Diagnosis was done according to operation and pathological results or clinical follow-up. Results: 99mTc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy has been found to be true positive in 6 cases, true negative in 6 cases, and false negative in one patient who had fewer unknown origin. The false negative case has been found to have encephalitis with MRI. Conclusion: Leukocyte scintigraphy has been described as a useful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of suspicion of bone infection, fever of unknown origin and suspicion of acute appendicitis. 99mTc-HMPAO labeled WBC scintigraphy is a rapid and very accurate method for detecting those pathologies. Our results showed that WBC scintigraphy might be reliably used for diagnosis of suspected bone infection and acute appendicitis, fever of unknown origin, and acute appendicitis, in pediatric patient population. (MIRT 2012;21:13-18

  4. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan

  5. 99mTc-red blood cells SPECT and planar scintigraphy in the diagnosis of hepatic hemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artiko, M V; Sobić-Saranović, P D; Perisić-Savić, S M; Stojković, V M; Radoman, B I; Knezević, S J; Petrović, S N; Obradović, B V; Milović, V

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study is the assessment of the value of SPECT (single photon emission computerized tomography) using 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in the detection of liver hemangioma, in comparison to planar imaging. With planar red blood cell scintigraphy, sensitivity of the method was 76%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 98% and negative predictive value 79%. With SPECT, sensitivity of the method was 95%, specificity 98%, positive predictive value 98% and negative predictive value 94%. The smallest lesion detected by planar red blood cell scintigraphy was 1.2 cm, and with SPECT red blood cell scintigraphy 0.8 cm. The use of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells SPECT improved the sensitivity much more in smaller lesions (0.8 to 2 cm), than in bigger ones (2-5 cm). SPECT with radiolabeled red blood cells significantlyy improves the results of scintigraphic findings, especially in the small lesions. PMID:19245136

  6. White blood cell scintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies in the study of the infected endoprosthesis

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    Sciuk, J.; Puskas, C.; Schober, O. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Greitemann, B. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemeine Orthopaedie)

    1992-07-01

    Forty-three patients with suspected infection of a hip or a knee prosthesis were studied with white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC), using technetium-99m (n=37) or iodine-123 (n=6) labelled monoclonal mouse antibody (MOA). Previously, all patients had undergone skeletal scintigraphy, which was performed as a three-phase study in 33 cases. The final diagnosis was established by open surgery, histology and culture in 37 cases, by puncture and cultere in 3 cases, and by clinical follow-up of at least 6 months in 3 cases. Eighteen prostheses were infected, 25 uninfected. The delayed phase of skeletal scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 24% and an accuracy of 48% in the detection of infection. The perfusion and blood pool activity of the three-phase bone scan had a sensitivity of 67%, a specificity of 71% and an accuracy of 70%. The diagnostic value of WBC was sensitivty 89%, specificity 84% and accuracy 86%. WBC with {sup 99m}-Tc-MOA is easy to perform and always available. Its diagnostic accuracy is similar to conventional WBC scintigraphy with either indium-111 or {sup 99m}-Tc. (orig.).

  7. Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding diagnosed by delayed scintigraphy with Tc-99m-labeled red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwakanma, Lois; Meyerrose, Gary; Kennedy, Shalyn; Rakvit, Ariwan; Bohannon, Todd; Silva, Micheal

    2003-08-01

    A 56-year-old woman presented with bright-red blood from the rectum. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed mild gastritis. Colonoscopy demonstrated diverticulosis without active bleeding, and in vitro tagged red blood cell scintigraphy was unremarkable. There was no further evidence of bleeding and the patient was discharged home. The patient returned with recurrent bright-red blood from the rectum. Although delayed scintigraphic images seldom demonstrate the site of bleeding, delayed images at 12 hours demonstrated active bleeding near the hepatic flexure in this patient. This was confirmed with selective mesenteric angiography, and was treated with coil embolization of the tertiary branches of the right middle colic artery. PMID:12897664

  8. Indium-111 labelled white blood cell scintigraphy in cranial and spinal septic lesions

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    Medina, M.; Lucano, A. [Div. of Neurosurgery, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Viglietti, A.L.; Camuzzini, G. [Service of Nuclear Medicine, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Gozzoli, L. [Service of Neuroradiology, S. Croce e Carle Hospital, Cuneo (Italy); Ravasi, L.; Lucignani, G. [INB-CNR, Univ. of Milan, H San Raffaele, Milan (Italy)

    2000-10-01

    Cranial and spinal infections are severe events that require timely diagnosis and treatment. Physical and neurological examination, laboratory tests and radiological imaging may be insufficient for assessing cranial and spinal septic lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) scan in assessing the presence of leucocytes in intracranial and spinal lesions, and in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of primary, post-traumatic and post-surgical infections. One hundred and twenty-four subjects were included in the study (48 with post-traumatic or post-surgical lesions, 73 with primary cerebral lesions, and 3 with spinal lesions). All patients underwent a diagnostic work-up including planar scans with {sup 111}In-labelled WBCs, at 4 and 24 h post tracer injection. All subjects underwent surgical treatment. Patients who did not recover from the infection as suggested by clinical evolution underwent further treatment (up to three times) and further WBC scans (up to four times). WBC scintigraphy correctly identified all the areas of leucocyte accumulation, as confirmed after surgery. WBC scintigraphy also correctly excluded the presence of leucocytes in all other lesions, as demonstrated at surgery. The results of this study confirm the accuracy of WBC scan for the assessment of patients with cranial and spinal lesions, in whom the demonstration of leucocyte accumulation can ease the diagnosis of infection, and indicate that the method is also accurate for the follow-up and management of neurosurgical patients. (orig.)

  9. Indium-111 labelled white blood cell scintigraphy in cranial and spinal septic lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial and spinal infections are severe events that require timely diagnosis and treatment. Physical and neurological examination, laboratory tests and radiological imaging may be insufficient for assessing cranial and spinal septic lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) scan in assessing the presence of leucocytes in intracranial and spinal lesions, and in the diagnosis, management and follow-up of primary, post-traumatic and post-surgical infections. One hundred and twenty-four subjects were included in the study (48 with post-traumatic or post-surgical lesions, 73 with primary cerebral lesions, and 3 with spinal lesions). All patients underwent a diagnostic work-up including planar scans with 111In-labelled WBCs, at 4 and 24 h post tracer injection. All subjects underwent surgical treatment. Patients who did not recover from the infection as suggested by clinical evolution underwent further treatment (up to three times) and further WBC scans (up to four times). WBC scintigraphy correctly identified all the areas of leucocyte accumulation, as confirmed after surgery. WBC scintigraphy also correctly excluded the presence of leucocytes in all other lesions, as demonstrated at surgery. The results of this study confirm the accuracy of WBC scan for the assessment of patients with cranial and spinal lesions, in whom the demonstration of leucocyte accumulation can ease the diagnosis of infection, and indicate that the method is also accurate for the follow-up and management of neurosurgical patients. (orig.)

  10. Value of In-111 white blood cell scintigraphy in evaluation of osteitis pubis and osteomyelitis of the symphysis pubis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors tested the hypothesis that white blood cell In-111 (WBC) scintigraphy but not bone scanning can differentiate osteitis pubis (OP) from osteomyelitis of the symphysis pubis (OSP). Six patients underwent three-phase Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy, followed by In-11 WBC scintigraphy 48 hours later OP and OSP were suspected in four and two patients, respectively, with radiographic changes present in two of the former and both of the latter patients. The first, second, and third phases of bone scintigraphy were abnormal in three of five, three of five, and six of six patients, respectively, while In-111 WBC scintigraphy was positive in only one of six patients. All five patients with negative In-111 WBC studies were diagnosed and having OP, while OSP was confirmed surgically in the patient in whom In-111 WBC scintigraphy was positive. In three of five patients with OP and normal In-111 WBC scintigraphs, there was less uptake in the symphysis than in the adjacent pubic bone

  11. Detection of gastritis by /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red-blood-cell scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastritis is a common condition, with a variety of causes, that is diagnosed most often by barium upper gastrointestinal tract series or endoscopy. The authors report a case in which gastritis without active bleeding was apparent in scintiscans obtained during the evaluation of GI bleeding using /sup 99m/Tc-labeled red blood cells (TcRBC). The scintigraphic findings that suggest gastritis are described

  12. The value of 99mTc-HMPAO labelled white blood cell scintigraphy in acute appendicitis patients with an equivocal clinical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various imaging studies can be performed in the evaluation of patients with a clinical presentation equivocal for acute appendicitis. One of these studies is technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) labelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and clinical value of 99mTc-HMPAO WBC scintigraphy in the aforementioned group of patients. Forty-one patients who had acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain with a clinical presentation equivocal for acute appendicitis were included in the study. The anterior abdomen and pelvis were imaged up to 4 h after the injection of 125-300 MBq 99mTc-HMPAO WBCs and the results were immediately reported to the surgeon before a decision was taken on whether to perform laparotomy. Diagnostic accuracy was established by the intra-operative findings and the histopathology in operated patients. In non-operated patients, absence of abdominal symptoms 1 month after scintigraphy and/or identification of another cause of abdominal pain was used to rule out acute appendicitis. There were 16 patients with positive scintigraphy and 81% of these patients were positive within 2 h post injection. There were no false-positive or false-negative results. We operated on 17 (41.4%) patients, and only one patient (5.9%) underwent unnecessary laparotomy. We conclude that 99mTc-HMPAO WBC scintigraphy is a rapid, highly accurate method for the exclusion of acute appendicitis and that its use can lower the unnecessarily high laparotomy rate in patients with an equivocal clinical presentation. (orig.)

  13. Tc-99m HMPAO labelled white blood cell scintigraphy in the assessment of the extent and severity of active ulcerative colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Aim: In this study it was aimed to assess the role of Tc-99m HMPAO labelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy on different imaging times in the assessment of disease extent and severity in active ulcerative colitis (UC). Materials and Methods: Twenty-one consecutive patients (10 women, 11 men; mean age: 42.4 12 years) with active UC were prospectively studied. Clinical evaluation, laboratory analysis, endoscopy-biopsy, and scintigraphy were performed within three days before any treatment. Scintigraphy was performed 1, 2, and 4 h after 111-185 MBq Tc-99m HMPAO labelled WBC injection. Large bowel was evaluated in 4 segments (recto-sigmoid, descending, transverse and ascending colon) during the endoscopy and scintigraphy. Clinical activity score (CAS), endoscopic activity score (EAS), and scintigraphic activity score (SAS) at 1 hr, 2 hr, and 4 hr were calculated for each patient. Results: Scintigraphy showed 80%, 83%, and 80% agreement in the number of pathological segment with comparing endoscopy, at 1 hr, 2 hr and 4 hr imaging, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy values of Tc-99m HMPAO labelled WBC scintigraphy were calculated as follow, respectively: 1 hr imaging: 86%, 73%, 83%; 2 hr imaging: 89 %, 74 %, 86 %; 4 hr imaging: 90%, 58%, 83% in the detecting of active inflammatory segments using by endoscopy as gold standard. Statistically significant correlations were found between EAS and SAS for 2 hr and 4 hr imaging (r=0.64 and r=0.66, respectively). There were also significant correlations between CAS and SAS for 2 hr and 4 hr imaging (r=0.59 and r=0.62, respectively). Conclusion: Tc-99m HMPAO labelled WBC scintigraphy at 2 hr well correlated with endoscopy in the assessment of the extent of UC. Because of the higher correlation values of 4 hr SAS than 2 hr SAS with CAS and EAS, our results indicated that late scintigraphic imaging (4 h) might be useful in the evaluation of the severity of UC. (author)

  14. Extensive hemangiomatosis diagnosed by scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in a patient with lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Introduction: The gastrointestinal bleeding may be caused by vascular tumors and other lesions like inflammatory disorders, intestinal obstruction or vascular malformation. The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome are hemangiomatosis diseases that may involve the gastrointestinal tract and cause recurrent hemorrhage. The signs and symptoms usually appear at childhood. Case report: male patient, 31 years old, presenting three days of gastrointestinal bleeding and an hemorrhage shock (Hb=3,9). Previous reports of small volume bleeding since childhood and schistossomosis. Dilated veins, hemorrhoid and port wine stain lesions were detected at physical examination in perineal region, penis and scrotum. Inferior limbs were symmetric at inspection. The upper endoscopy showed esophageal varices with no signs of active bleeding. The scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red blood cells showed active hemorrhage at recto-sigmoid topography during the first hour of study. Extensive and heterogeneous uptake was seen in gluteus, posterior right thigh and scrotum at the second and fifth hours of study. Then the hypothesis of vascular tumor was considered. The magnetic resonance (MR) of pelvis demonstrated extensive hemangiomatosis at the regions described by the scintigraphy. The clinical and imaging findings suggested the diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Discussion: The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare disease characterized by congenital vascular and lymphatic malformations (port wine stain lesions, congenital varices) and bone growth and soft tissue disorder. Dilated veins may involve abdominal and pelvic structures, with rectal bleeding and haematuria occurring on average of 20%. The clinical investigation must approach the type, the extent and the severity of the malformation, since the morbidity and the mortality depends on the visceral involvement. The Doppler ultrasound, scanometry of lower extremities, MR, angiography and

  15. Extensive hemangiomatosis diagnosed by scintigraphy with 99mTc-labeled red blood cells in a patient with lower gastrointestinal bleeding

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    Souza, D.S.F.; Ichiki, W.A.; Borges, A.C.; Coura Filho, G.B.; Vecchia, J.F.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ono, C.R.; Watanabe, T.; Costa, P.L.A.; Hironaka, F.; Cerri, G.G.; Buchpiguel, C.A. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (FM/USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2008-07-01

    Full text: Introduction: The gastrointestinal bleeding may be caused by vascular tumors and other lesions like inflammatory disorders, intestinal obstruction or vascular malformation. The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome and blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome are hemangiomatosis diseases that may involve the gastrointestinal tract and cause recurrent hemorrhage. The signs and symptoms usually appear at childhood. Case report: male patient, 31 years old, presenting three days of gastrointestinal bleeding and an hemorrhage shock (Hb=3,9). Previous reports of small volume bleeding since childhood and schistossomosis. Dilated veins, hemorrhoid and port wine stain lesions were detected at physical examination in perineal region, penis and scrotum. Inferior limbs were symmetric at inspection. The upper endoscopy showed esophageal varices with no signs of active bleeding. The scintigraphy with {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cells showed active hemorrhage at recto-sigmoid topography during the first hour of study. Extensive and heterogeneous uptake was seen in gluteus, posterior right thigh and scrotum at the second and fifth hours of study. Then the hypothesis of vascular tumor was considered. The magnetic resonance (MR) of pelvis demonstrated extensive hemangiomatosis at the regions described by the scintigraphy. The clinical and imaging findings suggested the diagnosis of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Discussion: The Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome is a rare disease characterized by congenital vascular and lymphatic malformations (port wine stain lesions, congenital varices) and bone growth and soft tissue disorder. Dilated veins may involve abdominal and pelvic structures, with rectal bleeding and haematuria occurring on average of 20%. The clinical investigation must approach the type, the extent and the severity of the malformation, since the morbidity and the mortality depends on the visceral involvement. The Doppler ultrasound, scanometry of lower extremities, MR, angiography and

  16. FDG-PET, 99mTc-HMPAO white blood cell SPET and bone scintigraphy in the evaluation of painful total knee arthroplasties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO)-labelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy and bone scintigraphy were used in the evaluation of total knee arthroplasties (TKAs). We prospectively included 21 patients who had a three-phase bone scan for exclusion of infection of TKAs. Four hours after injection of 185 MBq 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs, planar and single-photon emission tomographic (SPET) imaging was performed. Planar imaging was repeated at 24 h p.i. Consecutively images of the knees were obtained with a dedicated PET system 60 min following the injection of 370 MBq of FDG. Focal tracer uptake was scored on SPET and PET visually (0=no uptake, 4=intense uptake). In addition, SUV (standardised uptake value) per voxel was calculated from attenuation-corrected PET images using the MLAA algorithm. Focal uptake at the bone-prosthesis interface was used as the criterion for infection before and after correlation with the third phase of the bone scan. Final diagnosis was based on operative findings, culture and clinical outcome. In the infected TKAs, the WBC scan showed focal activity of grade 2 (n=2), 3 (n=1) or 4 (n=2). PET scan revealed focal activity of grade 4 (n=5) or 3 (n=1). WBC scan alone had a specificity for infection of 53% [positive predictive value (PPV) 42%, sensitivity 100%], compared with 73% for PET scan (PPV 60%, sensitivity 100%). Considering only lesions at the bone-prosthesis interface that were also present on the third phase of the bone scan, we found a specificity of 93% (PPV 83%) for WBC scan. Using these criteria, a specificity of 80% (PPV 67%) was obtained for PET scan. Two out of three false-positive PET scans were due to loosening of the TKA. It is concluded that WBC scintigraphy in combination with bone scintigraphy has a high specificity in the detection of infected TKAs. FDG-PET seems to offer no additional benefit. (orig.)

  17. Diagnostic imaging of musculoskeletal infection. Roentgenography; Gallium, indium-labeled white blood cell, gammaglobulin, bone scintigraphy; and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A great deal of effort has been made to evaluate and define the role of various diagnostic imaging techniques in various clinical settings that complicate the diagnosis of osteomyelitis. Except possibly in neonates, bone scintigraphy remains generally recommended when there has been no previous osseous involvement. In other cases of chronic disease, previous fracture or trauma, prosthesis, and diabetic foot, In-WBC scintigraphy is generally accepted as an appropriate imaging technique. MRI will play an increasingly important role in diagnosing osteomyelitis and may prove to be an important adjunct in these cases. Research continues to improve our current diagnostic armamentarium. In-IgG appears to avoid practical deficiencies encountered with 67Ga and In-WBC; it remains to be seen what role this agent will play in routine clinical practice. All agents to date image inflammation, not infection, and most require delayed imaging sessions, usually at 24 hours. These shortcomings necessitate further research to develop new radiotracers that can provide useful images within several hours and that are specific for infection, perhaps ultimately delineating the particular microorganism involved.84 references

  18. Image acquisition and interpretation criteria for {sup 99m}Tc-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell scintigraphy: results of a multicentre study

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    Erba, Paola A. [University of Pisa Medical School (Italy). Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine; Glaudemans, Andor W.J.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Veltman, Niels C. [Jeroen Bosch Hospital, ' s-Hertogenbosch (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Sollini, Martina [Arcisprdale S. Maria Nuova - IRCCS, Reggio Emilia (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Pacilio, Marta; Galli, Filippo [Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Signore, Alberto [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Nuclear Medicine Unit; Sapienza Univ., Rome (Italy). Ospedale S. Andrea Medicina Nucleare

    2014-04-15

    There is no consensus yet on the best protocol for planar image acquisition and interpretation of radiolabelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. This may account for differences in reported diagnostic accuracy amongst different centres. This was a multicentre retrospective study analysing 235 WBC scans divided into two groups. The first group of scans (105 patients) were acquired with a fixed-time acquisition protocol and the second group (130 patients) were acquired with a decay time-corrected acquisition protocol. Planar images were interpreted both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Three blinded readers analysed the images. The most accurate imaging acquisition protocol comprised image acquisition at 3 - 4 h and at 20 - 24 h in time mode with acquisition times corrected for isotope decay. Using this protocol, visual analysis had high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of infection. Semiquantitative analysis could be used in doubtful cases, with no cut-off for the percentage increase in radiolabelled WBC over time, as a criterion to define a positive scan. (orig.)

  19. Image acquisition and interpretation criteria for 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell scintigraphy: results of a multicentre study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no consensus yet on the best protocol for planar image acquisition and interpretation of radiolabelled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy. This may account for differences in reported diagnostic accuracy amongst different centres. This was a multicentre retrospective study analysing 235 WBC scans divided into two groups. The first group of scans (105 patients) were acquired with a fixed-time acquisition protocol and the second group (130 patients) were acquired with a decay time-corrected acquisition protocol. Planar images were interpreted both qualitatively and semiquantitatively. Three blinded readers analysed the images. The most accurate imaging acquisition protocol comprised image acquisition at 3 - 4 h and at 20 - 24 h in time mode with acquisition times corrected for isotope decay. Using this protocol, visual analysis had high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of infection. Semiquantitative analysis could be used in doubtful cases, with no cut-off for the percentage increase in radiolabelled WBC over time, as a criterion to define a positive scan. (orig.)

  20. Diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs with scintigraphy of red blood cells labelled with 99m technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical diagnosis of leg deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is notoriously unreliable. It must be supplemented by objective techniques which all have drawbacks. 99mTc-RBC venography also has its limitations, yet it is a simple, safe, and useful test for diagnosing DVT of the lower limb. When done carefully, it is a rewarding procedure with good sensitivity and specificity for the condition both in the calf and ilio-femoral regions. Blood pool venography is readily accessible to all nuclear medicine department for the diagnosis of thrombophlebitis and also the follow-up of treated patients

  1. Gallium scintigraphy in patients with adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium scintigraphy was evaluated in 25 patients with adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL). Anterior and posterior images were obtained at 72 h after administration of 3 mCi67Ga-citrate using a gamma camera (Maxi-Camera 400 T, General Electric Co.) with a medium energy standard parallel hole collimator. Abnormally high accumulations were observed in 17 out of 25 cases (superficial lymph node, 8; hilar and mediastinal lymph node, 7; paraaortic lymph node, 2; lung, 9; liver, 1; bone, 1). There were 10 malignant lesions detected by 67Ga scintigraphy in 9 out of 17 cases (superficial lymph node, 1; hilar and mediastinal lymph node, 6; paraaortic lymph node, 1; liver, 1; bone, 1). White blood cell count and serum LDH levels were significantly raised in patients with abnormally high accumulations of 67Ga. In conclusion, 67Ga scintigraphy seemed to be a useful examination to detect malignant lesions in patients with ATLL. (orig.)

  2. Liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver scintigraphy can be classified into 3 major categories according to the properties of the radiopharmaceuticals used, i.e., methods using radiopharmaceuticals which are (1) incorporated by hepatocytes, (2) taken up by reticulo endothelial cells, and (3) distributed in the blood pool of the liver. Of these three categories, the liver scintigraphy of the present research falls into category 2. Radiopharmaceuticals which are taken up by endothelial cells include 198Au colloids and 99mTc-labelled colloids. Liver scintigraphy takes advantage of the property by which colloidal microparticles are phagocytosed by Kupffer cells, and reflect the distribution of endothelial cells and the intensity of their phagocytic capacity. This examination is indicated in the following situations: (i) when you suspect a localized intrahepatic lesion (tumour, abscess, cyst, etc.), (ii) when you want to follow the course of therapy of a localized lesion, (iii) when you suspect liver cirrhosis, (iv) when you want to know the severity of liver cirrhosis or hepatitis, (v) when there is hepatomegaly and you want to determine the morphology of the liver, (vi) differential diagnosis of upper abdominal masses, and (vii) when there are abnormalities of the right diaphragm and you want to know their relation to the liver

  3. Lung scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of lung scintigraphy, perfusion scintigraphy with SPECT, lung ventilation SPECT, blood pool SPECT. The procedure of lung perfusion studies, radiopharmaceutical, administration and clinical applications, imaging processing .Results encountered and evaluation criteria after Biello and Pioped. Recommendations and general considerations have been studied about relation of this radiopharmaceutical with other pathologies

  4. Uteroplacental blood flow measured by placental scintigraphy during epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uteroplacental blood flow was measured before and during epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in 11 woman. The blood flow was measured with dynamic placental scintigraphy. After an i.v. injection of indium-113m chloride, the gamma radiation over the placenta was recorded with a computer-linked scintillation camera. The uteroplacental blood flow could be calculated from the isotope accumulation curve. The anaesthesia was performed with bupivacaine plain 0.5%, 18-22 ml and a preload of a balanced electrolyte solution 10 ml/kg b.w. was given. The placental blood flow decreased in eight patients and increased in three with a median change of -21%, not being statistically significant. No correlation between maternal blood pressure and placental blood flow was found. (author)

  5. Uteroplacental blood flow measured by placental scintigraphy during epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section

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    Skjoeldebrand, A.; Eklund, J.; Johansson, H.; Lunell, N.-O.; Nylund, L.; Sarby, B.; Thornstroem, S. (Departments of Anaesthesiology, Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medical Physics, Karolinska Institute at Huddinge University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    The uteroplacental blood flow was measured before and during epidural anaesthesia for caesarean section in 11 woman. The blood flow was measured with dynamic placental scintigraphy. After an i.v. injection of indium-113m chloride, the gamma radiation over the placenta was recorded with a computer-linked scintillation camera. The uteroplacental blood flow could be calculated from the isotope accumulation curve. The anaesthesia was performed with bupivacaine plain 0.5%, 18-22 ml and a preload of a balanced electrolyte solution 10 ml/kg b.w. was given. The placental blood flow decreased in eight patients and increased in three with a median change of -21%, not being statistically significant. No correlation between maternal blood pressure and placental blood flow was found. (author).

  6. The Agreement Between Blood Pool - Delayed Bone Scintigraphy and Tc-99m Human Immunoglobulin G (HIG Scintigraphy in the Determination of the Presence and Severity of Inflammatory Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulizar Kacar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to investigate the agreement between early phase of bone scintigraphy – human immunoglobulin scintigraphy (EPBS-HIG and late phase bone scintigraphy – HIG (LPBS-HIG in the determination of the presence and also the severity of inflammatory arthritis. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight patients (23 female, 5 male; between 19 to 80 years of age with inflammatory arthritis were included in the study. Tc-99m HIG and blood pool/late phase bone scintigraphies were performed in all patients. In scintigraphic examinations, the joints were scored with the degree of accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical by the semiquantitative analysis (0=Background activity, 1=Faint uptake, 2=Moderate uptake, 3=Marked uptake which is called as visually active joint score as severity index of the disease. To estimate the agreement between EPBS – HIG and LPBS - HIG in the determination of the presence and severity of inflammatory arthritis, 2x2 kappa coefficients were calculated. Results: Our results showed good agreement between EPBS - HIG for the presence of inflammation (kappa: 0.72 but not for the severity of the disease (kappa: 0.29, poor agreement between LPBS - HIG for both the presence (kappa: 0.51 and severity (kappa: 0.01 of inflammatory arthritis. Conclusion: The blood pool scintigraphy could be used in the investigation of the presence of inflammatory arthritis because the good agreement with HIG and the lower cost but not for the severity of the disease. (MIRT 2011;20:45-51

  7. Gallbladder Activity on 99mTc-Labeled Red Cell Scintigraphy Confirmed by SPECT/CT Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Jing, Hongli; Chen, Libo; Wang, Zhenghua; Li, Fang

    2016-09-01

    Tc-labeled red cell (Tc-RBC) scintigraphy is commonly used to detect gastrointestinal bleeding. Gallbladder visualization on Tc-RBC scintigraphy is not common. We present a case of gallbladder visualization on Tc-RBC scintigraphy confirmed by SPECT/CT imaging in a patient with chronic renal failure and anemia. PMID:27405034

  8. Evaluation of left ventricular function in patients with atrial fibrillation by ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assumption necessary to perform ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy (EGBPS) are seemingly not valid for patients with atrial fibrillation (af), since they have wide variability in cardiac cycle length. The data were acquired in frame mode within the limits of mean heart rate of fix the first diastolic volume, and were calculated by frame count normalization (FCN) method to correct total counts in each frame. EGBPS were performed twelve patients with af, who were operated against valvular disease. The data acquired within mean heart rate ±10 % in frame mode were divided to 32 frames, and calculated total frame counts. With FCN method total frame counts from at 22nd to 32nd frame were multiplied to be equal to the average of total frame counts. FCN method could correct total frame counts at the latter frames. And there was good correlation between left ventricular ejection fraction calculated from scintigraphy and that from contrast cineangiography. Thus EGBPS with FCN method may be allow estimation of cardiac function even in subjects with af. (author)

  9. Importance of gallium-67 scintigraphy in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors describe two cases of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma where correct staging, treatment and follow-up could be achieved through a combination of conventional imaging studies and gallium-67 scintigraphy. (author)

  10. Osseous scintigraphy in exploration of fever osteo-articular pain in sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteo articular complications of sickle cell disease are multiple and can occur in the acute mode, (Bone infarction, acute osteomyelitis) or chronic (osteonecrosis, osteomyelitis).Through 6 cases we present the interest, lack and limitations of planar scintigraphy with bis phosphonates. Two patients underwent an early bone scan supplemented by medullary scintigraphy with nano colloids, the diagnosis was a bone infarction. In two children, the bone scan was performed between 5 and 7 days after the beginning of symptoms and did not objectify image of acute osteo articular complication. In the last patient, abnormal scintigraphy does not allow to differentiate osteomyelitis and bone infarction. The bone scan remains an essential consideration in the exploration of bone manifestations in sickle cell disease. Its association with bone marrow scintigraphy provides better diagnostic accuracy in differentiating osteomyelitis and bone infarction and adjusting the therapeutic management. (N.C.)

  11. Myocardial ischemia detected by isoproterenol stress cardiac blood-pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that left ventricular regional contraction abnormality (hypokinesis: hypo) occurs during myocardial ischemia. However, it is uncertain whether left ventricular asynchronous contraction (asynchrony) is an index of myocardial ischemia. To validate asynchrony as an index of myocardial ischemia, isoproterenol infusion stress (ISP) cardiac blood-pool scintigraphy (RI angiography) was performed in patients with ischemic heart disease. The subjects were classified into 2 groups: (1) 15 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and (2) 8 patients with 'normal' coronary arteries (NC). None had any electrical ventricular conduction disturbance. ISP was administered with increasing doses of 0.02, 0.04, 0.08 μg/kg/min at 3-min intervals, and it was terminated in the event of angina, significant ST changes or target heart rate. Symptom-limited ergometer exercise testing (EX) was also administered in 14 patients. Regional decrease in amplitude and phase delay identified by phase analysis was diagnosed as hypo and asynchrony, respectively. ISP myocardial scintigraphy was also performed in 15 patients. ISP and EX induced asynchrony in 14 (93%) and 13 patients (93%), respectively, while did hypo in 4 (27%) and 9 (64%), respectively. Ten (67%) of 15 patients had asynchrony without hypo in ISP; whereas only 4 (28%) of 14 patients did in EX. ISP-induced asynchrony occurred in one of 8 patients with NC. The locations of ISP-induced asynchrony and those of EX-induced asynchrony were concordant in 11 (79%) of 14 patients. Asynchrony on the ISP RI angiogram was observed at the same sites of redistribution on the ISP myocardial scintigram. We concluded that asynchrony itself is a sensitive and specific index of myocardial ischemia. (author)

  12. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study

  13. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study.

  14. Blood cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labelling of blood cells in vitro for subsequent in vivo studies was one of the earliest applications of radioactive tracers in clinical medicine and laid the foundations for many important contributions to the advancement of knowledge of human blood cell pathophysiology. The characteristics required for satisfactory clinical studies, the mechanisms of cell labelling, the problems of radiation or chemical damage to the labelled cells and some examples of modern clinical applications are described and discussed. (Author)

  15. Evaluation of left ventricular function in patients with atrial fibrillation by ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy (EGBP) is not always valid for the patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), since they have wide variability in cardiac cycle length (CL). To evaluate the left ventricular (LV) function during AF by EGBP, we devised a new processing algorithm to construct multiple gated images discriminated by preceding R-R interval (PRR) from the data acquired in list mode. 18 patients with AF were studied as to; 1) How affect the PRR on cardiac indices such as EF, TES, PER or TPER, 2) Comparison with conventional method getting all CL data, 3) LV filling curves derived by plotting EDV against PRR, 4) The slope and position of LV function curves (LVFC) derived by plotting SV against EDV. In most cases, EF, PER and TES were increased with longer PRR, and those by conventional method nearly corresponded to the average values obtained by our new method. Impairment of ventricular filling was demonstrated in the cases of mitral stenosis and constrictive pericarditis. LVFC of CHF group was situated at right and downward to controls, and left and upward shift was observed after treatment. The slope of LVFC was reduced in relation to the progression of NYHA's functional class. In conclusion, this new algorithm processing irregular CL enables LV filling and function curves to draw, which are useful in the evaluation of cardiac performance in the subjects with AF. (author)

  16. Myocardial scintigraphy with 201Tl and quantitative assessment of myocardial blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A newly introduced radionuclide for myocardial imaging, 201-Tl, was studied. Twenty-two subjects consisting of 7 normals, 12 with ischemic heart disease and 3 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) were selected. On intravenous administration of 201-Tl(1.5 - 20. mCi), initial transit of the tracer through the heart, as well as subsequent uptake by the myocardium, were recorded by a scintillation camera. The later process showed the distribution of the myocardial blood flow (MBF). A normal myocardial scintigraphy revealed the left-sided myocardial mass predominantly, whereas the right side or the septum predominated in the case of tetralogy of fallot (T/F) or idiopathic hypertrophic subuaortic stenosis (IHSS). An ischemic or infarcted area of the myocardium in ischemic heart disease (IHD) was compatible with electrocardiographic findings, and revealed defects even in an equivocal case on ECG. Since the ratio of radioactivity taken up by the myocardium (U) to the total injected dosis (I) is assumed to be proportional to the fractional MBF of cardiac output (CO), MBF/CO is calculated by ratio of the radioactivity selected from myocardial region on the later recording to that from the entire region on the initial transit of the tracer bolus. The average MBF/CO of normals was 4.4 +- 0.5%, IHD 4.0 +- 0.8% and HCM 5.5 +- 1.2%. On exercise loading, a significant increase of this value was observed in normals, whereas no change was observed in IHD. (auth.)

  17. Lower digestive hemorrhage study algorithm in elderly patients and red cells mark scintigraphy role

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aims: Show the utility of this technique in the detection of Lower Digestive Hemorrhage (LDH) in elderly patients and propose a study algorithm. Materials and Methods: We study 39 patients (20 women and 19 men), between 61 and 92 years (media 76,3 years), in the last three years, that we strongly presume they have a LDH. In all of them we lay aside the upper digestive hemorrhage with endoscopies. In all the cases we perform a video-colonoscopy after the scintigraphy adopting in every case if its necessary surgery, medication or expectant conduct. We use the modified red cells mark 'in vivo' method (mark efficiency of 82%). We obtain anterior images of the abdomen with a planar Gamma Camera. Sequential images of 1 minute duration in the first hour post-injection I.V. of 740 MBq of Tc99- pertechnetate -Stannous Chloride and hen static images with 400 K counts at 60, 120, 180 and 240 minutes and one image at 24 hours were acquired, in two cases repeat the study. We don't do selective angiographies because we consider this a high risk and low cost / benefit study in elderly patients (high association with cardiopathy). Result: Patient with final diagnosis for VCC or Surgery: Angio dysplasia (38%), Diverticulosis (20%), Ischemic colitis (11%), Ulcerous colitis (8%) and Colon adenocarcinoma (2%). In some cases were two pathologies involved (13%). The scintigraphies were positive in 92% and negative in 8% of the cases. All the positives were in massive or recidivated bleeding and the negatives in intermittent low volume bleedings or patients with discreet melena or hidden blood in feces. The diagnostic efficiency of 92% was compare with non-invasive methods (video-colonoscopy 81% and selective angiography) and we comment the possible causes of false negatives. Conclusion: We propose a study algorithm for intermittent and low intensity LDH cases and another for higher magnitude LDH

  18. Donating Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page Print this page Donating peripheral blood stem cells Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is a nonsurgical procedure to collect ... Donating bone marrow Donor experiences videos Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donation is one of two methods of ...

  19. Whole-body MRI of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: comparison with radiography and bone scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Hyun Woo; Yang, Dong Hyun [Asan Medical Center, Department of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Ra, Young Shin [Asan Medical Center, Department of Neurosurgery, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea); Song, Joon Sup; Im, Ho Joon; Seo, Jong Jin; Ghim, Thad; Moon, Hyung Nam [Asan Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Oncology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2006-10-15

    In Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) evaluation of the extent of disease is one of the major predictors of patient outcome. Historically this is undertaken using plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. Recently, whole-body (WB) MRI has been reported to be useful in detecting skeletal and extraskeletal metastases in both adults and children. To evaluate the usefulness of WB MRI in patients with LCH in comparison with plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. In nine children (1-7 years of age; mean 3.3 years) who had a pathological diagnosis of LCH and had either plain radiography or bone scintigraphy for comparison, 43 WB MR examinations were performed. Skeletal and extraskeletal lesions of the disease on WB MRI were compared with those on plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. LCH showed unifocal single-system involvement in one patient, multifocal single-system involvement in three, and multifocal multisystem disease in five. WB MRI identified additional skeletal lesions in three (38%) of eight patients, compared with plain radiography, and in two (25%) of eight, compared with bone scintigraphy. WB MRI detected extraskeletal lesions of the disease in five (56%) of the nine patients exclusively, except for one patient whose lung lesions were also detected on plain radiography. In two patients, treatment was changed according to WB MRI findings. (orig.)

  20. Whole-body MRI of Langerhans cell histiocytosis: comparison with radiography and bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) evaluation of the extent of disease is one of the major predictors of patient outcome. Historically this is undertaken using plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. Recently, whole-body (WB) MRI has been reported to be useful in detecting skeletal and extraskeletal metastases in both adults and children. To evaluate the usefulness of WB MRI in patients with LCH in comparison with plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. In nine children (1-7 years of age; mean 3.3 years) who had a pathological diagnosis of LCH and had either plain radiography or bone scintigraphy for comparison, 43 WB MR examinations were performed. Skeletal and extraskeletal lesions of the disease on WB MRI were compared with those on plain radiography and bone scintigraphy. LCH showed unifocal single-system involvement in one patient, multifocal single-system involvement in three, and multifocal multisystem disease in five. WB MRI identified additional skeletal lesions in three (38%) of eight patients, compared with plain radiography, and in two (25%) of eight, compared with bone scintigraphy. WB MRI detected extraskeletal lesions of the disease in five (56%) of the nine patients exclusively, except for one patient whose lung lesions were also detected on plain radiography. In two patients, treatment was changed according to WB MRI findings. (orig.)

  1. Clinical diagnostic application of 111In-DTPA-octreotide scintigraphy in small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccarili, M; Lococo, A; Fabiani, F; Staffilano, A

    2000-01-01

    Some years ago it was proved that a good percentage of small cell lung cancers, classified among cancers of the APUD system, produces somatostatin receptors that can be detected in vivo by scintigraphy with 111In-DTPA-octreotide. With the method in the whole body it is possible to identify the principal neoformation and the probable metastases. The authors present a study of 21 patients afflicted with small cell lung cancer diagnosed histologically. The study, carried out between January 1995 and December 1997, compared the radiologic iconography of the CT scan with the scintigraphic map obtained by a planar scintigraphy and in SPECT 1, 4 and 24-hr after iv injection of 110 MBq of 111In-DTPA-octreotide. The comparison was made with reference to the principal neoplasm and probable metastases. A scintigraphic study, a CT of restaging and a follow-up, done after 3 and 6 months of chemotherapy, on 15 patients with cancer that produces somatostatin receptors proved that the neoplasm sometimes regresses and sometimes progresses. In the latter case, it is possible to identify cerebral, mediastinal and hepatic metastases with the administration of 200 microg of octreotide 3 times a day for 7 days before the scintigraphy. In fact, the administration lowers background activity. The authors concluded that scintigraphy with 111In-DTPA-octreotide plays an important part in the study of patients afflicted with small cell lung cancer. Scintigraphy identifies the subgroups of patients who can be cured with somatostatin analogues together with chemotherapy. Scintigraphy presents a good sensibility in the re-staging and in the follow-up of patients who are treated, even though it is difficult to identify subdiaphragmatic metastases where liver, spleen and kidney show an increase in 111In-DTPA-octreotide. PMID:10939603

  2. The value of bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH). Methods: Whole-body bone scintigraphy was performed on 23 LCH patients. Results: Nineteen of 23 patients (82.6%) showed positive in their bone scan. Eight cases were with cranial abnormal uptake, clavicle, rib and pelvis involvements were seen and each was of 3 cases, respectively, upper limb, lower limb and spinal abnormal uptakes were seen in 2, 4 and 5 patients, respectively, and 1 child had photon deficient area in the lower part of the sternum. Among 19 positive scintigrams, solitary bone lesion was shown in 9 patients (47.4%). Conclusion: Characters of bone scintigraphy in LCH are useful in the diagnosis and follow-up of this disease. (authors)

  3. Determination of regurgitation fraction by EEG-triggered gated blood pool scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, P.; Geffers, H.; Stauch, M.; Nechwatal, W.; Sigel, H.; Bitter, F.; Adam, W.E.

    1981-02-04

    The determination of regurgitation fraction by EEG-triggered gated blood pool scintigraphy is based on the different stroke volumes of left and right ventricles in patients with aortic and/or mitral valve incompetence. The count rate difference between enddiastole and endsystole over each ventricle (..delta..C) is equivalent to the stroke volume. After calculating the ratio of the count rate differences between the left and right ventricles (A = ..delta..Csub(l)/..delta..Csub(r)), regurgitation fraction is expressed in the formula 1-1/A. In a group of 66 patients without valvular regurgitation or shunt, we found (A) to be between 0.89 and 1.97 (mean value 1.43 with a standard deviation of +- 0.27). The deviation of the mean value of (A) from 1 may be due to significant overlapping of right ventricle and right atrium in the left anterior oblique (LAO) 30/sup 0/ position, leading to an underestimation of right ventricular enddiastolic-endsystolic count rate difference. In 23 our of 24 patients with aortic or mitral valve incompetence (A) exceeded the upper limit. In 13 cases with aortic/and/or mitral valve regurgitation (A) was compared with the ratio of the stroke volume of left and right ventricles with the stroke volume of the left ventricle determined angiographically and the stroke volume of the right ventricle determined by thermodilution. The specifity of the described method for detecting valvular regurgitation is high, while the sensitivity is relatively low. The principal advantages of this method are non-invasiveness, good practicability, and the fact that important additional information about the functional state of the heart is gained.

  4. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  5. The role of bone scintigraphy in Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present one case of bone-Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a three-year-old male child presenting osseous lesions in the skull and the femur, which are very frequent localizations in histiocytosis. Bone scintigraphy is useful for both initial staging and follow-up associated with other imaging modalities. (authors)

  6. The role of gallium-67 tumour scintigraphy in patients with small, non-cleaved cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two hundred and thirty-four scintigraphic studies were performed in 34 patients (27 men, 7 women, age 17.3±7.7 years) with small, non-cleaved cell lymphoma who had follow-up for 3-96 months (mean 21.6±21.7 months). Whole-body scintigraphy was performed 48-72 h following i.v. injection of 370 MBq gallium-67 citrate. 'Gold standards' for truth determinations were surgery, autopsy, histology, axial X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and clinical follow-up. Overall, 181 of 234 studies were true negative. Eighty proven sites of disease had true positive 67Ga uptake (in 21 patients/37 studies). Nineteen sites (in 12 patients/15 studies) were false positive. In addition, 31 benign lesions were detected and interpreted correctly in terms of non-malignancy. Ten lymphoma sites (in 6 patients/10 studies) were missed by scintigraphy. Overall, sensitivity of gallium scintigraphy was 89% when calculated by sites and 79% when calculated by studies. Corresponding specificities were 91% and 92%, respectively. Positive predictive values were 81% (sites) and 71% (studies), and negative predictive values 95% (sites and studies). Thus, gallium scintigraphy proved to be a sensitive and specific method for staging and follow-up in patients with small, non-cleaved cell lymphoma. (orig.)

  7. Osteomyelitis and infarction in sickle cell hemoglobinopathies: differentiation by combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical records and scintigrams were reviewed of 18 patients with sickle cell hemoglobinophaties who had undergone combined technetium and gallium scintigraphy during 22 separate episodes of suspected osseous infection. The combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis in four studies. Of 18 studies in patients with infarction, the combined scintigrams were correctly interpreted in 16 and showed either no local accumulation of Ga-67 or less accumulation than that of Tc-99m MDP at symptomatic sites. In the other two studies, the scintigrams were falsely interpreted as indicating osteomyelitis and showed congruent, increased accumulation of both Tc-99, MDP and Ga-67. This pattern must be considered indeterminate. Overall, the results indicate that the combination of technetium and gallium scintigraphy is an effective means to distinguish osteomyelitis from infarction in patients with sickle cell hemoglobinopathies

  8. Evaluation of left ventricular function in patients with ischemic heart disease by isoproterenol infusion stress blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findings of isoproterenol infusion stress blood pool scintigraphy with Tc-99m-O4 (ISP-SG) were compared with those of exercise stress scintigraphy (EX-SG) in 10 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), 9 with vasospastic angina (VA), and 7 normal controls (NC). EX-SG showed an increased left ventricular enddiastolic volume (EDV) and an unchanged left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) in CAD and VA patients. By contraries, EDV was unchanged and EF was increased in NC. ISP-SG showed the same results as those by EX-SG in CAD patients; it showed an unchanged EDV, a decreased left ventricular endsystolic volume, and an increased EF in both VA patients and NC. Both types of SG showed regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA) in CAD patients; however, ISP-SG showed normal wall motion in all VA patients, although RWMA was seen on EX-SG in some of them. The results indicate that ISP-SG may be helpful in the evaluation of left ventricular function when the execution of EX-SG is impossible, and in the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease complicated by coronary spasm. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Scintigraphy of cerebral blood flow with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine in cerebrovascular accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 20 patients with cerebrovascular accident, cerebral blood flow was estimated with N-isopropyl-p-[123I]-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP) using a rotating gamma camera, and the findings were compared with those of X-CT or angiography. 123I-IMP study demonstrated the areas of diminished cerebral blood flow in 14 cases. X-CT also demonstrated lesions in 14 cases, however, 123I-IMP study delineated the lesions more precisely corresponding to the neurological findings. In cases with cerebellar hemorrhage or reversible ischemic neurological deficit (RIND), the lesion could be established only by 123I-IMP study. It was demonstrated by 123I-IMP study that vascular stenosis or abnormal vessels seen on angiography in patients with vertebro-basilar insufficiency or venous angioma was not necessarily accompanied by diminished blood flow. It was shown that scintigraphy with 123I-IMP was a non-invasive, safe and extremely useful method to estimate the regional cerebral blood flow. (author)

  10. Osseous scintigraphy in exploration of fever osteo-articular pain in sickle cell disease; La scintigraphie osseuse dans l'exploration des douleurs osteoarticulaires febriles chez les drepanocytaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ajmi, W.; Slim, I.; Zaabar, L.; Ben Sellem, D.; Letaief, B.; Mhiri, A.; Ben Slimene, M.F. [Institut Salah Azaiez, Service de medecine nucleaire, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2010-07-01

    Osteo articular complications of sickle cell disease are multiple and can occur in the acute mode, (Bone infarction, acute osteomyelitis) or chronic (osteonecrosis, osteomyelitis).Through 6 cases we present the interest, lack and limitations of planar scintigraphy with bis phosphonates. Two patients underwent an early bone scan supplemented by medullary scintigraphy with nano colloids, the diagnosis was a bone infarction. In two children, the bone scan was performed between 5 and 7 days after the beginning of symptoms and did not objectify image of acute osteo articular complication. In the last patient, abnormal scintigraphy does not allow to differentiate osteomyelitis and bone infarction. The bone scan remains an essential consideration in the exploration of bone manifestations in sickle cell disease. Its association with bone marrow scintigraphy provides better diagnostic accuracy in differentiating osteomyelitis and bone infarction and adjusting the therapeutic management. (N.C.)

