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Sample records for blood cell age

  1. Blood Cell Mitochondrial DNA Content and Premature Ovarian Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciatore, Chiara; Busnelli, Marta; Rossetti, Raffaella; Bonetti, Silvia; Paffoni, Alessio; Mari, Daniela; Ragni, Guido; Persani, Luca; Arosio, M.; Beck-Peccoz, P.; Biondi, M.; Bione, S.; Bruni, V.; Brigante, C.; Cannavo`, S.; Cavallo, L.; Cisternino, M.; Colombo, I.; Corbetta, S.; Crosignani, P.G.; D'Avanzo, M.G.; Dalpra, L.; Danesino, C.; Di Battista, E.; Di Prospero, F.; Donti, E.; Einaudi, S.; Falorni, A.; Foresta, C.; Fusi, F.; Garofalo, N.; Giotti, I.; Lanzi, R.; Larizza, D.; Locatelli, N.; Loli, P.; Madaschi, S.; Maghnie, M.; Maiore, S.; Mantero, F.; Marozzi, A.; Marzotti, S.; Migone, N.; Nappi, R.; Palli, D.; Patricelli, M.G.; Pisani, C.; Prontera, P.; Petraglia, F.; Radetti, G.; Renieri, A.; Ricca, I.; Ripamonti, A.; Rossetti, R.; Russo, G.; Russo, S.; Tonacchera, M.; Toniolo, D.; Torricelli, F.; Vegetti, W.; Villa, N.; Vineis, P.; Wasniewsk, M.; Zuffardi, O.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH), and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF) and 42 poor responders (PR) to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001) in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG) gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction. PMID:22879975

  2. Blood cell mitochondrial DNA content and premature ovarian aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bonomi

    Full Text Available Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI is a critical fertility defect characterized by an anticipated and silent impairment of the follicular reserve, but its pathogenesis is largely unexplained. The frequent maternal inheritance of POI together with a remarkable dependence of ovarian folliculogenesis upon mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics suggested the possible involvement of a generalized mitochondrial defect. Here, we verified the existence of a significant correlation between blood and ovarian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA content in a group of women undergoing ovarian hyperstimulation (OH, and then aimed to verify whether mtDNA content was significantly altered in the blood cells of POI women. We recruited 101 women with an impaired ovarian reserve: 59 women with premature ovarian failure (POF and 42 poor responders (PR to OH. A Taqman copy number assay revealed a significant mtDNA depletion (P<0.001 in both POF and PR women in comparison with 43 women of similar age and intact ovarian reserve, or 53 very old women with a previous physiological menopause. No pathogenic variations in the mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (POLG gene were detected in 57 POF or PR women with low blood mtDNA content. In conclusion, blood cell mtDNA depletion is a frequent finding among women with premature ovarian aging, suggesting that a still undetermined but generalized mitochondrial defect may frequently predispose to POI which could then be considered a form of anticipated aging in which the ovarian defect may represent the first manifestation. The determination of mtDNA content in blood may become an useful tool for the POI risk prediction.

  3. Mechanical damage of red blood cells by rotary blood pumps: selective destruction of aged red blood cells and subhemolytic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Sakamoto, Ryuki; Sobajima, Hideo; Yokoyama, Naoyuki; Waguri, Satoshi; Ohuchi, Katsuhiro; Takatani, Setsuo

    2008-10-01

    In this study, mean cell volume (MCV), mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) were measured to quantify RBC damage by rotary blood pumps. Six-hour hemolysis tests were conducted with a Bio-pump BPX-80, a Sarns 15200 roller pump, and a prototype mag-lev centrifugal pump (MedTech Heart) using fresh porcine blood circulated at 5 L/min against a 100 mm Hg head pressure. The temperature of the test and noncirculated control blood was maintained at 37 degrees C. The normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) of each pump was determined by measuring the plasma-free hemoglobin level. The MCV was measured with a Coulter counter, and MCHC was derived from total hemoglobin and hematocrit. MCH was derived from MCV and MCHC. A multivariance statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed statistically significant differences (n = 15, P < 0.05) in MCV, MCHC, and MCH between the blood sheared by the rotary blood pumps and the nonsheared control blood. Normalized to the control blood, the Bio-pump BPX-80 showed an MCV of 1.04 +/- 0.03, an MCHC of 0.95 +/- 0.04, and an MCH of 0.98 +/- 0.02; the mag-lev MedTech Heart had an MCV of 1.02 +/- 0.02, an MCHC of 0.97 +/- 0.02, and an MCH of 0.99 +/- 0.01; and the roller pump exhibited an MCV of 1.03 +/- 0.03, an MCHC of 0.96 +/- 0.03, and an MCH of 0.99 +/- 0.01. Per 0.01 increase in NIH, the BPX-80 showed a normalized MCV change of +10.1% and a normalized MCHC change of -14.0%; the MedTech Heart demonstrated a +6.9% MCV and -9.5% MCHC change; and the roller pump had a +0.5% MCV and -0.6% MCHC change. Due to shear in the pump circuits, the RBC increased while the MCHC decreased. The likely mechanism is that older RBCs with smaller size and higher hemoglobin concentration were destroyed fast by the shear, leaving younger RBCs with larger size and lower hemoglobin concentration. Subhemolytic trauma caused the intracellular hemoglobin to decrease due to gradual hemoglobin leakage through the micropores formed in the thinned

  4. Alloimmunization is associated with older age of transfused red blood cells in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Payal C; Deal, Allison M; Pfaff, Emily R; Qaqish, Bahjat; Hebden, Leyna M; Park, Yara A; Ataga, Kenneth I

    2015-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization is a significant clinical complication of sickle cell disease (SCD). It can lead to difficulty with cross-matching for future transfusions and may sometimes trigger life-threatening delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions. We conducted a retrospective study to explore the association of clinical complications and age of RBC with alloimmunization in patients with SCD followed at a single institution from 2005 to 2012. One hundred and sixty six patients with a total of 488 RBC transfusions were evaluated. Nineteen patients (11%) developed new alloantibodies following blood transfusions during the period of review. The median age of RBC units was 20 days (interquartile range: 14-27 days). RBC antibody formation was significantly associated with the age of RBC units (P = 0.002), with a hazard ratio of 3.5 (95% CI: 1.71-7.11) for a RBC unit that was 7 days old and 9.8 (95% CI: 2.66-35.97) for a unit that was 35 days old, 28 days after the blood transfusion. No association was observed between RBC alloimmunization and acute vaso-occlusive complications. Although increased echocardiography-derived tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) was associated with the presence of RBC alloantibodies (P = 0.02), TRV was not significantly associated with alloimmunization when adjusted for patient age and number of transfused RBC units. Our study suggests that RBC antibody formation is significantly associated with older age of RBCs at the time of transfusion. Prospective studies in patients with SCD are required to confirm this finding.

  5. Age and gender effects on DNA strand break repair in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Christian; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Bürkle, Alexander;

    2013-01-01

    single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Of these lesions, DSBs are the least frequent but the most dangerous for cells. We have measured the level of endogenous SSBs, SSB repair capacity, γ-H2AX response, and DSB repair capacity...... in a study population consisting of 216 individuals from a population-based sample of twins aged 40-77 years. Age in this range did not seem to have any effect on the SSB parameters. However, γ-H2AX response and DSB repair capacity decreased with increasing age, although the associations did not reach...

  6. Association between age and repair of oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). We isolated PBMCs from subjects aged 18-83 years, as part of a health survey of the Danish population that focussed on lifestyle factors. The level of DNA repair activity was measured as incisions on potassium bromate-damaged DNA by the comet...... assay. There was an inverse association between age and DNA repair activity with a 0.65% decline in activity per year from age 18 to 83 (95% confidence interval: 0.16-1.14% per year). Univariate regression analysis also indicated inverse associations between DNA repair activity and waist-hip ratio (P...

  7. DETERMINANTS OF RED-BLOOD-CELL DEFORMABILITY IN RELATION TO CELL AGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOSCH, FH; WERRE, JM; ROERDINKHOLDERSTOELWINDER, B; HULS, T; WILLEKENS, FLA; WICHERS, G; HALIE, MR

    1994-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) deformability was determined with an ektacytometer in fractions separated on the basis of differences in cell volume or density. Deformability was measured with ektacytometry (rpm-scan and osmo-scan). We studied three groups of RBC fractions:l. By counterflow centrifugation we o

  8. Cord blood versus age 5 mononuclear cell proliferation on IgE and asthma

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    Perera Frederica

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fetal immune responses following exposure of mothers to allergens during pregnancy may influence the subsequent risk of childhood asthma. However, the association of allergen-induced cord blood mononuclear cell (CBMC proliferation and cytokine production with later allergic immune responses and asthma has been controversial. Our objective was to compare indoor allergen-induced CBMC with age 5 peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC proliferation and determine which may be associated with age 5 allergic immune responses and asthma in an inner city cohort. Methods As part of an ongoing cohort study of the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health (CCCEH, CBMCs and age 5 PBMCs were cultured with cockroach, mouse, and dust mite protein extracts. CBMC proliferation and cytokine (IL-5 and IFN-γ responses, and age 5 PBMC proliferation responses, were compared to anti-cockroach, anti-mouse, and anti-dust mite IgE levels, wheeze, cough, eczema and asthma. Results Correlations between CBMC and age 5 PBMC proliferation in response to cockroach, mouse, and dust mite antigens were nonsignificant. Cockroach-, mouse-, and dust mite-induced CBMC proliferation and cytokine responses were not associated with allergen-specific IgE at ages 2, 3, and 5, or with asthma and eczema at age 5. However, after adjusting for potential confounders, age 5 cockroach-induced PBMC proliferation was associated with anti-cockroach IgE, total IgE, and asthma (p Conclusion In contrast to allergen-induced CBMC proliferation, age 5 cockroach-induced PBMC proliferation was associated with age 5 specific and total IgE, and asthma, in an inner-city cohort where cockroach allergens are prevalent and exposure can be high.

  9. Shared signatures of social stress and aging in peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Somel, Mehmet; Tung, Jenny

    2014-10-01

    Chronic social stress is a predictor of both aging-related disease and mortality risk. Hence, chronic stress has been hypothesized to directly exacerbate the process of physiological aging. Here, we evaluated this hypothesis at the level of gene regulation. We compared two data sets of genome-wide gene expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs): one that captured aging effects and another that focused on chronic social stress. Overall, we found that the direction, although not necessarily the magnitude, of significant gene expression changes tends to be shared between the two data sets. This overlap was observable at three levels: (i) individual genes; (ii) general functional categories of genes; and (iii) molecular pathways implicated in aging. However, we also found evidence that heterogeneity in PBMC composition limits the power to detect more extensive similarities, suggesting that our findings reflect an underestimate of the degree to which age and social stress influence gene regulation in parallel. Cell type-specific data on gene regulation will be important to overcome this limitation in the future studies.

  10. Age of red blood cells and mortality in the critically ill

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pettila, Ville

    2011-04-15

    Abstract Introduction In critically ill patients, it is uncertain whether exposure to older red blood cells (RBCs) may contribute to mortality. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association between the age of RBCs and outcome in a large unselected cohort of critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand. We hypothesized that exposure to even a single unit of older RBCs may be associated with an increased risk of death. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter observational study in 47 ICUs during a 5-week period between August 2008 and September 2008. We included 757 critically ill adult patients receiving at least one unit of RBCs. To test our hypothesis we compared hospital mortality according to quartiles of exposure to maximum age of RBCs without and with adjustment for possible confounding factors. Results Compared with other quartiles (mean maximum red cell age 22.7 days; mortality 121\\/568 (21.3%)), patients treated with exposure to the lowest quartile of oldest RBCs (mean maximum red cell age 7.7 days; hospital mortality 25\\/189 (13.2%)) had an unadjusted absolute risk reduction in hospital mortality of 8.1% (95% confidence interval = 2.2 to 14.0%). After adjustment for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, other blood component transfusions, number of RBC transfusions, pretransfusion hemoglobin concentration, and cardiac surgery, the odds ratio for hospital mortality for patients exposed to the older three quartiles compared with the lowest quartile was 2.01 (95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 3.77). Conclusions In critically ill patients, in Australia and New Zealand, exposure to older RBCs is independently associated with an increased risk of death.

  11. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA and this could be related to metabolic disturbances. This study investigated the association between levels of oxidatively damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and metabolic risk factors in 1,019 subjects, aged...... metabolic syndrome criteria. In summary, positive associations between age and levels of oxidatively damaged DNA appeared mediated by age-related increases in metabolic risk factors....... 18-93 years. DNA damage was analyzed as strand breaks by the comet assay and levels of formamidopyrimidine (FPG-) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1)-sensitive sites There was an association between age and levels of FPG-sensitive sites for women, but not for men. The same tendency...... was observed for the level of hOGG1-sensitive sites, whereas there was no association with the level of strand breaks. The effect of age on oxidatively damaged DNA in women disappeared in multivariate models, which showed robust positive associations between DNA damage and plasma levels of triglycerides...

  12. Quantitative analysis of mechanisms that govern red blood cell age structure and dynamics during anaemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Savill

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modelling has proven an important tool in elucidating and quantifying mechanisms that govern the age structure and population dynamics of red blood cells (RBCs. Here we synthesise ideas from previous experimental data and the mathematical modelling literature with new data in order to test hypotheses and generate new predictions about these mechanisms. The result is a set of competing hypotheses about three intrinsic mechanisms: the feedback from circulating RBC concentration to production rate of immature RBCs (reticulocytes in bone marrow, the release of reticulocytes from bone marrow into the circulation, and their subsequent ageing and clearance. In addition we examine two mechanisms specific to our experimental system: the effect of phenylhydrazine (PHZ and blood sampling on RBC dynamics. We performed a set of experiments to quantify the dynamics of reticulocyte proportion, RBC concentration, and erythropoietin concentration in PHZ-induced anaemic mice. By quantifying experimental error we are able to fit and assess each hypothesis against our data and recover parameter estimates using Markov chain Monte Carlo based Bayesian inference. We find that, under normal conditions, about 3% of reticulocytes are released early from bone marrow and upon maturation all cells are released immediately. In the circulation, RBCs undergo random clearance but have a maximum lifespan of about 50 days. Under anaemic conditions reticulocyte production rate is linearly correlated with the difference between normal and anaemic RBC concentrations, and their release rate is exponentially correlated with the same. PHZ appears to age rather than kill RBCs, and younger RBCs are affected more than older RBCs. Blood sampling caused short aperiodic spikes in the proportion of reticulocytes which appear to have a different developmental pathway than normal reticulocytes. We also provide evidence of large diurnal oscillations in serum erythropoietin levels

  13. Protective effects of sodium orthovanadate in diabetic reticulocytes and ageing red blood cells of Wistar rats

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bihari L Gupta; Anju Preet; Najma Z Baquer

    2004-03-01

    The reticulocytes and the ageing red blood cells (RBCs) namely young (Y), middle-aged (M) and old RBCs (O) of female Wistar rats from different groups such as control animals (C), controls treated with vanadate (C + V), alloxan-induced diabetic (D), diabetic-treated with insulin (D + I) and vanadate (D + V), were fractionated on a percoll/BSA gradient. The following enzymes were measured – hexokinase (HK), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GSSG-R), glutathione-s-transferase (GST), alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT), aspartate aminotransferase (AsAT) and arginase in the hemolysates of all the RBCs fractions. Decreases in the activity of HK and AsAT by about 70%, arginase and GSH-Px by 30% in old RBCs were observed in comparison to reticulocytes of control animals. Increases in the activity of GSSG-R by 86%, AlaAT by more than 400% and GST by 70% were observed in old RBCs in comparison to reticulocytes of control animals. Alloxan diabetic animals showed a further decrease in the activities of HK in Y RBCs by 37%, M RBCs by 39% and O RBCs by 32%, GSH-Px activity in Y RBCs by 13%, M RBCs by 20% and O RBCs by 33% and GST activity in Y RBCs by 14%, M RBCs by 42% and O RBCs by 60% in comparison to their corresponding cells of control animals. An increase in the activity of all the enzymes studied was also observed in reticulocytes of diabetic animals in comparison to reticulocytes of controls. The GSSG-R activity was found to be increased in Y RBCs by 49%, M RBCs by 67% and O RBCs by 64% as compared to the corresponding age-matched cells of control animals. The activity of arginase also decreased in Y RBCs by about10%, M RBCs by 20% and O RBCs by 30% in comparison to the age-matched cells of control animals. A decrease in the activity of AsAT in Y and M RBCs by 30%, and O RBCs by 25% was observed in diabetic animals in comparison to the age-matched cells of control animals. The activity of AlaAT was found to be decreased by more than 10% in Y and M

  14. Aging stability of complete blood count and white blood cell differential parameters analyzed by Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedberg, P; Lehto, T

    2009-02-01

    This study presents the results of an aging stability study of complete blood count (CBC) and leukocyte differential parameters using the Abbott CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer. Stability studies showed no substantial change in CBC parameters up to 24-48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C (room temperature), except for optical platelet count (PLTo). For specimens aged over 24, the value of impedance platelet count yielded more reliable results than the routine PLTo. White blood cell (WBC) differential parameters, except eosinophils, were stable for up to 48 h at +23 +/- 2 degrees C. CBC parameters were stable for 72 h, except mean platelet volume, which slightly increased between 48 and 72 h, at +4 degrees C. WBC differentials were stable 48-72 h, with a slight decrease observed in absolute neutrophils and lymphocytes at +4 degrees C.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood cells declines with age and is associated with general health among elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Thinggaard, Mikael; Dalgård, Christine;

    2014-01-01

    number in peripheral blood cells was similar for those 18-48 years of age [mean relative mtDNA content: 61.0; 95 % CI (52.1; 69.9)], but declined by -0.54 mtDNA 95 % CI (-0.63; -0.45) every year for those older than approximately 50 years of age. However, the longitudinal, yearly decline within...... mitochondrial DNA copy number in blood is associated with better health and survival among elderly....

  16. Blood rheology and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Oğuz K. Başkurt; Simmonds, Michael J. ; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Journal of Geriatric Cardiology (2013) 10: 291301 ©2013 JGC All rights reserved; www.jgc301.com http://www.jgc301.com; | Journal of Geriatric Cardiology Review  Open Access  Blood rheology and aging Michael J. Simmonds1, Herbert J. Meiselman2, Oguz K. Baskurt3 1Heart Foundation Research Centre, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of S...

  17. ALTERATIONS OF PROPERTIES OF RED BLOOD CELLS MEMBRANES PROTEINS OF DIFFERENT AGE AND SEX VOLUNTEERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruidze, N; Khetsuriani, R; Sujashvili, R; Ioramashvili, I; Arabuli, M; Sanikidze, T

    2015-01-01

    Considering the age and sex-dependent trend in the manifestation of various diseases, as well as an important pathogenic role of circulatory disorders, we decided to study the age-dependent changes in the physical properties of RBCs membrane proteins (their electric charge and molecular weight) in healthy people of different sex (males and females) and age. Blood of 56 healthy volunteers (Tbilisi, Georgia) of different sex and gender was studied (the patients were divided in 8 groups (7 patients in each groups): 1 - 18-25 years old male, 2 - 18-25 years old female, 3 - 25-44 years old male, 4 - 25-44 years old female, 5 - 44-60 years old male, 6 - 44-60 years old female; 7 - 60-80 years old male, 8 - 70-80 years old female). In groups 6 and 8 were women in menopause was determined according 12 months of amenorrhea. Individuals often consume alcohol addicts, pregnant women and patients with chronic diseases were excluded from the study. The study protocol was approved by Ethical Committee of the Tbilisi State Medical University. RBCs membrane proteins have been extracted from human heparinized blood and their mobility was studied by electrophoretic method. The electrophoretic mobility of RBCs membrane proteins decreases with age of healthy volunteers, that indicates decrease of total charge of proteins, depending on the electrically charged amino acids content. In female patients the electrophoretic mobility of the RBCs membrane proteins especially intensively decreases in period of menopause. Increase of molecular weight of proteins (100-200 kDa) from RBCs' membranes of alder age group was manifested. Intensively decrease electrophoretic mobility of erythrocytes membrane proteins from female patients in period of menopause indicates on estrogen related mechanism of the regulation of membrane protein conformation and composition in females. Increased content of high molecular weight proteins in the RBCs membranes from patients of older age groups may be caused to

  18. The association between Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration and Regulatory T cells in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung, Christopher Fugl; Falk, Mads; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate regulatory T cells (Tregs) and subsets of the Treg population in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one neovascular AMD cases and 12 age-matched controls without retinal pathology were selected. Patients were recr...... were found in the percentages of CD4(+) lymphocytes, CD25(high)CD127(low) Tregs, CD45RA(+) naïve Tregs, or CD31(+) recent thymic emigrant Tregs. CONCLUSION: Our data does not indicate an altered state of systemic Treg cells in neovascular AMD....

  19. White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  20. Red blood cell production

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  1. Effect of Age on Blood Rheology in Sickle Cell Anaemia and Sickle Cell Haemoglobin C Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renoux, Céline; Romana, Marc; Joly, Philippe; Ferdinand, Séverine; Faes, Camille; Lemonne, Nathalie; Skinner, Sarah; Garnier, Nathalie; Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Bertrand, Yves; Petras, Marie; Cannas, Giovanna; Divialle-Doumdo, Lydia; Nader, Elie; Cuzzubbo, Daniela; Lamarre, Yann; Gauthier, Alexandra; Waltz, Xavier; Kebaili, Kamila; Martin, Cyril; Hot, Arnaud; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Pialoux, Vincent; Connes, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Blood rheology plays a key role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia (SS) and sickle cell haemoglobin C disease (SC), but its evolution over the lifespan is unknown. Materials and Methods Blood viscosity, red blood cell (RBC) deformability and aggregation, foetal haemoglobin (HbF) and haematocrit were measured in 114 healthy individuals (AA), 267 SS (161 children + 106 adults) and 138 SC (74 children + 64 adults) patients. Results Our results showed that 1) RBC deformability is at its maximal value during the early years of life in SS and SC populations, mainly because HbF level is also at its peak, 2) during childhood and adulthood, hydroxycarbamide treatment, HbF level and gender modulated RBC deformability in SS patients, independently of age, 3) blood viscosity is higher in older SS and SC patients compared to younger ones and 4) haematocrit decreases as SS patients age. Conclusion The hemorheological changes detected in older patients could play a role in the progressive development of several chronic disorders in sickle cell disease, whose prevalence increases with age. Retarding these age-related haemorheological impairments, by using suitable drugs, may minimize the risks of vaso-occlusive events and chronic disorders. PMID:27355589

  2. Effect of Age on Blood Rheology in Sickle Cell Anaemia and Sickle Cell Haemoglobin C Disease: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Renoux

    Full Text Available Blood rheology plays a key role in the pathophysiology of sickle cell anaemia (SS and sickle cell haemoglobin C disease (SC, but its evolution over the lifespan is unknown.Blood viscosity, red blood cell (RBC deformability and aggregation, foetal haemoglobin (HbF and haematocrit were measured in 114 healthy individuals (AA, 267 SS (161 children + 106 adults and 138 SC (74 children + 64 adults patients.Our results showed that 1 RBC deformability is at its maximal value during the early years of life in SS and SC populations, mainly because HbF level is also at its peak, 2 during childhood and adulthood, hydroxycarbamide treatment, HbF level and gender modulated RBC deformability in SS patients, independently of age, 3 blood viscosity is higher in older SS and SC patients compared to younger ones and 4 haematocrit decreases as SS patients age.The hemorheological changes detected in older patients could play a role in the progressive development of several chronic disorders in sickle cell disease, whose prevalence increases with age. Retarding these age-related haemorheological impairments, by using suitable drugs, may minimize the risks of vaso-occlusive events and chronic disorders.

  3. Molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen for the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Yuko; Shigemasa, Yuki; Abe, Yoko; Ohgushi, Ikumi; Ueno, Eriko; Shimamoto, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO(2) A) prepared from healthy donors showed a tendency to produce hemichrome, even at close to physiological temperature and pH. Recent studies found that the number of Heinz bodies formed in red cells increased with increasing temperature when freshly drawn venous blood from healthy donors was subjected to mild heating above 37 °C. These findings suggest that Hb molecules control the removal of non-functional erythrocytes from the circulation via hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering. In this review, we discuss the molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen, where hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering within erythrocytes play a key role in the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

  4. Molecular Biosensing Mechanisms in the Spleen for the Removal of Aged and Damaged Red Cells from the Blood Circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriko Ueno

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO2 A prepared from healthy donors showed a tendency to produce hemichrome, even at close to physiological temperature and pH. Recent studies found that the number of Heinz bodies formed in red cells increased with increasing temperature when freshly drawn venous blood from healthy donors was subjected to mild heating above 37 °C. These findings suggest that Hb molecules control the removal of non-functional erythrocytes from the circulation via hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering. In this review, we discuss the molecular biosensing mechanisms in the spleen, where hemichrome formation and subsequent Heinz body clustering within erythrocytes play a key role in the removal of aged and damaged red cells from the blood circulation.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood cells declines with age and is associated with general health among elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel-From, Jonas; Thinggaard, Mikael; Dalgård, Christine; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene

    2014-09-01

    The role of the mitochondria in disease, general health and aging has drawn much attention over the years. Several attempts have been made to describe how the numbers of mitochondria correlate with age, although with inconclusive results. In this study, the relative quantity of mitochondrial DNA compared to nuclear DNA, i.e. the mitochondrial DNA copy number, was measured by PCR technology and used as a proxy for the content of mitochondria copies. In 1,067 Danish twins and singletons (18-93 years of age), with the majority being elderly individuals, the estimated mean mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood cells was similar for those 18-48 years of age [mean relative mtDNA content: 61.0; 95 % CI (52.1; 69.9)], but declined by -0.54 mtDNA 95 % CI (-0.63; -0.45) every year for those older than approximately 50 years of age. However, the longitudinal, yearly decline within an individual was more than twice as steep as observed in the cross-sectional analysis [decline of mtDNA content: -1.27; 95 % CI (-1.71; -0.82)]. Subjects with low mitochondrial DNA copy number had poorer outcomes in terms of cognitive performance, physical strength, self-rated health, and higher all-cause mortality than subjects with high mitochondrial DNA copy number, also when age was controlled for. The copy number mortality association can contribute to the smaller decline in a cross-sectional sample of the population compared to the individual, longitudinal decline. This study suggests that high mitochondrial DNA copy number in blood is associated with better health and survival among elderly.

  6. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    18-93 years. DNA damage was analyzed as strand breaks by the comet assay and levels of formamidopyrimidine (FPG-) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1)-sensitive sites There was an association between age and levels of FPG-sensitive sites for women, but not for men. The same tendency...... was observed for the level of hOGG1-sensitive sites, whereas there was no association with the level of strand breaks. The effect of age on oxidatively damaged DNA in women disappeared in multivariate models, which showed robust positive associations between DNA damage and plasma levels of triglycerides...

  7. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    , cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In the group of men, there were significant positive associations between alcohol intake, HbA1c and FPG-sensitive sites in multivariate analysis. The levels of metabolic risk factors were positively associated with age, yet only few subjects fulfilled all...

  8. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    18-93 years. DNA damage was analyzed as strand breaks by the comet assay and levels of formamidopyrimidine (FPG-) and human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase 1 (hOGG1)-sensitive sites There was an association between age and levels of FPG-sensitive sites for women, but not for men. The same tendency...

  9. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width and the Platelet Count in Iron-deficient Children Aged 0.5-3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkermans, M D; Uijterschout, L; Vloemans, J; Teunisse, P P; Hudig, F; Bubbers, S; Verbruggen, S; Veldhorst, M; de Leeuw, T G; van Goudoever, J B; Brus, F

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in young children is important to prevent impaired neurodevelopment. Unfortunately, many biomarkers of ID are influenced by infection, thus limiting their usefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of red blood cell distribution width (RDW) and the platelet count for detecting ID(A) among otherwise healthy children. A multicenter prospective observational study was conducted in the Netherlands to investigate the prevalence of ID(A) in 400 healthy children aged 0.5-3 years. ID was defined as serum ferritin (SF) count were determined in the complete blood cell count. RDW was inversely correlated with SF and not associated with CRP. Calculated cutoff values for RDW to detect ID and IDA gave a relatively low sensitivity (53.1% and 57.1%, respectively) and specificity (64.7% and 69.9%, respectively). Anemic children with a RDW >14.3% had a 2.7 higher odds (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.2-6.3) to be iron deficient, compared with anemic children with a RDW count showed a large range in both ID and non-ID children. In conclusion, RDW can be helpful for identifying ID as the cause of anemia in 0.5- to 3-year-old children, but not as primary biomarker of ID(A). RDW values are not influenced by the presence of infection. There appears to be no role for the platelet count in diagnosing ID(A) in this group of children.

  10. High Red Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  11. Protective effect of aged garlic extract against the oxidative stress induced by cisplatin on blood cells parameters and hepatic antioxidant enzymes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Y. Nasr

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin (CP is one of the most active cytotoxic drugs. However, it has several side effects that are associated with increased oxidative stress. Aged garlic extract (AGE is a natural product containing different compounds with antioxidant activity. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of AGE on CP-induced hepatotoxicity. Four equally male rat groups: control, AGE-treated (250 mg/kg once for 21 days, CP-treated (7.5 mg/kg, once intraperitoneal, combined AGE and CP-treated were used. Blood samples were collected to investigate blood picture and serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, bilirubin (TSB and albumin. The liver of each rat was excised, cleaned, weighed, rinsed in ice-cold saline and homogenized for assessment malondialdehyde (MDA level, catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities and level of reduced glutathione (GSH. Histological examination was also carried out. AGE-pretreated rats revealed significant reduction in serum levels of AST, ALT & TSB and increase serum albumin level induced by CP administration. Furthermore, AGE significantly ameliorated CP-induced increase in MDA level and decrease in GSH level, CAT and SOD activities in liver tissue homogenates. Additionally, histopathological and blood picture examinations revealed markedly ameliorated CP-induced toxicity on blood cells parameters and liver structure. Our results prove that AGE has antioxidant and protective effects against CP-induced oxidative stress and changes in parameters of blood cells and liver structure in rats. Thus, it could be used as a dietary supplementation to reduce toxic side effects of anticancer drugs.

  12. Age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased proportion of CD56(+) T cells in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Carsten; Singh, Amardeep; Krüger Falk, Mads;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the association between age-related changes in the T-cell compartment and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 117 AMD cases and 106 controls were included prospectively. METHODS: Fresh-drawn peripheral bloo...

  13. Experimental Researches of Blood Stasis and Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王传社; 李顺成; 马治中; 李志新; 蒋文跃

    2001-01-01

    @@It was reported by most physicians of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in past dynasties that Deficiency of Zangfu(脏腑), Qi and blood, especially the Kidney deficiency, is closely related with aging, and Chinese drugs for fortifying Kidney also play a main role in anti-aging. Many scholars have recently studied the relationship between aging and the Excess Syndrome, such as blood stasis, stagnation of Phlegm Turbidity and stagnation of Qi, particularly the relationship between blood stasis and aging.

  14. Storing Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute worked with Goddard Space Flight Center to propose a solution to the blood-cell freezing problem. White blood cells and bone marrow are stored for future use by leukemia patients as a result of Goddard and Jet Propulsion Laboratory expertise in electronics and cryogenics. White blood cell and bone marrow bank established using freezing unit. Freezing unit monitors temperature of cells themselves. Thermocouple placed against polyethylene container relays temperature signals to an electronic system which controls small heaters located outside container. Heaters allow liquid nitrogen to circulate at constant temperature and maintain consistent freezing rate. Ability to freeze, store, and thaw white cells and bone marrow without damage is important in leukemia treatment.

  15. Low White Blood Cell Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Low white blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A low white blood cell count (leukopenia) is a decrease in disease-fighting cells ( ... a decrease in a certain type of white blood cell (neutrophil). The definition of low white blood cell ...

  16. Exendin-4 improves blood glucose control in both young and aging normal non-diabetic mice, possible contribution of beta cell independent effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Fan

    Full Text Available AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is highly prevalent in the elderly population. Glucagon like Peptide-1 mimetic such as exendin-4 augments post-prandial insulin secretion. However, the potential influence of aging on the therapeutic effects of this peptide has not been well studied. In this study, we examined the glucose regulatory effects of exendin-4 in mice with different ages. METHODS: We treated 3-month and 20 to 22-month old C57/DBA mice with 10 nM/kg exendin-4 for 10 days with measurements of blood glucose and body weight. We performed OGTT and ITT to evaluate the glucose response and insulin sensitivity. Islet morphology and beta cell mass were measured by immuno-staining and beta cell proliferation was evaluated by BrdU incorporation and PCNA staining. Real-time PCR and western blot were used to measure protein changes in the liver tissue after exendin-4 treatment. RESULTS: Exendin-4 treatment improved glycemic control in both 3-month and 20 to 22-month old mice. In both groups of mice, the blood glucose lowering effect was independent of beta cell function as indicated by unchanged beta cell proliferation, insulin secretion or beta cell mass. Moreover, we found that exendin-4 treatment increased hepatic AKT and FOXO1 phosphorylation and inhibited glucose-6-phosphotase (G6P and Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK expression in young mice, but this effect was attenuated in aging mice while the insulin sensitivity showed no change in the young group but significantly improved in aging mice. CONCLUSION: Based on these data, we conclude that the glucose lowering effect of exendin-4 in normal non-diabetic mice was not blunted by aging. We further showed that although there was slight difference in the glucose modulating mechanism of exendin-4 therapy in young and aged mice, the improved glucose control seemed uncorrelated with increased beta cell mass or insulin secretion.

  17. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  18. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is primari

  19. Negative association of donor age with CD34+ cell dose in mixture allografts of G-CSF-primed bone marrow and G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood harvests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yan; Chang Yingjun; Xu Lanping; Zhang Xiaohui; Huang Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    Background The effects of donor characteristics on CD34+ cell dose remain controversial.Recently,we developed a novel haploidentical transplant protocol,in which mixture allografts of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-primed bone marrow (G-BM) and G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood (G-PB) were used.The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of donor characteristics on CD34+ cell dose in mixture allografts of G-BM and G-PB.Methods A total of 162 healthy adult donors,who underwent bone marrow harvest and peripheral blood collection between January 2009 and November 2010 in Peking University People's Hospital,were prospectively investigated.G-CSF was administered subcutaneously at a dose of 5 μg/kg once a day for 5-6 consecutive days.Bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells were harvested on the fourth day and fifth day,respectively.A final total CD34+ cell dose less than 2× 106 cells/kg recipient body weight was considered a poor mobilization.Results Of the 162 donors,31 (19.1%) did not attain this threshold.The obtained median CD34+ cell doses in bone marrow,peripheral blood,and mixture allografts were 0.83×106/kg,2.40×106/kg,and 3.47×106/kg,respectively.Multiple regression analysis showed that donor age had a significant negative effect on CD34+ cell dose in either G-BM,or G-PB,or mixture allografts of G-BM and G-PB.And a 1-year increase in age was associated with a 5.6% decrease in the odds of achieving mobilization cutoff.No significant correlation was found for donor gender,body mass index (BMI),and weight.Conclusion Donor age is the only factor among the four parameters,including age,gender,weight,and BMI,that influence CD34+ cell dose in mixture allografts of G-BM and G-PB,and younger donors should be chosen to obtain sufficient CD34+ cells for transplantation.

  20. Experimental Researches of Blood Stasis and Aging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    It was reported by most physicians of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in past dynasties that Deficiency of Zangfu(脏腑), Qi and blood, especially the Kidney deficiency, is closely related with aging, and Chinese drugs for fortifying Kidney also play a main role in anti-aging. Many scholars have recently studied the relationship between aging and the Excess Syndrome, such as blood stasis, stagnation of Phlegm Turbidity and stagnation of Qi, particularly the relationship between blood stasis and aging.……

  1. Molecular Biosensing Mechanisms in the Spleen for the Removal of Aged and Damaged Red Cells from the Blood Circulation

    OpenAIRE

    Eriko Ueno; Ikumi Ohgushi; Yoko Abe; Yuki Shigemasa; Yuko Hayashi; Yoshiaki Sugawara; Fumio Shimamoto

    2010-01-01

    Heinz bodies are intraerythrocytic inclusions of hemichrome formed as a result of hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation. They typically develop in aged red cells. Based on the hypothesis that hemichrome formation is an innate characteristic of physiologically normal Hb molecules, we present an overview of our previous findings regarding the molecular instability of Hb and the formation of hemichrome, as well as recent findings on Heinz body formation within normal human erythrocytes. Human adult Hb (HbO2...

  2. NIA Aging Cell Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — To facilitate aging research on cells in culture, the NIA provides support for the NIA Aging Cell Repository, located at the Coriell Institute for Medical Research...

  3. Study an the relationship between the density and the age of red blood cells%红细胞密度与天龄相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周武; 王淑英; 汪德清

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究红细胞密度与天龄的相关性,不同密度红细胞所对应的平均天龄.方法 采用非连续密度梯度分离方法,将全血红细胞分为6个不同密度的红细胞部分.测定不同部分红细胞丙酮酸激酶活性,通过各部分丙酮酸激酶活性与全血红细胞丙酮酸激酶活性的比值(Ratio)推测各部分红细胞平均天龄;测定各部分红细胞膜表面磷脂酰丝氨酸(PS)表达阳性率,来反映红细胞密度与衰老(天龄)的相关性.结果 根据红细胞比值,各部分红细胞平均天龄由低密度至高密度依次为11.5、46、63.8、74.6、80.5、102.2 d.随着红细胞密度的增加,PS表达阳性率也逐渐增高.结论 不同密度的红细胞代表不同的细胞天龄,采用密度梯度分离方法可以分离出不同天龄段的红细胞,为进一步研究红细胞天龄与功能的相关性提供了方法学基础.%Objective To study the relationship between red blood cell (RBC) density and age,and the average cell age of different densities. Methods Whole blood were separated into six fractions by discontinuous density gradient separation. The pyruvate kinase activity of each fraction was determined. Red cell age was determined by calculating the ratio of pyruvate kinase activity of each fraction to that of the whole blood. The positive rate of the membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) was measured to deatermine the red cell age in days. Results From low to high densities,red cells were 11. 5 days,46 days ,63.8 days,74.6 days ,80. 5 days ,and 102. 2 days in age. PS expression on the red cell membrane increased gradually with the increase of cell age. Conclusion The different density of RBCs represents different cell age,and density gradient separation method could isolate RBCs of different ages,which will provide a methodology for further studing the relationships between RBC age and function.

  4. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  5. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ID, RBC; RBC Ab ID Formal name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC ... I should know? How is it used? Red blood cell (RBC) antibody identification is used as a follow- ...

  6. Thermodynamic concepts in the study of microbial populations: age structure in Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Ferrer

    Full Text Available Variability is a hallmark of microbial systems. On the one hand, microbes are subject to environmental heterogeneity and undergo changeable conditions in their immediate surroundings. On the other hand, microbial populations exhibit high cellular diversity. The relation between microbial diversity and variability of population dynamics is difficult to assess. This connection can be quantitatively studied from a perspective that combines in silico models and thermodynamic methods and interpretations. The infection process of Plasmodium falciparum parasitizing human red blood cells under laboratory cultivation conditions is used to illustrate the potential of Individual-based models in the context of predictive microbiology and parasitology. Experimental data from several in vitro cultures are compared to the outcome of an individual-based model and analysed from a thermodynamic perspective. This approach allows distinguishing between intrinsic and external constraints that give rise to the diversity in the infection forms, and it provides a criterion to quantitatively define transient and stationary regimes in the culture. Increasing the ability of models to discriminate between different states of microbial populations enhances their predictive capability which finally leads to a better the control over culture systems. The strategy here presented is of general application and it can substantially improve modelling of other types of microbial communities.

  7. Thermodynamic concepts in the study of microbial populations: age structure in Plasmodium falciparum infected red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Jordi; Prats, Clara; López, Daniel; Vidal-Mas, Jaume; Gargallo-Viola, Domingo; Guglietta, Antonio; Giró, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Variability is a hallmark of microbial systems. On the one hand, microbes are subject to environmental heterogeneity and undergo changeable conditions in their immediate surroundings. On the other hand, microbial populations exhibit high cellular diversity. The relation between microbial diversity and variability of population dynamics is difficult to assess. This connection can be quantitatively studied from a perspective that combines in silico models and thermodynamic methods and interpretations. The infection process of Plasmodium falciparum parasitizing human red blood cells under laboratory cultivation conditions is used to illustrate the potential of Individual-based models in the context of predictive microbiology and parasitology. Experimental data from several in vitro cultures are compared to the outcome of an individual-based model and analysed from a thermodynamic perspective. This approach allows distinguishing between intrinsic and external constraints that give rise to the diversity in the infection forms, and it provides a criterion to quantitatively define transient and stationary regimes in the culture. Increasing the ability of models to discriminate between different states of microbial populations enhances their predictive capability which finally leads to a better the control over culture systems. The strategy here presented is of general application and it can substantially improve modelling of other types of microbial communities.

  8. Fermented Papaya Preparation Restores Age-Related Reductions in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell Cytolytic Activity in Tube-Fed Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yuhzo; Tsuno, Haruo; Nakayama, Jiro

    2017-01-01

    Tube-fed elderly patients are generally supplied with the same type of nutrition over long periods, resulting in an increased risk for micronutrient deficiencies. Dietary polyphenols promote immunity and have anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-oxidative properties. Carica papaya Linn. is rich in several polyphenols; however, these polyphenols are poorly absorbed from the digestive tract in their original polymerized form. Therefore, we determined the molecular components of a fermented Carica papaya Linn. preparation, as well as its effects on immunity and the composition of gut microbiota in tube-fed patients. Different doses of the fermented C. papaya L. preparation were administered to three groups of tube-fed patients for 30 days. Its effects on fecal microbiota composition and immunity were assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and immune-marker analysis, respectively. The chemical composition of the fermented C. papaya L. preparation was analyzed by capillary electrophoresis- and liquid chromatography- time of flight mass spectrometry. The fermented C. papaya L. preparation restored peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cytolytic activity; however, no other biomarkers of immunity were observed. Treatment with the preparation (9 g/day) significantly reduced the abundance of Firmicutes in the fecal microbiota. In particular, treatment reduced Clostridium scindens and Eggerthella lenta in most patients receiving 9 g/day. Chemical analysis identified low-molecular-weight phenolic acids as polyphenol metabolites; however, no polymerized, large-molecular-weight molecules were detected. Our study indicates that elderly patients who are tube-fed over the long-term have decreased PBMC cytolytic activity. In addition, low-molecular-weight polyphenol metabolites fermented from polymerized polyphenols restore PBMC cytolytic activity and modulate the composition of gut microbiota in tube-fed patients. PMID:28060858

  9. Association between circulating white blood cell count and long-term incidence of age-related macular degeneration: the Blue Mountains Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Anoop; Mitchell, Paul; Rochtchina, Elena; Tan, Jennifer; Wang, Jie Jin

    2007-02-15

    Inflammatory processes are implicated in the development and progression of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, there are limited data on longitudinal associations between systemic markers of inflammation and AMD. The authors examined the prospective relation between the circulating white blood cell (WBC) count and early and late AMD in a population-based cohort of 3,654 participants, aged 49-97 years, in the Blue Mountains region, Australia. The main outcome of interest was the 10-year incidence of early and late AMD among individuals free from corresponding disease at the baseline (1992-1994). An elevated baseline WBC count was associated with early AMD incidence, independent of smoking and other major confounders. The multivariable relative risk comparing tertile 3 of WBC count (>6.7 x 10(9) cells/liter) with tertile 1 (cells/liter) was 1.85 (95% confidence interval: 1.33, 2.58). The association between WBC count and early AMD was present consistently in analyses of different early AMD lesions, including incident pigmentary abnormalities and soft indistinct/reticular drusen. Moreover, this association persisted in subgroup analyses by gender and smoking. An elevated WBC count at baseline was not consistently associated with late AMD incidence. This study provides population-based evidence supporting a longitudinal association between the circulating WBC count, a widely available marker of inflammation, and incidence of early AMD.

  10. Age-Associated ALU Element Instability in White Blood Cells Is Linked to Lower Survival in Elderly Adults: A Preliminary Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturelli, Massimo; Gross, Cole; Tarperi, Cantor; Schena, Federico; Reggiani, Carlo; Naro, Fabio; Pedrinolla, Anna; Monaco, Lucia; Richardson, Russell S.; Donato, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Background ALU element instability could contribute to gene function variance in aging, and may partly explain variation in human lifespan. Objective To assess the role of ALU element instability in human aging and the potential efficacy of ALU element content as a marker of biological aging and survival. Design Preliminary cohort study. Methods We measured two high frequency ALU element subfamilies, ALU-J and ALU-Sx, by a single qPCR assay and compared ALU-J/Sx content in white blood cell (WBCs) and skeletal muscle cell (SMCs) biopsies from twenty-three elderly adults with sixteen healthy sex-balanced young adults; all-cause survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues; and cardiovascular disease (CVD)- and cancer-specific survival rates of elderly adults predicted by ALU-J/Sx content in both tissues, as planned subgroup analyses. Results We found greater ALU-J/Sx content variance in WBCs from elderly adults than young adults (P < 0.001) with no difference in SMCs (P = 0.94). Elderly adults with low WBC ALU-J/Sx content had worse four-year all-cause and CVD-associated survival than those with high ALU-J/Sx content (both P = 0.03 and hazard ratios (HR) ≥ 3.40), while WBC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on cancer-associated survival (P = 0.42 and HR = 0.74). SMC ALU-J/Sx content had no influence on all-cause, CVD- or cancer -associated survival (all P ≥ 0.26; HR ≤ 2.07). Conclusions These initial findings demonstrate that ALU element instability occurs with advanced age in WBCs, but not SMCs, and imparts greater risk of all-cause mortality that is likely driven by an increased risk for CVD and not cancer. PMID:28060910

  11. White Blood Cell Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  12. Elevated White Blood Cell Count Is Associated with Higher Risk of Glucose Metabolism Disorders in Middle-Aged and Elderly Chinese People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Jiang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available White blood cell (WBC count has been associated with diabetic risk, but whether the correlation is independent of other risk factors has hardly been studied. Moreover, very few such studies with large sample sizes have been conducted in Chinese. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between WBC count and glucose metabolism in china. We also examined the relevant variables of WBC count. A total of 9,697 subjects (mean age, 58.0 ± 9.1 years were recruited. The subjects were classified into four groups, including subjects with normal glucose tolerance, isolated impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. We found that WBC count increased as glucose metabolism disorders exacerbated. WBC count was also positively correlated with waist hip ratio, body mass index, smoking, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c and 2-h postprandial glucose. In addition, high density lipoprotein and the female gender were inversely correlated with WBC count. In patients with previously diagnosed T2DM, the course of T2DM was not correlated with WBC count. Our findings indicate that elevated WBC count is independently associated with worsening of glucose metabolism in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. In addition, loss of weight, smoking cessation, lipid-modifying therapies, and control of postprandial plasma glucose and HbA1c may ameliorate the chronic low-grade inflammation.

  13. Rare red blood cell abnormalities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zwieten, R.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to give insight in the process of diagnosing rare red blood cell defects, to clarify the relation of a defect with cell function and to extend, in this respect, our knowledge about normal red cell function and biochemistry. It is possible to categorize different red cell ab

  14. Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...

  15. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, A.M. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bagatini, M.D. [Curso de Enfermagem, Campus Chapecó, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, SC (Brazil); Roth, M.A. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mello, F.F. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lopes, L.F.D. [Departamento de Administração, Centro de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  16. Novel, high-yield red blood cell production methods from CD34-positive cells derived from human embryonic stem, yolk sac, fetal liver, cord blood, and peripheral blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, Emmanuel; Qiu, Caihong; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2012-08-01

    The current supply of red blood cells expressing rare blood groups is not sufficient to cover all the existing transfusion needs for chronically transfused patients, such as sickle cell disease homozygous carriers, because of alloimmunization. In vitro production of cultured red blood cells is slowly emerging as a possible complement to the existing collection-based red blood cell procurement system. The yield of cultured red blood cells can theoretically be maximized by amplifying the stem, progenitor, or precursor compartment. Here, we combined methods designed to expand these three compartments to optimize the yield of cultured red blood cells and found that exposing CD34(+) cells to a short pulse of cytokines favorable for erythroid differentiation prior to stem cell expansion followed by progenitor expansion produced the highest yield of erythroid cells. This novel serum-free red blood cell production protocol was efficient on CD34(+) cells derived from human embryonic stem cells, 6-8-week yolk sacs, 16-18-week fetal livers, cord blood, and peripheral blood. The yields of cells obtained with these new protocols were larger by an order of magnitude than the yields observed previously. Globin expression analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that these expansion protocols generally yielded red blood cells that expressed a globin profile similar to that expected for the developmental age of the CD34(+) cells.

  17. White blood cell counting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and tests of a prototype white blood cell counting system for use in the Skylab IMSS are presented. The counting system consists of a sample collection subsystem, sample dilution and fluid containment subsystem, and a cell counter. Preliminary test results show the sample collection and the dilution subsystems are functional and fulfill design goals. Results for the fluid containment subsystem show the handling bags cause counting errors due to: (1) adsorption of cells to the walls of the container, and (2) inadequate cleaning of the plastic bag material before fabrication. It was recommended that another bag material be selected.

  18. Low white blood cell count and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000675.htm Low white blood cell count and cancer To use ... high blood pressure, or seizures Continue Reading How Low is too Low? When your blood is tested, ...

  19. Age of transfused blood is not associated with increased postoperative adverse outcome after cardiac surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenny, M

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that storage age of transfused red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with adverse outcome after cardiac surgery, and examined association between volume of RBC transfusions and outcome after cardiac surgery.

  20. Segmentation and Analysis of Cancer Cells in Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Nelikanti

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood cancer is an umbrella term for cancers that affect the blood, bone marrow and lymphatic system. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL is one of the kinds of blood cancer which can be affected at any age in the humans. The analysis of peripheral blood samples is an important test in the procedures for the diagnosis of leukemia. In this paper the blood sample images are used and implementing a clustering algorithm for detection of the cancer cells. This paper also implements morphological operations and feature extraction techniques using MATLAB for the analysis of cancer cells in the images.

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  2. Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Ask about Your Treatment Research Blood-Forming Stem Cell Transplants On This Page What are bone marrow ... Considering becoming a bone marrow or a blood stem cell donor? View this video on YouTube. Follow a ...

  3. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  4. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from NCIcancertopics? Cancel Unsubscribe ... Ever considered becoming a bone marrow or blood stem cell donor? Follow this true story of a former ...

  5. Mean corpuscular volume of control red blood cells determines the interpretation of eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) test result in infants aged less than 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Adamowicz-Salach, Anna; Bystrzycka, Weronika; Łukasik, Jan; Kotuła, Iwona

    2015-08-01

    Eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA) binding test is a flow cytometric test used to detect hereditary spherocytosis (HS). To perform the test sample from patients, 5-6 reference samples of red blood are needed. Our aim was to investigate how the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) of red blood cells influences on the value of fluorescence of bounded EMA dye and how the choice of reference samples affects the test result. EMA test was performed in peripheral blood from 404 individuals, including 31 children suffering from HS. Mean fluorescence channel of EMA-RBCs was measured with Cytomics FC500 flow cytometer. Mean corpuscular volume of RBCs was assessed with LH750 Beckman Coulter. Statistical analysis was performed using Graph Pad Prism. The correlation Spearman coefficient between mean channel of fluorescence of EMA-RBCs and MCV was r = 0.39, p EMA test depends on MCV of the reference samples. If reference blood samples have lower MCV than the patients MCV, EMA test result might be negative. Due to different MCV values of RBCs in infancy and ca. Three months later, EMA test in neonates might be interpreted falsely negative. Samples from children younger than 3 months old had EMA test result 86.1 ± 11.7 %, whereas same samples that analyzed 4.1 ± 2.1 later had results of 75.4 ± 4.5 %, p EMA-bound RBC depends on RBC's volume. MCV of reference samples affects EMA test results; thus, we recommend selection of reference samples with MCV in range of ±2 fL compared to MCV of patient RBC's.

  6. Stem cells and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodell, Margaret A; Rando, Thomas A

    2015-12-04

    Research into stem cells and aging aims to understand how stem cells maintain tissue health, what mechanisms ultimately lead to decline in stem cell function with age, and how the regenerative capacity of somatic stem cells can be enhanced to promote healthy aging. Here, we explore the effects of aging on stem cells in different tissues. Recent research has focused on the ways that genetic mutations, epigenetic changes, and the extrinsic environmental milieu influence stem cell functionality over time. We describe each of these three factors, the ways in which they interact, and how these interactions decrease stem cell health over time. We are optimistic that a better understanding of these changes will uncover potential strategies to enhance stem cell function and increase tissue resiliency into old age.

  7. Evaluation of blood zinc, calcium and blood lead levels among children aged 1-36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaojun

    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood lead exposure is associated with numerous adverse health effects. Biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of the study is to evaluate the blood lead (Pb and total blood calcium (Ca levels; blood zinc (Zn levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect healthy children age 1-36 months (Mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 0.6 age, 60% boys in the study from January 2010 to September 2011. Results: The overall mean blood Pb levels were 42.18 ± 12.13 μg/L, the overall mean blood Zn and total blood Ca concentrations were 62.18 ± 12.33 μmol/L and 1.78 ± 0.13 mmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of elevated blood Pb levels in all children was 1.3%. A significant difference was found between female and male subjects for the blood Pb and Zn. After controlling for gender and age, there was a weak positive correlation between total blood Ca and Zn level. Conclusions: The blood Pb levels had a significant negative correlation with total blood Ca level after adjusting for age and gender, and these findings suggest that Pb had effect on positive blood Zn and total blood Ca levels; parents should pay more attention to the nutrition of girls.

  8. Intraoperative blood loss and gestational age at pregnancy termination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiano; Thomas; Lapinski; Balwan; Patel

    1998-07-01

    Objective: To establish the relationship of measured intraoperative blood loss to gestational age at pregnancy termination, and to determine which factors, if any, affect the risk of bleeding.Methods: A single-operator series of 363 consecutive women undergoing pregnancy termination between 5 and 24 weeks gestational age, as dated by ultrasound, was prospectively evaluated. All pregnancies under 13 weeks gestation were terminated by mechanical dilation and suction curettage without preoperative cervical ripening. All pregnancies between 13 and 24 weeks gestation were terminated by preoperative osmotic cervical dilation with laminaria tents and subsequent uterine evacuation by a combination of suction curettage, sharp curettage, and Bierer forceps extraction. All patients over 12 weeks gestation received a postoperative oxytocin infusion. Whenever possible, amniotic fluid and blood were collected and measured separately. Patients were excluded from the data analysis for pregnancy demise, PPROM, Potter's syndrome, or inability to separate blood establish their relationship. After adjustment for gestational age, the results were analyzed to determine if blood loss was related to maternal age, smoking history, body habitus, or operative indication.Results: A curvilinear relationship between blood loss and gestational age was observed. Mean blood loss at 24 weeks exceeded 800 mL. After adjustment for gestational age, no factors significantly affected blood loss at dilation and aspiration of first trimester pregnancies. In those patients undergoing dilation and evacuation in the second trimester, both simple and stepwise regression analyses showed obesity (BMI >/=32.3) to be significantly associated with increased blood loss (P cesarean section, nor smoking history were significantly associated with increased blood loss at dilation and evacuation.Conclusions: With advancing gestational age, intraoperative blood loss increases in curvilinear fashion. Termination providers

  9. Blood DNA methylation age is not associated with cognitive functioning in middle-aged monozygotic twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starnawska, A; Tan, Q; Lenart, A

    2016-01-01

    reported in a recent intrapair twin study where epigenetically older twins had increased mortality risk in comparison to their co-twins. In the study presented here, we hypothesize that DNAmAge in blood is associated with cross-sectional and longitudinal cognitive abilities in middle-aged individuals......The epigenetic clock, also known as DNA methylation age (DNAmAge), represents age-related changes of DNA methylation at multiple sites of the genome and is suggested to be a biomarker for biological age. Elevated blood DNAmAge is associated with all-cause mortality, with the strongest effects....... In 486 monozygotic twins, we investigated the association of DNAmAge, difference between DNAmAge and chronological age and age acceleration with cognition. Despite using a powerful paired twin design, we found no evidence for association of blood DNAmAge with cognitive abilities. This observation...

  10. Blood-Brain Barrier Breakdown in the Aging Human Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagne, Axel; Barnes, Samuel R.; Sweeney, Melanie D.; Halliday, Matthew R.; Sagare, Abhay P.; Zhao, Zhen; Toga, Arthur W.; Jacobs, Russell E.; Liu, Collin Y.; Amezcua, Lilyana; Harrington, Michael G.; Chui, Helena C.; Law, Meng; Zlokovic, Berislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits entry of blood-derived products, pathogens and cells into the brain that is essential for normal neuronal functioning and information processing. Post-mortem tissue analysis indicates BBB damage in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The timing of BBB breakdown remains, however, elusive. Using an advanced dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging protocol with high spatial and temporal resolutions to quantify regional BBB permeability in the living human brain, we show an age-dependent BBB breakdown in the hippocampus, a region critical for learning and memory that is affected early in AD. The BBB breakdown in the hippocampus and its CA1 and dentate gyrus subdivisions worsened with mild cognitive impairment that correlated with injury to BBB-associated pericytes, as shown by the cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Our data suggest that BBB breakdown is an early event in the aging human brain that begins in the hippocampus and may contribute to cognitive impairment. PMID:25611508

  11. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-12-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  12. Age-dependent increase in green autofluorescence of blood erythrocytes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjay Khandelwal; Rajiv K Saxena

    2007-09-01

    Green auto-fluorescence (GAF) of different age groups of mouse blood erythrocytes was determined by using a double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique that enables delineation of circulating erythrocytes of different age groups. A significant increase in GAF was seen for erythrocytes of old age group (age in circulation > 40 days) as compared to young erythrocytes (age < 15 days). Erythrocytes are removed from blood circulation by macrophages in the reticulo-endothelial system and depletion of macrophages results in an increased proportion of aged erythrocytes in the blood. When mice were depleted of macrophages for 7 days by administration of clodronate loaded liposomes, the overall GAF of erythrocytes increased significantly and this increase could be ascribed to an increase in GAF of the oldest population of erythrocytes. Using the DIB technique, the GAF of a cohort of blood erythrocyte generated during a 5 day window was tracked in vivo. GAF of the defined cohort of erythrocytes remained low till 40 days of age in circulation and then increased steeply till the end of the life span of erythrocytes. Taken together our results provide evidence for an age dependent increase in the GAF of blood erythrocytes that is accentuated by depletion of macrophages. Kinetics of changes in GAF of circulating erythrocytes with age has also been defined.

  13. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yinan; Joyce, Brian T; Colicino, Elena; Liu, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Dai, Qi; Shrubsole, Martha J; Kibbe, Warren A; Gao, Tao; Zhang, Zhou; Jafari, Nadereh; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Hou, Lifang

    2016-03-01

    Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages) can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3-5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02) and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.28). Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003) and mortality (P = 0.02). Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a 'J-shaped' manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  14. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  15. Trapping cells in paper for white blood cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Bai, Jianhao; Wu, Hong; Ying, Jackie Y

    2015-07-15

    White blood cell count is an important indicator of each individual's health condition. An abnormal white blood cell count usually results from an infection, cancer, or other conditions that trigger systemic inflammation responses. White blood cell count also provides predictive information on the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, monitoring white blood cell count on a regular basis can potentially help individuals to take preventive measures and improve healthcare outcomes. Currently, white blood cell count is primarily conducted in centralized laboratories, and it requires specialized equipment and dedicated personnel to perform the test and interpret the results. So far there has been no rapid test that allows white blood cell count in low-resource settings. In this study, we have demonstrated a vertical flow platform that quantifies white blood cells by trapping them in the paper. White blood cells were tagged with gold nanoparticles, and flowed through the paper via a small orifice. The white blood cell count was determined by measuring the colorimetric intensity of gold nanoparticles on the surface of white blood cells that were trapped in the paper mesh. Using this platform, we were able to quantify white blood cells in 15 μL of blood, and visually differentiate the abnormal count of white blood cells from the normal count. The proposed platform enabled rapid white blood cell count in low resource settings with a small sample volume requirement. Its low-cost, instrument-free operations would be attractive for point-of-care applications.

  16. Reduced blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle in ageing humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    The ability to sustain a given absolute submaximal workload declines with advancing age likely due to a lower level of blood flow and O2 delivery to the exercising muscles. Given that physical inactivity mimics many of the physiological changes associated with ageing, separating the physiological...... consequences of ageing and physical inactivity can be challenging; yet, observations from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the effects of physical activity have provided some insight. Physical activity has the potential to offset the age-related decline in blood flow to contracting skeletal muscle...... the O2 demand of the active skeletal muscle of aged individuals during conditions where systemic blood flow is not limited by cardiac output seems to a large extent to be related to the level of physical activity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  17. Squeezing red blood cells on an optical waveguide to monitor cell deformability during blood storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh; McCourt, Peter; Oteiza, Ana; Wilkinson, James S; Huser, Thomas R; Hellesø, Olav Gaute

    2015-01-07

    Red blood cells squeeze through micro-capillaries as part of blood circulation in the body. The deformability of red blood cells is thus critical for blood circulation. In this work, we report a method to optically squeeze red blood cells using the evanescent field present on top of a planar waveguide chip. The optical forces from a narrow waveguide are used to squeeze red blood cells to a size comparable to the waveguide width. Optical forces and pressure distributions on the cells are numerically computed to explain the squeezing process. The proposed technique is used to quantify the loss of blood deformability that occurs during blood storage lesion. Squeezing red blood cells using waveguides is a sensitive technique and works simultaneously on several cells, making the method suitable for monitoring stored blood.

  18. Cord blood stem cell banking and transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhot, P S; Nair, V; Swarup, D; Sirohi, D; Ganguli, P

    2003-12-01

    Stem cells have the ability to divide for indefinite periods in culture and to give rise to specialized cells. Cord blood as a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has several advantages as it is easily available, involves non-invasive collection procedure and is better tolerated across the HLA barrier. Since the first cord blood transplant in 1988, over 2500 cord blood HSC transplants have been done world wide. Since then, the advantages of cord blood as a source of hematopietic stem cells for transplantation have become clear. Firstly, the proliferative capacity of HSC in cord blood is superior to that of cells in bone marrow or blood from adults. A 100 ml unit of cord blood contains 1/10th the number of nucleated cells and progenitor cells (CD34+ cells) present in 1000 ml of bone marrow, but because they proliferate rapidly, the stem cell in a single unit of cord blood can reconstitute the entire haematopoietic system. Secondly, the use of cord blood reduces the risk of graft vs host disease. Cord Blood Stem Cell banks have been established in Europe and United States to supply HSC for related and unrelated donors. Currently, more than 65,000 units are available and more than 2500 patients have received transplants of cord blood. Results in children have clearly shown that the number of nucleated cells in the infused cord blood influences the speed of recovery of neutrophils and platelets after myeloablative chemotherapy. The optimal dose is about 2 x 10(7) nucleated cells/kg of body weight. The present study was carried out for collection, separation, enumeration and cryopreservation of cord blood HSC and establishing a Cord Blood HSC Bank. 172 samples of cord blood HSC were collected after delivery of infant prior to expulsion of placenta. The average cord blood volume collected was 101.20 ml. Mononuclear cell count ranged from 7.36 to 25.6 x 10(7)/ml. Viability count of mononuclear cells was 98.1%. After 1 year of cryopreservation, the viability count on

  19. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Peters (Marjolein); R. Joehanes (Roby); L.C. Pilling (Luke); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K.N. Conneely (Karen N.); J.E. Powell (Joseph); E. Reinmaa (Eva); G.L. Sutphin (George L.); A. Zhernakova (Alexandra); K. Schramm (Katharina); Y.A. Wilson (Yana A.); S. Kobes (Sayuko); T. Tukiainen (Taru); Y.F.M. Ramos (Yolande); H.H.H. Göring (Harald H.); M. Fornage (Myriam); Y. Liu (Yongmei); S.A. Gharib (Sina); B.E. Stranger (Barbara); P.L. de Jager (Philip); A. Aviv (Abraham); D. Levy (Daniel); J. Murabito (Joanne); P.J. Munson (Peter J.); T. Huan (Tianxiao); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (Andre G.); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J. van Rooij (Jeroen); L. Stolk (Lisette); L. Broer (Linda); M.M.P.J. Verbiest (Michael); M. Jhamai (Mila); P.P. Arp (Pascal); A. Metspalu (Andres); L. Tserel (Liina); L. Milani (Lili); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); P. Peterson (Pärt); S. Kasela (Silva); V. Codd (Veryan); A. Peters (Annette); C.K. Ward-Caviness (Cavin K.); C. Herder (Christian); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); M. Roden (Michael); P. Singmann (Paula); S. Zeilinger (Sonja); T. Illig (Thomas); G. Homuth (Georg); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); H. Völzke (Henry); L. Steil (Leif); T. Kocher (Thomas); A. Murray (Anna); D. Melzer (David); H. Yaghootkar (Hanieh); S. Bandinelli; E.K. Moses (Eric); J.W. Kent (Jack); J.E. Curran (Joanne); M.P. Johnson (Matthew); S. Williams-Blangero (Sarah); H.J. Westra (Harm-Jan); A.F. McRae (Allan F.); J.A. Smith (Jennifer A); S.L.R. Kardia (Sharon); I. Hovatta (Iiris); M. Perola (Markus); S. Ripatti (Samuli); V. Salomaa (Veikko); A.K. Henders (Anjali); N.G. Martin (Nicholas); A.K. Smith (Alicia K.); D. Mehta (Divya); E.B. Binder (Elisabeth B.); K.M. Nylocks (K. Maria); E.M. Kennedy (Elizabeth M.); T. Klengel (Torsten); J. Ding (Jingzhong); A. Suchy-Dicey (Astrid); D. Enquobahrie; J. Brody (Jennifer); J.I. Rotter (Jerome I.); Y.-D.I. Chen (Yii-Der I.); J.J. Houwing-Duistermaat (Jeanine); M. Kloppenburg (Margreet); P.E. Slagboom (Eline); Q. Helmer (Quinta); W. den Hollander (Wouter); S. Bean (Shannon); T. Raj (Towfique); N. Bakhshi (Noman); Q.P. Wang (Qiao Ping); L.J. Oyston (Lisa J.); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); R.P. Tracy (Russell); G.W. Montgomery (Grant); S.T. Turner (Stephen); J. Blangero (John); I. Meulenbelt (Ingrid); K.J. Ressler (Kerry); J. Yang (Jian); L. Franke (Lude); J. Kettunen (Johannes); P.M. Visscher (Peter); G.G. Neely (G. Gregory); R. Korstanje (Ron); R.L. Hanson (Robert L.); H. Prokisch (Holger); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T. Esko (Tõnu); A. Teumer (Alexander); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); A.D. Johnson (Andrew D.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); M.R. Cookson (Mark); R.J. Gibbs (Raphael J.); J. Hardy (John); A. Ramasamy (Adaikalavan); A.B. Zonderman (Alan B.); A. Dillman (Allissa); B. Traynor (Bryan); C. Smith (Colin); D.L. Longo (Dan L.); D. Trabzuni (Danyah); J.C. Troncoso (Juan); M.P. van der Brug (Marcel); M.E. Weale (Michael); R. O'Brien (Richard); R. Johnson (Robert); R. Walker (Robert); R.H. Zielke (Ronald H.); S. Arepalli (Sampath); M. Ryten (Mina); A. Singleton

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDisease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) a

  20. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Marjolein J; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Ramos, Yolande F; Göring, Harald H H; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A; Stranger, Barbara E; De Jager, Philip L; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M; Munson, Peter J; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M P J; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K; Kent, Jack W; Curran, Joanne E; Johnson, Matthew P; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F; Smith, Jennifer A; Kardia, Sharon L R; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K; Martin, Nicholas G; Smith, Alicia K; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der I; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J; Psaty, Bruce M; Tracy, Russell P; Montgomery, Grant W; Turner, Stephen T; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M; Neely, G Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Johnson, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify

  1. The cell biology of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLoreto, Race; Murphy, Coleen T.

    2015-01-01

    One of the original hypotheses of organismal longevity posits that aging is the natural result of entropy on the cells, tissues, and organs of the animal—a slow, inexorable slide into nonfunctionality caused by stochastic degradation of its parts. We now have evidence that aging is instead at least in part genetically regulated. Many mutations have been discovered to extend lifespan in organisms of all complexities, from yeast to mammals. The study of metazoan model organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, has been instrumental in understanding the role of genetics in the cell biology of aging. Longevity mutants across the spectrum of model organisms demonstrate that rates of aging are regulated through genetic control of cellular processes. The regulation and subsequent breakdown of cellular processes represent a programmatic decision by the cell to either continue or abandon maintenance procedures with age. Our understanding of cell biological processes involved in regulating aging have been particularly informed by longevity mutants and treatments, such as reduced insulin/IGF-1 signaling and dietary restriction, which are critical in determining the distinction between causes of and responses to aging and have revealed a set of downstream targets that participate in a range of cell biological activities. Here we briefly review some of these important cellular processes. PMID:26668170

  2. Red blood cells in sports: Effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimo eMairbäurl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During exercise the cardiovascular system has to warrant substrate supply to working muscle. The main function of red blood cells in exercise is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues and the delivery of metabolically produced CO2 to the lungs for expiration. Hemoglobin also contributes to the blood’s buffering capacity, and ATP and NO release from red blood cells contributes to vasodilation and improved blood flow to working muscle. These functions require adequate amounts of red blood cells in circulation. Trained athletes, particularly in endurance sports, have a decreased hematocrit, which is sometimes called sports anemia. This is not anemia in a clinical sense because athletes have in fact an increased total mass of red blood cells and hemoglobin in circulation relative to sedentary individuals. The slight decrease in hematocrit by training is brought about by an increased plasma volume. The mechanisms that increase total red blood cell mass by training are not understood fully. Despite stimulated erythropoiesis, exercise can decrease the red blood cell mass by intravascular hemolysis mainly of senescent red blood cells, which is caused by mechanical rupture when red blood cells pass through capillaries in contracting muscles, and by compression of red cells e.g. in foot soles during running or in hand palms in weightlifters. Together, these adjustments cause a decrease in the average age of the population of circulating red blood cells in trained athletes. These younger red cells are characterized by improved oxygen release and deformability, both of which also improve tissue oxygen supply during exercise.

  3. Blood Epigenetic Age may Predict Cancer Incidence and Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinan Zheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3–5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02 and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02–1.10 and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07–1.28. Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003 and mortality (P = 0.02. Δage was associated with cancer incidence in a ‘J-shaped’ manner for subjects examined pre-2003, and with cancer mortality in a time-varying manner. We conclude that blood epigenetic age may mirror epigenetic abnormalities related to cancer development, potentially serving as a minimally invasive biomarker for cancer early detection.

  4. The transcriptional landscape of age in human peripheral blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Marjolein J.; Joehanes, Roby; Pilling, Luke C.; Schurmann, Claudia; Conneely, Karen N.; Powell, Joseph; Reinmaa, Eva; Sutphin, George L.; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Schramm, Katharina; Wilson, Yana A.; Kobes, Sayuko; Tukiainen, Taru; Nalls, Michael A.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Cookson, Mark R.; Gibbs, Raphael J.; Hardy, John; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Zonderman, Alan B.; Dillman, Allissa; Traynor, Bryan; Smith, Colin; Longo, Dan L.; Trabzuni, Daniah; Troncoso, Juan; van der Brug, Marcel; Weale, Michael E.; O'Brien, Richard; Johnson, Robert; Walker, Robert; Zielke, Ronald H.; Arepalli, Sampath; Ryten, Mina; Singleton, Andrew B.; Ramos, Yolande F.; Göring, Harald H. H.; Fornage, Myriam; Liu, Yongmei; Gharib, Sina A.; Stranger, Barbara E.; De Jager, Philip L.; Aviv, Abraham; Levy, Daniel; Murabito, Joanne M.; Munson, Peter J.; Huan, Tianxiao; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; van Rooij, Jeroen; Stolk, Lisette; Broer, Linda; Verbiest, Michael M. P. J.; Jhamai, Mila; Arp, Pascal; Metspalu, Andres; Tserel, Liina; Milani, Lili; Samani, Nilesh J.; Peterson, Pärt; Kasela, Silva; Codd, Veryan; Peters, Annette; Ward-Caviness, Cavin K.; Herder, Christian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Roden, Michael; Singmann, Paula; Zeilinger, Sonja; Illig, Thomas; Homuth, Georg; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Völzke, Henry; Steil, Leif; Kocher, Thomas; Murray, Anna; Melzer, David; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Bandinelli, Stefania; Moses, Eric K.; Kent, Jack W.; Curran, Joanne E.; Johnson, Matthew P.; Williams-Blangero, Sarah; Westra, Harm-Jan; McRae, Allan F.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Hovatta, Iiris; Perola, Markus; Ripatti, Samuli; Salomaa, Veikko; Henders, Anjali K.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Smith, Alicia K.; Mehta, Divya; Binder, Elisabeth B.; Nylocks, K Maria; Kennedy, Elizabeth M.; Klengel, Torsten; Ding, Jingzhong; Suchy-Dicey, Astrid M.; Enquobahrie, Daniel A.; Brody, Jennifer; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Slagboom, P. Eline; Helmer, Quinta; den Hollander, Wouter; Bean, Shannon; Raj, Towfique; Bakhshi, Noman; Wang, Qiao Ping; Oyston, Lisa J.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Tracy, Russell P.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Turner, Stephen T.; Blangero, John; Meulenbelt, Ingrid; Ressler, Kerry J.; Yang, Jian; Franke, Lude; Kettunen, Johannes; Visscher, Peter M.; Neely, G. Gregory; Korstanje, Ron; Hanson, Robert L.; Prokisch, Holger; Ferrucci, Luigi; Esko, Tonu; Teumer, Alexander; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Johnson, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Disease incidences increase with age, but the molecular characteristics of ageing that lead to increased disease susceptibility remain inadequately understood. Here we perform a whole-blood gene expression meta-analysis in 14,983 individuals of European ancestry (including replication) and identify 1,497 genes that are differentially expressed with chronological age. The age-associated genes do not harbor more age-associated CpG-methylation sites than other genes, but are instead enriched for the presence of potentially functional CpG-methylation sites in enhancer and insulator regions that associate with both chronological age and gene expression levels. We further used the gene expression profiles to calculate the ‘transcriptomic age' of an individual, and show that differences between transcriptomic age and chronological age are associated with biological features linked to ageing, such as blood pressure, cholesterol levels, fasting glucose, and body mass index. The transcriptomic prediction model adds biological relevance and complements existing epigenetic prediction models, and can be used by others to calculate transcriptomic age in external cohorts. PMID:26490707

  5. Immune Cells in Blood Recognize Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI scientists have developed a novel strategy for identifying immune cells circulating in the blood that recognize specific proteins on tumor cells, a finding they believe may have potential implications for immune-based therapies.

  6. Stem cell mitochondria during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min-Wen, Jason Chua; Jun-Hao, Elwin Tan; Shyh-Chang, Ng

    2016-04-01

    Mitochondria are the central hubs of cellular metabolism, equipped with their own mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) blueprints to direct part of the programming of mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and thus reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. In stem cells, many stem cell factors governing the intricate balance between self-renewal and differentiation have been found to directly regulate mitochondrial processes to control stem cell behaviors during tissue regeneration and aging. Moreover, numerous nutrient-sensitive signaling pathways controlling organismal longevity in an evolutionarily conserved fashion also influence stem cell-mediated tissue homeostasis during aging via regulation of stem cell mitochondria. At the genomic level, it has been demonstrated that heritable mtDNA mutations and variants affect mammalian stem cell homeostasis and influence the risk for human degenerative diseases during aging. Because such a multitude of stem cell factors and signaling pathways ultimately converge on the mitochondria as the primary mechanism to modulate cellular and organismal longevity, it would be most efficacious to develop technologies to therapeutically target and direct mitochondrial repair in stem cells, as a unified strategy to combat aging-related degenerative diseases in the future.

  7. Isolation of rare cancer cells from blood cells using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanzadeh, Alireza; Sano, Michael B; Shafiee, Hadi; Stremler, Mark A; Davalos, Rafael V

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate the application of contactless dielectrophoresis (cDEP) for isolating cancer cells from blood cells. Devices with throughput of 0.2 mL/hr (equivalent to sorting 3×10(6) cells per minute) were used to trap breast cancer cells while allowing blood cells through. We have shown that this technique is able to isolate cancer cells in concentration as low as 1 cancer cell per 10(6) hematologic cells (equivalent to 1000 cancer cells in 1 mL of blood). We achieved 96% trapping of the cancer cells at 600 kHz and 300 V(RMS).

  8. Age-related changes of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein function in normal human peripheral blood T lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.G. Machado

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein is a transmembrane efflux pump expressed by lymphocytes and is involved in their cytolytic activity. In the present study, we investigated the age-related changes of P-glycoprotein function in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. Blood samples from 90 normal volunteers (age range, 0 to 86 years were analyzed. P-glycoprotein function was assessed by the flow cytometric rhodamine 123 assay. P-glycoprotein function was highest in cord blood and progressively declined with age in peripheral blood T CD4+ and CD8+ cells. In contrast, P-glycoprotein function did not vary with age in CD19+ B or CD16+CD56+ natural killer cells. These data suggest that the decline in P-glycoprotein function in T CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes as a function of age may contribute to the decrease in T cell cytolytic activity with aging.

  9. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  10. Aging, High Altitude, and Blood Pressure: A Complex Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parati, Gianfranco; Ochoa, Juan Eugenio; Torlasco, Camilla; Salvi, Paolo; Lombardi, Carolina; Bilo, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    Parati, Gianfranco, Juan Eugenio Ochoa, Camilla Torlasco, Paolo Salvi, Carolina Lombardi, and Grzegorz Bilo. Aging, high altitude, and blood pressure: A complex relationship. High Alt Biol Med 16:97-109, 2015.--Both aging and high altitude exposure may induce important changes in BP regulation, leading to significant increases in BP levels. By inducing atherosclerotic changes, stiffening of large arteries, renal dysfunction, and arterial baroreflex impairment, advancing age may induce progressive increases in systolic BP levels, promoting development and progression of arterial hypertension. It is also known, although mainly from studies in young or middle-aged subjects, that exposure to high altitude may influence different mechanisms involved in BP regulation (i.e., neural central and reflex control of sympathetic activity), leading to important increases in BP levels. The evidence is less clear, however, on whether and to what extent advancing age may influence the BP response to acute or chronic high altitude exposure. This is a question not only of scientific interest but also of practical relevance given the consistent number of elderly individuals who are exposed for short time periods (either for leisure or work) or live permanently at high altitude, in whom arterial hypertension is frequently observed. This article will review the evidence available on the relationship between aging and blood pressure levels at high altitude, the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this complex association, as well as some questions of practical interest regarding antihypertensive treatment in elderly subjects, and the effects of antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure response during high altitude exposure.

  11. Klotho, stem cells, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Ao; Neyra, Javier A; Zhan, Ming; Hu, Ming Chang

    2015-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and progressive biological process involving dysfunction and eventually destruction of every tissue and organ. This process is driven by a tightly regulated and complex interplay between genetic and acquired factors. Klotho is an antiaging gene encoding a single-pass transmembrane protein, klotho, which serves as an aging suppressor through a wide variety of mechanisms, such as antioxidation, antisenescence, antiautophagy, and modulation of many signaling pathways, including insulin-like growth factor and Wnt. Klotho deficiency activates Wnt expression and activity contributing to senescence and depletion of stem cells, which consequently triggers tissue atrophy and fibrosis. In contrast, the klotho protein was shown to suppress Wnt-signaling transduction, and inhibit cell senescence and preserve stem cells. A better understanding of the potential effects of klotho on stem cells could offer novel insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of klotho deficiency-related aging and disease. The klotho protein may be a promising therapeutic agent for aging and aging-related disorders.

  12. Benznidazole levels in blood vary with age in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Fernanda Bulffer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Benznidazole (Bz exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg. We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals.

  13. Human spleen and red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George; Buffet, Pierre; Dao, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Spleen plays multiple roles in the human body. Among them is removal of old and altered red blood cells (RBCs), which is done by filtering cells through the endothelial slits, small micron-sized openings. There is currently no experimental technique available that allows us to observe RBC passage through the slits. It was previously noticed that people without a spleen have less deformable red blood cells, indicating that the spleen may play a role in defining the size and shape of red blood cells. We used detailed RBC model implemented within the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation framework to study the filter function of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that spleen indeed plays major role in defining the size and shape of the healthy human red blood cells.

  14. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  15. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  16. The trajectory of the blood DNA methylome ageing rate is largely set before adulthood: evidence from two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananen, L; Marttila, S; Nevalainen, T; Kummola, L; Junttila, I; Mononen, N; Kähönen, M; Raitakari, O T; Hervonen, A; Jylhä, M; Lehtimäki, T; Hurme, M; Jylhävä, J

    2016-06-01

    The epigenetic clock, defined as the DNA methylome age (DNAmAge), is a candidate biomarker of ageing. In this study, we aimed to characterize the behaviour of this marker during the human lifespan in more detail using two follow-up cohorts (the Young Finns study, calendar age i.e. cAge range at baseline 15-24 years, 25-year-follow-up, N = 183; The Vitality 90+ study, cAge range at baseline 19-90 years, 4-year-follow-up, N = 48). We also aimed to assess the relationship between DNAmAge estimate and the blood cell distributions, as both of these measures are known to change as a function of age. The subjects' DNAmAges were determined using Horvath's calculator of epigenetic cAge. The estimate of the DNA methylome age acceleration (Δ-cAge-DNAmAge) demonstrated remarkable stability in both cohorts: the individual rank orders of the DNAmAges remained largely unchanged during the follow-ups. The blood cell distributions also demonstrated significant intra-individual correlation between the baseline and follow-up time points. Interestingly, the immunosenescence-associated features (CD8+CD28- and CD4+CD28- cell proportions and the CD4/CD8 cell ratio) were tightly associated with the estimate of the DNA methylome age. In summary, our data demonstrate that the general level of Δ-cAge-DNAmAge is fixed before adulthood and appears to be quite stationary thereafter, even in the oldest-old ages. Moreover, the blood DNAmAge estimate seems to be tightly associated with ageing-associated shifts in blood cell composition, especially with those that are the hallmarks of immunosenescence. Overall, these observations contribute to the understanding of the longitudinal aspects of the DNAmAge estimate.

  17. IBCIS:Intelligent blood cell identification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adnan Khashman

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of blood cells in microscope images can provide useful information concerning the health of patients.There are three major blood cell types,namely,erythrocytes (red),leukocytes (white),and platelets.Manual classification is time consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells.This paper presents an intelligent system that simulates a human visual inspection and classification of the three blood cell types.The proposed system comprises two phases:The image preprocessing phase where blood cell features are extracted via global pattern averaging,and the neural network arbitration phase where training is the first and then classification is carried out.Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well in identifying blood cell types regardless of their irregular shapes,sizes and orientation,thus providing a fast,simple and efficient rotational and scale invariant blood cell identification system which can be used in automating laboratory reporting.

  18. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ Find out why Close Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor NCIcancertopics Loading... Unsubscribe from ... later? Sign in to add this video to a playlist. Sign in Share More Report Need to ...

  19. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Finck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.

  20. BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGE WITH AGE IN SALT-SENSITIVE TEENAGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ye; Zhi-quan Liu; Jian-jun Mu; Xi-han Fu; Jun Yang; Bao-lin Gao; Xiao-hong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Objective To observe blood pressure change with age in salt-sensitive teenagers whose salt sensitivity were determined by repeated testing.Methods Salt sensitivity was determined through intravenous infusion of normal saline combined with volume-depletion by oral diuretic furosemide in 55 teenagers. After five years, salt sensitivity was re-examined and subject blood pressure was followed up. Blood pressure changes in salt-sensitive teenagers were compared to that of non-salt sensitive teenagers over five years.Results After 5 years, the repetition rate of salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading is 92.7%. In teenagers with salt sensitivity on the baseline, both the systolic blood pressure increments and increment rates were much higher than non-salt sensitive teenagers (12.7±12.1 mmHg vs. 2.8±5.2 mmHg, P< 0.01; 12.2%± 12.0% vs. 2.5% ±4.4%, P< 0.001,respectively). There was a similar trend for diastolic blood pressure (8.4 ± 6.4 mmHg vs. 3.7 ± 6.4 mmHg, P = 0.052; 13.2% ±10.6 % vs. 6.8%± 10.1%, P = 0.053, respectively).Conclusions Salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading showed good reproducibility. Blood pressure increments with age were much higher in salt-sensitive teenagers than non-salt sensitive teenagers, especially in terms of systolic blood pressure.

  1. Effect of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Blood Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Focosi, Daniele; Pistello, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    Population aging has imposed cost-effective alternatives to blood donations. Artificial blood is still at the preliminary stages of development, and the need for viable cells seems unsurmountable. Because large numbers of viable cells must be promptly available for clinical use, stem cell technologies, expansion, and banking represent ideal tools to ensure a regular supply. Provided key donors can be identified, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine, just as it is already doing in many other fields of medicine. The present review summarizes the current state of research on iPSC technology in the field of blood banking, highlighting hurdles, and promises.

  2. Separation of blood cells using hydrodynamic lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geislinger, T. M.; Eggart, B.; Braunmüller, S.; Schmid, L.; Franke, T.

    2012-04-01

    Using size and deformability as intrinsic biomarkers, we separate red blood cells (RBCs) from other blood components based on a repulsive hydrodynamic cell-wall-interaction. We exploit this purely viscous lift effect at low Reynolds numbers to induce a lateral migration of soft objects perpendicular to the streamlines of the fluid, which closely follows theoretical prediction by Olla [J. Phys. II 7, 1533, (1997)]. We study the effects of flow rate and fluid viscosity on the separation efficiency and demonstrate the separation of RBCs, blood platelets, and solid microspheres from each other. The method can be used for continuous and label-free cell classification and sorting in on-chip blood analysis.

  3. Brain energy metabolism and blood flow differences in healthy aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanerud, Joel; Borghammer, Per; Chakravarty, M Mallar

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) are important indices of healthy aging of the brain. Although a frequent topic of study, changes of CBF and CMRO(2) during normal aging are still controversial, as some authors...... find decreases of both CBF and CMRO(2) but increased OEF, while others find no change, and yet other find divergent changes. In this reanalysis of previously published results from positron emission tomography of healthy volunteers, we determined CMRO(2) and CBF in 66 healthy volunteers aged 21 to 81......, and in the temporal cortex. Because of the inverse relation between OEF and capillary oxygen tension, increased OEF can compromise oxygen delivery to neurons, with possible perturbation of energy turnover. The results establish a possible mechanism of progression from healthy to unhealthy brain aging, as the regions...

  4. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    CERN Document Server

    Caprio, Di; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume and hemoglobin concentration for individual red blood cells in high-throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.5%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with hemoglobin concentr...

  5. Circulating human B and plasma cells. Age-associated changes in counts and detailed characterization of circulating normal CD138- and CD138+ plasma cells. : Blood B-lymphocytes and plasma cells in adults

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Generation of B and plasma cells involves several organs with a necessary cell trafficking between them. A detailed phenotypic characterization of four circulating B-cell subsets (immature-, naïve-, memory- B-lymphocytes and plasma cells) of 106 healthy adults was realized by multiparametric flow cytometry. We show that CD10, CD27 and CD38 is the minimal combination of subsetting markers allowing unequivocal identification of immature (CD10(+)CD27(-)CD38(+), 6+/-6 cell...

  6. The origin of blood stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Boisset

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe development of cell biology research coincides with the advance of microscopes in the 19th century. It was finally possible to directly observe the various blood cell types and to witness their proliferation and differentiation (Mazzarello, 1999). On the basis of his observations, th

  7. 21 CFR 864.9245 - Automated blood cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell separator. 864.9245 Section... Blood and Blood Products § 864.9245 Automated blood cell separator. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell separator is a device that uses a centrifugal or filtration separation principle...

  8. 21 CFR 864.8200 - Blood cell diluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood cell diluent. 864.8200 Section 864.8200 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8200 Blood cell diluent. (a) Identification. A blood cell diluent is a device used to dilute blood for further testing, such as blood...

  9. Deterministic Aperiodic Sickle Cell Blood Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsaves, Louis; Harris, Wesley

    2013-11-01

    In this paper sickle cell blood flow in the capillaries is modeled as a hydrodynamical system. The hydrodynamical system consists of the axisymmetric unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a set of constitutive equations for oxygen transport. Blood cell deformation is not considered in this paper. The hydrodynamical system is reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations that are then transformed into a system of three autonomous non-linear ordinary differential equations and a set of algebraic equations. We examine the hydrodynamical system to discern stable/unstable, periodic/nonperiodic, reversible/irreversible properties of the system. The properties of the solutions are driven in large part by the coefficients of the governing system of equations. These coefficients depend on the physiological properties of the sickle cell blood. The chaotic nature of the onset of crisis in sickle cell patients is identified. Research Assistant.

  10. White blood cell deformation and firm adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatmary, Alex; Eggleton, Charles

    2011-11-01

    For a white blood cell (WBC) to arrive at infection sites, it forms chemical attachments with activated endothelial cells. First, it bonds with P-selectin, which holds it to the wall, but weakly; this allows the WBC to roll under the shear flow of the blood around it. Later, the WBCs bond with the stronger intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1); it is these ICAM bonds that allow the WBCs to fully resist the flow and stop rolling, allowing them to crawl through the endothelial wall. We model this numerically. Our model uses the immersed boundary method to represent the interaction of the shear flow with the deformable cell membrane. Receptors are on the tips of microvilli-little fingers sticking off of the cell membrane. The microvilli also deform. The receptors stochastically form and break bonds with molecules on the wall. Using this method, the history of each microvillus and its bonds can be found, as well as the distribution of the adhesion traction forces and how all of these vary with the deformability of the white blood cell. At higher shear rates, the white blood cell membrane deforms more, increasing its contact area with the surface; this effect is larger for softer membranes. We investigate how the deformability of the WBC affects the ease with which it forms firm adhesion.

  11. Peripheral injection of human umbilical cord blood stimulates neurogenesis in the aged rat brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachstetter, Adam D; Pabon, Mibel M; Cole, Michael J; Hudson, Charles E; Sanberg, Paul R; Willing, Alison E; Bickford, Paula C; Gemma, Carmelina

    2008-01-01

    Background Neurogenesis continues to occur throughout life but dramatically decreases with increasing age. This decrease is mostly related to a decline in proliferative activity as a result of an impoverishment of the microenvironment of the aged brain, including a reduction in trophic factors and increased inflammation. Results We determined that human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMC) given peripherally, by an intravenous injection, could rejuvenate the proliferative activity of the aged neural stem/progenitor cells. This increase in proliferation lasted for at least 15 days after the delivery of the UCBMC. Along with the increase in proliferation following UCBMC treatment, an increase in neurogenesis was also found in the aged animals. The increase in neurogenesis as a result of UCBMC treatment seemed to be due to a decrease in inflammation, as a decrease in the number of activated microglia was found and this decrease correlated with the increase in neurogenesis. Conclusion The results demonstrate that a single intravenous injection of UCBMC in aged rats can significantly improve the microenvironment of the aged hippocampus and rejuvenate the aged neural stem/progenitor cells. Our results raise the possibility of a peripherally administered cell therapy as an effective approach to improve the microenvironment of the aged brain. PMID:18275610

  12. Peripheral injection of human umbilical cord blood stimulates neurogenesis in the aged rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanberg Paul R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurogenesis continues to occur throughout life but dramatically decreases with increasing age. This decrease is mostly related to a decline in proliferative activity as a result of an impoverishment of the microenvironment of the aged brain, including a reduction in trophic factors and increased inflammation. Results We determined that human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCBMC given peripherally, by an intravenous injection, could rejuvenate the proliferative activity of the aged neural stem/progenitor cells. This increase in proliferation lasted for at least 15 days after the delivery of the UCBMC. Along with the increase in proliferation following UCBMC treatment, an increase in neurogenesis was also found in the aged animals. The increase in neurogenesis as a result of UCBMC treatment seemed to be due to a decrease in inflammation, as a decrease in the number of activated microglia was found and this decrease correlated with the increase in neurogenesis. Conclusion The results demonstrate that a single intravenous injection of UCBMC in aged rats can significantly improve the microenvironment of the aged hippocampus and rejuvenate the aged neural stem/progenitor cells. Our results raise the possibility of a peripherally administered cell therapy as an effective approach to improve the microenvironment of the aged brain.