  11. Reversed abnormal ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy in endobronchial squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preoperative ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy of a 71-year-old man with right endobronchial (main bronchus) squamous cell carcinoma revealed less pulmonary perfusion than ventilation on the affected side. This is in contrast to a patient with a hilar mass whose ventilation-perfusion scan demonstrated normal ventilation with a much decreased, or even entirely absent, perfusion. It is hypothesized that, in a case of bronchogenic carcinoma, when ventilation and perfusion abnormalities are equally affected or ventilation is slightly more affected in P-V scan, it is likely that the tumor lesion is located in the lumen of the corresponding main bronchus. (orig.)

  12. Aspects of osteo-articular complications in sickle-cell disease on planar bone scintigraphy (infection excluded). Apropos of three cases; Aspects des complications osteoarticulaires de la drepanocytose en scintigraphie osseuse planaire (infection exclue). A propos de trois observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oufroukhi, Y.; Biyi, A.; Zekri, A.; Doudouh, A. [HMI Med-V, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Rabat (Morocco)

    2008-06-15

    Skeletal complications of sickle-cell anemia are multiple and can appear on the acute (osseous infarction, acute osteomyelitis) or chronic mode (osteonecrosis, chronic osteomyelitis). The radio-labelled diphosphonate bone scintigraphy remains an important tool in the early diagnosis and in the follow-up of these complications and must form part of the initial assessment of the disease. Through clinical observations, the authors undertake to sum up the bone scintigraphy aspects of these complications. (author)

  13. Novel esophageal squamous cell carcinoma bone metastatic clone isolated by scintigraphy, X ray and micro PET/CT

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bi-Zeng; Cao, Jie; Shao, Jin-chen; Sun, Yan-Bing; Fan, Li-Min; Wu, Chun-Yu; Liang, Sheng; Guo, Bao-Feng; Yang, Guang; Xie, Wen-Hui; Yang, Qing-cheng; Yang, Shun-Fang

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To establish a Chinese esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) cell line with high bone metastasis potency using 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (99mTc-MDP) micro-pinhole scintigraphy, X ray and micro-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for exploring the mechanism of occurrence and development in esophageal cancer.

  14. Bone and bone marrow scintigraphy in a patient with sickle cell-thalassemia and recurrent pain attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case of an eight years old African boy who suffers from sickle cell-thalassemia is presented. In the course of the disease frequent pain attacks occurred within the abdomen and extremities, recently also within the trunk. Local pain, at some occasions in combination with local swelling and always positive laboratory parameters for inflammation, hindered a solely clinical differentiation between bone infarcts and osteomyelitis. Bone scintigraphy, eventually in combination with bone marrow scintigraphy, can assist the clinician in the differentiation of aseptic bone infarcts versus secondary osteomyelitis. Based on the presented case scintigraphic results for bone infarcts, osteomyelitis and special scintigraphic pattern seen in sickle cell disease are presented. Furthermore, problems regarding the interpretation of the scintigraphies in relation to the delayed time after the beginning of pain attacks are discussed. (author)

  15. Dual isotope scintigraphy in stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platelet scintigraphy is a useful technique to detect atherosclerotic lesions of the neck vessels in stroke patients. The habitual one isotope technique causes false positive and false negative results due to circulating platelet-bound activity. To eliminate these confusing results we performed a dual isotope technique on 20 stroke patients. The new method consists of simultaneous injections of 111-Indium labelled blood platelets and 99mTc labelled red cells, and achieves a calculation of the ratio 111-In/99mTc. Thus the subtraction of the red cell blood flow image can render a pure thrombus formation visible. The habitual visually evaluated one isotope scintigraphy showed positive scans in 11 out of 20 patients, whereas under dual isotope scintigraphy 3 patients showed no 111-Indium excess after subtraction of the red cell image; they can thus be qualified as false positive. In the case of another patient with a visually negative image a thrombus formation could be observed after the subtraction procedure. It seems, that the dual isotope technique in platelet scintigraphy is a valuable refinement on the way to verifiable results. (orig.)

  16. Octreotide scintigraphy localizes somatostatin receptor-positive islet cell carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyr-3-octreotide is a synthetic derivative of somatostatin and a somatostatin-receptor analogue. The iodine-123-labelled compound localizes somatostatin-receptor-positive tumours. In this paper two patients are reported in whom somatostatin receptors were demonstrated in vitro. In a 60-year-old female with an islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas, multiple liver metastases and previously uncrecognized bone metastases in the right acetabulum could be diagnosed as the reason for a persistent hypoglycaemia. In a 60-year-old male an islet cell carcinoma of the pancreas was localized with 123I-Tyr-3-octreotide. The somatostatin receptors were demonstrated in vitro and the tumour was successfully treated with somatostatin. These studies demonstrate that 123I-Tyr-3-octreotide offers the possibility of localizing somatostatin-receptor-positive tumours and their metastases. Moreover the method makes it possible to determine the receptor status of a tumour in vivo. (orig.)

  17. The value of bone scintigraphy in diagnosing of langerhans cells histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the clinical value of bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of Langerhans cells histiocytosis (LCH). Methods: Whole-body bone scintigraphy was performed in 23 patients, 16 males and 7 females, average age was 4.5+1.4, with histologic diagnosis of LCH. The clinical presentation varied from local mass (10 cases), tenderness (12 cases), othemorrhea (1 case), limb fatigue (3 cases), restriction of spinal activity (2 cases) to irregular fever, cough and rash (4 cases). 99Tcm-MDP was injected intravenously , the dose modified as age, according to the formula of [ adult dosage x [(age+l)/(age+7)] ] , and sedation was given to the young children who could not cooperate well. After 3 hours of administration whole-body bone scan was performed. Images were acquired using GE Millennium SPR, with a high-resolution low-energy collimator, 8 min/m sweep speed, matrix 1024 x 256, zoom 1. Results: 19 of 23 patients (82.6%) showed positive in their bone scan. 8 cases with cranial abnormal uptake, some of them exhibited peripheral high and central low uptake; clavicle, rib and pelvis involvements were 3 respectively; 2 cases in upper limb, 4 in lower limb, most lesions of limb were located in the diaphysis; spinal abnormal uptakes were seen in 5 patients, and 1 child had photon deficient area in the lower of sternium. Among 19 positive scintigram, single bone lesion was shown in 9 patients (47.3%), the most common lesion located in cranium (5 cases). Conclusion: Some characters of bone scintigraphy in LCH are useful in the diagnosis of this disease, and accompanied with comprehensive sensation of clinical manifestation of LCH, the diagnostic accuracy will be promoted. (authors)

  18. Splenic scintigraphy for further differentiation of unclear (68) Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT findings: Strengths and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Christoph; Winkens, Thomas; Freesmeyer, Martin

    2016-06-01

    Splenic scintigraphy has been described to be a powerful tool in unclear (68 ) Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT findings, allowing differentiation between somatostatin receptor (Sst)-positive tissue deriving from neuroendocrine tumour (NET) and functioning splenic tissue. However, our own experiences sometimes show a lack of identification on splenic scintigraphy, especially in small lesions, leading to uncertainties regarding the safe identification of NET or splenic tissue. Here, we report on 10 cases with (68) Ga-DOTATOC-PET/CT and (99m) Tc-heat-denaturated red blood cell (HDRBC) scintigraphy and we illustrate the strengths and limitations of (99m) Tc-HDRBC scintigraphy in this context. PMID:27188232

  19. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... where they are needed, and then kill and digest the harmful organism or substance (see White blood ... Patel Hello Everyone! Hello to all of you readers! I know you will be seeing my biography, ...

  20. Detection of acute gastrointestinal bleeding by means of technetium-99m in vivo labelled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prognosis of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding depends on the timely and accurate detection of the source of bleeding and sequential surgical or endoscopy therapy. Scintigraphy with red blood cells (RBCs) in vivo labelled by means of technetium-99m hastened detection of source of GI bleeding and improved management of the particular disease. Gastrointestinal endoscopy is the method of choice for the diagnostics of bleeding from upper tract and large bowel. For diagnostics of bleeding from the small bowel we can use scintigraphy with in vivo labelled autological red blood cells if pushenteroscopy, intra-operative enteroscopy or angiography are not available. 31 patients (13 men, 18 women, aged 20-91, mean 56 years) underwent this investigation from 1998 till 2001 at the Department of Nuclear Medicine. All patients had melaena or enterorrhagia associated with acute anaemia. Gastroscopy, colonoscopy, enteroclysis or X-ray angiography did not detect the source of bleeding. Twenty-one patients had positive scintigraphy with in vivo labelled RBCs - 9 patients were already positive on dynamic scintigraphy, and 12 patients were positive on static images. Scintigraphy with in vivo labelled RBCs was negative in 10 patients. GI bleeding stopped spontaneously in these 10 patients with negative scintigraphy. These patients did not undergo intra-operative enteroscopy or surgery. The final diagnosis of the 21 patients with positive scintigraphy was determined in 16 patients by push-enteroscopy (6 patients), intra-operative enteroscopy (6 patients) or by surgery (4 patients). Of these 16 patients the correct place of bleeding was determined by scintigraphy with labelled RBCs in 11 (69%) patients. Final diagnoses of our 16 patients with positive scintigraphy with autological labelled RBCs were: bleeding small bowel arteriovenous malformation (6 patients), uraemic enteritis with bleeding erosions in ileum and jejunum (2 patients), Osler-Rendu- Weber disease (1 patient), pseudocyst of

  1. Evaluation of absolute left ventricular volume by gated equilibrium blood pool scintigraphy using count-based method. Clinical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anno, Hirofumi; Takeuchi, Akira; Ejiri, Kazutaka

    1987-12-01

    In order to estimate the absolute left ventricular volume (LVV) and the cradiac output (CO), gated equilibrium blood pool scintigraphy was performed. CO by radionuclide (RN) method was compared with CO simultaneously measured by thermodilution method (TDM) using Swan-Ganz catheter in 22 patients with cardiac diseases. To improve these determinations by RN, LVV using the count-based method was corrected by each of four transmission factors (TF1 = 1, TF2 (water) = e/sup -0.15d/, TF3 = e/sup -0.13d/ and TF4 = 1 - (1 - e/sup -0.125d/)/sup 1.26/ d: depth). We compared CO by RN with by TDM. CO by RN was significantly correlated with TDM: TF1 (CO (RN) = 0.23 x CO (TDM) + 0.08, r = 0.628, p < 0.002), TF (CO (RN) = 1.10 x CO (TDM) - 0.47, r = 0.914, p < 0.001), TF3 (CO (RN) = 0.89 x CO (TDM) - 0.30, r = 0.912, p < 0.001), and TF4 (CO (RN) = 0.71 x CO (TDM) - 0.23, r = 0.911, p < 0.001), respectively. These results indicate that the linear sttenuation correction is necessary and sufficient for accurate measurement of LVV and CO by RN using count-based method in clinical use.

  2. Cigarette smoking increases white blood cell aggregation in whole blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Bridges, A B; Hill, A; Belch, J J

    1993-01-01

    We studied the effect of chronic cigarette smoking on white blood cell aggregation, increased aggregation predisposes to microvascular occlusion and damage. Current smokers had significantly increased white blood cell aggregation when compared with non smokers. The presence of chronically activated white blood cells in current smokers may be relevant in the pathogenesis of ischaemic vascular disease.

  3. Scintigraphy with In-111 labeled lymphokine-activated killer cells of malignant brain tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Sawamura, Yutaka; Hosokawa, Masuo; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    This study was undertaken to assess the in vivo distribution and migration of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells to the target malignant foci in four patients with advanced malignant brain tumor. All four patients had failed to respond to prior adoptive immunotherapy. After the intravenous administration of radiolabeled LAK cells, most of the radiolabeled cells were distributed in the liver and spleen, with lesser radioactivity in the lung and bone marrow. Scintigraphy revealed the target malignant foci in all four patients to be areas of increased radioactivity. The number of radiolabeled LAK cells that accumulated in the intracranial malignant lesions, however, seemed to be insufficient to mediate regression of the solid tumor mass by direct cell-to-cell interaction. We conclude that the failure of adoptive immunotherapy could be accounted for by the poor migration of infused LAK cells to the target malignant foci. We also conclude that radionuclide study with radiolabeled lymphokine-activated culture cells against tumors is likely to be helpful as a means to investigate effective possibilities for subsequent adoptive immunotherapy.

  4. Adrenal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The exact localization of adrenal lesions can be achieved by noninvasive procedures. Whereas radiological methods reflect morphological changes, scintigraphy of adrenal cortex and medulla depends on function. - Radiolabeled 6β-methyl-19-norcholesterol is used for adrenocortical scintigraphy in primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome and hyperandrogenism. By dexamethasone suppression a correct classification of adrenocortical lesions by scintigraphy can be observed in about 89% with a specificity of 86%. 123-I- and 131-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine is used for specific scintigraphy of the adrenal medulla. This method is a safe and reliable method for localization of adrenal and extraadrenal pheochromocytomas. (orig.)

  5. Adrenal scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, M.; Vetter, H.

    1986-04-01

    The exact localization of adrenal lesions can be achieved by noninvasive procedures. Whereas radiological methods reflect morphological changes, scintigraphy of adrenal cortex and medulla depends on function. - Radiolabeled 6..beta..-methyl-19-norcholesterol is used for adrenocortical scintigraphy in primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome and hyperandrogenism. By dexamethasone suppression a correct classification of adrenocortical lesions by scintigraphy can be observed in about 89% with a specificity of 86%. 123-I- and 131-I-metaiodobenzylguanidine is used for specific scintigraphy of the adrenal medulla. This method is a safe and reliable method for localization of adrenal and extraadrenal pheochromocytomas.

  6. Edwardsiella tarda Endocarditis Confirmed by Indium-111 White Blood Cell Scan: An Unusual Pathogen and Diagnostic Modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Kayleigh M; Rogers, Bret A

    2016-01-01

    Edwardsiella tarda is a freshwater marine member of the family Enterobacteriaceae which often colonizes fish, lizards, snakes, and turtles but is an infrequent human pathogen. Indium-111- ((111)In-) labeled white blood cell (WBC) scintigraphy is an imaging modality which has a wide range of reported sensitivity and specificity (from 60 to 100% and from 68 to 92%, resp.) for diagnosing acute and chronic infection. We describe a case of suspected E. tarda prosthetic aortic valve and mitral valve endocarditis with probable vegetations and new mitral regurgitation on transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiograms which was supported with the use of (111)In-labeled WBC scintigraphy. PMID:26885418

  7. Adrenal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following items are discussed:anatomy and physiology of adrenal glands, clinical indications of scintigraphy, radiobiology and radiochemistry, scintigraphic imaging, adrenocortical hyperfunction, aldosteronism and hypertension associated with low renin level, excess of androgen, adrenocortical hyperfunction and future perspectives of adrenal scintigraphy. (M.A.)

  8. Quantitative measurement of blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: We are observing and measuring the varying development reaction stages of blood cells to different saline solutions. The imaging process is based on a common path interferometer which is realized with a spatial light modulator (SLM) in the Fourier plane after the microscope objective. With the SLM we can shift the phase of the transmitted light with respect to the phase of signal wave. This principle is used for the phase contrast microscopy method where we take four pictures of the same image with different phase shifts in order to calculate the complex field of the measured cell. This microscope technique obtains quantitative data about the blood cell's surface in different development stages, amplitude and phase differences inside the cell itself. (author)

  9. The role of bone scintigraphy in Langerhans' cell histiocytosis; a case report; Interet de la scintigraphie osseuse dans l'histiocytose langerhansienne: a propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razzouk, M.; Carrier, P.; Darcourt, J. [Centre TEP, Hopital de l' Archet-1, Service Universitaire de Medecine Nucleaire, 06 - Nice (France); Razzouk, M.; Carrier, P.; Darcourt, J. [Federation interhospitaliere, CHU, CAL universitaire de Nice, 06 - Nice (France); Deville, A. [Hopital de l' Archet, Service d' Hemato-Oncologie Pediatrique, 06 - Nice (France); Cadet, G. [Centre Hospitalier intercommunal de Grasse, Service de Pediatrie, 06 - Grasse (France)

    2008-09-15

    We present one case of bone-Langerhans cell histiocytosis in a three-year-old male child presenting osseous lesions in the skull and the femur, which are very frequent localizations in histiocytosis. Bone scintigraphy is useful for both initial staging and follow-up associated with other imaging modalities. (authors)

  10. Limited value of technetium 99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy in localization of lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of technetium 99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy in localizing the site of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The outcome of 203 patients undergoing technetium 99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy was reviewed, and the scan result was compared with the true site of bleeding. The true site of bleeding was determined by other methods including angiography and surgical pathology. Fifty-two scans (26%) were positive and indicated a specific site of bleeding. A definitive bleeding site was identified in 22 patients by other means and correlated with the technetium scan in only 9 cases. The nuclear scan was incorrect in the remaining 13 cases, implying a localization error of 25% (13 of 52). A subgroup of 19 patients with a positive scan underwent a surgical procedure directed by the nuclear scan. Eight of these 12 patients had incorrect surgical procedures based upon findings of more definitive tests, indicating a surgical error of 42% (8 of 19). We conclude that the technetium 99m-labeled red cell scan's ability to accurately localize the site of lower gastrointestinal bleeding is limited. Furthermore, performing a surgical procedure that relies exclusively on localization by red cell scintigraphy will produce an undesirable result in at least 42% of patients

  11. Limited value of technetium 99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy in localization of lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, J.M.; Pezim, M.E. (Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada))

    1990-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of technetium 99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy in localizing the site of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The outcome of 203 patients undergoing technetium 99m-labeled red cell scintigraphy was reviewed, and the scan result was compared with the true site of bleeding. The true site of bleeding was determined by other methods including angiography and surgical pathology. Fifty-two scans (26%) were positive and indicated a specific site of bleeding. A definitive bleeding site was identified in 22 patients by other means and correlated with the technetium scan in only 9 cases. The nuclear scan was incorrect in the remaining 13 cases, implying a localization error of 25% (13 of 52). A subgroup of 19 patients with a positive scan underwent a surgical procedure directed by the nuclear scan. Eight of these 12 patients had incorrect surgical procedures based upon findings of more definitive tests, indicating a surgical error of 42% (8 of 19). We conclude that the technetium 99m-labeled red cell scan's ability to accurately localize the site of lower gastrointestinal bleeding is limited. Furthermore, performing a surgical procedure that relies exclusively on localization by red cell scintigraphy will produce an undesirable result in at least 42% of patients.

  12. Adrenal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The visualization of functioning adrenocortical tissue by scintigraphy became possible with the introduction of radioiodinated cholesterol derivatives. According to the literature, there is evidence that one of these iodinated cholesterols, 6-β-iodomethyl-nor-cholesterol, concentrates in the adrenal cortex to a much greater extent than 131I-19-odocholesterol. Results comparing both radiopharmaceuticals are described. The authors investigated the possibility of increasing the uptake of iodinated cholesterol using simultaneous ACTH and the 'cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzymeblocker': aminoglutethimide. The results of adrenal scintigraphy performed in 37 patients are described. Finally, the literature on adrenal scintigraphy is reviewed, and results reported in various studies are compared. (Auth.)

  13. Aspects of osteo-articular complications in sickle-cell disease on planar bone scintigraphy (infection excluded). Apropos of three cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal complications of sickle-cell anemia are multiple and can appear on the acute (osseous infarction, acute osteomyelitis) or chronic mode (osteonecrosis, chronic osteomyelitis). The radio-labelled diphosphonate bone scintigraphy remains an important tool in the early diagnosis and in the follow-up of these complications and must form part of the initial assessment of the disease. Through clinical observations, the authors undertake to sum up the bone scintigraphy aspects of these complications. (author)

  14. Localization of the acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in vivo-in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the detection and localization of acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in vivo-in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc and sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid has been sugested. The procedure for labeling RBC with sup(99m)Tc consisted in injecting IV 1 mg of ClSn; 20 minutes after injection of tin 10 cc of blood were withdrawn in a syringe containing 20 mCi of sup(99m)Tc; this was incubated for 10 minutes and then injected IV. Scintigraphy of the abdominal cavity was done in supine position and performed with a large field gamma camera with a parallel hole-low energy colimator. Computer adquisition of images was started 5 minutes after RBC injection and made at the rate of one enery 5 minutes for 45 minutes. 14 patients were studied divided in: a) control: 6 patients. b) with active gastrointestinal hemorrhage: 4 patients had positive scintigraphy. The hemorrhage was documented with superior mesenteric arteriography, endoscopy and/or necropsy. The sensitivity was 100%. In 4 out of 14 patients scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc RBC compared with simultaneous sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid demonstrated that all patients with positive sup(99m)Tc RBC had also positive sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy. c) without active gastrointestinal hemorrhage: all of them had negative scintigraphy (specificity 100%). Abdominal scintigraphy with sup(99m)Tc RBC or sulfur colloid are both sensitive for detection and localization of lower gastrointestinal bleeding and the negative study suggests the absence of active hemorrhage. It is suggested that the sup(99m)Tc sulfur colloid scintigraphy should be the initial procedure to study these patients and abdominal arteriography should be performed only in patients with positive abdominal scintigraphy. (M.E.L.)

  15. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 352 352 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 361 361 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 361 361 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  18. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell ...

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 350 350 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  20. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 350 350 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Jul 19, 2011 Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation ( ...

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 351 351 Loading... ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 351 351 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  4. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 360 360 Loading... ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  5. Hepatocyte and Kupffer cell function after liver transplantation in the rat - in vivo evaluation with dynamic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vivo physiological measurements of hepatocyte and Kupffer cell function after liver transplantation are desirable. Orthotopic liver transplantation was performed in 54 rats. Hepatocyte and Kupffer cell function were measured with dynamic liver scintigraphy. Hepatic clearance of 99mTc-Nanocoll (%/min), an albumin colloid phagocytosed by the Kupffer cells, was used to evaluate Kupffer cell function. Hepatic clearance of 99mTc-IODIDA (%/min), an imino-diacetic-acid taken up and secreted by the hepatocytes, was used to evaluate the hepatocyte function. Hepatic clearance in control rats was 27±2 %/min for Nanocoll and 30±3 %/min for IODIDA. After syngenic liver transplantation, without rejection, there was a rise in Nanocoll clearance (34±2 %/min p<0.01) after 3 weeks, but no change in IODIDA clearance (32± %/min N.S.). After syngenic liver transplantation with preservation time prolonged to 16 h, there were no changes in IODIDA or Nanocoll clearance 1 day after transplantation. Both IODIDA (11±2 %/min) and Nanocoll clearance (22±2 %/min) were decreased (p<0.001) during rejection after allogenic transplantation. An in vivo method of measuring the hepatocyte and Kupffer cell function in the transplanted liver is described. Kupffer cell function was increased after syngenic liver transplantation. Kupffer cell and hepatocyte function were decreased during rejection. Dynamic liver scintigraphy seems a suitable procedure for examining liver injury after liver transplantation in the experimental setting. (au) 23 refs

  6. Clinical applications of indium-111-acetylacetone-labelled blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method permitting red-cell labelling with 111In-acetylacetone was reported in 1974 for evaluating intestinal blood loss, the liver-spleen ratio and the red-cell volume. White blood cells can be tagged similarly. In white-cell labelling, simultaneous red-cell or platelet tagging is avoided. Several procedures (dextran separation and gradient centrifugations) have been combined, to develop a highly selective cell separation. In osteomyelitis it may not be as advantageous to use 67Ga-citrate, as in inflammatory soft tissue processes. The detection of inflammatory processes with labelled leukocytes could be of great importance for the scintigraphic diagnosis of osteomyelitidies. A group of 97 patients with suspected osteomyelitis have been examined using 111In-acetylacetone-labelled leukocytes (111In-AAL) immediately following positive routine skeletal scintigraphy. Images obtained 24 h post injection usually were the most satisfactory. In the followup group of 70 patients 21 true positives, 43 true negatives, 21 false negatives and 3 false positives were observed. These findings result in a specificity of 92%, sensitivity of 50% and accuracy of 70% with 111In-AAL for osteomyelitis. Preliminary investigations using 111In-acetylacetone-labelled thrombocytes (111In-AAT) were carried out to detect rejection of transplanted kidneys. The platelets were separated by means of additional special density gradient centrifugations but no dextran from 15-20 ml of autologous whole blood. Scans have been obtained 15 min, 2.5 h and 24 h post injection in an initial group of 10 patients. In acute rejection, a high transplant uptake has been detected, whereas patients without acute rejection showed no or only a minimum activity accumulation. Patients with chronic rejection have intermediate uptakes

  7. Cardiac blood-pool scintigraphy in rats and hamsters: comparison of five radiopharmaceuticals and three pinhole collimator apertures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preclinical evaluation of cardiac drugs may require evaluation of cardiac function in intact animals. To optimize the quality of radionuclide measurements of ventricular function in small animals, a comparison was made of gated blood-pool scans recorded with five blood-pool radiopharmaceuticals (99mTc-labeled human polyclonal IgG, 99mTc-human serum albumin labeled by two methods, and red blood cells radiolabeled with 99mTc via in vivo and in vitro methods) in rats and three pinhole apertures in hamsters. The quality of the radiopharmaceuticals was evaluated by comparing count density ratios (LV/BACKGROUND and LV/LIVER) and ejection fractions recorded with each agent. The edge definition of the left ventricle and count rate performance of the 1-, 2-, and 3-mm apertures was evaluated in hamsters. In general, the images obtained with the radiolabeled cells were superior to those obtained with the labeled proteins and no significant differences between the protein preparations were detected. Left ventricular ejection fractions calculated with all five radiopharmaceuticals were not significantly different. The best quality images were obtained with the 1-mm pinhole collimator. Ejection fraction and acquisition time were inversely related to aperture size. A good compromise between resolution and sensitivity was obtained with the 2-mm pinhole collimator

  8. Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the mandible in bone scintigraphy and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a case of a 4-year old boy with a quickly growing tumor of the jaw. The CT examination revealed a destructive tumor in the body of the mandible involving soft tissues. A diagnosis of eosinophilic granuloma of the mandible was confirmed by a biopsy of the tumor. Skeletal scintigraphy showed areas of increased and decreased radiotracer uptake. The fusion of CT and scintigraphy images showed that the cold focus corresponds with the osteolytic area and the hot focuses are larger than the areas of osseous reconstruction shown in CT. Conclusion: In cases of histiocytosis skeletal scintigraphy and CT are complementary methods that enable one to make an assessment of the extent of the disease. (author)

  9. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-05-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37/sup 0/C in the presence of /sup 14/C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with /sup 14/C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine.

  10. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 370C in the presence of 14C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with 14C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine

  11. Scintigraphy of spinal disorders in adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy in adolescents is useful in helping to differentiate between developmental (atypical lumbar Scheuermann disease), infectious (discitis, osteomyelitis), neoplastic (osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma), and traumatic (occult fractures, spondylolysis, pseudoarthrosis) disease of the spine. Double-phase (blood pool, delayed images) scintigraphy can characterize the pattern (i.e., linear in fracture, ovoid in nidus of osteoid osteoma). Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be helpful in detecting the subtle presence of stress reaction (spondylolyses) not noted on routine planar scintigraphy and radiography. Bone scintigraphy is most beneficial when correlated with other imaging modalities in refining the diagnosis of spinal diseases. (orig.)

  12. Changes of arterial blood flow patterns by patients' posture during hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy assessed by 99mTc-MAA perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatic arterial perfusion scintigraphy (HAPS) with 99mTc-macroaggregated albumin (MAA) was performed to reveal the effect of patients' posture for the arterial blood flow patterns in hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) chemotherapy. Twenty patients with liver metastases having the percutaneously implanted catheter into the hepatic artery underwent HAPS following administration of 99mTc-MAA at the supine and the upright position under one week interval. Ten ml of the saline with radionuclide was injected at a rate of one ml per minute. Acquired two images at the different position of each patient were compared and grouped into three classes: similar, slightly different and different. Of 20 patients, 6 (30%) were judged as similar, 8 (40%) as slightly different, and 6 (30%) as different. These results suggest that the drug distribution can change by patients' posture in case of the slow rate HAI performed with continuous infusion pump. (author)

  13. Parathyroid scintigraphy during hypocalcaemia in primary hyperparathyroidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øgard, Christina G; Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Jakobsen, Henrik;

    2005-01-01

    Minimally invasive parathyroid surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) demands high imaging accuracy. By increasing blood flow to the parathyroid adenoma before injection of a perfusion marker, we intended to improve the parathyroid scintigraphy. We have named the technique...... stimulated parathyroid scintigraphy (SPS)....

  14. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  15. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation ( ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 26,035 views 49:19 Scott: Donating Blood ...

  17. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation ( ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 27,845 views 49:19 Scott: Donating Blood ...

  18. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy of parathyroid adenomas and its relation to tumour size and oxyphil cell abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melloul, M.; Paz, A.; Cytron, S. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Hasharon Hospital, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Koren, R.; Gal, R. [Dept. of Pathology, Hasharon Hospital, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel); Feinmesser, R. [Dept. of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, Hasharon Hospital, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva (Israel)

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) uptake by parathyroid adenomas, oxyphil cell content and volume of the lesions. Thirty-one patients with parathyroid adenomas were evaluated prospectively. Preoperative double-phase {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI scintigraphy was performed in all patients and tracer uptake by parathyroid lesions was assessed semi-quantitatively employing region of interest ratios to normal adjacent neck areas. Surgical specimens underwent histological evaluation and oxyphil cell content was determined. The intensity of tracer uptake was compared with oxyphil cell content, volume of the lesions and serum levels of calcium and parathormone. {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI tracer uptake was correlated with oxyphil cell content, volume of parathyroid lesions and the functional status of the parathyroid adenomas. Tracer accumulation in oxyphil cells might partially explain the preferential {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI retention in parathyroid lesions. (orig.)

  19. 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy of parathyroid adenomas and its relation to tumour size and oxyphil cell abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between technetium-99m methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) uptake by parathyroid adenomas, oxyphil cell content and volume of the lesions. Thirty-one patients with parathyroid adenomas were evaluated prospectively. Preoperative double-phase 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy was performed in all patients and tracer uptake by parathyroid lesions was assessed semi-quantitatively employing region of interest ratios to normal adjacent neck areas. Surgical specimens underwent histological evaluation and oxyphil cell content was determined. The intensity of tracer uptake was compared with oxyphil cell content, volume of the lesions and serum levels of calcium and parathormone. 99mTc-MIBI tracer uptake was correlated with oxyphil cell content, volume of parathyroid lesions and the functional status of the parathyroid adenomas. Tracer accumulation in oxyphil cells might partially explain the preferential 99mTc-MIBI retention in parathyroid lesions. (orig.)

  20. Quantitative evaluation of regional myocardial blood flow by digital subtraction angiography. Correlations with exercise electrocardiography and Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Hisao; Shibao, Keigo; Yamaguchi, Ryutaro and others

    1987-04-01

    The study subjects consisted of 25 patients with angina pectoris and 14 patients with normal coronary arteries. Following the manual injection of contrast media into the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), a time-density curve was generated in the sectors of the myocardium which were perfused by the LAD and the T/sub 1/2/ was calculated. T/sub 1/2/ values correlated closely with double product (r = -0.73). They were significantly greater in patients with exercise-induced ST depression (8.3 +- 1.0 vs 5.8 +- 0.7, p < 0.005). In addition, there was a good correlation between T/sub 1/2/ values and washout ratio as determined by exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, with r = -0.83. Although T/sub 1/2/ values were within the normal range (mean +- 2SD of control subjects) in all patients with LAD stenosis of 50 percent or less, these values were abnormally increased, exceeding the normal range, in 11 of the 12 patients with stenosis of 90 percent or more. Compared with exercise electro-cardiography, T/sub 1/2/ values were abnormally prolonged in 11 of the 13 patients with exercise-induced ST depression. Compared with exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, T/sub 1/2/ values were abnormally prolonged in seven of the nine patients with transient perfusion defects. When an arteriographically significant degree of stenosis was assumed to be 75 percent or more, the accuracies of T/sub 1/2/ were; sensitivity, 80 %, specificity, 100 %, and diagnostic accuracy, 88 %. The results were comparable to those of exercise electrocardiography or exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy. In five patients with angina pectoris who underwent percutaneous translumial angioplasty (PTCA), T/sub 1/2/ values were significantly decreased after PTCA (from 8.5 +- 0.9 to 5.9 +- 0.9, p < 0.005), associated with an increase in double product. (J.P.N.).

  1. When Blood Cells Bend: Understanding Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe When Blood Cells Bend Understanding Sickle Cell Disease For people who don’t suspect they ... Cells Bend Wise Choices Links Living with Sickle Cell Disease See a sickle cell disease expert regularly. ...

  2. In-111-labeled white blood cell uptake in noninfected closed fracture in humans: prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since indium-111 white blood cell (In-111 WBC) scintigraphy is often used to evaluate for osteomyelitis in bone fractures, it is important to know if noninfected fractures have In-111 WBC uptake. Twenty-seven noninfected closed fracture sites in 19 patients were prospectively evaluated with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scintigraphy and In-111 WBC scintigraphy. In-111 WBC uptake was present in 41% of the 27 sites. In the 11 positive sites, the In-111 WBC uptake was 1+ (definite but minimal) in 55%, 2+ (moderate) in 36%, and 3+ (marked) in 9%. The visual intensity of the radioactive uptake on In-111 WBC scintigrams relative to that on bone scintigrams was less in 82%, equal in 9%, and greater in 9%. The visual size of the area of uptake on In-111 WBC scintigrams and bone scintigrams was smaller in 36%, equal in 55%, and greater in 9%. Factors that may help distinction of In-111 WBC uptake due to fracture alone from infection associated with fracture are discussed

  3. Parathyroid scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geatti, O. [Azienda Ospedali Riuniti di Trieste, Trieste (Italy). Div. of Nulcear Medicine

    1999-09-01

    The paper discusses the role of parathyroid scintigraphy in the preoperative location of enlarged parathyroid tissues. Various modified acquisition and processing protocols have been reported and {sup 201}Thallium still continues to be used, but other radiopharmaceuticals, such as {sup 99m}Tc-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin are now often preferred, especially because of the more favourable physical properties of the Technetium labelling.

  4. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  5. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells ...

  6. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells ...

  7. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation ( ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 25,312 views 49:19 23. Stem Cells - ...

  8. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Duration: 3:35. hemaquebec1998 667 views 3:35 Bone Marrow/Stem Cell ... Jeff, peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 22,203 ...

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation ( ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 26,239 views 49:19 23. Stem Cells - ...

  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) ... Medicine Clinics 225,676 views 6:18 Alicia's bone marrow donation - Duration: 8:33. ... Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 15:50. Dartmouth-Hitchcock 2,764 views ...

  11. Cadmium uptake by rat red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rat red blood cells were employed to study the uptake of cadmium (109Cd). Suspensions of red blood cells were exposed to Cd concentrations (both bound and free) observed following in vivo Cd administration. Cd uptake was biphasic with an initial rapid phase (0C was one-fourth of that at 370C. The metabolic inhibitors: sodium fluoride (1mM), potassium cyanide (1mM) and carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (2μM) and the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor, ouabain (1mM) did not reduce Cd (50μM) uptake into red blood cells. This suggests that the uptake of Cd into red blood cells was not an active process. Incubation of Cd (10μM) with an equimolar concentration of Zn did not alter uptake of Cd into red blood cells, but at 5 and 10 times higher concentrations of Zn, Cd uptake was enhanced 5-fold. Mercury at one-tenth and equimolar concentrations of Cd increased Cd uptake by red blood cells 2-fold. N-Ethylmaleimide (0.5-5mM), which irreversibly inactivates membrane sulfhydryl groups, decreased Cd uptake. The data indicate that Cd uptake into rat red blood cells occurs by passive transport and that alterations of sulfhydryls of red blood cell membrane may modulate the process. (author)

  12. 111In-Octreotide and 99mTc-MDP scintigraphy in the detection of bone lesions in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a granulomatous disease which can involve multiples sites of the body. Diagnostic imaging is of utmost importance in the management of these patients. Since now radiographic skeletal survey and bone scintigraphy (BS) have been used to assess bone involvement (both with low specificity). Magnetic resonance and CT have been used to assess visceral involvement but with the limitation that can not give information about the functional status. Recently two groups of investigators (Lastoria et al. and Calming et al.) have proposed somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SSRS) to detect active lesions and for monitoring the response to treatment, due to the somatostatin analogue octreotide binds to the cell membrane of activated lymphocytes expressing somatostatine receptors. The aim of this study is to assess bone and somatostatine receptor scintigraphy in the detection of bone involvement in LCH in children. Visceral involvement has not been assessed due to none of the patients presented it at the moment of the SRS. Methods: 17 scintigraphies (11 SSRS and 6 BS) were performed in seven patients (3 girls and 4 boys) aged at diagnosis: 18 month- 12 years (mean age 6,2 years). The findings obtained in the scintigraphies were compared with clinical evolution and other imaging techniques. Results: All the BS detected the diagnosed lesions, that decreased the uptake after the treatment. In three cases BS detected one unknown bone lesion. Two SSRS could not detect a lesion on right rib in two patients, both at the moment of diagnosis. SSRS was true negative in one patient (clinical and other imaging remission) and true positive in the other four cases. SSRS detected three new unknown bone lesions. SRSS showed decreased uptake after treatment and increased uptake in the relapses. Conclusions: Somatostatin receptor and Bone scintigraphy can be used to detect active LCH bone lesions in children and can help in monitoring the response to

  13. Assessment of left ventricular function in patients with atrial fibrillation by left ventricular filling and function curves determined by ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate cardiac function in patients with atrial fibrillation (Af) is difficult to assess, since a wide fluctuation of cardiac cycle makes the ventricular hemodynamics variable. Although ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy (EGBPS) is useful to evaluate left ventricular (LV) function, a conventional EGBPS might have a problem in applying to Af. Therefore, a new processing algorithm was devised to make multiple gated images discriminated by preceding R-R intervals (PRR), and LV filling and function curves were obtained in 62 patients with Af to evaluate LV function. LV filling curve, obtained by plotting end-diastolic volume (EDV) againt PRR, demonstrated that the blood filling was impaired in mitral stenosis and constrictive pericarditis, but recovered after mitral commissurotomy. LV function curve, by plotting stroke volume (SV) againt EDV, was quantitatively analysed by the indices such as Slope and Position. Both indices reduced significantly in heart failure. When compared among underlying diseases individually, the indices decreased in the following order; lone Af, hyperthyroidism, senile Af, hypertension, mitral valve disease, ischemic heart disease, dilated cardiomyopathy and aortic regurgitation. After the treatment with digitalis and/or diuretics, left and upward shift of function curve was observed. The rise in heart rate by atropine infusion made Slope and Position unchanged, and which implied that function curve was little influenced by heart rate per se. The rise in systolic blood pressure by angiotensin-II infusion caused shifts in function curve to rightward and downward. Downward shift, mostly seen in patients with gentler slope in control state, may imply afterload mismatch due to a decrease in preload reserve. (J.P.N.)

  14. Comparison of Tc-99m Ciprofloxacin (Infecton) and Tc-99m Methylene diphosphonate (MDP) three-phase bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in patients with Sickle Cell Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high incidence of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a major health problem in Oman. These patients are more prone to infections than the general population, and in particular, they are highly susceptible to osteomyelitis. Because bone infarction is more common than osteomyelitis in SCD, an accurate and rapid differential diagnosis is essential before initiating appropriate treatment. The present prospective study evaluates the usefulness of the new radiopharmaceutical, Tc- 99m Ciprofloxacin (Infecton) for the differential diagnosis of infection and infarction in patients with SCD. Majority of subjects studied were children. The results of Tc-99m Infecton imaging were compared with those of the 3-phase bone scintigraphy using Tc- 99m Methylene diphosphonate (Tc-99m MDP). Twenty-five patients referred for ruling out infection were imaged after intravenous injection of 5.5 MBq/kg body weight of Tc-99m Infecton. First pass, blood pool and late images (at one, four and 24 hours post injection) were performed. Subsequently all patients were also studied by three-phase bone scintigraphy using Tc-99m MDP. No adverse effects were observed. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and positive likelihood ratio of Tc-99m Infecton imaging for osteomyelitis were 100%, 92%, 94% and 12.5 respectively. Although bone scintigraphy would rarely be used by itself as a stand-alone test in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis in patients with SCD, its corresponding values were: 88%, 64%, 71% and 2.4. The results of this study suggest that the use of Tc-99m Infecton imaging is extremely beneficial in the management of patients of Sickle Cell Disease with suspected osteomyelitis. (author)

  15. Usefulness of 99mTc-depreotide scintigraphy for the diagnosis of bone metastases in non-small cell lung cancer stage 3-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), metastatic bone involvement is usually assessed using conventional 99mTc-HMDP bone scintigraphy, which has a high sensitivity but a poor specificity. The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of the 99mTc-D scintigraphy for the detection of malignant bone metastases in patients with NSCLC stage III or IV and to compare these results with 99mTc-HMDP bone scan findings. Methods Nineteen patients (13 M and 6 F, mean age 59 years) with proven NSCLC, suspected to have stage III or IV were enrolled prospectively. All patients underwent whole body 99mTc-HMDP and 99mTc-D scintigraphy to detect bone metastases within a mean interval of 14 days. Each focal uptake of 99mTc-D or 99mTc-HMDP was considered benign or malignant, leading to positive or negative diagnosis for bone involvement. The final diagnosis of bone metastases was established by a lung specialist, on the basis of additional imaging modalities and of 12 months follow-up. Results Twelve bone lesions were identified by 99mTc-D scintigraphy, 10 were classified as bone metastases and two were classified as inflammatory bone lesions. Four patients were metastatic. Fifty eight bone lesions were detected by 99mTc-HMDP scintigraphy, 26 of whom were considered malignant, eight patients were thus considered metastatic. Thereby, the two nuclear medicine modalities were concordant for 13 patients, that is 68% of cases and were discordant for six patients, representing 32% of cases. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of depreotide scintigraphy and 99mTc-HMDP bone scintigraphy were 75% for both, 93.3 and 73.3%, and 89.5 and 73.3% respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that depreotide scintigraphy with the same sensitivity, a better accuracy and specificity than those of 99mTc-HMDP bone scan can detect metastatic bone lesions in patients with NSCLC suspected to have stage III or IV disease. (authors)

  16. Hyperemic peripheral red marrow in a patient with sickle cell anemia demonstrated on Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 25-year-old gravid woman, homozygous for sickle cell anemia, with a history of recent deep venous thrombosis, was examined using Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography for recurrent thrombosis. Although negative for thrombus, the study presented an unusual incidental finding: the patient's peripheral bone marrow was hyperemic in a distribution consistent with peripheral red bone marrow expansion. Such a pattern has not been documented before using this technique. This report supports other literature that has demonstrated hyperemia of peripheral red bone marrow in other hemolytic anemias. This finding may ultimately define an additional role of scintigraphy in assessing the pathophysiologic status of the sickle cell patient

  17. Correlation between extent of metastatic lesions in whole body bone scintigraphy of patients with prostatic cancer and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) in blood by PAP RIA kit 'Eiken'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole body bone scintigraphy of thirteen patients who were pathohistologically confirmed prostatic cancer was processed by four colors, and then the extent of bone metastases was estimated quantitatively. On the basis of this estimation, the grade of the expansion of bone metastases was classified into 4 grades (0, 1, 2, and 3 grades). And then, correlations of the expantion of bone metastases with PAP, AcP and AlP levels in blood were investigated. The results are as follows: 1) Correlation between the extent of bone metastases and PAP levels was relatively high (r = 0.81). 2) As for the relation between the expansion grade of bone metastases and PAP levels, the levels did not increase in 0 and 1 grades, but markedly increased in 2 and 3 grades. AcP also showed a little similar tendency. 3) In the correlation of PAP with AcP and with AlP, AcP (r = 0.78) was higher than AlP (r = 0.42). 4) Therefore, PAP levels seem to be a good index of the extent of bone metastases in prostatic cancer. (author)

  18. IBCIS:Intelligent blood cell identification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adnan Khashman

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of blood cells in microscope images can provide useful information concerning the health of patients.There are three major blood cell types,namely,erythrocytes (red),leukocytes (white),and platelets.Manual classification is time consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells.This paper presents an intelligent system that simulates a human visual inspection and classification of the three blood cell types.The proposed system comprises two phases:The image preprocessing phase where blood cell features are extracted via global pattern averaging,and the neural network arbitration phase where training is the first and then classification is carried out.Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well in identifying blood cell types regardless of their irregular shapes,sizes and orientation,thus providing a fast,simple and efficient rotational and scale invariant blood cell identification system which can be used in automating laboratory reporting.