  13. Reference ranges and age-related changes of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in Chinese healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yang; QIU ZhiFeng; XIE Jing; LI DongJing; LI TaiSheng

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to build region-specific reference ranges of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets for Chinese healthy adults from the young to the elderly and analyze the trends of changes in lymphocyte subsets for evaluating the impact of age on the values. 151 healthy adults aged 19-86 were recruited based on the SENIEUR protocol. Three sets of reference ranges were finally built applicable for the healthy young (19-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years) and elder adults (>65). Comparisons in parameters among the three cohorts showed that e statistically significant increase in CD16CD56+ NK cell was observed between the middle-aged and elder cohorts, whereas for the majority of the parameters, a significant decline was observed between the young and the middle-aged cohorts.Further results showed that inverse correlations were observed between the age and CD19+ B, CD3+T,CD3+CD4+1, CD4+CD45RA+CD62L+ naTve T cell and CD4+CD28+/CD4+, while the positive one was identified between the age end the NK cell. These significant changes of the most of immune parameters provided evidence for immunosenescence. Notably, T cell activation markers of CD8+CD38+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ showed reverse trends of association with age, which provides a clue for further researches on the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical clinical presentation of the elder patients.

  14. Red blood cells in retinal vascular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Rupesh; Sherwood, Joseph; Chhablani, Jay; Ricchariya, Ashutosh; Kim, Sangho; Jones, Philip H; Balabani, Stavroula; Shima, David

    2016-01-01

    Microvascular circulation plays a vital role in regulating physiological functions, such as vascular resistance, and maintaining organ health. Pathologies such as hypertension, diabetes, or hematologic diseases affect the microcirculation posing a significant risk to human health. The retinal vasculature provides a unique window for non-invasive visualisation of the human circulation in vivo and retinal vascular image analysis has been established to predict the development of both clinical and subclinical cardiovascular, metabolic, renal and retinal disease in epidemiologic studies. Blood viscosity which was otherwise thought to play a negligible role in determining blood flow based on Poiseuille's law up to the 1970s has now been shown to play an equally if not a more important role in controlling microcirculation and quantifying blood flow. Understanding the hemodynamics/rheology of the microcirculation and its changes in diseased states remains a challenging task; this is due to the particulate nature of blood, the mechanical properties of the cells (such as deformability and aggregability) and the complex architecture of the microvasculature. In our review, we have tried to postulate a possible role of red blood cell (RBC) biomechanical properties and laid down future framework for research related to hemorrheological aspects of blood in patients with retinal vascular disorders.

  15. Transplantation? Peripheral Stem Cell/Bone Marrow/Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itır Sirinoglu Demiriz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of peripheral stem cell (PSC and cord blood (CB as an alternative to bone marrow (BM recently has caused important changes on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT practice. According to the CIBMTR data, there has been a significant decrease in the use of bone marrow and increase in the use of PSC and CB as the stem cell source for HSCT performed during 1997–2006 period for patients under the age of 20. On the other hand, the stem cell source in 70% of the HSCT procedures performed for patients over the age of 20 was PSC and the second most preferred stem cell source was bone marrow. CB usage is very limited for the adult population. Primary disease, stage, age, time and urgency of transplantation, HLA match between the patient and the donor, stem cell quantity, and the experience of the transplantation center are some of the associated factors for the selection of the appropriate stem cell source. Unfortunately, there is no prospective randomized study aimed to facilitate the selection of the correct source between CB, PSC, and BM. In this paper, we would like to emphasize the data on stem cell selection in light of the current knowledge for patient populations according to their age and primary disease.

  16. Colour measurement and white blood cell recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Gelsema, E S

    1972-01-01

    As a part of a collaboration with NEMCH aimed at the automation of the differential white blood cell count, studies have been made of the different possibilities for using colour to help in the recognition process. Results are presented comparing data obtained with a microspectrophotometer and with a simulated three-colour scanner.

  17. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240... § 864.5240 Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. (a) Identification. An automated blood cell diluting apparatus is a fully automated or semi-automated device used to make appropriate dilutions of a blood...

  18. Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

  19. Stem cells as vehicles for youthful regeneration of aged tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rando, Thomas A; Wyss-Coray, Tony

    2014-06-01

    Stem cells hold great promise for regenerative therapies for a wide spectrum of diseases and disorders of aging by virtue of their ability to regenerate tissues and contribute to their homeostasis. Aging is associated with a marked decline in these functionalities of adult stem cells. As such, regeneration of aged tissues is both less efficient and less effective than that of young tissues. Recent studies have revealed the remarkably dynamic responses of stem cells to systemic signals, including the ability of "youthful" factors in the blood of young animals to enhance the functionality of aged stem cells. Thus, there is much hope that even aged stem cells retain a remarkable regenerative potential if provided with the correct cues and environment to engage in tissue repair. The overall focus of the presentations of this session is to address the determinants of changes in stem cell functionality with age, the key characteristics of stem cells in aged tissues, the extent to which those characteristics are capable of being rejuvenated and by what signals, and the potential for stem cell therapeutics for chronic diseases and acute injuries in aged individuals.

  20. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen Preben D; Heerkens Tammy; Koch Thomas G; Betts Dean H

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is lo...

  1. [Production of mature red blood cell by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan-Jun; Liu, Jiang; Zhang, Ke-Ying; Shang, Xiao-Yan; Li, Wei; Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Na; Wang, Lin; Cui, Shuang; Ni, Lei; Zhao, Bo-Tao; Wang, Dong-Mei; Gao, Song-Ming; Zhang, Zhi-Xin

    2014-10-01

    Most protocols for in vitro producing red blood cells (RBC) use the CD34(+) cells or embryonic stem cells from cord blood, bone marrow or peripheral blood as the start materials. This study was purposed to produce the mature RBC in vitro by using peripheral blood mononuclear cells as start material. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) were isolated from buffy coat after blood leukapheresis, the mature red blood cells (RBC) were prepared by a 4-step culture protocol. The results showed that after culture by inducing with the different sets of cytokines and supporting by mouse MS-5 cell line, the expansion of PBMNC reached about 1000 folds at the end of the culture. About 90% of cultured RBC were enucleated mature cells which had the comparable morphological characteristics with normal RBC. Colony-forming assays showed that this culture system could stimulate the proliferation of progenitors in PBMNC and differentiate into erythroid cells. The structure and function analysis indicated that the mean cell volume of in vitro cultured RBC was 118 ± 4 fl, which was slight larger than that of normal RBC (80-100 fl); the mean cell hemoglobin was 36 ± 1.2 pg, which was slight higher than that of normal RBC (27-31 pg); the maximal deformation index was 0.46, which approachs level of normal RBC; the glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and pyrurvate kinase levels was consistant with young RBC. It is concluded that PBMNC are feasble, convenient and low-cost source for producing cultured RBC and this culture system is suitable to generate the RBC from PBMNC.

  2. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  3. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  4. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  5. Effect of aging on stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abu Shufian Ishtiaq; Sheng, Matilda HC; Wasnik, Samiksha; Baylink, David J; Lau, Kin-Hing William

    2017-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells have the remarkable self-renewal ability and are capable of differentiating into multiple diverse cells. There is increasing evidence that the aging process can have adverse effects on stem cells. As stem cells age, their renewal ability deteriorates and their ability to differentiate into the various cell types is altered. Accordingly, it is suggested aging-induced deterioration of stem cell functions may play a key role in the pathophysiology of the various aging-associated disorders. Understanding the role of the aging process in deterioration of stem cell function is crucial, not only in understanding the pathophysiology of aging-associated disorders, but also in future development of novel effective stem cell-based therapies to treat aging-associated diseases. This review article first focuses on the basis of the various aging disease-related stem cell dysfunction. It then addresses the several concepts on the potential mechanism that causes aging-related stem cell dysfunction. It also briefly discusses the current potential therapies under development for aging-associated stem cell defects.

  6. Automated microscopy system for peripheral blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boev, Sergei F.; Sazonov, Vladimir V.; Kozinets, Gennady I.; Pogorelov, Valery M.; Gusev, Alexander A.; Korobova, Farida V.; Vinogradov, Alexander G.; Verdenskaya, Natalya V.; Ivanova, Irina A.

    2000-11-01

    The report describes the instrument ASPBS (Automated Screening of Peripheral Blood Cells) designed for an automated analysis of dry blood smears. The instrument is based on computer microscopy and uses dry blood smears prepared according to the standard Romanovskii-Giemza procedure. In comparison with the well-known flow cytometry systems, our instrument provides more detailed information and offers an opporunity of visualizing final results. The basic performances of the instrument are given. Software of this instrument is based on digital image processing and image recognition procedures. It is pointed out that the instrument can be used as a fairly universal tool in scientific research, public demonstrations, in medical treatment, and in medical education. The principle used as the basis of the instrument appeared adequate for creating an instrument version serviceable even during space flights where standard manual procedures and flow cytometry systems fail. The benefit of the use of the instrument in clinical laboratories is described.

  7. Age determination of blood spots in forensic medicine by force spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Stefan; Zink, Albert; Kada, Gerald; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Peschel, Oliver; Heckl, Wolfgang M; Nerlich, Andreas G; Thalhammer, Stefan

    2007-07-20

    We present a new tool for the estimation of the age of bloodstains, which could probably be used during forensic casework. For this, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) for high-resolution imaging of erythrocytes in a blood sample and the detection of elasticity changes on a nanometer scale. For the analytic procedure we applied a fresh blood spot on a glass slide and started the AFM detection after drying of the blood drop. In a first step, an overview image was generated showing the presence of several red blood cells, which could easily be detected due to their typical "doughnut-like" appearance. The consecutively morphological investigations in a timeframe of 4 weeks could not show any alterations. Secondly, AFM was used to test the elasticity by recording force-distance curves. The measurements were performed immediately after drying, 1.5 h, 30 h and 31 days. The conditions were kept constant at room temperature (20 degrees C) and a humidity of 30%. The obtained elasticity parameters were plotted against a timeline and repeated several times. The elasticity pattern showed a decrease over time, which are most probably influenced by the alteration of the blood spot during the drying and coagulation process. The preliminary data demonstrates the capacity of this method to use it for development of calibration curves, which can be used for estimation of bloodstain ages during forensic investigations.

  8. Telomere Length in Elderly Caucasians Weakly Correlates with Blood Cell Counts

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Gutmajster; Joanna Witecka; Magdalena Wyskida; Justyna Koscinska-Marczewska; Malgorzata Szwed; Magdalena Owczarz; Malgorzata Mossakowska; Andrzej Milewicz; Monika Puzianowska-Kuznicka; Jan Zejda; Andrzej Wiecek; Jerzy Chudek; Aleksander L. Sieron

    2013-01-01

    Background. Age-related decrease in bone marrow erythropoietic capacity is often accompanied by the telomere length shortening in peripheral white blood cells. However, limited and conflicting data hamper the conclusive opinion regarding this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between telomere length and peripheral blood cell count parameters in the Polish elderly population. Material and Methods. The substudy included 1573 of 4981 subjects aged 65 yea...

  9. Red blood cell clusters in Poiseuille flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigliotti, Giovanni; Selmi, Hassib; Misbah, Chaouqi; Elasmi, Lassaad

    2011-11-01

    We present 2D numerical simulations of sets of vesicles (closed bags of a lipid bilayer membrane) in a parabolic flow, a setup that mimics red blood cells (RBCs) in the microvasculature. Vesicles, submitted to sole hydrodynamical interactions, are found to form aggregates (clusters) of finite size. The existence of a maximal cluster size is pointed out and characterized as a function of the flow intensity and the swelling ratio of the vesicles. Moreover bigger clusters move at lower velocity, a fact that may prove of physiological interest. These results quantify previous observations of the inhomogeneous distribution of RBCs in vivo (Gaehtgens et al., Blood Cells 6 - 1980). An interpretation of the phenomenon is put forward based on the presence of boli (vortices) between vesicles. Both the results and the explanation can be transposed to the three-dimensional case.

  10. Generation of red blood cells from human embryonic/induced pluripotent stem cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebihara, Yasuhiro; Ma, Feng; Tsuji, Kohichiro

    2012-06-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is necessary for many patients with emergency or hematological disorders. However, to date the supply of RBCs remains labile and dependent on voluntary donations. In addition, the transmission of infectious disease via blood transfusion from unspecified donors remains a risk. Establishing a large quantity of safe RBCs would help to address this issue. Human embryonic stem (hES) cells and the recently established human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells represent potentially unlimited sources of donor-free RBCs for blood transfusion, as they can proliferate indefinitely in vitro. Extensive research has been done to efficiently generate transfusable RBCs from hES/iPS cells. Nevertheless, a number of challenges must be overcome before the clinical usage of hES/iPS cell-derived RBCs can become a reality.

  11. Age-associated physiological and pathological changes at the blood-brain barrier: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdő, Franciska; Denes, László; de Lange, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The age-associated decline of the neurological and cognitive functions becomes more and more serious challenge for the developed countries with the increasing number of aged populations. The morphological and biochemical changes in the aging brain are the subjects of many extended research projects worldwide for a long time. However, the crucial role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment and disruption in the pathological processes in age-associated neurodegenerative disorders received special attention just for a few years. This article gives an overview on the major elements of the blood-brain barrier and its supporting mechanisms and also on their alterations during development, physiological aging process and age-associated neurodegenerative disorders (Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, pharmacoresistant epilepsy). Besides the morphological alterations of the cellular elements (endothelial cells, astrocytes, pericytes, microglia, neuronal elements) of the BBB and neurovascular unit, the changes of the barrier at molecular level (tight junction proteins, adheres junction proteins, membrane transporters, basal lamina, extracellular matrix) are also summarized. The recognition of new players and initiators of the process of neurodegeneration at the level of the BBB may offer new avenues for novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of numerous chronic neurodegenerative disorders currently without effective medication.

  12. The number of fetal cells in maternal blood is associated to exercise and fetal gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta;

    were then stained with a cocktail of fetal cell-specific antibodies, identified and counted. Results: Participants carrying male fetuses had higher median number of fcmbs per 30 mL blood than those carrying female fetuses (5 vs. 3, p=0.004). Exercise within 3 hours (1.5 vs. 4, p=0.02) and 24 hours (2......Introduction: We have established a robust method to specifically identify and isolate a placental fetal cell in maternal blood (fcmbs) at a gestational age of 12 weeks. The concentration of these cells, however, varies considerably among pregnant women (median 3 fcmbs/30 mL blood, range 0...... activity was obtained by a questionnaire and a structured interview. The number of fcmbs was assessed in 30 mL blood processed by a proprietary method developed in-house. Fetal cells in the blood, binding to fetal cell specific antibodies, were initially isolated by magnetic cell sorting. The fetal cells...

  13. Risk of Abnormal Red Blood Cell to Get Malarial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-01-01

    Malarial infection in red blood cell disorder is an interesting topic in tropical medicine. In this work, the author proposes a new idea on the physical property of red blood cell and risk for getting malarial infection. The study on scenario of red blood cell disorders is performed. Conclusively, the author found that physical property of red blood cell is an important determinant for getting malarial infection

  14. 21 CFR 660.30 - Reagent Red Blood Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reagent Red Blood Cells. 660.30 Section 660.30...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.30 Reagent Red Blood Cells. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of the product shall...

  15. 21 CFR 864.6160 - Manual blood cell counting device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual blood cell counting device. 864.6160... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6160 Manual blood cell counting device. (a) Identification. A manual blood cell counting device is a device used...

  16. 21 CFR 864.7100 - Red blood cell enzyme assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red blood cell enzyme assay. 864.7100 Section 864...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864.7100 Red blood cell enzyme assay. (a) Identification. Red blood cell enzyme assay is a device used to measure the activity...

  17. Reference ranges and age-related changes of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in Chinese healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to build region-specific reference ranges of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets for Chinese healthy adults from the young to the elderly and analyze the trends of changes in lymphocyte subsets for evaluating the impact of age on the values.151 healthy adults aged 19-86 were recruited based on the SENIEUR protocol.Three sets of reference ranges were finally built applicable for the healthy young(19-44 years),middle-aged(45-64 years) and elder adults(≥65).Comparisons in parameters among the three cohorts showed that a statistically significant increase in CD16CD56+ NK cell was observed between the middle-aged and elder cohorts,whereas for the majority of the parameters,a significant decline was observed between the young and the middle-aged cohorts.Further results showed that inverse correlations were observed between the age and CD19+ B,CD3+ T,CD3+CD4+ T,CD4+CD45RA+CD62L+ nave T cell and CD4+CD28+/CD4+,while the positive one was identified between the age and the NK cell.These significant changes of the most of immune parameters provided evidence for immunosenescence.Notably,T cell activation markers of CD8+CD38+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ showed reverse trends of association with age,which provides a clue for further researches on the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical clinical presentation of the elder patients.

  18. The Stem Cell Hypothesis of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is probably no single way to age. Indeed, so far there is no single accepted explanation or mechanisms of aging (although more than 300 theories have been proposed. There is an overall decline in tissue regenerative potential with age, and the question arises as to whether this is due to the intrinsic aging of stem cells or rather to the impairment of stem cell function in the aged tissue environment. CONTENT: Recent data suggest that we age, in part, because our self-renewing stem cells grow old as a result of heritable intrinsic events, such as DNA damage, as well as extrinsic forces, such as changes in their supporting niches. Mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer, such as senescence and apoptosis, which rely on telomere shortening and the activities of p53 and p16INK4a may also induce an unwanted consequence: a decline in the replicative function of certain stem cells types with advancing age. This decrease regenerative capacity appears to pointing to the stem cell hypothesis of aging. SUMMARY: Recent evidence suggested that we grow old partly because of our stem cells grow old as a result of mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer over a lifetime. We believe that a further, more precise mechanistic understanding of this process will be required before this knowledge can be translated into human anti-aging therapies. KEYWORDS: stem cells, senescence, telomere, DNA damage, epigenetic, aging.

  19. Mechanosensing Dynamics of Red blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jiandi

    2015-11-01

    Mechanical stress-induced deformation of human red blood cells (RBCs) plays important physiopathological roles in oxygen delivery, blood rheology, transfusion, and malaria. Recent studies demonstrate that, in response to mechanical deformation, RBCs release adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), suggesting the existence of mechanotransductive pathways in RBCs. Most importantly, the released ATP from RBCs regulates vascular tone and impaired release of ATP from RBCs has been linked to diseases such as type II diabetes and cystic fibrosis. To date, however, the mechanisms of mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs remain unclear. Given that RBCs experience shear stresses continuously during the circulation cycle and the released ATP plays a central role in vascular physiopathology, understanding the mechanotransductive release of ATP from RBCs will provide not only fundamental insights to the role of RBCs in vascular homeostasis but also novel therapeutic strategies for red cell dysfunction and vascular disease. This talk describes the main research in my group on integrating microfluidic-based approaches to study the mechanosensing dynamics of RBCs. Specifically, I will introduce a micro?uidic approach that can probe the dynamics of shear-induced ATP release from RBCs with millisecond resolution and provide quantitative understandings of the mechanosensitive ATP release processes in RBCs. Furthermore, I will also describe our recent findings about the roles of the Piezo1 channel, a newly discovered mechanosensitive cation channel in the mechanotransductive ATP release in RBCs. Last, possible functions of RBCs in the regulation of cerebral blood flow will be discussed.

  20. Automated red blood cell analysis compared with routine red blood cell morphology by smear review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Poonam Radadiya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The RBC histogram is an integral part of automated haematology analysis and is now routinely available on all automated cell counters. This histogram and other associated complete blood count (CBC parameters have been found abnormal in various haematological conditions and may provide major clues in the diagnosis and management of significant red cell disorders. Performing manual blood smears is important to ensure the quality of blood count results and to make presumptive diagnosis. In this article we have taken 100 samples for comparative study between RBC histograms obtained by automated haematology analyzer with peripheral blood smear. This article discusses some morphological features of dimorphism and the ensuing characteristic changes in their RBC histograms.

  1. Multiscale modeling of blood flow: from single cells to blood rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Dmitry A; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2014-04-01

    Mesoscale simulations of blood flow, where the red blood cells are described as deformable closed shells with a membrane characterized by bending rigidity and stretching elasticity, have made much progress in recent years to predict the flow behavior of blood cells and other components in various flows. To numerically investigate blood flow and blood-related processes in complex geometries, a highly efficient simulation technique for the plasma and solutes is essential. In this review, we focus on the behavior of single and several cells in shear and microcapillary flows, the shear-thinning behavior of blood and its relation to the blood cell structure and interactions, margination of white blood cells and platelets, and modeling hematologic diseases and disorders. Comparisons of the simulation predictions with existing experimental results are made whenever possible, and generally very satisfactory agreement is obtained.

  2. Aging in blood vessels. Medicinal agents FOR systemic arterial hypertension in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Soto, María Elena; Pastelín, Gustavo; Guarner-Lans, Verónica

    2014-11-01

    Aging impairs blood vessel function and leads to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms underlying the age-related endothelial, smooth muscle and extracellular matrix vascular dysfunction are discussed. Vascular dysfunction is caused by: (1) Oxidative stress enhancement. (2) Reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, by diminished NO synthesis and/or augmented NO scavenging. (3) Production of vasoconstrictor/vasodilator factor imbalances. (4) Low-grade pro-inflammatory environment. (5) Impaired angiogenesis. (6) Endothelial cell senescence. The aging process in vascular smooth muscle is characterized by: (1) Altered replicating potential. (2) Change in cellular phenotype. (3) Changes in responsiveness to contracting and relaxing mediators. (4) Changes in intracellular signaling functions. Systemic arterial hypertension is an age-dependent disorder, and almost half of the elderly human population is hypertensive. The influence of hypertension on the aging cardiovascular system has been studied in models of hypertensive rats. Treatment for hypertension is recommended in the elderly. Lifestyle modifications, natural compounds and hormone therapies are useful for initial stages and as supporting treatment with medication but evidence from clinical trials in this population is needed. Since all antihypertensive agents can lower blood pressure in the elderly, therapy should be based on its potential side effects and drug interactions.

  3. Analysis of Serum Folic Acid and Red Blood Cell Folic Acid Concentrations Among 261 Childbearing-Aged Women%育龄妇女血清叶酸及红细胞叶酸水平检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    速存梅; 叶汉风; 王珏; 廖戎; 陈涓涓; 刘清梅; 李丽芳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level of serum folic acid,red blood cell (RBC) folic acid among childbearing-aged women and provide information for carrying out suping folic acid to prevent birth defects.Methods From January 2010 to October 2011,a total of 261 childbearing-aged women were included into this study.Their age,and related clinical data were collected and analyzed.The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Investigation in Human Being of Yunnan Population and Family Planning Research Institute of Science and Technology.Informed consent was obtained from each participate.And 4 mL venous blood was drawn.Serum and RBC folic acid concentrations were detected by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.Results The average level of serum folic acid was (9.74 ± 3.23) ng/L and RBC folic acid was (529.79±205.44) ng/L.The prevalence of low serum folic acid and RBC folic acid concentrations were 8.43% (22/261),and 5.36% (14/261),respectively.Taking the optimal level of folic acid to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) as the determine,the prevalence of low serum folic acid and RBC folic acid concentrations were 67.82 % (177/261) and 73.95 % (193/261),respectively.Conclusions The serum and RBC folic acid levels among more than half of childbearing-aged women in Kunming region below the recommended level for the prevention of NTDs.So the actual intake of folic acid should be strength.%目的 了解育龄妇女血清叶酸及红细胞叶酸水平,为昆明地区育龄妇女增补叶酸预防神经管畸形(NTDs)等出生缺陷提供参考.方法 选取2010年1月至2011年10月于本研究所门诊就诊的261例育龄妇女为研究对象.采集其年龄、孕次等相关临床资料(本研究遵循的程序符合云南省人口和计划生育科学技术研究所人体试验委员会所制定的伦理学标准,得到该委员会批准,征得受试者知情同意,并与之签署临床研究知情同意书).采集受试者空腹静脉血4 mL,

  4. High white blood cell count at diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Forestier, Erik; Hellebostad, Marit;

    2011-01-01

    Prognostic impact of peripheral blood white blood cell count (WBC) at the diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was evaluated in a population-based consecutive series of 2666 children aged 1-15 treated for ALL between 1992 and 2008 in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland...

  5. Stem cells and the aging hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerman, Isabel; Maloney, William J; Weissmann, Irving L; Rossi, Derrick J

    2010-08-01

    Advancing age is accompanied by a number of clinically significant conditions arising in the hematopoietic system that include: diminution and decreased competence of the adaptive immune system, elevated incidence of certain autoimmune diseases, increased hematological malignancies, and elevated incidence of age-associated anemia. As with most tissues, the aged hematopoietic system also exhibits a reduced capacity to regenerate and return to normal homeostasis after injury or stress. Evidence suggests age-dependent functional alterations within the hematopoietic stem cell compartment significantly contribute to many of these pathophysiologies. Recent developments have shed light on how aging of the hematopoietic stem cell compartment contributes to hematopoietic decline through diverse mechanisms.

  6. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width (RDW in thorougbred horses from 12 to 24 months of age/ Valores da amplitude de distribuição do tamanho dos eritrócitos (RDW – Red Cell Distribution Width em equinos da raça puro sangue inglês (PSI de ambos os sexos de 12 a 24 meses de idade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Souza Lopes

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish reference values for red blood cell distribution width (RDW in health horses. We obtained blood samples through jugular punctured from 90 clinicaly health thorougbred horses between 12 and 24 months of age. Blood was obtained in a Cell-Dyn 3500 (Abbott Diagnostic cell counter. Mean ± standart deviation values for RDW in male horses were 26,90 ± 1,41, whereas in females values were 26,89 ± 1,75. There were no differences in the RDW values between sexes, therefore, our reference values can be used in both males and females.O objetivo do presente estudo foi estabelecer valores da amplitude de distribuição do tamanho dos eritrócitos (RDW em eqüinos clinicamente sadios. Foram utilizadas 90 amostras de sangue de eqüinos da raça Puro Sangue Inglês (PSI, clinicamente sadios de 12 a 24 meses de idade, obtidas por venipunção jugular em tubos à vácuo contendo EDTA 10%. Posteriormente as amostras foram processadas no contador automático de células Cell-Dyn 3500 (Abbott Diagnostic. Os valores médios e o desvios-padrão para o RDW (% de machos foi de 26,90 ± 1,41 e para as fêmeas de 26,89 ± 1,75. Os resultados demonstram não haver diferenças nos valores de RDW para machos e fêmeas, podendo ser utilizados como referência para ambos os sexos.

  7. The age-related deficit in LTP is associated with changes in perfusion and blood-brain barrier permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Christoph W; Cowley, Thelma R; O'Sullivan, Joan; Grehan, Belinda; Browne, Tara C; Kelly, Laura; Birch, Amy; Murphy, Niamh; Kelly, Aine M; Kerskens, Christian M; Lynch, Marina A

    2012-05-01

    In view of the increase in the aging population and the unavoidable parallel increase in the incidence of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, a key challenge in neuroscience is the identification of clinical signatures which change with age and impact on neuronal and cognitive function. Early diagnosis offers the possibility of early therapeutic intervention, thus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is potentially a powerful diagnostic tool. We evaluated age-related changes in relaxometry, blood flow, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in the rat by magnetic resonance imaging and assessed these changes in the context of the age-related decrease in synaptic plasticity. We report that T2 relaxation time was decreased with age; this was coupled with a decrease in gray matter perfusion, suggesting that the observed microglial activation, as identified by increased expression of CD11b, MHCII, and CD68 by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR), might be a downstream consequence of these changes. Increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier was observed in the perivascular area and the hippocampus of aged, compared with young, rats. Similarly there was an age-related increase in CD45-positive cells by flow cytometry, which are most likely infiltrating macrophages, with a parallel increase in the messenger mRNA expression of chemokines IP-10 and MCP-1. These combined changes may contribute to the deficit in long-term potentiation (LTP) in perforant path-granule cell synapses of aged animals.

  8. Impact of systolic blood pressure on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in middle-aged and elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朔华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of systolic blood pressure(SBP)on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability(BPV) in middle-aged and elderly people.Methods Visit-to-visit BPV was determined in 5440 workers in the

  9. Blood cell telomere length is a dynamic feature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrika Svenson

    Full Text Available There is a considerable heterogeneity in blood cell telomere length (TL for individuals of similar age and recent studies have revealed that TL changes by time are dependent on TL at baseline. TL is partly inherited, but results from several studies indicate that e.g. life style and/or environmental factors can affect TL during life. Collectively, these studies imply that blood cell TL might fluctuate during a life time and that the actual TL at a defined time point is the result of potential regulatory mechanism(s and environmental factors. We analyzed relative TL (RTL in subsequent blood samples taken six months apart from 50 individuals and found significant associations between RTL changes and RTL at baseline. Individual RTL changes per month were more pronounced than the changes recorded in a previously studied population analyzed after 10 years' follow up. The data argues for an oscillating TL pattern which levels out at longer follow up times. In a separate group of five blood donors, a marked telomere loss was demonstrated within a six month period for one donor where after TL was stabilized. PCR determined RTL changes were verified by Southern blotting and STELA (single telomere elongation length analysis. The STELA demonstrated that for the donor with a marked telomere loss, the heterogeneity of the telomere distribution decreased considerably, with a noteworthy loss of the largest telomeres. In summary, the collected data support the concept that individual blood cell telomere length is a dynamic feature and this will be important to recognize in future studies of human telomere biology.

  10. Microfluidic Device for Continuous Magnetophoretic Separation of Red Blood Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Iliescu, Ciprian; Avram, Marioara; Xu, G; Avram, Andrei

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic device for magnetophoretic separation red blood cells from blood under contionous flow. The separation method consist of continous flow of a blood sample (diluted in PBS) through a microfluidic channel which presents on the bottom "dots" of feromagnetic layer. By appling a magnetic field perpendicular on the flowing direction, the feromagnetic "dots" generates a gradient of magnetic field which amplifies the magnetic force. As a result, the red blood cells are captured on the bottom of the microfluidic channel while the rest of the blood is collected at the outlet. Experimental results show that an average of 95 % of red blood cells are trapped in the device

  11. Cryopreserved packed red blood cells in surgical patients: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alex; Kim, Young; Hoehn, Richard; Jernigan, Peter; Pritts, Timothy

    2016-09-08

    Since the advent of anticoagulation and component storage of human blood products, allogeneic red blood cell transfusion has been one of the most common practices in modern medicine. Efforts to reduce the biochemical effects of storage, collectively known as the red blood cell storage lesion, and prolong the storage duration have led to numerous advancements in erythrocyte storage solutions. Cryopreservation and frozen storage of red blood cells in glycerol have been successfully utilised by many civilian and military institutions worldwide. Through progressive improvements in liquid storage of erythrocytes in novel storage solutions, the logistical need for cryopreserved red blood cells in the civilian setting has diminished. A growing body of current literature is focused on the clinical consequences of packed red blood cell age. Modern cryopreservation techniques show promise as a cost-effective method to ameliorate the negative effect of the red blood cell storage lesion, while meeting the technical and logistical needs of both civilian and military medicine. This review outlines the history of red blood cell cryopreservation, the clinical impact of red cell storage, and highlights the current literature on frozen blood and its impact on modern transfusion.

  12. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Thomas Gadegaard; Heerkens, Tammy; Thomsen, Preben Dybdahl

    2007-01-01

    Background: There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non......-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low......, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal...

  13. Red Blood Cell Susceptibility to Pneumolysin: CORRELATION WITH MEMBRANE BIOCHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokori-Brown, Monika; Petrov, Peter G; Khafaji, Mawya A; Mughal, Muhammad K; Naylor, Claire E; Shore, Angela C; Gooding, Kim M; Casanova, Francesco; Mitchell, Tim J; Titball, Richard W; Winlove, C Peter

    2016-05-06

    This study investigated the effect of the biochemical and biophysical properties of the plasma membrane as well as membrane morphology on the susceptibility of human red blood cells to the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin pneumolysin, a key virulence factor of Streptococcus pneumoniae, using single cell studies. We show a correlation between the physical properties of the membrane (bending rigidity and surface and dipole electrostatic potentials) and the susceptibility of red blood cells to pneumolysin-induced hemolysis. We demonstrate that biochemical modifications of the membrane induced by oxidative stress, lipid scrambling, and artificial cell aging modulate the cell response to the toxin. We provide evidence that the diversity of response to pneumolysin in diabetic red blood cells correlates with levels of glycated hemoglobin and that the mechanical properties of the red blood cell plasma membrane are altered in diabetes. Finally, we show that diabetic red blood cells are more resistant to pneumolysin and the related toxin perfringolysin O relative to healthy red blood cells. Taken together, these studies indicate that the diversity of cell response to pneumolysin within a population of human red blood cells is influenced by the biophysical and biochemical status of the plasma membrane and the chemical and/or oxidative stress pre-history of the cell.

  14. Ex-vivo expansion of red blood cells: How real for transfusion in humans?

    OpenAIRE

    Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Masselli, Elena; Varricchio, Lilian; Whitsett, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    Blood transfusion is indispensable for modern medicine. In developed countries, the blood supply is adequate and safe but blood for alloimmunized patients is often unavailable. Concerns are increasing that donations may become inadequate in the future as the population ages prompting a search for alternative transfusion products. Improvements in culture conditions and proof-of-principle studies in animal models have suggested that ex-vivo expanded red cells may represent such a product. Compa...

  15. Alterations in cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells in stored blood

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusion. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called CPDA-1. With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements of the 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and their progressive alterations in stored RBCs. Our results show that the stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within 2 weeks which was accompanied with significant ...

  16. 北京城区老年人血细胞计数增龄变化及变化范围的调查%Aging changes in routine blood cell count and its reference range in the elderly in Beijing community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁尚勇; 李宁华; 韩晓燕; 刘星; 段英伟; 刘玉红; 刘涛; 段晓俐; 郭健

    2014-01-01

    目的 了解北京市中心城区社区65岁以上老年人静脉血常规情况,分析老年人静脉血血常规检测结果与年龄增长之间的关系. 方法 2011年2月至2011年9月,通过随机抽样方法选取北京市朝阳区潘家园社区、八里庄社区和西城区展览路社区、广外社区2014例老年人,通过问卷调查方式收集调查对象的基本资料、生活习惯、患病情况等信息,检测其血常规和生化结果.采用方差分析法分析血常规结果和年龄增长之间的关系. 结果 北京城区老年人的红细胞计数平均值为4.43×1012/L,血红蛋白平均值为135.6 g/L,红细胞压积平均值为39.5%,白细胞平均值为6.69×109/L,血小板平均值为245.8×109/L;调查对象血细胞计数的95%可信区间分别为,红细胞计数(3.50~5.26)×1012/L,血红蛋白106.6~164.6g/L,红细胞压积31.6%~47.5%,白细胞计数(3.26~10.00)×109/L,血小板计数(110.9~377.7)×109/L;男性红细胞计数、血红蛋白和红细胞压积均高于女性(P<0.05、P<0.001和P<0.001),女性血小板计数高于男性(P<0.001);随着年龄增长,红细胞计数、血红蛋白、红细胞压积和平均红细胞血红蛋白浓度(MCHC)逐渐下降(均P<0.001),红细胞平均分布宽度(RDW-CV)和单核细胞数呈递增趋势(均P<0.001). 结论 老年人血细胞计数的参考范围与成年人参考范围有所不同,是否需要单独制定老年人的参考范围还需要更多的数据分析;老年人血细胞计数指标随着年龄的增长呈动态变化,分析其变化原因并提出改善措施可以提高老年人的健康水平.%Objective To investigate routine blood cell count among elderly people aged over 65 years,and to analyze the relationship between routine blood cell count and age.Methods 2014 elderly people were selected by randomly sampling methods from Panjiayuan community and Balizhuang community in Chaoyang District,Zhanlanlu community and Gungwai

  17. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa B. Boyette

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of adult stem cells pools is critical for maintaining tissue homeostasis into old age. Exhaustion of adult stem cell pools as a result of deranged metabolic signaling, premature senescence as a response to oncogenic insults to the somatic genome, and other causes contribute to tissue degeneration with age. Both progeria, an extreme example of early-onset aging, and heritable longevity have provided avenues to study regulation of the aging program and its impact on adult stem cell compartments. In this review, we discuss recent findings concerning the effects of aging on stem cells, contributions of stem cells to age-related pathologies, examples of signaling pathways at work in these processes, and lessons about cellular aging gleaned from the development and refinement of cellular reprogramming technologies. We highlight emerging therapeutic approaches to manipulation of key signaling pathways corrupting or exhausting adult stem cells, as well as other approaches targeted at maintaining robust stem cell pools to extend not only lifespan but healthspan.

  18. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris;

    2008-01-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much...

  19. Stem cell aging in adult progeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hoi-Hung; Pei, Duanqing; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2015-01-01

    Aging is considered an irreversible biological process and also a major risk factor for a spectrum of geriatric diseases. Advanced age-related decline in physiological functions, such as neurodegeneration, development of cardiovascular disease, endocrine and metabolic dysfunction, and neoplastic transformation, has become the focus in aging research. Natural aging is not regarded as a programmed process. However, accelerated aging due to inherited genetic defects in patients of progeria is programmed and resembles many aspects of natural aging. Among several premature aging syndromes, Werner syndrome (WS) and Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) are two broadly investigated diseases. In this review, we discuss how stem cell aging in WS helps us understand the biology of aging. We also discuss briefly how the altered epigenetic landscape in aged cells can be reversed to a "juvenile" state. Lastly, we explore the potential application of the latest genomic editing technique for stem cell-based therapy and regenerative medicine in the context of aging.

  20. Cord blood T cells mediate enhanced antitumor effects compared with adult peripheral blood T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiwarkar, Prashant; Qasim, Waseem; Ricciardelli, Ida; Gilmour, Kimberly; Quezada, Sergio; Saudemont, Aurore; Amrolia, Persis; Veys, Paul

    2015-12-24

    Unrelated cord blood transplantation (CBT) without in vivo T-cell depletion is increasingly used to treat high-risk hematologic malignancies. Following T-replete CBT, naïve CB T cells undergo rapid peripheral expansion with memory-effector differentiation. Emerging data suggest that unrelated CBT, particularly in the context of HLA mismatch and a T-replete graft, may reduce leukemic relapse. To study the role of CB T cells in mediating graft-versus-tumor responses and dissect the underlying immune mechanisms for this, we compared the ability of HLA-mismatched CB and adult peripheral blood (PB) T cells to eliminate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven human B-cell lymphoma in a xenogeneic NOD/SCID/IL2rg(null) mouse model. CB T cells mediated enhanced tumor rejection compared with equal numbers of PB T cells, leading to improved survival in the CB group (P cells that were autologous vs allogeneic to the lymphoma demonstrated that this antitumor effect was mediated by alloreactive rather than EBV-specific T cells. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes demonstrated that CB T cells mediated this enhanced antitumor effect by rapid infiltration of the tumor with CCR7(+)CD8(+) T cells and prompt induction of cytotoxic CD8(+) and CD4(+) T-helper (Th1) T cells in the tumor microenvironment. In contrast, in the PB group, this antilymphoma effect is impaired because of delayed tumoral infiltration of PB T cells and a relative bias toward suppressive Th2 and T-regulatory cells. Our data suggest that, despite being naturally programmed toward tolerance, reconstituting T cells after unrelated T-replete CBT may provide superior Tc1-Th1 antitumor effects against high-risk hematologic malignancies.

  1. Ex-vivo expansion of red blood cells: how real for transfusion in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Masselli, Elena; Varricchio, Lilian; Whitsett, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    Blood transfusion is indispensable for modern medicine. In developed countries, the blood supply is adequate and safe but blood for alloimmunized patients is often unavailable. Concerns are increasing that donations may become inadequate in the future as the population ages prompting a search for alternative transfusion products. Improvements in culture conditions and proof-of-principle studies in animal models have suggested that ex-vivo expanded red cells may represent such a product. Compared to other cell therapies transfusion poses the unique challenge of requiring great cell doses (2.5×10(12) cells vs 10(7) cells). Although production of such cell numbers is theoretically possible, current technologies generate red cells in numbers sufficient only for safety studies. It is conceived that by the time these studies will be completed, technical barriers to mass cell production will have been eliminated making transfusion with ex-vivo generated red cells a reality.

  2. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  3. Generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells from postnatal blood mononuclear cells by plasmid vector expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowey, Sarah N; Huang, Xiaosong; Chou, Bin-Kuan; Ye, Zhaohui; Cheng, Linzhao

    2012-11-01

    Several human postnatal somatic cell types have been successfully reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Blood mononuclear cells (MNCs) offer several advantages compared with other cell types. They are easily isolated from umbilical cord blood (CB) or adult peripheral blood (PB), and can be used fresh or after freezing. A short culture allows for more efficient reprogramming, with iPSC colonies forming from blood MNCs in 14 d, compared with 28 d for age-matched fibroblastic cells. The advantages of briefly cultured blood MNCs may be due to favorable epigenetic profiles and gene expression patterns. Blood cells from adults, especially nonlymphoid cells that are replenished frequently from intermittently activated blood stem cells, are short-lived in vivo and may contain less somatic mutations than skin fibroblasts, which are more exposed to environmental mutagens over time. We describe here a detailed, validated protocol for effective generation of integration-free human iPSCs from blood MNCs by plasmid vectors.

  4. Ageing and cell-mediated immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fixa, B; Komárková, O; Chmelar, V

    1975-01-01

    The lymphocyte transformation test with phytohemagglutinin as mitogen estimated according to the incorporation of 2-(14)C-thymidine in DNA was used as an indicator of cell-mediated reactivity in 53 healthy subjects. Three age groups were examined: up to 20 years (21 subjects), 21-40 years (10 subjects) and over 70 years (22 subjects). The responsiveness of lymphocytes decreased significantly with age. In the highest age group 12 pathologically low values were found.

  5. SBR-Blood: systems biology repository for hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Jens; Heuston, Elisabeth F; Mishra, Tejaswini; Keller, Cheryl A; Hardison, Ross C; Bodine, David M

    2016-01-04

    Extensive research into hematopoiesis (the development of blood cells) over several decades has generated large sets of expression and epigenetic profiles in multiple human and mouse blood cell types. However, there is no single location to analyze how gene regulatory processes lead to different mature blood cells. We have developed a new database framework called hematopoietic Systems Biology Repository (SBR-Blood), available online at http://sbrblood.nhgri.nih.gov, which allows user-initiated analyses for cell type correlations or gene-specific behavior during differentiation using publicly available datasets for array- and sequencing-based platforms from mouse hematopoietic cells. SBR-Blood organizes information by both cell identity and by hematopoietic lineage. The validity and usability of SBR-Blood has been established through the reproduction of workflows relevant to expression data, DNA methylation, histone modifications and transcription factor occupancy profiles.

  6. Backward elastic light scattering of malaria infected red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungjun; Lu, Wei

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the backward light scattering pattern of healthy and malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) parasitized red blood cells. The spectrum could clearly distinguish between predominant ring stage infected blood cells and healthy blood cells. Further, we found that infected samples mixed with different stages of P. falciparum showed different signals, suggesting that even variance in parasite stages could also be detected by the spectrum. These results together with the backward scattering technique suggest the potential of non-invasive diagnosis of malaria through light scattering of blood cells near the surface of human body, such as using eyes or skin surface.

  7. Infusion of hemolyzed red blood cells within peripheral blood stem cell grafts in patients with and without sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Unno, Hayato; Hathaway, Vincent; Coles, Wynona A; Link, Mary E; Weitzel, R Patrick; Zhao, Xiongce; Wright, Elizabeth C; Stroncek, David F; Kato, Gregory J; Hsieh, Matthew M; Tisdale, John F

    2012-06-14

    Peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) infusions are associated with complications such as elevated blood pressure and decreased creatinine clearance. Patients with sickle cell disease experience similar manifestations, and some have postulated release of plasma-free hemoglobin with subsequent nitric oxide consumption as causative. We sought to evaluate whether the infusion of PBSC grafts containing lysed red blood cells (RBCs) leads to the toxicity observed in transplant subjects. We report a prospective cohort study of 60 subjects divided into 4 groups based on whether their infusions contained dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and lysed RBCs, no DMSO and fresh RBCs, DMSO and no RBCs, or saline. Our primary end point, change in maximum blood pressure compared with baseline, was not significantly different among groups. Tricuspid regurgitant velocity and creatinine levels also did not differ significantly among groups. Our data do not support free hemoglobin as a significant contributor to toxicity associated with PBSC infusions. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00631787).

  8. Epigenetic regulation of hematopoietic stem cell aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beerman, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.beerman@childrens.harvard.edu [Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children' s Hospital, MA 02116 (United States); Rossi, Derrick J. [Department of Stem Cell and Regenerative Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Department of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Boston Children' s Hospital, MA 02116 (United States)

    2014-12-10

    Aging is invariably associated with alterations of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment, including loss of functional capacity, altered clonal composition, and changes in lineage contribution. Although accumulation of DNA damage occurs during HSC aging, it is unlikely such consistent aging phenotypes could be solely attributed to changes in DNA integrity. Another mechanism by which heritable traits could contribute to the changes in the functional potential of aged HSCs is through alterations in the epigenetic landscape of adult stem cells. Indeed, recent studies on hematopoietic stem cells have suggested that altered epigenetic profiles are associated with HSC aging and play a key role in modulating the functional potential of HSCs at different stages during ontogeny. Even small changes of the epigenetic landscape can lead to robustly altered expression patterns, either directly by loss of regulatory control or through indirect, additive effects, ultimately leading to transcriptional changes of the stem cells. Potential drivers of such changes in the epigenetic landscape of aged HSCs include proliferative history, DNA damage, and deregulation of key epigenetic enzymes and complexes. This review will focus largely on the two most characterized epigenetic marks – DNA methylation and histone modifications – but will also discuss the potential role of non-coding RNAs in regulating HSC function during aging.

  9. Phenotype and functions of memory Tfh cells in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Nathalie; Bentebibel, Salah-Eddine; Ueno, Hideki

    2014-09-01

    Our understanding of the origin and functions of human blood CXCR5(+) CD4(+) T cells found in human blood has changed dramatically in the past years. These cells are currently considered to represent a circulating memory compartment of T follicular helper (Tfh) lineage cells. Recent studies have shown that blood memory Tfh cells are composed of phenotypically and functionally distinct subsets. Here, we review the current understanding of human blood memory Tfh cells and the subsets within this compartment. We present a strategy to define these subsets based on cell surface profiles. Finally, we discuss how increased understanding of the biology of blood memory Tfh cells may contribute insight into the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases and the mode of action of vaccines.