  19. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants On This Page What are bone marrow ... are evaluating BMT and PBSCT in clinical trials (research studies) for the treatment ... are the donor’s stem cells matched to the patient’s stem cells in allogeneic ...

  20. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation ( ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 25,665 views 49:19 Susan Solomon: The ...

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cell donation experience at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center in Bethesda, MD. Bone marrow transplantation ( ... About Cord Blood Banking - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 25,496 views 49:19 Susan Solomon: The ...

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 22,464 views 3:28 Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer - Duration: 11:58. ...

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  4. New strategy in diagnostic, preventive and following way in osteonecrosis of sickle-cell disease in Cote d'Ivoire with bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteonecrosis is the most frequent complications of sickle-cell disease (S.C.D.) whose prevalence in Cote d'Ivoire is 21%. The main of this study was to compare scintigraphy, clinical and radiological observations to assess earlier diagnosis in S.C.D. osteonecrosis. It was a prospective study about 45 S.C.D. patients who presented coxopathy and had radio-labelled di phosphonates bone scintigraphy. The results revealed 49% of lesions whose 48% appeared with homogeneous hyper fixation, 11% homogeneous hypo fixation, 5% of hypo fixation got round by hyper fixation. Eighty-one percent of lesions concerned femoral head, 6% femoral condyle and 3% humoral head. Fifty percent of osteonecrosis was not visible in radiology and corresponded to the earlier stage. These invisible radiology aspects were observed in 100% hips without lameness, and in 43% permanent lameness. Scintigraphy (sensitive in 100%) isolated 38% more than conventional radiography. In main to improve S.C.D. osteonecrosis prognostic in Cote d'Ivoire, this preliminary study outline that scintigraphy is fundamental in management. (authors)

  5. Importance of gallium-67 scintigraphy in primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma: report of two cases;Importancia da cintilografia com galio-67 no linfoma cutaneo primario de celulas B: relato de dois casos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attab, Cyomara Sanches, E-mail: rubinha.attab@terra.com.b [Centro Brasileiro de Medicina Nuclear (CEBRAMEN), Goiania, GO (Brazil); Moriguchi, Sonia Marta [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Cancer; Paton, Eduardo Jose Alencar [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Cancer Hospital. Div. of Hemotherapy and Bone-Marrow Transplant; Alencar, Mario Henrique Leite de [Clinica de Prevencao em Cancer, Goiania, GO, (Brazil); Rocha, Euclides Timoteo da [Fundacao Pio XII, Barretos, SP (Brazil). Cancer Hospital. Dept. of Nuclear Medicine

    2010-05-15

    The authors describe two cases of cutaneous B-cell lymphoma where correct staging, treatment and follow-up could be achieved through a combination of conventional imaging studies and gallium-67 scintigraphy. (author)

  6. Skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal scintigraphy, using phosphates or diphosphonates labeled with technetium 99m, is a sensitive method of detecting bone abnormalities. The most important and most frequent role of bone scanning is evaluating the skeletal areas in patients who have a primary cancer, especially a malignant condition that has a tendency to spread to bone areas. The bone scan is superior to bone radiographs in diagnosing these abnormalities; 15 percent to 25 percent of patients with breast, prostate or lung cancer, who have normal roentgenograms, also have abnormal scintigrams due to metastases. The majority of bone metastases appear as hot spots on the scan and are easily recognized. The incidence of abnormal bone scans in patients with early stages (I and II) of breast cancer varies from 6 percent to 26 percent, but almost invariably those patients with scan abnormalities have a poor prognosis and should be considered for additional therapies. Progression or regression of bony lesions can be defined through scanning, and abnormal areas can be identified for biopsy. The incidence of metastases in solitary scan lesions in patients with known primary tumors varies from 20 percent to 64 percent. Bone scintigraphy shows positive uptake in 95 percent of cases with acute osteomyelitis. Stress fractures and trauma suspected in battered babies can be diagnosed by scanning before there is radiological evidence. The procedure is free from acute or long-term side effects and, except in cases of very young patients, sedation is seldom necessary. Although the test is sensitive, it is not specific and therefore it is difficult to overemphasize the importance of clinical, radiographic, biochemical and scanning correlation in each patient

  7. 21 CFR 864.9245 - Automated blood cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell separator. 864.9245 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9245 Automated blood cell separator. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell separator is a device that uses a centrifugal or filtration separation principle...

  8. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    CERN Document Server

    Caprio, Di; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume and hemoglobin concentration for individual red blood cells in high-throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.5%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with hemoglobin concentr...

  9. Blood Tfh Cells Come with Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Ueno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Blood CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells share phenotypic and functional similarities with T follicular helper cells. Studies by He et al. (2013) and Locci et al. (2013) in this issue of Immunity provide insight into their ontogeny and functionally distinct subsets. PMID:24138878

  10. Blood cell morphology : controversies and alternatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Wim van der

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we describe controversial morphologic features in both microscopic and automated differentiation of blood cells. In addition, we have investigated alternative methods to overcome these shortcomings. Furthermore we describe the variance of microscopic counting of band cells and variant

  11. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 074 views 8:21 Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 7:24. tannermom80 99,818 views 7: ... 253 views 6:18 Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 15:50. Dartmouth-Hitchcock 2,689 views ...

  12. Haemopoietic progenitor cells in human peripheral blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the investigation reported is to purify haemopoietic progenitor cells from human peripheral blood using density gradient centrifugation in order to isolate a progenitor cell fraction without immunocompetent cells. The purification technique of peripheral blood flow colony forming unit culture (CFU-c) by means of density gradient centrifugation and a combined depletion of various rosettes is described. The results of several 'in vitro' characteristics of purified CFU-c suspensions and of the plasma clot diffusion chamber culture technique are presented. Irradiation studies revealed that for both human bone marrow and peripheral blood the CFU-c were less radioresistant than clusters. Elimination of monocytes (and granulocytes) from the test suspensions induced an alteration in radiosensitivity pararmeters. The results obtained with the different techniques are described by analysing peripheral progenitor cell activity in myeloproliferative disorders. (Auth.)

  13. Deterministic Aperiodic Sickle Cell Blood Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsaves, Louis; Harris, Wesley

    2013-11-01

    In this paper sickle cell blood flow in the capillaries is modeled as a hydrodynamical system. The hydrodynamical system consists of the axisymmetric unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a set of constitutive equations for oxygen transport. Blood cell deformation is not considered in this paper. The hydrodynamical system is reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations that are then transformed into a system of three autonomous non-linear ordinary differential equations and a set of algebraic equations. We examine the hydrodynamical system to discern stable/unstable, periodic/nonperiodic, reversible/irreversible properties of the system. The properties of the solutions are driven in large part by the coefficients of the governing system of equations. These coefficients depend on the physiological properties of the sickle cell blood. The chaotic nature of the onset of crisis in sickle cell patients is identified. Research Assistant.

  14. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya; Dr.Nandita Mehta; Dr.Hansa Goswami; Dr.R.N.Gonsai

    2015-01-01

    The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC) parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results an...

  15. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs

  16. Whole Blood Cell Staining Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Clift, Vaughan L.; McDonald, Kelly E.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for staining particular cell markers is disclosed. The apparatus includes a flexible tube that is reversibly pinched into compartments with one or more clamps. Each compartment of the tube contains a separate reagent and is in selective fluid communication with adjoining compartments.

  17. Leukemic cell kinetics in peripheral blood, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vivo kinetics of autologous leukemic cells labeled in vitro with indium-111-oxine was studied in 10 patients with acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL), consisting of 7 patients with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML), 2 with acute myelomonocytic leukemia (AMML) and 1 with acute monocytic leukemia (AMoL). Leukemic cell disappearance curves showed a single exponential line. The half tims of disappearance (T1/2) in AML was 18.6 +- 8.3 hours (mean +- s.d.), and was longer than that of normal neutrophils. In AMML and AMoL, T1/2 was 11.5 +- 1.4 hours, and tended to be shorter than that in AML (p < 0.1). Total blood leukemic cell pool (TBLCP) size correlated with blood leukemic cell count (LC) (Y = 1.11 + 2.01X, r = 0.95). The ratio of marginal (MLCP) to circulating leukemic cell pool (CLCP) size was 2.38 +- 0.99 in AML. There was no significant correlation between leukemic cell turnover rate (LCTR) and TBLCP size. As for organ distribution, labeled leukemic cells passed immediately through lungs, are then accumulated markedly in the spleen and liver in that order. Initial pulmonary radioactivity was observed in only one of the AMML patients. Only in AMoL, hepatic radioactivity 30 minutes after the injection surpassed splenic radioactivity. Accumulation of radioactivity in the bone marrow was observed in 6 out of 8 patients studied. Radioactivity of the leukemic cells isolated from the bone marrow in 4 patients was larger than that expected from mixing of peripheral blood leukemic cells, suggesting that a portion of blood leukemic cells returned to the bone marrow. (author)

  18. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identify human blood-group antibodies. (b) Source. Reagent Red Blood Cells shall be prepared from human... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells §...

  19. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Duration: 3:35. hemaquebec1998 667 views 3:35 Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 7:24. tannermom80 99,818 views 7:24 Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 15:50. Dartmouth-Hitchcock 2,689 views 15:50 ... Working... Sign in to add this to Watch Later Add to Loading playlists...

  20. Photomodification of human immunocompetent blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, processes of photomodification of lymphoid cells in human blood, developing immediately after exposure to visible radiation and also in the late stages after irradiation, were investigated by methods of spontaneous and immune rosette formation and the blast transformation test, combined with treatment with the antioxidant alpha-tocopherol and the radioactive assessment of spontaneous and stimulated DNA synthesis by tritium-thymidine-labelled cells

  1. Red blood cell transfusion in septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosland, Ragnhild G; Hagen, Marte U; Haase, Nicolai;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treating anaemia with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is frequent, but controversial, in patients with septic shock. Therefore we assessed characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion in this group of high risk patients. METHODS: We did a prospective cohort study at 7...

  2. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... Monks 3,700 views 4:41 Stem Cell Basics - How Blood is Made. - Duration: 10:58. Vernon ...

  4. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blood stem cell (PBSC) donor, explains the donation process - Duration: 3:28. Be The Match 23,393 ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Try something new! Loading... Working... Sign ...

  5. Sorting white blood cells in microfabricated arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelino, Judith Andrea Rose

    Fractionating white cells in microfabricated arrays presents the potential for detecting cells with abnormal adhesive or deformation properties. A possible application is separating nucleated fetal red blood cells from maternal blood. Since fetal cells are nucleated, it is possible to extract genetic information about the fetus from them. Separating fetal cells from maternal blood would provide a low cost noninvasive prenatal diagnosis for genetic defects, which is not currently available. We present results showing that fetal cells penetrate further into our microfabricated arrays than adult cells, and that it is possible to enrich the fetal cell fraction using the arrays. We discuss modifications to the array which would result in further enrichment. Fetal cells are less adhesive and more deformable than adult white cells. To determine which properties limit penetration, we compared the penetration of granulocytes and lymphocytes in arrays with different etch depths, constriction size, constriction frequency, and with different amounts of metabolic activity. The penetration of lymphocytes and granulocytes into constrained and unconstrained arrays differed qualitatively. In constrained arrays, the cells were activated by repeated shearing, and the number of cells stuck as a function of distance fell superexponentially. In unconstrained arrays the number of cells stuck fell slower than an exponential. We attribute this result to different subpopulations of cells with different sticking parameters. We determined that penetration in unconstrained arrays was limited by metabolic processes, and that when metabolic activity was reduced penetration was limited by deformability. Fetal cells also contain a different form of hemoglobin with a higher oxygen affinity than adult hemoglobin. Deoxygenated cells are paramagnetic and are attracted to high magnetic field gradients. We describe a device which can separate cells using 10 μm magnetic wires to deflect the paramagnetic

  6. Red blood cell replacement, or nanobiotherapeutics with enhanced red blood cell functions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2015-06-01

    Why is this important? Under normal circumstances, donor blood is the best replacement for blood. However, there are exceptions: During natural epidemics (e.g., HIV, Ebola, etc.) or man-made epidemics (terrorism, war, etc.), there is a risk of donor blood being contaminated, and donors being disqualified because they have contracted disease. Unlike red blood cells (RBCs), blood substitutes can be sterilized to remove infective agents. Heart attack and stroke are usually caused by obstruction of arterial blood vessels. Unlike RBCs, which are particulate, blood substitutes are in the form of a solution that can perfuse through obstructed vessels with greater ease to reach the heart and brain, as has been demonstrated in animal studies. Severe blood loss from injuries sustained during accidents, disasters, or war may require urgent blood transfusion that cannot wait for transportation to the hospital for blood group testing. Unlike RBCs, blood substitutes do not have specific blood groups, and can be administered on the spot. RBCs have to be stored under refrigeration for up to 42 days, and are thus difficult to transport and store in times of disaster and at the battlefront. Blood substitutes can be stored at room temperature for more than 1 year, compared to the RBC shelf life of 1 day, at room temperature. In cases of very severe hemorrhagic shock, there is usually a safety window of 60 min for blood replacement, beyond which there could be problems related to irreversible shock. Animal studies show that a particular type of blood substitute, with enhanced RBC enzymes, may be able to prolong the duration of the safety window. PMID:26096663

  7. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  8. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  9. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  10. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  11. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated

  12. In vivo/in vitro labeling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A reliable and stabile in vivo/in vitro labeling technique of red blood cells (RBC) is described. The patients are injected 20% of the content of an unlabeled kit used for bone scintigraphy (TechneScan PYP, Byk-Mallinckrodt). 15 minutes later 3 ml blood are sampled in a heparinized syringe. The blood is incubated together with 30-40 mCi (1-1.5 GBq) sup(99m)Tc for 10 minutes in a water bath at 35-370C. After centrifugation at 500 g a dose of 15-25 mCi (0.6-1 GBq) sup(99m)Tc labeled RBC may be withdrawn in a volume of 1-1.5 ml. Mean labeling efficiency is 88%, without using the first eluat of a Tc-generator the yield is as high as 92%. Due to the small volume, the labeled RBC may be reinjected as bolus and first pass radionuclide angiocardiography can be performed. Using labeled RBC, scintigraphy of the intravasal space is possible up to 20 hours without deterioration in contrast or accumulation of radioactivity in the extravasal space or in other organs. Evaluation of heart function can be performed up to 10 hours. In addition, labeled RBC are useful in detecting unknown gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  13. Localization of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Experience with red blood cells labeled in vitro with technetium Tc 99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy-six patients clinically suspected of having lower gastrointestinal bleeding were studied by scintigraphy utilizing red blood cells labeled in vitro with technetium Tc 99m. Sixteen patients required emergency surgery; bleeding was accurately localized in 15 (94%). One patient (6%) had a normal scan. A 20-month mean follow-up of the 16 patients showed no recurrent bleeding. Of 60 patients not requiring emergency surgery, bleeding was localized in 11, but the bleeding ceased. Forty-nine of the 60 patients had normal scans and had no further hemorrhaging during hospitalization. A 21-month mean follow-up of 38 of the 49 patients showed no further bleeding episodes or surgical procedures in 29 patients; however, eight patients required surgical procedures, including seven for gastrointestinal malignancies. Scanning of red blood cells labeled in vitro with 99mTc is accurate and efficacious in localization of bleeding sites that require emergency surgery for lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage

  14. The contributions of angioscintigraphy and brain scintigraphy to differential diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extraordinary advance has been made in the differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions with radiotracers. This has been done by the introduction of dynamic studies in brain scintigraphy as a means of obtaining morphological records of radioactive embolism transit across the skull, and the addition of precocious (2 minute) scintigraphies to conventional ones. This study in three steps yields three types of information: - Angioscintigraphy. Microcirculation of lesions; - Precocious scintigraphy. Blood content of lesions and the precocious diffusion of the radionuclide; - Scintigraphy. Localized alterations of the blood-brain barrier. From a diagnostic point of view, the contributions of scintigraphy in three steps can be classified into three groups: diagnosis of brain tumors and their histological nature; differential diagnostic of cerebrovascular accidents; complementary anatomical and functional information. 42 brain tumors were studied in an attempts to distinguish specific patterns for each type of tumor

  15. Correlation of subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy with weight, pathohistologic finding and oxyphil cell content of parathyroid glands in parathyroid hyperplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugonjić Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Parathyroid hyperplasia (PHP is defined as an absolute increase in the mass of parenchymal cells of the parathyroid gland. PHP is classified as primary, secondary and tertiary. The enlargement of parathyroid glands (PG is usually asymmetric, resulting in a “dominant“ gland. In order to confirm the diagnosis, at least two glands should be examined histologically. Subtotal parathyroidectomy, i.e. removal of the three PG and leaving a small remnant of the forth, is the treatment of choice. High percent of PHP recurrence imposes the need for preoperative high sensitivity localizing procedures. Parathyroid scintigraphy localizes about 60% of hyperplastic glands. The aim of this study was to correlate findings of subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy (SPS with weight, pathohistologic finding and oxyphil cell (OC content of PG in patients with primary, secondary and tertiary parathyroid hyperplasia. Methods. Twenty-seven patients with primary/secondary PHP underwent SPS before surgery. Scintigraphic results were graded from 1-5, in relation to the degree of uptake. SPS graded 3, 4 and 5 were considered positive. The number and weight of operated PG were evaluated macroscopically. Pathohistologic and cellular types were defined on standard stained hematoxylin-eosin slides. OC content was defined as a percent of OC and graded from 1 to 3: grade 1 < 10%, grade 2 ≥ 10% and grade 3 ≥ 20% of OC. Results. SPS localized dominant gland in all patients with sensitivity 100%, and 51 from 73 hyperplastic PG, with sensitivity per gland of 70%. PG weighed 0.1 g to 6.7 g (median 1 g. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.0001 was found between the SPS results and PG weight. A significant positive correlation was found between PG weight and OC content (p = 0.0002. An insignificant correlation was found between SPS and OC content. Thirty-eight PG had < 10% of OC, 32 PG had < 10% and 3 PG had ≥ 20% of OC. Four patients had diffuse PHP and 23

  16. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of soluble mediators from resident cells (e.g., mast cells, macrophages) and/or recruited blood cells. The interaction of the mediators with receptors expressed on the surface of endothelial cells diminishes barrier function either by altering the expression of adhesive proteins in the inter-endothelial junctions, by altering the organization of the cytoskeleton, or both. Reactive oxygen species (ROS), proteolytic enzymes (e.g., matrix metalloproteinase, elastase), oncostatin M, and VEGF are part of a long list of mediators that have been implicated in endothelial barrier failure. In this review, we address the role of blood borne cells, including, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, and platelets, in the regulation of endothelial barrier function in health and disease. Attention is also devoted to new targets for therapeutic intervention in disease states with morbidity and mortality related to endothelial barrier dysfunction. PMID:25838983

  17. Responder individuality in red blood cell alloimmunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körmöczi, Günther F; Mayr, Wolfgang R

    2014-11-01

    Many different factors influence the propensity of transfusion recipients and pregnant women to form red blood cell alloantibodies (RBCA). RBCA may cause hemolytic transfusion reactions, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn and may be a complication in transplantation medicine. Antigenic differences between responder and foreign erythrocytes may lead to such an immune answer, in part with suspected specific HLA class II associations. Biochemical and conformational characteristics of red blood cell (RBC) antigens, their dose (number of transfusions and pregnancies, absolute number of antigens per RBC) and the mode of exposure impact on RBCA rates. In addition, individual circumstances determine the risk to form RBCA. Responder individuality in terms of age, sex, severity of underlying disease, disease- or therapy-induced immunosuppression and inflammation are discussed with respect to influencing RBC alloimmunization. For particular high-risk patients, extended phenotype matching of transfusion and recipient efficiently decreases RBCA induction and associated clinical risks. PMID:25670932

  18. Findings of Bone Scintigraphy After Leech Theraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özyurt, Sinem; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Baskın, Aylin; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2014-01-01

    In this case report, we present a 70 year old female patient who had recieved Leech therapy (hirudotherapy) on her leg without informing referring physician. In dynamic bone scintigraphy there was increased perfusion and hyperemia in her left ankle and leg, also in late static images moderate increased uptake was seen in soft tissue region and at the fracture site of ankle. We learned that she had Leech therapy applied on her leg, which could explain the increased perfusion and hyperemia in dynamic and blood pool phases of bone scintigraphy because of Leech therapy’s dilatory effects on superficial veins. Leech therapy may lead to an increase in perfusion and hyperemia in blood pool phase of bone scintigraphy, which may cause confusion in differential diagnosis. To our best knowledge this report is the first case that shows the scintigraphic findigs after Leech therapy. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:24653932

  19. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar Andrés Penuela; Fernando Palomino; Lina Andrea Gómez

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods: Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one...

  20. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864... enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity in... kinase or 2,3-diphosphoglycerate. A red blood cell enzyme assay is used to determine the enzyme...

  1. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results and to make presumptive diagnosis. In this article we have taken 100 samples for comparative study between RBC histograms obtained by automated haematology analyzer with peripheral blood smear. This article discusses some morphological features of dimorphism and the ensuing characteristic changes in their RBC histograms.

  2. Mechanosensing Dynamics of Red blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical stress-induced deformation of human red blood cells (RBCs) plays important physiopathological roles in oxygen delivery, blood rheology, transfusion, and malaria. Recent studies demonstrate that, in response to mechanical deformation, RBCs release adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), suggesting the existence of mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs. Most importantly, the released ATP from RBCs regulates vascular tone and impaired release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. To date, however, the mechanisms of mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs remain unclear. Given that RBCs experience shear stresses continuously during the circulation cycle and the released ATP plays a central role in vascular physiopathology, understanding the mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs will provide not only fundamental insights to the role of RBCs in vascular homeostasis but also novel therapeutic strategies for red cell dysfunction and vascular disease. This talk describes the main research in my group on integrating microfluidic-based approaches to study the mechanosensing dynamics of RBCs. Specifically, I will introduce a micro?uidic approach that can probe the dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from RBCs with millisecond resolution and provide quantitative understandings of the mechanosensitive ATP release processes in RBCs. Furthermore, I will also describe our recent findings about the roles of the Piezo1 channel, a newly discovered mechanosensitive cation channel in the mechanotransductive ATP release in RBCs. Last, possible functions of RBCs in the regulation of cerebral blood flow will be discussed.

  3. Red blood cell in simple shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Wei; Hew, Yayu; Chen, Yeng-Long

    2013-03-01

    The dynamics of red blood cells (RBC) in blood flow is critical for oxygen transport, and it also influences inflammation (white blood cells), thrombosis (platelets), and circulatory tumor migration. The physical properties of a RBC can be captured by modeling RBC as lipid membrane linked to a cytoskeletal spectrin network that encapsulates cytoplasm rich in hemoglobin, with bi-concave equilibrium shape. Depending on the shear force, RBC elasticity, membrane viscosity, and cytoplasm viscosity, RBC can undergo tumbling, tank-treading, or oscillatory motion. We investigate the dynamic state diagram of RBC in shear and pressure-driven flow using a combined immersed boundary-lattice Boltzmann method with a multi-scale RBC model that accurately captures the experimentally established RBC force-deformation relation. It is found that the tumbling (TU) to tank-treading (TT) transition occurs as shear rate increases for cytoplasm/outer fluid viscosity ratio smaller than 0.67. The TU frequency is found to be half of the TT frequency, in agreement with experiment observations. Larger viscosity ratios lead to the disappearance of stable TT phase and unstable complex dynamics, including the oscillation of the symmetry axis of the bi-concave shape perpendicular to the flow direction. The dependence on RBC bending rigidity, shear modulus, the order of membrane spectrin network and fluid field in the unstable region will also be discussed.

  4. Importance of Heparin Provocation and SPECT/CT in Detecting Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding on 99mTc-RBC Scintigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Gheisari, Farshid; Ghaedian, Tahereh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We presented a pediatric case with a history of intermittent melena for 3 years because of angiodyplasia of small intestine. The results of frequent upper gastrointestinal endoscopies and colonoscopies as well as both 99mTc-red blood cell (RBC) and Meckel's scintigraphies for several times were negative in detection of bleeding site. However, 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) after heparin augmentation detected a site of bleeding in the distal ileum which later was confirmed during surgery with final diagnosis of angiodysplasia. It could be stated that heparin provocation of bleeding before 99mTc-RBC scintigraphy accompanied by fused SPECT/CT images should be kept in mind for management of intestinal bleeding especially in difficult cases. PMID:26313771

  5. Isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic explorations of kidney transplants were performed on sixty-six patients. Three scintigraphic techniques were used: labelled ferrous ascorbate scintigraphy, sequential 99m technetium DTPA scintigraphy and the 131I hippuran nephrogram. The aim of this study is to analyse the results obtained under different pathological circumstances affecting the transplant, to discuss the advantages of the techniques and to propose a working procedure. The most reliable and accurate technique is the 131I hippuran nephrogram combined with sequential 99mTc DTPA, by which renal vascularisation may be judged labelled ferrous ascorbate on the other hand is too insensitive. Although the information supplied is mostly contained in the scintigraphic images, the nephrographic curves and the blood radioactivity decay time and rad V/rad R ratio measurements are very helpful in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of complications affecting the transplant. The proper use of isotopic scintigraphy in kidney grafting should provide optimum conditions for better survival of the transplant at minimum risk to the patient

  6. Radiolabeled blood cells: radiation dosimetry and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years blood cells labeled with In-111 have become increasingly useful in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Indium-111 by the virtue of its physical characteristics and ability to bind to cell cytoplasmic components, provides an excellent cell tracer and thereby, allows investigators to monitor in vivo cell distribution by external imaging and help determine a course of regimen in treating life threatening diseases. Due to natural phenomena such as margination, blood pool, and reticuloendothelial cell activity, in the normal state, depending upon the cell type and the quality of cell preparations, 30%-50% of the administered radioactivity is immediately distributed in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Over a period of time the radioactivity in these organs slightly increases and decays with a physical half-life of In-111. The resulting radiation dose to these organs ranges between 1-25 rads/mCi In-111 administered. The authors have developed a new In-111 labeling technique which preserves platelet ultrastructure and shown that human lymphocytes labeled with In-111 in mixed leukocytes preparations a) are only 0.003% of the total -body lymphocytes population and b) are killed. The consequence if any may be considered insignificant, particularly because 5.6% metaphases from normal men and 6.5% metaphases from normal women in the US have at least one chromosome aberration. Calculations have shown that the risk of fatal hematological malignancy, over a 30 year period, in recipients of 100 million lymphocytes labeled with 100 μCi In-111 is 1/million patients studied. This risk is less than 0.025% of the 1981 spontaneous cancer patient rate in the country. 32 references, 10 tables

  7. Optical analysis of red blood cell suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szołna, Alicja A.; Grzegorzewski, Bronisław

    2008-12-01

    The optical properties of suspensions of red blood cells (RBCs) were studied. Fresh human venues blood was obtained from adult healthy donors. RBCs were suspended in isotonic salt solution, and in autologous plasma. Suspensions with haematocrit 0.25 - 3% were investigated. Novel technique was proposed to determine the scattering coefficient μs for the suspensions. The intensity of He-Ne laser light transmitted through a wedge-shape container filled with a suspension was recorded. To find the dependence of the intensity on the thickness of the sample the container was moved horizontally. The dependence of μs on the haematocrit was determined for RBCs suspended in the isotonic salt solution. RBCs suspended in plasma tend to form rouleaux. For the RBCs suspended in plasma, the scattering coefficient as a function of time was obtained. It is shown that this technique can be useful in the study of rouleaux formation.

  8. Study of pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia using scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Tadashige; Tanaka, Masao; Takeda, Tadashi; Kawashima, Akira; Kubo, Keiji; Kobayashi, Toshio; Handa, Kenjiro; Yoshimura, Kazuhiko (Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1993-09-01

    In order to evaluate the pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia, Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy and perfusion lung scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MAA were performed in 19 cases of polycythemia including polycythemia rubra vera and in 11 cases of secondary polycythemia due to pulmonary diseases. Tl-201 lung uptake, right ventricular visualization and pulmonary perfusion impairment were studied. In the 19 cases, Tl-201 lung uptake was observed in all cases and 54.5% of them showed moderate lung uptake. The grade of right ventricular visualization was moderate in one case and slight in 16 cases; right ventricular hypertrophy was shown in 89.5% of all cases by Tl-201 scintigraphy, only one of which showed right ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiography. Abnormalities of lung perfusion consisted of scattered small areas of hypoperfusion in 36.8%, peripheral hypoperfusion in 78.9% and uneven distribution of pulmonary perfusion in 94.7%. The degree of hypoperfusion was slightly related to decrease in FEV 1.0%, V25 and PaO[sub 2] and increase in circulating blood volume and peripheral red blood cell counts. Abnormalities of pulmonary function consisted of increased RV/TLC in 50.0%, increased CV/VC in 35.7% and decreased V25 in 36.8%. Arterial blood gases showed hypoxemia in 57.1%, the degree of which was slightly related to increase in RV/TLC and CV/VC and decrease in V25. Cases of secondary polycythemia due to pulmonary diseases showed more marked right ventricular visualization, pulmonary perfusion impairment and abnormalities of various kinds of pulmonary function than polycythemia rubra vera cases. It seems to be important to evaluate the pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia rubra vera as well as secondary polycythemia due to cardio-pulmonary diseases, because pulmonary perfusion impairment and moderate right ventricular visualization are observed frequently in polycythemia rubra vera. (author).

  9. Study of pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia using scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia, Tl-201 myocardial scintigraphy and perfusion lung scintigraphy with 99m-Tc-MAA were performed in 19 cases of polycythemia including polycythemia rubra vera and in 11 cases of secondary polycythemia due to pulmonary diseases. Tl-201 lung uptake, right ventricular visualization and pulmonary perfusion impairment were studied. In the 19 cases, Tl-201 lung uptake was observed in all cases and 54.5% of them showed moderate lung uptake. The grade of right ventricular visualization was moderate in one case and slight in 16 cases; right ventricular hypertrophy was shown in 89.5% of all cases by Tl-201 scintigraphy, only one of which showed right ventricular hypertrophy on electrocardiography. Abnormalities of lung perfusion consisted of scattered small areas of hypoperfusion in 36.8%, peripheral hypoperfusion in 78.9% and uneven distribution of pulmonary perfusion in 94.7%. The degree of hypoperfusion was slightly related to decrease in FEV 1.0%, V25 and PaO2 and increase in circulating blood volume and peripheral red blood cell counts. Abnormalities of pulmonary function consisted of increased RV/TLC in 50.0%, increased CV/VC in 35.7% and decreased V25 in 36.8%. Arterial blood gases showed hypoxemia in 57.1%, the degree of which was slightly related to increase in RV/TLC and CV/VC and decrease in V25. Cases of secondary polycythemia due to pulmonary diseases showed more marked right ventricular visualization, pulmonary perfusion impairment and abnormalities of various kinds of pulmonary function than polycythemia rubra vera cases. It seems to be important to evaluate the pathophysiology of pulmonary circulation in polycythemia rubra vera as well as secondary polycythemia due to cardio-pulmonary diseases, because pulmonary perfusion impairment and moderate right ventricular visualization are observed frequently in polycythemia rubra vera. (author)

  10. Immunophenotyping of hematopoietic progenitor cells: Comparison between cord blood and adult mobilized blood grafts

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the immunophenotype of hematopoietic progenitor cells from cord blood (CB) grafts (n = 39) in comparison with adult apheresis grafts (AG, n = 229) and pre-apheresis peripheral blood (PAPB) samples (n = 908) using flow cytometry analysis.

  11. Arterial Blood, Rather Than Venous Blood, is a Better Source for Circulating Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizue Terai

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation: Our data indicate that arterial blood specimens might be a better source of circulating uveal melanoma cells. Although less conveniently processed, perhaps arterial blood should be evaluated as sample source for measurement of CTCs.

  12. Hepatic scintigraphy for leptospirosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six patients with leptospirosis were investigated. Hepatic scintigraphy showed abnormal radiocolloidal distribution, with non-homogeneous concentration in all of them, and minimum to moderate splenic uptake. Hepatic scintigraphy is proved to be a good function test of the hepatic defeat system

  13. Scintigraphy in equine practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most common use for nuclear medicine in equine practice is bone imaging using technetium 99m as the radionuclide. This article will describe establishment of a facility to perform equine scintigraphy, the peculiarities associated with nuclear medicine and horses and describe a variety of the pathology we identify using scintigraphy. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  14. Biliary scintigraphy in children with sickle cell anemia and acute abdominal pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The patterns of radionuclide hepatobiliary scans in nine children with sickle cell disease and acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain were reviewed. The most common pattern observed was delayed gall bladder visualization, consistent with chronic cholecystitis. The value of hepatobiliary imaging in distinguishing acute cholecystitis from crisis is presented. (orig.)

  15. In-Depth Profiling of the Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Proteome for Clinical Blood Proteomics

    OpenAIRE

    Saša Končarević; Christopher Lößner; Karsten Kuhn; Thorsten Prinz; Ian Pike; Hans-Dieter Zucht

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are an easy accessible cellular part of the blood organ and, along with platelets, represent the only site of active gene expression in blood. These cells undergo immunophenotypic changes in various diseases and represent a peripheral source of monitoring gene expression and posttranslational modifications relevant to many diseases. Little is known about the source of many blood proteins and we hypothesise that release from PBMCs through active and p...

  16. Magnetophoretic separation of blood cells at the microscale

    CERN Document Server

    Furlani, E P

    2006-01-01

    We present a method and model for the direct and continuous separation of red and white blood cells in plasma. The method is implemented at the microscale using a microfluidic system that consists of an array of integrated soft-magnetic elements embedded beneath a microfluidic channel. The microsystem is passive, and is activated via application of a bias field that magnetizes the elements. Once magnetized, the elements produce a nonuniform magnetic field distribution in the microchannel, which gives rise to a force on blood cells as they pass through the microsystem. In whole blood, white blood cells behave as diamagnetic microparticles while red blood cells exhibit diamagnetic or paramagnetic behavior depending on the oxygenation of their hemoglobin. We develop a mathematical model for predicting the motion of blood cells in the microsystem that takes into account the dominant magnetic, fluidic and buoyant forces on the cells. We use the model to study red/white blood cell transport, and our analysis indica...

  17. Is there a role for Tc-99m HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy in patients with infective endocarditis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: Infective endocarditis is still an important disease in developing countries. Due to the difficult diagnosis, treatment is often delayed or inappropriate. A combination of clinical findings and echocardiography are used most often, but have a low sensitivity. As Tc-99m HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy is used routinely to evaluate patients with suspected infectious processes, it was postulated that this technique may also aid in the diagnosis of acute infective endocarditis in patients with rheumatic heart disease. Materials and Methods: Six patients who presented with clinical signs and symptoms of infective endocarditis, were referred for Tc-99m HMPAO labelled leucocyte scintigraphy. The white blood cells were labelled according to standard procedures. Whole body planar imaging, and single photon emission tomography of the chest area, with imaging at 30 minutes, 3 hours and 24 hours after the administration of the labelled leucocytes, were performed on all patients. Results: All the scintigrams were negative. No abnormal concentration of leucocytes could be detected in the region of the heart. This was in spite of clinical findings indicative of active infective endocarditis. Conclusion: Vegetations mainly consist of masses of clotted blood and blood cell debris, containing the causative organisms. Leucocytes do not play a major role in the pathologic process. Although only six patients were studied, it appears that Tc-99m HMPAO leucocyte scintigraphy is of no value in the evaluation of patients with infective endocarditis. A study after the administration of radiolabelled antibiotics may be of greater value and should be considered in these patients

  18. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl;

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non......-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low....... The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results: Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media...

  19. New strategy in diagnostic, preventive and following way in osteonecrosis of sickle-cell disease in Cote d'Ivoire with bone scintigraphy; Nouvelle strategie dans le diagnostic, la prevention et le suivi de l'osteonecrose drepanocytaire en Cote d'Ivoire a partir de la scintigraphie osseuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouame-Koutouan, A.; Aboukoua-Kouassi, N.; Koffi, D.; Sery, J.M. [Cocody Univ., UFR sciences Medicales (SMA), Service de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, Abidjan (Cote d' Ivoire); Meite, M.; Sanogo, I. [Clinique du CHU de Yopougon, Service d' Hematologie (Cote d' Ivoire)

    2009-10-15

    Osteonecrosis is the most frequent complications of sickle-cell disease (S.C.D.) whose prevalence in Cote d'Ivoire is 21%. The main of this study was to compare scintigraphy, clinical and radiological observations to assess earlier diagnosis in S.C.D. osteonecrosis. It was a prospective study about 45 S.C.D. patients who presented coxopathy and had radio-labelled di phosphonates bone scintigraphy. The results revealed 49% of lesions whose 48% appeared with homogeneous hyper fixation, 11% homogeneous hypo fixation, 5% of hypo fixation got round by hyper fixation. Eighty-one percent of lesions concerned femoral head, 6% femoral condyle and 3% humoral head. Fifty percent of osteonecrosis was not visible in radiology and corresponded to the earlier stage. These invisible radiology aspects were observed in 100% hips without lameness, and in 43% permanent lameness. Scintigraphy (sensitive in 100%) isolated 38% more than conventional radiography. In main to improve S.C.D. osteonecrosis prognostic in Cote d'Ivoire, this preliminary study outline that scintigraphy is fundamental in management. (authors)

  20. Perfusion scintigraphy in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tc-99m sestamibi perfusion SPECT scintigraphy in acute myocardial infarction is a feasible method to assess the size of area at risk and the residual blood flow to this area as the most important determinants of final infarct size without any delay in treatment. In combination with a follow-up study final infarct size as well as myocardial salvage can be quantified. Clinical indications for the use of Tc-99m sestamibi scintigraphy are the noninvasive identification of arterial occlusion in patients suspected to acute myocardial infarction without electrocardiographic ST-elevation and the assessment of reperfusion success. In clinical trials Tc-99m sestamibi scintigraphy has proven to be a useful method to assess the impact of varying reperfusion therapies. The present review article discusses the indication, the study protocol, the interpretation of results and the clinical and scientifically importance of this method. (orig.)

  1. Dielectric Constant of Suspensions of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Kenneth; Ackmann, James

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of the complex dielectric constant of suspensions of blood cells have recently been reported by Ackmann, et al.(J. J. Ackmann, et al., Ann. Biomed. Eng. 24), 58 (1996). At frequencies below 100 kHz, the real part of the dielectric constant (ɛ') goes through a maximum at a blood cell volume fraction of about 70%. Effective medium approximations do not agree well with this behavior. As a more realistic model, we are studying the grain consolidation model of Roberts and Schwartz(J. N. Roberts and L. M. Schwartz, Phys. Rev. B 31), 5990 (1985). We have used a finite element method to calculate the dielectric constant of this model for a cubic array of spheres. The simulations agree remarkably well with experiment. They suggest, however, that ɛ' may be showing oscillations rather than a simple maximum. Comparison of the simulated and experimental points suggests that this is not an artifact of the periodic array used in the model. Furthermore the simulations indicate that the maximum (or oscillations) disappears at low conductivities of the suspending fluid.

  2. Alterations in cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells in stored blood

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusion. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called CPDA-1. With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements of the 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and their progressive alterations in stored RBCs. Our results show that the stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within 2 weeks which was accompanied with significant ...

  3. Hyperemic peripheral red marrow in a patient with sickle cell anemia demonstrated on Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiden, R.A.; Locko, R.C.; Stent, T.R. (Columbia Univ. College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY (USA))

    1991-03-01

    A 25-year-old gravid woman, homozygous for sickle cell anemia, with a history of recent deep venous thrombosis, was examined using Tc-99m labeled red blood cell venography for recurrent thrombosis. Although negative for thrombus, the study presented an unusual incidental finding: the patient's peripheral bone marrow was hyperemic in a distribution consistent with peripheral red bone marrow expansion. Such a pattern has not been documented before using this technique. This report supports other literature that has demonstrated hyperemia of peripheral red bone marrow in other hemolytic anemias. This finding may ultimately define an additional role of scintigraphy in assessing the pathophysiologic status of the sickle cell patient.

  4. Red Blood Cells Estimation Using Hough Transform Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Humaimi Mahmood

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The number of red blood cells contributes more to clinical diagnosis with respect to blood diseases. Theaim of this research is to produce a computer vision system that can detect and estimate the number of redblood cells in the blood sample image. Morphological is a very powerful tool in image processing, and it isbeen used to segment and extract the red blood cells from the background and other cells. The algorithmused features such as shape of red blood cells for counting process, and Hough transform is introduced inthis process. The result presented here is based on images with normal blood cells. The tested data consistsof 10 samples and produced the accurate estimation rate closest to 96% from manual counting.

  5. Skeleton scintigraphy in trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skeletal trauma is common and presents both an opportunity and a problem in skeletal scintigraphy. The opportunity arises in the ability of skeletal scintigraphy to demonstrate abnormalities early after direct trauma. It is well recognized that the early detection of fractures in some sites cannot be reliably achieved by standard radiography, especially in the femoral neck and scaphoid bone. The problem comes in recognizing the effects of skeletal trauma when using skeletal scintigraphy for another purpose, such as the detection of metastatic disease. iatrogenic trauma to either the skeleton or soft tissues may be manifest scintigraphic ally. For example Craniotomy typically leaves a rim pattern at the surgical margin. Rib Retraction during thoracotomy can elicit periosteal reaction. Areas of the skeletal receiving curative levels of ionizing radiation (typically 4000 rads or greater) characteristically demonstrate decreased uptake within 6 months to 1 year after therapy. The generally high sensitivity of the skeletal scintigraphy seems to make it an ideal survey test in cases of suspected child abuse especially in which radiographs are unrevealing. Because of difficulties in obtaining a history of trauma from a preschool child or even eliciting a satisfactory description of the location and nature of the pain, skeletal scintigraphy provides a simple and reliable investigation in these children. Subtle trauma, such as that from stress fractures is often difficult to visualize on a plain radiograph. Skeletal scintigraphy is frequently positive at the time of clinical presentation. Skeletal scintigraphy is exquisitely sensitive to the remodeling process and typically shows abnormalities 1 to 2 weeks or more before the appearance of radiographic changes in stress fractures. The periosteal reaction can be visualized within hours of the injury. Insufficiency and fatigue fractures such as vertebral compression fracture, which is probably the most common consequence of

  6. Significance of thymic scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thymic scintigraphy by 67Ga-citrate and 75Se-methionine was done on 6 cases of thymoma, and 5 cases of myasthenia gravis. Scan was positive on 5 of 6 cases of thymoma. All patients with malignant thymoma were positive. Among the 7 cases of myasthenia gravis, scintigrams revealed 2 thymomas and 1 hyperplasia on whom no thymic mass suspected. Thymic scintigraphy is useful examination when dealing with myasthenia gravis. (auth.)

  7. Phenotype and Functions of Memory Tfh cells in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Bentebibel, Salah-Eddine; Ueno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the origin and functions of human blood CXCR5+ CD4+ T cells found in human blood has changed dramatically in the past years. These cells are currently considered to represent a circulating memory compartment of T follicular helper (Tfh)-lineage cells. Recent studies have shown that blood memory Tfh cells are composed of phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. Here we review the current understanding of human blood memory Tfh cells and the subsets within this compartment. We present a strategy to define these subsets based on cell surface profiles. Finally, we discuss how increased understanding of the biology of blood memory Tfh cells may contribute insight into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the mode of action of vaccines. PMID:24998903

  8. Cost effectiveness of cord blood versus bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bart

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas BartSwiss Blood Stem Cells, Bern, SwitzerlandAbstract: Umbilical cord blood (CB has become, since its first successful use more than two decades ago, an increasingly important source of blood stem cells. In this light, an overview of current usage of CB in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation (HSCT is given. The three main sources of hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow (BM, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC, and cord blood (CB are compared as regards their current quantitative usage in HSCT. A cost analysis of the named three hematopoietic blood stem cell (HSC sources, taking into account various factors, is undertaken. The health economical comparison shows significant differences between CB on the one side, and BM and PBSC on the other. The consequences for the public health side and propositions for a possible health care policy, especially regarding future resource allocation towards the different choices for HSCT products, are discussed. An outlook on the possible future usage of BM, PBSC, and CB and its implications on health systems, donor registries, and CB banks is given.Keywords: health economy, cord blood, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  9. Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood during cardiac surgery : effect on red blood cell function in concentrated blood compared with diluted blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Y. John; de Vries, Adrianus J.; Hagenaars, J. Ans M.; van Oeveren, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood has been suggested to prevent patients from receiving activated leucocytes during autotransfusion in cardiac surgery. This study examines whether leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood affects the red blood cell (RBC) function and whether there is a

  10. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vlad.vinnikov@mail.ru [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine (Ukraine); Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards of the Health Protection Agency of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G{sub 0}-stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors' blood irradiated in vitro to 0-40 Gy acute {gamma}-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 Degree-Sign C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 {+-} 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 {+-} 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 {+-} 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2-4 Gy and 16.7 {+-} 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6-10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  11. A photonic crystal hydrogel suspension array for the capture of blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Cai, Yunlang; Shang, Luoran; Wang, Huan; Cheng, Yao; Rong, Fei; Gu, Zhongze; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells.Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06368j

  12. Stem Cell Transplant (Peripheral Blood, Bone Marrow, and Cord Blood Transplants)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are studied in cloning and other types of research. These stem cells are blood-forming stem cells. Stem cells mostly ... Preventing and managing GVHD are major priorities for research. Chronic ... 90 to 600 days after the stem cell transplant. A rash on the palms of the ...