  10. The treatment of neurodegenerative disorders using umbilical cord blood and menstrual blood-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanberg, Paul R; Eve, David J; Willing, Alison E; Garbuzova-Davis, Svitlana; Tan, Jun; Sanberg, Cyndy D; Allickson, Julie G; Cruz, L Eduardo; Borlongan, Cesar V

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a potentially important means of treatment for a number of disorders. Two different stem cell populations of interest are mononuclear umbilical cord blood cells and menstrual blood-derived stem cells. These cells are relatively easy to obtain, appear to be pluripotent, and are immunologically immature. These cells, particularly umbilical cord blood cells, have been studied as either single or multiple injections in a number of animal models of neurodegenerative disorders with some degree of success, including stroke, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Sanfilippo syndrome type B. Evidence of anti-inflammatory effects and secretion of specific cytokines and growth factors that promote cell survival, rather than cell replacement, have been detected in both transplanted cells.

  11. Poststroke Cell Therapy of the Aged Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Popa-Wagner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During aging, many neurodegenerative disorders are associated with reduced neurogenesis and a decline in the proliferation of stem/progenitor cells. The development of the stem cell (SC, the regenerative therapy field, gained tremendous expectations in the diseases that suffer from the lack of treatment options. Stem cell based therapy is a promising approach to promote neuroregeneration after brain injury and can be potentiated when combined with supportive pharmacological drug treatment, especially in the aged. However, the mechanism of action for a particular grafted cell type, the optimal delivery route, doses, or time window of administration after lesion is still under debate. Today, it is proved that these protections are most likely due to modulatory mechanisms rather than the expected cell replacement. Our group proved that important differences appear in the aged brain compared with young one, that is, the accelerated progression of ischemic area, or the delayed initiation of neurological recovery. In this light, these age-related aspects should be carefully evaluated in the clinical translation of neurorestorative therapies. This review is focused on the current perspectives and suitable sources of stem cells (SCs, mechanisms of action, and the most efficient delivery routes in neurorestoration therapies in the poststroke aged environment.

  12. Lysosomal cell death mechanisms in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Sintes, Raquel; Ledesma, María Dolores; Boya, Patricia

    2016-12-01

    Lysosomes are degradative organelles essential for cell homeostasis that regulate a variety of processes, from calcium signaling and nutrient responses to autophagic degradation of intracellular components. Lysosomal cell death is mediated by the lethal effects of cathepsins, which are released into the cytoplasm following lysosomal damage. This process of lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cathepsin release is observed in several physiopathological conditions and plays a role in tissue remodeling, the immune response to intracellular pathogens and neurodegenerative diseases. Many evidences indicate that aging strongly influences lysosomal activity by altering the physical and chemical properties of these organelles, rendering them more sensitive to stress. In this review we focus on how aging alters lysosomal function and increases cell sensitivity to lysosomal membrane permeabilization and lysosomal cell death, both in physiological conditions and age-related pathologies.

  13. Cost effectiveness of cord blood versus bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Bart

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thomas BartSwiss Blood Stem Cells, Bern, SwitzerlandAbstract: Umbilical cord blood (CB has become, since its first successful use more than two decades ago, an increasingly important source of blood stem cells. In this light, an overview of current usage of CB in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation (HSCT is given. The three main sources of hematopoietic stem cells: bone marrow (BM, peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC, and cord blood (CB are compared as regards their current quantitative usage in HSCT. A cost analysis of the named three hematopoietic blood stem cell (HSC sources, taking into account various factors, is undertaken. The health economical comparison shows significant differences between CB on the one side, and BM and PBSC on the other. The consequences for the public health side and propositions for a possible health care policy, especially regarding future resource allocation towards the different choices for HSCT products, are discussed. An outlook on the possible future usage of BM, PBSC, and CB and its implications on health systems, donor registries, and CB banks is given.Keywords: health economy, cord blood, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  14. Quality of Red Blood Cells Isolated from Umbilical Cord Blood Stored at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariia Zhurova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBCs from cord blood contain fetal hemoglobin that is predominant in newborns and, therefore, may be more appropriate for neonatal transfusions than currently transfused adult RBCs. Post-collection, cord blood can be stored at room temperature for several days before it is processed for stem cells isolation, with little known about how these conditions affect currently discarded RBCs. The present study examined the effect of the duration cord blood spent at room temperature and other cord blood characteristics on cord RBC quality. RBCs were tested immediately after their isolation from cord blood using a broad panel of quality assays. No significant decrease in cord RBC quality was observed during the first 65 hours of storage at room temperature. The ratio of cord blood to anticoagulant was associated with RBC quality and needs to be optimized in future. This knowledge will assist in future development of cord RBC transfusion product.

  15. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian

    2012-01-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investi......The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work...

  16. Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood during cardiac surgery : effect on red blood cell function in concentrated blood compared with diluted blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Y. John; de Vries, Adrianus J.; Hagenaars, J. Ans M.; van Oeveren, Willem

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood has been suggested to prevent patients from receiving activated leucocytes during autotransfusion in cardiac surgery. This study examines whether leucocyte filtration of salvaged blood affects the red blood cell (RBC) function and whether there is a

  17. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells hold promise to develop novel patient-specific cell therapies and research models for inherited and acquired diseases. We and others previously reprogrammed human adherent cells, such as postnatal fibroblasts to iPS cells, which resemble adherent embryonic stem cells. Here we report derivation of iPS cells from postnatal human blood cells and the potential of these pluripotent cells for disease modeling. Multiple human iPS ...

  18. Endothelial Progenitor Cells Enter the Aging Arena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate eWilliamson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Age is a significant risk factor for the development of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Although pharmacological treatments, including statins and anti-hypertensive drugs, have improved the prognosis for patients with cardiovascular disease, it remains a leading cause of mortality in those aged 65 years and over. Furthermore, given the increased life expectancy of the population in developed countries, there is a clear need for alternative treatment strategies. Consequently, the relationship between aging and progenitor cell-mediated repair is of great interest. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs play an integral role in the cellular repair mechanisms for endothelial regeneration and maintenance. However, EPCs are subject to age-associated changes that diminish their number in circulation and function, thereby enhancing vascular disease risk. A great deal of research is aimed at developing strategies to harness the regenerative capacity of these cells.In this review, we discuss the current understanding of the cells termed ‘EPCs’, examine the impact of age on EPC-mediated repair and identify therapeutic targets with potential for attenuating the age-related decline in vascular health via beneficial actions on EPCs.

  19. Neurological Complications following Blood Transfusions in Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawar, Nayaab; Kulpa, Jolanta; Bellin, Anne; Proteasa, Simona; Sundaram, Revathy

    2017-01-01

    In Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) patient blood transfusions are an important part of treatment for stroke and its prevention. However, blood transfusions can also lead to complications such as Reversible Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome (RPLS). This brief report highlights two cases of SCA who developed such neurological complications after a blood transfusion. RLPS should be considered as the cause of neurologic finding in patients with SCA and hypertension following a blood transfusion.

  20. A photonic crystal hydrogel suspension array for the capture of blood cells from whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Cai, Yunlang; Shang, Luoran; Wang, Huan; Cheng, Yao; Rong, Fei; Gu, Zhongze; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2016-02-01

    Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells.Diagnosing hematological disorders based on the separation and detection of cells in the patient's blood is a significant challenge. We have developed a novel barcode particle-based suspension array that can simultaneously capture and detect multiple types of blood cells. The barcode particles are polyacrylamide (PAAm) hydrogel inverse opal microcarriers with characteristic reflection peak codes that remain stable during cell capture on their surfaces. The hydrophilic PAAm hydrogel scaffolds of the barcode particles can entrap various plasma proteins to capture different cells in the blood, with little damage to captured cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06368j

  1. CD163 positive subsets of blood dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maniecki, Maciej Bogdan; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren Kragh

    2006-01-01

    expression in dendritic cells (DCs) was investigated using multicolor flow cytometry in peripheral blood from 31 healthy donors and 15 HIV-1 patients in addition to umbilical cord blood from 5 newborn infants. Total RNA was isolated from MACS purified DCs and CD163 mRNA was determined with real-time reverse...... transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The effect of glucocorticoid and phorbol ester stimulation on monocyte and dendritic cell CD163 and CD91 expression was investigated in cell culture of mononuclear cells using multicolor flow cytometry. We identified two CD163+ subsets in human blood with dendritic cell...

  2. Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count as a predictor of adequacy of hematopoietic stem cell collection for autologous transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Combariza, Juan F.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In order to carry out an autologous transplantation, hematopoietic stem cells should be mobilized to peripheral blood and later collected by apheresis. The CD34+ cell count is a tool to establish the optimal time to begin the apheresis procedure. Objective: To evaluate the association between peripheral blood CD34+ cell count and the successful collection of hematopoietic stem cells. Materials and methods: A predictive test evaluation study was carried out to establish the usefulness of peripheral blood CD34+ cell count as a predictor of successful stem cell collection in patients that will receive an autologous transplantation. Results: 77 patients were included (median age: 49 years; range: 5-66. The predominant baseline diagnosis was lymphoma (53.2 %. The percentage of patients with successful harvest of hematopoietic stem cells was proportional to the number of CD34+cells in peripheral blood at the end of the mobilization procedure. We propose that more than 15 CD34+cells/μL must be present in order to achieve an adequate collection of hematopoietic stem cells. Conclusion: Peripheral blood CD34+ cell count is a useful tool to predict the successful collection of hematopoietic stem cells.

  3. Children's white blood cell counts in relation to developmental exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oulhote, Y; Shamim, Z; Kielsen, K;

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To explore possible markers of developmental immunotoxicity, we prospectively examined 56 children to determine associations between exposures to methylmercury and persistent organic pollutants since birth and the comprehensive differential counts of white blood cells (WBC) at age 5......), and total mercury (Hg) were measured in maternal (n=56) and children's blood at 18 months (n=42) and 5 years (n=54). We constructed latent functions for exposures at three different ages using factor analyses and applied structural equation models adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Prenatal mercury exposure......-cell mediated immunity. CONCLUSION: Developmental exposure to environmental immunotoxicants appears to have different impacts on WBC counts in childhood....

  4. Red blood cell glutathione peroxidase activity in female nulligravid and pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Guglielmo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The alterations of the glutathione peroxidase enzyme complex system occur in physiological conditions such as aging and oxidative stress consequent to strenuous exercise. Methods Authors optimize the spectrophotometric method to measure glutathione peroxidase activity in rat red blood cell membranes. Results The optimization, when applied to age paired rats, both nulligravid and pregnant, shows that pregnancy induces, at seventeen d of pregnancy, an increase of both reactive oxygen substance concentration in red blood cells and membrane glutathione peroxidase activity. Conclusion The glutathione peroxidase increase in erythrocyte membranes is induced by systemic oxidative stress long lasting rat pregnancy.

  5. Multiple loci are associated with white blood cell phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Nalls (Michael); D. Couper (David); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); D. Toniolo (Daniela); N.A. Zakai (Neil); Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); A. Greinacher (Andreas); A.R. Wood (Andrew); M. Garcia (Melissa); P. Gasparini (Paolo); Y. Liu (Yongmei); T. Lumley (Thomas); A.R. Folsom (Aaron); A.P. Reiner (Alex); C. Gieger (Christian); V. Lagou (Vasiliki); J.F. Felix (Janine); H. Völzke (Henry); N.A. Gouskova (Natalia); A. Biffi (Alessandro); A. Döring (Angela); U. Völker (Uwe); S. Chong (Sean); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); A. Rendon (Augusto); A. Dehghan (Abbas); M. Moore (Matt); K.D. Taylor (Kent); J.G. Wilson (James); G. Lettre (Guillaume); A. Hofman (Albert); J.C. Bis (Joshua); N. Pirastu (Nicola); C.S. Fox (Caroline); C. Meisinger (Christa); J.G. Sambrook (Jennifer); S. Arepalli (Sampath); M. Nauck (Matthias); H. Prokisch (Holger); J. Stephens (Jonathan); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); L.A. Cupples (Adrienne); Y. Okada (Yukinori); A. Takahashi (Atsushi); Y. Kamatani (Yoichiro); K. Matsuda (Koichi); T. Tsunoda (Tatsuhiko); M. Kubo (Michiaki); Y. Nakamura (Yusuke); K. Yamamoto (Kazuhiko); M. Stumvoll (Michael); A. Tönjes (Anke); I. Prokopenko (Inga); T. Illig (Thomas); K.V. Patel (Kushang); S.F. Garner (Stephen); B. Kuhnel (Brigitte); M. Mangino (Massimo); B.A. Oostra (Ben); S.L. Thein; J. Coresh (Josef); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); S. Menzel (Stephan); J. Lin; G. Pistis (Giorgio); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A. Teumer (Alexander); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); A. Chakravarti (Aravinda); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); D. Melzer (David); W.H. Ouwehand (Willem); D. Levy (Daniel); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); A. Singleton (Andrew); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.L. Longo (Dan); N. Soranzo (Nicole); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); T.B. Harris (Tamara); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractWhite blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure from complete blood count assays, and it varies widely among healthy individuals. Total WBC count and its constituent subtypes have been shown to be moderately heritable, with the heritability estimates varying across cell types.

  6. Computational Biomechanics of Human Red Blood Cells in Hematological Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Li, He; Chang, Hung-Yu; Lykotrafitis, George; Em Karniadakis, George

    2017-02-01

    We review recent advances in multiscale modeling of the biomechanical characteristics of red blood cells (RBCs) in hematological diseases, and their relevance to the structure and dynamics of defective RBCs. We highlight examples of successful simulations of blood disorders including malaria and other hereditary disorders, such as sickle-cell anemia, spherocytosis, and elliptocytosis.

  7. Human-induced pluripotent stem cells from blood cells of healthy donors and patients with acquired blood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhaohui; Zhan, Huichun; Mali, Prashant; Dowey, Sarah; Williams, Donna M; Jang, Yoon-Young; Dang, Chi V; Spivak, Jerry L; Moliterno, Alison R; Cheng, Linzhao

    2009-12-24

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived from somatic cells hold promise to develop novel patient-specific cell therapies and research models for inherited and acquired diseases. We and others previously reprogrammed human adherent cells, such as postnatal fibroblasts to iPS cells, which resemble adherent embryonic stem cells. Here we report derivation of iPS cells from postnatal human blood cells and the potential of these pluripotent cells for disease modeling. Multiple human iPS cell lines were generated from previously frozen cord blood or adult CD34(+) cells of healthy donors, and could be redirected to hematopoietic differentiation. Multiple iPS cell lines were also generated from peripheral blood CD34(+) cells of 2 patients with myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) who acquired the JAK2-V617F somatic mutation in their blood cells. The MPD-derived iPS cells containing the mutation appeared normal in phenotypes, karyotype, and pluripotency. After directed hematopoietic differentiation, the MPD-iPS cell-derived hematopoietic progenitor (CD34(+)CD45(+)) cells showed the increased erythropoiesis and gene expression of specific genes, recapitulating features of the primary CD34(+) cells of the corresponding patient from whom the iPS cells were derived. These iPS cells provide a renewable cell source and a prospective hematopoiesis model for investigating MPD pathogenesis.

  8. Isolation of mesenchymal stem cells from equine umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Preben D

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no published studies on stem cells from equine cord blood although commercial storage of equine cord blood for future autologous stem cell transplantations is available. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC have been isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood of humans collected non-invasively at the time of birth and from sheep cord blood collected invasively by a surgical intrauterine approach. Mesenchymal stem cells isolation percentage from frozen-thawed human cord blood is low and the future isolation percentage of MSCs from cryopreserved equine cord blood is therefore expectedly low. The hypothesis of this study was that equine MSCs could be isolated from fresh whole equine cord blood. Results Cord blood was collected from 7 foals immediately after foaling. The mononuclear cell fraction was isolated by Ficoll density centrifugation and cultured in a DMEM low glucose based media at 38.5°C in humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO2. In 4 out of 7 samples colonies with MSC morphology were observed. Cellular morphology varied between monolayers of elongated spindle-shaped cells to layered cell clusters of cuboidal cells with shorter cytoplasmic extensions. Positive Alizarin Red and von Kossa staining as well as significant calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity confirmed osteogenesis. Histology and positive Safranin O staining of matrix glycosaminoglycans illustrated chondrogenesis. Oil Red O staining of lipid droplets confirmed adipogenesis. Conclusion We here report, for the first time, the isolation of mesenchymal-like stem cells from fresh equine cord blood and their differentiation into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. This novel isolation of equine cord blood MSCs and their preliminary in vitro differentiation positions the horse as the ideal pre-clinical animal model for proof-of-principle studies of cord blood derived MSCs.

  9. A Simulation of Blood Cells in Branching Capillaries

    CERN Document Server

    Isfahani, Amir H G; Freund, Jonathan B

    2008-01-01

    The multi-cellular hydrodynamic interactions play a critical role in the phenomenology of blood flow in the microcirculation. A fast algorithm has been developed to simulate large numbers of cells modeled as elastic thin membranes. For red blood cells, which are the dominant component in blood, the membrane has strong resistance to surface dilatation but is flexible in bending. Our numerical method solves the boundary integral equations built upon Green's functions for Stokes flow in periodic domains. This fluid dynamics video is an example of the capabilities of this model in handling complex geometries with a multitude of different cells. The capillary branch geometries have been modeled based upon observed capillary networks. The diameter of the branches varies between 10-20 mum. A constant mean pressure gradient drives the flow. For the purpose of this fluid dynamics video, the red blood cells are initiated as biconcave discs and white blood cells and platelets are initiated as spheres and ellipsoids resp...

  10. Red blood cells and thrombin generation in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelihan, Matthew F; Lim, Ming Y; Key, Nigel S

    2014-05-01

    The prothrombotic nature of sickle cell disease (SCD) is evidenced by the chronically elevated levels of almost all coagulation activation biomarkers, and an increased incidence of certain thrombotic events, including venous thromboembolism. Numerous studies have attempted to define the extent and elucidate the mechanism of the observed increase in thrombin generation in SCD patients in vivo. In general, these studies were performed using thrombin generation assays in platelet poor or platelet rich plasma and showed little difference in endogenous thrombin potential between the SCD cohort and healthy matched controls. In SCD, erythrocytes and monocytes have been demonstrated to exhibit procoagulant characteristics. Thus, the absence of these cellular components in standard thrombin generation assays may fail to reflect global hypercoagulability in the whole blood of patients with SCD. We were therefore surprised to see no difference in net thrombin generation in tissue factor-initiated initiated clotting of whole blood from patients with SCD. However, we are continuing to reconcile these seemingly disparate observations by slight modifications of the whole blood model that include alternative coagulation triggers and a re-examination of the net thrombin generation when the protein/protein S system is simultaneously interrogated.

  11. The correlation between T regulatory cells and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in multiple myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Pınar Erçetin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Multiple myeloma (MM is characterized by malignant proliferation of plasmocytes and their precursors. T regulatory cells (Tregs have a role in immunosuppression and control of autoimmunity, and are currently an important topic in the study of immune response to tumor cells. The correlation between Tregs and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT in MM has not been studied. The aim of this study was to compare CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Treg, CD200, and PD-1 levels in MM patients that did and did not undergo APBSCT. Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood samples were collected from 28 MM patients ranging in age from 41 to 78 years for analysis of CD4CD25+ FOXP3+ Tregs, PD-1 (CD279, and CD200. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated via density gradient centrifugation. Four-color flow cytometry was performed. Using a sequential gating strategy, Tregs were identified as CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ T-cells. Results were analyzed using the Mann Whitney U non-parametric test and a compare means test. p values 0.05. Conclusion: Treg levels were higher in the patients that underwent APBSCT. Tregs are crucial for the induction and maintenance of peripheral tolerance to self-antigens. In addition, Tregs can suppress immune responses to tumor antigens; however, APBSCT and Treg levels were not correlated with CD200 or PD-1 expression. Relationship of Tregs with prognosis needs to be determined by studies that include larger cohorts.

  12. Microvascular blood flow resistance: Role of red blood cell migration and dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanov, Dinar; Gompper, Gerhard; Fedosov, Dmitry A

    2015-05-01

    Microvascular blood flow resistance has a strong impact on cardiovascular function and tissue perfusion. The flow resistance in microcirculation is governed by flow behavior of blood through a complex network of vessels, where the distribution of red blood cells across vessel cross-sections may be significantly distorted at vessel bifurcations and junctions. In this paper, the development of blood flow and its resistance starting from a dispersed configuration of red blood cells is investigated in simulations for different hematocrit levels, flow rates, vessel diameters, and aggregation interactions between red blood cells. Initially dispersed red blood cells migrate toward the vessel center leading to the formation of a cell-free layer near the wall and to a decrease of the flow resistance. The development of cell-free layer appears to be nearly universal when scaled with a characteristic shear rate of the flow. The universality allows an estimation of the length of a vessel required for full flow development, lc ≲ 25D, for vessel diameters in the range 10 μm red blood cell dispersion at vessel bifurcations and junctions on the flow resistance may be significant in vessels which are shorter or comparable to the length lc. Aggregation interactions between red blood cells generally lead to a reduction of blood flow resistance. The simulations are performed using the same viscosity for both external and internal fluids and the RBC membrane viscosity is not considered; however, we discuss how the viscosity contrast may affect the results. Finally, we develop a simple theoretical model which is able to describe the converged cell-free-layer thickness at steady-state flow with respect to flow rate. The model is based on the balance between a lift force on red blood cells due to cell-wall hydrodynamic interactions and shear-induced effective pressure due to cell-cell interactions in flow. We expect that these results can also be used to better understand the flow

  13. Physical exercise decreases the number of fetal cells in maternal blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schlütter, Jacob Mørup; Kirkegaard, Ida; Christensen, Connie Britta;

    liability company). Fetal cells in the blood, bound to fetal cell specific markers, were initially isolated by magnetic cell sorting, then stained with a cocktail of intracellular antibodies, identified and counted. Information about 6 variables reflecting the physical activity of the participants......Physical exercise decreases the number of fetal cells in maternal blood J. M. Schlütter1, I. Kirkegaard1, B. Christensen2, S. Kølvraa3, N. Uldbjerg1 1. Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus N, Denmark. 2. FCMB ApS, Vejle, Denmark. 3. Department...... of Clinical Genetics, Vejle Hospital, Vejle, Denmark Objectives We have established a robust method to specifically identify and isolate a subgroup of fetal cells in maternal blood (fcmb) at a gestational age of 12 weeks. The concentration of these cells, however, varies considerably among pregnant women...

  14. Association between birth weight and blood pressure is robust, amplifies with age, and may be underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anna A; Smith, George Davey; May, Margaret T; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2006-09-01

    Data on the early life origins of adult hypertension have been widely reported: however, recent research shows that the strength of association between small size at birth and higher blood pressure weakens as study size increases. In this article, we retest the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in a large cohort, examine whether age interacts with birth weight to predict blood pressure, and explore reasons why birth weight-blood pressure associations tend to weaken with increasing study size. Measurements from 25874 employees of a large United Kingdom company (mean [SD] age: 38.0 [7.9] years), undertaking voluntary occupational health screening, were available. Using linear regression analysis, we observed that systolic blood pressure changed -0.8 (95% CI: -1.1 to -0.5) mmHg per 1-kg increase in birth weight (P<0.001) adjusted for age and sex and -1.1 (95% CI: -1.3 to -0.8) mmHg/kg (P<0.001) after further adjustment for body size. This inverse association amplified with age (age/birth weight interaction term P<0.001). In participants reporting birth weight from hospital records (n=744), systolic blood pressure changed -1.4 (95% CI: -3.1 to 0.2) mmHg/kg compared with -0.8 (95% CI: -1.0 to -0.5) mmHg/kg in all of the other participants. Finally, the data show evidence of "fixed-category blood pressure allocation," where participants are allocated certain blood pressure values, such as 120/80 mmHg, independent of actual blood pressure. Although the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure was weaker than observed in smaller studies, recalled birth weight and fixed blood pressure measurement error may generate a trend toward weaker associations in larger studies.

  15. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from......) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old...

  16. Comparison between invasive and non-invasive blood pressure in young, middle and old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bing; Li, Qiao; Qiu, Peng

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to compare simultaneous invasive and non-invasive blood pressure (IBP and NIBP) measurements in young, middle and old age using the data from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) database. In total, 23,679 blood pressure measurements were extracted from 742 patients, divided into three groups of young, middle and old age. IBP-NIBP differences in systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) were 0.1 ± 16.5 mmHg/11.0 ± 12.2 mmHg in young age, -2.9 ± 19.8 mmHg/6.9 ± 17.5 mmHg in middle age and -3.2 ± 29.3 mmHg/8.5 ± 19.8 mmHg in old age. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of invasive systolic blood pressure (ISBP)-non-invasive systolic blood pressure (NISBP) differences increased from young to middle then to old age, and the SD of invasive diastolic blood pressure (IDBP)-non-invasive diastolic blood pressure (NIDBP) differences also increased with age. In young, middle and old age, the correlation coefficients were 0.86, 0.79 and 0.53, respectively, between ISBP and NISBP, and 0.78, 0.78 and 0.41 between IDBP and NIDBP. In conclusion, IBP showed good correlation with NIBP in each age category. The agreement between IBP and NIBP measurements was influenced by age category.

  17. Blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and the incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Leeuwen (Redmer); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To determine whether blood pressure and subclinical atherosclerosis are associated with incident age-related maculopathy (ARM). METHODS: The study was performed within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, The Netherlan

  18. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr; Olsson, Anders H; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Gjesing, Anette Prior; Eiberg, Hans; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Almgren, Peter; Groop, Leif; Eliasson, Lena; Vaag, Allan; Dayeh, Tasnim; Ling, Charlotte

    2016-03-31

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26-74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes identified in human islets (for example, KLF14, FHL2, ZNF518B and FAM123C) and some associate with insulin secretion and T2D. DNA methylation correlates with islet expression of multiple genes, including FHL2, ZNF518B, GNPNAT1 and HLTF. Silencing these genes in β-cells alter insulin secretion. Together, we demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D.

  19. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr eAlaarg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterised by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely asessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary

  20. Red blood cell vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaarg, Amr; Schiffelers, Raymond M; van Solinge, Wouter W; van Wijk, Richard

    2013-12-13

    Hereditary hemolytic anemia encompasses a heterogeneous group of anemias characterized by decreased red blood cell survival because of inherited membrane, enzyme, or hemoglobin disorders. Affected red blood cells are more fragile, less deformable, and more susceptible to shear stress and oxidative damage, and show increased vesiculation. Red blood cells, as essentially all cells, constitutively release phospholipid extracellular vesicles in vivo and in vitro in a process known as vesiculation. These extracellular vesicles comprise a heterogeneous group of vesicles of different sizes and intracellular origins. They are described in literature as exosomes if they originate from multi-vesicular bodies, or as microvesicles when formed by a one-step budding process directly from the plasma membrane. Extracellular vesicles contain a multitude of bioactive molecules that are implicated in intercellular communication and in different biological and pathophysiological processes. Mature red blood cells release in principle only microvesicles. In hereditary hemolytic anemias, the underlying molecular defect affects and determines red blood cell vesiculation, resulting in shedding microvesicles of different compositions and concentrations. Despite extensive research into red blood cell biochemistry and physiology, little is known about red cell deformability and vesiculation in hereditary hemolytic anemias, and the associated pathophysiological role is incompletely assessed. In this review, we discuss recent progress in understanding extracellular vesicles biology, with focus on red blood cell vesiculation. Also, we review recent scientific findings on the molecular defects of hereditary hemolytic anemias, and their correlation with red blood cell deformability and vesiculation. Integrating bio-analytical findings on abnormalities of red blood cells and their microvesicles will be critical for a better understanding of the pathophysiology of hereditary hemolytic anemias.

  1. Blood pressure and mortality in elderly people aged 85 and older: Community based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, H.C.; Izaks, G.J.; Buuren, S. van; Ligthart, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the inverse relation between blood pressure and all cause mortality in elderly people over 85 years of age can be explained by adjusting for health status, and to determine whether high blood pressure is a risk factor for mortality when the effects of poor health are

  2. Sodium renders endothelial cells sticky for red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eOberleithner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Negative charges in the glycocalyx of red blood cells (RBC and vascular endothelial cells (EC facilitate frictionless blood flow through blood vessels. Na+ selectively shields these charges controlling surface electronegativity. The question was addressed whether the ambient Na+ concentration controls RBC-EC interaction. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM adhesion forces between RBC and endothelial glycocalyx were quantified. A single RBC, mounted on an AFM cantilever, was brought in physical contact with the endothelial surface and then pulled off. Adhesion forces were quantified (i after enzymatic removal of negative charges in the glycocalyx, (ii under different ambient Na+ and (iii after applying the intracellular aldosterone receptor antagonist spironolactone. Removal of negative surface charges increases RBC-EC interaction forces. A stepwise increase of ambient Na+ from 133 to 140 mM does not affect them. However, beyond 140 mM Na+ adhesion forces increase sharply (10% increase of adhesion force per 1 mM increase of Na+. Spironolactone prevents this response. It is concluded that negative charges reduce adhesion between RBC and EC. Ambient Na+ concentration determines the availability of free negative charges. Na+ concentrations in the low physiological range (below 140 mM allow sufficient amounts of vacant negative charges so that adhesion of RBC to the endothelial surface is small. In contrast, Na+ in the high physiological range (beyond 140 mM saturates the remaining negative surface charges thus increasing adhesion. Aldosterone receptor blockade by spironolactone prevents Na+ induced RBC adhesion to the endothelial glycocalyx. Extrapolation of in vitro experiments to in vivo conditions leads to the hypothesis that high sodium intake is likely to increase the incidence of thrombotic events.

  3. Sodium renders endothelial cells sticky for red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberleithner, Hans; Wälte, Mike; Kusche-Vihrog, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Negative charges in the glycocalyx of red blood cells (RBC) and vascular endothelial cells (EC) facilitate frictionless blood flow through blood vessels. Na(+) selectively shields these charges controlling surface electronegativity. The question was addressed whether the ambient Na(+) concentration controls RBC-EC interaction. Using atomic force microscopy (AFM) adhesion forces between RBC and endothelial glycocalyx were quantified. A single RBC, mounted on an AFM cantilever, was brought in physical contact with the endothelial surface and then pulled off. Adhesion forces were quantified (i) after enzymatic removal of negative charges in the glycocalyx, (ii) under different ambient Na(+) and (iii) after applying the intracellular aldosterone receptor antagonist spironolactone. Removal of negative surface charges increases RBC-EC interaction forces. A stepwise increase of ambient Na(+) from 133 to 140 mM does not affect them. However, beyond 140 mM Na(+) adhesion forces increase sharply (10% increase of adhesion force per 1 mM increase of Na(+)). Spironolactone prevents this response. It is concluded that negative charges reduce adhesion between RBC and EC. Ambient Na(+) concentration determines the availability of free negative charges. Na(+) concentrations in the low physiological range (below 140 mM) allow sufficient amounts of vacant negative charges so that adhesion of RBC to the endothelial surface is small. In contrast, Na(+) in the high physiological range (beyond 140 mM) saturates the remaining negative surface charges thus increasing adhesion. Aldosterone receptor blockade by spironolactone prevents Na(+) induced RBC adhesion to the endothelial glycocalyx. Extrapolation of in vitro experiments to in vivo conditions leads to the hypothesis that high sodium intake is likely to increase the incidence of thrombotic events.

  4. Nomenclature of monocytes and dendritic cells in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Ziegler-Heitbrock (Loems); P. Ancuta (Petronela); S. Crowe (Suzanne); M. Dalod (Marc); V. Grau (Veronika); D.N. Hart (Derek); P.J. Leenen (Pieter); Y.J. Liu; G. MacPherson (Gordon); G.J. Randolph (Gwendalyn); J. Scherberich (Juergen); J. Schmitz (Juergen); K. Shortman (Ken); S. Sozzani (Silvano); H. Strobl (Herbert); M. Zembala (Marek); J.M. Austyn (Jonathan); M.B. Lutz (Manfred)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMonocytes and cells of the dendritic cell lineage circulate in blood and eventually migrate into tissue where they further mature and serve various functions, most notably in immune defense. Over recent years these cells have been characterized in detail with the use of cell surface mark

  5. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  6. Electrochemical Red Blood Cell Counting: One at a Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepunaru, Lior; Sokolov, Stanislav V; Holter, Jennifer; Young, Neil P; Compton, Richard G

    2016-08-08

    We demonstrate that the concentration of a red blood cell solution under physiological conditions can be determined by electrochemical voltammetry. The magnitude of the oxygen reduction currents produced at an edge-plane pyrolytic graphite electrode was diagnosed analytically at concentrations suitable for a point-of-care test device. The currents could be further enhanced when the solution of red blood cells was exposed to hydrogen peroxide. We show that the enhanced signal can be used to detect red blood cells at a single entity level. The method presented relies on the catalytic activity of red blood cells towards hydrogen peroxide and on surface-induced haemolysis. Each single cell activity is expressed as current spikes decaying within a few seconds back to the background current. The frequency of such current spikes is proportional to the concentration of cells in solution.

  7. [Promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A G; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2013-10-01

    The current article is dedicated to promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage. The following new technical approaches are presented: (1) erythrocytes storage in strict anaerobic argon-hydrogen environment, (2) lyophilization of erythrocyte suspension by its atomization in nitrogen gas, (3) lyophilization of erythrocytes by directional freezing under the influence of radio frequency radiation, (4) automated pharming of antigen free packed red blood cells from progenitor cell directly at the battlefield.

  8. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Yuin-Han; Agarwal, Suneet; Park, In-Hyun; Urbach, Achia; Huo, Hongguang; Heffner, Garrett C; Kim, Kitai; Miller, Justine D; Ng, Kitwa; Daley, George Q

    2009-05-28

    Human dermal fibroblasts obtained by skin biopsy can be reprogrammed directly to pluripotency by the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors. Here, we describe the derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from CD34+ mobilized human peripheral blood cells using retroviral transduction of OCT4/SOX2/KLF4/MYC. Blood-derived human induced pluripotent stem cells are indistinguishable from human embryonic stem cells with respect to morphology, expression of surface antigens, and pluripotency-associated transcription factors, DNA methylation status at pluripotent cell-specific genes, and the capacity to differentiate in vitro and in teratomas. The ability to reprogram cells from human blood will allow the generation of patient-specific stem cells for diseases in which the disease-causing somatic mutations are restricted to cells of the hematopoietic lineage.

  9. CONFOUNDING EFFECTS OF AGE, DIET AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Latha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Elevated blood pressure is one of the most common and important risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Both hypertension and cardiovascular diseases are prevalent in epidemic proportions due to genetic, environmental and metabolic factors associated with modern lifestyle. In the present study we investigated the role of age, diet and physical activity on arterial blood pressure. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted on randomly selected subjects with different dietary preferences and physical activity levels. They were placed in various groups based on their age, diet (Vegetarians/Non-vegetarians and physical activity (sedentary/physically active. General body measurements, blood pressure and cardiac output were measured and using ANOVA, the data was analysed. RESULTS All the three age groups showed changes in mean arterial pressure and cardiac output. The cardiac output values were raised in the non-vegetarian groups in comparison with the vegetarian groups of all the ages and in the physically active groups when comparing with the physically inactive groups. The physically active vegetarian group has significantly lower mean blood pressure values when compared with the physically inactive vegetarians. Similarly, non-vegetarians who are physically active have lower mean blood pressure values in comparison with the physically inactive non-vegetarian group. But when only diet was compared, non-vegetarians showed higher blood pressure values. CONCLUSION Vegetarian diet and increased physical activity act as confounding factors due to their varied action on blood pressure changes associated with age. Both diet and physical activity levels modify the blood pressure and cardiac output values, but the influence of vegetarian diet seems to be more than that of physical activity in the elderly age groups and impact of physical activity is more than diet in the younger age groups.

  10. A model for red blood cells in simulations of large-scale blood flows

    CERN Document Server

    Melchionna, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are an essential component of blood. A method to include the particulate nature of blood is introduced here with the goal of studying circulation in large-scale realistic vessels. The method uses a combination of the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to account for the plasma motion, and a modified Molecular Dynamics scheme for the cellular motion. Numerical results illustrate the quality of the model in reproducing known rheological properties of blood as much as revealing the effect of RBC structuring on the wall shear stress, with consequences on the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Dysregulation of CXCR3 expression on peripheral blood leukocytes in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Mads Krüger; Singh, Amardeep; Faber, Carsten;

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The chemokine receptor CXCR3 has been strongly related to inhibition of angiogenesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between expression of CXCR3 on peripheral blood leukocytes and Age-related Wet Macular Degeneration (AMD). Furthermore, we measured the plasma...... concentration of the chemokines CXCL9-11. Methods: The study group consisted of patients with AMD attending our department. Patients referred for other reasons than AMD were enrolled as control persons. The expression of CXCR3 on T-cells and the plasma concentration of CXCL9-11 were measured using flow...... cytometry. Results: We looked at all CD8+ T-cells expressing CXCR3 and found a significant lower percentage of these cells in the neovascular AMD group compared to the age-matched control group (p=0.05). When dividing the CD8+ cells in functional groups according to their expression of CXCR3, we found...

  12. Production of embryonic and fetal-like red blood cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chan-Jung; Mitra, Koyel; Koya, Mariko; Velho, Michelle; Desprat, Romain; Lenz, Jack; Bouhassira, Eric E

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into embryonic and fetal type of red blood cells that sequentially express three types of hemoglobins recapitulating early human erythropoiesis. We report here that we have produced iPS from three somatic cell types: adult skin fibroblasts as well as embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells. We show that regardless of the age of the donor cells, the iPS produced are fully reprogrammed into a pluripotent state that is undistinguishable from that of hESCs by low and high-throughput expression and detailed analysis of globin expression patterns by HPLC. This suggests that reprogramming with the four original Yamanaka pluripotency factors leads to complete erasure of all functionally important epigenetic marks associated with erythroid differentiation regardless of the age or the tissue type of the donor cells, at least as detected in these assays. The ability to produce large number of erythroid cells with embryonic and fetal-like characteristics is likely to have many translational applications.

  13. Production of embryonic and fetal-like red blood cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Jung Chang

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into embryonic and fetal type of red blood cells that sequentially express three types of hemoglobins recapitulating early human erythropoiesis. We report here that we have produced iPS from three somatic cell types: adult skin fibroblasts as well as embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells. We show that regardless of the age of the donor cells, the iPS produced are fully reprogrammed into a pluripotent state that is undistinguishable from that of hESCs by low and high-throughput expression and detailed analysis of globin expression patterns by HPLC. This suggests that reprogramming with the four original Yamanaka pluripotency factors leads to complete erasure of all functionally important epigenetic marks associated with erythroid differentiation regardless of the age or the tissue type of the donor cells, at least as detected in these assays. The ability to produce large number of erythroid cells with embryonic and fetal-like characteristics is likely to have many translational applications.

  14. Banking of pluripotent adult stem cells as an unlimited source for red blood cell production: potential applications for alloimmunized patients and rare blood challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, Thierry; Bardiaux, Laurent; Krause, Claire; Kobari, Ladan; Lapillonne, Hélène; Andreu, Georges; Douay, Luc

    2011-07-01

    The transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is now considered a well-settled and essential therapy. However, some difficulties and constraints still occur, such as long-term blood product shortage, blood donor population aging, known and yet unknown transfusion-transmitted infectious agents, growing cost of the transfusion supply chain management, and the inescapable blood group polymorphism barrier. Red blood cells can be now cultured in vitro from human hematopoietic, human embryonic, or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The highly promising hiPSC technology represents a potentially unlimited source of RBCs and opens the door to the revolutionary development of a new generation of allogeneic transfusion products. Assuming that in vitro large-scale cultured RBC production efficiently operates in the near future, we draw here some futuristic but realistic scenarios regarding potential applications for alloimmunized patients and those with a rare blood group. We retrospectively studied a cohort of 16,486 consecutive alloimmunized patients (10-year period), showing 1 to 7 alloantibodies with 361 different antibody combinations. We showed that only 3 hiPSC clones would be sufficient to match more than 99% of the 16,486 patients in need of RBC transfusions. The study of the French National Registry of People with a Rare Blood Phenotype/Genotype (10-year period) shows that 15 hiPSC clones would cover 100% of the needs in patients of white ancestry. In addition, one single hiPSC clone would meet 73% of the needs in alloimmunized patients with sickle cell disease for whom rare cryopreserved RBC units were required. As a result, we consider that a very limited number of RBC clones would be able to not only provide for the need for most alloimmunized patients and those with a rare blood group but also efficiently allow for a policy for alloimmunization prevention in multiply transfused patients.

  15. Reconstitution of naive T cells during antiretroviral treatment of HIV-infected adults is dependent on age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen Stuart, James; Hamann, Dörte; Borleffs, Jan; Roos, Marijke; Miedema, Frank; Boucher, Charles; de Boer, Rob

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of age on the regeneration rate of naive and memory T cells in the blood of 45 adults on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). METHODS: The age of the patients ranged from 25 to 57 years. Naive cells were defined as CD45RA+CD27+. Cells negative for CD45R

  16. A role for activated endothelial cells in red blood cell clearance: implications for vasopathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fens, Marcel H A M; van Wijk, Richard; Andringa, Grietje

    2012-01-01

    Background Phosphatidylserine exposure by red blood cells is acknowledged as a signal that initiates phagocytic removal of the cells from the circulation. Several disorders and conditions are known to induce phosphatidylserine exposure. Removal of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells gener...... cells play a role in red blood cell clearance in vivo. Significant erythrophagocytosis can induce endothelial cell loss, which may contribute to vasopathological effects as seen, for instance, in sickle cell disease.......Background Phosphatidylserine exposure by red blood cells is acknowledged as a signal that initiates phagocytic removal of the cells from the circulation. Several disorders and conditions are known to induce phosphatidylserine exposure. Removal of phosphatidylserine-exposing red blood cells...... generally occurs by macrophages in the spleen and liver. Previously, however, we have shown that endothelial cells are also capable of erythrophagocytosis. Key players in the erythrophagocytosis by endothelial cells appeared to be lactadherin and αv-integrin. Phagocytosis via the phosphatidylserine...

  17. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yingrui; Zhu, Jingde; Tian, Geng

    2010-01-01

    strand), we report a comprehensive (92.62%) methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found...

  18. EVALUATION OF ZEBU NELLORE CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USING THE CELL-DYN 3500 HEMATOLOGY ANALYZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Secorun Borges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cell-dyn 3500 is a multiparameter flow cytometer, which may analyze samples from several species performing several simultaneous analyses. It is able to perform white blood cells, red blood cells and platelet counts, besides differential leukocyte counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin determination. Cell-Dyn 3500 performs total leukocyte count both optically and by impedance. The equipment may choose one or other method, based on the reliability of the results. Erythrocyte and platelet counts are determined by impedance. Leukocyte differentiation is based on an optical principle, using separation in multiangular polarized light. The objective of this study was to compare the results of complete blood count of Zebu Nellore heifers from Celldyn 3500, with those obtained from a semi-automated cell counter (Celm CC 510 and the manual technique. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in 5 mL EDTA vacuum tubes from 58 Nellore heifers, at 24 months of age. Samples were processed in parallel in the three different techniques. Results were analyzed using paired t test, Pearson’s correlation and the Bland-Altmann method. There was a strong correlation for all parameters analyzed by Cell-Dyn 3500, manual method and semiautomated cell counter, except for basophils and monocytes counts. These results confirm that this analyzer is reliable for blood samples analysis of zebu cattle.

  19. The effect of resistance exercise on fitness, blood pressure, and blood lipid of hypertensive middle-aged men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Kyu-Sik; Kim, Jong-Won

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of resistance exercise on fitness, blood pressure, and blood lipid of hypertensive middle-aged men. To achieve the goal of the study, a total of 23 subjects were selected. Among them, 14 subjects who exercised regularly were selected as the exercise group, while the remaining 9 subjects were selected as the control group. In terms of data processing, the IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 21.0 software was used to calculate the mean and standard deviation. Regarding the verification of difference on the change of means between the groups, analysis of covariance was used for statistical process. As a result, significant differences were found in cardiovascular endurance, muscle endurance, flexibility, and triglyceride. These results indicate that the resistance exercise only had slight effect on hypertensive middle-aged men.

  20. Color contrast of red blood cells on solid substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiziev, Adkham A.

    2013-02-01

    In present study we developed the new method of colour visualization of red blood cells without using any chemical staining. The method based on physical phenomena a white light interference on thin transparent films. It is shown that in the case of thin human blood smears colour interference contrast occurs on solid polished substrates. The best contrast shows substrates with maximal refractive index (Mo, W, Si). These materials have been selected as substrate instead of ordinary microscopic slide in reflected light microscopy. It is shown that reflection of incident white light from blood cell surface and boundary cell-substrate generate two coherent lights. The second one (object signal) after passing through red blood cell gathers additional phase and after interference interaction with reference signal (light reflected from outer cell surface) enables cell image in colour. Number of blood smears of healthy persons (control) and patients who were diagnosed with cancer are presented. It is concluded that the offered method may be used as an effective diagnostic tool to detect early stage blood cells lesion by its interference painting in white light. Offered method may be used in research laboratories, hospitals, diagnostic centres, emergency medicine and other as complementary diagnostic tool to present convenient optical and electron microscopy technique.

  1. The application of blood flow measurements to the study of aging muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCully, K K; Posner, J D

    1995-11-01

    Blood flow to skeletal muscle is a potentially important factor in the reduction of muscle function associated with aging (sarcopenia). The main influence of reduced blood flow capacity on muscle function is in limiting oxidative metabolism. Direct measures of blood flow include: intravital-microscopy, plethysmography, radioactive microspheres, 133Xenon washout, thermodilution, and Doppler ultrasound. Indirect measurement of blood flow includes arm-to-ankle pressure index and the rate of phosphocreatine recovery after exercise. Several new methodologies have been developed to evaluate muscle blood flow, including color-Doppler imaging, magnetic resonance imaging/angiography (MRI/MRA), and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). As adaptations of traditional techniques, these methods promise more precise information under less invasive conditions. MRI is an expensive and technically challenging method able to measure vessel location, blood flow, and wall diameter in blood vessels throughout the cardiac cycle. Color-Doppler provides excellent temporal resolution blood flow throughout the cardiac cycle, along with some anatomical information. NIRS is an inexpensive and portable technology that can measure changes in oxygen saturation and provide information on tissue oxygen delivery in studies of frailer and more difficult-to-study subjects. Muscle blood flow is not thought to limit oxidative metabolism under normal conditions in young individuals. However, it is not clear what happens to muscle blood flow in healthy older individuals. Reduced capillary density, less maximal blood flow, and a slower hyperemic flow response have been reported in some, but not all, studies. Further studies with the newer methodologies are needed to re-examine age-related changes in muscle blood flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk.