  13. Value of scintigraphy in the diagnosis of infections related to continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Complications related to CAPD result in temporary or permanent discontinuation of CAPD. Approximately a 20 % of the patients on peritoneal dialysis are transferred to hemodialysis due to different complications, chief among these is peritonitis. Other complications are exit-site infections, catheter-related problems, hernias, poor ultrafiltration or clearance, etc. Although peritonitis remains the major cause of transfer to hemodialysis the accurate identification and localization the other infectious complications is necessary for their appropriate treatment. The aim of this study is to assess prospectively the value of scintigraphic with 99mTc-HMPAO labeled white blood cells (WBC) in-patients on CAPD with suspicious of infectious complications. From 1997 to 2000, 27 scintigraphies with 99mTc HMPAO labeled WBC were performed in 17 patients with suspicious of catheter related abdominal wall infection, assessed by Twardowski scale, or peritonitis. In five patients we carried out study of control after the onset of therapy to assess response. The procedure for radiolabeling WBC with 99mTc-HMPAO in our department is similar to the ISORBE consensus protocol. Planar images were obtained 30 minutes, 2 hours, and in some cases at 24 hours, after administration of 740-925 MBq of labeled WBC. Four patients with clinical evidence of peritonitis showed a diffuse uptake, in two of them we carried out scintigraphy after antibiotic therapy and we did not find abnormalities. From 18 scintigraphies with catheter-related local infection 6 showed focal uptake in patients with positive culture and pericatheter exudate. All patients with negative culture had normal scintigraphies. In 3 of them after antibiotic therapy and negative culture did not find pathologic abnormalities. Peritoneal and wall abdominal scintigraphy with WBC radiolabeling with 99mTc-HMPAO is useful method for evaluation of several CAPD-related infectious complications. (author)

  14. Hormones that Stimulate the Growth of Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golde, David W.; Gasson, Judith C.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the nature and action of hematopoietic proteins which regulate the production of specific sets of blood cells. Discusses the production of these hematopoietins by recombinant-DNA methods in an effort to enable physicians to treat patients by eliciting production of specific types of blood cells. (CW)

  15. Multifactorial aspects of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Kapur

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on diseases of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction via FcγRs on phagocytes, in particular regarding platelets in fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and red blood cells (RBC) in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Di

  16. Light scattering by aggregated red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinopoulos, Stephanos V.; Sellountos, Euripides J.; Polyzos, Demosthenes

    2002-03-01

    In low flow rates, red blood cells (RBCs) fasten together along their axis of symmetry and form a so-called rouleaux. The scattering of He-Ne laser light by a rouleau consisting of n (2 less-than-or-equal n less-than-or-equal 8) average-sized RBCs is investigated. The interaction problem is treated numerically by means of an advanced axisymmetric boundary element--fast Fourier transform methodology. The scattering problem of one RBC was solved first, and the results showed that the influence of the RBC's membrane on the scattering patterns is negligible. Thus the rouleau is modeled as an axisymmetric, homogeneous, low-contrast dielectric cylinder, on the surface of which appears, owing to aggregated RBCs, a periodic roughness along the direction of symmetry. The direction of the incident laser light is considered to be perpendicular to the scatterer's axis of symmetry. The differential scattering cross sections in both perpendicular and parallel scattering planes and for all the scattering angles are calculated and presented in detail.

  17. Novel Cell Preservation Technique to Extend Bovine In Vitro White Blood Cell Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Laurin, Emilie L.; McKenna, Shawn L. B.; Sanchez, Javier; Bach, Horacio; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Chaffer, Marcelo; Keefe, Greg P

    2015-01-01

    Although cell-mediated immunity based diagnostics can be integral assays for early detection of various diseases of dairy cows, processing of blood samples for these tests is time-sensitive, often within 24 hours of collection, to maintain white blood cell viability. Therefore, to improve utility and practicality of such assays, the objective of this study was to assess the use of a novel white blood cell preservation technology in whole bovine blood. Blood samples from ten healthy cows were ...

  18. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Preben D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low. The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5°C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. In 4 out of 7 samples colonies with MSC morphology were observed. Cellular morphology varied between monolayers of elongated spindle-shaped cells to layered cell clusters of cuboidal cells with shorter cytoplasmic extensions. Positive Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion We here report, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal model for proof-of-principle studies of cord blood derived MSCs.

  19. Blood Thixotropy in Patients with Sickle Cell Anaemia: Role of Haematocrit and Red Blood Cell Rheological Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Vent-Schmidt, Jens; Waltz, Xavier; Romana, Marc; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Lemonne, Nathalie; Billaud, Marie; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Connes, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    We compared the blood thixotropic/shear-thinning properties and the red blood cells’ (RBC) rheological properties between a group of patients with sickle cell anaemia (SS) and healthy individuals (AA). Blood thixotropy was determined by measuring blood viscosity with a capillary viscometer using a “loop” protocol: the shear rate started at 1 s−1 and increased progressively to 922 s−1 and then re-decreased to the initial shear rate. Measurements were performed at native haematocrit for the two...

  20. A Simulation of Blood Cells in Branching Capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Isfahani, Amir H G; Freund, Jonathan B

    2008-01-01

    The multi-cellular hydrodynamic interactions play a critical role in the phenomenology of blood flow in the microcirculation. A fast algorithm has been developed to simulate large numbers of cells modeled as elastic thin membranes. For red blood cells, which are the dominant component in blood, the membrane has strong resistance to surface dilatation but is flexible in bending. Our numerical method solves the boundary integral equations built upon Green's functions for Stokes flow in periodic domains. This fluid dynamics video is an example of the capabilities of this model in handling complex geometries with a multitude of different cells. The capillary branch geometries have been modeled based upon observed capillary networks. The diameter of the branches varies between 10-20 mum. A constant mean pressure gradient drives the flow. For the purpose of this fluid dynamics video, the red blood cells are initiated as biconcave discs and white blood cells and platelets are initiated as spheres and ellipsoids resp...

  1. Musculoskeletal scintigraphy of the equine athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear scintigraphic examination of equine athletes has a potentially important role in the diagnosis of lameness or poor performance, but increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU) is not necessarily synonymous with pain causing lameness. Nuclear scintigraphy is highly sensitive to changes in bone turnover that may be induced by loading and knowledge of normal patterns of RU is crucial for accurate diagnosis. Blood pool images can be useful for identification of some soft tissue injuries, although acute bone injuries may also have intense IRU in blood pool images. Some muscle injuries may be associated with IRU in bone phase images. The use of scintigraphy together with other diagnostic imaging modalities has helped us to better understand the mechanisms of some musculoskeletal injuries. In immature racehorses, stress-related bone injury is a common finding and may be multifocal, whereas in mature sport horses, a very different spectrum of injuries may be identified. False-negative results are common with some injuries. PMID:24314041

  2. Diagnostic role of initial renal cortical scintigraphy in children with the first episode of acute pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has been the subject of debate for many years. Diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) is usually based on clinical and biological data. The clinical usefulness of early Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy remains controversial, although it may influence the type and duration of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the role of initial cortical scintigraphy in the detection of early renal parenchymal damage in children highly suspected of having APN and to compare the scintigraphic findings with selected clinical/laboratory parameters and ultrasonography. A prospective study was conducted in 34 infants and young children (18 boys, 16 girls), aged 1.5-36 months (mean 9.8±8.7 months), hospitalized with a first episode of clinically suspected APN. Within the first 5 days after admission, Tc-99m DMSA renal scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC) and urine analyses were performed. DMSA scintigraphy showed changes consistent with APN in 27/34 (79%) patients, with a mean age of 10.9 months, including 12 males (44%) and 15 (56%) females. Out of 9 febrile children with negative urine culture and supportive evidence of UTI, scintigraphy showed parenchymal involvement in 8 children (24% in the whole group, 30% in scintigraphically documented APN). There were no statistically significant correlations between the frequency or size of the initial scintigraphic abnormalities and age, sex, body temperature, CRP levels or ESR. A CRP level of >54 mg/L and a WBC of >13,300/mm3 had sensitivities of 56 and 59% and specificities of 86 and 71%, respectively. US showed changes consistent with APN in 7/34 (21%) in the whole group and in 7/27 (26%) patients with positive cortical scan (p<0.05). Initial DMSA renal scintigraphy is a sensitive method for the early diagnosis of APN in young children and is

  3. Interpretation of automated blood cell counts

    OpenAIRE

    Zühre Kaya

    2013-01-01

    Complete blood count (CBC) tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters,...

  4. Approaches to radiolabelling blood cells: past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of cellular blood elements in health and disease can never be overemphasized. Associated with every organic illness there is an involvement of blood cells. Using radiolabelled blood cells, researchers have made fundamental contributions in the basic knowledge of cell kinetics and physiology. Further development in cell labelling techniques, in conjunction with the advancements in nuclear imaging have made it possible to use radiolabelled blood cells as a non-invasive means of diagnosing diseases. Useful as it may be, we have become increasingly aware of the current limitations in the cell labelling technique. The object of this article is to highlight the past and present approaches to the technique, emphasize the current problems and discuss future directions that might help to fetch solutions. (Auth.)

  5. NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation time of human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NMR water-proton spin-lattice relaxation times were studied as probes of water structure in human red blood cells and red blood cell suspensions. Normal saline had a relaxation time of about 3000 ms while packed red blood cells had a relaxation time of about 500 ms. The relaxation time of a red blood cell suspension at 50% hematocrit was about 750 ms showing that surface charges and polar groups of the red cell membrane effectively structure extracellular water. Incubation of red cells in hypotonic saline increases relaxation time whereas hypertonic saline decreases relaxation time. Relaxation times varied independently of mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in a sample population. Studies with lysates and resealed membrane ghosts show that hemoglobin is very effective in lowering water-proton relaxation time whereas resealed membrane ghosts in the absence of hemoglobin are less effective than intact red cells. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 table

  6. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris;

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...... identified, and polypeptides migrating with anomalous apparent molecular weights were grouped into putatively ubiquitinated or partially degraded complexes. Overall there was close concordance between mouse and human proteomes, confirming the unexpected RBC complexity. Several novel findings in the human...

  7. Utility of Brain SPECT 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy for the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow changes in patients suffering from dissociative amnesia DA and dissociative motor disorders DMD (previously termed as hysteria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The aim of the study was to assess the utility of Brain SPECT 99mTc-HMPAO scintigraphy for the evaluation of regional cerebral blood flow changes in patients suffering from dissociative amnesia (DA) and dissociative motor disorders (DMD) (previously termed as Hysteria). Materials and Methods: 20 patients were included in the study with a mean age of 26 years, 08 of them suffering from DA and 12 from DMDs. A consultant psychiatrist on the basis of ICD-10 criteria made the diagnosis. Patients were divided into two categories according to the duration of their illness. Category A; included 10 patients having less than six months duration of illness. Category B; included 10 patients having duration of illness more than six months. Ten normal controls having no signs and symptoms of any psychiatric disorder were also included in the study. Brain SPECT study was carried out using 99mTc-HMPAO. Semiquantitative analysis was done by calculating cortical and cerebellar ratios in normals and comparing the same in the patients. Results: By comparing regional cerebral blood flow ratios of both the categories with normal group, patients suffering from DA showed hypoperfusion in bilateral temporal lobes, in both frontal association areas and both orbito frontal regions and patients suffering for more than 06 months showed a slightly more exaggerated pattern of hypoperfusion in the same cortical areas. On the other hand in DMD only the patients suffering for more than 06 months showed altered cerebral blood perfusion like hypoperfusion in both of the frontal motor areas, hypoperfusion in both temporal lobes and marked hyperperfusion in both orbito frontal areas. Conclusion: Patients of DA show abnormal cerebral perfusion pattern whether in acute or chronic stage while only chronic DMD states precipitate altered cerebral perfusion patterns and these can be visualized on a Brain SPECT study. (author)

  8. Quantification of depletion-induced adhesion of Red Blood Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen, Patrick; Verdier, Claude; Wagner, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) are known to form aggregates in the forms of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. Rouleaux formation can be also induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC solution. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly rely on indirect measurements like flow chamber experiments, but on the single cell level data is lacking. Here we present measurements on the d...

  9. Interpretation of automated blood cell counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zühre Kaya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Complete blood count (CBC tests are rapid, inexpensiveand universally available, and often aid primary clinicianswith decision making about patients with severaldisorders. Thus the rapid availability of the results of CBCcould provide considerable advantage for both patientsand clinicians. Furthermore, physicians can also avoidunnecessary peripheral blood smear examination usingCBC parameters. Many hematology analyzers, which enabledus simultaneously, measure several different CBCparameters, are available for early diagnosis. Herein theimpact of both pre and post analytic variations on the interpretationof the CBC results with case reports are reviewedin the light of the latest literature.Key words: Complete blood count, interpretation

  10. Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A historical review of different investigation methods measuring lung function (perfusion and gas exchange) is given. The principles and handling of some ventilation methods using radioxenon, radiokrypton or radiolabelled aerosols, and the injection method of xenon are explained. The clinical applicability of these studies is evaluated considering ventilation and perfusion lung defects and congestive heart failure. The combination of the three principal techniques (perfusion scintigraphy using MAA, ventilation scintigraphy using radioxenon or radiokrypton, perfusion and ventilation scientigraphy after injection of radioxenon) lead to typical patterns of differential diagnosis of perfusion defects. (TRV)

  11. Scintigraphy and thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scintigraphy indications are: definition of the functional character in the multi nodules impairments, exploration of low T.S.H. (131I irradiation-therapy, cytological selection of hypo contrasted nodules. The comparison of the 123I fixation and the T.S.H. rate allows to identify the autonomous nodules and the autoimmune nodules hyperplasia. The longitudinal surveillance of nodules (97% of benign pathology) is simplified by scintigraphy: in lack of empowerment, the T.S.H surveillance is useless, in presence of hyper functional areas, the cytology is little useful but a surveillance or an etiologic treatment are required. (IT4, 131I, or surgery). (N.C.)

  12. Bone scintigraphy for horses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scintigraphy (bone scan) is being used approximately since 1980 in the horse under general anaesthesia. With the construction of custom-made overhead gantries for gamma-cameras scintigraphy found widespread entry in big equine referral hospitals for bone-scanning of the standing horse. Indications for the use of a bone scan in the horse are inflammatory alterations in the locomotor apparatus. It is primarily used for diagnosis of lameness of unknown origin, suspect of stress fracture or hairline fracture and for horses with bad riding comfort with suspected painful lesions in the spine. (orig.)

  13. Unusual bone scintigraphy in chronic myelogenous leukemia - report of a case showing extensive uptake defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extensive 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate uptake defect was observed on bone scintigraphy in a 35-year-old male with chronic myelogenous leukemia. This type of bone scintigraphy pattern is quite unusual in leukemic patients and we speculate that acute disturbance of blood supply to the bone marrow was probably the cause. (orig.)

  14. Net haemoglobin increase from reinfusion of refrigerated vs. frozen red blood cells after autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashenden, M; Mørkeberg, Jakob Sehested

    2011-01-01

    freezing. Nevertheless, frozen storage allowed haemoglobin to fully recover before reinfusion, while the haemoglobin was 10% lower in the refrigerated group compared with baseline. After reinfusion, the haemoglobin levels were 11·5% higher than the baseline values in the group reinfused with frozen blood......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES  Two main blood storage procedures can be used for storing red blood cells: refrigeration and freezing. Nevertheless, the efficiency of these procedures measured as the increase in haemoglobin after reinfusion compared with baseline has never been examined. The main...... objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures...

  15. Quantification of Depletion-Induced Adhesion of Red Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, P.; Verdier, C.; Wagner, C.

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. The formation of rouleaux can also be induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC suspension. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly originate from indirect measurements such as flow chamber experiments, but data is lacking at the single cell level. Here, we present measurements on the dextran-induced aggregation of red blood cells using atomic force microscopy-based single cell force spectroscopy. The effects of dextran concentration and molecular weight on the interaction energy of adhering RBCs were determined. The results on adhesion energy are in excellent agreement with a model based on the depletion effect and previous experimental studies. Furthermore, our method allowed to determine the adhesion force, a quantity that is needed in theoretical investigations on blood flow.

  16. Vesicle-associated microRNAs are released from blood cells on incubation of blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberle, Verena; Kakoschky, Bianca; Ibrahim, Ahmed Atef; Schmithals, Christian; Peveling-Oberhag, Jan; Zeuzem, Stefan; Kronenberger, Bernd; Waidmann, Oliver; Pleli, Thomas; Piiper, Albrecht

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) circulating extracellularly in the blood are currently intensively studied as novel disease markers. However, the preanalytical factors influencing the levels of the extracellular miRNAs are still incompletely explored. In particular, it is unknown, whether the incubation of blood samples as occurring in clinical routine can lead to a release of miRNAs from blood cells and thus alter the extracellular miRNA levels before the preparation of serum or plasma from the blood cells. Using a set of marker miRNAs and quantitative RT-PCR, we found that the levels of extracellular miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 were increased in EDTA and serum collection tubes incubated for 1-3 hours at room temperature and declined thereafter; the levels of the liver-specific miRNA-122 declined monophasically. These events occurred in the absence of significant hemolysis. When the blood was supplemented with Ribonuclease A inhibitor, the levels of miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 increased substantially during the initial 3 hours of incubation and those of miRNA-122 remained unchanged, indicating that the release of blood cell-derived miRNAs occurred during the initial 3 hours of incubation of the blood tubes, but not at later time points. Separation of 5-hour preincubated blood into vesicle and nonvesicle fractions revealed a selective increase in the portion of vesicle-associated miRNAs. Together, these data indicate that the release of vesicle-associated miRNAs from blood cells can occur in blood samples within the time elapsing in normal clinical practice until their processing without significant hemolysis. This becomes particularly visible on the inhibition of miRNA degradation by Ribonuclease A inhibitor. PMID:26608461

  17. Experimental investigation of 201TlCl-scintigraphy in evaluating therapeutic effect of hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the usefulness of 201Tl-scintigraphy in the evaluation of therapeutic effect of hyperthermia. Satoh's experimental lung cancer tumors implanted in the right thighs of donryu rats were treated with hyperthermia using water bath. Tumors were heated at 44degC or 46degC for 15 min. 201Tl-scintigraphy was obtained before, immediately after and 24 hrs after treatment. Counts ratio of the tumor of the normal muscle (T/N ratio) was measured by gamma camera. We examined blood flow of the tumor, and relative tumor growth rate, and performed autoradiogram and histopathological examination of the tumor after 201Tl-scintigraphy. Immediately after hyperthermia, T/N ratio and blood flow of the tumor significantly decreased (p201TlCl in the tumor decreased diffusely. Histopathological finding showed congestion, thrombosis, and swelling of endothelial cells. These results suggest that the decrease in T/N ratio may be caused by the vascular damage due to hyperthermia. The T/N ratio recovered 24 hrs after hyperthermia but was still lower than that for the control. Autoradiogram showed that 201TlCl greatly accumulated in viable tumor tissue but was hardly seen in the necrotic tumor tissue. These results suggest that the decrease in T/N ratio may be caused by increase of necrotic areas. The T/N ratio 24 hrs after hyperthermia correlated (r=0.83) with relative tumor growth rate on 7th day after hyperthermia and, therefore, can be used as an indicator of relative tumor growth rate. 201Tl-scintigraphy can be useful for prediction of therapeutic effect of hyperthermia. (author)

  18. WHITE BLOOD CELLS IN POLISH ATHLETES OF VARIOUS SPORTS DISCIPLINES

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Orysiak; Konrad Witek; Piotr Zmijewski; Jan Gajewski

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity of white blood cell (WBC) counts and their subsets (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes) among competitive athletes of different sports disciplines. The blood samples were collected from 608 healthy, medically examined athletes (181 females and 427 males) aged 20.1 ± 5.1 years, who represented five sport disciplines: canoeing, judo, rowing, swimming and volleyball. All blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein in the morning, ...

  19. Transfusion management of patients with red blood cell antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Bujandrić Nevenka B.; Grujić Jasmina N.; Krga-Milanović Mirjana M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Red blood cell antibodies may cause a positive result of pre-transfusion blood compatibility testing (crossmatch test). It can be a problem to provide suitable blood units for patients with clinically significant antibodies to high-frequency antigens as well as for those with multiple alloantibody specificities. This study was aimed at identifying transfused patients in the population of South-Backa who had developed clinically significant red...

  20. Deep diving in the blood stem cell-ome

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaitzidis, Demetrios; Scadden, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Defining the functional distinctions between cells comprising the bone marrow has yielded fundamental insights into lineage ordering and drivers of blood cell production. A novel, highly granular and multi-dimensional molecular characterization of functional subsets of hematopoietic stem- and progenitor cells recently published in Cell Stem Cell (Cabezas-Wallscheid et al, 2014) will serve as a landmark and treasure trove for unanticipated insights into basic biology and the development of fut...

  1. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk.

  2. Safety and radiation risks in the labelling of blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risk in the management of radioactive material and biological exposition to infectious agents. Protocols and normative to observe GOOD RADIOPHARMACY Practices. Main infectious agents that may be transmitted during preparation of a blood cell radiopharmaceutical. Problems of contamination

  3. Clinical efficacy of efonidipine hydrochloride, a T-type calcium channel inhibitor, on sympathetic activities. Examination using spectral analysis of heart rate/blood pressure variabilities and 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dihydropyridine Ca antagonists cause reflex tachycardia related to their hypotensive effects. Efonidipine hydrochloride has inhibitory effects on T-type Ca channels, even as it inhibits reflex tachycardia. In the present study, the influence of efonidipine hydrochloride on heart rate and autonomic nervous function was investigated. Using an electrocardiogram and a tonometric blood pressure measurement, autonomic nervous activity was evaluated using spectral analysis of heart rate/systolic blood pressure variability. Three protocols were used: a single dose of efonidipine hydrochloride was administered orally to healthy subjects with resting heart rate values of 75 beats/min or more (high-heart rate (HR) group) and to healthy subjects with resting heart rate values less than 75 beats/min (low-HR group); efonidipine hydrochloride was newly administered to untreated patients with essential hypertension, and autonomic nervous activity was investigated after a 4-week treatment period; and patients with high heart rate values (≥75 beats/min) who had been treated with a dihydropyridine L-type Ca channel inhibitor for 1 month or more were switched to efonidipine hydrochloride and any changes in autonomic nervous activity were investigated. In all protocols, administration of efonidipine hydrochloride decreased the heart rate in patients with a high heart rate, reduced sympathetic nervous activity, and enhanced parasympathetic nervous activity. In addition, myocardial scintigraphy with 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine showed significant improvement in the washout rate and heart to mediastinum (H/M) ratio of patients who were switched from other dihydropyridine Ca antagonists to efonidipine hydrochloride. Efonidipine hydrochloride inhibits increases in heart rate and has effects on the autonomic nervous system. It may be useful for treating hypertension and angina pectoris, and may also have a cardiac protective function. (author)

  4. Multifactorial aspects of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction

    OpenAIRE

    Schoot, van der, B.H.; Vidarsson, G.; Kapur, R.

    2014-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on diseases of antibody-mediated blood cell destruction via FcγRs on phagocytes, in particular regarding platelets in fetal or neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) and red blood cells (RBC) in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). Diagnostically, for HDFN laboratory tests are in place in order to predict risk for severe fetal RBC destruction and thereby initiate appropriate treatments. This test is sensitive, but has relativel...

  5. Raman spectroscopy of stored red blood cells: evaluating clinically-relevant biochemical markers in donated blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Chad G.; Buckley, Kevin; Chen, Deborah; Schulze, H. G.; Devine, Dana V.; Blades, Michael W.; Turner, Robin F. B.

    2015-07-01

    Modern transfusion medicine relies on the safe, secure, and cost-effective delivery of donated red blood cells (RBCs). Once isolated, RBCs are suspended in a defined additive solution and stored in plastic blood bags in which, over time, they undergo chemical, physiological, and morphological changes that may have a deleterious impact on some patients. Regulations limit the storage period to 42 days and the cells do not routinely undergo analytical testing before use. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy to interrogate stored RBCs and we identify metabolic and cell-breakdown products, such as haemoglobin and membrane fragments, that build-up in the blood bags as the cells age. Our work points the way to the development of an instrument which could quickly and easily assess the biochemical nature of stored RBC units before they are transfused.

  6. Assessment of mandibular growth by skeletal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate assessment of facial skeletal growth remains a major problem in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Current methods include: (1) comparisons of chronologic age with growth histories of the patient and the family, (2) hand-wrist radiographs compared with a standard, and (3) serial cephalometric radiographs. Uptake of technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate into bone is a reflection of current metabolic activity and blood flow. Therefore, scintigraphy with this radiopharmaceutical might serve as a good method of assessing skeletal growth. Thirty-four patients, ranging in age from 15 months to 22 years, who were undergoing skeletal scintigrams for acute pathologic conditions of the extremities, were used to develop standards of uptake based on age and skeletal maturation. The results indicate that skeletal scintigraphy may be useful in evaluation of mandibular growth

  7. A Discrete-Element Approach for Blood Cell Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnutt, Jennifer; Marshall, Jeffrey

    2006-11-01

    An efficient computational model for simulation of the individual dynamics of adhering blood cells is discussed. Each cell is represented as a discrete particle so that the model can extend existing discrete-element approaches for dense particulate fluid flows to account for receptor-ligand binding of particles, elliptical particle shape, and deformation of the particles due to shear forces. Capabilities of the method in simulating large numbers of particles are illustrated through simulations of the formation of red blood cell rouleaux in shear flow. The effects of several factors, such as aspect ratio of the elliptical particle, shear rate, strength of the cell adhesion force, and hematocrit are investigated. Comparison of the discrete-element results with results of a level-set approach which computes the entire flow field about a small number of cells is used to develop an improved model of the effect of nearby red blood cells on the cell drag force expression. The method is also being applied to examine the influence of red blood cells on other components of the blood, such as platelet dispersion and activation in high shear regions.

  8. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Andrés Penuela

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods: Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin and control (isotonic buffer solution was added. The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value 6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19 ± 0.05 µmol/L vs. 3.53 ± 0.02 µmol/L; p-value = 0.009. The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77% ± 3.8% vs. 71% ± 2.3%; p-value <0.05, while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4% ± 0.3% vs. 22% ± 0.8%; p-value <0.05. Conclusions: Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis.

  9. Supernatant of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induces Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Possessing Mesenchymal Features

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Gang; Xu, Jun-jun; Deng, Zhi-Hong; Feng, Jie; Jin, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that some cells from peripheral blood fibroblast-like mononuclear cells have the capacity to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages. However, the insufficiency of these cells in the circulation challenges the cell isolation and subsequently limits the clinical application of these cells. In the present study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbMNCs) were isolated from wound animals and treated with the supernatant of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (bmM...

  10. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  11. A Framework for White Blood Cell Segmentation in Microscopic Blood Images Using Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Seman Zainina; Abdul Kahar Badrul; Sadeghian Farnoosh; Ramli Abdul; Saripan M-Iqbal

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Evaluation of blood smear is a commonly clinical test these days. Most of the time, the hematologists are interested on white blood cells (WBCs) only. Digital image processing techniques can help them in their analysis and diagnosis. For example, disease like acute leukemia is detected based on the amount and condition of the WBC. The main objective of this paper is to segment the WBC to its two dominant elements: nucleus and cytoplasm. The segmentation is conducted using a proposed ...

  12. The evaluation of 67Ga-scintigraphy in malignant tumor of the urinary tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    67Ga-scintigraphy was performed in 40 patients with tumor of the urinary tract (18 with renal cell carcinoma, 4 with renal pelvic cancer, 18 with bladder cancer). In patients with renal cell carcinoma, 67Ga-scintigraphy was positive in 46% of those with primary lesions, and in 80% of those with metastatic lesions. In those with renal pelvic cancer, two with only a primary lesion had a negative 67Ga-scintigraphy, and one with both primary and metastic lesions and one with only a metastatic lesion after nephrectomy showed distinctly positive 67Ga-scintigraphy. Among patients with bladder cancer only 31% with primary lesions only had positive 67Ga-scintigraphy. In conclusion, 67Ga-scintigraphy is of little use as a diagnostic aid in primary tumors of the urinary tract, but may be useful in the diagnosis of metastatic lesions. (author)

  13. [Introduction and prospect of peripheral blood stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Y

    1995-12-01

    The number of hematopoietic stem cells circulating in peripheral blood increases remarkably during the recovery of marrow function after myelosuppressive chemotherapy. In peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, these stem cells are collected and cryopreserved, and then used to restore marrow function after myelodisruptive (high-dose) anticancer therapy, Marrow recovery is faster with this procedure than with autologous bone marrow transplantation. Recently, this procedure has been used after high-dose chemotherapy for chemosensitive solid tumors such as breast cancer. We used high-dose chemotherapy with etoposide and carboplatin, followed by peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, to treat 5 patients with intrathoracic malignant tumors, including small cell lung cancer Neutrophils recovered (> 500 microliters) with 9 to 11 days and platelets recovered (> 5,000 microliters) within 8 to 13 days after the transplantation. No other serious complication was seen. Current topics regarding this procedure, problems to be solved, and prospects for further development are discussed. PMID:8752478

  14. Quantification of depletion-induced adhesion of Red Blood Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Patrick; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) are known to form aggregates in the forms of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. Rouleaux formation can be also induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC solution. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly rely on indirect measurements like flow chamber experiments, but on the single cell level data is lacking. Here we present measurements on the dextran induced aggregation of red blood cells by use of atomic force microscopy based single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS). The effects of dextran concentration and molecular weight on the interaction energy of adhering RBCs was determined. The results are in good agreement with a model based on the depletion effect and former experimental studies.

  15. Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain model optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals from a horizontally orientated blood layer at different stages of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and sedimentation processes. The parameters for aggregating and sedimenting blood cells were chosen based on the data available from the literature and our earlier experimental studies. We consider two different cases: a suspension of washed RBCs in physiological solution (where aggregation does not take place) and RBCs in blood plasma (which provides necessary conditions for aggregation). Good agreement of the simulation results with the available experimental data shows that the chosen optical parameters are reasonable. The dependence of the numbers of photons contributing to the OCT signal on the number of experienced scattering events was analysed for each simulated signal. It was shown that the maxima of these dependences correspond to the peaks in the OCT signals related to the interfaces between the layers of blood plasma and blood cells. Their positions can be calculated from the optical thicknesses of the layers, and the absorption and scattering coefficients of the media

  16. Following red blood cells in a pulmonary capillary

    CERN Document Server

    Mauroy, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    The red blood cells or erythrocytes are biconcave shaped cells and consist mostly in a membrane delimiting a cytosol with a high concentration in hemoglobin. This membrane is highly deformable and allows the cells to go through narrow passages like the capillaries which diameters can be much smaller than red blood cells one. They carry oxygen thanks to hemoglobin, a complex molecule that have very high affinity for oxygen. The capacity of erythrocytes to load and unload oxygen is thus a determinant factor in their efficacy. In this paper, we will focus on the pulmonary capillary where red blood cells capture oxygen. We propose a camera method in order to numerically study the behavior of the red blood cell along a whole capillary. Our goal is to understand how erythrocytes geometrical changes along the capillary can affect its capacity to capture oxygen. The first part of this document presents the model chosen for the red blood cells along with the numerical method used to determine and follow their shapes a...

  17. Bone scintigraphy of decompression sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Value of bone scintigraphy in decompression sickness of 42 patients was retrospectively evaluated. Bone scintigraphy was positive in 30 of 42 patients (83 lesions), while radiography and symptoms were positive in 23 patients (48 lesions), and in 29 patients (44 lesions) respectively. Bone scintigraphy was positive in many lesions with negative radiography or symptoms. However, approximately half of the lesions in which either radiography or symptoms was positive could not be detected by bone scintigraphy. These cases mostly showed radiographic abnormalities such as irregular calcified areas and ''bone island'' in the cervical regions of the humerus, femur and tibia. Both bone scintigraphy and radiography were positive in most of the patients with symptoms of the bends and there seems to be a close relationship between the bends symptoms and bone lesion. We concluded that bone scintigraphy is useful for the evaluation of decompression sickness, but it must be complemented by bone radiography to avoid a significant number of false negative cases. (author)

  18. Blood thixotropy in patients with sickle cell anaemia: role of haematocrit and red blood cell rheological properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Vent-Schmidt

    Full Text Available We compared the blood thixotropic/shear-thinning properties and the red blood cells' (RBC rheological properties between a group of patients with sickle cell anaemia (SS and healthy individuals (AA. Blood thixotropy was determined by measuring blood viscosity with a capillary viscometer using a "loop" protocol: the shear rate started at 1 s-1 and increased progressively to 922 s-1 and then re-decreased to the initial shear rate. Measurements were performed at native haematocrit for the two groups and at 25% and 40% haematocrit for the AA and SS individuals, respectively. RBC deformability was determined by ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties by laser backscatter versus time. AA at native haematocrit had higher blood thixotropic index than SS at native haematocrit and AA at 25% haematocrit. At 40% haematocrit, SS had higher blood thixotropic index than AA. While RBC deformability and aggregation were lower in SS than in AA, the strength of RBC aggregates was higher in the former population. Our results showed that 1 anaemia is the main modulator of blood thixtropy and 2 the low RBC deformability and high RBC aggregates strength cause higher blood thixotropy in SS patients than in AA individuals at 40% haematocrit, which could impact blood flow in certain vascular compartments.

  19. IMAGING RED BLOOD CELL DYNAMICS BY QUANTITATIVE PHASE MICROSCOPY

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, Gabriel; Park, YoungKeun; Choi, Wonshik; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Michael S. Feld; Badizadegan, Kamran

    2008-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) play a crucial role in health and disease, and structural and mechanical abnormalities of these cells have been associated with important disorders such as Sickle cell disease and hereditary cytoskeletal abnormalities. Although several experimental methods exist for analysis of RBC mechanical properties, optical methods stand out as they enable collecting mechanical and dynamic data from live cells without physical contact and without the need for exogenous contrast age...

  20. Assessing activation of hepatic stellate cells by 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy targeting integrin αvβ3: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation, which is accompanied by increased expression of integrin αvβ3, is an important factor in liver fibrogenesis. Molecular imaging targeting the integrin αvβ3 could provide a non-invasive method for evaluating the expression and the function of the integrin αvβ3 on the activated HSCs (aHSCs) in the injured liver, and then provide important prognostic information. 99mTc-3PRGD2 is such a radiotracer specific for integrin αvβ3. In this study, we aimed to compare the differences in liver uptake and retention of the 99mTc-3PRGD2 between normal liver and injured liver to evaluate the feasibility of 99mTc-3PRGD2 scintigraphy for this purpose. Methods: We used planar scintigraphy to assess changes in integrin αvβ3 binding of intravenously-administered 99mTc-3PRGD2 in the livers of rats with thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis compared with the controls. We co-injected cold c(RGDyK) with 99mTc-3PRGD2 to assess the specific binding of the radiotracer. We performed Sirius red staining to assess liver fibrosis, immunofluorescent colocalization to identify the location of integrin αvβ3 expressed in the fibrotic liver, and we measured protein and messenger RNA expression of integrin αvβ3 and alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in the control and fibrotic livers. Results: The fibrotic livers showed enhanced 99mTc-3PRGD2 uptake and retention. The radiotracer was demonstrated to bind specifically with the integrin αvβ3 mainly expressed on the aHSCs. The liver-to-heart ratio at 30 min post-injection was higher in the fibrotic livers than in the control livers (TAA, 1.98 ± 0.08 vs. control, 1.50 ± 0.12, p < 0.01). The liver t1/2 was longer than in the controls (TAA, 27.07 ± 10.69 min vs. control, 12.67 ± 4.10 min, p < 0.01). The difference of heart t1/2 between the two groups was not statistically significant (TAA, 3.13 ± 0.63 min vs. control, 3.41 ± 0.77 min, p = 0.94). Conclusions: 99mTc-3PRGD2 molecular

  1. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  2. Study on improvement of detectability of abnormal wall motion of the left ventricle by factor analysis of the gated blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author developed a new zooming method for rectangular left ventricular region of interest (LVROI) in which the left ventricle (LV) was selected and set at the left edge of the rectangular ROI, allowing image magnification in factor analysis of gated blood pool study. When factor analysis of gated blood pool study was performed using the rectangular LVROI method in 10 normal subjects, three factors were extracted, such as an atrial factor, LV factor, and factor with slight hypokinetic time activity curve at the base of LV. In 18 patients with angina pectoris, the detectability of left ventricular wall motion abnormality (LVWMA) was 83 % with the rectangular LVROI method as compared with 50 % with the whole heart LVROI method and 64 % with regional ejection fraction imaging. For 14 patients with angiographically proven significant stenosis, the detectability of LVWMA was significantly higher with the rectangular LVROI (86 %) than two other methods (40 % and 64 %). Factor analysis was of limited value in detecting LVWMA in cases of diffuse hypokinesis demonstrated by echocardiography and regional ejection fraction imaging. In the factor analysis of gated blood pool study, the rectangular IVROI was found useful for the detection of LVWMA in ischemic heart disease. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. A smart core-sheath nanofiber that captures and releases red blood cells from the blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Q.; Hou, J.; Zhao, C.; Xin, Z.; Jin, J.; Li, C.; Wong, S.-C.; Yin, J.

    2016-01-01

    A smart core-sheath nanofiber for non-adherent cell capture and release is demonstrated. The nanofibers are fabricated by single-spinneret electrospinning of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), polycaprolactone (PCL) and nattokinase (NK) solution blends. The self-assembly of PNIPAAm and PCL blends during the electrospinning generates the core-sheath PCL/PNIPAAm nanofibers with PNIPAAm as the sheath. The PNIPAAm-based core-sheath nanofibers are switchable between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity with temperature change and enhance stability in the blood. When the nanofibers come in contact with blood, the NK is released from the nanofibers to resist platelet adhesion on the nanofiber surface, facilitating the direct capture and isolation of red blood cells (RBCs) from the blood above phase-transition temperature of PNIPAAm. Meanwhile, the captured RBCs are readily released from the nanofibers with temperature stimuli in an undamaged manner. The release efficiency of up to 100% is obtained while maintaining cellular integrity and function. This work presents promising nanofibers to effectively capture non-adherent cells and release for subsequent molecular analysis and diagnosis of single cells.A smart core-sheath nanofiber for non-adherent cell capture and release is demonstrated. The nanofibers are fabricated by single-spinneret electrospinning of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm), polycaprolactone (PCL) and nattokinase (NK) solution blends. The self-assembly of PNIPAAm and PCL blends during the electrospinning generates the core-sheath PCL/PNIPAAm nanofibers with PNIPAAm as the sheath. The PNIPAAm-based core-sheath nanofibers are switchable between hydrophobicity and hydrophilicity with temperature change and enhance stability in the blood. When the nanofibers come in contact with blood, the NK is released from the nanofibers to resist platelet adhesion on the nanofiber surface, facilitating the direct capture and isolation of red blood cells (RBCs) from

  4. Sex hormone drives blood stem cell reproduction

    OpenAIRE

    Calvanese, Vincenzo; Lee, Lydia K.; Mikkola, Hanna K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells ensure the maintenance of tissue homeostasis throughout life by tightly regulating their self-renewal and differentiation. In a recent study published in Nature, Nakada et al, 2014 unveil an unexpected endocrine mechanism that regulates hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal.

  5. Gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis deals with the clinical applications of gated equilibrium bloodpool scintigraphy, performed with either a gamma camera or a portable detector system, the nuclear stethoscope. The main goal has been to define the value and limitations of noninvasive measurements of left ventricular ejection fraction as a parameter of cardiac performance in various disease states, both for diagnostic purposes as well as during follow-up after medical or surgical intervention. Secondly, it was attempted to extend the use of the equilibrium bloodpool techniques beyond the calculation of ejection fraction alone by considering the feasibility to determine ventricular volumes and by including the possibility of quantifying valvular regurgitation. In both cases, it has been tried to broaden the perspective of the observations by comparing them with results of other, invasive and non-invasive, procedures, in particular cardiac catheterization, M-mode echocardiography and myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. (Auth.)

  6. Spatial distributions of red blood cells significantly alter local haemodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Sherwood

    Full Text Available Although bulk changes in red blood cell concentration between vessels have been well characterised, local distributions are generally overlooked. Red blood cells aggregate, deform and migrate within vessels, forming heterogeneous distributions which have considerable effect on local haemodynamics. The present study reports data on the local distribution of human red blood cells in a sequentially bifurcating microchannel, representing the branching geometry of the microvasculature. Imaging methodologies with simple extrapolations are used to infer three dimensional, time-averaged velocity and haematocrit distributions under a range of flow conditions. Strong correlation between the bluntness of the velocity and haematocrit profiles in the parent branch of the geometry is observed and red blood cell aggregation has a notable effect on the observed trends. The two branches of the first bifurcation show similar characteristics in terms of the shapes of the profiles and the extent of plasma skimming, despite the difference in geometric configuration. In the second bifurcation, considerable asymmetry between the branches in the plasma skimming relationship is observed, and elucidated by considering individual haematocrit profiles. The results of the study highlight the importance of considering local haematocrit distributions in the analysis of blood flow and could lead to more accurate computational models of blood flow in microvascular networks. The experimental approaches developed in this work provide a foundation for further examining the characteristics of microhaemodynamics.

  7. Hyaluronic Acid-Human Blood Hydrogels for Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Connie Y. Chang; Chan, Angel; Armstrong, Patrick; Luo, Hong-Chang; Higuchi, Takahiro; Strehin, Iossif; Vakrou, Styliani; Lin, Xiaoping; Brown, Sophia; O’Rourke, Brian; Abraham, Theodore P.; Wahl, Richard; Steenbergen, Charles; ELISSEEFF, JENNIFER; Abraham, M. Roselle

    2012-01-01

    Tissue engineering-based approaches have the potential to improve stem cell engraftment by increasing cell delivery to the myocardium. Our objective was to develop and characterize a naturally-derived, autologous, biodegradable hydrogel in order to improve acute stem cell retention in the myocardium. HA-blood hydrogels(HA-Bl) were synthesized by mixing in a 1:1(v/v) ratio, lysed whole blood and hyaluronic acid(HA), whose carboxyl groups were functionalized with N-hydroxysuccinimide(NHS) to yi...

  8. Contemporary adrenal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-resolution computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have replaced scintigraphy as primary imaging modalities for the evaluation of adrenal diseases. Thin-slice CT, CT contrast washout studies and MR pulse sequences specifically designed to identify adrenal lipid content have radically changed the approach to anatomic imaging and provide unique insight into the physical characteristics of the adrenals. With a confirmed biochemical diagnosis, further evaluation is often unnecessary, especially in diagnostic localization of diseases of the adrenal cortex. However, despite the exquisite detail afforded by anatomy-based imaging, there are not infrequently clinical situations in which the functional insight provided by scintigraphy is crucial to identify adrenal dysfunction and to assist in localization of adrenocortical and adrenomedullary disease. The introduction of hybrid PET/CT and SPECT/CT, modalities that directly integrate anatomic and functional information, redefine the radiotracer principle in the larger context of high-resolution anatomic imaging. Instead of becoming obsolete, scintigraphy is an element of a device that combines it with CT or MR to allow a direct correlation between function and anatomy, whereby the combination creates a more powerful diagnostic tool than the separate component modalities. (orig.)

  9. Selective coronary scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic techniques occupy a leading place amongst examinations practicable on coronary patients because of their reliability and the safety and simplicity of their use. The present work reviews the possible applications of selective coronary scintigraphy in pathology. After a brief discussion on scintigraphy, isotopic techniques for myocardium research, coronarography and other methods to study local myocardium perfusion the theoretical bases for the use of the exploration are studied, the techniques and methods employed are reported and the results discussed. Coronary scintigraphy consists of selective injection in the two coronary arteries previously catheterized during a coronarography, of two different populations of microspheres labelled with two physically short-lived indicators: 15μ 99m Tc-labelled serumalbumin microspheres, 10 to 15μ In-labelled siderophiline microspheres. Various studies have shown the complete harmlessness of the exploration when certain precautions are taken regarding the size and number of the spheres. The microspheres disperse into the downstream arterial territory proportionally to the number of capillaries present in the different parts of the irrigated region, and are temporarily stopped in the precapillaries. The preparation of the different images needed to interpret the Face and OAG examination for the left coronary, then for the right coronary, is carried out at the end of the coronarography and lasts about 45 minutes. It is also possible by selective injection in the aorta-coronary bridges to judge their functional condition by observation of the regions they irrigate. 56 patients of the Necker hospital cardiological clinic have been examined

  10. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, K.; Thiers, G.; Eissner, D.; Holzmann, H.

    1980-08-01

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones.

  11. Bone scintigraphy in psoriasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 1973 bone scintigraphy using sup(99m)Tc-phosphate-complexes was carried out in 382 patients with psoriasis. For comparison with the results of nuclear medicine, roentgenologic and clinical findings a group af 121 patients with psoriasis aged between 11 and 74 years was compared to a group of 42 patients aged between 20 and 49 years without roentgenologic and clinical signs of psoriasis arthritis. We found by means of isotope investigation that an essentially greater part of the bones adjacent to the joints was involved than was expected according to X-ray and clinical findings. In addition, in 205 patients with psoriasis whole-body scintigraphy, using sup(99m)Tc-MDP, was carried out since 1977/78. In 17 patients we found an increased accumulation of activity in the region of extraarticular structures of the skull as well as of the skeletal thorax. According to these results we conclude that in addition to the clinically and roentgenologically defined psoriatic arthritis in patients with psoriasis an osteopathy may exist, which can only be demonstrated by skeletal scintigraphy and which is localized in bones adjacent to the joints but can also be demonstrated in the region of extraarticular bones. (orig.)

  12. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-Chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-10-01

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood—without reagents, electricity, or instruments—is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 102/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries.

  13. Somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy. Methods, indications, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatostatin-receptor scintigraphy has been in clinical use for several years. Most of the experience with somatostatin tumor scintigraphy has been obtained with gastro-enteropathic (GEP) tumors and carcinoids. Clinical applications of somatostatin imaging have been reported in small-cell lung carcinomas, malignant lymphomas, renal-cell carcinomas, breast cancers and medullary thyroid cancers. Somatostatin analogues were initially applicable in larger medical institutions because of the necessity for radioactive labeling with iodine (octreotide to [123I-Tyr3]-octreotide); however, the clinical results with iodinated analogues were worse than the relatively new analogue [111In-DTPA-D-Phe1]ocetreotide, now available as OctresocanR. This review describes the current status of the clinical application of somatostatin receptor imaging, together with our own experimence in carcinoids, GEP tumors and medullary thyroid carcinomas. (orig.)

  14. A role for activated endothelial cells in red blood cell clearance: implications for vasopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fens, Marcel H A M; van Wijk, Richard; Andringa, Grietje;

    2012-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylserine exposure by red blood cells is acknowledged as a signal that initiates phagocytic removal of the cells from the circulation. Several disorders and conditions are known to induce phosphatidylserine exposure. Removal of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells gener...

  15. Scintigraphy and venous sampling in endocrine adrenal diseases. Clinical results in 85 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained by adrenal scanning and venous sampling in 85 patients affected by various forms of adrenal pathology are reported and discussed. Pheochromocytoma rarely needs venous catheterization and blood sampling, since arteriography is almost always capable to visualize it. Scintigraphy alone is generally accurate enough to distinguish between bilateral hyperplasia and tumors in Cushing's and adrenogenital syndromes (100% of personal observations); only a tumoral situation benefits by venous catheterization. Blood samples and venography must be preceded by scintigraphy in Conn's syndrome

  16. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells ... use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are interested in ...

  17. Transfusion management of patients with red blood cell antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bujandrić Nevenka B.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Red blood cell antibodies may cause a positive result of pre-transfusion blood compatibility testing (crossmatch test. It can be a problem to provide suitable blood units for patients with clinically significant antibodies to high-frequency antigens as well as for those with multiple alloantibody specificities. This study was aimed at identifying transfused patients in the population of South-Backa who had developed clinically significant red blood cell alloantibodies. Material and methods. We analyzed the records of crossmatch results and antibody screening performed at the Blood Transfusion Institute of Vojvodina during 2012. Results. Antibodies were found in 103 patients: A 63 patients with single antibodies: 1 16 with antibodies of unknown specificity (3 autoantibodies, 13 alloantibodies; 2 39 with clinically significant antibodies (23 from Rh system (2 anti-C, 2 anti-D, 12 anti-E, 7 anti-c, 4 anti-K, 3 anti-Fya, 7 anti-Jka, 2 anti-S; 3 8 with usually not significant antibodies (6 anti-M, 1 anti-A1, 1 anti- Cw; B 40 patients developed multiple antibodies: 1 all patients had at least one clinically significant antibody from various blood group system (44 Rh, 13 Kell, 7 Kidd, 7 MNSs (S, s; 2 3 patients had usually not significant antibodies (1 Lewis, 2 Lutheran; 3 3 patients occasionally had clinically significant antibody (3 anti- Yta; 4 3 patients had antibodies of unknown specificity (2 autoantibodies, 1alloantibody. Antibodies detected in the majority of patients (65-63.1% had a specificity of Rh and/or the Kell system. Conclusions. The main goal of pre-transfusion blood compatibility testing is to detect clinically significant antibodies. The provision of antigen negative blood units for those patients is a special challenge for blood establishments. Database with a sufficient number of typed blood donors can help to resolve this problem.

  18. Filtration parameters influencing circulating tumor cell enrichment from whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank A W Coumans

    Full Text Available Filtration can achieve circulating tumor cell (CTC enrichment from blood. Key parameters such as flow-rate, applied pressure, and fixation, vary largely between assays and their influence is not well understood. Here, we used a filtration system, to monitor these parameters and determine their relationships. Whole blood, or its components, with and without spiked tumor cells were filtered through track-etched filters. We characterize cells passing through filter pores by their apparent viscosity; the viscosity of a fluid that would pass with the same flow. We measured a ratio of 5·10(4∶10(2∶1 for the apparent viscosities of 15 µm diameter MDA-231 cells, 10 µm white cells and 90 fl red cells passing through a 5 µm pore. Fixation increases the pressure needed to pass cells through 8 µm pores 25-fold and halves the recovery of spiked tumor cells. Filtration should be performed on unfixed samples at a pressure of ∼10 mbar for a 1 cm(2 track-etched filter with 5 µm pores. At this pressure MDA-231 cells move through the filter in 1 hour. If fixation is needed for sample preservation, a gentle fixative should be selected. The difference in apparent viscosity between CTC and blood cells is key in optimizing recovery of CTC.

  19. CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Pafumi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relation between umbilical cord clamping time and two different enrichment system of CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood with the proliferative ability and bone marrow reconstitution of the stem cells obtained. After an obstetrician performed the cord blood collection, the purification of stem cells was performed either with a combination of monoclonal antibodies (negative selections using the Stem Sep method, or with a positive cells selection based on their surface CD34 antigens using the Mini Macs system. An excellent recovery of haematopoietic progenitors [Burst Forming Unit Erythroids (BFUE; Colony Forming Unit Granulocytes and Macrophages (CFU-GM; and Colony Forming Unit Granulocytes, Erythroids, Monocytes and Macrophages (CFU-GME], inversely related to the increase in clamping time, was performed with the Mini Macs system (54% of colonies, with 90% purity. With Stem Sep method, haematopoietic progenitor’s recovery was 35% (with 80% purity. By applying early clamping of umbilical cord blood we obtained a greater number of CD34+ cells and their clonogenic activity was increased with enrichment. This is a useful technique considering that the number of CD34+ stem cells usually contained from a unit of placental blood is enough for the transplant to a child, but not for an adult. Thus, using these methods, we can get a larger number of CD34+ stem cells which reduces the risk of Graft versus Host Disease also in adult patients, producing survival rates similar to those obtained with transplantation of bone marrow from unrelated donors.

  20. CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfio D’Agati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe the relation between umbilical cord clamping time and two different enrichment system of CD34+ stem cells from umbilical cord blood with the proliferative ability and bone marrow reconstitution of the stem cells obtained. After an obstetrician performed the cord blood collection, the purification of stem cells was performed either with a combination of monoclonal antibodies (negative selections using the Stem Sep method, or with a positive cells selection based on their surface CD34 antigens using the Mini Macs system. An excellent recovery of haematopoietic progenitors [Burst Forming Unit Erythroids (BFUE; Colony Forming Unit Granulocytes and Macrophages (CFU-GM; and Colony Forming Unit Granulocytes, Erythroids, Monocytes and Macrophages (CFU-GME], inversely related to the increase in clamping time, was performed with the Mini Macs system (54% of colonies, with 90% purity. With Stem Sep method, haematopoietic progenitor’s recovery was 35% (with 80% purity. By applying early clamping of umbilical cord blood we obtained a greater number of CD34+ cells and their clonogenic activity was increased with enrichment. This is a useful technique considering that the number of CD34+ stem cells usually contained from a unit of placental blood is enough for the transplant to a child, but not for an adult. Thus, using these methods, we can get a larger number of CD34+ stem cells which reduces the risk of Graft versus Host Disease also in adult patients, producing survival rates similar to those obtained with transplantation of bone marrow from unrelated donors.

  1. Peripheral blood derived cells and angiogenesis in cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Post, S

    2009-01-01

    Patients suffering from myocardial infarction (MI), atherosclerosis and Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia type 1 (HHT-1) all have diseased and dysfunctional blood vessels. Cardiovascular repair in these diseases occurs not only locally, but also peripheral blood (progenitor) cells and cytokines/growth factors positively contribute to repair of malfunctioning tissue. In this thesis several aspects of cardiovascular repair have been explored. First, we show that in MI patients relatively la...

  2. In-vitro red blood cell partitioning of doxycycline

    OpenAIRE

    Deshmukh, P.V.; Badgujar, P.C.; Gatne, M. M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In-vitro red blood cell (RBC) partitioning of doxycycline was studied to determine whether doxycycline penetrates RBC and its concentration was assayed keeping in view its high lipophilicity. Materials and Methods: Standardization of doxycycline was performed in whole blood and plasma of cattle by microbiological assay using Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633 as indicator organizm. Actual concentration of the drug was obtained by comparing zone inhibition with standard graph and the exte...

  3. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping;

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating this...... alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase family reveals an unusual catalytic mechanism involving NAD+. The enzymatic conversion processes we describe hold promise for achieving the goal of producing universal RBCs, which would improve the blood supply while enhancing the safety of clinical transfusions....

  4. SMIM1 underlies the Vel blood group and influences red blood cell traits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cvejic, Ana; Haer-Wigman, Lonneke; Stephens, Jonathan C;

    2013-01-01

    The blood group Vel was discovered 60 years ago, but the underlying gene is unknown. Individuals negative for the Vel antigen are rare and are required for the safe transfusion of patients with antibodies to Vel. To identify the responsible gene, we sequenced the exomes of five individuals negative...... and expression of the Vel antigen on SMIM1-transfected cells confirm SMIM1 as the gene underlying the Vel blood group. An expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL), the common SNP rs1175550 contributes to variable expression of the Vel antigen (P = 0.003) and influences the mean hemoglobin concentration of red...... blood cells (RBCs; P = 8.6 × 10(-15)). In vivo, zebrafish with smim1 knockdown showed a mild reduction in the number of RBCs, identifying SMIM1 as a new regulator of RBC formation. Our findings are of immediate relevance, as the homozygous presence of the deletion allows the unequivocal identification...

  5. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila; Mir, Kalim U.; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Bilenberg, Brian; Bodmer, Walter; Kristensen, Anders; Marie, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients...... challenged by the size overlap between cancer cells and the 106 times more abundant WBCs. The size overlap prevents high efficiency separation, however we demonstrate that cell deformability can be exploited in PFF devices to gain higher efficiencies than expected from the size distribution of the cells....... and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood, but they are important for the understanding of metastasis. There is therefore a high interest in developing a method for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples, which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. The separation is...

  6. Aggregation of Red Blood Cells: From Rouleaux to Clot Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, C.; Steffen, P.; Svetina, S

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux. This aggregation process is believed to be reversible, but there is still no full understanding on the binding mechanism. There are at least two competing models, based either on bridging or on depletion. We review recent experimental results on the single cell level and theoretical analyses of the depletion model and of the influence of the cell shape on the binding strength. Another important aggregation mechanism is caus...

  7. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Jaebum; Ou, Xiaoze; Kulkarni, Rajan P.; Yang, Changhuei

    2015-01-01

    White blood cell (WBC) count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a convention...

  8. Depletion induced clustering of red blood cells in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christian; Brust, Mathias; Podgorski, Thomas; Coupier, Gwennou

    2012-11-01

    The flow properties of blood are determined by the physical properties of its main constituents, the red blood cells (RBC's). At low shear rates RBC's form aggregates, so called rouleaux. Higher shear rates can break them up and the viscosity of blood shows a shear thinning behavior. The physical origin of the rouleaux formation is not yet fully resolved and there are two competing models available. One predicts that the adhesion is induced by bridging of the plasma (macromolecular) proteins in-between two RBC's. The other is based on the depletion effect and thus predicts the absence of macromolecules in-between the cells of a rouleaux. Recent single cell force measurements by use of an AFM support strongly the depletion model. By varying the concentration of Dextran at different molecular weights we can control the adhesions strength. Measurements at low hematocrit in a microfluidic channel show that the number of size of clusters is determined by the depletion induced adhesion strength.

  9. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Patient-Centered Approach - Duration: 4:12. NCIcancertopics 3,087 views 4:12 The Truth About Cord ... 19 Stem cell donation: Step by step - Duration: 3:35. hemaquebec1998 1,127 views 3:35 Two ...

  10. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 13:41. BOOKparty! 1,367 views 13:41 Bone marrow transplantation, donation procedure (HD, ENG subtitles) - Duration: 8:21. Marcin Ostajewski 155,257 views 8:21 Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer - Duration: 11:58. ... Bone Marrow/Stem Cell Transplant - Duration: 7:24. tannermom80 99,818 views 7: ...

  11. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... 41. Annabelle Monks 3,487 views 4:41 Science Friction: Stem Cell Research - Duration: 54:44. Irishstemcell ...

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show ... views 4:25 Susan Solomon: The promise of research with stem cells - Duration: 14:59. TED 55, ...

  13. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to report the video? Sign in to report inappropriate content. Sign in Transcript 6,983 views ... Stem Cell Therapy Injections - Duration: 6:18. Caring Medical Regenerative Medicine Clinics 234,106 views 6:18 ...

  14. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... views 4:25 Susan Solomon: The promise of research with stem cells - Duration: 14:59. TED 54, ... 1:04 Pain Control: Support for People with Cancer - Duration: 11:58. NCIcancertopics 1,987 views 11: ...

  15. Contribution of the single photon emission computed tomography with 99mTc red blood cells in splenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Mu and ntilde;oz-Bellvis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The term splenosis refers to the presence of auto-transplanted splenic tissue in a heterotopic location. These foci can be localized to the liver simulating a malignant lesion. Sometimes these lesions are difficult to identify using conventional imaging techniques (ultrasound, CT and MR. Then, a scan with denatured erythrocytes marked with 99mTc has proven to be an effective technique to confirm the diagnosis of splenosis and to establish its extension. The incorporation of hybrid imaging techniques (SPECT-CT into usual clinical practice has increased the precision of the localization of these foci of splenosis. We hereby report the cases of two patients diagnosed with splenosis, the first by laparotomy and the second after performing scintigraphy with red blood cells labeled with 99mTc. In the first case, the laparotomy revealed numerous reticulated nodules on the diaphragmatic peritoneal surface, the transverse colon and the right kidney. Finally, the anatomopathological diagnosis confirmed a case of splenosis. In the second case, the results of the 99mTc marked red blood cell gammagraphy and SPECT-CT were consistent with the diagnosis of splenosis in the patient. To obtain correct information in cases of lesions highly suspicious of splenosis, 99mTc marked red blood cell gammagraphy should be performed due to the high sensitivity and specificity of the test. Combined diagnostic imaging (SPECT-CT, have increased the specificity of this test due to improvements in the characterization of lesions. We believe that the use of this technique will help avoid unnecessary surgical procedures. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(6.000: 2464-2467

  16. Red blood cell-derived microparticles: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, Maxwell; Porter, John B

    2016-07-01

    The red blood cell (RBC) is historically the original parent cell of microparticles (MPs). In this overview, we describe the discovery and the early history of red cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) and present an overview of the evolution of RMP. We report the formation, characteristics, effects of RMP and factors which may affect RMP evaluation. The review examines RMP derived from both normal and pathologic RBC. The pathologic RBC studies include sickle cell anemia (SCA), sickle cell trait (STr), thalassemia intermedia (TI), hereditary spherocytosis (HS), hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), hereditary stomatocytosis (HSt) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD). PMID:27282583

  17. Detectability of metastatic bone tumor by Ga-67 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Uchiyama, Guio; Araki, Tsutomu; Hihara, Toshihiko; Ogata, Hitoshi; Monzawa, Shuichi; Kachi, Kenji; Matsusako, Masaki

    1989-03-01

    Ga-67 scintigrams in patients with malignant diseases sometimes reveal uptake of the tracer in the bone metastases. Detectability of Ga-67 scintigraphy for metastatic bone tumors and benign bone lesions was compared with that of Tc-99m bone scintigraphy. Countable bone metastases detected by bone scintigraphy were evaluated whether the lesion showed apparent, faint, or negative Ga-67 uptake. Of 47 lesions 23 (49%) showed apparent uptake and 17 (36%) showed negative uptake, only 7 (10%) mostly fracture/osteotomy, showed apparent uptake of the tracer. Uptake in the other benign lesions such as trauma of the ribs, spondylosis deformans, and arthrosis deformans was rather faint. In patients with multiple bone metastases, 9 patients (82%) out of 11 showed more prominent abnormal findings in Tc-99m MDP bone scintigraphy than in Ga-67 scintigraphy; that is, Ga-67 scintigraphy was not able to reveal all metastatic bone lesions. In patients with untreated or recurrent tumors, relation between Ga-67 uptake in the tumors and that in the bone metastases was evaluated. Of 7 patients with negative Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases; that is, there seemed to be little relation between Ga-67 affinity to the primary tumors and that to the bone metastases. Mechanisms of the Ga-67 uptake in the bone metastases were discussed. Not only the tumor cells or tissues in the bone metastases but also bone mineral or osteoclasts might be the deposition sites of Ga-67.

  18. Nanoparticle encapsulation in red blood cells enables blood-pool magnetic particle imaging hours after injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging approach that is based on the nonlinear magnetization response of super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) injected into the blood stream. To date, real-time MPI of the bolus passage of an approved MRI SPIO contrast agent injected into the tail vein of living mice has been demonstrated. However, nanoparticles are rapidly removed from the blood stream by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Therefore, imaging applications for long-term monitoring require the repeated administration of bolus injections, which complicates quantitative comparisons due to the temporal variations in concentration. Encapsulation of SPIOs into red blood cells (RBCs) has been suggested to increase the blood circulation time of nanoparticles. This work presents first evidence that SPIO-loaded RBCs can be imaged in the blood pool of mice several hours after injection using MPI. This finding is supported by magnetic particle spectroscopy performed to quantify the iron concentration in blood samples extracted from the mice 3 and 24 h after injection of SPIO-loaded RBCs. Based on these results, new MPI applications can be envisioned, such as permanent 3D real-time visualization of the vessel tree during interventional procedures, bleeding monitoring after stroke, or long-term monitoring and treatment control of cardiovascular diseases. (paper)

  19. CD163 positive subsets of blood dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh; Møller, Bjarne Kuno

    CD163 and CD91 are scavenging receptors with highly increased expression during the differentiation of monocytes into the anti-inflammatory macrophage phenotype. In addition, CD91 is expressed in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MoDCs), where the receptor is suggested to be important for...... internalization of CD91-targeted antigens to be presented on the dendritic cell surface for T-cell stimulation. Despite their overlap in functionality, the expression of CD91 and CD163 has never been compared and the expression of CD163 in the monocyte-dendritic cell lineage is not yet characterized. CD163...... expression in dendritic cells (DCs) was investigated using multicolor flow cytometry in peripheral blood from 31 healthy donors and 15 HIV-1 patients in addition to umbilical cord blood from 5 newborn infants. Total RNA was isolated from MACS purified DCs and CD163 mRNA was determined with real-time reverse...

  20. State of the science of blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood cell labeling can be considered a science in as far as it is based on precise knowledge and can be readily reproduced. This benchmark criterion is applied to all current cell labeling modalities and their relative merits and deficiencies are discussed. Mechanisms are given where they are known as well as labeling yields, label stability, and cell functionality. The focus is on the methodology and its suitability to the clinical setting rather than on clinical applications per se. Clinical results are cited only as proof of efficacy of the various methods. The emphasis is on technetium as the cell label, although comparisons are made between technetium and indium, and all blood cells are covered. 52 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Labelling of red blood cells with 99m pertechnetate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method for labelling red blood cells with 99mTc in vitro, using electrolytically generated stannous ions as the reducing agent for 99mTc-pertechnetate. A labelling of 95% was found. A method for the in vivo labelling of red blood cells is also reported. This involves an injection of a stanno-DTPA-complex followed 20 minutes later by a 99mTc-pertechnetate solution scintillation camera images show more background activity when the in vivo method of labelling is used

  2. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Zhu, Jingde; Tian, Geng;

    2010-01-01

    DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome) analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per...... strand), we report a comprehensive (92.62%) methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found...

  3. Detection of hepatitis B virus DNA in mononuclear blood cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Pontisso, P; Poon, M C; Tiollais, P.; Brechot, C

    1984-01-01

    The Southern transfer hybridisation technique was used to test mononuclear blood cells for hepatitis B virus DNA. Viral DNA sequences were detected in mononuclear cells of 10 out of 16 patients with hepatitis B virus infection and in none of 21 normal controls. Blood contamination was excluded by the absence of hepatitis B virus DNA in the corresponding serum samples in all cases. Free monomeric hepatitis B virus DNA was found in three patients positive for hepatitis Be antigen (HBeAg) and on...

  4. Blood cells and endothelial barrier function

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Stephen F.; Granger, D Neil

    2015-01-01

    The barrier properties of endothelial cells are critical for the maintenance of water and protein balance between the intravascular and extravascular compartments. An impairment of endothelial barrier function has been implicated in the genesis and/or progression of a variety of pathological conditions, including pulmonary edema, ischemic stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, angioedema, sepsis and cancer. The altered barrier function in these conditions is often linked to the release of solub...

  5. Nanostructured Substrates for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Over the past decade, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become an emerging ``biomarker'' for detecting early-stage cancer metastasis, predicting patient prognosis, as well as monitoring disease progression and therapeutic outcomes. However, isolation of CTCs has been technically challenging due to the extremely low abundance (a few to hundreds per ml) of CTCs among a high number of hematologic cells (109 per mL) in the blood. Our joint research team at UCLA has developed a new cell capture technology for quantification of CTCs in whole blood samples. Similar to most of the existing approaches, epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody (anti-EpCAM) was grafted onto the surfaces to distinguish CTCs from the surrounding hematologic cells. The uniqueness of our technology is the use of nanostructured surfaces, which facilitates local topographical interactions between CTCs and substrates at the very first cell/substrate contacting time point. We demonstrated the ability of these nanostructured substrates to capture CTCs in whole blood samples with significantly improved efficiency and selectivity. The successful demonstration of this cell capture technology using brain, breast and prostate cancer cell lines encouraged us to test this approach in clinical setting. We have been able to bond our first validation study with a commercialized technology based on the use of immunomagnetic nanoparticles. A group of clinically well-characterized prostate cancer patients at UCLA hospital have been recruited and tested in parallel by these two technologies.

  6. Abdominal aortic aneurysm demonstrated on renal scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phisitkul, Sorot; Brian, Susan; Rakvit, Ariwan; Jenkins, Leigh A; Bohannon, W Todd; Harris, Jennifer; Tsikouris, James; Silva, Michael B; Meyerrose, Gary E

    2003-08-01

    A 74-year-old hypertensive woman presented with abdominal discomfort and a pulsatile abdominal mass. Anterior abdominal angiography during cardiac blood pool, and renal scintigraphic imaging demonstrated a large abdominal aortic aneurysm. 1, 2 Before endovascular repair with an aortoiliac endograft, the abdominal aneurysm measured 7.5 x 7.0 cm on abdominal computed tomography. This study demonstrates that a suspected abdominal aortic aneurysm can be confirmed using the addition of anterior abdominal imaging with normal posterior imaging at the time of renal scintigraphy. PMID:12897671

  7. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-01-01

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals. PMID:27050968

  8. Thrombin regulates the function of human blood dendritic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrombin is the key enzyme in the coagulation cascade and activates endothelial cells, neutrophils and monocytes via protease-activated receptors (PARs). At the inflammatory site, immune cells have an opportunity to encounter thrombin. However little is known about the effect of thrombin for dendritic cells (DC), which are efficient antigen-presenting cells and play important roles in initiating and regulating immune responses. The present study revealed that thrombin has the ability to stimulate blood DC. Plasmacytoid DC (PDC) and myeloid DC (MDC) isolated from PBMC expressed PAR-1 and released MCP-1, IL-10, and IL-12 after thrombin stimulation. Unlike blood DC, monocyte-derived DC (MoDC), differentiated in vitro did not express PAR-1 and were unresponsive to thrombin. Effects of thrombin on blood DC were significantly diminished by the addition of anti-PAR-1 Ab or hirudin, serine protease inhibitor. Moreover, thrombin induced HLA-DR and CD86 expression on DC and the thrombin-treated DC induced allogenic T cell proliferation. These findings indicate that thrombin plays a role in the regulation of blood DC functions

  9. Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    Stem Cell Transplantation; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Allogeneic Transplantation,; Genetic Diseases; Thalassemia; Pediatrics; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Combined Immune Deficiency; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Metabolic Diseases

  10. Membranotropic photobiomodulation on red blood cell deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang-Yue; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Liu, Song-Hao

    2007-05-01

    To assess modulation of laser on erythrocyte permeability and deformability via cell morphology changes, healthy human echinocytes with shrinking size and high plasmic viscosity due to cellular dehydration were treated with 1 mW, 2 mW, 3 mW, and 5 mW laser power exposure respectively. Image analyzing system on single intact erythrocyte was applied for measuring comprehensive cell morphological parameters (surface area, external membrane perimeter, circle index and elongation index) that were determined by the modulation of erythrocyte water permeability and deformability to detect relationship between erythrocyte water permeability alteration and deformability. Our preliminary experiment showed that exposure under light dose of 5 mW for 5 min could induce more active erythrocyte swelling and deformation. water channel aquaporin-1(AQP-1) was inhibited by the incubation of HgCl II in the presence and absence of 5 mW laser irradiation. The result suggested that osmotic water permeability is a primary factor in the procedure of erythrocyte deformability. In addition, no modulation of laser(5mW) on erythrocyte deformability had been found when the echinocytes were cultured with GDP-β-S (G protein inhibitor).

  11. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadel, H R

    1996-01-01

    Hepatobiliary scintigraphy using iminodiacetic (IDA) radiopharmaceuticals provides clinically useful information on the function of the biliary tract in a variety of pathological processes in children, including neonatal jaundice, gallbladder dysfunction, trauma, and liver transplantation. Phenobarbital premedication (5 mg/kg per day for a minimum of 5 days in divided doses) is used in infants who are being examined for neonatal jaundice to increase the accuracy of 99mTc-IDA scintigraphy in differentiating extrahepatic biliary atresia from neonatal hepatitis. Biliary atresia can be ruled out in an infant if a patent biliary tree is shown with passage of activity into the bowel. If no radiopharmaceutical is noted in the bowel on imaging up to 24 hours, distinction between severe hepatocellular disease and biliary atresia cannot be made. The literature reports 91% accuracy, 97% sensitivity, and 82% specificity for hepatobiliary imaging in the diagnosis of biliary atresia. The impairment of both intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary drainage is an important cause of liver disease in cystic fibrosis. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy in cystic fibrosis has shown characteristic patterns of dilatation of mainly the left hepatic duct, narrowing of the distal common bile duct, gallbladder dysfunction, and delayed bowel transit. Cholecystitis in children may be acalculous. Sensitivity and specificity for the scintigraphic diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis is reported to range from 68% to 93% and 38% to 93%, respectively. Cholescintigraphy in a suspected bile leak provides information generally not available with other techniques, except for direct cholangiography. If the amount of intraperitoneal accumulation of the tracer is greater than that entering the gastrointestinal tract, surgery is usually indicated. Hepatobiliary imaging in children who have undergone liver transplantation will assess graft vascularity, parenchymal function, biliary drainage, presence of a leak

  12. Scintigraphy usefulness in the diagnosis of visceral candidiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the features of two cases, the authors stress the usefulness of the scintigraphy as regards to the diagnosis of visceral candidial abscesses. Such fungal localisations are not unfrequent, especially in immunodeficient patients (haematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy, lupus, serious visceral illness...). The positive diagnosis is uneasy because of non-specific clinical features and frequent negative blood cultures. Splenic localisation is the most likely. Citrate Gallium scintigraphy together with splenic labelled RBC scan enables us to give a precise view of the splenic involvment and even of the abdominal extension of the fungal abscess. From the literature review and these two cases, the excellent adequacy of the scintigraphy to the follow-up of systemic candidiasis is underlined and is compared to other usual morphological studies such as US scan and CT examination. In both cases, the diagnosis is fully confirmed by mycological examination

  13. Scintigraphy usefulness in the diagnosis of visceral candidiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ythier, H.; Legghe, R.; Foucher, C.

    1987-01-01

    From the features of two cases, the authors stress the usefulness of the scintigraphy as regards to the diagnosis of visceral candidial abscesses. Such fungal localisations are not unfrequent, especially in immunodeficient patients (haematologic malignancies undergoing chemotherapy, lupus, serious visceral illness...). The positive diagnosis is uneasy because of non-specific clinical features and frequent negative blood cultures. Splenic localisation is the most likely. Citrate Gallium scintigraphy together with splenic labelled RBC scan enables us to give a precise view of the splenic involvment and even of the abdominal extension of the fungal abscess. From the literature review and these two cases, the excellent adequacy of the scintigraphy to the follow-up of systemic candidiasis is underlined and is compared to other usual morphological studies such as US scan and CT examination. In both cases, the diagnosis is fully confirmed by mycological examination.

  14. Gamma-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma-scintigraphy is a medical technique making it possible to fix the image of certain organs after the concentration in these of emitting radioactive products. It is already widely used in the case of the thyroid gland with iodine-132 by applying the isotope iodine 131. The study of the liver and gall bladder is carried out using colloidal gold 198 and Bengal pink marked with iodine 131. Serum albumin marked with iodine 131 makes it possible to study rachidian blockages. Other applications can already be foreseen in this direction. (author)

  15. Macromolecular Dynamics in Red Blood Cells Investigated Using Neutron Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stadler, Andreas Maximilian; Demmel, Franz; Artmann, Gerhard; 10.1098/rsif.2010.0306

    2011-01-01

    We present neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of hemoglobin (Hb) in human red blood cells in vivo. Global and internal Hb dynamics were measured in the ps to ns time- and {\\AA} length-scale using quasielastic neutron backscattering spectroscopy. We observed the cross-over from global Hb short-time to long-time self-diffusion. Both short- and long-time diffusion coefficients agree quantitatively with predicted values from hydrodynamic theory of non-charged hard-sphere suspensions when a bound water fraction of around 0.23g H2O/ g Hb is taken into account. The higher amount of water in the cells facilitates internal protein fluctuations in the ps time-scale when compared to fully hydrated Hb powder. Slower internal dynamics of Hb in red blood cells in the ns time-range were found to be rather similar to results obtained with fully hydrated protein powders, solutions and E. coli cells.

  16. Aggregation of Red Blood Cells: From Rouleaux to Clot Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, C; Svetina, S

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux. This aggregation process is believed to be reversible, but there is still no full understanding on the binding mechanism. There are at least two competing models, based either on bridging or on depletion. We review recent experimental results on the single cell level and theoretical analyses of the depletion model and of the influence of the cell shape on the binding strength. Another important aggregation mechanism is caused by activation of platelets. This leads to clot formation which is life saving in the case of wound healing but also a major cause of death in the case of a thrombus induced stroke. We review historical and recent results on the participation of red blood cells in clot formation.

  17. Aggregation of red blood cells: From rouleaux to clot formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christian; Steffen, Patrick; Svetina, Saša

    2013-06-01

    Red blood cells are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux. This aggregation process is believed to be reversible, but there is still no full understanding on the adhesion mechanism. There are at least two competing models, based either on bridging or on depletion. We review recent experimental results on the single cell level and theoretical analyses of the depletion model and of the influence of the cell shape on the adhesion strength. Another important aggregation mechanism is caused by activation of platelets. This leads to clot formation which is life-saving in the case of wound healing, but also a major cause of death in the case of a thrombus induced stroke. We review historical and recent results on the participation of red blood cells in clot formation.

  18. RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal V. Panchbhai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

  19. Concise review: programming human pluripotent stem cells into blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Jennifer; Fidanza, Antonella; Forrester, Lesley M

    2016-06-01

    Blood disorders are treated with cell therapies including haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation as well as platelet and red blood cell transfusions. However the source of cells is entirely dependent on donors, procedures are susceptible to transfusion-transmitted infections and serious complications can arise in recipients due to immunological incompatibility. These problems could be alleviated if it was possible to produce haematopoietic cells in vitro from an autologous and renewable cell source. The production of haematopoietic cells in the laboratory from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide a route to realize this goal but it has proven challenging to generate long-term reconstituting HSCs. To date, the optimization of differentiation protocols has mostly relied on the manipulation of extrinsic signals to mimic the in vivo environment. We review studies that have taken an alternative approach to modulate intrinsic signals by enforced expression of transcription factors. Single and combinations of multiple transcription factors have been used in a variety of contexts to enhance the production of haematopoietic cells from human pluripotent stem cells. This programming approach, together with the recent advances in the production and use of synthetic transcription factors, holds great promise for the production of fully functional HSCs in the future. PMID:26996518

  20. Mechanopathology of red blood cell diseases—Why mechanics matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    During the onset of a disease a cell may experience alterations in both the composition and organization of its cellular and molecular structures.These alterations may eventually lead to changes in its geometrical and mechanical properties such as cell size and shape,deformability and adhesion.As such,knowing how diseased cells respond to mechanical forces can reveal ways by which they differ from healthy ones.Here,we will present biomechanistic insights into red blood cell related diseases that manifest...

  1. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in advanced renal cell carcinoma. Results of a phase II-trial of somatostatine analogue therapy in patients with advanced RCC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenberg, L.S.; Goerges, R.; Stergar, H.; Bockisch, A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Gauler, T.; Bauer, S. [Dept. of Internal Medicine (Cancer Research), Univ. of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Antoch, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Univ. of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Schuette, J. [Dept. of Medical Oncology/Hematology, Marien-Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Aims: objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the role of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) in advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with respect to potential therapy with somatostatin analogue (SST-A) and to assess the response rate under therapy with SST-A. Patients, methods: 16 patients with documented progression of histologically confirmed advanced RCC were included. Planar whole-body SRS was performed 4, 24 and 48h post i.v. injection of 175-200 MBq {sup 111}In-pentetreoide. 5 and 25 h p.i. SPECT of thorax and abdomen were performed. Documentation of somatostatin receptor expression via SRS in > 50% of known tumour lesions was the criteria for treatment start with SST-A (Sandostatin LAR {sup registered} -Depot 30mg i.m. every four weeks). Results: in 9/16 of the patients SRS showed at least one metastasis with moderate (n = 5) or intense (n = 4) tracer uptake. Lesion-based SRS evaluation showed only 12.1% (20/165) of all metastases. Most false-negative lesions were located in the lungs. In too patients, the majority of the known metastases was SRS positive and these patients received SST-A therapy. The first radiographic evaluation after a two-month interval showed progressive disease in both patients. Conclusions: we conclude that SRS is of limited value in staging of advanced RCC. In our patients SST-A did not result in a growth control of RCC. Consequently, the use of SST-A in advanced RCC seems to be no relevant therapeutic option. (orig.)

  2. Multiscale modeling of red blood cell mechanics and blood flow in malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry A Fedosov

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs infected by a Plasmodium parasite in malaria may lose their membrane deformability with a relative membrane stiffening more than ten-fold in comparison with healthy RBCs leading to potential capillary occlusions. Moreover, infected RBCs are able to adhere to other healthy and parasitized cells and to the vascular endothelium resulting in a substantial disruption of normal blood circulation. In the present work, we simulate infected RBCs in malaria using a multiscale RBC model based on the dissipative particle dynamics method, coupling scales at the sub-cellular level with scales at the vessel size. Our objective is to conduct a full validation of the RBC model with a diverse set of experimental data, including temperature dependence, and to identify the limitations of this purely mechanistic model. The simulated elastic deformations of parasitized RBCs match those obtained in optical-tweezers experiments for different stages of intra-erythrocytic parasite development. The rheological properties of RBCs in malaria are compared with those obtained by optical magnetic twisting cytometry and by monitoring membrane fluctuations at room, physiological, and febrile temperatures. We also study the dynamics of infected RBCs in Poiseuille flow in comparison with healthy cells and present validated bulk viscosity predictions of malaria-infected blood for a wide range of parasitemia levels (percentage of infected RBCs with respect to the total number of cells in a unit volume.

  3. Natural Antioxidants Improve Red Blood Cell “Survival” in Non-Leukoreduced Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V Kucherenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood collected in an anticoagulant can be kept refrigerated in an unmodified state within 5 - 6 weeks. Oxidative damage is considered to be a one of the major factors contributing to the development of storage lesions. Lipid and membrane proteins oxidation results in changes in cation gradients that affect the cell survival. Aim: In the present study we used the natural antioxidants and ion channels blockers (L-carnosine, spermine, phloretin and their mixtures to prolong “survival” of red blood cells (RBCs, measured as the lack of PS exposure and cell hemolysis, in the Alsever's preservative solution upon hypothermic storage. Results: We show that the mixture of carnosine (20 mM, spermine (20 µM and phloretin (100 µM effectively blunted phosphatidylserine (PS exposure, Ca2+ accumulation and RBCs hemolysis in non-leukoreduced low (∼2% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage as well as after 1 day of post-storage incubation of the stored cells in physiological saline solution. In addition, a slight but significant decrease in PS exposure was observed in non-leukoreduced high (∼20% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage with the mixture of substances. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of the mixture of natural antioxidants (carnosine, spermine, and phloretin as an additive to blood preservative solution provides better RBCs storage and “survival”.

  4. 78 FR 23571 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises the Secretary of the... Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hemoglobinopathies. The Council will also hear presentations...

  5. The role of red blood cells in inflammation and remodeling

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Karin

    2004-01-01

    Besides being carriers of oxygen and carbon dioxide, red blood cells (RBCs) also have a scavenger function, binding inflammatory mediators to surface receptors. Animal and experimental models have suggested a role for RBCs in inflammatory and fibrotic responses and patients with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis, a disease characterized by lung hemorrhage, frequently develop fibrosis. Fibroblasts, the resident cell in the connective tissue, play an active role in tissue rem...

  6. Shear stress-induced improvement of red blood cell deformability

    OpenAIRE

    Meram, Ece; Yılmaz, Bahar D.; Bas, Ceren; Atac, Nazlı; Yalçın, Ö.; Başkurt, Oguz K.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, it is known that red blood cell (RBC) deformability is determined by the geometric and material properties of these cells. Experimental evidence accumulated during the last decade has introduced the concept of active regulation of RBC deformability. This regulation is mainly related to altered associations between membrane skeletal proteins and integral proteins, with the latter serving to anchor the skeleton to the lipid matrix. It has been hypothesized that shear stress induces...

  7. Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Jonge (Robert); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); M. Smit (Marij); M. de Frankrijker-Merkestijn; R.J. Dolhain; J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); J. Lindemans (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of automated leucocyte (white blood cell; WBC) counting by comparison with manual counting. METHODS: The number of WBC was determined in heparinized synovial fluid samples by the use of (i) a standard urine cytometer (Kova) and a

  8. Red blood cell antibodies in pregnancy and their clinical consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvall, Maria; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine;

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine clinical consequences of various specificities for the infant/fetus. The population was patients referred between 1998 and 2005 to the tertiary center because of detected red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization. Altogether 455 infants were delivered by 390 alloimmunized...

  9. Red Blood Cell Spectrin Skeleton in the Spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Breton, Catherine; Abkarian, Manouk

    2016-02-01

    Das et al. recently reported a role for the major merozoite surface protein MSP1 in malarial parasite egress from the red blood cell (RBC). On the basis of these new data and physical considerations, we propose an updated model for the main steps of this essential process for parasite proliferation. PMID:26652974

  10. Measurement of limb blood flow using technetium-labelled red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, A; Robinson, P.J.; Wiggins, P.A.; Leveson, S.H.; Salter, M.C.P.; Matthews, I.F.; Ware, F.M.

    1986-05-01

    A method for measuring blood flow below the knee during reactive hyperaemia induced by 3 min of arterial occlusion has been developed. Subjects are positioned with lower limbs within the field of view of a gamma camera and pneumatic cuffs are placed below the knees to isolate the blood and induce a hyperaemic response. The remaining blood pool is labelled with /sup 99/Tcsup(m)-labelled red cells. Blood flows have been derived from the initial gradients of time-activity curves and from equilibrium blood sampling. The technique has been validated using a tissue-equivalent leg phantom and peristaltic pump. The method has been applied to a small group of patients with peripheral vascular disease and to normal controls. The mean value (+-SD) of limb perfusion for normal controls was found to be 16.4 +- 3.0 ml/100 ml/min and for patients with intermittent claudication was 5.1 +- 2.6 ml/100 ml/min. Flow measurements are found to correlate with clinical findings and with symptoms. Reproducibility (established by repeated measurements) is high. The method is well tolerated even by patients suffering from rest pain.

  11. The measurement of limb blood flow using technetium-labelled red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for measuring blood flow below the knee during reactive hyperaemia induced by 3 min of arterial occlusion has been developed. Subjects are positioned with lower limbs within the field of view of a gamma camera and pneumatic cuffs are placed below the knees to isolate the blood and induce a hyperaemic response. The remaining blood pool is labelled with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled red cells. Blood flows have been derived from the initial gradients of time-activity curves and from equilibrium blood sampling. The technique has been validated using a tissue-equivalent leg phantom and peristaltic pump. The method has been applied to a small group of patients with peripheral vascular disease and to normal controls. The mean value (+-SD) of limb perfusion for normal controls was found to be 16.4+-3.0 ml/100 ml/min and for patients with intermittent claudication was 5.1+-2.6 ml/100 ml/min. Flow measurements are found to correlate with clinical findings and with symptoms. Reproducibility (established by repeated measurements) is high. The method is well tolerated even by patients suffering from rest pain. (author)

  12. Viscoelastic properties of whole blood. Influence of fast sedimenting red blood cell aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneditz, D; Rainer, F; Kenner, T

    1987-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is known to be of deciding influence on erythrocyte sedimentation-rate (ESR) and on whole blood viscoelastic properties. The rheological behaviour of blood collected from a control-group with normal ESR is compared to the viscoelastic behaviour of blood collected from two groups with high to very high ESR, whose individuals are suffering from chronical polyarthritis and Morbus Bechterew, respectively. The rheological properties are evaluated by means of an oscillating-flow capillary-rheometer where the viscous (eta') and elastic (eta") component of the complex viscosity (eta) is measured at a constant frequency of 2 Hz. Correcting for the varying hematocrit of the different blood samples according to an exponential equation, the viscoelastic data are found to be elevated in the groups with high ESR. For the viscous properties this is only due to the increase of the plasma viscosity. A correction for the plasma viscosity, however, shows that the viscous properties at low shear- rates (2s-1) are significantly reduced, whereas elastic properties in a range of medium shear-rates (10s-1 to 50s-1) are significantly increased (P less than 0.001, t-test of Student). This result is discussed to be due to the high packing density of the RBC in fast sedimenting aggregates. High packing density reduces the effective volume of the RBC but increases the stiffness of the aggregates. PMID:3651579

  13. The white blood cell scan in orthopedics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Propst-Proctor, S.L.; Dillingham, M.F.; McDougall, I.R.; Goodwin, D.

    1982-08-01

    A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (/sup 111/In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven /sup 111/In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon.

  14. The white blood cell scan in orthopedics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new nuclear scanning technique was found more specific for bone, joint, and soft tissue infections than any previously described scanning technique. The leukocyte scan, whereby a patient's own cells are labeled with a radioactive tagging agent (111In oxine), can distinguish an active infectious process from other pain-inducing conditions. Ninety-seven 111In labeled autologous leukocyte scans were performed in 88 patients. The findings in 17 of 40 patients scanned for possible acute osteomyelitis, six of nine for suspected septic arthritis, and six for possible soft tissue infections, were positive. Subsequent clinical courses verified the infectious nature of these processes in all patients. Patients who had chronic osteomyelitis (14), bony metastases (four patients), heterotopic ossification (three), and degenerative arthritis (two) demonstrated negative findings. Of the seven patients scanned for acute long-bone fractures, one demonstrated positive findings. Nine scans demonstrated positive findings without determined causes. The leukocyte scan is a useful addition to the diagnostic tools of the orthopedic surgeon

  15. Spleen Scintigraphy in Hodgkin's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors give the results of scintigraphic studies carried out on patients suffering from Hodgkin's disease. They first give the technical details of the study, stressing the need for rigorous procedures in corpuscle labelling and alteration, and also the importance of collimation and of scanning at different angles of incidence; they then describe the different morphological characteristics encountered in scanning; in particular, they analyse dimensional and structural attributes of the image; among the latter they distinguish homogeneous and diffuse heterogeneous structures and also heterogeneous structures with gaps. They study these characteristics in relation to the age of the disease and relate them to the clinical and paraclinical context. The changes in the scanning image during treatment are also described and the authors stress the value of the scintigraphic method for checking on the development of splenic symptoms in the course of the disease. Lastly, they discuss the data obtained from analysis of blood and spleen radiation curves and give details on the findings of spleen scintigraphy. (author)

  16. Red blood cell aggregation, aggregate strength and oxygen transport potential of blood are abnormal in both homozygous sickle cell anemia and sickle-hemoglobin C disease

    OpenAIRE

    Tripette, Julien; Alexy, Tamas; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Mougenel, Daniele; Beltan, Eric; Chalabi, Tawfik; Chout, Roger; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Hue, Olivier; Meiselman, Herbert J.; Connes, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that red cell aggregation and the ratio of hematocrit to blood viscosity, an index of the oxygen transport potential of blood, might considerably modulate blood flow dynamics in the microcirculation. The findings of this study indicate that patients with sickle cell disease and those with sickle cell hemoglobin C disease have low ratios of hematocrit to blood viscosity as compared to normal controls. This may play a role in tissue hypoxia and clinical status of these ...

  17. Measuring density and compressibility of white blood cells and prostate cancer cells by microchannel acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia; Lilja, Hans; Laurell, Thomas; Bruus, Henrik

    determine the density and compressibility of individual cells enables the prediction and alteration of the separation outcome for a given cell mixture. We apply the method on white blood cells (WBCs) and DU145 prostate cancer cells (DUCs) aiming to improve isolation of circulating tumor cells from blood, an......We present a novel method for the determination of density and compressibility of individual particles and cells undergoing microchannel acoustophoresis in an arbitrary 2D acoustic field. Our method is a critical advancement within acoustophoretic separation of biological cells, as the ability to...... emerging tool in the monitoring and characterizing of metastatic cancer....