  3. Mechanisms linking red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozos, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, and targets for hemoglobin level should be established. Risk scores in several cardiovascular diseases should include red blood cell count and RDW. Complete blood count and hemorheological parameters represent useful, inexpensive, widely available tools for the management and prognosis of patients with coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, and stroke. Hypoxia and iron accumulation cause the most important cardiovascular effects of sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Patients with congenital chronic hemolytic anemia undergoing splenectomy should be monitored, considering thromboembolic and cardiovascular risk.

  4. Drawings of Blood Cells Reveal People's Perception of Their Blood Disorder: A Pilot Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Ramondt

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD and thalassemia are rare but chronic blood disorders. Recent literature showed impaired quality of life (QOL in people with these blood disorders. Assessing one of the determinants of QOL (i.e. illness perceptions therefore, is an important next research area.We aimed to explore illness perceptions of people with a blood disorder with drawings in addition to the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (Brief IPQ. Drawings are a novel method to assess illness perceptions and the free-range answers drawings offer can add additional insight into how people perceive their illness.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 17 participants with a blood disorder. Participants' illness perceptions were assessed by the Brief IPQ and drawings. Brief IPQ scores were compared with reference groups from the literature (i.e. people with asthma or lupus erythematosus.Participants with SCD or thalassemia perceived their blood disorder as being more chronic and reported more severe symptoms than people with either asthma or lupus erythematosus. In the drawings of these participants with a blood disorder, a greater number of blood cells drawn was negatively correlated with perceived personal control (P<0.05, indicating that a greater quantity in the drawing is associated with more negative or distressing beliefs.Participants with a blood disorder perceive their disease as fairly threatening compared with people with other chronic illnesses. Drawings can add additional insight into how people perceive their illness by offering free-range answers.

  5. Non-invasive spectroscopy of transfusable red blood cells stored inside sealed plastic blood-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, K; Atkins, C G; Chen, D; Schulze, H G; Devine, D V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2016-03-07

    After being separated from (donated) whole blood, red blood cells are suspended in specially formulated additive solutions and stored (at 4 °C) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood-bags until they are needed for transfusion. With time, the prepared red cell concentrate (RCC) is known to undergo biochemical changes that lower effectiveness of the transfusion, and thus regulations are in place that limit the storage period to 42 days. At present, RCC is not subjected to analytical testing prior to transfusion. In this study, we use Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to probe, non-invasively, the biochemistry of RCC inside sealed blood-bags. The retrieved spectra compare well with conventional Raman spectra (of sampled aliquots) and are dominated by features associated with hemoglobin. In addition to the analytical demonstration that SORS can be used to retrieve RCC spectra from standard clinical blood-bags without breaking the sterility of the system, the data reveal interesting detail about the oxygenation-state of the stored cells themselves, namely that some blood-bags unexpectedly contain measurable amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin after weeks of storage. The demonstration that chemical information can be obtained non-invasively using spectroscopy will enable new studies of RCC degeneration, and points the way to a Raman-based instrument for quality-control in a blood-bank or hospital setting.

  6. Mechanisms Linking Red Blood Cell Disorders and Cardiovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    The present paper aims to review the main pathophysiological links between red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular diseases, provides a brief description of the latest studies in this area, and considers implications for clinical practice and therapy. Anemia is associated with a special risk in proatherosclerotic conditions and heart disease and became a new therapeutic target. Guidelines must be updated for the management of patients with red blood cell disorders and cardiovascular dise...

  7. The relationship between stroke mortality and red blood cell parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Hatamian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors influence on the outcome of ischemic stroke. The aim of this study was determination the relationship between stroke mortality and red blood cell parameters.This cross-sectional study was conducted from 2011 July to June 2012. For all patients with ischemic stroke in middle cerebral artery (MCA territory, the cell blood count test was performed. We recorded their mortality on the 1(st week and the 1(st month after ischemic stroke. Data analysis was performed using t-test, χ(2, Mann-Whitney U-test, logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve in SPSS for Windows 19.0.A total of 98 subjects (45.9% men and 54.1% women with the mean age of 71.0 ± 13.9 years were assessed, while 67.3% of them were anemic. The prevalence of 1(st week mortality among anemic and non-anemic patients was 40.9% and 34.4% (P = 0.534. The prevalence of mortality after 1(st week till 1(st month was 19.6% and 21.0% respectively (P = 0.636. In univariant analysis, only 1(st month mortality had a significant relationship with red blood cell (RBC count (P = 0.022. However, the result of logistic regression model showed that RBC (P = 0.012 and mean corpuscular volume (MCV (P = 0.021 remained as predictors of the 1(st week and the 1(st month mortality (P = 0.011 and P = 0.090 respectively. The best cutoff point of RBC for the prediction of the 1(st week mortality with 44.7% specificity and 69.5% sensitivity was estimated 4.07 million/μl and for the 1(st month mortality with 46.6% specificity and 72.2% sensitivity was estimated 4.16 million/μl.The RBC count and MCV are independent predictors of ischemic stroke short-term mortality.

  8. Recharging Red Blood Cell Surface by Hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Kliche

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Similar as in vascular endothelium the negatively charged glycocalyx of erythrocytes selectively buffers sodium. Loss of glycocalyx (i.e. loss of negative charges leads to increased erythrocyte sodium sensitivity (ESS quantified by a recently developed salt-blood-test (SBT. The hypothesis was tested whether a regular 4-hour hemodialysis (4h-HD alters ESS. Methods: In 38 patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD ESS was measured before and after 4h-HD, together with standard laboratory and clinical parameters (electrolytes, acid-base status, urea, creatinine, hemoglobin, c-reactive protein and blood pressure. Results: Before 4h-HD, 20 patients (out of 38 were classified as “salt sensitive” by SBT. After 4h-HD, this number decreased to 11. Erythrocyte sodium buffering power remained virtually constant in patients with already low ESS before dialysis, whereas in patients with high ESS, 4h-HD improved the initially poor sodium buffering power by about 20%. No significant correlations could be detected between standard blood parameters and the respective ESS values except for plasma sodium concentration which was found increased by 3.1 mM in patients with high salt sensitivity. Conclusions: 4h-HD apparently recharges “run-down” erythrocytes and thus restores erythrocyte sodium buffering capacity. Besides the advantage of efficient sodium buffering in blood, erythrocytes with sufficient amounts of free negative charges at the erythrocyte surface will cause less (mechanical injury to the negatively charged endothelial surface due to efficient repulsive forces between blood and vessel wall. Hemodialysis improves erythrocyte surface properties and thus may prevent early vascular damage in patients suffering from ESRD.

  9. Is red blood cell rheology preserved during routine blood bank storage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J.; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) units stored for more than 2 weeks at 4 degrees C are currently considered of impaired quality. This opinion has primarily been based on altered RBC rheologic properties (i.e., enhanced aggregability, reduced deformability, and elevated endothelial cell interaction),

  10. Blood flow simulation on a role for red blood cells in platelet adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Kazuyasu; Takagi, Shu

    2016-11-01

    Large-scale blood flow simulations were conducted and a role for red blood cells in platelet adhesion was discussed. The flow conditions and hematocrit values were set to the same as corresponding experiments, and the numerical results were compared with the measurements. Numerical results show the number of platelets adhered on the wall is increased with the increase in hematocrit values. The number of adhered platelets estimated from the simulation was approximately 28 (per 0.01 square millimeter per minute) for the hematocrit value of 20%. These results agree well with the experimental results qualitatively and quantitatively, which proves the validity of the present numerical model including the interaction between fluid and many elastic bodies and the modeling of platelet adhesion. Numerical simulation also reproduces the behavior of red blood cells in the blood flow and their role in platelet adhesion. Red blood cells deform to a flat shape and move towards channel center region. In contrast, platelets are pushed out and have many chances to contact with the wall. As a result, the large number of adhered platelets is observed as hematocrit values becomes high. This result indicates the presence of red blood cells plays a crucial role in platelet adhesion.

  11. Family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease: a twenty-year experience in two dedicated public cord blood banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafii, Hanadi; Bernaudin, Françoise; Rouard, Helene; Vanneaux, Valérie; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Cavazzana, Marina; Gauthereau, Valerie; Stanislas, Aurélie; Benkerrou, Malika; De Montalembert, Mariane; Ferry, Christele; Girot, Robert; Arnaud, Cecile; Kamdem, Annie; Gour, Joelle; Touboul, Claudine; Cras, Audrey; Kuentz, Mathieu; Rieux, Claire; Volt, Fernanda; Cappelli, Barbara; Maio, Karina T; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Kenzey, Chantal; Larghero, Jerome; Gluckman, Eliane

    2017-03-16

    Efforts to implement family cord blood banking have been developed in the past decades for siblings requiring stem cell transplantation for conditions such as sickle cell disease. However, public banks are faced with challenging decisions about the units to be stored, discarded, or used for other endeavors. We report here 20 years of experience in family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease in two dedicated public banks. Participants were pregnant women who had previous child diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease. Participation was voluntary and free of charge. All mothers underwent mandatory serologic screening. Cord blood units were collected in different hospitals, but processed and stored in two public banks. A total of 338 units were stored for 302 families. Median recipient's age was 6 years (11 months - 15 years). Median collected volume and total nucleated cell count were 91 ml (23 - 230) and 8.6 x108 (0.7 - 75 x108), respectively. Microbial contamination was observed in 3.5% (n=12), positive Hepatitis B serology in 25% (n=84) and homozygous sickle cell disease in 11% (n=37) of the collections. Forty-four units were HLA-identical to intended recipient, and 28 units were released for transplantation either alone (n=23) or in combination with the bone marrow from the same donor (n=5), reflecting a utilization rate of 8%. Engraftment rate was 96% with 100% survival. Family cord blood banking yields good quality units for sibling transplantation. More comprehensive banking based on close collaboration among banks, clinical and transplant teams is recommended for optimized utilization of these units.

  12. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells that have been destroyed by high doses of ... EuroStemCell 312,828 views 15:53 Understanding Your Cancer Prognosis ... views 6:48 Stem cell donation from brother saves child from cancer - Duration: ...

  13. An efficient nonviral method to generate integration-free human-induced pluripotent stem cells from cord blood and peripheral blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okita, Keisuke; Yamakawa, Tatsuya; Matsumura, Yasuko; Sato, Yoshiko; Amano, Naoki; Watanabe, Akira; Goshima, Naoki; Yamanaka, Shinya

    2013-03-01

    The generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provides the opportunity to use patient-specific somatic cells, which are a valuable source for disease modeling and drug discovery. To promote research involving these cells, it is important to make iPSCs from easily accessible and less invasive tissues, like blood. We have recently reported the efficient generation of human iPSCs from adult fibroblasts using a combination of plasmids encoding OCT3/4, SOX2, KLF4, L-MYC, LIN28, and shRNA for TP53. We herein report a modified protocol enabling efficient iPSC induction from CD34+ cord blood cells and from peripheral blood isolated from healthy donors using these plasmid vectors. The original plasmid mixture could induce iPSCs; however, the efficiency was low. The addition of EBNA1, an essential factor for episomal amplification of the vectors, by an extra plasmid greatly increased the efficiency of iPSC induction, especially when the induction was performed from αβT cells. This improvement enabled the establishment of blood-derived iPSCs from seven healthy donors ranging in age from their 20s to their 60s. This induction method will be useful for the derivation of patient-specific integration-free iPSCs and would also be applicable to the generation of clinical-grade iPSCs in the future.

  14. Comparison of Cord Blood Lipid Profile in Preterm Small for Gestational Age and Appropriate for Gestational Age Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katragadda, Tejasree; Shetty, Subodh; Baliga, Shantharam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Coronary heart disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality in current era. The roots of this epidemic have been traced to as early as foetal life by foetal origin hypothesis. There are a few studies which have compared the cord blood lipid profile of preterm and term babies and thereby leading a path to primordial prevention of chronic diseases. Aim To study cord blood lipid profile of preterm appropriate for gestational age and preterm small for gestational age neonates and compare atherogenic index of both groups. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 109 preterm infants. Cord blood samples were collected from placental side of umbilical cord at birth and analyzed for lipid profile which includes serum cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and apolipoproteins which include ApoA1, Apo B. Results Preterm Small for Gestational Age (SGA) neonates had statistically significant higher values of triglycerides, Apo B and atherogenic index compared to preterm Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA) neonates. Other measured lipid levels were not statistically significant, though the values were higher than reference ranges for term babies. Conclusion Prematurity as a factor associated with a more atherogenic lipid profile is re-affirmed and SGA as an additional risk factor has been proven giving scope for future research and primordial prevention.

  15. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cytlak, Urszula; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna;

    2010-01-01

    -activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+)-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and to the increased Ca(2+) content of red cells in certain hereditary anemias such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia....

  16. Erythropoietin reduces storage lesions and decreases apoptosis indices in blood bank red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penuela, Oscar Andrés; Palomino, Fernando; Gómez, Lina Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent evidence shows a selective destruction of the youngest circulating red blood cells (neocytolysis) trigged by a drop in erythropoietin levels. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant human erythropoietin beta on the red blood cell storage lesion and apoptosis indices under blood bank conditions. Methods Each one of ten red blood cell units preserved in additive solution 5 was divided in two volumes of 100 mL and assigned to one of two groups: erythropoietin (addition of 665 IU of recombinant human erythropoietin) and control (isotonic buffer solution was added). The pharmacokinetic parameters of erythropoietin were estimated and the following parameters were measured weekly, for six weeks: Immunoreactive erythropoietin, hemolysis, percentage of non-discocytes, adenosine triphosphate, glucose, lactate, lactate dehydrogenase, and annexin-V/esterase activity. The t-test or Wilcoxon's test was used for statistical analysis with significance being set for a p-value 6 weeks under blood bank conditions, with persistent supernatant concentrations of erythropoietin during the entire storage period. Adenosine triphosphate was higher in the Erythropoietin Group in Week 6 (4.19 ± 0.05 μmol/L vs. 3.53 ± 0.02 μmol/L; p-value = 0.009). The number of viable cells in the Erythropoietin Group was higher than in the Control Group (77% ± 3.8% vs. 71% ± 2.3%; p-value <0.05), while the number of apoptotic cells was lower (9.4% ± 0.3% vs. 22% ± 0.8%; p-value <0.05). Conclusions Under standard blood bank conditions, an important proportion of red blood cells satisfy the criteria of apoptosis. Recombinant human erythropoietin beta seems to improve storage lesion parameters and mitigate apoptosis. PMID:26969770

  17. Induction and identification of rabbit peripheral blood derived dendritic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jing; Yang, FuYuan; Chen, WenLi

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To study a method of the induction of dendritic cells (DCs) from rabbit peripheral blood. Methods: Peripheral blood cells were removed from rabbit, filtered through nylon mesh. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated from the blood cells by Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation (density of 1.077g/cm3).To obtain DCs, PBMC were cultured in RPMI1640 medium containing 10% fetal calf serum, 50U/mL penicillin and streptomycin, referred to subsequently as complete medium, at 37°C in 5% CO2 atmosphere for 4 hours. Nonadherent cells were aspirated, adherent cells were continued incubated in complete medium, supplemented with granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, 50ng/ml),and interleukin 4 (IL-4, 50ng/ml) for 9 days. Fluorescein labeled antibodies(anti-CD14, anti-HLA-DR, anti-CD86) were used to sign cells cultured for 3,6,9 days respectively, Then flow cytometry was performed. Results: Ratio of anti-HLA-DR and anti-CD86 labeled cells increased with induction time extension, in contrast with anti-CD14. Conclusion: Dendritic cells can be effectively induced by the method of this experiment, cell maturation status increased with induction time extension.

  18. Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Sendai Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Filipa A C; Pedersen, Roger A; Vallier, Ludovic

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the efficient isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from circulating blood via density gradient centrifugation and subsequent generation of integration-free human induced pluripotent stem cells. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells are cultured for 9 days to allow expansion of the erythroblast population. The erythroblasts are then used to derive human induced pluripotent stem cells using Sendai viral vectors, each expressing one of the four reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc.

  19. On-chip Extraction of Intracellular Molecules in White Blood Cells from Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongchan; Hyun, Ji-chul; Yang, Sung

    2015-10-14

    The extraction of virological markers in white blood cells (WBCs) from whole blood--without reagents, electricity, or instruments--is the most important first step for diagnostic testing of infectious diseases in resource-limited settings. Here we develop an integrated microfluidic chip that continuously separates WBCs from whole blood and mechanically ruptures them to extract intracellular proteins and nucleic acids for diagnostic purposes. The integrated chip is assembled with a device that separates WBCs by using differences in blood cell size and a mechanical cell lysis chip with ultra-sharp nanoblade arrays. We demonstrate the performance of the integrated device by quantitatively analyzing the levels of extracted intracellular proteins and genomic DNAs. Our results show that compared with a conventional method, the device yields 120% higher level of total protein amount and similar levels of gDNA (90.3%). To demonstrate its clinical application to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) diagnostics, the developed chip was used to process blood samples containing HIV-infected cells. Based on PCR results, we demonstrate that the chip can extract HIV proviral DNAs from infected cells with a population as low as 10(2)/μl. These findings suggest that the developed device has potential application in point-of-care testing for infectious diseases in developing countries.

  20. Quantification of depletion-induced adhesion of Red Blood Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Patrick; Wagner, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC) are known to form aggregates in the forms of rouleaux due to the presence of plasma proteins under physiological conditions. Rouleaux formation can be also induced in vitro by the addition of macromolecules to the RBC solution. Current data on the adhesion strength between red blood cells in their natural discocyte shapes mostly rely on indirect measurements like flow chamber experiments, but on the single cell level data is lacking. Here we present measurements on the dextran induced aggregation of red blood cells by use of atomic force microscopy based single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS). The effects of dextran concentration and molecular weight on the interaction energy of adhering RBCs was determined. The results are in good agreement with a model based on the depletion effect and former experimental studies.

  1. Hematologic assessment in pet rats, mice, hamsters, and gerbils: blood sample collection and blood cell identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Nicole M; Moore, David M; Zimmerman, Kurt; Smith, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Hamsters, gerbils, rats, and mice are presented to veterinary clinics and hospitals for prophylactic care and treatment of clinical signs of disease. Physical examination, history, and husbandry practice information can be supplemented greatly by assessment of hematologic parameters. As a resource for veterinarians and their technicians, this article describes the methods for collection of blood, identification of blood cells, and interpretation of the hemogram in mice, rats, gerbils, and hamsters.

  2. Blood cell manufacture: current methods and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmins, Nicholas E; Nielsen, Lars K

    2009-07-01

    Blood transfusion depends on availability of donor material, and concerns over supply and safety have spurred development of methods to manufacture blood from stem cells. Current methods could theoretically yield therapeutic doses of red blood cells (RBCs) and platelets. However, due to the very large number of cells required to have any impact on supply (currently 10(19) RBC/year in the US), realization of routine manufacture faces significant challenges. Current yields are orders of magnitude too low for production of meaningful quantities, and the physical scale of the problem is a challenge in itself. We discuss these challenges in relation to current methods and how it might be possible to realize limited 'blood pharming' of neutrophils in the near future.

  3. Laser-photophoretic migration and fractionation of human blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjushiro, Hideaki; Tanahashi, Yuko; Watarai, Hitoshi

    2013-05-13

    Laser photophoretic migration behavior of human blood cells in saline solution was investigated under the irradiation of Nd:YAG laser beam (532 nm) in the absence and the presence of the flow in a fused silica capillary. Red blood cells (RBC) were migrated faster than white blood cells (WBC) and blood pellets to the direction of propagation of laser light. The observed photophoretic velocity of RBC was about 11 times faster than those of others. This was understood from the larger photophoretic efficiency of RBC than that of WBC, which was simulated based on the Mie scattering theory. Furthermore, it was found that, during the photophoretic migration, RBCs spontaneously orientated parallel to the migration direction so as to reduce the drag force. Finally, it was demonstrated that RBC and WBC were separated in a micro-channel flow system by the laser photophoresis.

  4. Computational modeling of red blood cells: A symplectic integration algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Ulf D.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.

    2010-03-01

    Red blood cells can undergo shape transformations that impact the rheological properties of blood. Computational models have to account for the deformability and red blood cells are often modeled as elastically deformable objects. We present a symplectic integration algorithm for deformable objects. The surface is represented by a set of marker points obtained by surface triangulation, along with a set of fiber vectors that describe the orientation of the material plane. The various elastic energies are formulated in terms of these variables and the equations of motion are obtained by exact differentiation of a discretized Hamiltonian. The integration algorithm preserves the Hamiltonian structure and leads to highly accurate energy conservation, hence he method is expected to be more stable than conventional finite element methods. We apply the algorithm to simulate the shape dynamics of red blood cells.

  5. Shear induced diffusion in a red blood cell suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, Thomas; Grandchamp, Xavier; Srivastav, Aparna; Coupier, Gwennou

    2012-11-01

    In the microcirculation, blood exhibits an inhomogeneous structure which results in the well know Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect : the apparent viscosity decreases when the diameter of the capillary decreases due to the formation of a marginal cell depletion layer (known as plasma skimming). This structure is a consequence of several phenomena, which include i) the migration of cells aways from walls due to lift forces and gradients of shear and ii) shear induced diffusion due to collisions and interactions among cells. We investigated these phenomena through experiments in simple shear and microchannel flows, with dilute suspensions of vesicles and blood cells. Pairwise interactions between suspended objects result in non-linear and flow-dependent diffusion, whose properties have been measured in different experiments for vesicles and blood cells. The injection of a sheet of concentrated blood cell suspension in a microchannel with a rectangular cross-section allows, through the measurement of its widening along the channel, to measure the diffusivity of blood cells, both in the local plane of shear and in the vorticity direction.

  6. Content of macroelements in the blood serum of polbar chicken depending on sex and age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Gryzińska

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out on chickens protected genetic resources polbar breed. In each case from 100 birds (50 hen and 50 cockerels being in 8-, 12-, and 18-weeks of age blood was collected to determine the content of minerals (Ca, Na, K and Mg in the blood plasma. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of gender and age of polbar breed on the level of calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium in the blood serum. The concentration of each macronutrient was varied in different age groups. Higher average concentration of calcium, magnesium and sodium in three test periods were obtained for the cocks, while for hens higher concentrations of potassium were recorded. For each of the elements studied, there was no statistically significant difference between hens and cocks. The results of the mineral content in the plasma of consolidated genetically breed can be used for comparison to other poultry breeds.

  7. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connahan, Laura E; Ott, Christopher A; Barry, Vaughn W

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m(2)): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg(-1) of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1-2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population.

  8. Effect of Caffeine on near Maximal Blood Pressure and Blood Pressure Recovery in Physically-Active, College-Aged Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    CONNAHAN, LAURA E.; OTT, CHRISTOPHER A.; BARRY, VAUGHN W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how caffeine affects exercise blood pressure (BP) and active and passive recovery BP after vigorous intensity exercise in physically active college-aged females. Fifteen physically active, ACSM stratified low-risk females (age (y): 23.53 ± 4.07, weight (kg): 60.34 ± 3.67, height (cm): 165.14 ± 7.20, BMI (kg/m2): 22.18 ± 1.55) participated in two Bruce protocol exercise tests. Before each test participants consumed 1) a placebo or 2) 3.3 mg·kg−1 of caffeine at least one hour before exercise in a counterbalanced double-blinded fashion. After reaching 85% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate, BP was taken and participants began an active (i.e. walking) recovery phase for 6 minutes followed by a passive (i.e. sitting) recovery phase. BP was assessed every two minutes in each phase. Recovery times were assessed until active and passive BP equaled 20 mmHg and 10 mmHg above resting, respectively. Participants completed each test 1–2 weeks a part. Maximal systolic and diastolic blood pressures were not significantly different between the two trials. Active recovery, passive recovery, and total recovery times were all significantly longer during the caffeine trial than the placebo trial. Furthermore, the time to reach age-predicted maximum heart rate was significantly shorter in the placebo trial than the caffeine trial. While caffeine consumption did not significantly affect maximal blood pressure, it did affect active and passive recovery time following vigorous intensity exercise in physically active females. Exercise endurance also improved after consuming caffeine in this population. PMID:28344739

  9. Cord blood transplants for SCID: better B-cell engraftment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wan-Yin; Roberts, Robert Lloyd; Moore, Theodore B; Stiehm, E Richard

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). Despite successful T-cell engraftment in transplanted patients, B-cell function is not always achieved; up to 58% of patients require immunoglobulin therapy after receiving haploidentical transplants. We report 2 half-sibling males with X-linked γ-chain SCID treated with different sources of stem cells. Sibling 1 was transplanted with T-cell-depleted haploidentical maternal bone marrow and sibling 2 was transplanted with 7/8 human leukocyte antigen-matched unrelated umbilical cord blood. Both patients received pretransplant conditioning and posttransplant graft-versus-host-disease prophylaxis. B-cell engraftment and function was achieved in sibling 1 but not in sibling 2. This disparate result is consistent with a review of 19 other SCID children who received cord blood transplants. B-cell function, as indicated by no need for immunoglobulin therapy, was restored in 42% of patients given haploidentical transplants and in 68% of patients given matched unrelated donor transplants compared with 80% of patients given cord blood transplants. Cord blood is an alternative source of stem cells for transplantation in children with SCID and has a higher likelihood of B-cell reconstitution.

  10. Hyperkalemia after irradiation of packed red blood cells: Possible effects with intravascular fetal transfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorp, J.A.; Plapp, F.V.; Cohen, G.R.; Yeast, J.D.; O' Kell, R.T.; Stephenson, S. (St. Luke' s Perinatal Center, Kansas City, MO (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Plasma potassium, calcium, and albumin concentrations in irradiated blood, and in fetal blood before and after transfusion, were measured. Dangerously high plasma potassium levels were observed in some units of irradiated packed red blood cells (range, 13.9 to 66.5 mEq/L; mean, 44.7 mEq/L) and could be one possible explanation for the high incidence of fetal arrhythmia associated with fetal intravascular transfusion. There are many factors operative in the preparation of irradiated packed red blood cells that may predispose to high potassium levels: the age of the red blood cells, the number of procedures used to concentrate the blood, the duration of time elapsed from concentration, the duration of time elapsed from irradiation, and the hematocrit. Use of fresh blood, avoidance of multiple packing procedures, limiting the hematocrit in the donor unit to less than or equal to 80%, and minimizing the time between concentration, irradiation and transfusion may minimize the potassium levels, and therefore making an additional washing procedure unnecessary.

  11. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  12. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  13. Malaria and human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2012-11-01

    Invasion by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, brings about extensive changes in the host red cells. These include loss of the normal discoid shape, increased rigidity of the membrane, elevated permeability to a wide variety of ionic and other species and increased adhesiveness, most notably to endothelial surfaces. These effects facilitate survival of the parasite within the host cell and tend to increase the virulence of disease that includes cerebral malaria and anemia. Numerous proteins secreted by the internalized parasite and interacting with red cell membrane proteins are responsible for the changes occurring to the host cell. Anemia, a serious clinical manifestation of malaria, is due to increased destruction of both infected and uninfected red cells due to membrane alterations, as well as ineffective erythropoiesis. There is very good evidence that various red cell disorders including hemoglobinopathies and hereditary ovalocytosis decrease the virulence of disease following parasite infection. A number of mechanism(s) are likely responsible for the protective effect of various red cell abnormalities including decreased invasion, impaired intraerythrocytic development of the parasites and altered interaction between exported parasite proteins and the red cell membrane skeleton.

  14. Time related variations in stem cell harvesting of umbilical cord blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Miscio, Giuseppe; Fontana, Andrea; Copetti, Massimiliano; Francavilla, Massimo; Bosi, Alberto; Perfetto, Federico; Valoriani, Alice; de Cata, Angelo; Santodirocco, Michele; Totaro, Angela; Rubino, Rosa; di Mauro, Lazzaro; Tarquini, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent mesenchymal cells useful for treatment in malignant/nonmalignant hematologic-immunologic diseases and regenerative medicine. Transplantation outcome is correlated with cord blood volume (CBV), number of total nucleated cells (TNC), CD34+ progenitor cells and colony forming units in UCB donations. Several studies have addressed the role of maternal/neonatal factors associated with the hematopoietic reconstruction potential of UCB, including: gestational age, maternal parity, newborn sex and birth weight, placental weight, labor duration and mode of delivery. Few data exist regarding as to how time influences UCB collection and banking patterns. We retrospectively analyzed 17.936 cord blood donations collected from 1999 to 2011 from Tuscany and Apulia Cord Blood Banks. Results from generalized multivariable linear mixed models showed that CBV, TNC and CD34+ cell were associated with known obstetric and neonatal parameters and showed rhythmic patterns in different time domains and frequency ranges. The present findings confirm that volume, total nucleated cells and stem cells of the UCB donations are hallmarked by rhythmic patterns in different time domains and frequency ranges and suggest that temporal rhythms in addition to known obstetric and neonatal parameters influence CBV, TNC and CD34+ cell content in UBC units.

  15. Time related variations in stem cell harvesting of umbilical cord blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Miscio, Giuseppe; Fontana, Andrea; Copetti, Massimiliano; Francavilla, Massimo; Bosi, Alberto; Perfetto, Federico; Valoriani, Alice; De Cata, Angelo; Santodirocco, Michele; Totaro, Angela; Rubino, Rosa; di Mauro, Lazzaro; Tarquini, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent mesenchymal cells useful for treatment in malignant/nonmalignant hematologic-immunologic diseases and regenerative medicine. Transplantation outcome is correlated with cord blood volume (CBV), number of total nucleated cells (TNC), CD34+ progenitor cells and colony forming units in UCB donations. Several studies have addressed the role of maternal/neonatal factors associated with the hematopoietic reconstruction potential of UCB, including: gestational age, maternal parity, newborn sex and birth weight, placental weight, labor duration and mode of delivery. Few data exist regarding as to how time influences UCB collection and banking patterns. We retrospectively analyzed 17.936 cord blood donations collected from 1999 to 2011 from Tuscany and Apulia Cord Blood Banks. Results from generalized multivariable linear mixed models showed that CBV, TNC and CD34+ cell were associated with known obstetric and neonatal parameters and showed rhythmic patterns in different time domains and frequency ranges. The present findings confirm that volume, total nucleated cells and stem cells of the UCB donations are hallmarked by rhythmic patterns in different time domains and frequency ranges and suggest that temporal rhythms in addition to known obstetric and neonatal parameters influence CBV, TNC and CD34+ cell content in UBC units. PMID:26906327

  16. International Society of Blood Transfusion Working Party on red cell immunogenetics and blood group terminology: Cancun report (2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storry, J R; Castilho, L; Daniels, G; Flegel, W A; Garratty, G; de Haas, M; Hyland, C; Lomas-Francis, C; Moulds, J M; Nogues, N; Olsson, M L; Poole, J; Reid, M E; Rouger, P; van der Schoot, E; Scott, M; Tani, Y; Yu, L-C; Wendel, S; Westhoff, C; Yahalom, V; Zelinski, T

    2014-07-01

    The International Society of Blood Transfusion Working Party on red cell immunogenetics and blood group terminology convened during the International congress in Cancun, July 2012. This report details the newly identified antigens in existing blood group systems and presents three new blood group systems.

  17. Challenges for red blood cell biomarker discovery through proteomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barasa, B.A.; Slijper, M.

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cells are rather unique body cells, since they have lost all organelles when mature, which results in lack of potential to replace proteins that have lost their function. They maintain only a few pathways for obtaining energy and reducing power for the key functions they need to fulfill. T

  18. Control of red blood cell mass during spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, H. W.; Alfrey, C. P.; Driscoll, T. B.; Smith, S. M.; Nyquist, L. E.

    1996-01-01

    Data are reviewed from twenty-two astronauts from seven space missions in a study of red blood cell mass. The data show that decreased red cell mass in all astronauts exposed to space for more than nine days, although the actual dynamics of mass changes varies with flight duration. Possible mechanisms for these changes, including alterations in erythropoietin levels, are discussed.

  19. Spatial distributions of red blood cells significantly alter local haemodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Sherwood

    Full Text Available Although bulk changes in red blood cell concentration between vessels have been well characterised, local distributions are generally overlooked. Red blood cells aggregate, deform and migrate within vessels, forming heterogeneous distributions which have considerable effect on local haemodynamics. The present study reports data on the local distribution of human red blood cells in a sequentially bifurcating microchannel, representing the branching geometry of the microvasculature. Imaging methodologies with simple extrapolations are used to infer three dimensional, time-averaged velocity and haematocrit distributions under a range of flow conditions. Strong correlation between the bluntness of the velocity and haematocrit profiles in the parent branch of the geometry is observed and red blood cell aggregation has a notable effect on the observed trends. The two branches of the first bifurcation show similar characteristics in terms of the shapes of the profiles and the extent of plasma skimming, despite the difference in geometric configuration. In the second bifurcation, considerable asymmetry between the branches in the plasma skimming relationship is observed, and elucidated by considering individual haematocrit profiles. The results of the study highlight the importance of considering local haematocrit distributions in the analysis of blood flow and could lead to more accurate computational models of blood flow in microvascular networks. The experimental approaches developed in this work provide a foundation for further examining the characteristics of microhaemodynamics.

  20. Rapid white blood cell detection for peritonitis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tsung-Feng; Mei, Zhe; Chiu, Yu-Jui; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2013-03-01

    A point-of-care and home-care lab-on-a-chip (LoC) system that integrates a microfluidic spiral device as a concentrator with an optical-coding device as a cell enumerator is demonstrated. The LoC system enumerates white blood cells from dialysis effluent of patients receiving peritoneal dialysis. The preliminary results show that the white blood cell counts from our system agree well with the results from commercial flow cytometers. The LoC system can potentially bring significant benefits to end stage renal disease (ESRD) patients that are on peritoneal dialysis (PD).

  1. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are most commonly used in the treatment of cancers like leukemia and lymphoma to restore stem cells ... use of BMT and PBSCT, see http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/fa... If you are interested in ...

  2. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License ... - Duration: 49:19. Children's Health 33,509 views 49:19 Stem Cell Fraud: ...

  3. Prevalence of Syphilis among Blood and Stem Cell Donors in Saudi Arabia: An Institutional Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Al amro, Mohamed; Pereira, Winston Costa; Alsuhaibani, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syphilis is one of the known transfusion-transmissible infections and causes 100,000 deaths yearly, with around 90% of these deaths occurring in the developing world. Little data is available regarding the prevalence of syphilis among Saudi blood and stem cell donors. We conducted a survey on the incidence of syphilis among all blood and stem cell donors. Methods This study was conducted at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in the 10 years period data during 2006–2015. Data were analyzed about full history, physical examination, age, sex, weight, profession, marital status, number of the donations, data of last donation, having a relation who received blood transfusion, as well as the screening test results of the donated blood. We determined the seroprevalence of infection and compared by sex and other variable through frequency analysis, Chi square, Fisher, and prevalence ratios. Results Approximately 240,000 blood donors were screened and studied in the period of study. Most of the blood donors were male (98.3%) and 89% of them were citizens of Saudi Arabia. According to our findings, we estimated that, in the last 10 years, approximately 0.044% of all the blood donors were syphilis positive cases. No cases were detected as positive for syphilis among stem cell donors. Only 60 blood donors tested positive for syphilis. In addition, we studied 202 stem cell transplant donors during the same period, of which 59% were male and none texted positive for syphilis. Conclusions A concerted effort between the government, health care providers, regulatory bodies and accreditation agencies have all contributed in eliminating the risk of spreading syphilis among blood donors.

  4. Age- and Functional Status-Dependent Association Between Blood Pressure and Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Sabayan, Behnam; Mari, Daniela;

    2015-01-01

    : Individuals aged 75 and older (N = 1,540). MEASUREMENTS: Blood pressure, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), basic activities of daily living (ADLs), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) were assessed. Associations between BP measures and MMSE score were first analyzed in the total population...... arterial pressure (MAP) were all associated with higher MMSE score (all P MAP differed materially according to strata of age...

  5. Relationship between gestational age and endoglin levels in maternal and cord blood

    OpenAIRE

    Simmi Kharb; Tiwari, R; Nanda, S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poor placentation at early gestational age is an important predisposing condition for the development of preeclampsia. The present study was designed to study the relationship of gestational age with endoglin levels in maternal and cord blood of normal and pre-eclamptic women. Methods: The present study was conducted in fifty pregnant women that were grouped as: group 1 (control, n=25) comprising of normotensive women immediately after delivery, group 2 (study group, n=25) comp...

  6. Adipokines in umbilical cord blood from children born large for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Christiansen, Michael; Hedley, Paula Louise;

    2016-01-01

    of adipokines and their mutual relationship at birth in children born to non-diabetic mothers. METHODS: Adiponectin, leptin and sOB-R were measured using ELISA-based commercial kits in umbilical cord blood from 60 neonates (30 born large for gestational age [LGA] and 30 born appropriate for gestational age [AGA......]). Children exposed to maternal diabetes, chronic disease and preeclampsia were excluded. RESULTS: The LGA group exhibited significantly elevated concentrations of leptin (p

  7. Analyses of cardiac blood cells and serum proteins with regard to cause of death in forensic autopsy cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Yoshida, Chiemi; Chen, Jian-Hua; Komatsu, Ayumi; Azuma, Yoko; Sakoda, Shigeki; Zhu, Bao-Li; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2009-04-01

    To investigate hematological and serum protein profiles of cadaveric heart blood with regard to the cause of death, serial forensic autopsy cases (n=308, >18 years of age, within 48 h postmortem) were examined. Red blood cells (Rbc), hemoglobin (Hb), platelets (Plt), white blood cells (Wbc), total protein (TP) and albumin (Alb) were examined in bilateral cardiac blood. Blood cell counts, collected after turning the bodies at autopsy, approximated to the clinical values. Postmortem changes were not significant for these markers. In non-head blunt injury cases, Rbc counts, Hb, TP and Alb levels in bilateral cardiac blood were lower in subacute deaths (survival time, 1-12 h) than in acute deaths (survival time blood were significantly higher for non-head injury than for head injury in subacute deaths. In fire fatality cases, Plt count was markedly higher with an automated hematology analyzer than by using a blood smear test, suggesting Rbc fragmentation caused by deep burns, while increases in Wbc count and decreases in Alb levels were seen for subacute deaths. For asphyxiation, Rbc count, Hb, TP and Alb levels in bilateral cardiac blood were higher than other groups, and TP and Alb levels in the right cardiac blood were higher for hanging than for strangulation. These findings suggest that analyses of blood cells and proteins are useful for investigating the cause of death.

  8. Length of Storage of Red Blood Cells and Patient Survival After Blood Transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halmin, Märit; Rostgaard, Klaus; Lee, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    Background: Possible negative effects, including increased mortality, among persons who receive stored red blood cells (RBCs) have recently garnered considerable attention. Despite many studies, including 4 randomized trials, no consensus exists. Objective: To study the association between...... received transfusions from 2003 to 2012. Measurements: Patients were followed from first blood transfusion. Relative and absolute risks for death in 30 days or 1 year in relation to length of RBC storage were assessed by using 3 independent analytic approaches. All analyses were conducted by using Cox...... proportional hazards regression. Results: Regardless of the analytic approach, no association was found between the length of RBC storage and mortality. The difference in 30-day cumulative mortality between patients receiving blood stored for 30 to 42 days and those receiving blood stored for 10 to 19 days...

  9. Age and sex differences in blood lactate response to sprint running in elite master athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Marko T; Suominen, Harri; Mero, Antti

    2005-12-01

    The effect of age and sex on anaerobic glycolytic capacity in master athletes is currently unclear. To study this issue, we determined blood lactate concentrations after competitive sprint running in male and female master athletes of different age. Eighty-one men (40-88 yrs) and 75 women (35-87 yrs) participating in the sprint events (100-m, 200-m, 400-m) in the European Veterans Athletics Championships were studied. Blood samples were taken from the fingertip and analysed for peak lactate concentration ([La]bpeak). The [La]bpeak following 100-m to 400-m races showed a curvilinear decline (p men and women. However, the age related differences in the [La]b peak were not significant before 70 years of age. No significant sex related differences were found in [La]b peak for any sprint event. The [La]b peak correlated significantly (p sprint distances except for the age-controlled correlation in men for the 100-m and 200-m. In conclusion, the present study showed age but not sex differences in blood lactate response to competitive sprint running in master athletes. Although the [La]b peak level of the athletes was considerably higher than that reported for untrained men and women, these cross-sectional findings suggest that anaerobic energy production from glycolysis declines in later years and may be a factor in the deterioration in sprint performance.

  10. Separation of cancer cells from white blood cells by pinched flow fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Marie Pødenphant; Ashley, Neil; Koprowska, Kamila

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the microfluidic size-separation technique pinched flow fractionation (PFF) is used to separate cancer cells from white blood cells (WBCs). The cells are separated at efficiencies above 90% for both cell types. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are found in the blood of cancer patients...... is challenged by the size overlap between cancer cells and the 106 times more abundant WBCs. The size overlap prevents high efficiency separation, however we demonstrate that cell deformability can be exploited in PFF devices to gain higher efficiencies than expected from the size distribution of the cells....... and can form new tumors. CTCs are rare cells in blood, but they are important for the understanding of metastasis. There is therefore a high interest in developing a method for the enrichment of CTCs from blood samples, which also enables further analysis of the separated cells. The separation...

  11. In-vitro red blood cell partitioning of doxycycline

    OpenAIRE

    P.V. Deshmukh; Badgujar, P.C.; Gatne, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: In-vitro red blood cell (RBC) partitioning of doxycycline was studied to determine whether doxycycline penetrates RBC and its concentration was assayed keeping in view its high lipophilicity. Materials and Methods: Standardization of doxycycline was performed in whole blood and plasma of cattle by microbiological assay using Bacillus subtillis ATCC 6633 as indicator organizm. Actual concentration of the drug was obtained by comparing zone inhibition with standard graph and the exte...

  12. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping;

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating...... of the alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase family reveals an unusual catalytic mechanism involving NAD+. The enzymatic conversion processes we describe hold promise for achieving the goal of producing universal RBCs, which would improve the blood supply while enhancing the safety of clinical transfusions....

  13. Phenotypic and functional characterization of cytokine-induced killer cells derived from preterm and term infant cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Lili; Luo, Chenghan; Shi, Zanyang; Cheng, Xinru; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Yi

    2014-11-01

    Cord blood has gradually become an important source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in the human, particularly in pediatric patients. Adoptive cellular immunotherapy of patients with hematologic malignancies after umbilical cord blood transplant is crucial. Cytokine‑induced killer (CIK) cells derived from cord blood are a new type of antitumor immune effector cells in tumor prevention and treatment and have increasingly attracted the attention of researchers. On the other hand, it has been suggested that preterm infant cord blood retains an early differentiation phenotype suitable for immunotherapy. Therefore, we determined the phenotypic and functional characterization of CIK cells derived from preterm infant cord blood (PCB-CIK) compared with CIK cells from term infant cord blood (TCB-CIK). Twenty cord blood samples were collected and classified into two groups based on gestational age. Cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) were isolated, cultured and induced to CIK cells in vitro. We used flow cytometry to detect cell surface markers, FlowJo software to analyze the proliferation profile and intracellular staining to test the secretion of cytokines. Finally, we evaluated the antitumor activity of CIK cells against K562 in vitro. Compared with TCB-CIK, PCB-CIK cells demonstrated faster proliferation and higher expression of activated cell surface markers. The secretion of IL-10 was lower in PCB-CIK cells while the expression of perforin and CD107a had no significant difference between the two cell groups. PCB-CIK cells exhibited a high proliferation rate while the cytotoxic activity had no difference between the PCB-CIK and TCB-CIK cells. Hence preterm infant cord blood may be a potential source for immunotherapy.

  14. Aging of immune system: Immune signature from peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in 1068 healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ling; Jing, Xie; Qiu, Zhifeng; Cao, Wei; Jiao, Yang; Routy, Jean-Pierre; Li, Taisheng

    2016-05-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for several conditions including neurodegenerative, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Functional impairments in cellular pathways controlling genomic stability, and immune control have been identified. Biomarker of immune senescence is needed to improve vaccine response and to develop therapy to improve immune control. To identify phenotypic signature of circulating immune cells with aging, we enrolled 1068 Chinese healthy volunteers ranging from 18 to 80 years old. The decreased naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, increased memory CD4+ or CD8+ T cells, loss of CD28 expression on T cells and reverse trend of CD38 and HLA-DR, were significant for aging of immune system. Conversely, the absolute counts and percentage of NK cells and CD19+B cells maintained stable in aging individuals. The Chinese reference ranges of absolute counts and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte in this study might be useful for future clinical evaluation.

  15. Deep coverage mouse red blood cell proteome: a first comparison with the human red blood cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Erica M; Kirkegaard, Morten; Salerno, Doris; Mortensen, Peter; Mann, Matthias; Thomas, Alan W

    2008-07-01

    Mice have close genetic/physiological relationships to humans, breed rapidly, and can be genetically modified, making them the most used mammal in biomedical research. Because the red blood cell (RBC) is the sole gas transporter in vertebrates, diseases of the RBC are frequently severe; much research has therefore focused on RBC and cardiovascular disorders of mouse and humans. RBCs also host malaria parasites. Recently we presented an in-depth proteome for the human RBC. Here we present directly comparable data for the mouse RBC as membrane-only, soluble-only, and combined membrane-bound/soluble proteomes (comprising, respectively, 247, 232, and 165 proteins). All proteins were identified, validated, and categorized in terms of subcellular localization, protein family, and function, and in comparison with the human RBC, were classified as orthologs, family-related, or unique. Splice isoforms were identified, and polypeptides migrating with anomalous apparent molecular weights were grouped into putatively ubiquitinated or partially degraded complexes. Overall there was close concordance between mouse and human proteomes, confirming the unexpected RBC complexity. Several novel findings in the human proteome have been confirmed here. This comparison sheds light on several open issues in RBC biology and provides a departure point for more comprehensive understanding of RBC function.