  18. Identification of Progenitor Cell Survival in Peripheral Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The myeloid progenitors can not survive properly under the usual conditions of blood banking.The aim of work is to assay the survival of myeloid progenitors during varying periods of blood storage, under the usual condition of blood banking. It is an attempt to detect whether or not ,these circulating myeloid progenitors could be stored under the blood banking condition to be used in clinical transplantation protocols to treat a wide variety of refractory diseases.Individual blood samples from forty healthy adults were examined clinically, laboratory and ultrasonography. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated using Ficoll-Paque gradients . Serial dilutions of human placental conditioned medium were made, and tested for optimal activity by In vitro cultured technique.This study estimated that the mean levels of absolute number of myeloid progenitors per c.mm. at zero time was 137.7±68.3 (Range 54-297),at day 3 was 71.0±40.2 (Range 54-297), at day 7 was 94.8±45.7 (Range 30 -232) and at day 14 was 45.5±22.7). There was statistically significant decrease in the number of colonies from zero time to day 14. There was statistically significant decrease in the number of myeloid progenitors from zero time to day 14

  19. Studies on sequestration of neuraminidase-treated red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of reduction in the surface charge of red blood cells (RBCs) on regional blood flow and RBC distribution were studied in rats anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. RBCs were treated with neuraminidase to reduce their electrophoretic mobility by 56%. Normal and neuraminidase-treated RBCs labeled with 51Cr or 111In were injected into a femoral vein while an equal volume of blood was simultaneously withdrawn from a femoral artery. More than 70% of the neuraminidase-treated RBCs injected disappeared from the circulating blood in 30 min compared with less than 2% of normal RBCs. The relative distributions of neuraminidase-treated RBCs to normal RBCs, as determined from radioactivity counting, were significantly greater than 1 in the spleen (5.65 +/- 0.97, mean +/- SD), the liver (2.84 +/- 0.21), the lung (1.48 +/- 0.31), and the kidney (1.49 +/- 0.27), indicating a preferential trapping of neuraminidase-treated RBCs in these regions. This ratio was approximately 1 in all other organs. Regional blood flows in tissues were determined with 15-micron microspheres in the control period and after the infusion of neuraminidase-treated RBCs (experimental). Experimental-to-control blood flow ratios were 0.40 +/- 0.05 in the spleen, 0.66 +/- 0.06 in the liver, 0.78 +/- 0.03 in the lung, and 0.78 +/- 0.09 in the kidneys; this ratio was approximately 1 in all other organs. An experimental-to-control blood flow ratio less than 1 indicates a reduction in blood flow; this occurred in the same organs as those with trapping of neuraminidase-treated RBCs

  20. The Effect of Pulsatile Versus Nonpulsatile Blood Flow on Viscoelasticity and Red Blood Cell Aggregation in Extracorporeal Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Ahn, Chi Bum; Kang, Yang Jun; Kim, Myoung Gon; Yang, Sung; Lim, Choon Hak; Son, Ho Sung; Kim, Ji Sung; Lee, So Young; Son, Kuk Hui; Sun, Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Background Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) can induce alterations in blood viscoelasticity and cause red blood cell (RBC) aggregation. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of pump flow pulsatility on blood viscoelasticity and RBC aggregation. Methods Mongrel dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: a nonpulsatile pump group (n=6) or a pulsatile pump group (n=6). After ECC was started at a pump flow rate of 80 mL/kg/min, cardiac fibrillation was induced. Blood sampling was perfo...

  1. The use of a blood conservation device to reduce red blood cell transfusion requirements: a before and after study

    OpenAIRE

    Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Yip, Hwee S; Prabhuswamy, Dimple; Chan, Yiong H; Phua, Jason; Lim, Tow K; Leong, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Anaemia and the associated need for packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions are common in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Among many causes, blood losses from repeated diagnostic tests are contributory. Methods This is a before and after study in a medical ICU of a university hospital. We used a closed blood conservation device (Venous Arterial blood Management Protection, VAMP, Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) to decrease PRBC transfusion requirements...

  2. Automatic analysis of microscopic images of red blood cell aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichini, Pablo A.; Larese, Mónica G.; Riquelme, Bibiana D.

    2015-06-01

    Red blood cell aggregation is one of the most important factors in blood viscosity at stasis or at very low rates of flow. The basic structure of aggregates is a linear array of cell commonly termed as rouleaux. Enhanced or abnormal aggregation is seen in clinical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension, producing alterations in the microcirculation, some of which can be analyzed through the characterization of aggregated cells. Frequently, image processing and analysis for the characterization of RBC aggregation were done manually or semi-automatically using interactive tools. We propose a system that processes images of RBC aggregation and automatically obtains the characterization and quantification of the different types of RBC aggregates. Present technique could be interesting to perform the adaptation as a routine used in hemorheological and Clinical Biochemistry Laboratories because this automatic method is rapid, efficient and economical, and at the same time independent of the user performing the analysis (repeatability of the analysis).

  3. Hemoglobin Aggregation in Single Red Blood Cells of Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Izumi; Tanaka, Toyoichi; Sun, Shao-Tang; Imanishi, Yuri; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.

    1983-06-01

    A laser light scattering technique was used to observe the extent of hemoglobin aggregation in solitary red blood cells of sickle cell anemia. Hemoglobin aggregation was confirmed in deoxygenated cells. The light scattering technique can also be applied to cytoplasmic studies of any biological cell.

  4. Current state of the art of blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An update on some recent developments in the area of blood cell labeling is provided. Specific topics covered include red cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc, platelet labeling using an antiplatelet monoclonal antibody, and the labeling of leukocytes with /sup 99m/Tc. Mechanistic information, where available, is discussed. A critical evaluation of current techniques, their pitfalls as well as advantages, and the problems that remain to be resolved, is presented. The promise shown by recent results using the antibody approach for cell labeling is emphasized. An assessment of the progress made in these areas is presented. 38 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  5. A statistical model for red blood cell survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korell, Julia; Coulter, Carolyn V; Duffull, Stephen B

    2011-01-01

    A statistical model for the survival time of red blood cells (RBCs) with a continuous distribution of cell lifespans is presented. The underlying distribution of RBC lifespans is derived from a probability density function with a bathtub-shaped hazard curve, and accounts for death of RBCs due to senescence (age-dependent increasing hazard rate) and random destruction (constant hazard), as well as for death due to initial or delayed failures and neocytolysis (equivalent to early red cell mortality). The model yields survival times similar to those of previously published studies of RBC survival and is easily amenable to inclusion of drug effects and haemolytic disorders. PMID:20950630

  6. The role of bone scintigraphy in predicting femoral head collapse following cervical fractures in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bone scintigraphy was performed before or after osteosynthesis or both in 11 children aged 9 to 14 years with femoral neck fractures. The role of bone scintigraphy in predicting development of femoral head necrosis with subsequent collapse was studied. Scintigraphy was not a useful study of this purpose. The explanation of this may be that reposition and osteosynthesis jeopardize the blood supply to the femoral head and invalidates the findings at the pre-operative scan. The childhood femoral head also has a strong potential for revascularization and complete reconstruction of the necrotic bone. (orig.)

  7. Diagnostic value of perfusion 201Tl scintigraphy of the myocardium in assessing right ventricular hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfusion scintigraphy of the heart muscle with Tl201 was tested in the diagnosis of overloading of the right ventricle in a group of 24 patients with chronic pulmonary disease and in a group of 26 patients with mitral stenosis only. The results of scintigraphy of the heart muscle and ECG examination were compared with results of the examination of haemodynamics of the lesser circulation, blood gases and spirometric examination. The study shows that thallium scintigraphy is a fairly sensitive method for noninvasive diagnosis of pulmonary arterial hypertension. It is an auxiliary method and its validity increases when combined with other noninvasive methods. (author)

  8. Saving the leftovers: models for banking cord blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Kimberly J

    2009-01-01

    Each year there are over four million live births in the United States. Each birth produces umbilical cord blood stem cells, which are usually discarded. The author argues that rather than discarding the umbilical cord, this valuable resource of cord blood should be banked and used for research and therapeutic purposes. Umbilical cord blood could provide a solution to the critical need to find matching donors for hematopoietic transplants in patients who have no matching bone marrow donors. Creating a system of universal donation to a public bank will greatlyincrease the number of donors and therefore, the number of matches for patients. Such a system will facilitate the development and use of new technologies and transplant procedures, while providing an opportunity for treatment to individuals who would otherwise not be able to find suitable donors. PMID:20101907

  9. Image-based red cell counting for wild animals blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauricio, Claudio R M; Schneider, Fabio K; Dos Santos, Leonilda Correia

    2010-01-01

    An image-based red blood cell (RBC) automatic counting system is presented for wild animals blood analysis. Images with 2048×1536-pixel resolution acquired on an optical microscope using Neubauer chambers are used to evaluate RBC counting for three animal species (Leopardus pardalis, Cebus apella and Nasua nasua) and the error found using the proposed method is similar to that obtained for inter observer visual counting method, i.e., around 10%. Smaller errors (e.g., 3%) can be obtained in regions with less grid artifacts. These promising results allow the use of the proposed method either as a complete automatic counting tool in laboratories for wild animal's blood analysis or as a first counting stage in a semi-automatic counting tool. PMID:21096766

  10. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping; Bennett, Eric P; Pietz, Greg; Saunders, Kristen; Spence, Jean; Nudelman, Edward; Levery, Steven B; White, Thayer; Neveu, John M; Lane, William S; Bourne, Yves; Olsson, Martin L; Henrissat, Bernard; Clausen, Henrik

    2007-04-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating this technology to clinical practice has been the lack of efficient glycosidase enzymes. Here we report two bacterial glycosidase gene families that provide enzymes capable of efficient removal of A and B antigens at neutral pH with low consumption of recombinant enzymes. The crystal structure of a member of the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase family reveals an unusual catalytic mechanism involving NAD+. The enzymatic conversion processes we describe hold promise for achieving the goal of producing universal RBCs, which would improve the blood supply while enhancing the safety of clinical transfusions. PMID:17401360

  11. Mobility Enhancement of Red Blood Cells with Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Daiki; Oikawa, Noriko; Kurita, Rei

    2016-03-01

    Adhesion of red blood cells (RBC) to substrates are one of crucial problems for a blood clot. Here we investigate the mobility of RBC between two glass substrates in saline with polymer systems. We find that RBCs are adhered to the glass substrate with PEG, however the mobility steeply increases with fibrinogen and dextran, which are biopolymers. We also find that the mobility affects an aggregation dynamics of RBCs, which is related with diseases such as influenza, blood clot and so on. The Brownian motion helps to increase probability of contact with each other and to find a more stable condition of the aggregation. Thus the biopolymers play important roles not only for preventing the adhesion but also for the aggregation.

  12. Radiolabelled blood elements techniques and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years, in nuclear medicine, the diagnostic applications of radiolabelled blood elements in general, and of radiolabelled white blood cells in particular, have become increasingly popular. This is primarily due to the introduction of lipid soluble 111In-oxine as an agent, which not only is an excellent and a reliable tracer for blood cells but also enables the investigators to study the in vivo cell kinetics and map the localization of labelled cells by external gamma scintigraphy. The tracer has the modest half life of 67 hours and decays with the emission of two gamma photons (173 and 247 keV) in high abundance. This technique has provided a powerful tool to study the in vivo cell kinetics in health and localize abnormal lesions in diseases which invoke intense focal cellular concentration

  13. Red Cell Properties after Different Modes of Blood Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhro, Asya; Huisjes, Rick; Verhagen, Liesbeth P.; Mañú-Pereira, María del Mar; Llaudet-Planas, Esther; Petkova-Kirova, Polina; Wang, Jue; Eichler, Hermann; Bogdanova, Anna; van Wijk, Richard; Vives-Corrons, Joan-Lluís; Kaestner, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing, or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extent has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 h of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin, and citrate-based CPDA) for two temperatures (4°C and room temperature) were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination), red blood cell (RBC) volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations, and formation of micro vesicles), Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes, and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameters may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature). Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+) handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4°C. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, the majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using an optimized shipment protocol, the majority of parameters were stable within 24 h, a condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the patients to

  14. Blood loss estimation in Schistosoma incognitum by the use of 51Cr labelled red cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C42 Red blood cells labelled with 51Cr were used to study the pathophysiology of S. incognitum infection. Blood volume, cell volume, faecal blood excretion and the half life of the red cells were determined. It was shown that in rabbits infected with the blood fluke, there was loss of blood, which may result in the development of anaemia in the infected animals. (author)

  15. Reduction of prion infectivity in packed red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The link between a new variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and the consumption of prion contaminated cattle meat as well as recent findings showing that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion have raised public health concerns. Currently, a reliable test to identify prions in blood samples is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to remove scrapie prion protein (PrPSc) and infectivity from red blood cell (RBC) suspensions by a simple washing procedure using a cell separation and washing device. The extent of prion removal was assessed by Western blot, PMCA and infectivity bioassays. Our results revealed a substantial removal of infectious prions (≥3 logs of infectivity) by all techniques used. These data suggest that a significant amount of infectivity present in RBC preparations can be removed by a simple washing procedure. This technology may lead to increased safety of blood products and reduce the risk of further propagation of prion diseases.

  16. Blood based cell biopsy for early detection of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Cha-Mei; Adams, Daniel; Adams, Diane; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Martin, Stuart; Chumsri, Saranya; Marks, Jeffrey

    Early detection (ED) of cancer holds the promise for less aggressive treatments and better outcome. However, there are few accepted methods for ED. We report on a previously unknown blood cell found specifically in the peripheral blood of many solid tumors. They are defined as Cancer Associated Macrophage-Like cells (CAMLs) and are characterized by large size (25-300 μm) and expression of cancer markers. CAMLs were isolated on precision filters during blood filtration. We conducted prospective studies in breast cancer (BC) to ascertain CAML prevalence, specificity and sensitivity in relation to disease status at clinical presentation. We report on two related but separate studies: 1) the isolation of CAMLs from patients with known invasive BC, compared to healthy volunteers and, 2) a double blind study conducted on women undergoing core needle biopsy to evaluate suspicious breast masses. The studies show that CAMLs are found in all stages of BC and suggest that detection of CAMLs can differentiate patients with BC from those with benign breast conditions and healthy individuals. This non-invasive blood test can be potentially used for ED of BC and other malignancies after validation studies with the advantage of a minimally invasive procedure and longitudinal monitoring. This work was supported by Grants from Maryland TEDCO MTTCF, R01-CA154624 from NIH, KG100240 from Susan G. Komen Foundation, Era of Hope Scholar award from DoD (BC100675), and U01-CA084955 from NCI EDRN.

  17. Enhancement of red blood cell aggregation by plasma triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicha, I; Suzuki, Y; Tateishi, N; Maeda, N

    2001-01-01

    The effects of plasma triglycerides level on human red blood cells (RBCs) indices, hematological parameters, RBCs aggregation velocity and whole blood viscosity were studied at 2 hours after high-fat or low-fat meal. Proteins, triglycerides and cholesterol levels of plasma were analysed. The RBCs rouleaux formation rate was measured in 70% autologous plasma (with 30% phosphate-buffered saline, PBS) or 1 g/dl dextran T70 solution (with 4 g/dl bovine serum albumin) in PBS, using a low-shear rheoscope. The results were grouped according to triglycerides content in plasma. No significant difference in whole blood viscosity, hematological parameters, RBC indices, protein and cholesterol content was observed between high-fat and low-fat blood samples. There was a significant increase in rouleaux formation rate of samples with high triglyceride levels, when measured in 70% autologous plasma, but it was not significant in dextran T70 containing medium. In conclusion, the results obtained suggest that alteration of plasma lipid levels as well as possible changes in the cell membrane lipid composition lead to enhanced RBC aggregation. PMID:11564913

  18. RI scintigraphy in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    35 cases of myasthenia gravis were studied with RI scintigraphy. 67Ga-citrate was used in 34 patients and 76Se-selenomethionine in 5 patients for thymus scintigraphy. RI scintigram was negative in non-tumorous thymus, regardless of the severity of illness and it was positive in seven of nine patients with thymomas. RI accumulation in thymus was found both in benign and malignant thymomas. RI seems to accumulated in lymphocytic and mixed thymus more than epithelial type. (author)

  19. RI scintigraphy in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroda, Yoshikazu; Miyamoto, Mariko (Tokyo Metropolitan Fuchu Hospital (Japan)); Maki, Masako; Yamazaki, Toshiro

    1982-10-01

    35 cases of myasthenia gravis were studied with RI scintigraphy. /sup 67/Ga-citrate was used in 34 patients and /sup 76/Se-selenomethionine in 5 patients for thymus scintigraphy. RI scintigram was negative in non-tumorous thymus, regardless of the severity of illness and it was positive in seven of nine patients with thymomas. RI accumulation in thymus was found both in benign and malignant thymomas. RI seems to accumulated in lymphocytic and mixed thymus more than epithelial type.

  20. Correlation of subtraction parathyroid scintigraphy with weight, pathohistologic finding and oxyphil cell content of parathyroid glands in parathyroid hyperplasia

    OpenAIRE

    Dugonjić Sanja; Cerović Snežana; Janković Zoran; Ajdinović Boris

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aim. Parathyroid hyperplasia (PHP) is defined as an absolute increase in the mass of parenchymal cells of the parathyroid gland. PHP is classified as primary, secondary and tertiary. The enlargement of parathyroid glands (PG) is usually asymmetric, resulting in a “dominant“ gland. In order to confirm the diagnosis, at least two glands should be examined histologically. Subtotal parathyroidectomy, i.e. removal of the three PG and leaving a small remnant of the forth, is the tr...

  1. Liver scintigraphy in ponies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six derivatives of ethylenediamine-N,N'-bis (alpha-2-hydroxy phenyl) acetic acid labeled with /sup 99m/Tc were prepared and their imaging qualities evaluated in ponies. The 6 agents produced good scintigraphic images of certain structures of the liver in the pony. For each agent, 13 different scans were taken. Dorsal views of the left lateral, right lateral, and quadrate lobe were obtained with dorsal scans. Left lateral and left lateral oblique (45 degrees) scans provided a left lateral view of the left lobe and a medial view of the right lateral lobe. Right lateral scans revealed the right lateral and quadrate lobes. Administration of /sup 99m/Tc-labeled colloids which are commonly used in other species for liver scintigraphy resulted in extensive lung uptake in the pony

  2. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  3. Estrogen receptor scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidhauer, K; Scharl, A; Schicha, H

    1998-03-01

    Radio-labeled estrogen receptor ligands are tracers that can be used for functional receptor diagnosis. Their specificity towards receptors, together with the fact that only 50-70% of mammary carcinomas are receptor positive, renders them unsuitable for detection of primary tumors or metastases, and this means that estrogen receptor scintigraphy can be used neither for tumor screening nor for staging. However, both 18F-labeled and 123I-labeled estradiol derivatives are suitable for in vivo imaging of estrogen receptors. Their high specificity, established in animal experiments and in vitro studies has been reproduced in in vivo applications in humans. Tracers with positron radiation emitters are, however, hardly suitable for broad application owing to the short half-life of 18F, which would mean that users would need to be situated close to a cyclotron and a correspondingly equipped radiochemical laboratory. The number of available PET scanners, on the other hand, has increased over the last few years, especially in Germany, so that this, at least, does not present a limiting factor. All the same, 123I-labeled estradiol derivatives will find more widespread application, since the number of gamma-cameras incorporating modern multi-head systems is several times greater. The results of studies with 123I-E2-scintigraphy published to date are very promising, even given the initial technical problems mentioned above. As a method of examination, it could be optimised by using improved tracers with a higher tumor contrast and less disturbance from overlapping in diagnostically relevant locations, for instance, by selecting tracers with higher activities whose excretion is more renal than hepatobiliary. The use of modern multi-head camera systems can also be expected to improve the photon yield. PMID:9646642

  4. Isolation of human monoclonal antibodies from peripheral blood B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinghe; Doria-Rose, Nicole A; Longo, Nancy S; Laub, Leo; Lin, Chien-Li; Turk, Ellen; Kang, Byong H; Migueles, Stephen A; Bailer, Robert T; Mascola, John R; Connors, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Isolation of monoclonal antibodies is an important technique for understanding the specificities and characteristics of antibodies that underlie the humoral immune response to a given antigen. Here we describe a technique for isolating monoclonal antibodies from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The protocol includes strategies for the isolation of switch-memory B cells from peripheral blood, the culture of B cells, the removal of the supernatant for screening and the lysis of B cells in preparation for immunoglobulin heavy-chain and light-chain amplification and cloning. We have observed that the addition of cytokines IL-2, IL-21 and irradiated 3T3-msCD40L feeder cells can successfully stimulate switch-memory B cells to produce high concentrations of IgG in the supernatant. The supernatant may then be screened by appropriate assays for binding or for other functions. This protocol can be completed in 2 weeks. It is adaptable to use in other species and enables the efficient isolation of antibodies with a desired functional characteristic without prior knowledge of specificity. PMID:24030440

  5. New trends in parathyroid scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordano, A. [Univ. Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Ist. di Medicina Nucleare, Roma (Italy); Rubello, D.; Casara, D. [Azienda Ospedaliera di Padova, Servizio di Medicina Nucleare II, Padova (Italy)

    2001-09-01

    The paper focusses on the recent advances in parathyroid imaging in both diagnostic and surgical fields which justify the present favourable trend towards a considerable expansion of nuclear medicine applications in this area. The main methodological advances in parathyroid scintigraphy are the rebirth of the dual-tracer (subtraction) technique with technetium-99m sestamibi, the possibility of also using {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin within a dual-tracer (subtraction) methodology and the more extensive use of single-photon emission tomography, which the authors believe will become the standard methodology. The indications for parathyroid scintigraphy have been affected by advances in hyperparathyroidism surgery, including wider use of unilateral neck exploration and of minimally invasive radioguided surgery. As these techniques can only be performed in hyperparathyroid patients with a single adenoma, careful pre-operative assessment is required, and parathyroid scintigraphy undoubtedly is the most accurate localisation method. To date, the majority of papers have also demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of scintigraphically guided limited neck surgery. The authors conclude that: (1) parathyroid scintigraphy can be recommended not only in persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism but also in hyperparathyroid patients prior to first surgery; (2) scintigraphy should always be performed by applying the most accurate technique available because reliable scintigraphy gains or reinforces the surgeon's trust, reliably guides cost-effective operative strategies and justifies the recognition of new potential diagnostic indications. (orig.)

  6. Oncogenic osteomalacia diagnosed by blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare metabolic bone disease characterized by phosphaturia and hypophosphatemia. Certain tumors secrete a phosphaturic factor, which results in this metabolic abnormality; this factor called as phosphatonin, is in fact a fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) involved closely in phosphate homeostasis and skeletogenesis. Complete excision of these tumors facilitates reversal of the problem. We have reported here the case of a patient who was crippled with this disease and on thorough investigation revealed an oncogenic osteomalacia with tumor focus in the right tibia. The tumor was identified as a mesenchymal tumor, i.e., hemangiopericytoma. Tumor excision alleviated patient symptoms with rapid symptomatic and biochemical improvement

  7. Harvesting, processing and inventory management of peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijovic Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2003, 97% autologous transplants and 65% of allogeneic transplants in Europe used mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC. Soon after their introduction in the early 1990′s, PBSC were associated with faster haemopoietic recovery, fewer transfusions and antibiotic usage, and a shorter hospital stay. Furthermore, ease and convenience of PBSC collection made them more appealing than BM harvests. Improved survival has hitherto been demonstrated in patients with high risk AML and CML. However, the advantages of PBSC come at a price of a higher incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. In order to be present in the blood, stem cells undergo the process of "mobilisation" from their bone marrow habitat. Mobilisation, and its reciprocal process - homing - are regulated by a complex network of molecules on the surface of stem cells and stromal cells, and enzymes and cytokines released from granulocytes and osteoclasts. Knowledge of these mechanisms is beginning to be exploited for clinical purposes. In current practice, stem cell are mobilised by use of chemotherapy in conjunction with haemopoietic growth factors (HGF, or with HGF alone. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor has emerged as the single most important mobilising agent, due to its efficacy and a relative paucity of serious side effects. Over a decade of use in healthy donors has resulted in vast experience of optimal dosing and administration, and safety matters. PBSC harvesting can be performed on a variety of cell separators. Apheresis procedures are nowadays routine, but it is important to be well versed in the possible complications in order to avoid harm to the patient or donor. To ensure efficient collection, harvesting must begin when sufficient stem cells have been mobilised. A rapid, reliable, standardized blood test is essential to decide when to begin harvesting; currently, blood CD34+ cell counting by flow cytometry fulfils these criteria. Blood CD34+ cell counts strongly

  8. Secretome of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Enhances Wound Healing

    OpenAIRE

    Mildner, Michael; Hacker, Stefan; Haider, Thomas; Gschwandtner, Maria; Werba, Gregor; Barresi, Caterina; Zimmermann, Matthias; Golabi, Bahar; Tschachler, Erwin; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan

    2013-01-01

    Non-healing skin ulcers are often resistant to most common therapies. Treatment with growth factors has been demonstrated to improve closure of chronic wounds. Here we investigate whether lyophilized culture supernatant of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) is able to enhance wound healing. PBMC from healthy human individuals were prepared and cultured for 24 hours. Supernatants were collected, dialyzed and lyophilized (SECPBMC). Six mm punch biopsy wounds were set on ...

  9. Dynamic Modes of Red Blood Cells in Oscillatory Shear Flow

    OpenAIRE

    Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs) in oscillatory shear flow was studied using differential equations of three variables: a shape parameter, the inclination angle $\\theta$, and phase angle $\\phi$ of the membrane rotation. In steady shear flow, three types of dynamics occur depending on the shear rate and viscosity ratio. i) tank-treading (TT): $\\phi$ rotates while the shape and $\\theta$ oscillate. ii) tumbling (TB): $\\theta$ rotates while the shape and $\\phi$ oscillate. iii) intermediate ...

  10. Effect of Irradiation on Microparticles in Red Blood Cell Concentrates

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Chi Hyun; Yun, Seung Gyu; Koh, Young Eun; Lim, Chae Seung

    2016-01-01

    Changes in microparticles (MP) from red blood cell (RBC) concentrates in the context of irradiation have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate how irradiation affects the number of MPs within transfusion components. Twenty RBC concentrates, within 14 days after donation, were exposed to gamma rays (dose rate: 25 cGy) from a cesium-137 irradiator. Flow cytometry was used to determine the numbers of MPs derived from RBC concentrates before and 24 hr after irradiation. The...

  11. Flow of red blood cells in capillary networks

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Ana; Teixeira, Lúcia; Leble, Vladimir; Lima, R.; Ribeiro, António E.; Dias, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    In the present work we have studied the flow of red blood cells through a column packed with soda lime glass spheres with diameter of 337.5 micron (pore diameter 150 micron). The ratio between the average velocity of the RBCs and the average velocity of the carrying fluid (physiological saline) was close to 0.9. The RBCs migrated faster through the column than the carrying fluid mainly due to a hydrodynamic chromatographic effect.

  12. Effects of Dextran Molecular Weight on Red Blood Cell Aggregation

    OpenAIRE

    Neu, Björn; Wenby, Rosalinda; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2008-01-01

    The reversible aggregation of human red blood cells (RBC) by proteins or polymers continues to be of biologic and biophysical interest, yet the mechanistic details governing the process are still being explored. Although a depletion model with osmotic attractive forces due to polymer depletion near the RBC surface has been proposed for aggregation by the neutral polyglucose dextran, its applicability at high molecular mass has not been established. In this study, RBC aggregation was measured ...

  13. Red Blood Cell Membrane-Cloaked Nanoparticles For Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Cody Westcott

    Herein we describe the development of the Red Blood Cell coated nanoparticle, RBC-NP. Purified natural erythrocyte membrane is used to coat drug-loaded poly(lacticco-glycolic acid) (PLGA). Synthetic PLGA co-polymer is biocompatible and biodegradable and has already received US FDA approval for drug-delivery and diagnostics. This work looks specifically at the retention of immunosuppressive proteins on RBC-NPs, right-sidedness of natural RBC membranes interfacing with synthetic polymer nanoparticles, sustained and retarded drug release of RBC-NPs as well as further surface modification of RBC-NPs for increased targeting of model cancer cell lines.

  14. Donor cell leukemia after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Makoto; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Ohashi, Haruhiko; Terakura, Seitaro; Ozeki, Kazutaka; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Naoe, Tomoki

    2008-07-01

    A 49-year-old male developed recurrent acute myeloid leukemia 27 months after allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) from an HLA-identical brother. The immunophenotype of the blastic cell population was incompatible with that of the pre-transplant blast cells; a mutation in C/EBPA gene was found in the pre-transplant blast cells that was not present in the post-transplant blast cells, and short tandem repeat analysis of marrow cells, which included 71% blasts, showed complete donor chimera. Thus, this recipient developed donor cell leukemia (DCL). The donor was healthy when DCL developed in the recipient as well as before donation of the peripheral blood stem cells. Only five cases of DCL after PBSCT have been reported in the literature. As a mechanism for the development of DCL, a vigorous proliferative demand on the donor cells, which often correlates with a higher likelihood of replication error or mutation, has been proposed. Peripheral blood stem cells might have an advantage in that they are associated with a low incidence of DCL development because PBSCT recipients receive a higher total cell dose than recipients of bone marrow or cord blood cells. PMID:18470599

  15. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bonomi

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH, and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF and 42 poor responders (PR to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001 in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA mutations in single human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yong-Gang; Kajigaya, Sachiko; Young, Neal S

    2015-09-01

    Determination mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequences from extremely small amounts of DNA extracted from tissue of limited amounts and/or degraded samples is frequently employed in medical, forensic, and anthropologic studies. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification followed by DNA cloning is a routine method, especially to examine heteroplasmy of mtDNA mutations. In this review, we compare the mtDNA mutation patterns detected by three different sequencing strategies. Cloning and sequencing methods that are based on PCR amplification of DNA extracted from either single cells or pooled cells yield a high frequency of mutations, partly due to the artifacts introduced by PCR and/or the DNA cloning process. Direct sequencing of PCR product which has been amplified from DNA in individual cells is able to detect the low levels of mtDNA mutations present within a cell. We further summarize the findings in our recent studies that utilized this single cell method to assay mtDNA mutation patterns in different human blood cells. Our data show that many somatic mutations observed in the end-stage differentiated cells are found in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitors within the CD34(+) cell compartment. Accumulation of mtDNA variations in the individual CD34+ cells is affected by both aging and family genetic background. Granulocytes harbor higher numbers of mutations compared with the other cells, such as CD34(+) cells and lymphocytes. Serial assessment of mtDNA mutations in a population of single CD34(+) cells obtained from the same donor over time suggests stability of some somatic mutations. CD34(+) cell clones from a donor marked by specific mtDNA somatic mutations can be found in the recipient after transplantation. The significance of these findings is discussed in terms of the lineage tracing of HSCs, aging effect on accumulation of mtDNA mutations and the usage of mtDNA sequence in forensic identification. PMID:26149767

  17. SPECT/CT with a hybrid imaging system in the study of lower gastrointestinal bleeding with technetium-99m red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim. Lower gastrointestinal (G I) hemorrhage is a complex clinical problem that requires disciplined evaluation for successful management. This study was conducted to evaluate the applicability of single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) in patients with acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding undergoing scintigraphy with 99m Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC), and to assess the additional clinical value of fused images when compared to the standard radionuclide scan. Methods. Twenty-seven patients presenting with acute lower G I tract hemorrhage were studied with conventional dynamic and planar 99m Tc-RBC imaging. In 19 patients with positive findings on scans taken within 6 hours, a SPECT/CT study was immediately performed using a hybrid system composed of a dual-head, variable angle gamma camera and an X-ray tube. The number of patients in whom SPECT/CT changed the scintigraphic interpretation with regard to the presence or site of G I blood loss as confirmed by other diagnostic or therapeutical procedures was recorded. Results. Image fusion was easy and successful in all patients showing perfect correspondence between SPECT and CT data and allowing precise anatomical localization of the sites of 99m Tc-RBC extravasation. SPECT/CT had significant impact on the scintigraphic results in 7/19 patients (36.8%): in 6 patients it precisely localized the bleeding foci whose location could not be identified in standard scans and in one it excluded the presence of an active G I hemorrhage. Conclusion. SPECT/CT with a hybrid system is feasible and useful for facilitating imaging interpretation and improving the accuracy of 99m Tc-RBC scintigraphy in patients with acute lower G I bleeding.

  18. Cost-effective and Rapid Blood Analysis on a Cell-phone

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hongying; Sencan, Ikbal; Wong, Justin; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Tseng, Derek; Nagashima, Keita; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact and cost-effective imaging cytometry platform installed on a cell-phone for the measurement of the density of red and white blood cells as well as hemoglobin concentration in human blood samples. Fluorescent and bright-field images of blood samples are captured using separate optical attachments to the cell-phone and are rapidly processed through a custom-developed smart application running on the phone for counting of blood cells and determining hemoglobin density. W...

  19. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Healthy and Defective Red Blood Cell Settling in Blood Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Z; Rahnama, M; Jafari, S

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to study sedimentation of a red blood cell (RBC) in a plasma-filled tube numerically. Such behaviors are studied for a healthy and a defective cell which might be created due to human diseases, such as diabetes, sickle-cell anemia, and hereditary spherocytosis. Flow-induced deformation of RBC is obtained using finite-element method (FEM), while flow and fluid-membrane interaction are handled using lattice Boltzmann (LB) and immersed boundary methods (IBMs), respectively. The effects of RBC properties as well as its geometry and orientation on its sedimentation rate are investigated and discussed. The results show that decreasing frontal area of an RBC and/or increasing tube diameter results in a faster settling. Comparison of healthy and diabetic cells reveals that less cell deformability leads to slower settling. The simulation results show that the sicklelike and spherelike RBCs have lower settling velocity as compared with a biconcave discoid cell. PMID:26926169

  20. Deletion of the Scl +19 enhancer increases the blood stem cell compartment without affecting the formation of mature blood lineages

    OpenAIRE

    Spensberger, Dominik; Kotsopoulou, Ekaterini; Ferreira, Rita; Broccardo, Cyril; Scott, Linda M.; Fourouclas, Nasios; Ottersbach, Katrin; Green, Anthony R.; Göttgens, Berthold

    2012-01-01

    The stem cell leukemia (Scl)/Tal1 gene is essential for normal blood and endothelial development, and is expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), progenitors, erythroid, megakaryocytic, and mast cells. The Scl +19 enhancer is active in HSCs and progenitor cells, megakaryocytes, and mast cells, but not mature erythroid cells. Here we demonstrate that in vivo deletion of the Scl +19 enhancer (Scl Δ19/Δ19 ) results in viable mice with normal Scl expression in mature hematopoietic lineages. ...

  1. Three Phase Bone Scintigraphy in Active and Inactive Osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To Appreciate the value of bone scintigraphy in determination of the bony infection, we performed three phase bone scintigraphy in 34 cases of osteomyelitis of extremities prospectively. They were clinically inactive in 11 and active in 23 cases. We confirmed the active osteomyelitis by operation or aspiration within one week after scintigraphy. Perfusion, blood pool and delayed images were analyzed respectively and compared with the plain roentgenograms. All 23 active lesions showed diffusely increased perfusion in affected limbs. The areas of the increased activities on blood pool images were larger than or similar to those on delayed images in 17 cases (73.9%) with active osteomyelitis and smaller in 6 cases (26.1%). 5 of the latter 6 cases showed definite soft tissue activities on blood pool images. In inactive cases bone scintigrams were completely normal in 4 cases. Two of those were normal on plain films and remaining two showed mild focal bony sclerosis. Among 7 inactive lesions, perfusion was normal in 2 cases, diffusely increased in 4 cases and diffusely decreased in 1 case. 6 of these 7 cases showed increased activities both on blood pool and delayed images and the areas of increased activities on blood pool images didn't exceed those on delayed images. Bony sclerosis was noted on plain films in those 7 inactive lesions and the extent of the sclerosis correlated well to delayed images. Large blood pool activity was characteristics of active osteomyelitis. Normal three phase bone scintigram may indicate the time to terminate the treatment, but increased activity on perfusion and blood pool scans is not absolute indication of active lesion if the extent of the lesion on the blood pool image is smaller than that on delayed image and if no definite soft tissue activity is noted on perfusion and blood pool images in clinically inactive patient.

  2. Utilization and quality of cryopreserved red blood cells in transfusion medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, S.; Noorman, F.; Badloe, J. F.; Lagerberg, J. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreserved (frozen) red blood cells have been used in transfusion medicine since the Vietnam war. The main method to freeze the red blood cells is by usage of glycerol. Although the usage of cryopreserved red blood cells was promising due to the prolonged storage time and the limited cellular det

  3. The usefulness of gallium scintigraphy in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the value of gallium scintigraphy in 23 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. The degree of gallium lung uptake was compared with chest radiographic, pathologic as well as clinical findings. Particular attention was paid to pathologic findings which were categorized by the degrees of interstitial infiltrate composed of inflammatory cells, activity of alveolar endothelium, cellularity of fibroblasts and collagen fibers. The degree of gallium lung uptake was not necessarily correlated with the severity of the radiographic findings, but reflected the pathological findings well. We conclude that gallium scintigraphy is useful in the evaluation of the activity of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. (author)

  4. Some technetium complexes for labelling red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to produce technetium labelled red blood cells, used routinely in diagnostic nuclear medicine, is reported. The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA), present in erythrocytes, is strongly inhibited by primary aromatic sulphonamides, which bind at the enzyme active site. Three types of ligand able to coordinate to technetium and suitable for modification to include a primary aromatic sulphonamide group were studied; bis(thiosemicarbazones), Schiff bases and some propylene amine oximes. The experimental conditions needed to label the ligands were determined. Both the thiosemicarbazone and propyleneamine oxime derivatives were labelled, but under no conditions attempted were the Schiff bases complexed by Technetium. The two major isozymes of Human Carbonic Anhydrase, HCA I and HCA II, were isolated from blood. The strength of binding of the free ligands SET, PN130 and PN135 with each of the isozymes was measured and expressed as the Dissociation Constant K{sub d}. The rate of uptake of the technetium complexes into washed RBCs and whole blood was measured and found to be much slower in whole blood. The biodistribution of both TcPN130 and TcPN135 in rats was determined and scintigraphic images for the TcPN130 complex were recorded. Attempts to synthesise the Tc-99 analogues on the milligram scale to allow chemical characterisation of these complexes were unsuccessful. (author).

  5. Some technetium complexes for labelling red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to produce technetium labelled red blood cells, used routinely in diagnostic nuclear medicine, is reported. The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA), present in erythrocytes, is strongly inhibited by primary aromatic sulphonamides, which bind at the enzyme active site. Three types of ligand able to coordinate to technetium and suitable for modification to include a primary aromatic sulphonamide group were studied; bis(thiosemicarbazones), Schiff bases and some propylene amine oximes. The experimental conditions needed to label the ligands were determined. Both the thiosemicarbazone and propyleneamine oxime derivatives were labelled, but under no conditions attempted were the Schiff bases complexed by Technetium. The two major isozymes of Human Carbonic Anhydrase, HCA I and HCA II, were isolated from blood. The strength of binding of the free ligands SET, PN130 and PN135 with each of the isozymes was measured and expressed as the Dissociation Constant Kd. The rate of uptake of the technetium complexes into washed RBCs and whole blood was measured and found to be much slower in whole blood. The biodistribution of both TcPN130 and TcPN135 in rats was determined and scintigraphic images for the TcPN130 complex were recorded. Attempts to synthesise the Tc-99 analogues on the milligram scale to allow chemical characterisation of these complexes were unsuccessful. (author)

  6. Interleukin-15 Promotes the Commitment of Cord Blood CD34+ Stem Cells into NK Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建; 夏青; 孙汭; 田志刚

    2004-01-01

    To explore the effect of rhlL-15 on CB-CD34+ stem cells committing to NK cells, CD34+ stem cells were obtained from cord blood (CB) by magnetic-assisted cell sorting (MACS) method. CD3, CD16 and CD56 molecules expressed on cell surface were detected by flow cytometer. MTF method was used to test the cytotoxicity of NK cells. The results were that stem cell factor (SCF) alone has no effect on CD34+ stem cells. IL-15 stimulated CD34+ stem cells commit to NK cells, and SCF showed strong synergistic effect with IL-15. It was concluded that IL-15 and SCF played different roles during NK cell development, llr15 promoted CD34+ stem cells differentiate to NK cell precursor and SCF improved the effectsof IL-15 on NK cell differentiation.

  7. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RobinVan Bruggen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC. During steady state haematopoiesis, approximately 1010 red blood cells are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages.

  8. Contribution of the bone scintigraphy in unexplained pains of the thigh; Apport de la scintigraphie osseuse dans le cadre de douleurs inexpliquees de la cuisse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oufroukhi, Y.; Ech Charraq, I.; Ben Rais, N. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Ibn Sina Rabat (Morocco)

    2006-05-15

    Mr. R.N. 32 year's old, high level sportsman, without particular pathological antecedents, consults for pains of the area above the knee of the left thigh, of mechanical pace being exacerbated with the effort. The clinical examination notes pains induced by the deep of the left thigh. The biological assessment, in particular blood cell formula and CRP were normal. The standard radiography of the femurs did not find an anomaly of the osseous structure. Because of the persistence of the pains, an osseous scintiscan was carried out and orientated towards pathology of soft tissues. The doppler and the TDM made it possible to pose the diagnosis of intra-tissues muscular hemangioma. The early times of the bone scintigraphy appears important in the approach diagnosis of many osseous disease of the sportsman. (author)

  9. Isolation of rare tumor cells from blood cells with buoyant immuno-microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixin Shi

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are exfoliated at various stages of cancer, and could provide invaluable information for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. There is an urgent need for the development of cost-efficient and scalable technologies for rare CTC enrichment from blood. Here we report a novel method for isolation of rare tumor cells from excess of blood cells using gas-filled buoyant immuno-microbubbles (MBs. MBs were prepared by emulsification of perfluorocarbon gas in phospholipids and decorated with anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM antibody. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (85% and rapidly (within 15 minutes bound to various epithelial tumor cells suspended in cell medium. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (88% isolated frequent tumor cells that were spiked at 100,000 cells/ml into plasma-depleted blood. Anti-EpCAM MBs efficiently (>77% isolated rare mouse breast 4T1, human prostate PC-3 and pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells spiked into 1, 3 and 7 ml (respectively of plasma-depleted blood. Using EpCAM targeted MBs CTCs from metastatic cancer patients were isolated, suggesting that this technique could be developed into a valuable clinical tool for isolation, enumeration and analysis of rare cells.

  10. Cerebral blood flow mapping in children with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cerebral blood flow mapping system was applied to the evaluation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) in 21 patients with sickle cell cerebrovascular disease, by means of a Picker xenon computed tomographic (CT) scanner. Results indicate that (1) xenon CT is a safe and reliable procedure in children with cerebrovascular diseases; (2) CBF in the gray matter of children seems to be higher than in previously reported data obtained with use of isotopes; and (3) regional CBF can be altered significantly by changing the size of the region of interest (ROI). The term regional CBF probably has to be carefully defined in xenon CT flow mapping. Correlation with anatomy by means of CT or magnetic resonance imaging and comparison with the ROI of the contralateral side and/or adjacent sections is important

  11. Effects of pegylated hamster red blood cells on microcirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C Y; Huang, Wei; Stassinopoulos, Adonis; Cheung, Anthony T W

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of polyethylene glycol (PEG) treated red blood cells (RBCs) on the microcirculation in a hamster back skin window chamber model. Donor hamster RBCs were PEGylated through an incubation with an activated PEG solution, washed, resuspended, and infused through a 10% volume top loading procedure into the carotid artery in an awake Syrian Golden hamster. Eight hamster groups were treated with activated PEG different sizes and concentrations: 0.05 mM-5 kDa PEG, 0.5 mM-5 kDa PEG, 1.1 mM-5 kDa PEG, 2.2 mM-5 kDa PEG, 22 mM-5 kDa PEG, 0.05 mM-20 kDa PEG, 0.5 mM-20 kDa PEG, and 5 mM-20 kDa PEG. Non-treated RBCs were used as control. The microvascular bed under observation was videotaped 30 min before the infusion and followed for 30 min post infusion. The diameter of individual blood vessels and blood flow velocities in selected vessels was measured. Hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration were recorded before infusion and at the end of experiment. Tissue pO(2) was also monitored. Results showed the hamsters tolerated the PEGylated RBCs without apparent ill effects. No significant changes were recorded for the hematocrit, the hemoglobin concentration, the blood vessel diameters, blood flow velocities, and the interstitial partial oxygen pressure (pO(2)) before, during, and after the injections of PEG-RBCs (P > 0.05). Unlike most hemoglobin-based oxygen carrying compounds, which can cause vasoconstriction, the PEGylated RBCs did not produce any measurable vasoactivity. Together with the absence of rouleaux formation and the fact that PEG molecules can mask the surface antigens on RBCs, PEGylation appeared promising as a circulation enhancement treatment. PMID:18649167

  12. Aggregation of mononuclear and red blood cells through an {alpha}4{beta}1-Lu/basal cell adhesion molecule interaction in sickle cell disease. : Mononuclear and sickle red blood cell interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Chaar, Vicky; Picot, Julien; Renaud, Olivier; Bartolucci, Pablo; Nzouakou, Ruben; Bachir, Dora; Galactéros, Frédéric; Colin, Yves; Le Van Kim, Caroline; El Nemer, Wassim

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abnormal interactions between red blood cells, leukocytes and endothelial cells play a critical role in the occurrence of the painful vaso-occlusive crises associated with sickle cell disease. We investigated the interaction between circulating leukocytes and red blood cells which could lead to aggregate formation, enhancing the incidence of vaso-occlusive crises. DESIGN AND METHODS: Blood samples from patients with sickle cell disease (n=25) and healthy subjects (n=5) were analyz...