  16. MicroRNA Expression in Alzheimer Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyman M. Schipper

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Various coding genes representing multiple functional categories are downregulated in blood mononuclear cells (BMC of patients with sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD. Noncoding microRNAs (miRNA regulate gene expression by degrading messages or inhibiting translation. Using BMC as a paradigm for the study of systemic alterations in AD, we investigated whether peripheral miRNA expression is altered in this condition. MicroRNA levels were assessed using the microRNA microarray (MMChip containing 462 human miRNA, and the results validated by real time PCR. Sixteen AD patients and sixteen normal elderly controls (NEC were matched for ethnicity, age, gender and education. The expression of several BMC miRNAs was found to increase in AD relative to NEC levels, and may differ between AD subjects bearing one or two APOE4 alleles. As compared to NEC, miRNAs signifi cantly upregulated in AD subjects and confi rmed by qPCR were miR-34a and 181b. Predicted target genes downregulated in Alzheimer BMC that correlated with the upregulated miRNAs were largely represented in the functional categories of Transcription/Translation and Synaptic Activity. Several miRNAs targeting the same genes were within the functional category of Injury response/Redox homeostasis. Taken together, induction of microRNA expression in BMC may contribute to the aberrant systemic decline in mRNA levels in sporadic AD.

  17. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (phealthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  18. Impact of Age on the Importance of Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures for Stroke Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates age-related shifts in the relative importance of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures as predictors of stroke and whether these relations are influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. Using 34 European cohorts from the MOnica, Risk, Genetics, Archiving...

  19. Inflammatory Markers in Umbilical Cord Blood from Small-For-Gestational-Age Newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Greisen, Gorm; Olsen, Marianne;

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the role of inflammation in intrauterine growth retardation by exploring the levels of inflammatory markers in umbilical cord blood from neonates who were born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and comparing them to neonates who were born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA...... of elevated inflammatory markers in the cord blood from SGA infants compared to AGA infants, and consequently the results suggest an inflammatory component in intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR).......This study investigates the role of inflammation in intrauterine growth retardation by exploring the levels of inflammatory markers in umbilical cord blood from neonates who were born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and comparing them to neonates who were born appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA......-eclampsia were excluded. SGA was defined as two standard derivations below the expected for term and gender. In multivariate regression analyses significant elevation in cord blood concentration of IL-6 was demonstrated in the SGA group (mean 4.56 vs. 2.38, p = 0.002). The results indicate the presence...

  20. Generation of iPS Cells from Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells Using Episomal Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ruijun Jeanna; Neises, Amanda; Zhang, Xiao-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral blood is the easy-to-access, minimally invasive, and the most abundant cell source to use for cell reprogramming. The episomal vector is among the best approaches for generating integration-free induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells due to its simplicity and affordability. Here we describe the detailed protocol for the efficient generation of integration-free iPS cells from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. With this optimized protocol, one can readily generate hundreds of iPS cell colonies from 1 ml of peripheral blood.

  1. Apheresis techniques for collection of peripheral blood progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moog, Rainer

    2004-12-01

    The combination of effective mobilisation protocols and efficient use of apheresis machines has caused peripheral blood progenitor cells (PBPC) transplantation to grow rapidly. The development of apheresis technology has improved over the years. Today PBSC procedures have changed towards systems to minimise operator interaction and to reduce the collection of undesired cells such as polymorphonuclear cells and platelets using functionally closed, sterile environments for PBSC collection in keeping with Good Manufacturing Practice guidelines. Blood cell separators with continuous flow technique allow the processing of more blood than intermittent flow devices resulting in higher PBSC yields. Large volume leukapheresis with the processing of 3-4-fold donor's/patient's blood volume can increase the number of collected progenitor cells. Therefore, intermittent flow cell separators are indicated if only single vein access is available. Anticoagulant induced hypocalcaemia is an often observed side effect in long lasting PBPC harvesting and monitoring of electrolytes should be performed especially at the end of the apheresis procedure to supplement low levels of potassium, calcium or magnesium. Refinement and improvement of collection techniques continue to add to the armamentarium of current approaches for cancer and non-malignant conditions and will enable future strategies.

  2. State of the science of blood cell labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.

    1989-01-01

    Blood cell labeling can be considered a science in as far as it is based on precise knowledge and can be readily reproduced. This benchmark criterion is applied to all current cell labeling modalities and their relative merits and deficiencies are discussed. Mechanisms are given where they are known as well as labeling yields, label stability, and cell functionality. The focus is on the methodology and its suitability to the clinical setting rather than on clinical applications per se. Clinical results are cited only as proof of efficacy of the various methods. The emphasis is on technetium as the cell label, although comparisons are made between technetium and indium, and all blood cells are covered. 52 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Histomorphometric study on blood cells in male adult ostrich

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Tadjalli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform a histomorphometric study of blood cells in male adult ostrich, blood samples were obtained from jugular vein of 10 clinically healthy male adult ostriches (2 - 3 years old. The slides were stained with the Giemsa methods and the smears were evaluated for cellular morphology, with cellular size being determined by micrometry. The findings of this study revealed that the shape of the cell, cytoplasm and nucleus of erythrocytes in male adult ostriches were similar to those in other birds such as quails, chickens, Iranian green-head ducks.

  4. Nanostructured Substrates for Capturing Circulating Tumor Cells in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Hsian-Rong

    2009-03-01

    Over the past decade, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has become an emerging ``biomarker'' for detecting early-stage cancer metastasis, predicting patient prognosis, as well as monitoring disease progression and therapeutic outcomes. However, isolation of CTCs has been technically challenging due to the extremely low abundance (a few to hundreds per ml) of CTCs among a high number of hematologic cells (109 per mL) in the blood. Our joint research team at UCLA has developed a new cell capture technology for quantification of CTCs in whole blood samples. Similar to most of the existing approaches, epithelial cell adhesion molecule antibody (anti-EpCAM) was grafted onto the surfaces to distinguish CTCs from the surrounding hematologic cells. The uniqueness of our technology is the use of nanostructured surfaces, which facilitates local topographical interactions between CTCs and substrates at the very first cell/substrate contacting time point. We demonstrated the ability of these nanostructured substrates to capture CTCs in whole blood samples with significantly improved efficiency and selectivity. The successful demonstration of this cell capture technology using brain, breast and prostate cancer cell lines encouraged us to test this approach in clinical setting. We have been able to bond our first validation study with a commercialized technology based on the use of immunomagnetic nanoparticles. A group of clinically well-characterized prostate cancer patients at UCLA hospital have been recruited and tested in parallel by these two technologies.

  5. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human cord blood cells with only two factors: Oct4 and Sox2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetti, Alessandra; Montserrat, Nuria; Rodriguez-Piza, Ignacio; Azqueta, Carmen; Veiga, Anna; Izpisúa Belmonte, Juan Carlos

    2010-04-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) provide an invaluable resource for regenerative medicine as they allow the generation of patient-specific progenitors with potential value for cell therapy. However, in many instances, an off-the-shelf approach is desirable, such as for cell therapy of acute conditions or when the patient's somatic cells are altered as a consequence of a chronic disease or aging. Cord blood (CB) stem cells appear ideally suited for this purpose as they are young cells expected to carry minimal somatic mutations and possess the immunological immaturity of newborn cells; additionally, several hundred thousand immunotyped CB units are readily available through a worldwide network of CB banks. Here we present a detailed protocol for the derivation of CB stem cells and how they can be reprogrammed to pluripotency by retroviral transduction with only two factors (OCT4 and SOX2) in 2 weeks and without the need for additional chemical compounds.

  6. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes from Various Age- and Sex-Specific Groups of Owl Monkeys (Aotus nancymaae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehete, Pramod N; Nehete, Bharti P; Chitta, Sriram; Williams, Lawrence E; Abee, Christian R

    2017-02-01

    Owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae) are New World NHP that serve an important role in vaccine development and as a model for human disease conditions such as malaria. Despite the past contributions of this animal model, limited information is available about the phenotype and functional properties of peripheral blood lymphocytes in reference to sex and age. Using a panel of human antibodies and a set of standardized human immune assays, we identified and characterized various peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets, evaluated the immune functions of T cells, and analyzed cytokines relative to sex and age in healthy owl monkeys. We noted age- and sex-dependent changes in CD28+ (an essential T cell costimulatory molecule) and CD95+ (an apoptotic surface marker) T cells and various levels of cytokines in the plasma. In immune assays of freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells, IFNγ and perforin responses were significantly higher in female than in male monkeys and in young adults than in juvenile and geriatric groups, despite similar lymphocyte (particularly T cell) populations in these groups. Our current findings may be useful in exploring Aotus monkeys as a model system for the study of aging, susceptibility to infectious diseases, and age-associated differences in vaccine efficacy, and other challenges particular to pediatric and geriatric patients.

  7. A correlation study of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes and kidney function with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Guang; Wang, Yong; Hou, Kai; Jia, Lin-Pei; Ma, Jie; Zhao, De-Long; Zhu, Shu-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Juan; Cai, Guang-Yan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Sun, Xue-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2015-06-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the association between telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes and kidney function in various age groups of a healthy population. A total of 139 healthy individuals were divided into five groups according to their age: 35‑44, 45‑54, 55‑64, 65‑74 and >75 years old. Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained and the telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length was assayed using a digoxigenin‑labeled hybridization probe in Southern blot assays. Laboratory assays of kidney function were also performed. A correlation was observed between TRF length and age (r=‑0.314, Ptelomere length of the individuals >75 years group being significantly shorter than the telomere length of the 35‑44, 45‑54 and 55‑64 years age groups (Plength for males versus females did not differ for any of the age groups, while a correlation was observed between TRF length and serum levels of cystatin C (r=‑0.195, Plength and glomerular filtration rate (r=‑0.184, Ptelomere length reduced with age and was correlated with serum levels of cystatin C and glomerular filtration rate. Therefore, TRF length is associated with kidney function and may serve as a marker of aging.

  8. [Verification of complete blood cell count (CBC) data from heparinized blood gas samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoguchi, Takafumi; Fujii, Seiji; Inuzumi, Koji; Kaminoh, Yoshiroh; Hirose, Munetaka; Masaki, Mitsuru; Koshiba, Masahiro

    2014-02-01

    Complete blood cell count (CBC) data from heparinized blood gas (H-Gas) samples were verified with primary focus on the platelet count (PLT). When a part of H-Gas sample was taken to a separation tube from the blood collection syringe and CBC of the sample in the separation tube was repeatedly measured (Procedure 1), the PLT from 5 samples relative to that obtained immediately after the separation was gradually reduced to 72.6-94.2% during serial measurements (every 5 minutes, up to 30 minutes). The change in the scattergram pattern suggested that this PLT decrease was due to the formation of platelet clumps. The white blood cell count (WBC), red blood cell count (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Ht) values did not significantly change during the repeated measurements. On the other hand, PLT was significantly improved to 96.8-99.8% when the H-Gas sample was kept in the blood collection syringe so as to minimizing the exposure to the air, and the sample for the measurement from H-Gas was taken every time to separation tube from the syringe, followed by CBC measurement without delay (Procedure 2). In addition, while there were significant variations (CV: 11.8-18.2%) in PLT reproducibility among H-Gas samples by Procedure 1, measurements utilizing the Procedure 2 resulted in much smaller variations (CV: 2.2-3.7%). Thus the CBC data obtained from H-Gas samples were equivalent to those from EDTA samples when the Procedure 2 was applied. These data suggest that H-Gas samples can be used for the accurate CBC measurement, including PLT, by applying the Procedure 2.

  9. Cytochemical characteristics of blood cells from Brazilian tortoises (Testudines: Testudinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, G S; Alevi, K C C; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Bonini-Domingos, C R

    2016-03-18

    The hematology of wild and captive animals is essential for obtaining details about species and represents a simple method of diagnosing disease and determining prognosis. Few studies have described the morphology of chelonian blood cells, which are more common in sea and freshwater turtle species. Thus, in order to further our understanding and recognition of different chelonian cells types, the present study aimed to describe blood cells from the two species of Brazilian tortoises, Chelonoidis carbonarius and C. denticulatus. Cytochemical analysis of tortoise blood tissue with Panótico®, made it possible to describe all the of the chelonian cell types (with the exception of thrombocytes): erythrocytes, agranular leukocytes (monocytes and lymphocytes), and granular leukocytes (eosinophils, heterophils, basophils, and azurophils). These data are of high importance for establishing hematological profiles of Brazilian tortoises and reptiles. Therefore, based on our results and on comparative analyses with data from the literature for other reptile species, we can conclude that the blood cells described for Brazilian tortoises are found in all species of reptiles that have been analyzed thus far, and may be characterized and used as a comparative parameter between different groups to evaluate the health status of these animals.

  10. Blood-brain barrier P-glycoprotein function decreases in specific brain regions with aging : A possible role in progressive neurodegeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Anna L.; Kortekaas, Rudie; Bart, Joost; Willemsen, Antoon T. M.; de Klerk, Onno L.; de Vries, Jeroen J.; van Oostrom, Joost C. H.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebrovascular P-glycoprotein (P-gp) acts at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) as an active cell membrane efflux pump for several endogenous and exogenous compounds. Age-associated decline in P-gp function could facilitate the accumulation of toxic substances in the brain, thus increasing the risk of n

  11. Membranotropic photobiomodulation on red blood cell deformability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang-Yue; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Liu, Timon C.; Liu, Song-Hao

    2007-05-01

    To assess modulation of laser on erythrocyte permeability and deformability via cell morphology changes, healthy human echinocytes with shrinking size and high plasmic viscosity due to cellular dehydration were treated with 1 mW, 2 mW, 3 mW, and 5 mW laser power exposure respectively. Image analyzing system on single intact erythrocyte was applied for measuring comprehensive cell morphological parameters (surface area, external membrane perimeter, circle index and elongation index) that were determined by the modulation of erythrocyte water permeability and deformability to detect relationship between erythrocyte water permeability alteration and deformability. Our preliminary experiment showed that exposure under light dose of 5 mW for 5 min could induce more active erythrocyte swelling and deformation. water channel aquaporin-1(AQP-1) was inhibited by the incubation of HgCl II in the presence and absence of 5 mW laser irradiation. The result suggested that osmotic water permeability is a primary factor in the procedure of erythrocyte deformability. In addition, no modulation of laser(5mW) on erythrocyte deformability had been found when the echinocytes were cultured with GDP-β-S (G protein inhibitor).

  12. Impact of genomic damage and ageing on stem cell function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrens, A.; Deursen, J.M. van; Rudolph, K.L.; Schumacher, B.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment of stem cell function contributes to the progressive deterioration of tissue maintenance and repair with ageing. Evidence is mounting that age-dependent accumulation of DNA damage in both stem cells and cells that comprise the stem cell microenvironment are partly responsible for stem cel

  13. Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    Stem Cell Transplantation; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Allogeneic Transplantation,; Genetic Diseases; Thalassemia; Pediatrics; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Combined Immune Deficiency; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Metabolic Diseases

  14. Effects of Adult Age and Blood Pressure on Executive Function and Speed of Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Barbara; Madden, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research has established that the effects of chronically increased blood pressure (BP) on cognition interact with adult age, but the relevant cognitive processes are not well defined. In this cross sectional study, using a sample matched for age, years of education, and sex, 134 individuals with either normal BP (n = 71) or chronically high BP (n = 63) were categorized into younger (19-39 years), middle-aged (41-58 years), and older (60-79 years) groups. Using a between-subjects ANOVA, covarying for race and years of education, composite measures of executive function and perceptual speed both exhibited age-related decline. The executive function measure, however, was associated with a differential decline in high BP older adults. This result held even when the executive function scores were covaried for speed, demonstrating an independent, age-related effect of higher BP on executive function. PMID:20209419

  15. Characterization at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples of shear stress preventing red blood cells aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Kinnunen, M; Danilina, A V; Ustinov, V D; Shin, S; Meglinski, I; Priezzhev, A V

    2016-05-03

    The aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is an intrinsic feature of blood that has a strong impact on its microcirculation. For a number of years it has been attracting a great attention in basic research and clinical studies. Here, we study a relationship between the RBC aggregation parameters measured at the individual cell level and in a whole blood sample. The home made optical tweezers were used to measure the aggregating and disaggregating forces for a pair of interacting RBCs, at the individual cell level, in order to evaluate the corresponding shear stresses. The RheoScan aggregometer was used for the measurements of critical shear stress (CSS) in whole blood samples. The correlation between CSS and the shear stress required to stop an RBC pair from aggregating was found. The shear stress required to disaggregate a pair of RBCs using the double channel optical tweezers appeared to be about 10 times higher than CSS. The correlation between shear stresses required to prevent RBCs from aggregation at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples was estimated and assessed quantitatively. The experimental approach developed has a high potential for advancing hemorheological studies.

  16. Magnetic nanoparticle effects on the red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creanga, D E; Nadejde, C; Curecheriu, L [' Al. I. Cuza' University, Faculty of Physics, 11A Blvd. Carol I, Iasi (Romania)], E-mail: dorinacreanga@yahoo.com; Culea, M [' Babes Bolyai' University, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Oancea, S [University of Veterinary Medicine ' I. Ionescu de la Brad' , Iasi (Romania); Racuciu, M [' Lucian Blaga' University, Sibiu (Romania)

    2009-05-01

    In vitro tests on magnetite colloidal nanoparticles effects upon animal red blood cells were carried out. Magnetite cores were stabilized with citric acid in the form of biocompatible magnetic fluid administrated in different dilutions in the whole blood samples. The hemolysis extent was found increased up to 2.75 in horse blood and respectively up to 2.81 in the dog blood. The electronic transitions assigned to the heme group were found shifted with about 500 cm{sup -1} or, respectively, affected by supplementary vibronic structures. The Raman vibrations assigned to oxyhemoglobin were much diminished in intensity probably due to the bonding of OH group from citrate shell to the heme iron ion.

  17. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Healthy and Defective Red Blood Cell Settling in Blood Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Z; Rahnama, M; Jafari, S

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to study sedimentation of a red blood cell (RBC) in a plasma-filled tube numerically. Such behaviors are studied for a healthy and a defective cell which might be created due to human diseases, such as diabetes, sickle-cell anemia, and hereditary spherocytosis. Flow-induced deformation of RBC is obtained using finite-element method (FEM), while flow and fluid-membrane interaction are handled using lattice Boltzmann (LB) and immersed boundary methods (IBMs), respectively. The effects of RBC properties as well as its geometry and orientation on its sedimentation rate are investigated and discussed. The results show that decreasing frontal area of an RBC and/or increasing tube diameter results in a faster settling. Comparison of healthy and diabetic cells reveals that less cell deformability leads to slower settling. The simulation results show that the sicklelike and spherelike RBCs have lower settling velocity as compared with a biconcave discoid cell.

  18. Cord Blood as a Source of Natural Killer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohtesh S Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cord blood (CB offers several unique advantages as a graft source for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. The risk of relapse and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD after cord blood transplantation (CBT are lower than what is typically observed after other graft sources with a similar degree of human leukocyte antigen (HLA mismatch. Natural killer (NK cells have a well-defined role in both innate and adaptive immunity and as the first lymphocytes to reconstitute after HSCT and CBT, they play a significant role in protection against early relapse. In this article, we highlight the uses of CB NK cells in transplantation and adoptive immunotherapy. First, we will describe differences in the phenotype and functional characteristics of NK cells in CB as compared with peripheral blood. Then, we will review some of the obstacles we face in using resting CB NK cells for adoptive immunotherapy, and discuss methods to overcome them. We will review the current literature on killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR-ligand mismatch and outcomes after CBT. Finally, we will touch on current strategiesfor the use of CB NK cells in cellular immunotherapy.

  19. Force balance and membrane shedding at the Red Blood Cell surface

    OpenAIRE

    Sens, Pierre; Gov, Nir

    2006-01-01

    During the aging of the red-blood cell, or under conditions of extreme echinocytosis, membrane is shed from the cell plasma membrane in the form of nano-vesicles. We propose that this process is the result of the self-adaptation of the membrane surface area to the elastic stress imposed by the spectrin cytoskeleton, via the local buckling of membrane under increasing cytoskeleton stiffness. This model introduces the concept of force balance as a regulatory process at the cell membrane, and qu...

  20. Prenatal Cocaine Exposure and Body Mass Index and Blood Pressure at 9 Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankaran, Seetha; Bann, Carla; Bauer, Charles R.; Lester, Barry; Bada, Henrietta; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary; Poole, Ken; LaGasse, Linda; Hammond, Jane; Woldt, Eunice

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal cocaine exposure has been linked to intrauterine growth retardation and poor birth outcomes; little is known about the effects on longer-term medical outcomes, such as overweight status and hypertension in childhood. Our objective was to examine the association between prenatal cocaine exposure and body mass index and blood pressure at 9 years of age among children followed prospectively in a multi-site longitudinal study evaluating the impact of maternal lifestyle during pregnancy on childhood outcome. Design/Methods This analysis includes 880 children (277 cocaine exposed and 603 with no cocaine exposure) with blood pressure, height, and weight measurements at 9 years of age. Regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationship between prenatal cocaine exposure and body mass index and blood pressure at 9 years of age after controlling for demographics, other drug exposure, birth weight, maternal weight, infant postnatal weight gain, and childhood television viewing, exercise and dietary habits at 9 years. Path analyses were used to further explore these relationships. Results At 9 years of age, 15% of the children were pre-hypertensive and 19% were hypertensive; 16% were at risk for overweight status and 21% were overweight. A small percentage of women were exposed to high levels of prenatal cocaine throughout pregnancy. Among children born to these women, a higher body mass index was noted. Path analysis suggested that high cocaine exposure has an indirect effect on systolic and diastolic blood pressure that is mediated through its effect on body mass index. Conclusion High levels of in-utero cocaine exposure are a marker for elevated body mass index and blood pressure among children born full term. PMID:20486281

  1. Progress in measurement of ocular blood flow and relevance to our understanding of glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A; Chung, H S; Ciulla, T A; Kagemann, L

    1999-09-01

    New technologies have facilitated the study of the ocular circulation. These modalities and analysis techniques facilitate very precise and comprehensive study of retinal, choroidal, and retrobulbar circulations. These techniques include: 1. Vessel caliber assessment; 2. Scanning laser ophthalmoscopic fluorescein angiography and indocyanine green angiography to image and evaluate the retinal circulation and choroidal circulation respectively; 3. Laser Doppler flowmetry and confocal scanning laser Doppler flowmetry to measure blood flow in the optic nerve head and retinal capillary beds; 4. Ocular pulse measurement; and 5. color Doppler imaging to measure blood flow velocities in the central retinal artery, the ciliary arteries and the ophthalmic artery. These technique have greatly enhanced the ability to quantify ocular perfusion defects in many disorders, including glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration, two of the most prevalent causes of blindness in the industrialized world. Recently it has become clear, in animal models of glaucoma, that retinal ganglion cells die via apoptosis. The factors that initiate apoptosis in these cells remain obscure, but ischemia may play a central role. Patients with either primary open-angle glaucoma or normal-tension glaucoma experience various ocular blood flow deficits. With regard to age-related macular degeneration, the etiology remains unknown although some theories include primary retinal pigment epithelial senescence, genetic defects such as those found in the ABCR gene which is also defective in Stargardt's disease and ocular perfusion abnormalities. As the choriocapillaris supplies the metabolic needs of the retinal pigment epithelium and the outer retina, perfusion defect in the choriocapillaris could account for some of the physiologic and pathologic changes in AMD. Vascular defects have been identified in both nonexudative and exudative AMD patients using new technologies. This paper is a comprehensive update

  2. Blood Cell Palmitoleate-Palmitate Ratio Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Henriques

    Full Text Available Growing evidence supports a link between fatty acid metabolism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Here we determined the fatty acid composition of blood lipids to identify markers of disease progression and survival. We enrolled 117 patients from two clinical centers and 48 of these were age and gender matched with healthy volunteers. We extracted total lipids from serum and blood cells, and separated fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography. We measured circulating biochemical parameters indicative of the metabolic status. Association between fatty acid composition and clinical readouts was studied, including ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R, survival, disease duration, site of onset and body mass index. Palmitoleate (16:1 and oleate (18:1 levels, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase indices (16:1/16:0 and 18:1/18:0 significantly increased in blood cells from ALS patients compared to healthy controls. Palmitoleate levels and 16:1/16:0 ratio in blood cells, but not body mass index or leptin concentrations, negatively correlated with ALSFRS-R decline over a six-month period (p<0.05. Multivariate Cox analysis, with age, body mass index, site of onset and ALSFRS-R as covariables, showed that blood cell 16:1/16:0 ratio was an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio=0.1 per unit of ratio, 95% confidence interval=0.01-0.57, p=0.009. In patients with high 16:1/16:0 ratio, survival at blood collection was extended by 10 months, as compared to patients with low ratio. The 16:1/16:0 index is an easy-to-handle parameter that predicts survival of ALS patients independently of body mass index. It therefore deserves further validation in larger cohorts for being used to assess disease outcome and effects of disease-modifying drugs.

  3. Blood Cell Palmitoleate-Palmitate Ratio Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Alexandre; Blasco, Hélène; Fleury, Marie-Céline; Corcia, Philippe; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Robelin, Laura; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Lequeu, Thiebault; Bergaentzle, Martine; Gachet, Christian; Pradat, Pierre-François; Marchioni, Eric; Andres, Christian R.; Tranchant, Christine; Gonzalez De Aguilar, Jose-Luis; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence supports a link between fatty acid metabolism and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here we determined the fatty acid composition of blood lipids to identify markers of disease progression and survival. We enrolled 117 patients from two clinical centers and 48 of these were age and gender matched with healthy volunteers. We extracted total lipids from serum and blood cells, and separated fatty acid methyl esters by gas chromatography. We measured circulating biochemical parameters indicative of the metabolic status. Association between fatty acid composition and clinical readouts was studied, including ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R), survival, disease duration, site of onset and body mass index. Palmitoleate (16:1) and oleate (18:1) levels, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase indices (16:1/16:0 and 18:1/18:0) significantly increased in blood cells from ALS patients compared to healthy controls. Palmitoleate levels and 16:1/16:0 ratio in blood cells, but not body mass index or leptin concentrations, negatively correlated with ALSFRS-R decline over a six-month period (p<0.05). Multivariate Cox analysis, with age, body mass index, site of onset and ALSFRS-R as covariables, showed that blood cell 16:1/16:0 ratio was an independent prognostic factor for survival (hazard ratio=0.1 per unit of ratio, 95% confidence interval=0.01-0.57, p=0.009). In patients with high 16:1/16:0 ratio, survival at blood collection was extended by 10 months, as compared to patients with low ratio. The 16:1/16:0 index is an easy-to-handle parameter that predicts survival of ALS patients independently of body mass index. It therefore deserves further validation in larger cohorts for being used to assess disease outcome and effects of disease-modifying drugs. PMID:26147510

  4. Concise review: programming human pluripotent stem cells into blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easterbrook, Jennifer; Fidanza, Antonella; Forrester, Lesley M

    2016-06-01

    Blood disorders are treated with cell therapies including haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation as well as platelet and red blood cell transfusions. However the source of cells is entirely dependent on donors, procedures are susceptible to transfusion-transmitted infections and serious complications can arise in recipients due to immunological incompatibility. These problems could be alleviated if it was possible to produce haematopoietic cells in vitro from an autologous and renewable cell source. The production of haematopoietic cells in the laboratory from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may provide a route to realize this goal but it has proven challenging to generate long-term reconstituting HSCs. To date, the optimization of differentiation protocols has mostly relied on the manipulation of extrinsic signals to mimic the in vivo environment. We review studies that have taken an alternative approach to modulate intrinsic signals by enforced expression of transcription factors. Single and combinations of multiple transcription factors have been used in a variety of contexts to enhance the production of haematopoietic cells from human pluripotent stem cells. This programming approach, together with the recent advances in the production and use of synthetic transcription factors, holds great promise for the production of fully functional HSCs in the future.

  5. Mechanopathology of red blood cell diseases—Why mechanics matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    During the onset of a disease a cell may experience alterations in both the composition and organization of its cellular and molecular structures.These alterations may eventually lead to changes in its geometrical and mechanical properties such as cell size and shape,deformability and adhesion.As such,knowing how diseased cells respond to mechanical forces can reveal ways by which they differ from healthy ones.Here,we will present biomechanistic insights into red blood cell related diseases that manifest...

  6. Macromolecular Dynamics in Red Blood Cells Investigated Using Neutron Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Stadler, Andreas Maximilian; Demmel, Franz; Artmann, Gerhard; 10.1098/rsif.2010.0306

    2011-01-01

    We present neutron scattering measurements on the dynamics of hemoglobin (Hb) in human red blood cells in vivo. Global and internal Hb dynamics were measured in the ps to ns time- and {\\AA} length-scale using quasielastic neutron backscattering spectroscopy. We observed the cross-over from global Hb short-time to long-time self-diffusion. Both short- and long-time diffusion coefficients agree quantitatively with predicted values from hydrodynamic theory of non-charged hard-sphere suspensions when a bound water fraction of around 0.23g H2O/ g Hb is taken into account. The higher amount of water in the cells facilitates internal protein fluctuations in the ps time-scale when compared to fully hydrated Hb powder. Slower internal dynamics of Hb in red blood cells in the ns time-range were found to be rather similar to results obtained with fully hydrated protein powders, solutions and E. coli cells.

  7. Aggregation of Red Blood Cells: From Rouleaux to Clot Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, C; Svetina, S

    2013-01-01

    Red blood cells are known to form aggregates in the form of rouleaux. This aggregation process is believed to be reversible, but there is still no full understanding on the binding mechanism. There are at least two competing models, based either on bridging or on depletion. We review recent experimental results on the single cell level and theoretical analyses of the depletion model and of the influence of the cell shape on the binding strength. Another important aggregation mechanism is caused by activation of platelets. This leads to clot formation which is life saving in the case of wound healing but also a major cause of death in the case of a thrombus induced stroke. We review historical and recent results on the participation of red blood cells in clot formation.

  8. RBCs and Parasites Segmentation from Thin Smear Blood Cell Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal V. Panchbhai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Manually examine the blood smear for the detection of malaria parasite consumes lot of time for trend pathologists. As the computational power increases, the role of automatic visual inspection becomes more important. An automated system is therefore needed to complete as much work as possible for the identification of malaria parasites. The given scheme based on used of RGB color space, G layer processing, and segmentation of Red Blood Cells (RBC as well as cell parasites by auto-thresholding with offset value and use of morphological processing. The work compare with the manual results obtained from the pathology lab, based on total RBC count and cells parasite count. The designed system successfully detects malaria parasites and RBC cells in thin smear image.

  9. Use of cryopreserved peripheral mononuclear blood cells in biomonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Lotte; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1999-01-01

    cells (PMBC) obtained from donor blood. Measurements of DNA-repair, mutant frequency, and subcell content were included. Samples for large biomonitoring studies are usually taken from study groups within a short time period of days/weeks and storing of study material for later analysis can be necessary......This study was performed to investigate the effect of storing blood samples by freezing on selected biomarkers and possible implications for biomonitoring. Comparative measurements were performed in order to investigate the use of cryopreserved vs. freshly separated peripheral mononuclear blood....... We measured the DNA repair activity as dimethylsulfate induced unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in PMBC incubated with either autologous plasma or fetal bovine serum (FBS). Comparison of the hprt mutant frequency by the T cell cloning assay was made in parallel. Finally the content of B...

  10. A spectral and morphologic method for white blood cell classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Chang, Li; Zhou, Mei; Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Guo, Fangmin

    2016-10-01

    The identification of white blood cells is important as it provides an assay for diagnosis of various diseases. To overcome the complexity and inaccuracy of traditional methods based on light microscopy, we proposed a spectral and morphologic method based on hyperspectral blood images. We applied mathematical morphology-based methods to extract spatial information and supervised method is employed for spectral analysis. Experimental results show that white blood cells could be segmented and classified into five types with an overall accuracy of more than 90%. Moreover, the experiments including spectral features reached higher accuracy than the spatial-only cases, with a maximum improvement of nearly 20%. By combing both spatial and spectral features, the proposed method provides higher classification accuracy than traditional methods.

  11. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora

    2015-07-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging.

  12. Cardiorespiratory fitness mediates the effects of aging on cerebral blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eZimmerman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The brain’s vasculature is likely to be subjected to the same age-related physiological and anatomical changes affecting the rest of the cardiovascular system. Since aerobic fitness is known to alleviate both cognitive and volumetric losses in the brain, it is important to investigate some of the possible mechanisms underlying these beneficial changes. Here we investigated the role that estimated cardiorespiratory fitness (eCRF plays in determining the relationship between aging and cerebral blood flow (CBF in a group of older adults (ages 55-85. Using arterial spin labeling to quantify CBF, we found that blood flow in the gray matter was positively correlated with eCRF and negatively correlated with age. Subsequent analyses revealed that eCRF fully mediated the effects of age on CBF in the gray matter, but not in the white matter. Additionally, regional measures of CBF were related to regional measures of brain volume. These findings provide evidence that age-related effects on cerebrovascular health and perfusion in older adults are largely influenced by their eCRF levels.

  13. Facets of negative affectivity and blood pressure in middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel V. Igna

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Research results suggesting that facets of negative affectivity, i.e. anxiety, anger-hostility, and depression, relate to incident cardiovascular diseases have been steadily increasing. Evidence for depression has been especially extensive. Elevated blood pressure, a major risk factor of cardiovascular diseases, is one probable mediator in this context. The purpose of this study was to clarify the relationship of specific key elements of depressive disposition, i.e. depressive symptoms, hopelessness and vital exhaustion, with health behavior and blood pressure. Study sample was comprised of 710 middle-aged men. Participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing health behavior, depressive symptoms, vital exhaustion and hopelessness. Statistical analyses involved descriptive analyses, correlations and path analysis. Depressive symptoms and vital exhaustion associated with several unfavorable lifestyles such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and inactivity (standardized solution coefficients: 0.10, 0.14, 0.17, accordingly. However, no significant direct associations with blood pressure could be found for depressive symptoms or vital exhaustion. Hopelessness associated only with unhealthy diet (standardized solution coefficient -0.10 Moreover, for hopelessness, results showed a direct but inverse association with systolic blood pressure (standardized solution coefficient -0.08. Results suggest that the previously reported relations of depression and vital exhaustion with blood pressure could be mediated by unfavorable lifestyles. The relation of hopelessness with adverse health behaviors seems to be less significant. Also, the role of hopelessness as a risk factor of elevated blood pressure is not supported by the results of this study.

  14. Telomere Length in Elderly Caucasians Weakly Correlates with Blood Cell Counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Gutmajster

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Age-related decrease in bone marrow erythropoietic capacity is often accompanied by the telomere length shortening in peripheral white blood cells. However, limited and conflicting data hamper the conclusive opinion regarding this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between telomere length and peripheral blood cell count parameters in the Polish elderly population. Material and Methods. The substudy included 1573 of 4981 subjects aged 65 years or over, participants of the population-based PolSenior study. High-molecular-weight DNA was isolated from blood mononuclear cells. Telomere length (TL was measured by QRT-PCR as abundance of telomere template versus a single gene copy encoding acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. Results. Only white blood count (WBC was significantly different in TL tertile subgroups in all subjects (P=0.02 and in men (P=0.01, but not in women. Merely in men significant but weak positive correlations were found between TL and WBC (r=0.11, P<0.05 and RBC (r=0.08, P<0.05. The multiple regression analysis models confirmed a weak, independent contribution of TL to both RBC and WBC. Conclusions. In the elderly, telomere shortening limits hematopoiesis capacity to a very limited extent.

  15. Telomere Length in Elderly Caucasians Weakly Correlates with Blood Cell Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witecka, Joanna; Koscinska-Marczewska, Justyna; Szwed, Malgorzata; Owczarz, Magdalena; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Milewicz, Andrzej; Zejda, Jan; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Background. Age-related decrease in bone marrow erythropoietic capacity is often accompanied by the telomere length shortening in peripheral white blood cells. However, limited and conflicting data hamper the conclusive opinion regarding this relationship. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess an association between telomere length and peripheral blood cell count parameters in the Polish elderly population. Material and Methods. The substudy included 1573 of 4981 subjects aged 65 years or over, participants of the population-based PolSenior study. High-molecular-weight DNA was isolated from blood mononuclear cells. Telomere length (TL) was measured by QRT-PCR as abundance of telomere template versus a single gene copy encoding acidic ribosomal phosphoprotein P0. Results. Only white blood count (WBC) was significantly different in TL tertile subgroups in all subjects (P = 0.02) and in men (P = 0.01), but not in women. Merely in men significant but weak positive correlations were found between TL and WBC (r = 0.11, P < 0.05) and RBC (r = 0.08, P < 0.05). The multiple regression analysis models confirmed a weak, independent contribution of TL to both RBC and WBC. Conclusions. In the elderly, telomere shortening limits hematopoiesis capacity to a very limited extent. PMID:24453794

  16. Net haemoglobin increase from reinfusion of refrigerated vs. frozen red blood cells after autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashenden, M; Mørkeberg, Jakob Sehested

    2011-01-01

    objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures...... freezing. Nevertheless, frozen storage allowed haemoglobin to fully recover before reinfusion, while the haemoglobin was 10% lower in the refrigerated group compared with baseline. After reinfusion, the haemoglobin levels were 11·5% higher than the baseline values in the group reinfused with frozen blood......, while for the refrigerated group, haemoglobin levels were only 5·2% higher than baseline. CONCLUSION  The relatively larger recovery from anaemia in the frozen group during storage more than compensated for the larger loss of haemoglobin during freezing and resulted in a larger net gain in haemoglobin...

  17. Shear stress-induced improvement of red blood cell deformability

    OpenAIRE

    Meram, Ece; Yılmaz, Bahar D.; Bas, Ceren; Atac, Nazlı; Yalçın, Ö.; Başkurt, Oguz K.; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, it is known that red blood cell (RBC) deformability is determined by the geometric and material properties of these cells. Experimental evidence accumulated during the last decade has introduced the concept of active regulation of RBC deformability. This regulation is mainly related to altered associations between membrane skeletal proteins and integral proteins, with the latter serving to anchor the skeleton to the lipid matrix. It has been hypothesized that shear stress induces...

  18. Partial impairment of immune functions in peripheral blood leukocytes from aged men with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, E; Alberti, J; Mehta, P; Dalton, A; Sersen, E; Schuller-Levis, G

    2000-04-01

    Down's syndrome (DS) has been considered a model of accelerated aging and of Alzheimer's disease. We investigated immunologic functions using peripheral blood leukocytes in order to correlate the production of cytokines and development of neuropathological changes of Alzheimer type in aged persons with DS. Cytokine production (IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-alpha), phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated proliferation of nonadherent monocytes, and superoxide anion production from polymorphonuclear leukocytes were measured. PHA-stimulated proliferation in aged individuals (>30 years old) with DS was significantly lower than that of age- and sex-matched controls (DS vs control, 55,707+/-5810 vs 88,310+/-6994 cpm, P < 0.001). PHA-stimulated IL-2 production was also significantly decreased in aged individuals with DS (DS vs control, 7.1+/-2.1 vs 10.7+/-1.3 ng/ml). Interestingly, the decrease of proliferation and IL-2 production in aged males with DS is significantly greater than in aged women with DS. PHA-stimulated proliferation and IL-2 production of nonadherent monocytes in females was not significantly reduced. IL-1beta production by LPS-activated adherent monocytes was significantly decreased in older adults with DS compared with non-DS controls. Other immune parameters measured in DS were not significantly different from that of age-matched controls. We conclude that there is partial impairment of T lymphocytes in aged persons with DS that is significantly greater in males than in females.

  19. Expansion of human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Song; Chu, Pat; Hwang, William; Lodish, Harvey

    2010-10-08

    A recent Science paper reported a purine derivative that expands human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells in culture (Boitano et al., 2010) by antagonizing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Major problems need to be overcome before ex vivo HSC expansion can be used clinically.

  20. Red blood cell transfusion during septic shock in the ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Smith, S H; Carlsen, S

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) remains controversial in patients with septic shock, but current practice is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate RBC transfusion practice in septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU), and patient characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion....

  1. Automated counting of white blood cells in synovial fluid.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Jonge (Robert); R.W. Brouwer (Reinoud); M. Smit (Marij); M. de Frankrijker-Merkestijn; R.J. Dolhain; J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); A.W. van Toorenenbergen (Albert); J. Lindemans (Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To evaluate the performance of automated leucocyte (white blood cell; WBC) counting by comparison with manual counting. METHODS: The number of WBC was determined in heparinized synovial fluid samples by the use of (i) a standard urine cytometer (Kova) and a

  2. Hypoxia, hormones, and red blood cell function in chick embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragon, Stefanie; Baumann, Rosemarie

    2003-04-01

    The red blood cell function of avian embryos is regulated by cAMP. Adenosine A(2A) and beta-adrenergic receptor activation during hypoxic conditions cause changes in the hemoglobin oxygen affinity and CO(2) transport. Furthermore, experimental evidence suggests a general involvement of cAMP in terminal differentiation of avian erythroblasts.

  3. Red blood cells intended for transfusion : quality criteria revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogman, CF; Meryman, HT

    2006-01-01

    Great variation exists with respect to viability and function of fresh and stored red blood cells (RBCs) as well as of the contents of RBC hemoglobin (Hb) in individual units. Improved technology is available for the preparation as well as the storage of RBCs. The authors raise the question whether

  4. The effects of cryopreservation on red blood cell rheologic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Lagerberg, Johan W. M.; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In transfusion medicine, frozen red blood cells (RBCs) are an alternative for liquid-stored RBCs. Little is known about the rheologic properties (i.e., aggregability and deformability) of thawed RBCs. In this study the rheologic properties of high-glycerol frozen RBCs and postthaw stored

  5. Alterations of red blood cell metabolome in overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darghouth, D.; Koehl, B.; Heilier, J.F.; Madalinski, G.; Bovee, P.H.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.; Delaunay, J.; Junot, C.; Romeo, P.H.

    2011-01-01

    Overhydrated hereditary stomatocytosis, clinically characterized by hemolytic anemia, is a rare disorder of the erythrocyte membrane permeability to monovalent cations, associated with mutations in the Rh-associated glycoprotein gene. We assessed the red blood cell metabolome of 4 patients with this

  6. Red blood cell antibodies in pregnancy and their clinical consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvall, Maria; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine;

    2009-01-01

    The objective was to determine clinical consequences of various specificities for the infant/fetus. The population was patients referred between 1998 and 2005 to the tertiary center because of detected red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization. Altogether 455 infants were delivered by 390 alloimmunized...

  7. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    in those with below-average blood pressure; at older ages (70-89 years) and, particularly, for those with systolic blood pressure over about 145 mm Hg, total cholesterol was negatively related to haemorrhagic and total stroke mortality. The results for other vascular mortality were intermediate between......BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and blood pressure could modify the associations of total cholesterol (and its main two fractions, HDL and LDL cholesterol) with vascular mortality. This meta-analysis combined prospective studies of vascular mortality that recorded both blood pressure and total cholesterol...... and blood pressure. During nearly 12 million person years at risk between the ages of 40 and 89 years, there were more than 55,000 vascular deaths (34,000 ischaemic heart disease [IHD], 12,000 stroke, 10,000 other). Information about HDL cholesterol was available for 150,000 participants, among whom...

  8. 78 FR 47714 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Health Service Act, as amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises... Advancing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hemoglobinopathies. The Council also will...

  9. 78 FR 23571 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises the Secretary of the... Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Hemoglobinopathies. The Council will also hear presentations...

  10. Measuring density and compressibility of white blood cells and prostate cancer cells by microchannel acoustophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnkob, Rune; Augustsson, Per; Magnusson, Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    to determine the density and compressibility of individual cells enables the prediction and alteration of the separation outcome for a given cell mixture. We apply the method on white blood cells (WBCs) and DU145 prostate cancer cells (DUCs) aiming to improve isolation of circulating tumor cells from blood......We present a novel method for the determination of density and compressibility of individual particles and cells undergoing microchannel acoustophoresis in an arbitrary 2D acoustic field. Our method is a critical advancement within acoustophoretic separation of biological cells, as the ability......, an emerging tool in the monitoring and characterizing of metastatic cancer....

  11. Blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values in healthy ostriches: the effect of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouda, J; Núñez-Ochoa, L; Avila-González, E; Doubek, J; Fuente-Martínez, B; Aguilar-Bobadilla, J

    2009-08-01

    The effect of age and sex on blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values was determined in venous blood samples from 45 clinically healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus) from 26 days to 6 years of age. Animals were divided by age into four groups and the group of adults was divided by sex into two subgroups. Blood samples were collected without sedation. There was a significant (Pvalues of base excess (BE), plasma HCO(3)(-), total CO(2) (TCO(2)), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and anion gap (AG). The highest plasma concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-) and value of AG were found in adult ostriches with a steady decrease to chicks. A significant (Psex difference in adult animals with higher blood pH, lower blood values of pCO(2), BE, plasma concentrations of HCO(3)(-), TCO(2) and K(+) was found in females. We concluded that blood acid-base values and plasma electrolyte concentrations in ostriches are affected by age and sex.

  12. Mechanisms Underlying T Cell Immunosenescence: Aging and Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wenjuan; Rao, Sudha

    2016-01-01

    The ability of the human immune system to protect against infectious disease declines with age and efficacy of vaccination reduces significantly in the elderly. Aging of the immune system, also termed as immunosenescence, involves many changes in human T cell immunity that is characterized by a loss in naïve T cell population and an increase in highly differentiated CD28- memory T cell subset. There is extensive data showing that latent persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is also associated with age-related immune dysfunction in the T cells, which might enhance immunosenescence. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying age-related and HCMV-related immunosenescence is critical for the development of effective age-targeted vaccines and immunotherapies. In this review, we will address the role of both aging and HCMV infection that contribute to the T cell senescence and discuss the potential molecular mechanisms in aged T cells. PMID:28082969

  13. Blood cholesterol and vascular mortality by age, sex, and blood pressure: a meta-analysis of individual data from 61 prospective studies with 55,000 vascular deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NN, NN; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    and blood pressure. During nearly 12 million person years at risk between the ages of 40 and 89 years, there were more than 55,000 vascular deaths (34,000 ischaemic heart disease [IHD], 12,000 stroke, 10,000 other). Information about HDL cholesterol was available for 150,000 participants, among whom......). Total cholesterol was weakly positively related to ischaemic and total stroke mortality in early middle age (40-59 years), but this finding could be largely or wholly accounted for by the association of cholesterol with blood pressure. Moreover, a positive relation was seen only in middle age and only......BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and blood pressure could modify the associations of total cholesterol (and its main two fractions, HDL and LDL cholesterol) with vascular mortality. This meta-analysis combined prospective studies of vascular mortality that recorded both blood pressure and total cholesterol...

  14. Cord blood dendritic cell subsets in African newborns exposed to Plasmodium falciparum in utero.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitling, Lutz P; Fendel, Rolf; Mordmueller, Benjamin; Adegnika, Ayola A; Kremsner, Peter G; Luty, Adrian J F

    2006-10-01

    Placental Plasmodium falciparum infection affects birth outcomes and sensitizes fetal lymphocytes to parasite antigens. We assessed the influence of maternal P. falciparum infection on fetal myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC), analyzing the cord blood of offspring of Gabonese mothers with different infection histories. Cord blood from newborns of mothers with malarial infection at delivery had significantly more mDC than that from nonexposed newborns (P = 0.028) but mDC and pDC HLA-DR expression was unrelated to maternal infection history. Independently of these findings, cord blood mDC and pDC numbers declined significantly as a function of increasing maternal age (P = 0.029 and P = 0.033, respectively). The inducible antigen-specific interleukin-10-producing regulatory-type T-cell population that we have previously detected in cord blood of newborns with prolonged in utero exposure to P. falciparum may directly reflect the altered DC numbers in such neonates, while the maintenance of cord blood DC HLA-DR expression contrasts with that of DC from P. falciparum malaria patients.

  15. Recovery of mucosal-associated invariant T cells after myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Jan; Dobrovolny, Jan; Brozova, Jitka; Novakova, Lucie; Kozak, Tomas

    2016-11-01

    Immune reconstitution after high-dose chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation plays a key role in restoring immunocompetence including defense against infection, immune regulation, and onco-immune surveillance. In this work, we examined the recovery of mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, recently discovered innate-like T cells, after various types of myeloablative chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation in 29 patients. We show that MAIT cells are relatively resistant to myeloablative conditioning. The median amount of MAIT cells rises to 43 % around day +30 and is sustained through further measurements on days +60 and +100. Moreover, MAIT cell recovery reaches 100 % of pre-treatment values in 33 % of patients already by day +60. The only factor affecting recovery of MAIT cells is age, younger age being associated with earlier MAIT cell recovery. The pre-treatment quantity of MAIT cells carries a prognostic impact on the early post-transplantation course. Patients with high levels of MAIT cells pre-treatment have significantly lower peak CRP levels (79.45 vs. 150 mg/L) post-treatment, reflecting a clinical trend of less severe infectious complications (less febrile days and less days on intravenous antibiotics). Altogether these data suggest that a high proportion of MAIT cells survive myeloablative chemotherapy and maintain their capacity to fight against infections probably on mucosal surfaces.

  16. Acetylsalicylic acid and morphology of red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Natan Grinapel Frydman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the effect of in vitro and in vivo treatment with ASA on the morphology of the red blood cells. Blood samples or Wistar rats were treated with ASA for one hour. Blood samples or animals treated with saline were used as control group. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphology of red blood cells were evaluated under optical microscopy. Data showed that the in vitro treatment for one hour with ASA at higher dose used significantly (pEste trabalho avaliou o efeito do tratamento in vitro e in vivo com AAS na morfologia dos eritrócitos. Amostras de sangue ou ratos Wistar foram tratadas com AAS por uma hora. Amostras sangüíneas ou animais tratados com salina foram utilizados como grupos controle. Distensões de sangue foram preparadas, fixadas, coradas e a análise morfológica qualitativa e quantitativa dos eritrócitos foi realizada em microscópio óptico. Os dados mostraram que o tratamento in vitro por uma hora com AAS na maior dose utilizada modificou significativamente (p<0.05 a relação perímetro/área dos eritrócitos. Não foram obtidas alterações morfológicas com o tratamento in vivo. O uso do AAS em doses altas poderia interferir na forma dos eritrócitos.

  17. A Systematic Review on the Relationship of Dietary Habits and Blood Pressure in the Pediatric Age Group

    OpenAIRE

    Roya kelishadi; Alaleh Gheisari; Motahar Heidari-Beni; Shahla Ashouri

    2016-01-01

    Background Tracking of blood pressure from early life to adulthood and the increasing prevalence of elevated blood pressure in the pediatric age group are considered as important health issues. Rapid lifestyle change and dietary habits are considered as important determinants of this problem. This study aimed to systematically review the studies on the association of dietary habits and blood pressure in the pediatric age group.  Materials and Methods The search was conducted from November 201...

  18. Age-specific differences between conventional and ambulatory daytime blood pressure values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conen, David; Aeschbacher, Stefanie; Thijs, Lutgarde;

    2014-01-01

    Mean daytime ambulatory blood pressure (BP) values are considered to be lower than conventional BP values, but data on this relation among younger individuals individuals not taking antihypertensive treatment from 13...... population-based cohorts. We compared individual differences between daytime ambulatory and conventional BP according to 10-year age categories. Age-specific prevalences of white coat and masked hypertension were calculated. Among individuals aged 18 to 30, 30 to 40, and 40 to 50 years, mean daytime BP...... was significantly higher than the corresponding conventional BP (6.0, 5.2, and 4.7 mm Hg for systolic; 2.5, 2.7, and 1.7 mm Hg for diastolic BP; all Pindividuals aged 60 to 70 and ≥70 years, conventional BP was significantly higher than daytime ambulatory BP (5.0 and 13.0 mm Hg for systolic; 2.0 and 4...

  19. Differentiation of Human Cord Blood and Stromal Derived Stem Cells into Neuron Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Pamukçu Baran

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The most basic properties of stem cells are the capacities to self-renew indefinitely and to differentiate into multiple cell or tissue types. Umbilical cord blood has been utilized for human hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as an alternative source to bone marrow.The experiments show that Wharton’s jelly cells are easily attainable and can be expanded in vitro, maintained in culture, and induced to differentiate into neural cells. Almost recent studies it has been discovered that the cord blood-derived cells can differantiate not only to blood cells but also to various somatic cells like neuron or muscle cell with the signals taken from the envoirenment.Interestingly, neural cells obtained from umbilical cord blood show a relatively high spontaneous differentiation into oligodendrocytes, Embryonic stem cells proliferate indefinitely and can differentiate spontaneously into all tissue types.It has been shown that embryonic stem cells can be induced to differentiate into neurons and glia by treatment with retinoic acid or basic fibroblast growth factor. It has been studied that the diseases as Motor Neuron Disease, Parkinson, Alzheimer and degeneration of medulla spinalis and also paralysises could be treated with transplantation of cord blood-dericed stem cells.

  20. Blood serum components and serum protein test of Hybro-PG broilers of different ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRL Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood serum samples of HYBRO PG broilers were analyzed, with 30 samples collected from 21-day-old broilers (G1, 30 from 35-day-old birds (G2, and 30 from 42-day-old birds (G3, with the aim of establishing normal values of some blood serum parameters. The activities of the enzymes gamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum levels of total calcium, calcium ion, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, magnesium, chlorides, creatinine, uric acid, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, total and indirect and direct bilirubin, and electrophoretic profile of serum proteins in acrylamide (SDS-PAGE and agarose gel were determined. There was no influence of age on total bilirubin and albumin levels. All the other evaluated parameters presented differences in at least one age group. Protein electrophoretic profile also changed as a function of age. The obtained results can be considered as normal for the studied ages, and therefore be used as references for the interpretation of laboratory exams of broilers of this genetic line in the evaluated ages.

  1. Blood cell counting and classification by nonflowing laser light scattering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Xinhui; Jiang, Dazong; Yeo, Joon Hock

    1999-11-01

    A new non-flowing laser light scattering method for counting and classifying blood cells is presented. A linear charge- coupled device with 1024 elements is used to detect the scattered light intensity distribution of the blood cells. A pinhole plate is combined with the CCD to compete the focusing of the measurement system. An isotropic sphere is used to simulate the blood cell. Mie theory is used to describe the scattering of blood cells. In order to inverse the size distribution of blood cells from their scattered light intensity distribution, Powell method combined with precision punishment method is used as a dependent model method for measurement red blood cells and blood plates. Non-negative constraint least square method combined with Powell method and precision punishment method is used as an independent model for measuring white blood cells. The size distributions of white blood cells and red blood cells, and the mean diameter of red blood cells are measured by this method. White blood cells can be divided into three classes: lymphocytes, middle-sized cells and neutrocytes according to their sizes. And the number of blood cells in unit volume can also be measured by the linear dependence of blood cells concentration on scattered light intensity.

  2. Hemoglobin Aggregation in Single Red Blood Cells of Sickle Cell Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Izumi; Tanaka, Toyoichi; Sun, Shao-Tang; Imanishi, Yuri; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.

    1983-06-01

    A laser light scattering technique was used to observe the extent of hemoglobin aggregation in solitary red blood cells of sickle cell anemia. Hemoglobin aggregation was confirmed in deoxygenated cells. The light scattering technique can also be applied to cytoplasmic studies of any biological cell.

  3. Flow of Red Blood Cells in Stenosed Microvessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidkhah, Koohyar; Balogh, Peter; Bagchi, Prosenjit

    2016-06-01

    A computational study is presented on the flow of deformable red blood cells in stenosed microvessels. It is observed that the Fahraeus-Lindqvist effect is significantly enhanced due to the presence of a stenosis. The apparent viscosity of blood is observed to increase by several folds when compared to non-stenosed vessels. An asymmetric distribution of the red blood cells, caused by geometric focusing in stenosed vessels, is observed to play a major role in the enhancement. The asymmetry in cell distribution also results in an asymmetry in average velocity and wall shear stress along the length of the stenosis. The discrete motion of the cells causes large time-dependent fluctuations in flow properties. The root-mean-square of flow rate fluctuations could be an order of magnitude higher than that in non-stenosed vessels. Several folds increase in Eulerian velocity fluctuation is also observed in the vicinity of the stenosis. Surprisingly, a transient flow reversal is observed upstream a stenosis but not downstream. The asymmetry and fluctuations in flow quantities and the flow reversal would not occur in absence of the cells. It is concluded that the flow physics and its physiological consequences are significantly different in micro- versus macrovascular stenosis.

  4. Umbilical Cord Blood Stem Cells. Who has the right word?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela Laporta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article we analyze bioethical and legal aspects related to the cryopreservation of cord blood stem cells in Argentina. To unify definitions, the concept and variety of stem cells, together with the understanding of the means to obtain and store umbilical cord blood stem cells, are provided.  Options that arise in our country, mainly analyzing the conceptual differences underlying legal body and parts by public and private biobanks, are described. Additionally, the current Argentinean legislation and circumstances arising from a resolution which INCUCAI sought to regulate private biobanks, is analyzed. This analysis leads to thoughts on the way conflicts are solved when the health and life of people are judicialized. In this particular case, the appearance of a complex new topic which gives rise to new social and healthcare scenarios, must be further understood.

  5. Structural analysis of red blood cell aggregates under shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesnutt, J K W; Marshall, J S

    2010-03-01

    A set of measures of red blood cell (RBC) aggregates are developed and applied to examine the aggregate structure under plane shear and channel flows. Some of these measures are based on averages over the set of red blood cells which are in contact with each other at a given time. Other measures are developed by first fitting an ellipse to the planar projection of the aggregate, and then examining the area and aspect ratio of the fit ellipse as well as the orientations of constituent RBCs with respect to the fit ellipse axes. The aggregate structural measures are illustrated using a new mesoscale computational model for blood cell transport, collision and adhesion. The sensitivity of this model to change in adhesive surface energy density and shear rate on the aggregate structure is examined. It is found that the mesoscale model predictions exhibit reasonable agreement with experimental and theoretical data for blood flow in plane shear and channel flows. The new structural measures are used to examine the differences between predictions of two- and three-dimensional computations of the aggregate formation, showing that two-dimensional computations retain some of the important aspects of three-dimensional computations.

  6. Biomechanics and biorheology of red blood cells in sickle cell anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Dao, Ming; Lykotrafitis, George; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited blood disorder that causes painful crises due to vaso-occlusion of small blood vessels. The primary cause of the clinical phenotype of SCA is the intracellular polymerization of sickle hemoglobin resulting in sickling of red blood cells (RBCs) in deoxygenated conditions. In this review, we discuss the biomechanical and biorheological characteristics of sickle RBCs and sickle blood as well as their implications toward a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of SCA. Additionally, we highlight the adhesive heterogeneity of RBCs in SCA and their specific contribution to vaso-occlusive crisis. PMID:27876368

  7. Biomechanics and biorheology of red blood cells in sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuejin; Dao, Ming; Lykotrafitis, George; Karniadakis, George Em

    2017-01-04

    Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited blood disorder that causes painful crises due to vaso-occlusion of small blood vessels. The primary cause of the clinical phenotype of SCA is the intracellular polymerization of sickle hemoglobin resulting in sickling of red blood cells (RBCs) in deoxygenated conditions. In this review, we discuss the biomechanical and biorheological characteristics of sickle RBCs and sickle blood as well as their implications toward a better understanding of the pathophysiology and pathogenesis of SCA. Additionally, we highlight the adhesive heterogeneity of RBCs in SCA and their specific contribution to vaso-occlusive crisis.

  8. Erythropoietic Potential of CD34+ Hematopoietic Stem Cells from Human Cord Blood and G-CSF-Mobilized Peripheral Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honglian Jin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC supply for transfusion has been severely constrained by the limited availability of donor blood and the emergence of infection and contamination issues. Alternatively, hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from human organs have been increasingly considered as safe and effective blood source. Several methods have been studied to obtain mature RBCs from CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells via in vitro culture. Among them, human cord blood (CB and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized adult peripheral blood (mPB are common adult stem cells used for allogeneic transplantation. Our present study focuses on comparing CB- and mPB-derived stem cells in differentiation from CD34+ cells into mature RBCs. By using CD34+ cells from cord blood and G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood, we showed in vitro RBC generation of artificial red blood cells. Our results demonstrate that CB- and mPB-derived CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells have similar characteristics when cultured under the same conditions, but differ considerably with respect to expression levels of various genes and hemoglobin development. This study is the first to compare the characteristics of CB- and mPB-derived erythrocytes. The results support the idea that CB and mPB, despite some similarities, possess different erythropoietic potentials in in vitro culture systems.

  9. Multiscale Modeling of Red Blood Cells Squeezing through Submicron Slits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Lu, Huijie

    2016-11-01

    A multiscale model is applied to study the dynamics of healthy red blood cells (RBCs), RBCs in hereditary spherocytosis, and sickle cell disease squeezing through submicron slits. This study is motivated by the mechanical filtration of RBCs by inter-endothelial slits in the spleen. First, the model is validated by comparing the simulation results with experiments. Secondly, the deformation of the cytoskeleton in healthy RBCs is investigated. Thirdly, the mechanisms of damage in hereditary spherocytosis are investigated. Finally, the effects of cytoplasm and membrane viscosities, especially in sickle cell disease, are examined. The simulations results provided guidance for future experiments to explore the dynamics of RBCs under extreme deformation.

  10. THE ANTIOXIDATIVE EFFECT OF α-LIPOIC ACID ON BLOOD CELL MITOCHONDRIA OF AGED RATS%α-硫辛酸对老年大鼠外周血细胞线粒体的抗氧化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田芳; 赵鹏; 袁准; 孙宇立; 邵春海; 刘景芳

    2012-01-01

    week and maintained in the subsequent stages. Conclusion LA scavenges ROS and protects mitochondria from oxidative damages, thus plays an important role in antioxidantive and anti-aging activities, which depend on its concentration and duration in vivo.

  11. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part I: Resting distal blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Most patients referred to our department for distal blood pressure (DBP) determination on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd) are more than 60 years of age, whereas the only available reference data for resting pressure are based on data from healthy individuals aged....... Material and methods. Group I comprised 31 healthy persons aged between 61 and 87 years and group II 14 healthy middle-aged hospital staff members aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results. For group I, significantly greater gradients (DBPtoe - systolic arm blood...... pressure and DBPtoe - DBPankle) were found in the new reference data compared to the old. No significant difference between the mean values of the gradient (DBPankle - systolic arm blood pressure) was found between the old and new reference data, although the variation was significantly wider in the new...

  12. Longitudinal perspective on the conundrum of central arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scuteri, Angelo; Morrell, Christopher H; Orrù, Marco; Strait, James B; Tarasov, Kirill V; Ferreli, Liana Anna Pina; Loi, Francesco; Pilia, Maria Grazia; Delitala, Alessandro; Spurgeon, Harold; Najjar, Samer S; AlGhatrif, Majd; Lakatta, Edward G

    2014-12-01

    The age-associated increase in arterial stiffness has long been considered to parallel or to cause the age-associated increase in blood pressure (BP). Yet, the rates at which pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, and BP trajectories change over time within individuals who differ by age and sex have not been assessed and compared. This study determined the evolution of BP and aortic PWV trajectories during a 9.4-year follow-up in >4000 community-dwelling men and women of 20 to 100 years of age at entry into the SardiNIA Study. Linear mixed effects model analyses revealed that PWV accelerates with time during the observation period, at about the same rate over the entire age range in both men and women. In men, the longitudinal rate at which BP changed over time, however, did not generally parallel that of PWV acceleration: at ages>40 years the rates of change in systolic BP (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) increase plateaued and then declined so that SBP, itself, also declined at older ages, whereas PP plateaued. In women, SBP, diastolic BP, and mean BP increased at constant rates across all ages, producing an increasing rate of increase in PP. Therefore, increased aortic stiffness is implicated in the age-associated increase in SBP and PP. These findings indicate that PWV is not a surrogate for BP and that arterial properties other than arterial wall stiffness that vary by age and sex also modulate the BP trajectories during aging and lead to the dissociation of PWV, PP, and SBP trajectories in men.

  13. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  14. Excess Weight, Anthropometric Variables and Blood Pressure in Schoolchildren aged 10 to 18 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schommer, Vânia Ames [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Barbiero, Sandra Mari; Cesa, Cláudia Ciceri; Oliveira, Rosemary [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Silva, Anelise Damiani [Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pellanda, Lucia Campos, E-mail: luciapell.pesquisa@cardiologia.org.br [Instituto de Cardiologia/Fundação Universitária de Cardiologia (IC/FUC), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Ciências da Saúde de Porto Alegre (UFCSPA), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    The prevalence of hypertension among children and adolescents is estimated to range between 1% and 13%. Excess weight and central obesity are related to blood pressure levels in adults, and may be important in the early pathogenesis of SH when present in childhood. To study the association between anthropometric variables and blood pressure levels in schoolchildren from the 5{sup th} and 8{sup th} grades, and to identify which parameter was more strongly correlated with blood pressure levels. Contemporary cross-sectional study with probabilistic population-based cluster sampling of schoolchildren enrolled from the 5{sup th} to the 8{sup th} grades in public elementary schools of Porto Alegre. Data on familial risk factors and anthropometry were collected. Statistical analysis included correlations and cluster-adjusted confidence intervals. The mean age of participants was 12.57 (± 1.64) years, and 55.2% of them were females. Abnormal blood pressure levels were found in 11.3% of the sample and borderline values, in 16.2%. Among the anthropometric variables analyzed, hip circumference was the one with the strongest correlation with increased blood pressure (r = 0.462, p < 0.001), followed by waist circumference (r = 0.404, p < 0.001) and abdominal skinfold (r = 0.291, p < 0.001). We observed an association of waist circumference and skinfolds with increased blood pressure levels in the schoolchildren of the sample. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that early measurements of blood pressure, and waist and hip circumferences become a routine in health services in order to prevent this condition.

  15. Detection of free gastric cancer cell in peripheral and portal blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Ho Yoon; Lee, Jong Inn [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-01-01

    In fact, there is no definite treatment modality after liver or hematogenous metastasis in the gastric cancer. So it is important to develop a new method to predict the high risk patients for systemic recurrence. If we can detect metastatic cell in circulation, it may be beneficial in assessing tumor progression, metastatic potential and prognosis. To establish the RT-PCR methodology for detection of CEA expressing cancer cells in peripheral and portal blood and to define the relationship between peripheral and portal blood detection rate of gastric cancer patients, we performed RT-PCR analysis with peripheral and portal blood samples from 24 patients with gastric cancer (stage Ia,b, n=3; stage II, n=2; stage IIIa, n=9; stage IIIb, n=7; stage IV, n=3) and checked serum CEA level preoperatively. Mean age was 49.2 years old and male : female was 1.2 : 2 (13:11 patients). The mean serum CEA level was 10.4 ng/ml and that was higher than normal in only 2 cases. There was no positive case of tumor cell in portal and peripheral blood using RT-PCR and CEA gene specific primer. Our results indicate that the incidence of circulating cancer cells is unexpectedly very low even in advanced gastric cancer patients. (author). 20 refs.

  16. [Morphometry and electrophoretic mobility of red blood cells from patients with asthma in the intravenous blood laser irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarycheva, T G; Tsybzhitova, E B; Popova, O V; Aleksandrov, O V

    2009-03-01

    The morphometry and electrophoretic mobility of red blood cells from patients with infection-dependent asthma were comparatively studied prior to and following treatment. The patients who had underwent intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) in addition to conventional therapy had better morphofunctional parameters of red blood cells, by restoring their normal forms, decreasing their transitional ones, and increasing their electrophoretic mobility to normal values. Those who received traditional drug therapy showed no considerable morphofunctional changes of erythrocytes. Thus, in asthmatic patients, the changes in the morphology and function of red blood cells may suggest their membranous structural changes for whose correction ILIB should used.

  17. Defective TFH Cell Function and Increased TFR Cells Contribute to Defective Antibody Production in Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sage, Peter T; Tan, Catherine L; Freeman, Gordon J; Haigis, Marcia; Sharpe, Arlene H

    2015-07-14

    Defective antibody production in aging is broadly attributed to immunosenescence. However, the precise immunological mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate an increase in the ratio of inhibitory T follicular regulatory (TFR) cells to stimulatory T follicular helper (TFH) cells in aged mice. Aged TFH and TFR cells are phenotypically distinct from those in young mice, exhibiting increased programmed cell death protein-1 expression but decreased ICOS expression. Aged TFH cells exhibit defective antigen-specific responses, and programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 blockade can partially rescue TFH cell function. In contrast, young and aged TFR cells have similar suppressive capacity on a per-cell basis in vitro and in vivo. Together, these studies reveal mechanisms contributing to defective humoral immunity in aging: an increase in suppressive TFR cells combined with impaired function of aged TFH cells results in reduced T-cell-dependent antibody responses in aged mice.

  18. Defective TFH Cell Function and Increased TFR Cells Contribute to Defective Antibody Production in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T. Sage

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Defective antibody production in aging is broadly attributed to immunosenescence. However, the precise immunological mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate an increase in the ratio of inhibitory T follicular regulatory (TFR cells to stimulatory T follicular helper (TFH cells in aged mice. Aged TFH and TFR cells are phenotypically distinct from those in young mice, exhibiting increased programmed cell death protein-1 expression but decreased ICOS expression. Aged TFH cells exhibit defective antigen-specific responses, and programmed cell death protein-ligand 1 blockade can partially rescue TFH cell function. In contrast, young and aged TFR cells have similar suppressive capacity on a per-cell basis in vitro and in vivo. Together, these studies reveal mechanisms contributing to defective humoral immunity in aging: an increase in suppressive TFR cells combined with impaired function of aged TFH cells results in reduced T-cell-dependent antibody responses in aged mice.

  19. Cell-cell interaction in blood flow in patients with coronary heart disease (in vitro study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinova, Lidia I.; Simonenko, Georgy V.; Denisova, Tatyana P.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2007-02-01

    Blood cell-cell and cell-vessel wall interactions are one of the key patterns in blood and vascular pathophysiology. We have chosen the method of reconstruction of pulsative blood flow in vitro in the experimental set. Blood flow structure was studied by PC integrated video camera with following slide by slide analysis. Studied flow was of constant volumetric blood flow velocity (1 ml/h). Diameter of tube in use was comparable with coronary arteries diameter. Glucose solution and unfractured heparin were used as the nonspecial irritants of studied flow. Erythrocytes space structure in flow differs in all groups of patients in our study (men with stable angina pectoris (SAP), myocardial infarction (MI) and practically healthy men (PHM). Intensity of erythrocytes aggregate formation was maximal in patients with SAP, but time of their "construction/deconstruction" at glucose injection was minimal. Phenomena of primary clotting formation in patients with SAP of high function class was reconstructed under experimental conditions. Heparin injection (10 000 ED) increased linear blood flow velocity both in patients with SAP, MI and PHP but modulated the cell profile in the flow. Received data correspond with results of animal model studies and noninvasive blood flow studies in human. Results of our study reveal differences in blood flow structure in patients with coronary heart disease and PHP under irritating conditions as the possible framework of metabolic model of coronary blood flow destabilization.

  20. Aging, Clonality, and Rejuvenation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akunuru, Shailaja; Geiger, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    Aging is associated with reduced organ function and increased disease incidence. Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) aging driven by both cell intrinsic and extrinsic factors is linked to impaired HSC self-renewal and regeneration, aging-associated immune remodeling, and increased leukemia incidence. Compromised DNA damage responses and the increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been previously causatively attributed to HSC aging. However, recent paradigm-shifting concepts, such as global epigenetic and cytoskeletal polarity shifts, cellular senescence, as well as the clonal selection of HSCs upon aging, provide new insights into HSC aging mechanisms. Rejuvenating agents that can reprogram the epigenetic status of aged HSCs or senolytic drugs that selectively deplete senescent cells provide promising translational avenues for attenuating hematopoietic aging and, potentially, alleviating aging-associated immune remodeling and myeloid malignancies.

  1. Characterization of red blood cells (RBCs) using dual Brillouin/Raman micro-spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Bustamante-Lopez, Sandra C.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2016-04-01

    Erythrocytes, or red blood cells, transport oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body's tissues and organs. Red blood cell mechanical properties are altered in a number of diseases such as sickle cell anaemia and malaria. Additionally, mechanically modified red blood cell ghosts are being considered as a long-term, biocompatible carrier for drug delivery and for blood analyte sensing. Brillouin spectroscopy enables viscoelastic characterization of samples at the microscale. In this report, Brillouin spectroscopy is applied to characterize the mechanical properties of red blood cells and red blood cell ghosts.

  2. Saving the leftovers: models for banking cord blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Kimberly J

    2009-01-01

    Each year there are over four million live births in the United States. Each birth produces umbilical cord blood stem cells, which are usually discarded. The author argues that rather than discarding the umbilical cord, this valuable resource of cord blood should be banked and used for research and therapeutic purposes. Umbilical cord blood could provide a solution to the critical need to find matching donors for hematopoietic transplants in patients who have no matching bone marrow donors. Creating a system of universal donation to a public bank will greatlyincrease the number of donors and therefore, the number of matches for patients. Such a system will facilitate the development and use of new technologies and transplant procedures, while providing an opportunity for treatment to individuals who would otherwise not be able to find suitable donors.

  3. Mobility Enhancement of Red Blood Cells with Biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Daiki; Oikawa, Noriko; Kurita, Rei

    2016-03-01

    Adhesion of red blood cells (RBC) to substrates are one of crucial problems for a blood clot. Here we investigate the mobility of RBC between two glass substrates in saline with polymer systems. We find that RBCs are adhered to the glass substrate with PEG, however the mobility steeply increases with fibrinogen and dextran, which are biopolymers. We also find that the mobility affects an aggregation dynamics of RBCs, which is related with diseases such as influenza, blood clot and so on. The Brownian motion helps to increase probability of contact with each other and to find a more stable condition of the aggregation. Thus the biopolymers play important roles not only for preventing the adhesion but also for the aggregation.

  4. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin

    2013-01-01

    . Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...

  5. 2-D Model for Normal and Sickle Cell Blood Microcirculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekleab, Yonatan; Harris, Wesley

    2011-11-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder that alters the red blood cell (RBC) structure and function such that hemoglobin (Hb) cannot effectively bind and release oxygen. Previous computational models have been designed to study the microcirculation for insight into blood disorders such as SCD. Our novel 2-D computational model represents a fast, time efficient method developed to analyze flow dynamics, O2 diffusion, and cell deformation in the microcirculation. The model uses a finite difference, Crank-Nicholson scheme to compute the flow and O2 concentration, and the level set computational method to advect the RBC membrane on a staggered grid. Several sets of initial and boundary conditions were tested. Simulation data indicate a few parameters to be significant in the perturbation of the blood flow and O2 concentration profiles. Specifically, the Hill coefficient, arterial O2 partial pressure, O2 partial pressure at 50% Hb saturation, and cell membrane stiffness are significant factors. Results were found to be consistent with those of Le Floch [2010] and Secomb [2006].

  6. Axial dispersion in flowing red blood cell suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgorski, Thomas; Losserand, Sylvain; Coupier, Gwennou

    2016-11-01

    A key parameter in blood microcirculation is the transit time of red blood cells (RBCs) through an organ, which can influence the efficiency of gas exchange and oxygen availability. A large dispersion of this transit time is observed in vivo and is partly due to the axial dispersion in the flowing suspension. In the classic Taylor-Aris example of a solute flowing in a tube, the combination of molecular diffusion and parabolic velocity profile leads to enhanced axial dispersion. In suspensions of non-Brownian deformable bodies such as RBCs, axial dispersion is governed by a combination of shear induced migration and shear-induced diffusion arising from hydrodynamic interactions. We revisit this problem in the case of RBC pulses flowing in a microchannel and show that the axial dispersion of the pulse eventually saturates with a final extension that depends directly on RBC mechanical properties. The result is especially interesting in the dilute limit since the final pulse length depends only on the channel width, exponent of the migration law and dimensionless migration velocity. In continuous flow, the dispersion of transit times is the result of complex cell-cell and cell-wall interactions and is strongy influenced by the polydispersity of the blood sample. The authors acknowledge support from LabEx TEC21 and CNES.

  7. Effects of chronic kidney disease on blood cells membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderjakova, Z; Lajdova, I; Horvathova, M; Morvova, M; Sikurova, L

    2012-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is progressive loss of renal function associated among others with increased intracellular calcium concentration. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of CKD on cell membrane properties such as human red blood cell Ca(2+) ATPase activity, lymphocyte plasma membrane P2X(7) receptor expression and function. This could help us in elucidating the origin of increased calcium concentration in blood cells. We found out Ca(2+) ATPase activity is decreased in early stage CKD patients resulting in altered calcium removal from cytoplasm. By means of flow cytometry we assessed that P2X(7) receptor expression on lymphocyte membrane is 1.5 fold increased for CKD patients. Moreover, we detected an increased uptake of ethidium bromide through this receptor in CKD at basal conditions. It means CKD lymphocyte membranes contain more receptors which are more permeable thus allowing increased calcium influx from extracellular milieu. Finally, we can state alterations in blood cell membranes are closely linked to CKD and may be responsible for intracellular calcium accumulation.

  8. Men with Sickle Cell Anemia and Priapism Exhibit Increased Hemolytic Rate, Decreased Red Blood Cell Deformability and Increased Red Blood Cell Aggregate Strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kizzy-Clara Cita

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between priapism in men with sickle cell anemia (SCA and hemorheological and hemolytical parameters.Fifty-eight men with SCA (median age: 38 years were included; 28 who had experienced priapism at least once during their life (priapism group and 30 who never experienced this complication (control group. Twenty-two patients were treated with hydroxycarbamide, 11 in each group. All patients were at steady state at the time of inclusion. Hematological and biochemical parameters were obtained through routine procedures. The Laser-assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer was used to measure red blood cell (RBC deformability at 30 Pa (ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties (laser backscatter versus time. Blood viscosity was measured at a shear rate of 225 s-1 using a cone/plate viscometer. A principal component analysis was performed on 4 hemolytic markers (i.e., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT, total bilirubin (BIL levels and reticulocyte (RET percentage to calculate a hemolytic index.Compared to the control group, patients with priapism exhibited higher ASAT (p = 0.01, LDH (p = 0.03, RET (p = 0.03 levels and hemolytic indices (p = 0.02. Higher RBC aggregates strength (p = 0.01 and lower RBC deformability (p = 0.005 were observed in patients with priapism compared to controls. After removing the hydroxycarbamide-treated patients, RBC deformability (p = 0.01 and RBC aggregate strength (p = 0.03 were still different between the two groups, and patients with priapism exhibited significantly higher hemolytic indices (p = 0.01 than controls.Our results confirm that priapism in SCA is associated with higher hemolytic rates and show for the first time that this complication is also associated with higher RBC aggregate strength and lower RBC deformability.

  9. Historical time trends in red blood cell usage in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Hoeven LR

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Loan R van Hoeven,1,2 Maria MW Koopman,3 Hendrik Koffijberg,4 Kit CB Roes,1 Mart P Janssen1,2 1Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, 2Transfusion Technology Assessment Department, Sanquin Research, 3Department of Transfusion Medicine, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, 4Department of Health Technology and Services Research, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands Background: While the number of hospitalized patients in Dutch hospitals has increased since 1997, the demand for red blood cell units (RBCs has simultaneously decreased. This implies a dramatic change in transfusion practice toward fewer blood transfusions on average per patient.Objectives: In order to explain the RBC reduction, different patient groups (surgical, medical, obstetrical, and specific age groups were studied retrospectively in relation to RBC use. In addition, the use of combinations of RBCs, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets during a transfusion episode was examined for trends over time.Materials and methods: Data from the PROTON database, containing information on all transfusions in twelve Dutch hospitals in the period 1996–2005, including corresponding patient data (age, diagnosis, treatment, and hospitalizations and blood unit data (type, amount, and date were analyzed.Results: The proportion of RBCs used for surgical patients declined from 50% in 1996 to 40% in 2005, whereas medical use increased from 47% to 58% (the remaining 2%–3% went to obstetrical patients. Changes were more marked in the higher age groups. Also, a trend was observed toward the use of only one or two RBCs during a transfusion episode rather than three or more. Among surgical patients who received blood, the use of combinations of blood units, as compared to RBCs only, increased from 32% to 39%.Conclusion: The results suggest a more restrictive transfusion policy

  10. Methylation at global LINE-1 repeats in human blood are affected by gender but not by age or natural hormone cycles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman El-Maarri

    Full Text Available Previously, we reported on inter-individual and gender specific variations of LINE-1 methylation in healthy individuals. In this study, we investigated whether this variability could be influenced by age or sex hormones in humans. To this end, we studied LINE-1 methylation in vivo in blood-derived DNA from individuals aged 18 to 64 years and from young healthy females at various hormone levels during the menstrual cycle. Our results show that no significant association with age was observed. However, the previously reported increase of LINE-1 methylation in males was reconfirmed. In females, although no correlation between LINE-1 or Alu methylation and hormone levels was observed, a significant stable individual specific level of methylation was noted. In vitro results largely confirmed these findings, as neither estrogen nor dihydrotestosterone affected LINE-1 or Alu methylation in Hek293T, HUVEC, or MDA-kb2 cell lines. In contrast, a decrease in methylation was observed in estrogen-treated T47-Kbluc cell lines strongly expressing estrogen receptor. The very low expression of estrogen receptor in blood cells could explain the observed insensitivity of methylation at LINE-1 to natural hormonal variations in females. In conclusion, neither natural cycle of hormones nor age has a detectable effect on the LINE-1 methylation in peripheral blood cells, while gender remains an important factor.

  11. THE EFFECT OF BLOOD AND MILK SERUM ZINC CONCENTRATION ON MILK SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Davidov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of blood and milk zinc concentration on somatic cell count and occurrence of subclinical mastitis cases. The study was performed on thirty Holstein cows approximate same body weight, ages 3 to 5 years, with equally milk production. Blood samples were taken after the morning milking from the caudal vein and milk from all four quarters was taken before morning milking. All samples of blood and milk were taken to determined zinc, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 37.67% (11/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration below 7µmol/l, and 63.33% or 19/30 cows have blood serum zinc concentration higher then 13µmol/l. Also 30% (9/30 cows have somatic cell count lower then 400.000/ml which indicate absence of subclinical mastitis, but 70% (21/30 cows have somatic cell count higher then 400.000/ml which indicate subclinical mastitis. Results indicate that cows with level of zinc in blood serum higher then 13 µmol/l have lower somatic cell count. Cows with lower zinc blood serum concentration then 7 µmol/l have high somatic cell count and high incidence of subclinical mastitis. According to results in this research there is no significant effect of milk serum zinc concentration on somatic cell count in dairy cows.

  12. Quantification of Cell-Free DNA in Red Blood Cell Units in Different Whole Blood Processing Methods

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    Andrew W. Shih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Whole blood donations in Canada are processed by either the red cell filtration (RCF or whole blood filtration (WBF methods, where leukoreduction is potentially delayed in WBF. Fresh WBF red blood cells (RBCs have been associated with increased in-hospital mortality after transfusion. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA is released by neutrophils prior to leukoreduction, degraded during RBC storage, and is associated with adverse patient outcomes. We explored cfDNA levels in RBCs prepared by RCF and WBF and different storage durations. Methods. Equal numbers of fresh (stored ≤14 days and older RBCs were sampled. cfDNA was quantified by spectrophotometry and PicoGreen. Separate regression models determined the association with processing method and storage duration and their interaction on cfDNA. Results. cfDNA in 120 RBC units (73 RCF, 47 WBF were measured. Using PicoGreen, WBF units overall had higher cfDNA than RCF units (p=0.0010; fresh WBF units had higher cfDNA than fresh RCF units (p=0.0093. Using spectrophotometry, fresh RBC units overall had higher cfDNA than older units (p=0.0031; fresh WBF RBCs had higher cfDNA than older RCF RBCs (p=0.024. Conclusion. Higher cfDNA in fresh WBF was observed compared to older RCF blood. Further study is required for association with patient outcomes.

  13. Pyruvate effects on red blood cells during in vitro cardiopulmonary bypass with dogs' blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, DaMing; Tan, HongJing; Cai, HuiJun; Zhou, FangQiang

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the effects of pyruvate (Pyr) on adenosine triphosphate (ATP), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and nitric oxide (NO) in red blood cells (RBCs) during the cardiopulmonary bypass procedure (CPB), blood, 500 mL, was collected from each of 10 healthy dogs (weight 12-18 kg). The blood was divided into two parts (250 mL each) and randomly assigned into the control group (Group C, n = 10) or the Pyr group (Group P, n = 10). The blood was commingled with an equal volume of 0.9% NaCl and pyruvated isotonic solution (Pyr 50 mM) in the extracorporeal circuit in the two groups, respectively. The CPB procedure was fixed at 120 min, and the transferring flow was 4 L/min. Contents of ATP in RBCs, eNOS activities, and NO productions in plasma were measured before CPB and during CPB at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min in both groups. The ATP level, eNOS activity, and NO production were not different prior to CPB between the two groups. A decline of ATP levels was shown in both groups but remained significantly higher in Group P than in Group C at the same time points during in vitro CPB (P dogs' RBCs in the ATP level, eNOS activity, and NO production, in vitro, but Pyr effectively protected RBCs in these functions during CPB. Pyr would be clinically protective for RBCs during CPB.

  14. Pleomorphic Structures in Human Blood Are Red Blood Cell-Derived Microparticles, Not Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Adam J.; Gray, Warren D.; Schroeder, Max; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette V.; Dillard, Rebecca S.; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R.; Stephens, David; Roback, John D.; Searles, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are a common, life-saving therapy for many patients, but they have also been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We identified unusual, pleomorphic structures in human RBC transfusion units by negative-stain electron microscopy that appeared identical to those previously reported to be bacteria in healthy human blood samples. The presence of viable, replicating bacteria in stored blood could explain poor outcomes in transfusion recipients and have major implications for transfusion medicine. Here, we investigated the possibility that these structures were bacteria. Results Flow cytometry, miRNA analysis, protein analysis, and additional electron microscopy studies strongly indicated that the pleomorphic structures in the supernatant of stored RBCs were RBC-derived microparticles (RMPs). Bacterial 16S rDNA PCR amplified from these samples were sequenced and was found to be highly similar to species that are known to commonly contaminate laboratory reagents. Conclusions These studies suggest that pleomorphic structures identified in human blood are RMPs and not bacteria, and they provide an example in which laboratory contaminants may can mislead investigators. PMID:27760197

  15. Aging of hematopoietic stem cells: DNA damage and mutations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Bettina M; Geiger, Hartmut

    2016-10-01

    Aging in the hematopoietic system and the stem cell niche contributes to aging-associated phenotypes of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), including leukemia and aging-associated immune remodeling. Among others, the DNA damage theory of aging of HSCs is well established, based on the detection of a significantly larger amount of γH2AX foci and a higher tail moment in the comet assay, both initially thought to be associated with DNA damage in aged HSCs compared with young cells, and bone marrow failure in animals devoid of DNA repair factors. Novel data on the increase in and nature of DNA mutations in the hematopoietic system with age, the quality of the DNA damage response in aged HSCs, and the nature of γH2AX foci question a direct link between DNA damage and the DNA damage response and aging of HSCs, and rather favor changes in epigenetics, splicing-factors or three-dimensional architecture of the cell as major cell intrinsic factors of HSCs aging. Aging of HSCs is also driven by a strong contribution of aging of the niche. This review discusses the DNA damage theory of HSC aging in the light of these novel mechanisms of aging of HSCs.

  16. Impaired T-cell functions in aged guinea-pigs restored by thymostimulin (TS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falchetti, R; Cafiero, C; Caprino, L

    1982-01-01

    The age-related changes of different T-cell activities in guinea pigs and the effect of Thymostimulin (TS), a thymus extract, on the immunocompetence of these cells was studied. Mitogen-induced proliferation of peripheral blood lymphocytes was increased by TS in vitro. The intraperitoneal administration of TS (5 mg/kg) to aged animals restored the helper function of T lymphocytes and enhanced the reactivity to mitogens of both peripheral blood lymphocytes and spleen lymphocytes. The data obtained suggest that as in other species, there is an age-associated decline of immunological response, in guinea pigs too, probably due to a deficiency of thymic hormone(s) and that TS could correct this deficiency.

  17. Red cell properties after different modes of blood transportation

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    Asya Makhro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extend has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 hours of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin and citrate-based CPDA for two temperatures (4oC and room temperature were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination, red blood cell (RBC volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations and formation of micro vesicles, Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameter may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature. Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+ handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4oC. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using optimized shipment protocol the majority of parameters were stable within 24 hours, the condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for the as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the

  18. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pyloriin school-aged Chinese in Taipei City and relationship between ABO blood groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tzee-Chung Wu; Liang-Kung Chen; Shinn-Jang Hwang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore the seropositive rate of antibodies against H. pylori(anti-HP) in Taipei City and to compare the relationship of ABO blood groups and H. pylori infection.METHODS:In 1993, high school students in Shih-Lin District were randomly selected for blood samplings by their registration number at school. In addition, similar procedures were performed on the well-children clinics of Taipei Veterans General Hospital. Besides, randomly selected sera from the adults who took the physical examination were recruited for evaluation. Informed consents were obtained from all the subjects before blood samplings and parents were simultaneously informed for those who were younger than 18-year-old. Blood tests for anti-HP and ABO blood groupings were performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Chi square tests were used for the comparisons between seroprevalence of H. pylori and ABO blood groups.RESULTS: Totally, 685 subjects were recruited (260 children aged 1-14 years, 425 high school students aged 15-18 years)were evaluated, and another 88 adult healthy volunteers were studied as well for comparison. The age-specific seropositive rate of anti-HP was 1.3 % at age 1-5 years,7.7 % at age 6-10 years, and 11.5 % at age 11-14 years.The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection was abruptly increased in young adolescence: 18.6 % at age 15 years,28.1% at age 16 years, 32.4 % at age 17 years and 41.0%at age 18 years, respectively. In the 425 high school students,ABO blood groupings were performed, which disclosed 48.5 % (206/425) of blood group O, 24 % (102/425) of blood group A, 21.8 % (93/425) of blood group B and 5.6 %(24/425) of blood group AB. In comparison of the subjects with blood group O and the other blood groups, no statistical significance could be identified in the seroprevalence of H. pylori(P=0.99).CONCLUSION: The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection in Taipei City in adults is similar to the developed countries,and the abrupt increase of H. pylori during high

  19. Role of adenohypophyseal mixed cell-follicles in age estimation.

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    Ishikawa T

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we used paraffin-embedded human pituitary obtained from 248 autopsy cases and identified mixed cell follicles by the immunohistochemical method. We examined the number and size of the mixed cell follicles, and the ratio of each component cell of these follicles, in the anterior pituitary at various age groups. The number of follicles increased with age, and the size of the follicles also tended to enlarge with age. Statistical analysis showed that a high correlation existed between age and the number or the size of the mixed cell-follicles formed by various adenohypophyseal cells. In addition, when the proportions of the different cell types that formed the follicles were examined, sex differences were observed with aging for the GH cells, the PRL cells, and the gonadotroph (GTH cells, while no changes were observed with aging in both men and women for the ACTH cells and TSH cells. These results indicate that the number, size, and ratio of each component cell of follicles in the anterior pituitary are adequately applicable for the purpose of age estimation in routine forensic medicine.

  20. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchenna Tweteise, Patience; Natukunda, Bernard; Bazira, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2) are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP); HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2) antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2%) males and 139 (37.8%) females), only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  1. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Types 1 and 2 Seropositivity among Blood Donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank, South Western Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patience Uchenna Tweteise

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV 1/2 are retroviruses associated with different pathologies. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP; HTLV-2 is not clearly associated with a known clinical disease. Both viruses may be transmitted by whole blood transfusion, from mother to child predominantly through breastfeeding, and by sexual contact. Presently, none of the regional blood banks in Uganda perform routine pretransfusion screening for HTLV. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1/2 (HTLV-1/2 antibodies among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank in South Western Uganda. A cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2014. Methodology. Consecutive blood samples of 368 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Samples reactive on a first HTLV-1/2 ELISA were further retested in duplicate using the same ELISA. Of the three hundred and sixty-eight blood donors (229 (62.2% males and 139 (37.8% females, only two male donors aged 20 and 21 years were HTLV-1/2 seropositive, representing a prevalence of 0.54%. Conclusion. HTLV-1/2 prevalence is low among blood donors at Mbarara Regional Blood Bank. Studies among other categories of people at risk for HTLV 1/2 infection should be carried out.

  2. Computer-Aided Diagnosis Of Leukemic Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, U.; Harms, H.; Haucke, M.; Aus, H. M.; ter Meulen, V.

    1982-11-01

    In a first clinical test, computer programs are being used to diagnose leukemias. The data collected include blood samples from patients suffering from acute myelomonocytic-, acute monocytic- and acute promyelocytic, myeloblastic, prolymphocytic, chronic lymphocytic leukemias and leukemic transformed immunocytoma. The proper differentiation of the leukemic cells is essential because the therapy depends on the type of leukemia. The algorithms analyse the fine chromatin texture and distribution in the nuclei as well as size and shape parameters from the cells and nuclei. Cells with similar nuclei from different leukemias can be distinguished from each other by analyzing the cell cytoplasm images. Recognition of these subtle differences in the cells require an image sampling rate of 15-30 pixel/micron. The results for the entire data set correlate directly to established hematological parameters and support the previously published initial training set .