  13. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood

  14. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyo Eun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Sun, E-mail: dslmd@kumc.or.kr [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  15. Theory of the sphering of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Y C; Tong, P

    1968-02-01

    A rigorous mathematical solution of the sphering of a red blood cell is obtained under the assumptions that the red cells is a fluid-filled shell and that it can swell into a perfect sphere in an appropriate hypotonic medium. The solution is valid for finite strain of the cell membrane provided that the membrane is isotropic, elastic and incompressible. The most general nonlinear elastic stress-strain law for the membrane in a state of generalized plane stress is used. A necessary condition for a red cell to be able to sphere is that its extensional stiffness follow a specific distribution over the membrane. This distribution is strongly influenced by the surface tension in the cell membrane. A unique relation exists between the extensional stiffness, pressure differential, surface tension, and the ratio of the radius of the sphere to that of the undeformed red cell. The functional dependence of this stiffness distribution on various physical parameters is presented. A critique of some current literature on red cell mechanics is presented. PMID:5639934

  16. Measurement of red blood cell mechanics during morphological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, Gabriel; Park, Yongkeun; Best, Catherine; Dasari, Ramachandra; Feld, Michael; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark; Levine, Alex

    2010-03-01

    The human red blood cell (RBC) membrane, a fluid lipid bilayer tethered to an elastic 2D spectrin network, provides the principal control of the cell's morphology and mechanics. These properties, in turn, influence the ability of RBCs to transport oxygen in circulation. Current mechanical measurements of RBCs rely on external loads. Here we apply a Noncontact optical interferometric technique to quantify the thermal fluctuations of RBC membranes with 3 nm accuracy over a broad range of spatial and temporal frequencies. Combining this technique with a new mathematical model describing RBC membrane undulations, we measure the mechanical changes of RBCs as they undergo a transition from the normal discoid shape to the abnormal echinocyte and spherical shapes. These measurements indicate that, coincident with this morphological transition, there is a significant increase in the membrane's shear and bending moduli. This mechanical transition can alter cell circulation and impede oxygen delivery.

  17. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  18. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, Monica Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Geller, Mauro [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Fisiologia Humana

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  19. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I;

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB) and...

  20. Technetium 99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy: Congenital hypothyroid screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, R.G.; Sty, J.R.; Duck, S.C.

    1986-07-01

    Technetium 99m pertechnetate thyroid scans were performed on 57 infants referred for evaluation of suspected congenital hypothyroidism. Thyroid anatomy may be characterized by four general types, based on the scintigraphic findings: (1) normal size and location. (2) ectopic location. (3) no detectable thyroid activity. (4) normal location with increased size or uptake. There are diverse etiologies of congential hypothyroidism. Correlation of thyroid scintigraphy with blood T4 and TSH levels allows specific etiological diagnosis in the majority of cases of congential hypothyroidism.

  1. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  2. Circulating blood cells function as a surveillance system for damaged tissue in Drosophila larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Daniel T.; Brock, Amanda R.; Fish, Greg S.; Wang, Yan; Perrin, Laurent; Krasnow, Mark A.; Galko, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Insects have an open circulatory system in which the heart pumps blood (hemolymph) into the body cavity, where it directly bathes the internal organs and epidermis. The blood contains free and tissue-bound immune cells that function in the inflammatory response. Here, we use live imaging of transgenic Drosophila larvae with fluorescently labeled blood cells (hemocytes) to investigate the circulatory dynamics of larval blood cells and their response to tissue injury. We find that, under normal...

  3. Manipulation of red blood cells with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Manipulation of bioparticles and macromolecules is the central task in many biological and biotechnological processes. The current methods for physical manipulation takes advantage of different forces such as acoustic, centrifugal, magnetic, electromagnetic, and electric forces, as well as using optical tweezers or filtration. Among all these methods, however, the electrical forces are particularly attractive because of their favorable scale up with the system size which makes them well-suited for miniaturization. Currently the electric field is used for transportation, poration, fusion, rotation, and separation of biological cells. The aim of the current research is to gain fundamental understanding of the effect of electric field on the human red blood cells (RBCs) using direct numerical simulation. A front tracking/finite difference technique is used to solve the fluid flow and electric field equations, where the fluid in the cell and the blood (plasma) is modeled as Newtonian and incompressible, and the interface separating the two is treated as an elastic membrane. The behavior of RBCs is investigated as a function of the controlling parameters of the problem such as the strength of the electric field.

  4. Deoxygenation Reduces Sickle Cell Blood Flow at Arterial Oxygen Tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xinran; Wood, David K; Higgins, John M

    2016-06-21

    The majority of morbidity and mortality in sickle cell disease is caused by vaso-occlusion: circulatory obstruction leading to tissue ischemia and infarction. The consequences of vaso-occlusion are seen clinically throughout the vascular tree, from the relatively high-oxygen and high-velocity cerebral arteries to the relatively low-oxygen and low-velocity postcapillary venules. Prevailing models of vaso-occlusion propose mechanisms that are relevant only to regions of low oxygen and low velocity, leaving a wide gap in our understanding of the most important pathologic process in sickle cell disease. Progress toward understanding vaso-occlusion is further challenged by the complexity of the multiple processes thought to be involved, including, but not limited to 1) deoxygenation-dependent hemoglobin polymerization leading to impaired rheology, 2) endothelial and leukocyte activation, and 3) altered cellular adhesion. Here, we chose to focus exclusively on deoxygenation-dependent rheologic processes in an effort to quantify their contribution independent of the other processes that are likely involved in vivo. We take advantage of an experimental system that, to our knowledge, uniquely enables the study of pressure-driven blood flow in physiologic-sized tubes at physiologic hematocrit under controlled oxygenation conditions, while excluding the effects of endothelium, leukocyte activation, adhesion, inflammation, and coagulation. We find that deoxygenation-dependent rheologic processes are sufficient to increase apparent viscosity significantly, slowing blood flow velocity at arterial oxygen tension even without additional contributions from inflammation, adhesion, and endothelial and leukocyte activation. We quantify the changes in apparent viscosity and define a set of functional regimes of sickle cell blood flow personalized for each patient that may be important in further dissecting mechanisms of in vivo vaso-occlusion as well as in assessing risk of patient

  5. Biological effects of the electrostatic field: red blood cell-related alterations of oxidative processes in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Hayk A.; Sahakyan, Gohar V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine activities of pro-/antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and oxidative modification of proteins and lipids in red blood cells (RBCs) and blood plasma of rats exposed to electrostatic field (200 kV/m) during the short (1 h) and the long periods (6 day, 6 h daily). Short-term exposure was characterized by the increase of oxidatively damaged proteins in blood of rats. This was strongly expressed in RBC membranes. After long-term action, RBC content in peripheral blood was higher than in control ( P < 0.01) and the attenuation of prooxidant processes was shown.

  6. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Dzumabaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19 is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis germs, thus to reduce the pancytopenia associating complications in this population. 

  7. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2016-01-01

    Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according to....... Increased RBC sodium efflux is especially related to ouabain-sensitive, furosemide-insensitive transport and thus most likely due to upregulated activity of the sodium-potassium pump. The study gives no evidence to an altered intracellular/extracellular sodium ratio or to a reduced fractional furosemide...

  8. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using optoelectronic tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Verma; R Dasgupta; N Kumar; S Ahlawat; A Uppal; P K Gupta

    2014-02-01

    We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by lightinduced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles. We used thermal evaporation technique for coating the organic polymer, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as a photoconductive layer on ITO-coated glass slide. Compare to the conventional optical tweezers, the technique requires optical power in W range and provides a manipulation area of a few mm2. The set-up was used to manipulate the polystyrene microspheres and red blood cells (RBCs). The RBCs could be attracted or repelled by varying the frequency of the applied AC bias.

  9. A micro-scale simulation of red blood cell passage through symmetric and asymmetric bifurcated vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2016-01-01

    Blood exhibits a heterogeneous nature of hematocrit, velocity, and effective viscosity in microcapillaries. Microvascular bifurcations have a significant influence on the distribution of the blood cells and blood flow behavior. This paper presents a simulation study performed on the two-dimensionalmotions and deformation of multiple red blood cells in microvessels with diverging and converging bifurcations. Fluid dynamics and membrane mechanics were incorporated. Effects of cell shape, hematocrit, and deformability of the cell membrane on rheological behavior of the red blood cells and the hemodynamics have been investigated. It was shown that the blood entering the daughter branch with a higher flow rate tended to receive disproportionally more cells. The results also demonstrate that red blood cells in microvessels experienced lateral migration in the parent channel and blunted velocity profiles in both straight section and daughter branches, and this effect was influenced by the shape and the initial posit...

  10. Determinants of resting cerebral blood flow in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Adam M; Borzage, Matthew T; Choi, Soyoung; Václavů, Lena; Tamrazi, Benita; Nederveen, Aart J; Coates, Thomas D; Wood, John C

    2016-09-01

    Stroke is common in children with sickle cell disease and results from an imbalance in oxygen supply and demand. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is increased in patients with sickle cell disease to compensate for their anemia, but adequacy of their oxygen delivery has not been systematically demonstrated. This study examined the physiological determinants of CBF in 37 patients with sickle cell disease, 38 ethnicity matched control subjects and 16 patients with anemia of non-sickle origin. Cerebral blood flow was measured using phase contrast MRI of the carotid and vertebral arteries. CBF increased inversely to oxygen content (r(2)  = 0.69, P Brain oxygen delivery, the product of CBF and oxygen content, was normal in all groups. Brain composition, specifically the relative amounts of grey and white matter, was the next strongest CBF predictor, presumably by influencing cerebral metabolic rate. Grey matter/white matter ratio and CBF declined monotonically until the age of 25 in all subjects, consistent with known maturational changes in brain composition. Further CBF reductions were observed with age in subjects older than 35 years of age, likely reflecting microvascular aging. On multivariate regression, CBF was independent of disease state, hemoglobin S, hemoglobin F, reticulocyte count and cell free hemoglobin, suggesting that it is regulated similarly in patients and control subjects. In conclusion, sickle cell disease patients had sufficient oxygen delivery at rest, but accomplish this only by marked increases in their resting CBF, potentially limiting their ability to further augment flow in response to stress. Am. J. Hematol. 91:912-917, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27263497

  11. Stem and progenitor cells in biostructure of blood vessel walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Korta

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Development of vascular and hematopoietic systems during organogenesis occurs at the same time. During vasculogenesis, a small part of cells does not undergo complete differentiation but stays on this level, “anchored” in tissue structures described as stem cell niches. The presence of blood vessels within tissue stem cell niches is typical and led to identification of niches and ensures that they are functioning. The three-layer biostructure of vessel walls for artery and vein, tunica: intima, media and adventitia, for a long time was defined as a mechanical barrier between vessel light and the local tissue environment. Recent findings from vascular biology studies indicate that vessel walls are dynamic biostructures, which are equipped with stem and progenitor cells, described as vascular wall-resident stem cells/progenitor cells (VW-SC/PC. Distinct zones for vessel wall harbor heterogeneous subpopulations of VW-SC/PC, which are described as “subendothelial or vasculogenic zones”. Recent evidence from in vitro and in vivo studies show that prenatal activity of stem and progenitor cells is not only limited to organogenesis but also exists in postnatal life, where it is responsible for vessel wall homeostasis, remodeling and regeneration. It is believed that VW-SC/PC could be engaged in progression of vascular disorders and development of neointima. We would like to summarize current knowledge about mesenchymal and progenitor stem cell phenotype with special attention to distribution and biological properties of VW-SC/PC in biostructures of intima, media and adventitia niches. It is postulated that in the near future, niches for VW-SC/PC could be a good source of stem and progenitor cells, especially in the context of vessel tissue bioengineering as a new alternative to traditional revascularization therapies.

  12. Bioactive compounds from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cells induced apoptotic cell death in hela cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patathananone, Supawadee; Thammasirirak, Sompong; Daduang, Jureerut; Chung, Jing Gung; Temsiripong, Yosapong; Daduang, Sakda

    2016-08-01

    Crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) white blood cell extracts (WBCex) were examined for anticancer activity in HeLa cell lines using the MTT assay. The percentage viability of HeLa cells significantly deceased after treatment with WBCex in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The IC50 dose was suggested to be approximately 225 μg/mL protein. Apoptotic cell death occurred in a time-dependent manner based on investigation by flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC and PI staining. DAPI nucleic acid staining indicated increased chromatin condensation. Caspase-3, -8 and -9 activities also increased, suggesting the induction of the caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway. Furthermore, the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm ) of HeLa cells was lost as a result of increasing levels of Bax and reduced levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Bcl-Xs, and XIAP. The decreased ΔΨm led to the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspase-9 and -3. Apoptosis-inducing factor translocated into the nuclei, and endonuclease G (Endo G) was released from the mitochondria. These results suggest that anticancer agents in WBCex can induce apoptosis in HeLa cells via both caspase-dependent and -independent pathways. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 986-997, 2016. PMID:25691005

  13. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m(99mTc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with 99mTc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p99mTc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon

  14. Comparison of instruments for investigation of microcirculatory blood flow and red blood cell concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Jim; McNamara, Paul; Clancy, Neil T.; Enfield, Joey G.; Leahy, Martin J.

    2009-05-01

    The use of laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI) is well known in the noninvasive investigation of microcirculatory blood flow. This work compares the two techniques with the recently developed tissue viability (TiVi) imaging system, which is proposed as a useful tool to quantify red blood cell concentration in microcirculation. Three systems are evaluated with common skin tests such as the use of vasodilating and vasoconstricting drugs (methlynicotinate and clobetasol, respectively) and a reactive hyperaemia maneuver (using a sphygmomanometer). The devices investigated are the laser Doppler line scanner (LDLS), the laser speckle perfusion imager (FLPI)-both from Moor Instruments (Axminster, United Kingdom)-and the TiVi imaging system (WheelsBridge AB, Linköping, Sweden). Both imaging and point scanning by the devices are used to quantify the provoked reactions. Perfusion images of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction are acquired with both LDLS and FLPI, while TiVi images are acquired with the TiVi imager. Time acquisitions of an averaged region of interest are acquired for temporal studies such as the reactive hyperaemia. In contrast to the change in perfusion over time with pressure, the TiVi imager shows a different response due its measurement of blood concentration rather than perfusion. The responses can be explained by physiological understanding. Although the three devices sample different compartments of tissue, and output essentially different variables, comparisons can be seen between the three systems. The LDLS system proves to be suited to measurement of perfusion in deeper vessels, while FLPI and TiVi showed sensitivity to more superficial nutritional supply. LDLS and FLPI are insensitive to the action of the vasoconstrictor, while TiVi shows the clear boundaries of the reaction. Assessment of the resolution, penetration depth, and acquisition rate of each instrument show complimentary features that should

  15. Blood analyte sensing using fluorescent dye-loaded red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Shao, Xiaole; Cooley, Nicholas; Milanick, Mark A.; Glass, Timothy E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of blood analytes provides crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Due to analyte transporters on red blood cell (RBC) membranes that equilibrate intracellular and extracellular analyte levels, RBCs serve as an attractive alternative for encapsulating analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, the functionalized RBCs may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed sensing system utilizes the ability of the RBCs to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before lysis, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. While at low temperature, analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution diffuse into the perforated RBCs and become entrapped upon restoration of temperature and osmolarity. Since the fluorescent signal from the entrapped dye reports on changes in the analyte level of the extracellular solution via the RBC transporters, interactions between the RBCs and the dye are critical to the efficacy of this technique. In this work, we study the use of a near infrared pH sensitive dye encapsulated within RBCs and assess the ability to measure dye fluorescence in vivo.

  16. Implications of three phase bone scintigraphy for the diagnosis of bisphosphonate related osteonecrosis of the jaw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphosphonate (BP) related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) is a well known serious complication of BP treatment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of three phase bone scintigraphy in patients with BRONJ. Forty one patients (48 lesions)with clinically proven BRONJ (2 males, 39 females, age 74.3±6.7 years)under went Tc 99m HDP bone scintigraphy. Visual interpretation and semiquantitative analysis of uptakes using lesion to contralateral uptake ratios during the blood pool phase (BUR)and during the osseous phase (OUR)were performed, and relations were sought between these and various clinical parameters. Three phase bone scintigraphy showed increased perfusion and blood pooling in 21 (63.6%)and 27 (81.8%)of 33 lesions, respectively. The osseous phase was positive for 45 (93.8%)of the 48 lesions. Of the four inflammatory clinical parameters of BRONJ [pus discharge, pain, swelling, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)], patients with three or more parameters had more positive findings in vascular and blood pool phase images (p=0.033, p=0.027). By semiquantitative analysis, patients with a positive ESR had statistically higher BUR and OUR (both p<0.001). Higher stage BRONJ lesions had higher OUR than lower stage lesions (p=0.003). In addition, bone scintigraphy revealed three clinically covert BRONJ lesions without bone exposure, and four patients were up staged based on bone scintigraphy. Bone scintigraphy provides a relatively sensitive means of detecting BRONJ, so it was helpful for accurate BRONJ staging. Furthermore, Increased uptakes in vascular and blood pool phases of three phase bone scintigraphy were related to the inflammatory activity of BRONJ

  17. Cell differentiation mediated by co-culture of human umbilical cord blood stem cells with murine hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Maria; Wulf-Goldenberg, Annika; Purfürst, Bettina; Siegert, Antje; Keil, Marlen; Eckert, Klaus; Fichtner, Iduna

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, purified human cord blood stem cells were co-cultivated with murine hepatic alpha mouse liver 12 (AML12) cells to compare the effect on endodermal stem cell differentiation by either direct cell-cell interaction or by soluble factors in conditioned hepatic cell medium. With that approach, we want to mimic in vitro the situation of preclinical transplantation experiments using human cells in mice. Cord blood stem cells, cultivated with hepatic conditioned medium, showed a low endodermal differentiation but an increased connexin 32 (Cx32) and Cx43, and cytokeratin 8 (CK8) and CK19 expression was monitored by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Microarray profiling indicated that in cultivated cord blood cells, 604 genes were upregulated 2-fold, with the highest expression for epithelial CK19 and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin). On ultrastructural level, there were no major changes in the cellular morphology, except a higher presence of phago(ly)some-like structures observed. Direct co-culture of AML12 cells with cord blood cells led to less incisive differentiation with increased sex-determining region Y-box 17 (SOX17), Cx32 and Cx43, as well as epithelial CK8 and CK19 expressions. On ultrastructural level, tight cell contacts along the plasma membranes were revealed. FACS analysis in co-cultivated cells quantified dye exchange on low level, as also proved by time relapse video-imaging of labelled cells. Modulators of gap junction formation influenced dye transfer between the co-cultured cells, whereby retinoic acid increased and 3-heptanol reduced the dye transfer. The study indicated that the cell-co-cultured model of human umbilical cord blood cells and murine AML12 cells may be a suitable approach to study some aspects of endodermal/hepatic cell differentiation induction. PMID:25270685

  18. Thyroid scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Gregory B; Neelis, Dana A

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is performed in cats and dogs and has been used to a limited degree in other species such as the horse. Thyroid scintigraphy is most commonly used to aid in the diagnosis and treatment management of feline hyperthyroidism but is also used in the evaluation of canine hypothyroidism and canine thyroid carcinoma. This article reviews the normal scintigraphic appearance of the thyroid in the cat, the dog, and the horse and the principles of interpretation of abnormal scan results in the cat and the dog. Radioiodine is the treatment of choice for feline hyperthyroidism, and the principles of its use in the cat are reviewed. PMID:24314043

  19. 75 FR 62843 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Act, as amended) the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises the.... L. 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Council on Blood...

  20. 76 FR 3913 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) Meeting to be Held by Conference Call. SUMMARY.... L. 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Council on Blood...

  1. Antibody-mediated red blood cell agglutination resulting in spontaneous echocardiographic contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M R; Thompson, W R; Casella, J F; Spevak, P J

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous echocardiographic contrast is well reported in states of low flow and low shear stress, and the primary blood component involved has been reported as red blood cells via rouleaux formation. This report describes the occurrence of spontaneous echocardiographic contrast from a unique mechanism of IgM-mediated red blood cell agglutination and describes the clinical sequelae. PMID:10368455

  2. Vascularity of the femoral head. Tc diphosphonate scintigraphy validated with tetracycline labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate scintigraphy and tetracycline labeling were performed on 22 hips in 20 patients in whom the femoral heads were subsequently removed. Twelve of the hips had acute neck fractures, and 10 hips had roentgenographic evidence of avascular necrosis. This technique is of greater value for recent fractures, for once revascularization begins to occur, increased radioactivity is usually found by scintiscan. There was good correlation between roentgenogram, scintiscan and tetracycline fluorescence. /sup 99m/Te diphosphonate scintigraphy, which can be performed outside the operating theater with little discomfort to the patient, proved to be a reliable, noninvasive method of assessing the blood flow to the femoral head. /sup 99m/Tc diphosphonate scintigraphy is not a quantitative technique; it detects the presence or absence of femoral head blood flow, not the adequacy of that blood supply

  3. Measurement of the nonlinear elasticity of red blood cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongkeun; Best, Catherine A.; Kuriabova, Tatiana; Henle, Mark L.; Feld, Michael S.; Levine, Alex J.; Popescu, Gabriel

    2011-05-01

    The membranes of human red blood cells (RBCs) are a composite of a fluid lipid bilayer and a triangular network of semiflexible filaments (spectrin). We perform cellular microrheology using the dynamic membrane fluctuations of the RBCs to extract the elastic moduli of this composite membrane. By applying known osmotic stresses, we measure the changes in the elastic constants under imposed strain and thereby determine the nonlinear elastic properties of the membrane. We find that the elastic nonlinearities of the shear modulus in tensed RBC membranes can be well understood in terms of a simple wormlike chain model. Our results show that the elasticity of the spectrin network can mostly account for the area compression modulus at physiological osmolality, suggesting that the lipid bilayer has significant excess area. As the cell swells, the elastic contribution from the now tensed lipid membrane becomes dominant.

  4. Interleukin-4 receptors on human blood mononuclear cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied regulation of the expression of the interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R) on human blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using both 125I-IL-4 binding assay and flow cytometric analysis of biotinylated IL-4 (B-IL-4) binding. PBMC express approximately 300 high-affinity IL-4R per cell (Kd = 25-100 pM). Activation of PBMC for 60-80 hr by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) or concanavalin A (Con A) results in a 2- to 4.5-fold increase of IL-4R number without alteration of IL-4R affinity for IL-4. Binding of B-IL-4 showed that IL-4R expression is upregulated on virtually all PHA-stimulated PBMC, whereas it mostly concerns larger cells among Con A-activated PBMC. Reculture of PHA-blasts with 1 nM IL-4 further upregulates IL-4R expression to a level approximately 10-fold higher than observed on freshly isolated PBMC. Interestingly, IL-4 is able to reinduce high IL-4R levels on cells that have been deprived of IL-4 for 20 hr and IL-2 is almost as efficient. Finally, SDS-PAGE analysis of IL-4-binding molecules on unstimulated, PHA- and PHA/IL-4-activated PBMC revealed the same three peptides of MW 140-130, 80-75, and 70-65 kDa, as shown on human cell lines

  5. Red blood cell cluster separation from digital images for use in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hidalgo, Manuel; Guerrero-Peña, F A; Herold-García, S; Jaume-I-Capó, Antoni; Marrero-Fernández, P D

    2015-07-01

    The study of cell morphology is an important aspect of the diagnosis of some diseases, such as sickle cell disease, because red blood cell deformation is caused by these diseases. Due to the elongated shape of the erythrocyte, ellipse adjustment and concave point detection are applied widely to images of peripheral blood samples, including during the detection of cells that are partially occluded in the clusters generated by the sample preparation process. In the present study, we propose a method for the analysis of the shape of erythrocytes in peripheral blood smear samples of sickle cell disease, which uses ellipse adjustments and a new algorithm for detecting notable points. Furthermore, we apply a set of constraints that allow the elimination of significant image preprocessing steps proposed in previous studies. We used three types of images to validate our method: artificial images, which were automatically generated in a random manner using a computer code; real images from peripheral blood smear sample images that contained normal and elongated erythrocytes; and synthetic images generated from real isolated cells. Using the proposed method, the efficiency of detecting the two types of objects in the three image types exceeded 99.00%, 98.00%, and 99.35%, respectively. These efficiency levels were superior to the results obtained with previously proposed methods using the same database, which is available at http://erythrocytesidb.uib.es/. This method can be extended to clusters of several cells and it requires no user inputs. PMID:25216490

  6. Detection and quantification of subtle changes in red blood cell density using a cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Edward J; Velasquez, Anthony; Lu, Shulin; Murphy, Ryann O; ElKhal, Abdala; Mazor, Ofer; Gorelik, Pavel; Sharda, Anish; Ghiran, Ionita C

    2016-08-16

    Magnetic levitation has emerged as a technique that offers the ability to differentiate between cells with different densities. We have developed a magnetic levitation system for this purpose that distinguishes not only different cell types but also density differences in cells of the same type. This small-scale system suspends cells in a paramagnetic medium in a capillary placed between two rare earth magnets, and cells levitate to an equilibrium position determined solely by their density. Uniform reference beads of known density are used in conjunction with the cells as a means to quantify their levitation positions. In one implementation images of the levitating cells are acquired with a microscope, but here we also introduce a cell phone-based device that integrates the magnets, capillary, and a lens into a compact and portable unit that acquires images with the phone's camera. To demonstrate the effectiveness of magnetic levitation in cell density analysis we carried out levitation experiments using red blood cells with artificially altered densities, and also levitated those from donors. We observed that we can distinguish red blood cells of an anemic donor from those that are healthy. Since a plethora of disease states are characterized by changes in cell density magnetic cell levitation promises to be an effective tool in identifying and analyzing pathologic states. Furthermore, the low cost, portability, and ease of use of the cell phone-based system may potentially lead to its deployment in low-resource environments. PMID:27431921

  7. Recent Stem Cell Advances: Cord Blood and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell for Cardiac Regeneration- a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhekar, Sheetal Kashinath; Shende, Vikas Suresh; Chincholkar, Anjali Baburao

    2016-05-30

    Stem cells are primitive self renewing undifferentiated cell that can be differentiated into various types of specialized cells like nerve cell, skin cells, muscle cells, intestinal tissue, and blood cells. Stem cells live in bone marrow where they divide to make new blood cells and produces peripheral stem cells in circulation. Under proper environment and in presence of signaling molecules stem cells begin to develop into specialized tissues and organs. These unique characteristics make them very promising entities for regeneration of damaged tissue. Day by day increase in incidence of heart diseases including left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality. However infracted tissue cannot regenerate into healthy tissue. Heart transplantation is only the treatment for such patient. Due to limitation of availability of donor for organ transplantation, a focus is made for alternative and effective therapy to treat such condition. In this review we have discussed the new advances in stem cells such as use of cord stem cells and iPSC technology in cardiac repair. Future approach of CB cells was found to be used in tissue repair which is specifically observed for improvement of left ventricular function and myocardial infarction. Here we have also focused on how iPSC technology is used for regeneration of cardiomyocytes and intiating neovascularization in myocardial infarction and also for study of pathophysiology of various degenerative diseases and genetic disease in research field. PMID:27426082

  8. The aging of the red blood cell. A multifactor process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danon, D; Marikovsky, Y

    1988-01-01

    Red blood cell (rbc) senescence is associated with loss of surface sialic acid, which is the principal carrier of surface negative charge and determines the electrokinetic behavior of old rbcs. Loss of sialic acid in an old rbc is demonstrated in its decreased electric mobility and lower negative charge density, determined topographically with cationic particle labeling. Surface sialic acid determines also the mutual attraction--repulsion forces, as demonstrated in enhanced aggluinability with cationic molecules, lectins, and blood group antibodies. Loss of sialic acid accompanies ATP-depletion in vitro; thus, a T-antigen site is unmasked. Macrophages have specific receptors to the site as to newly exposed galactose and N-acetyl galactosamine sugars. Furthermore, the involvement of complement molecules in the recognition of old RBCs by macrophages has been shown. This is possibly due to loss of sialic acid or at least a regrouping--relocation of surface anionic sites due to cell shape changes from discocytes to crenated forms, which accompany both in vivo and in vitro rbc aging. In turn, shape changes are apparently controlled by the cytoskeletal network underlying the rbc membrane, which undergoes structural alteration with physiologic aging in changing the dimensions of oligomeric spectrin and the thickness of the spectrin-actin cytoskeletal assembly. PMID:3052636

  9. 99m Technetium pyrophosphate myocardium scintigraphy. First results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    99m technetium pyrophosphate myocardium scintigraphy is a very recent examination technique. This work gives the results obtained on 61 patients. As a vector of the isotope, pyrophosphate has the advantage over polyphosphate of a fast bone uptake there it should be stressed that a 90 minute pause is necessary between the intraveinous injection of the isotope and the photographic recording so that the reading is not troubled by the labelled intracardiac blood pool image, an image quality criterion being the estimation of a good costal fixation which in fact appears sooner or later according to the subject. The role of pyrophosphate, chelator of calcium in fixation of the isotope on the myocardium, could be explained by the fast appearance of 'dense bodies', made up of calcium hydroxyapathice crystals, in the mitochondria of myocardium cells having undergone an irreversible necrotic process. The choice of 99 m technetium is based on its ease of use: 6 hour half-life, high-energy pure gamma emission at 140 keV. The fixed image studied under two incidences, front and left anterior oblique, is obtained from mobile images given by the scintillation camera used in connection with a data processing system. Several facts are underlined, explaining the disadvantages, advantages and indications of the method

  10. Blood-borne donor mast cell precursors migrate to mast cell-rich brain regions in the adult mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Nautiyal, Katherine M.; Liu, Charles; Dong, Xin; Silver, Rae

    2011-01-01

    Mast cells are hematopoietic immune cells located throughout the body, including within the brain. Reconstitution of mast cell deficient KitW-sh/W-sh mice has proven valuable in determining peripheral mast cell function. Here we study the brain mast cell population using a novel method of blood transfusion for reconstitution. We show that blood transfusion results in mast cells of donor origin in the WT mouse, including in the brain and are restricted to regions bearing host mast cells. In co...

  11. Sickle cell disease biochip: a functional red blood cell adhesion assay for monitoring sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapan, Yunus; Kim, Ceonne; Adhikari, Anima; Gray, Kayla E; Gurkan-Cavusoglu, Evren; Little, Jane A; Gurkan, Umut A

    2016-07-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) afflicts millions of people worldwide and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Chronic and acute vaso-occlusion are the clinical hallmarks of SCD and can result in pain crisis, widespread organ damage, and early movtality. Even though the molecular underpinnings of SCD were identified more than 60 years ago, there are no molecular or biophysical markers of disease severity that are feasibly measured in the clinic. Abnormal cellular adhesion to vascular endothelium is at the root of vaso-occlusion. However, cellular adhesion is not currently evaluated clinically. Here, we present a clinically applicable microfluidic device (SCD biochip) that allows serial quantitative evaluation of red blood cell (RBC) adhesion to endothelium-associated protein-immobilized microchannels, in a closed and preprocessing-free system. With the SCD biochip, we have analyzed blood samples from more than 100 subjects and have shown associations between the measured RBC adhesion to endothelium-associated proteins (fibronectin and laminin) and individual RBC characteristics, including hemoglobin content, fetal hemoglobin concentration, plasma lactate dehydrogenase level, and reticulocyte count. The SCD biochip is a functional adhesion assay, reflecting quantitative evaluation of RBC adhesion, which could be used at baseline, during crises, relative to various long-term complications, and before and after therapeutic interventions. PMID:27063958

  12. Clinical aspects of pulmonary radioactivity observed in radiocolloid liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied clinical aspects and courses of patients with pulmonary radioactivity on liver scintigraphy and speculated the mechanism of pulmonary uptake of radiocolloids. Forty-nine patients with pulmonary radioactivity were classified into 5 diseases groups-liver disease, infection, cancer, ischemic necrosis of liver, etc.- and their presence of absence of chronic liver disease (CLD), Child-Pugh class, serum levels of AST and ALT, results of follow-up liver scintigraphy and clinical course were checked. Of total 49 patients 25 had CLD; there were 23 liver disease patients, 16 infection patients, 7 advanced cancer patients, 2 ischemic necrosis of liver patients, and 1 hemolytic anemia patient. Reversible rise of serum levels of AST and ALT was observed in all patients with liver disease and ischemic necrosis of liver; on one-way ANOVA, these rise were statistically significant (p<0.01). Serum level of ALT of liver disease group patients without CLD was significantly higher than that of infection group patients without CLD (p<0.05). Among 17 patients who underwent follow-up liver scintigraphy, 13 showed no pulmonary radioactivity. Total 12 patients died during follow-up and most of them were terminal cancer patients or CLD patients of Child-Pugh class C. Pulmonary radioactivity of radiocolloid liver scintigraphy could be attributed to the mobilization of reticuloendothelial system (RES) cells by the activation of RES cells in severe infection and terminal cancer, and also by the extensive liver desctruction in liver diseases

  13. Clinical aspects of pulmonary radioactivity observed in radiocolloid liver scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    So, Young; Lee, Kang Wook; Lee, Heon Young; Lee, Won Woo [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    We studied clinical aspects and courses of patients with pulmonary radioactivity on liver scintigraphy and speculated the mechanism of pulmonary uptake of radiocolloids. Forty-nine patients with pulmonary radioactivity were classified into 5 diseases groups-liver disease, infection, cancer, ischemic necrosis of liver, etc.- and their presence of absence of chronic liver disease (CLD), Child-Pugh class, serum levels of AST and ALT, results of follow-up liver scintigraphy and clinical course were checked. Of total 49 patients 25 had CLD; there were 23 liver disease patients, 16 infection patients, 7 advanced cancer patients, 2 ischemic necrosis of liver patients, and 1 hemolytic anemia patient. Reversible rise of serum levels of AST and ALT was observed in all patients with liver disease and ischemic necrosis of liver; on one-way ANOVA, these rise were statistically significant (p<0.01). Serum level of ALT of liver disease group patients without CLD was significantly higher than that of infection group patients without CLD (p<0.05). Among 17 patients who underwent follow-up liver scintigraphy, 13 showed no pulmonary radioactivity. Total 12 patients died during follow-up and most of them were terminal cancer patients or CLD patients of Child-Pugh class C. Pulmonary radioactivity of radiocolloid liver scintigraphy could be attributed to the mobilization of reticuloendothelial system (RES) cells by the activation of RES cells in severe infection and terminal cancer, and also by the extensive liver desctruction in liver diseases.

  14. A Skin Homing Molecule Defines the Langerhans Cell Progenitor in Human Peripheral Blood

    OpenAIRE

    Strunk, Dirk; Egger, Claudia; Leitner, Gerda; Hanau, Daniel; Stingl, Georg

    1997-01-01

    We have recently described a system for the generation of dendritic cells (DC) and Langerhans cells (LC) from defined CD34+ precursors purified from peripheral blood of healthy adult volunteers (1). This study has now been extended by the characterization of two distinct subpopulations of CD34+ cells in normal human peripheral blood as defined by the expression of the skin homing receptor cutaneous lymphocyte-associated antigen (CLA). CD34+/CLA+ cells from normal peripheral blood were found t...

  15. Studies on Morphology and Cytochemistry in Blood Cells of Ayu Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis

    OpenAIRE

    NAKADA, Kojin; FUJISAWA, Kuniyasu; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Peripheral blood cells from ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis altivelis, were separated using a density gradient. Blood cells were then smeared using Shandon Cytospin and subjected to cytochemical staining. Blood cells were categorized based on morphological and cytochemical characteristics, and the density fractionation range and nucleus area/cell area ratio were observed. Lymphocytes are distinguished from neutrophils by their basophilic cytoplasm and Golgi-like field. The features of ch...

  16. Supernatant of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induces Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Possessing Mesenchymal Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Hu, Jun-jun Xu, Zhi-hong Deng, Jie Feng, Yan Jin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence shows that some cells from peripheral blood fibroblast-like mononuclear cells have the capacity to differentiate into mesenchymal lineages. However, the insufficiency of these cells in the circulation challenges the cell isolation and subsequently limits the clinical application of these cells. In the present study, the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbMNCs were isolated from wound animals and treated with the supernatant of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (bmMSCs. Results showed these pbMNCs were fibroblast-like, had stromal morphology, were negative for CD34 and CD45, but positive for Vimentin and Collagen I, and had the multipotency to differentiate into adipocytes and osteoblasts. We named these induced peripheral blood-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (ipbMSCs. Skin grafts in combination with ipbMSCs and collagen I were applied for wound healing, and results revealed ipbMSC exhibited similar potency and effectiveness in the promotion of wound healing to the bmMSCs. Hereafter, we speculate that the mixture of growth factors and chemokines secreted by bmMSCs may play an important roles in the induction of the proliferation and mesenchymal differentiation of mononuclear cells. Our results are clinically relevant because it provide a new method for the acquisition of MSCs which can be used as a candidate for the wound repair.

  17. Systems biology of stored blood cells: Can it help to extend the expiration date?

    OpenAIRE

    Paglia, Giuseppe; Bernhard Ø Palsson; Sigurjonsson, Olafur E.

    2012-01-01

    With increasingly stringent regulations regarding deferral and elimination of blood donors it will become increasingly important to extend the expiration date of blood components beyond the current allowed storage periods. One reason for the storage time limit for blood components is that platelets and red blood cells develop a condition called storage lesions during their storage in plastic blood containers. Systems biology provides comprehensive bio-chemical descriptions of organisms throug...

  18. Cerebral blood flow in sickle cell cerebrovascular disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) has been studied by the xenon-133 (133Xe) inhalation method in 16 children with suspected sickle cell cerebrovascular disease. Abnormalities consisting of decreases in total, hemispheral, or regional CBF were found in 17 of 26 studies. Eleven studies performed immediately after stroke, transient ischemic attack, or depression of state of alertness showed abnormalities. In addition to confirming regional cerebrovascular insufficiency in children with stroke due to major cerebral artery occlusion, the method detected diffuse decrease in CBF in children with stupor, coma, and seizures who had normal angiographic findings. In contrast, six of seven studies obtained after exchange transfusion or during maintenance on hypertransfusion therapy showed normal findings. The difference between results in patients with acute neurologic disturbances and those receiving transfusion therapy was statistically significant (P less than .005). The data indicate that the 133Xe method reliably demonstrates cerebrovascular impairment in sickle cell disease. They also suggest that CBF changes in patients with sickle cell disease can be reversed by exchange transfusion and by hypertransfusion therapy. The 133Xe CBF method may be useful for following up children with sickle cell disease who are at high risk for recurrent stroke

  19. Gallium scintigraphy in acute panniculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallium scintigraphy was performed in a 27-yr-old female in search of a possible occult focus of infection; it showed an unusual diffuse superficial accumulation in the thighs and buttocks. Biopsy of an area of abnormal uptake showed lobular panniculitis which, in the clinical context, led to the diagnosis of Weber-Christian syndrome

  20. A parathyroid scintigraphy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, Desiree [UCD School of Diagnostic Imaging, St Anthony' s Campus, Herbert Avenue, Dublin 4 (Ireland)]. E-mail: desiree.oleary@ucd.ie

    2005-05-01

    Background: There has been much debate concerning the most suitable protocol for parathyroid scintigraphy; the merits of various radiopharmaceuticals versus the correct imaging protocol to visualise both ectopic and anatomically placed adenomas against the various equipment choices have been debated. Aim: To demonstrate, through the use of a case study, the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion. Method: Use is made of Tc99mMIBI, full field chest scintigraphy, a clearly defined imaging protocol and SPECT imaging to locate ectopic parathyroid tissue in a female patient with significant symptoms of parathyroid hyperfunction. Results: A single hyperfunctioning adenoma is located in the pre-carinal area of the mediastinum. Using a radioguided surgical technique the hyperfunctioning tissue is excised and confirmed by histopathology. Conclusion: Whilst a dramatic reduction in patient symptoms was not seen immediately in this patient, the symptoms of the illness have been subsiding since January 2003. This case study demonstrates the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion.

  1. Dynamic oesophageal scintigraphy in achalasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamic oesophageal scintigraphy and the 'condensed image' of the dynamic study was performed in 15 patients (5 women and 10 men) with mean age 53 ± 6 years. In all patients it was found a retention of the radioactive water bolus in the proximal and middle third of the oesophagus. The radionuclide oesophageal transit was impaired in achalasia. (author)

  2. Bone scintigraphy in children: trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensitivity of radionuclide imaging in identifying skeletal trauma in children has been established. Growth plates present a set of problems unique to pediatric studies and diagnotic accuracy is very technique dependent. Imaging for sports injuries and suspected child abuse has been productive. An expanding role for bone scintigraphy in the management of orthopedic problems post-trauma is developing

  3. Counting White Blood Cells from a Blood Smear Using Fourier Ptychographic Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaebum Chung

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count is a valuable metric for assisting with diagnosis or prognosis of various diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, or infection. Counting WBCs can be done either manually or automatically. Automatic methods are capable of counting a large number of cells to give a statistically more accurate reading of the WBC count of a sample, but the specialized equipment tends to be expensive. Manual methods are inexpensive since they only involve a conventional light microscope setup. However, it is more laborious and error-prone because the small field-of-view (FOV of the microscope necessitates mechanical scanning of a specimen for counting an adequate number of WBCs. Here, we investigate the use of Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM to bypass these issues of the manual methods. With a 2x objective, FPM can provide a FOV of 120 mm2 with enhanced resolution comparable to that of a 20x objective, which is adequate for non-differentially counting WBCs in just one FOV. A specialist was able to count the WBCs in FPM images with 100% accuracy compared to the count as determined from conventional microscope images. An automatic counting algorithm was also developed to identify WBCs from FPM's captured images with 95% accuracy, paving the way for a cost-effective WBC counting setup with the advantages of both the automatic and manual counting methods.

  4. [The dynamics of the rapid changes in the phospholipids of the whole blood and blood cells in patients with endometriosis interna].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulakov, V I; Sliusar', N N; Bakuleva, L P; Damirov, M M; Kargapolov, A V

    1993-01-01

    Time course of rapid changes in blood phospholipids and blood cells was studied in 44 patients with endometriosis. Rapid reversible blood phospholipid changes were observed when these patients' red cells and lymphocytes were incubated with calcium chloride. Time course of rapid changes in phosphoinosites, sphyngomyelines, phosphatidylserines, phosphlatidylethanolamines of patients' red and white blood cells, whole blood, and myometrial tissue differed significantly from that in healthy women. The authors suppose that cellular proliferation processes in endometriosis are connected with phospholipid homeostasis disorders in blood cells and tissue. PMID:8250135

  5. Transdifferentiation of Human Hair Follicle Mesenchymal Stem Cells into Red Blood Cells by OCT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shortage of red blood cells (RBCs, erythrocytes can have potentially life-threatening consequences for rare or unusual blood type patients with massive blood loss resulting from various conditions. Erythrocytes have been derived from human pluripotent stem cells (PSCs, but the risk of potential tumorigenicity cannot be ignored, and a majority of these cells produced from PSCs express embryonic ε- and fetal γ-globins with little or no adult β-globin and remain nucleated. Here we report a method to generate erythrocytes from human hair follicle mesenchymal stem cells (hHFMSCs by enforcing OCT4 gene expression and cytokine stimulation. Cells generated from hHFMSCs expressed mainly the adult β-globin chain with minimum level of the fetal γ-globin chain. Furthermore, these cells also underwent multiple maturation events and formed enucleated erythrocytes with a biconcave disc shape. Gene expression analyses showed that OCT4 regulated the expression of genes associated with both pluripotency and erythroid development during hHFMSC transdifferentiation toward erythroid cells. These findings show that mature erythrocytes can be generated from adult somatic cells, which may serve as an alternative source of RBCs for potential autologous transfusion.

  6. Short and long-term conservation of blood and bone marrow cells for clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of methods to conserve bone marrow, blood and blood components is necessary to ensure adequate supplies of these at times of radiation accidents or during radiation therapy with accompanying destruction of the haemopoietic tissues and essential blood elements. In addition, with adequate supplies of stored blood, treatment of astronauts affected by radiation, particularly when interplanetary flights become feasible, will be possible and therapy for patients with blood dyscrasias can be greatly expanded. The creation and expansion of blood banks for long-term storage of haemotherapeutic products is necessarily dependent on improved methods of conservation of blood and bone marrow cells

  7. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  8. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Nalls

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types. We studied 19,509 subjects from seven cohorts in a discovery analysis, and 11,823 subjects from ten cohorts for replication analyses, to determine genetic factors influencing variability within the normal hematological range for total WBC count and five WBC subtype measures. Cohort specific data was supplied by the CHARGE, HeamGen, and INGI consortia, as well as independent collaborative studies. We identified and replicated ten associations with total WBC count and five WBC subtypes at seven different genomic loci (total WBC count-6p21 in the HLA region, 17q21 near ORMDL3, and CSF3; neutrophil count-17q21; basophil count- 3p21 near RPN1 and C3orf27; lymphocyte count-6p21, 19p13 at EPS15L1; monocyte count-2q31 at ITGA4, 3q21, 8q24 an intergenic region, 9q31 near EDG2, including three previously reported associations and seven novel associations. To investigate functional relationships among variants contributing to variability in the six WBC traits, we utilized gene expression- and pathways-based analyses. We implemented gene-clustering algorithms to evaluate functional connectivity among implicated loci and showed functional relationships across cell types. Gene expression data from whole blood was utilized to show that significant biological consequences can be extracted from our genome-wide analyses, with effect estimates for significant loci from the meta-analyses being highly corellated with the proximal gene expression. In addition, collaborative efforts between the groups contributing to this study and related studies conducted by the COGENT and RIKEN groups allowed for the examination of effect homogeneity for genome-wide significant associations across

  9. WHITE BLOOD CELLS IN POLISH ATHLETES OF VARIOUS SPORTS DISCIPLINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Orysiak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the diversity of white blood cell (WBC counts and their subsets (neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes among competitive athletes of different sports disciplines. The blood samples were collected from 608 healthy, medically examined athletes (181 females and 427 males aged 20.1 ± 5.1 years, who represented five sport disciplines: canoeing, judo, rowing, swimming and volleyball. All blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein in the morning, after overnight fasting, in a seated position. Haematological analyses were conducted using a haematology analyser (ADVIA 120, Siemens. Neutropenia (defined as neutrophil count <2.0 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup] was found in athletes of both sexes in each discipline. There was no incident of lymphopenia (defined as a lymphocyte count <1.0 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup]. Monocytopenia (defined as a monocyte count <0.2 · 10[sup]9[/sup]·L[sup]-1[/sup] was seen only in male athletes, except judo athletes. Differences in WBC and their subset counts were related to sport disciplines: in volleyball players WBC counts were significantly higher than in athletes of canoeing and rowing (in females; neutrophil counts were the lowest in swimming athletes; lymphocyte counts were lower in athletes of canoeing than in volleyball and swimming, but only in females; monocyte counts were lower in athletes of canoeing than swimming (in females and judo (in males. In women, counts of neutrophils were greater and counts of monocytes were smaller than in men. It seems that prevalence of neutropenia and monocytopenia and differences in WBC counts and their subsets among disciplines could be related to the adaptive response to physical exercise.

  10. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m (99mTc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with 99mTc (99mTc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na99mTcO4 and 99mTc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  11. Sucralose sweetener in vivo effects on blood constituents radiolabeling, red blood cell morphology and radiopharmaceutical biodistribution in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, G.S.; Pereira, M.O. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Benarroz, M.O.; Frydman, J.N.G.; Rocha, V.C. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, M.J. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Fisiologia, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S., E-mail: adnfonseca@ig.com.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Biomedico, Departamento de Ciencias Fisiologicas, Rua Frei Caneca, 94, Rio de Janeiro 20211040 (Brazil); Medeiros, A.C. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010180 Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, M. [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, Vila Isabel, 20551030 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Coordenadoria de Pesquisa Basica, Praca Cruz Vermelha, 23, 20230130 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Effects of sucralose sweetener on blood constituents labelled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) on red blood cell (RBC) morphology, sodium pertechnetate (Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4}) and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid labeled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) biodistribution in rats were evaluated. Radiolabeling on blood constituents from Wistar rats was undertaken for determining the activity percentage (%ATI) on blood constituents. RBC morphology was also evaluated. Na{sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} and {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA biodistribution was used to determine %ATI/g in organs. There was no alteration on RBC blood constituents and morphology %ATI. Sucralose sweetener was capable of altering %ATI/g of the radiopharmaceuticals in different organs. These findings are associated to the sucralose sweetener in specific organs.

  12. Molecular matching of red blood cells is superior to serological matching in sickle cell disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cobianchi da Costa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of DNA methods to provide a means to precisely genotypically match donor blood units for the antigen-negative type of 35 sickle cell disease patients<. METHODS: Red blood cell units were investigated for ABO, D, C, c, E, e, K, Fyª, Fy b, Jkª, Jk b, S, s, Diª and RH variants by performing a molecular array (Human Erythrocyte Antigen BeadChipTM, BioArray Solutions, polymerase chain reaction followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of patient samples and donor units that had been serologically matched based on the ABO, Rh and K phenotypes and the presence of antibodies. RESULTS: Matches for 21 of 35 sickle cell disease patients presented discrepancies or mismatches for multiple antigens between the genotype profile and the antigen profile of their serologically-matched blood units. The main discrepancies or mismatches occurred in the RH, FY, JK and MNS systems. Eight Rh alloimmunized patients presented RHD and RHCE variants that had not been serologically identified. According to these results better matches were found for the patients with genotyped units and the patients benefited as shown by better in vivo red blood cell survival. CONCLUSION: Molecular matching is superior to serological matching in sickle cell disease patients, decreasing the risk of transfusion reactions, especially delayed transfusion reactions to existing alloantibodies and preventing alloimmunization.

  13. Thiopurine methyltransferase activity in red blood cells of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Linda Benjamin; Salavaggione, Oreste E; Szumlanski, Carol L; Miller, Jackie L; Weinshilboum, Richard M; Trepanier, Lauren

    2004-01-01

    Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) is an important enzyme in the metabolism of thiopurine medications such as azathioprine. In humans, activity varies widely among individuals, primarily because of genetic polymorphisms. Low TPMT activity increases the risk of myelosuppression from azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine, whereas high TPMT activity is associated with poor drug efficacy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dogs also show a wide range of TPMT activity. Heparinized blood samples were obtained from 177 dogs associated with a veterinary teaching hospital. Red blood cell (RBC) TPMT activity was measured by means of a modification of a radiochemical method as established for use in people. TPMT activity varied across a 9-fold range (7.9-71.8 U of RBC per milliliter; median, 21.7). Variation in TPMT activity was not associated with age, sex, or neutering status. Giant Schnauzers had much lower TPMT activity (7.9-20 U of RBC per milliliter; median, 13.1; P dogs could affect thiopurine drug toxicity and efficacy in canine patients. PMID:15058773

  14. EFFECT OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON RED BLOOD CELL IMMUNE AND T-CELL SUBGROUP IN THE RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoWei; HuangYuxin; ChenHong; SunDayong; ZhangHongxin

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) on immune system was observed in the rat by using micro- whole blood direct immunofluoreseence Staining assay to detect changes of the peripheral blood T lymphocyte subgroup and employing red blood cell (RBC) C3b receptor- yeast rosette test and red blood cell-IC rosette test to analyze erythroeytic immune function. Results showed that after EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36), CD4+, RBC-C3bRR and RBC-ICR in the peripheral blood of the normal rats increased significantly while CD8+ had no any considerable changes and a positive correlation between CD4+ and RBC-C3bRR was found. In immuoosuppression model rats, the values of CD4+ and RBC-C3bRR were obviously lower than those of the normal control group while CD8+ had no any striking changes; but after EA treatment, there were no evident differences between EA group and normal control group in the above-mentioned indexes. There were also no any significant differences between non-acupoint group and normal control group in those indexes. Results suggest that EA of “Zusanli” (ST 36) can raise T cell immune function and RBC adhesion function in both normal rats and immunosuppression model rats, both of which present a positive correlation.

  15. Diagnosis and epidemiology of red blood cell enzyme disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Wijk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The red blood cell possess an active metabolic machinery that provides the cell with energy to pump ions against electrochemical gradients, to maintain its shape, to keep hemoglobin iron in the reduced (ferrous form, and to maintain enzyme and hemoglobin sulfhydryl groups. The main source of metabolic energy comes from glucose. Glucose is metabolized through the glycolytic pathway and through the hexose monophosphate shunt. Glycolysis catabolizes glucose to pyruvate and lactate, which represent the end products of glucose metabolism in the erythrocyte. Adenosine diphosphate (ADP is phosphorylated to adenosine triphosphate (ATP, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is reduced to NADH in glycolysis. 2,3- Bisphosphoglycerate, an important regulator of the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin, is generated during glycolysis by the Rapoport-Luebering shunt. The hexose monophosphate shunt oxidizes glucose-6-phosphate, reducing NADP+ to reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH. The red cell lacks the capacity for de novo purine synthesis but has a salvage pathway that permits synthesis of purine nucleotides from purine bases...

  16. Loss of deformability of malaria-infected red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. Majid; Feng, James

    2012-11-01

    The pathogenesis of malaria is largely due to stiffening of the infected red blood cells (RBCs). Contemporary understanding ascribes the loss of RBC deformability to a 10-fold increase in membrane stiffness caused by extra cross-linking in the spectrin network. Local measurements by micropipette aspiration, however, have reported only an increase of 3-fold in the shear modulus. We believe the discrepancy stems from the rigid parasite particles inside infected cells, and have carried out numerical simulations to demonstrate this mechanism. The cell membrane is represented by a set of discrete particles connected by linearly elastic springs. The cytosol is modeled as a homogeneous Newtonian fluid, and discretized by particles as in standard smoothed particle hydrodynamics. The malaria parasite is modeled as an aggregate of particles constrained to rigid-body motion. We simulate RBC stretching tests by optical tweezers in three dimensions. The results demonstrate that the presence of a sizeable parasite greatly reduces the ability of RBCs to deform under stretching. With the solid inclusion, the observed loss of deformability can be predicted quantitatively using the local membrane elasticity measured by micropipettes.

  17. Continuous Magnetophoretic Separation of Blood Cells from Plasma at the Microscale

    CERN Document Server

    Furlani, E P

    2007-01-01

    We present a method for the direct and continuous separation of red and white blood cells from plasma at the microscale. The method is implemented in a microfluidic system with magnetic functionality. The fluidic structure within the microsystem consists of an inlet and a single microfluidic channel with multiple outlets. The magnetic functionality is provided by an array of integrated soft-magnetic elements that are embedded transverse and adjacent to the microchannel. The elements are magnetized using an external field, and once magnetized they produce a magnetic force on blood cells as they flow through the microchannel. In whole blood, white blood cells (WBCs) behave as diamagnetic microparticles, while red blood cells (RBCs) exhibit diamagnetic or paramagnetic behavior depending on the oxygenation of their hemoglobin. We study the motion of blood cells through the microchannel using a mathematical model that takes into account the magnetic, fluidic and gravitational forces on the cells. We use the model ...

  18. Functional placental scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method to determine the uteroplacental blood flow in the last trimester of pregnancy is presented. After intravenous injection of 37 MBq 113Insup(m) the radiation above the placenta was recorded in 10 s intervals for 240 s by a scintillation camera. The data are presented in a time-activity curve, in which the maximum activity is proportional to the placenta volume, rise time can be defined and the quotient maximum activity/rise time is calculated. This quotient is an index of the uteroplacental blood flow which can be used for comparison of a series of patients. (Auth.)

  19. Absence of peripheral blood mononuclear cells priming in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos B.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of the proinflammatory environment occurring in dialytic patients, cytokine overproduction has been implicated in hemodialysis co-morbidity. However, there are discrepancies among the various studies that have analyzed TNF-alpha synthesis and the presence of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC priming in this clinical setting. We measured bioactive cytokine by the L929 cell bioassay, and evaluated PBMC TNF-alpha production by 32 hemodialysis patients (HP and 51 controls. No difference in TNF-alpha secretion was observed between controls and HP (859 ± 141 vs 697 ± 130 U/10(6 cells. Lipopolysaccharide (5 µg/ml did not induce any further TNF-alpha release, showing no PBMC priming. Paraformaldehyde-fixed HP PBMC were not cytotoxic to L929 cells, suggesting the absence of membrane-anchored TNF-alpha. Cycloheximide inhibited PBMC cytotoxicity in HP and controls, indicating lack of a PBMC TNF-alpha pool, and dependence on de novo cytokine synthesis. Actinomycin D reduced TNF-alpha production in HP, but had no effect on controls. Therefore, our data imply that TNF-alpha production is an intrinsic activity of normal PBMC and is not altered in HP. Moreover, TNF-alpha is a product of de novo synthesis by PBMC and is not constitutively expressed on HP cell membranes. The effect of actinomycin D suggests a putative tighter control of TNF-alpha mRNA turnover in HP. This increased dependence on TNF-alpha RNA transcription in HP may reflect an adaptive response to hemodialysis stimuli.

  20. Red blood cell sodium transport in patients with cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Bendtsen, Flemming; Henriksen, Jens H

    2016-09-01

    Patients with advanced cirrhosis have abnormal sodium homoeostasis. The study was undertaken to quantify the sodium transport across the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with cirrhosis. RBC efflux and influx of sodium were studied in vitro with tracer (22) Na(+) according to linear kinetics in 24 patients with cirrhosis and 14 healthy controls. The sodium efflux was modified by ouabain (O), furosemide (F) and a combination of O and F (O + F). RBC sodium was significantly decreased (4·6 versus control 6·3 mmol l(-1) , Ppump. The study gives no evidence to an altered intracellular/extracellular sodium ratio or to a reduced fractional furosemide-sensitive sodium transport in cirrhosis. PMID:26016736

  1. Dopamine metabolism in red blood cells in schizophrena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method was developed for the separation by thin-layer chromatography of 14C-labelled 3-methoxy, 4-hydroxyphenethylamine, 3-hydroxy, 4-methoxyphenethylamine and 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine (DMPEA) after incubation of dopamine with catechol-O-methyltransferese (COMT) in lysates of human red blood cells (RBC). 14C-methyl-S-adenosyl-methionine was used as the methyl donor. Total COMT activity with noradrenaline or dopamine as substrates, respectively, and the pattern of 14C-methylated metabolites of dopamine were measured in RBC of 47 schizophrenic patients and in 34 control subjects. There were no differences between patients and controls. DMPEA was not formed by RBC in schizophrenic patients (or in controls), a finding which argues against the ''pnk spot''/DMPEA hypothesis of schizophrenia. The methods used seem suitable for studies of other human disorders where COMT might be involved. (author)

  2. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes. PMID:26904817

  3. False positive paediatric labelled white blood cell study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An eight-month-old female presented for a technetium labelled white blood cell study (LWBC) to exclude an intra-abdominal abscess. Born premature, the child had surgery to repair a perforated bowel and had repeated presentations with diarrhoea, fevers, a tender right upper quadrant and a raised leucocyte count. Multiple imaging modalities failed to demonstrate recurrent bowel perforation, ischaemia or an intra-abdominal mass. A LWBC study was performed with whole body imaging at 1 and 5 hours post re-injection of the radiolabelled blood. No abnormal uptake was visualised in the abdomen but abnormal white cell accumulation was noted in the right hind foot and the length of the right lower leg. This activity appeared to lie along the course of the right tibia. Plain X-ray demonstrated no evidence of tibial osteomyelitis. Concern that the LWBC may be falsely negative in a patient on antibiotics, a gallium scan was immediately performed to re-examine the abdomen. The whole body gallium images demonstrated normal physiological uptake in the abdomen and no evidence of infection in the right leg. The patient had no clinical features to support right leg pathology. The abnormal LWBC localisation in the right lower leg/foot was therefore falsely positive. The most likely explanation is increased activation of the autologous LWBC by 'rough' handling during difficult venesection and re-injection through small veins and needles/cannulas. The slow flow through the veins draining the foot injection site would contribute to margination in these vessel walls. This is a potential cause for false positive LWBC studies- with significant implications for patient care. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  4. A critical study of technetium 99m and xenon 133 lung scintigraphy in patients with cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During investigations for cystic fibrosis, 41 children, most of whom were aged 0 to 7 years, were submitted to lung scintigraphy with technetium 99m first and xenon 133 subsequently. This procedure ensured accurate location of pulmonary lesions. The reliability of the radio-isotopic study was assessed through comparison to conventional clinical and radiological criteria, arterial blood gas determinations and pulmonary function tests. Perfusion scintigraphy with technetium 99m labelled macroaggregated albumin (n=90) was compared to functional parametrical xenon 133 study (n=25) (perfusion-ventilation). The degree of lung disease was evaluated during serial examinations in order to improve prognostic prediction. Technetium 99m scintigraphy proves a reliable and sensitive procedure which accurately reflects the patients' clinical status when it is performed in the absence of patent pulmonary superinfection. Xenon 133 scintigraphy, which is more difficult to perform and interpret, has the advantage of providing a topographic and quantitative evaluation of pulmonary blood flow and ventilatory efficiency

  5. Utility of 133Xe-ventilation scintigraphy in evaluating airflow limitation in diffuse panbronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on previous clinical experience, it is known that ventilation scintigraphy has the advantage of detecting obstructive changes. The author reports that 133Xe-ventilation scintigraphy can detect characteristic findings even in the very early stage of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), which cannot be found by the chest X-ray. Fifteen cases of DPB were studied. Another 15 cases who have no abnormality on the pulmonary function test served as controls. 133Xe-ventilation scintigraphy and 99mTc-MAA-perfusion scintigraphy were performed on the above 30 cases. In DPB patients, remarkable delay of 133Xe washout and a decrease in blood flow are seen in the bilateral lower lung fields. A particular characteristic was that a localized image of 133Xe gas remained in bilateral lower lung fields. Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy was performed on seven DPB patients for the second time, who had been given long-term administration of roxithromycin for three months. After long-term administration of roxithromycin, washout time of 133Xe gas from bilateral lower lung fields was remarkably shortened. Continuous administration of this compound helps to improve local lung function of DPB patients. It is concluded that a washout study by means of 133Xe-ventilation scintigraphy can not only detect obstructive lesions associated with DPB, even in an early stage, but is also very useful from the standpoint of therapeutic efficacy evaluation. (author)

  6. Utility of {sup 133}Xe-ventilation scintigraphy in evaluating airflow limitation in diffuse panbronchiolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsuzaki, Katsumi [Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1995-01-01

    Based on previous clinical experience, it is known that ventilation scintigraphy has the advantage of detecting obstructive changes. The author reports that {sup 133}Xe-ventilation scintigraphy can detect characteristic findings even in the very early stage of diffuse panbronchiolitis (DPB), which cannot be found by the chest X-ray. Fifteen cases of DPB were studied. Another 15 cases who have no abnormality on the pulmonary function test served as controls. {sup 133}Xe-ventilation scintigraphy and {sup 99m}Tc-MAA-perfusion scintigraphy were performed on the above 30 cases. In DPB patients, remarkable delay of {sup 133}Xe washout and a decrease in blood flow are seen in the bilateral lower lung fields. A particular characteristic was that a localized image of {sup 133}Xe gas remained in bilateral lower lung fields. Ventilation-perfusion scintigraphy was performed on seven DPB patients for the second time, who had been given long-term administration of roxithromycin for three months. After long-term administration of roxithromycin, washout time of {sup 133}Xe gas from bilateral lower lung fields was remarkably shortened. Continuous administration of this compound helps to improve local lung function of DPB patients. It is concluded that a washout study by means of {sup 133}Xe-ventilation scintigraphy can not only detect obstructive lesions associated with DPB, even in an early stage, but is also very useful from the standpoint of therapeutic efficacy evaluation. (author).

  7. Comparison of the Blood and Lymphatic Microvessel Density of Pleomorphic Adenoma and Basal Cell Adenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Andresa Borges Soares; Albina Altemani; Thais Ribeiro de Oliveira; Felipe de Oliveira Fonseca Rodrigues; Alfredo Ribeiro-Silva; Danilo Figueiredo Soave; Fabricio Passador-Santos; Suellen Trentin Brum; Marcelo Henrique Napimoga; Vera Cavalcanti de Araújo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common tumor of the salivary gland, while basal cell adenoma (BCA) is an uncommon neoplasm. Blood and lymphatic vessels are crucial for tumor metabolism. The aim of this study was to compare the blood and lymphatic vascular density and vascular and endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in PA and BCA tumors. In addition, cell proliferation was evaluated in these tumors. METHODS Blood and lymphatic vessel content, VEGF expression, and cell p...

  8. Human Blood-Vessel-Derived Stem Cells for Tissue Repair and Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Chien-Wen Chen; Mirko Corselli; Bruno Péault; Johnny Huard

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent stem/progenitor cells with similar developmental potentials have been independently identified from diverse human tissue/organ cultures. The increasing recognition of the vascular/perivascular origin of mesenchymal precursors suggested blood vessels being a systemic source of adult stem/progenitor cells. Our group and other laboratories recently isolated multiple stem/progenitor cell subsets from blood vessels of adult human tissues. Each of the three structural layers of blood ve...

  9. Measurement of interaction forces between red blood cells in aggregates by optical tweezers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maklygin, A Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Karmenian, A; Nikitin, Sergei Yu; Obolenskii, I S; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Kisun Li

    2012-06-30

    We have fabricated double-beam optical tweezers and demonstrated the possibility of their use for measuring the interaction forces between red blood cells (erythrocytes). It has been established experimentally that prolonged trapping of red blood cells in a tightly focused laser beam does not cause any visible changes in their shape or size. We have measured the interaction between red blood cells in the aggregate, deformed by optical tweezers.

  10. Endothelial progenitor cell differentiation using cryopreserved, umbilical cord blood-derived mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-ho JANG; Hugh C KIM; Sun-kyung KIM; Jeong-eun CHOI; Young-jin KIM; Hyun-woo LEE; Seok-yun KANG; Joon-seong PARK; Jin-hyuk CHOI; Ho-yeong LIM

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the endothelial differentiation potentiality of umbilical cord blood (UCB), we induced the differentiation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC)from cryopreserved UCB-derived mononuclear cells (MNC). Methods: MNC from cryopreserved UCB and peripheral blood (PB) were cultured in M199 medium with endothelial cell growth supplements for 14 d. EPC were characterized by RT-PCR,flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry analysis. The proliferation of differen-tiated EPC was studied by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTI') assay, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) concentra-tion was measured using an ELISA kit. Characteristics of UCB-derived EPC were compared with those of PB-derived EPC. Results: A number of round-shaped cells were loosely attached to the bottom after 24 h culture, and numerous spindle-shaped cells began to appear from the round-shaped ones on d 7. Those cells expressed endothelial markers such as, Fit-1/VEGFR-1, ecNOS, VE-cadherin, yon Willebrand factor, and secreted VEGF. The patterns of endothelial markers of EPC from PB and UCB did not show striking differences. The results of the prolifera-tion and secretion of VEGF were also similar. Conclusion: We successfully cul-tured UCB cells stored at -196 ℃ into cells with the quality of endothelial cells.Those EPC could be used for angiogenic therapeutics by activating adjacent endothelial cells and enhancing angiogenesis.

  11. Paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for myocardial perfusion scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobutamine as a predominant beta-1 agonist increases heart rate and myocardial contractility and at sufficient high doses, it also increases systolic blood pressure. This study was undertaken to describe instances of paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for Tl-201 myocardial perfusion SPECT study and the relationship between scintigraphic findings and hypotension occurred during dobutamine infusion. Methods: In 201 consecutive patients unable to perform adequate exercise, dobutamine Tl-201 myocardial SPECT was performed. Dobutamine was infused starting from 10 μg/kg/min increasing to 40 μ/kg/min. Paradoxical hypotension was defined as a decrease in systolic blood pressure ≥ 20 mmHg compared with baseline study. Paradoxical hypotension was observed in 40 patients (Group A) out of 201 (19.9%) while no significant change in systolic blood pressure was detected in the remaining 161 patients (Group B). Mean maximum fall in systolic blood pressure was 39±18 mmHg (range: 20-90). In 33 of 40 patients (83%) with paradoxical hypotension, scintigraphy was normal compared to 131 (81%) of the remaining 161 patients. In patients of Group A, angiography, echocardiography and tilt table tests were performed in 13, 11 and 6 patients respectively. Nine of 13 angiographic evaluations (69%), 10 of 11 echocardiographic evaluations (91%), all of the tilt table tests were normal. Additionally, all of the patients of Group A were clinically followed up at least 6 months after the myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. None of the patients had a cardiac event except one patient during the follow-up period. Conclusion: Paradoxical hypotension during dobutamine infusion for myocardial scintigraphy is not an uncommon finding and up to 19.9% patients may develop such hypotension. To maximize test safety, precautions should be taken during dobutamine myocardial stress test, since remarkable decrease in systolic blood pressure may occur. Unlike hypotension occurring with exercise

  12. Model animal experiments on UV-c irradiation of blood and isolated cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cellular and molecular basis of the therapeutically used effect of reinjected ultraviolet (UVC) irradiated blood is unknown. First approaches to that problem were made in this study by aid of model experiments. Neither the spontaneous degranulation nor the antigen-induced histamine release from rat connective tissue mast cells (in vivo) was influenced by the injection (i.v.) of UV-irradiated blood or blood lymphocytes. By comparison of the effect of UV light on blood lymphocytes (number of dead cells, strength of chemoluminescence) after irradiation of the isolated cells and the unfractionated blood, respectively, it was shown that the strong light absorption within the blood sample prevents damage or functional alterations of the blood lymphocytes. The compound 48/80 - induced histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells can be completely inhibited by UV irradiation (0.6 mJ/cm2) without increasing the spontaneous histamine release. (author)

  13. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  14. Enrichment of prostate cancer cells from blood cells with a hybrid dielectrophoresis and immunocapture microfluidic system

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chao; Liu, He; Bander, Neil H.; Kirby, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    The isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from cancer patient blood is a technical challenge that is often addressed by microfluidic approaches. Two of the most prominent techniques for rare cancer cell separation, immunocapture and dielectrophoresis (DEP), are currently limited by a performance tradeoff between high efficiency and high purity. The development of a platform capable of these two performance criteria can potentially be facilitated by incorporating both DEP and immunocaptu...

  15. Mitogen-activated Tasmanian devil blood mononuclear cells kill devil facial tumour disease cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gabriella K; Tovar, Cesar; Cooray, Anne A; Kreiss, Alexandre; Darby, Jocelyn; Murphy, James M; Corcoran, Lynn M; Bettiol, Silvana S; Lyons, A Bruce; Woods, Gregory M

    2016-08-01

    Devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) is a transmissible cancer that has brought the host species, the Tasmanian devil, to the brink of extinction. The cancer cells avoid allogeneic immune recognition by downregulating cell surface major histocompatibility complex (MHC) I expression. This should prevent CD8(+) T cell, but not natural killer (NK) cell, cytotoxicity. The reason why NK cells, normally reactive to MHC-negative cells, are not activated to kill DFTD cells has not been determined. The immune response of wild devils to DFTD, if it occurs, is uncharacterised. To investigate this, we tested 12 wild devils with DFTD, and found suggestive evidence of low levels of antibodies against DFTD cells in one devil. Eight of these devils were also analysed for cytotoxicity, however, none showed evidence for cytotoxicity against cultured DFTD cells. To establish whether mimicking activation of antitumour responses could induce cytotoxic activity against DFTD, Tasmanian devil peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated with either the mitogen Concanavalin A, the Toll-like receptor agonist polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid or recombinant Tasmanian devil IL-2. All induced the PBMC cells to kill cultured DFTD cells, suggesting that activation does not occur after encounter with DFTD cells in vivo, but can be induced. The identification of agents that activate cytotoxicity against DFTD target cells is critical for developing strategies to protect against DFTD. Such agents could function as adjuvants to induce functional immune responses capable of targeting DFTD cells and tumours in vivo. PMID:27089941

  16. Peripheral blood cell variations in cirrhotic portal hypertension patients with hypersplenism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun-Fu Lu; Xin-Qiu Li; Xiao-Yu Han; Xiao-Guang Gong; Shun-Wu Chang

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore peripheral blood cell variations in hepatic cirrhosis portal hypertension patients with hypersplenism. Methods: Clinical data of 322 hypersplenism patients with decreased peripheral blood cells, admitted with cirrhotic portal hypertension, was retrospectively studied over the last 17 years. Results:In 64% (206/322) of patients, more than 2 kinds of blood cell were decreased, including 89 cases of pancytopenia (43.2%), 52 cases of WBC+PLT decrease (25.2%), 29 cases of RBC + PLT decrease (14.1%), and 36 cases of WBC + RBC decrease (17.5%);in 36% (116/322) of patients, single type blood cell decrease occurred, including 31 cases of PLT decrease (26.7%), 29 cases of WBC decrease (25%) and 56 cases of RBC decrease (48.3%). Of 227 routine bone marrow examinations, bone marrow hyperplasia was observed in 118 cases (52.0%), the remainder showed no hyperplasia. For the distinct scope and extent of peripheralblood cell decreases, preoperative blood component transfusions were carried out, then treated by surgery, after whole group splenectomy, the peripheral blood cell count was significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusions: Of portal hypertensive patients with splenomegaly and hypersplenism, 64%have simultaneous decrease in various blood cells, 36%have decrease in single type blood cells, 52%of patients have bone marrow hyperplasia. A splenectomy can significantly increase the reduction of peripheral blood cells.

  17. Characterization of Microvesicles Released from Human Red Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duc Bach Nguyen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are spherical fragments of cell membrane released from various cell types under physiological as well as pathological conditions. Based on their size and origin, EVs are classified as exosome, microvesicles (MVs and apoptotic bodies. Recently, the release of MVs from human red blood cells (RBCs under different conditions has been reported. MVs are released by outward budding and fission of the plasma membrane. However, the outward budding process itself, the release of MVs and the physical properties of these MVs have not been well investigated. The aim of this study is to investigate the formation process, isolation and characterization of MVs released from RBCs under conditions of stimulating Ca2+ uptake and activation of protein kinase C. Methods: Experiments were performed based on single cell fluorescence imaging, fluorescence activated cell sorter/flow cytometer (FACS, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and dynamic light scattering (DLS. The released MVs were collected by differential centrifugation and characterized in both their size and zeta potential. Results: Treatment of RBCs with 4-bromo-A23187 (positive control, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA, or phorbol-12 myristate-13 acetate (PMA in the presence of 2 mM extracellular Ca2+ led to an alteration of cell volume and cell morphology. In stimulated RBCs, exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS and formation of MVs were observed by using annexin V-FITC. The shedding of MVs was also observed in the case of PMA treatment in the absence of Ca2+, especially under the transmitted bright field illumination. By using SEM, AFM and DLS the morphology and size of stimulated RBCs, MVs were characterized. The sizes of the two populations of MVs were 205.8 ± 51.4 nm and 125.6 ± 31.4 nm, respectively. Adhesion of stimulated RBCs and MVs was observed. The zeta potential of MVs was determined in the range from - 40 mV to - 10 m

  18. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in brain tumors and pituitary tumors: First experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This preliminary study embraced 45 patients with meningiomas, brain tumors or pituitary tumors, which were imaged by planar and tomographic scintigraphy after intravenous injection of 111Indium-labeled octreotide. In all of the meningiomas studied (unifocal and multifocal tumors in various locations), a high density of somatostatin receptors was detected by scintigraphy. Pituitary tumors were slightly positive in 50% of cases only, independent of the endocrine activity. Gliomas with an intact blood-brain barrier showed no enhanced tracer uptake in vivo, while gliomas with distributed blood-brain barrier had a high activity uptake. We conclude that in vivo somatostatin receptor scintigraphy, although not tumor-specific, may aid in the preoperative diagnosis and staging of intracranial tumors, especially skull base tumors. (orig.)

  19. Role of 131I-MIBG scintigraphy and 18F-DOPA PET/CT in the evaluation phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Phaeochromocytomas are a neuroendocrine tumor of the medulla of the adrenal glands (originating in the chromaffin cells), or extra-adrenal chromaffin tissue that failed to involute after birth. These tumors secrete excessive amounts of catecholamines(epinephrine and norepinephrine) and patients most commonly present with palpitations, anxiety, diaphoresis and hypertension. Diagnosis is established by measuring catecholamines and metanephrines in plasma (blood) or through a 24-hour urine collection, and imaging procedures like ultrasound, CT, 131I - MIBG Scintigraphy and newer modalities like 18F-DOPA PET/CT. In this present study we present our initial experience with of 131I-MIBG scintigraphy and 18F-DOPA PET/CT in the evaluation Phaeochromocytoma/paraganglioma. Sixteen patients with suspicion for phaeochromocytomas/paraganglioma were prospectively enrolled and scheduled for 131I - MIBG and 18F-DOPA PET/CT over a period of 14 months. Whenever possible, tissue diagnosis was attempted. Images were analyzed by two independent nuclear medicine physicians. 131I- MIBG scintigraphy identified eight positive lesions whereas 18F - DOPA PET/CT identified eleven positive lesions. At present, in our clinical experience either of the two tests do not appear to be clearly superior rather they mutually provide additional information in the given clinical setting and should be offered to patient whenever possible

  20. Evaluation of mast cells, eosinophils, blood capillaries in oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid mucositis

    OpenAIRE

    D Santhosh Reddy; Sivapathasundharam, B; T R Saraswathi; Sriram, G

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Mast cells are granule containing secretory cells present in oral mucosal and connective tissue environment. Oral lichen planus and oral lichenoid lesions are commonly occurring oral diseases and have some similarity clinically and histologically. Both are characterized by an extensive sub epithelial infiltrate of T cells, together with mast cells, eosinophils and blood capillaries. In this study mast cell and eosinophil densities along with number of blood capillaries were stud...

  1. Ethyl Pyruvate Combats Human Leukemia Cells but Spares Normal Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenmeier, Gerd; Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Kurz, Susanne; Bigl, Marina; Pieroh, Philipp; Debebe, Tewodros; Buchold, Martin; Thieme, Rene; Wichmann, Gunnar; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl pyruvate, a known ROS scavenger and anti-inflammatory drug was found to combat leukemia cells. Tumor cell killing was achieved by concerted action of necrosis/apoptosis induction, ATP depletion, and inhibition of glycolytic and para-glycolytic enzymes. Ethyl lactate was less harmful to leukemia cells but was found to arrest cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. Both, ethyl pyruvate and ethyl lactate were identified as new inhibitors of GSK-3β. Despite the strong effect of ethyl pyruvate on leukemia cells, human cognate blood cells were only marginally affected. The data were compiled by immune blotting, flow cytometry, enzyme activity assay and gene array analysis. Our results inform new mechanisms of ethyl pyruvate-induced cell death, offering thereby a new treatment regime with a high therapeutic window for leukemic tumors. PMID:27579985

  2. P2X and P2Y receptor signaling in red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Purinergic signaling involves the activation of cell surface P1 and P2 receptors by extracellular nucleosides and nucleotides such as adenosine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respectively. P2 receptors comprise P2X and P2Y receptors, and have well-established roles in leukocyte and platelet biology. Emerging evidence indicates important roles for these receptors in red blood cells. P2 receptor activation stimulates a number of signaling pathways in progenitor red blood cells resulting in microparticle release, reactive oxygen species formation, and apoptosis. Likewise, activation of P2 receptors in mature red blood cells stimulates signaling pathways mediating volume regulation, eicosanoid release, phosphatidylserine exposure, hemolysis, impaired ATP release, and susceptibility or resistance to infection. This review summarizes the distribution of P2 receptors in red blood cells, and outlines the functions of P2 receptor signaling in these cells and its implications in red blood cell biology. PMID:26579528

  3. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated to exercise and fetal gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta;

    activity was obtained by a questionnaire and a structured interview. The number of fcmbs was assessed in 30 mL blood processed by a proprietary method developed in-house. Fetal cells in the blood, binding to fetal cell specific antibodies, were initially isolated by magnetic cell sorting. The fetal cells......Introduction: We have established a robust method to specifically identify and isolate a placental fetal cell in maternal blood (fcmbs) at a gestational age of 12 weeks. The concentration of these cells, however, varies considerably among pregnant women (median 3 fcmbs/30 mL blood, range 0...... were then stained with a cocktail of fetal cell-specific antibodies, identified and counted. Results: Participants carrying male fetuses had higher median number of fcmbs per 30 mL blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p=0.004). Exercise within 3 hours (1.5 vs. 4, p=0.02) and 24 hours (2...

  4. A Comprehensive Fluid Dynamic-Diffusion Model of Blood Microcirculation with Focus on Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Floch, Francois; Harris, Wesley L.

    2009-11-01

    A novel methodology has been developed to address sickle cell disease, based on highly descriptive mathematical models for blood flow in the capillaries. Our investigations focus on the coupling between oxygen delivery and red blood cell dynamics, which is crucial to understanding sickle cell crises and is unique to this blood disease. The main part of our work is an extensive study of blood dynamics through simulations of red cells deforming within the capillary vessels, and relies on the use of a large mathematical system of equations describing oxygen transfer, blood plasma dynamics and red cell membrane mechanics. This model is expected to lead to the development of new research strategies for sickle cell disease. Our simulation model could be used not only to assess current researched remedies, but also to spur innovative research initiatives, based on our study of the physical properties coupled in sickle cell disease.

  5. Survival of the fittest?--survival of stored red blood cells after transfusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, M.; Roerdinkholder-Stoelwinder, B.; Bost, H.J.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last 90 years many developments have taken place in the world of blood transfusion. Several anticoagulants and storage solutions have been developed. Also the blood processing has undergone many changes. At the moment, in The Netherlands, red blood cell (RBC) concentrates (prepared from a

  6. Baseline Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy as a predictor of outcome in children with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy is useful in detecting urinary tract obstruction in patients with urinary tract infection (UTI). We evaluated the prognostic significance of baseline Tc-99m DTPA renal scintigraphy in children with UTI. Among children, who underwent both baseline/follow-up Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphies and baseline Tc-99m DTP A scintigraphy for evaluation of UTI, 32 patients with unilateral cortical defects on baseline Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy were included in the study. The outcome of cortical defects was evaluated on follow-up Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy by visual analysis. ROIs were drawn on the Tc-99m DPTA scintigraphy for calculation of ipsilateral to contralateral kidney ratio (ICR) at blood flow phase (< 60s, BFP) and cortical uptake phase (1-5 min, CUP). Median follow-up period of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy was 3.2 months (1.4 - 14 months). There were 24 patients with healing cortical defects and 8 with cortical scarring. Average ICRs of patients with healing defects were 1.11 ± 0.18 (0.44 - 1.57) at BFP and 0.97 ± 0.21 (0.31 - 1.28) at CUP, while those of patients with cortical scarring were 0.97 ± 0.47 (0.21 - 0.89) at BFP and 0.75 ± 0.49 (0.19 - 1.65) at CUP. ICR more than 0.9 was determined as a good prognostic indicator. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ICR was 83.3%, 100%, 100% and 66.7% at BFP, and 79.0%, 62.5%, 86.4% and 50.0% at CUP. Ipsilateral to contralateral kidney ratio on baseline Tc-99m DPTA renal scintigraphy, especially at blood flow phase, is helpful in predicting outcome of children with UTI

  7. The application of 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To affirm the application value of 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation. Methods: The graft was transplanted in the right subhepatic space of recipient to establish pig auxiliary liver transplantation model. The artery blood supplies were the very same in all grafts and the portal vein (PV) blood flows were differently controlled by trussing the host PV at the site neared host liver. According to the constriction degree, PV blood supplies were divided into three groups including A (constricted by 1/3), B (constricted by 1/2) and C(not constricted). The blood flows of the graft liver and the host liver were measured by 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy and livers functions were estimated after auxiliary liver transplantation. Contrasted with its histological findings the reflection of graft survival with 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy was investigated. Results: It was detected by 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy that the blood flows were almost equilibrated and abundant in grafts and host liver' in group A, and were abundant in grafts of group B and host livers of group C and were significantly decreased in host livers of group B and grafts of group C. Histological work-up demonstrated that the liver was not atrophic while the blood flow was abundant and the liver was atrophic while the blood flow was decreased. Conclusion: 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy could accurately reflect the survival and function of grafts and host livers after auxiliary liver transplantation and it is a reliable technique which can be used to estimate the survival and function of the grafts and host livers

  8. Vesiculation of healthy and defective red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, He; Lykotrafitis, George

    2015-07-01

    Vesiculation of mature red blood cells (RBCs) contributes to removal of defective patches of the erythrocyte membrane. In blood disorders, which are related to defects in proteins of the RBC membrane, vesiculation of the plasma membrane is intensified. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain RBC vesiculation but the exact underlying mechanisms and what determines the sizes of the vesicles are still not completely understood. In this work, we apply a two-component coarse-grained molecular dynamics RBC membrane model to study how RBC vesiculation is controlled by the membrane spontaneous curvature and by lateral compression of the membrane. Our simulation results show that the formation of small homogeneous vesicles with a diameter less than 40 nm can be attributed to a large spontaneous curvature of membrane domains. On the other hand, compression on the membrane can cause the formation of vesicles with heterogeneous composition and with sizes comparable with the size of the cytoskeleton corral. When spontaneous curvature and lateral compression are simultaneously considered, the compression on the membrane tends to facilitate formation of vesicles originating from curved membrane domains. We also simulate vesiculation of RBCs with membrane defects connected to hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) and to hereditary spherocytosis (HS). When the vertical connectivity between the lipid bilayer and the membrane skeleton is elevated, as in normal RBCs, multiple vesicles are shed from the compressed membrane with diameters similar to the cytoskeleton corral size. In HS RBCs, where the connectivity between the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton is reduced, larger-size vesicles are released under the same compression ratio as in normal RBCs. Lastly, we find that vesicles released from HE RBCs can contain cytoskeletal filaments due to fragmentation of the membrane skeleton while vesicles released from the HS RBCs are depleted of cytoskeletal filaments.

  9. Effect of Irradiation on Microparticles in Red Blood Cell Concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chi Hyun; Yun, Seung Gyu; Koh, Young Eun; Lim, Chae Seung

    2016-07-01

    Changes in microparticles (MP) from red blood cell (RBC) concentrates in the context of irradiation have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate how irradiation affects the number of MPs within transfusion components. Twenty RBC concentrates, within 14 days after donation, were exposed to gamma rays (dose rate: 25 cGy) from a cesium-137 irradiator. Flow cytometry was used to determine the numbers of MPs derived from RBC concentrates before and 24 hr after irradiation. The mean number of MPs (±standard deviation) in RBC concentrates was 21.9×10⁹/L (±22.7×10⁹/L), and the total number of MPs ranged from 2.6×10⁹/L to 96.9×10⁹/L. The mean number of MPs increased to 22.6×10⁹/L (±31.6×10⁹/L) after irradiation. Before irradiation, the CD41-positive and CD235a-positive MPs constituted 9.5% (1.0×10⁹/L) and 2.2% (263×10⁶/L) of total MPs, respectively. After irradiation, CD41-positive MPs increased to 12.1% (1.5×10⁹/L) (P=0.014), but the CD235a-positive MPs decreased to 2.0% (214×10⁶/L) of the total MPs (P=0.369). Irradiation increases the number of CD41-positive MPs within RBC concentrates, suggesting the irradiation of RBC concentrates could be associated with thrombotic risk of circulating blood through the numerical change. PMID:27139610

  10. The effect of red blood cell aggregation on velocity and cell-depleted layer characteristics of blood in a bifurcating microchannel

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, J. M.; Dusting, J.; Kaliviotis, E; Balabani, S.

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation is a multifaceted phenomenon, and whether it is generally beneficial or deleterious remains unclear. In order to better understand its effect on microvascular blood flow, the phenomenon must be studied in complex geometries, as it is strongly dependent on time, flow, and geometry. The cell-depleted layer (CDL) which forms at the walls of microvessels has been observed to be enhanced by aggregation; however, details of the characteristics of the CDL in complex ...

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  20. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 TFs and others Blood Peripheral blood... stem cells SRX1036365 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 TFs and others Blood Peripheral blood... stem cells SRX1036365 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  2. File list: Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Peripheral blood... stem cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  3. File list: NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 No description Blood Peripheral blood... stem cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Bld.20.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  4. File list: NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 No description Blood Peripheral blood... stem cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/NoD.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  5. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.20.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 Histone Blood Peripheral blood st...em cells SRX879208,SRX879221,SRX879210,SRX879209 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.20.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  6. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 DNase-seq Blood Peripheral blood ...stem cells SRX838173,SRX838174 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  9. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 Unclassified Blood Peripheral blood... stem cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  10. File list: InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 Input control Blood Peripheral blood... stem cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/InP.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  11. File list: Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 TFs and others Blood Peripheral blood... stem cells SRX1036365 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  12. File list: InP.Bld.05.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Peripheral blood... stem cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  14. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 Unclassified Blood Peripheral blood... stem cells http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  15. File list: DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 DNase-seq Blood Peripheral blood ...stem cells SRX838174,SRX838173 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  16. File list: Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 TFs and others Blood Peripheral blood... stem cells SRX1036365 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  17. File list: His.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells hg19 Histone Blood Peripheral blood st...em cells SRX879208,SRX879221,SRX879210,SRX879209 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.10.AllAg.Peripheral_blood_stem_cells.bed ...

  18. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Majano, V.; Miskew, D.; Sansi, P.

    1981-01-01

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of /sup 99/sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections.

  19. Bone scintigraphy in drug addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 22 drug addicts, the clinical diagnosis of osteomyelitis and/or septic arthritis was suspected because of symptoms of sepsis and pain in various locations. All patients underwent bone scintigraphy with 17-20 mCi of 99sup(m)Tc labeling either pyrophosphate or methylene diphosphonate. Whole body and spot scans located the area of disease in most patients. This permitted biopsy of the affected area when the pathogen recurs. One of the two patients whose scintigrams were normal was on adequate treatment before the bone scintigram and the other was on oxacillin. Radiographs of the affected areas were normal, which indicates bone scintigraphy should be preferred to radiography in the early diagnosis of osseous infections. (orig.)

  20. Raman spectroscopic studies of optically trapped red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman spectroscopic studies were performed on optically trapped red blood cells (RBCs) collected from healthy volunteers and patients suffering from malaria (Plasmodium vivax infection) using near infrared (785 nm) laser source. The results show significant alteration in the spectra averaged over ∼ 50 non-parasitized RBCs per sample. As compared to RBCs from healthy donors, in cells collected from malaria patients, a significant decrease in the intensity of the low spin (oxygenated-haemoglobin) marker Raman band at 1223 cm-1 (υ13 or υ42) along with a concomitant increase in the high spin (deoxygenated-haemoglobin) marker bands at 1210 cm-1 (υ5 + υ18) and 1546 cm-1 (υ11) was observed. The changes primarily suggest a reduced haemoglobin-oxygen affinity for the non-parasitized red cells in malaria patients. The possible causes include up regulation of intra-erythrocytic 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and/or ineffective erythropoiesis resulted from the disease. During the above study we also observed that significant photo-damage may results to the intracellular haemoglobin (Hb) if higher laser power is used. For a laser power above ∼ 5 mW the observed increase in intensity of the Raman bands at 975 cm-1 (υ46), 1244 cm-1 (υ42) and 1366 cm-1 (υ4) with increasing exposure time suggests photo-denaturation of Hb and the concomitant decrease in intensity of the Raman band at 1544 cm-1 (υ11) suggests photo induced methaemoglobin formation. The photo damage of intracellular haemoglobin by the above processes was also observed to result in intracellular heme aggregation. (author)