  3. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Alexandra; Olmer, Ruth; Schwanke, Kristin; Wunderlich, Stephanie; Merkert, Sylvia; Hess, Christian; Zweigerdt, Robert; Gruh, Ina; Meyer, Johann; Wagner, Stefan; Maier, Lars S; Han, Dong Wook; Glage, Silke; Miller, Konstantin; Fischer, Philipp; Schöler, Hans R; Martin, Ulrich

    2009-10-02

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) may represent an ideal cell source for future regenerative therapies. A critical issue concerning the clinical use of patient-specific iPSCs is the accumulation of mutations in somatic (stem) cells over an organism's lifetime. Acquired somatic mutations are passed onto iPSCs during reprogramming and may be associated with loss of cellular functions and cancer formation. Here we report the generation of human iPSCs from cord blood (CB) as a juvenescent cell source. CBiPSCs show characteristics typical of embryonic stem cells and can be differentiated into derivatives of all three germ layers, including functional cardiomyocytes. For future therapeutic production of autologous and allogeneic iPSC derivatives, CB could be routinely harvested for public and commercial CB banks without any donor risk. CB could readily become available for pediatric patients and, in particular, for newborns with genetic diseases or congenital malformations.

  4. Effects of aging on cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolism, and blood oxygenation level dependent responses to visual stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, Beau M; Liang, Christine L; Leontiev, Oleg; Perthen, Joanna E; Fleisher, Adam S; Lansing, Amy E; Buxton, Richard B

    2009-04-01

    Calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a noninvasive technique to assess functional metabolic changes associated with normal aging. We simultaneously measured both the magnitude of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses in the visual cortex for separate conditions of mild hypercapnia (5% CO(2)) and a simple checkerboard stimulus in healthy younger (n = 10, mean: 28-years-old) and older (n = 10, mean: 53-years-old) adults. From these data we derived baseline CBF, the BOLD scaling parameter M, the fractional change in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) with activation, and the coupling ratio n of the fractional changes in CBF and CMRO(2). For the functional activation paradigm, the magnitude of the BOLD response was significantly lower for the older group (0.57 +/- 0.07%) compared to the younger group (0.95 +/- 0.14%), despite the finding that the fractional CBF and CMRO(2) changes were similar for both groups. The weaker BOLD response for the older group was due to a reduction in the parameter M, which was significantly lower for older (4.6 +/- 0.4%) than younger subjects (6.5 +/- 0.8%), most likely reflecting a reduction in baseline CBF for older (41.7 +/- 4.8 mL/100 mL/min) compared to younger (59.6 +/- 9.1 mL/100 mL/min) subjects. In addition to these primary responses, for both groups the BOLD response exhibited a post-stimulus undershoot with no significant difference in this magnitude. However, the post-undershoot period of the CBF response was significantly greater for older compared to younger subjects. We conclude that when comparing two populations, the BOLD response can provide misleading reflections of underlying physiological changes. A calibrated approach provides a more quantitative reflection of underlying metabolic changes than the BOLD response alone.

  5. Aging of perennial cells and organ parts according to the programmed aging paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertini, Giacinto; Ferrara, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    If aging is a physiological phenomenon-as maintained by the programmed aging paradigm-it must be caused by specific genetically determined and regulated mechanisms, which must be confirmed by evidence. Within the programmed aging paradigm, a complete proposal starts from the observation that cells, tissues, and organs show continuous turnover: As telomere shortening determines both limits to cell replication and a progressive impairment of cellular functions, a progressive decline in age-related fitness decline (i.e., aging) is a clear consequence. Against this hypothesis, a critic might argue that there are cells (most types of neurons) and organ parts (crystalline core and tooth enamel) that have no turnover and are subject to wear or manifest alterations similar to those of cells with turnover. In this review, it is shown how cell types without turnover appear to be strictly dependent on cells subjected to turnover. The loss or weakening of the functions fulfilled by these cells with turnover, due to telomere shortening and turnover slowing, compromises the vitality of the served cells without turnover. This determines well-known clinical manifestations, which in their early forms are described as distinct diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, age-related macular degeneration, etc.). Moreover, for the two organ parts (crystalline core and tooth enamel) without viable cells or any cell turnover, it is discussed how this is entirely compatible with the programmed aging paradigm.

  6. Continuous-flow microfluidic blood cell sorting for unprocessed whole blood using surface-micromachined microfiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Weiqiang; Liu, Guangyu; Lu, Wei; Fu, Jianping

    2014-07-21

    White blood cells (WBCs) constitute about 0.1% of the blood cells, yet they play a critical role in innate and adaptive immune responses against pathogenic infections, allergic conditions, and malignancies and thus contain rich information about the immune status of the body. Rapid isolation of WBCs directly from whole blood is a prerequisite for any integrated immunoassay platform designed for examining WBC phenotypes and functions; however, such functionality is still challenging for blood-on-a-chip systems, as existing microfluidic cell sorting techniques are inadequate for efficiently processing unprocessed whole blood on chip with concurrent high throughput and cell purity. Herein we report a microfluidic chip for continuous-flow isolation and sorting of WBCs from whole blood with high throughput and separation efficiency. The microfluidic cell sorting chip leveraged the crossflow filtration scheme in conjunction with a surface-micromachined poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfiltration membrane (PMM) with high porosity. With a sample throughput of 1 mL h(-1), the microfluidic cell sorting chip could recover 27.4 ± 4.9% WBCs with a purity of 93.5 ± 0.5%. By virtue of its separation efficiency, ease of sample recovery, and high throughput enabled by its continuous-flow operation, the microfluidic cell sorting chip holds promise as an upstream component for blood sample preparation and analysis in integrated blood-on-a-chip systems.

  7. Centrosome and microtubule instability in aging Drosophila cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, H.; Chakrabarti, A.; Hedrick, J.

    1999-01-01

    Several cytoskeletal changes are associated with aging which includes alterations in muscle structure leading to muscular atrophy, and weakening of the microtubule network which affects cellular secretion and maintenance of cell shape. Weakening of the microtubule network during meiosis in aging oocytes can result in aneuploidy or trisomic zygotes with increasing maternal age. Imbalances of cytoskeletal organization can lead to disease such as Alzheimer's, muscular disorders, and cancer. Because many cytoskeletal diseases are related to age we investigated the effects of aging on microtubule organization in cell cultures of the Drosophila cell model system (Schneider S-1 and Kc23 cell lines). This cell model is increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures. Drosophila cells are amenable to genetic manipulations and can be used to identify and manipulate genes which are involved in the aging processes. Immunofluorescence, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy were employed for the analysis of microtubule organizing centers (centrosomes) and microtubules at various times after subculturing cells in fresh medium. Our results reveal that centrosomes and the microtubule network becomes significantly affected in aging cells after 5 days of subculture. At 5-14 days of subculture, 1% abnormal out of 3% mitoses were noted which were clearly distinguishable from freshly subcultured control cells in which 3% of cells undergo normal mitosis with bipolar configurations. Microtubules are also affected in the midbody during cell division. The midbody in aging cells becomes up to 10 times longer when compared with midbodies in freshly subcultured cells. During interphase, microtubules are often disrupted and disorganized, which may indicate improper function related to transport of cell organelles along microtubules. These results are likely to help explain some cytoskeletal disorders and diseases related to aging.

  8. Harvesting, processing and inventory management of peripheral blood stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijovic Aleksandar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available By 2003, 97% autologous transplants and 65% of allogeneic transplants in Europe used mobilised peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC. Soon after their introduction in the early 1990′s, PBSC were associated with faster haemopoietic recovery, fewer transfusions and antibiotic usage, and a shorter hospital stay. Furthermore, ease and convenience of PBSC collection made them more appealing than BM harvests. Improved survival has hitherto been demonstrated in patients with high risk AML and CML. However, the advantages of PBSC come at a price of a higher incidence of extensive chronic GVHD. In order to be present in the blood, stem cells undergo the process of "mobilisation" from their bone marrow habitat. Mobilisation, and its reciprocal process - homing - are regulated by a complex network of molecules on the surface of stem cells and stromal cells, and enzymes and cytokines released from granulocytes and osteoclasts. Knowledge of these mechanisms is beginning to be exploited for clinical purposes. In current practice, stem cell are mobilised by use of chemotherapy in conjunction with haemopoietic growth factors (HGF, or with HGF alone. Granulocyte colony stimulating factor has emerged as the single most important mobilising agent, due to its efficacy and a relative paucity of serious side effects. Over a decade of use in healthy donors has resulted in vast experience of optimal dosing and administration, and safety matters. PBSC harvesting can be performed on a variety of cell separators. Apheresis procedures are nowadays routine, but it is important to be well versed in the possible complications in order to avoid harm to the patient or donor. To ensure efficient collection, harvesting must begin when sufficient stem cells have been mobilised. A rapid, reliable, standardized blood test is essential to decide when to begin harvesting; currently, blood CD34+ cell counting by flow cytometry fulfils these criteria. Blood CD34+ cell counts strongly

  9. Aging and senescence of skin cells in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rattan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    aging in vitro are dermal fibroblasts, epidermal keratinocytes, and melanocytes. Serial subcultivation of normal diploid skin cells can be performed only a limited number of times, and the emerging senescent phenotype can be categorized into structural, physiological, biochemical, and molecular......Studying age-related changes in the physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of isolated skin cell populations in culture has greatly expanded the understanding of the fundamental aspects of skin aging. The three main cell types that have been studied extensively with respect to cellular...... phenotypes, which can be used as biomarkers of cellular aging in vitro. The rate and phenotype of aging are different in different cell types. There are both common features and specific features of aging of skin fibroblasts, keratinocytes, melanocytes, and other cell types. A progressive accumulation...

  10. Cinnamomum zeylanicum extract on the radiolabelling of blood constituents and the morphometry of red blood cells: In vitro assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, G.S. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frydman, J.N.G. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias da Saude, Avenida General Gustavo Cordeiro de Farias, s/n, 59010-180 Natal, RN (Brazil); Rocha, V.C.; Pereira, M.O. [Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87, 4o Andar, Vila Isabel, 20551-030 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)] (and others)

    2008-02-15

    Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (cinnamon) on the labelling of blood constituents with technetium-99 m({sup 99m}Tc) and on the morphology of red blood cells were studied. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with cinnamon extract for 1hour or with 0.9% NaCl, as control. Labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc was performed. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC), soluble (SF-P and SF-BC) and insoluble (IF-P and IF-BC) fractions were separated. The radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity incorporated (%ATI) was calculated. Blood smears were prepared, fixed, stained and the qualitative and quantitative morphological analysis of the red blood cells was evaluated. The data showed that the cinnamon extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on BC, IF-P and IF-BC. No modifications were verified on shape of red blood cells. Cinnamon extracts could alter the labelling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc, and although our results were obtained with animals, precaution is suggested in interpretations of nuclear medicine examinations involving the labelling of blood constituents in patients who are using cinnamon.

  11. White blood cells contribute to patient-specific warfarin dose for Han Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jin; ZHENG Wen-jie; ZHANG Wei-juan; WANG He-yao; WANG Chen

    2012-01-01

    Background Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed anticoagulant worldwide.Factors which influence warfarin's inter-individual requirements including age,weight,and genetic factors explained about 50% of dose variance,and unidentified factors still remain.The aim of this study was to explore whether white blood cell count affects warfarin dose requirements.Methods Three hundred and twenty-two patients suffering from venous thromboembolism (VTE) and taking warfarin were recruited in this study.Genotyping of selected genes was conducted and other information was collected using the Epidata software.Dosing algorithms were constructed by multivariate linear regression analyses.Results In addition to well-known factors such as age,body weight,CYP2Cg*3,and VKORC1 c.1173C>T,white blood cell counts negatively related to warfarin dose requirements and contributed to warfarin variability in Han Chinese by about 0.6%.Conclusion White blood cell count has a small but significant contribution to warfarin dose requirements in Han Chinese.

  12. Reduced Numbers and Impaired Function of Regulatory T Cells in Peripheral Blood of Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Ruhnau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Regulatory T cells (Tregs have been suggested to modulate stroke-induced immune responses. However, analyses of Tregs in patients and in experimental stroke have yielded contradictory findings. We performed the current study to assess the regulation and function of Tregs in peripheral blood of stroke patients. Age dependent expression of CD39 on Tregs was quantified in mice and men. Methods. Total FoxP3+ Tregs and CD39+FoxP3+ Tregs were quantified by flow cytometry in controls and stroke patients on admission and on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 thereafter. Treg function was assessed by quantifying the inhibition of activation-induced expression of CD69 and CD154 on T effector cells (Teffs. Results. Total Tregs accounted for 5.0% of CD4+ T cells in controls and <2.8% in stroke patients on admission. They remained below control values until day 7. CD39+ Tregs were most strongly reduced in stroke patients. On day 3 the Treg-mediated inhibition of CD154 upregulation on CD4+ Teff was impaired in stroke patients. CD39 expression on Treg increased with age in peripheral blood of mice and men. Conclusion. We demonstrate a loss of active FoxP3+CD39+ Tregs from stroke patient’s peripheral blood. The suppressive Treg function of remaining Tregs is impaired after stroke.

  13. Peripheral red blood cell split chimerism as a consequence of intramedullary selective apoptosis of recipient red blood cells in a case of sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marziali, Marco; Isgrò, Antonella; Sodani, Pietro; Gaziev, Javid; Fraboni, Daniela; Paciaroni, Katia; Gallucci, Cristiano; Alfieri, Cecilia; Roveda, Andrea; De Angelis, Gioia; Cardarelli, Luisa; Ribersani, Michela; Andreani, Marco; Lucarelli, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Allogeneic cellular gene therapy through hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only radical cure for congenital hemoglobinopathies like thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Persistent mixed hematopoietic chimerism (PMC) has been described in thalassemia and sickle cell anemia. Here, we describe the clinical course of a 6-year-old girl who had received bone marrow transplant for sickle cell anemia. After the transplant, the patient showed 36% donor hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow, whereas in the peripheral blood there was evidence of 80% circulating donor red blood cells (RBC). The analysis of apoptosis at the Bone Marrow level suggests that Fas might contribute to the cell death of host erythroid precursors. The increase in NK cells and the regulatory T cell population observed in this patient suggests that these cells might contribute to the condition of mixed chimerism.

  14. Cesarean section imprints cord blood immune cell distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie;

    2014-01-01

    Immune programming in early life may affect the risk of developing immune-related diseases later in life. Children born by cesarean section seem to be at higher risk of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and type-1 diabetes. We hypothesized that delivery by cesarean section may affect immune maturation...... in newborns. The objective of the study was to profile innate and adaptive immune cell subsets in cord blood of children born by cesarean section or natural birth....

  15. Evaluation of the thyroid blood flow with Doppler ultrasonography in healthy school-aged children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazici, Burhan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)], E-mail: dryazici@yahoo.com; Simsek, Enver [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Erdogmus, Besir [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Bahcebasi, Talat [Department of Public Health, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Aktas, Alev [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Buyukkaya, Ramazan [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey); Uzun, Hakan [Department of Pediatrics, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce (Turkey); Safak, Alp Alper [Department of Radiology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Konuralp, Duzce 81620 (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Objective: To determine the relationship between thyroid blood flow and anthropometric measurements, pubertal stage, and thyroid and gonadotropic hormones. Materials and methods: We examined 123 healthy school-aged children prospectively (69 boys (56.1%) and 54 girls (43.9%), 7-17 years old). Their sex, age, body weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and pubertal stage were determined. Serum thyrotropin, free thyroxine, luteinizing hormone, and follicle stimulating hormone were measured in both genders, along with testosterone in boys and estradiol in girls. The peak systolic velocity (PSV), resistance index (RI), and pulsatility index (PI) of the superior thyroid artery were determined. The correlations between the Doppler parameters and these factors were investigated. Results: There were no differences in age, weight, height, BMI, thyroid volume, PSV, RI, or PI between boys and girls (P > 0.05). The PSV and PI showed strong correlations with age, height, weight, puberty stage, thyroid volume, and BMI. The RI showed a strong inverse correlation with age, height, weight, puberty stage, and thyroid volume and a weak inverse correlation with the BMI. Conclusion: Determination of the thyroid arterial flow in normal healthy children is important during a Doppler ultrasound (US) examination. Doppler US parameters and their percentiles should be described in healthy children from different age groups, and these percentiles will aid in interpreting Doppler US in children.

  16. Design of a sedimentation hole in a microfluidic channel to remove blood cells from diluted whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Chiaki; Ohki, Yoshimichi; Ashiba, Hiroki; Fujimaki, Makoto; Awazu, Koichi; Makishima, Makoto

    2017-03-01

    With the aim of developing a sensor for rapidly detecting viruses in a drop of blood, in this study, we analyze the shape of a hole in a microfluidic channel in relation to the efficiency of sedimentation of blood cells. The efficiency of sedimentation is examined on the basis of our calculation and experimental results for two types of sedimentation hole, cylindrical and truncated conical holes, focusing on the Boycott effect, which can promote the sedimentation of blood cells from a downward-facing wall. As a result, we demonstrated that blood cells can be eliminated with an efficiency of 99% or higher by retaining a diluted blood sample of about 30 µL in the conical hole for only 2 min. Moreover, we succeeded in detecting the anti-hepatitis B surface antigen antibody in blood using a waveguide-mode sensor equipped with a microfluidic channel having the conical sedimentation hole.

  17. Age-associated DNA methylation changes in immune genes, histone modifiers and chromatin remodeling factors within 5 years after birth in human blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Reinius, Lovisa E; Vitezic, Morana;

    2015-01-01

    the dynamics of DNA methylation. Serial blood samples were collected at 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after birth in ten healthy girls born in Finland and participating in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study. DNA methylation was measured using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. RESULTS......: After filtering for the presence of polymorphisms and cell-lineage-specific signatures, 794 CpG sites showed significant DNA methylation differences as a function of age in all children (41.6% age-methylated and 58.4% age-demethylated, Bonferroni-corrected P value ... performing DNA methylation studies in children....

  18. Cocaine induces a reversible stomatocytosis of red blood cells and increases blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagienard, F; Schulzki, T; Furlong, P; Reinhart, W H

    2013-01-01

    Severe side effects of cocaine consumption are vasoocclusive events such as myocardial infarction and stroke. We have hypothesized that cocaine could affect red blood cells (RBCs) and alter the rheological behaviour of blood. Heparinized blood from healthy volunteers was incubated with a final hematocrit of 45% with increasing cocaine concentrations: 0, 10, 100, 1000, and 10'000 μmol/L plasma. Time dependence of the shape change was tested in phosphate buffered saline containing cocaine. RBCs were fixed in 1% glutaraldehyde for morphological analysis. Blood viscosity was measured with a Couette Viscometer (Contraves LS 30) at 37°C and a shear rate of 69.5 s⁻¹. RBC aggregation was assessed with a Myrenne aggregometer. Cocaine induced a dose-dependent stomatocytic shape transformation of RBCs, which was more pronounced in buffer than in plasma (plasma protein binding of the drug). Stomatocytosis occurs when a drug intercalates preferentially in the inner half of the membrane lipid bilayer. It was a time-dependent process with two components, an almost instant shape change occurring within 1 s, followed by a gradual further shape change during 10 min. Stomatocytosis was reversible by resuspension of the RBCs in cocaine-free buffer. This stomatocytic shape change increased whole blood viscosity at high shear rate from 5.69±0.31 mPa.s to 6.39±0.34 mPa.s for control and 10'000 μmol/L cocaine, respectively (p<0.01). RBC aggregation was not affected by the shape change. These effects occurred at a cocaine concentration, which is several-fold above those measured in vivo. Therefore, it is unlikely that hemorheological factors are involved in vascular events after cocaine consumption.

  19. Measuring cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells over blood storage using quantitative phase imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoo; Lee, Sangyun; Ji, Misuk; Kim, Kyoohyun; Son, Yonghak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Yongkeun

    2016-10-01

    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusions. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called citrate phosphate dextrose adenine-1 (CPDA-1). With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements for 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and progressive alterations of stored RBCs. Our results show that stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within two weeks which was accompanied by significant decreases in cell deformability and cell surface area, and increases in sphericity. However, the stored RBCs with CPDA-1 maintained their morphology and deformability for up to 6 weeks.

  20. RED BLOOD CELL ABNORMALITIES IN DECOMPENSATED CHRONIC LIVER DISEASE (DCLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbazhagan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liver plays an important role in normal erythropoiesis, especially in formation and destruction of RBC’s. Chronic liver diseases are frequently associated with hematological abnormalities. Anemia of diverge etiology occurs in about 75% patients with DCLD ( 36. This can ultimately culminate in grave complications. AIM OF THE STUDY: To detect various abnormalities in Red Blood Cells and to assess the type of anemia in DCLD. METHODS: The study was conducted in 50 patients of DCLD, in Meenakshi Medical College. A detailed History, clinical examination and also Ultrasound Abdomen, GI endoscopy to establish DCLD and complete Red Blood Cell assessment was done. RESULTS AND OBSERVATION : Among the 50 patients, 40 patients (80% had anemia and only 10 pts had normal h emoglobin above 13 gms%. About 15 patients (30% had severe Anemia of less than 6 gm%. Among the 40 patients, 25 patients had normocytic normochronic anemia, 10 patients had microcytic anemia, and 4 patients had macrocytosis and only one had dimorphic anem ia. CONCLUSION : Most common Red Blood Cell abnormality in DCLD is anemia (80% and most common anemia is normochronic normocytic anemia (62.5%, while microcytic anemia and macrocytosis were common among females and Alcoholics, respectively

  1. Telomere attrition in beta and alpha cells with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yoshiaki; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Kimbara, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Ishikawa, Naoshi; Aida, Junko; Chiba, Yuko; Matsuda, Yoko; Mori, Seijiro; Arai, Tomio; Fujiwara, Mutsunori; Poon, Steven S S; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Araki, Atsushi; Takubo, Kaiyo; Ito, Hideki

    2016-06-01

    We have reported telomere attrition in β and α cells of the pancreas in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes, but it has not been explored how the telomere lengths of these islet cells change according to age in normal subjects. To examine the telomere lengths of β and α cells in individuals without diabetes across a wide range of ages, we conducted measurement of the telomere lengths of human pancreatic β and α cells obtained from 104 autopsied subjects without diabetes ranging in age from 0 to 100 years. As an index of telomere lengths, the normalized telomere-centromere ratio (NTCR) was determined for β (NTCRβ) and α (NTCRα) cells by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH). We found NTCRβ and NTCRα showed almost the same levels and both decreased according to age (p telomeres of β and α cells become shortened with normal aging process.

  2. The impact of contralateral cooling on skin capillary blood cell velocity in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haak, E; Haak, T; Grözinger, Y; Krebs, G; Usadel, K H; Kusterer, K

    1998-01-01

    In healthy volunteers, cooling of the contralateral hand leads to a rapid decrease in the ipsilateral capillary perfusion via a nerval reflex arc. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this reflex arc after contralateral cooling might be altered in patients with diabetes mellitus with and without peripheral neuropathy. Therefore, 12 patients with diabetic neuropathy (4 IDDM, diabetes duration 17.2 +/- 2.9 (SD) years, age 60.8 +/- 4.0 years, HbA1c 6.5 +/- 0.3%) and 12 patients with diabetes mellitus but without neuropathy (6 IDDM, diabetes duration 15.1 +/- 2.7 years, age 55.9 +/- 4.5 years, HbA1c 5.4 +/- 0.1%) were investigated by nailfold capillaroscopy. Twelve healthy volunteers (age 56.8 +/- 3.1 years, HbA1c 4.8 +/- 0.2%) served as controls. Contralateral skin capillary blood cell velocity was determined at rest and during the following 20 min after cooling of the hand (3 min at 15 degreesC). Blood pressure, heart rate and local skin temperature were examined regularly during the investigation. Resting capillary blood cell velocity did not differ between patients and controls. While contralateral cooling resulted in a decrease in capillary blood cell velocity (CBV) in controls (0.29 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.42 +/- 0.05 mm/s, p nerval reflex arcs are impaired. A long-term follow-up in a larger number of patients is required to evaluate whether these findings might serve as a very early diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of developing diabetic neuropathy.

  3. Tissue engineering of blood vessels with endothelial cells differentiated from mouse embryonic stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHEN XU; MIN XIONG SHEN; DONG ZHU MA; LI YING WANG; XI LIANG ZHA

    2003-01-01

    Endothelial cells (TEC3 cells) derived from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells were used as seed cells to construct blood vessels. Tissue engineered blood vessels were made by seeding 8 × l06 smooth muscle cells (SMCs) obtained from rabbit arteries onto a sheet of nonwoven polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers, which was used as a biodegradable polymer scaffold. After being cultured in DMEM medium for 7 days in vitro, SMCs grew well on the PGA fibers, and the cell-PGA sheet was then wrapped around a silicon tube, and implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. After 6~8 weeks, the silicon tube was replaced with another silicon tube in smaller diameter, and then the TEC3 cells (endothelial cells differentiated from mouse ES cells) were injected inside the engineered vessel tube as the test group. In the control group only culture medium was injected. Five days later, the engineered vessels were harvested for gross observation, histological and immunohistochemical analysis. The preliminary results demonstrated that the SMC-PGA construct could form a tubular structure in 6~8 weeks and PGA fibers were completely degraded. Histological and immunohistochemical analysis of the newly formed tissue revealed a typical blood vessel structure, including a lining of endothelial cells (ECs) on the lumimal surface and the presence of SMC and collagen in the wall. No EC lining was found in the tubes of control group. Therefore, the ECs differentiated from mouse ES cells can serve as seed cells for endothelium lining in tissue engineered blood vessels.

  4. Metabolic profiling of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during proliferation and differentiation into red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Hasbullah; Browne, Susan; Al-Majmaie, Rasoul; Murphy, William; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2016-01-25

    An understanding of the metabolic profile of cell proliferation and differentiation should support the optimization of culture conditions for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation, differentiation, and maturation into red blood cells. We have evaluated the key metabolic parameters during each phase of HSPC culture for red blood cell production in serum-supplemented (SS) and serum-free (SF) conditions. A simultaneous decrease in growth rate, total protein content, cell size, and the percentage of cells in the S/G2 phase of cell cycle, as well as an increase in the percentage of cells with a CD71(-)/GpA(+) surface marker profile, indicates HSPC differentiation into red blood cells. Compared with proliferating HSPCs, differentiating HSPCs showed significantly lower glucose and glutamine consumption rates, lactate and ammonia production rates, and amino acid consumption and production rates in both SS and SF conditions. Furthermore, extracellular acidification was associated with late proliferation phase, suggesting a reduced cellular metabolic rate during the transition from proliferation to differentiation. Under both SS and SF conditions, cells demonstrated a high metabolic rate with a mixed metabolism of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in early and late proliferation, an increased dependence on OXPHOS activity during differentiation, and a shift to glycolytic metabolism only during maturation phase. These changes indicate that cell metabolism may have an important impact on the ability of HSPCs to proliferate and differentiate into red blood cells.

  5. The Association between the Lipids Levels in Blood and Risk of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yafeng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism may be involved in the pathogenic mechanism of age-related macular degeneration (AMD. However, conflicting results have been reported in the associations of AMD with blood lipids. We performed a meta-analysis including a total of 19 studies to evaluate associations between blood lipids and this disease. The result reported that the high level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C obtained with an increment of 1 mmol/L could result in a significantly increase in the AMD risk of approximately 18% (relative risk (RR, 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.01 to 1.35; I2 = 53.8%; p = 0.007. High levels of total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG were significantly associated with a decreased risk of AMD (RRs ranging from 0.92 to 0.95; all p < 0.05. The stratified analysis based on AMD subtypes showed that these blood lipids were only significantly associated with the risk of early AMD (all p < 0.05. The association between the blood lipids and AMD risk did not differ substantially based on the other characteristics of the participants. A high HDL-C level was associated with an increased AMD risk, whereas participants with high TC, LDL-C, and TG concentrations may show a decreased risk for this disease. Further well-designed large studies are warranted to confirm the conclusions.

  6. Blood typing profile of a school-aged population of a North Togo township.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vovor, Ahoefa; Fétéké, Lochina; Kueviakoe, Irénée M; Kpatarou, Laye; Mawussi, Koffi; Magnang, Hézouwè; Ségbéna, Akuété Y

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of hemoglobin (Hb) variants and ABO blood groups in a school population aged 6 to 9 years in the township of Agbandé-Yaka in North Togo. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 children of four primary schools at Agbande-Yaka, between March and July 2010. Hemoglobin characterization was done by alkaline buffer electrophoresis and the blood types ABO-Rhesus (Rh) D by immuno-hematological methods. A Hb variant was detected in 37.0% of the schoolchildren. Among them, the AS trait accounted for 11.9% and the AC trait for 20.2%. Homozygous Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) was not found but Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) appeared at a frequency of 3.3%, while compound heterozygotes carrying Hb SC were seen at a frequency of 1.6%. The O, B and A blood groups accounted for 49.0, 26.8 and 21.9%, respectively. The Hb anomalies reached a high prevalence in this school population. These results are remarkable by the absence of homozygous Hb S individuals compared to homozygous Hb C individuals, which were as numerous as expected. The frequencies of the ABO blood groups are similar to what has been found in other West African populations.

  7. Morphometric Evaluation of the Blood Pressure Related Organs in Nili-Ravi Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis With Advancing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hussain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty clinically healthy buffaloes of either sex were divided into two age-groups of equal size i.e., young (12-42 months and adult (48-96 months. Histological sections were prepared by routine method and stained by H&E. AutoCAD® image analysis software and ocular micrometer were used for the morphometric evaluations. Studies revealed that the adrenal cortex of buffalo was divided into four zones, zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia, zona fasciculate and zona reticularis. The zona fasciculata was recorded as the widest and zona reticularis narrowest zone of the adrenal cortex. The volume of cardiomyocytic nuclei (μm3, volume of renal corpuscles (μm3×103, volume of nuclei of cells of zona glomerulosa (μm3, thickness of the zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia and zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex in adult buffaloes were significantly (P<0.01 higher as compared to their younger counterparts. It is conceivable that the development of blood related parameters showed an increase parallel to the advancing age in order to adjust with the increasing blood pressure due to physiological development process in buffalo.

  8. 77 FR 22791 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Health Service Act, as amended), the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises... Thawing and Washing, (4) Access to Transplantation, and (5) Advancing Hematopoietic Stem...

  9. Straw blood cell count, growth, inhibition and comparison to apoptotic bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomkins Jeffrey P

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammalian cells transform into individual tubular straw cells naturally in tissues and in response to desiccation related stress in vitro. The transformation event is characterized by a dramatic cellular deformation process which includes: condensation of certain cellular materials into a much smaller tubular structure, synthesis of a tubular wall and growth of filamentous extensions. This study continues the characterization of straw cells in blood, as well as the mechanisms of tubular transformation in response to stress; with specific emphasis placed on investigating whether tubular transformation shares the same signaling pathway as apoptosis. Results There are approximately 100 billion, unconventional, tubular straw cells in human blood at any given time. The straw blood cell count (SBC is 45 million/ml, which accounts for 6.9% of the bloods dry weight. Straw cells originating from the lungs, liver and lymphocytes have varying nodules, hairiness and dimensions. Lipid profiling reveals severe disruption of the plasma membrane in CACO cells during transformation. The growth rates for the elongation of filaments and enlargement of rabbit straw cells is 0.6~1.1 (μm/hr and 3.8 (μm3/hr, respectively. Studies using apoptosis inhibitors and a tubular transformation inhibitor in CACO2 cells and in mice suggested apoptosis produced apoptotic bodies are mediated differently than tubular transformation produced straw cells. A single dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day of p38 MAPK inhibitor in wild type mice results in a 30% reduction in the SBC. In 9 domestic animals SBC appears to correlate inversely with an animal's average lifespan (R2 = 0.7. Conclusion Straw cells are observed residing in the mammalian blood with large quantities. Production of SBC appears to be constant for a given animal and may involve a stress-inducible protein kinase (P38 MAPK. Tubular transformation is a programmed cell survival process that diverges from apoptosis

  10. In Search for Anti-Aging Strategy: Can We Rejuvenate Our Aging Stem Cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Meiliana

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggested that we grow old partly because of our stem cells grow old as a result of mechanisms that suppress the development of cancer over a lifetime. We believe that a further, more precise mechanistic understanding of this process will be required before this knowledge can be translated into human anti-aging therapies. CONTENT: A diminished capacity to maintain tissue homeostasis is a central physiological characteristic of aging. As stem cells regulate tissue homeostasis, depletion of stem cell reserves and/or diminished stem cell function have been postulated to contribute to aging. It has further been suggested that accumulated DNA damage could be a principal mechanism underlying age-dependent stem cell decline. It is interesting that many of the rejuvenating interventions act on the stem cell compartments, perhaps reflecting shared genetic and biochemical pathways controlling stem cell function and longevity. Strategy to slow down the aging processes is based on caloric restriction refers to a dietary regimen low in calories but without undernutrition. Sirtuin (SIRT1 and 3, increases longevity by mimicking the beneficial effects of caloric restriction. SIRT3 regulates stress-responsive mitochondrial homeostasis, and more importantly, SIRT3 upregulation rejuvenates aged stem cells in tissues. Resveratrol (3,5,4’-trihydroxystilbene, a natural polyphenol found in grapes and wine, was the most powerful natural activator of SIRT1. In fact, resveratrol treatment has been demonstrated to rescue adult stem cell decline, slow down bodyweight loss, improve trabecular bone structure and mineral density, and significantly extend lifespan. SUMMARY: Tissue-specific stem cells persist throughout the entire lifespan to repair and maintain tissues, but their self-renewal and differentiation potential become dysregulated with aging. Given that adult stem cells are thought to be central to tissue maintenance and organismal

  11. Hematopoietic stem cells : Self-renewing or aging?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, G

    2002-01-01

    Stem cells are defined by their extensive self-renewal properties, and yet there is abundant evidence of erosion of stem cell functioning during aging. Whereas intracellular repair and protection mechanisms determine the lifespan of an individual cell, here an argument is made that somatic stem cell

  12. Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability and future functional decline in old age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Smit, Roelof A J; Westendorp, Rudi G J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Higher blood pressure variability (BPV), independent of mean blood pressure (BP), has been associated with adverse health outcomes. We investigated the association between visit-to-visit BPV and functional decline in older adults at high cardiovascular risk. METHODS: In PROspective Study...... of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk, 4745 participants with mean age of 75.2 years and high cardiovascular risk were followed for a mean of 3.2 years. BP was measured in every 3 months during the first 18 months. BPV was defined as the intraindividual SD of measurements across these visits. Functional status.......008) in IADL score. These associations were not modified by sex, hypertension or antihypertensives. These findings were independent of mean BP, cardiovascular risk factors and morbidities and cognition. CONCLUSION: Higher visit-to-visit SBPV but not DBPV was associated with steeper functional decline in older...

  13. Vascular mineralocorticoid receptor regulates microRNA-155 to promote vasoconstriction and rising blood pressure with aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Jennifer J.; McCurley, Amy; Davel, Ana P.; McCarthy, Joseph; Bender, Shawn B.; Hong, Kwangseok; Yang, Yan; Yoo, Jeung-Ki; Aronovitz, Mark; Baur, Wendy E.; Christou, Demetra D.; Hill, Michael A.; Jaffe, Iris Z.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is nearly universal yet poorly controlled in the elderly despite proven benefits of intensive treatment. Mice lacking mineralocorticoid receptors in smooth muscle cells (SMC-MR-KO) are protected from rising blood pressure (BP) with aging, despite normal renal function. Vasoconstriction is attenuated in aged SMC-MR-KO mice, thus they were used to explore vascular mechanisms that may contribute to hypertension with aging. MicroRNA (miR) profiling identified miR-155 as the most down-regulated miR with vascular aging in MR-intact but not SMC-MR-KO mice. The aging-associated decrease in miR-155 in mesenteric resistance vessels was associated with increased mRNA abundance of MR and of predicted miR-155 targets Cav1.2 (L-type calcium channel (LTCC) subunit) and angiotensin type-1 receptor (AgtR1). SMC-MR-KO mice lacked these aging-associated vascular gene expression changes. In HEK293 cells, MR repressed miR-155 promoter activity. In cultured SMCs, miR-155 decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA. Compared to MR-intact littermates, aged SMC-MR-KO mice had decreased systolic BP, myogenic tone, SMC LTCC current, mesenteric vessel calcium influx, LTCC-induced vasoconstriction and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Restoration of miR-155 specifically in SMCs of aged MR-intact mice decreased Cav1.2 and AgtR1 mRNA and attenuated LTCC-mediated and angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction and oxidative stress. Finally, in a trial of MR blockade in elderly humans, changes in serum miR-155 predicted the BP treatment response. Thus, SMC-MR regulation of miR-155, Cav1.2 and AgtR1 impacts vasoconstriction with aging. This novel mechanism identifies potential new treatment strategies and biomarkers to improve and individualize antihypertensive therapy in the elderly. PMID:27683672

  14. Interleukin-15 Promotes the Commitment of Cord Blood CD34+ Stem Cells into NK Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建; 夏青; 孙汭; 田志刚

    2004-01-01

    To explore the effect of rhlL-15 on CB-CD34+ stem cells committing to NK cells, CD34+ stem cells were obtained from cord blood (CB) by magnetic-assisted cell sorting (MACS) method. CD3, CD16 and CD56 molecules expressed on cell surface were detected by flow cytometer. MTF method was used to test the cytotoxicity of NK cells. The results were that stem cell factor (SCF) alone has no effect on CD34+ stem cells. IL-15 stimulated CD34+ stem cells commit to NK cells, and SCF showed strong synergistic effect with IL-15. It was concluded that IL-15 and SCF played different roles during NK cell development, llr15 promoted CD34+ stem cells differentiate to NK cell precursor and SCF improved the effectsof IL-15 on NK cell differentiation.

  15. Dynamic changes in mouse hematopoietic stem cell numbers during aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, G; Van Zant, G

    1999-01-01

    To address the fundamental question of whether or not stem cell populations age, we performed quantitative measurements of the cycling status and frequency of hematopoietic stem cells in long-lived C57BL/6 (B6) and short-lived DBA/2 (DBA) mice at different developmental and aging stages. The frequen

  16. In-vitro stem cell derived red blood cells for transfusion: are we there yet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ok

    2014-03-01

    To date, the use of red blood cells (RBCs) produced from stem cells in vitro has not proved practical for routine transfusion. However, the perpetual and widespread shortage of blood products, problems related to transfusion-transmitted infections, and new emerging pathogens elicit an increasing demand for artificial blood. Worldwide efforts to achieve the goal of RBC production through stem cell research have received vast attention; however, problems with large-scale production and cost effectiveness have yet to prove practical usefulness. Some progress has been made, though, as cord blood stem cells and embryonic stem cells have shown an ability to differentiate and proliferate, and induced pluripotent stem cells have been shown to be an unlimited source for RBC production. However, transfusion of stem cell-derived RBCs still presents a number of challenges to overcome. This paper will summarize an up to date account of research and advances in stem cell-derived RBCs, delineate our laboratory protocol in producing RBCs from cord blood, and introduce the technological developments and limitations to current RBC production practices.

  17. Growth Kinetics, Characterization, and Plasticity of Human Menstrual Blood Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Mehrabani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the readily available sources of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs is menstrual blood-derived stem cells (Men-SCs, which exhibit characteristics similar to other types of MSCs. This study was performed to determine the growth kinetics, plasticity, and characterization of Men-SCs in women. During spring 2014 in the southern Iranian city of Shiraz, menstrual blood (5 mL was obtained from 10 women on their third day of menstruation in 2 age groups of 30 to 40 and 40 to 50 years old. Ficoll was used to separate the mononuclear cell fraction. After the Men-SCs were cultured, they were subcultured up to passage 4. Growth behavior and population doubling time were evaluated by seeding 5×104 cells into 12- and 24-well culture plates, and the colonies were enumerated. The expression of CD44, CD90, and CD34 was evaluated. The osteogenic potential was assessed by alizarin red staining. The Men-SCs were shown to be plastic adherent and spindle-shaped. Regarding the growth curves in the 12- and 24-well culture plates, it was demonstrated that in the women aged between 30 and 40 years, population doubling time was 55.5 and 62 hours, respectively, while these values in the women aged between 40 and 50 years were 70.4 and 72.4 hours, correspondingly. Positive expression of CD44 and CD90 and negative expression of CD34 were noted. In the osteogenic differentiation medium, the cells differentiated toward osteoblasts. As human Men-SCs are easily collectable without any invasive procedure and are a safe and rapid source of MSCs, they can be a good candidate for stem cell banking and cell transplantation in women.

  18. Red blood cell size is inversely associated with leukocyte telomere length in a large multi-ethnic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Kozlitina

    Full Text Available Although mutations in the genes encoding either the protein or RNA component of telomerase have been found in patients with various blood disorders, the impact of telomere length on hematopoiesis is less well understood for subjects from the general population. Here we have measured telomere lengths of genomic DNA isolated from circulating leukocytes of 3157 subjects, ranging from 18 to 85 years of age, enrolled in a large multiethnic population based study, the Dallas Heart Study 2. Shorter telomere lengths are marginally associated with lower red blood cell counts in this cohort, but are significantly associated with larger mean red blood cell size (as measured by the MCV, increased red blood cell distribution width (RDW, higher hemoglobin levels and lower platelet counts, even after correction for age, gender and ethnicity (p-values of 50 years vs. p = 0.0006 for <50 years of age. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an association between telomere length and red cell size in a large urban US population and suggests a biologic mechanism for macrocytosis of aging.

  19. Blood-based biomarkers of age-associated epigenetic changes in human islets associate with insulin secretion and diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bacos, Karl; Gillberg, Linn; Volkov, Petr;

    2016-01-01

    Aging associates with impaired pancreatic islet function and increased type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Here we examine whether age-related epigenetic changes affect human islet function and if blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect these changes and associate with future T2D. We analyse DNA...... methylation genome-wide in islets from 87 non-diabetic donors, aged 26-74 years. Aging associates with increased DNA methylation of 241 sites. These sites cover loci previously associated with T2D, for example, KLF14. Blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related methylation changes in 83 genes...... demonstrate that blood-based epigenetic biomarkers reflect age-related DNA methylation changes in human islets, and associate with insulin secretion in vivo and T2D....

  20. Blood Flow through an Open-Celled Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Jason; Maitland, Duncan

    2011-11-01

    The Hazen-Dupuit-Darcy (HDD) equation is commonly used in engineering applications to model the pressure gradient of flow through a porous media. One major advantage of this equation is that it simplifies the complex geometric details of the porous media into two coefficients: the permeability, K, and form factor, C. However through this simplification, the flow details within the porous media are no longer accessible, making it difficult to study the phenomena that contribute to changes in K and C due to clotting of blood flow. To obtain a more detailed understanding of blood flow through a porous media, a direct assessment of the complex interstitial geometry and flow is required. In this study, we solve the Navier-Stokes equations for Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood flow through an open-celled foam geometry obtained from a micro-CT scan. The nominal strut size of the foam sample is of O(10e-5) m and the corresponding Reynolds number based upon this length ranges up to O(10). Fitting the pressure gradient vs. Darcy velocity data with the HDD equation demonstrates that both viscous and inertial forces play an important role in the flow through the foam at these Reynolds numbers. Recirculation zones are observed to form in the wake of the pore struts, producing regions of flow characterized by both low shear rates and long fluid residence times, factors of which have been shown in previous studies to promote blood clotting.

  1. Some technetium complexes for labelling red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    A new approach to produce technetium labelled red blood cells, used routinely in diagnostic nuclear medicine, is reported. The enzyme Carbonic Anhydrase (CA), present in erythrocytes, is strongly inhibited by primary aromatic sulphonamides, which bind at the enzyme active site. Three types of ligand able to coordinate to technetium and suitable for modification to include a primary aromatic sulphonamide group were studied; bis(thiosemicarbazones), Schiff bases and some propylene amine oximes. The experimental conditions needed to label the ligands were determined. Both the thiosemicarbazone and propyleneamine oxime derivatives were labelled, but under no conditions attempted were the Schiff bases complexed by Technetium. The two major isozymes of Human Carbonic Anhydrase, HCA I and HCA II, were isolated from blood. The strength of binding of the free ligands SET, PN130 and PN135 with each of the isozymes was measured and expressed as the Dissociation Constant K{sub d}. The rate of uptake of the technetium complexes into washed RBCs and whole blood was measured and found to be much slower in whole blood. The biodistribution of both TcPN130 and TcPN135 in rats was determined and scintigraphic images for the TcPN130 complex were recorded. Attempts to synthesise the Tc-99 analogues on the milligram scale to allow chemical characterisation of these complexes were unsuccessful. (author).

  2. CD1c+ blood dendritic cells have Langerhans cell potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Paul; Bigley, Venetia; Gunawan, Merry; Haniffa, Muzlifah; Collin, Matthew

    2015-01-15

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are self-renewing in the steady state but repopulated by myeloid precursors after injury. Human monocytes give rise to langerin-positive cells in vitro, suggesting a potential precursor role. However, differentiation experiments with human lineage-negative cells and CD34(+) progenitors suggest that there is an alternative monocyte-independent pathway of LC differentiation. Recent data in mice also show long-term repopulation of the LC compartment with alternative myeloid precursors. Here we show that, although monocytes are able to express langerin, when cultured with soluble ligands granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), transforming growth factor β (TGFβ), and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP7), CD1c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) become much more LC-like with high langerin, Birbeck granules, EpCAM, and E-cadherin expression under the same conditions. These data highlight a new potential precursor function of CD1c(+) DCs and demonstrate an alternative pathway of LC differentiation that may have relevance in vivo.

  3. Spring-network-based model of a red blood cell for simulating mesoscopic blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masanori; Bessho, Sadao; Wada, Shigeo

    2013-01-01

    We developed a mechanical model of a red blood cell (RBC) that is capable of expressing its characteristic behaviors in shear flows. The RBC was modeled as a closed shell membrane consisting of spring networks in the framework of the energy minimum concept. The fluid forces acting on RBCs were modeled from Newton's viscosity law and the conservation of momentum. In a steady shear flow, the RBC model exhibited various behaviors, depending on the shear rate; it tumbled, tank-treaded, or both. The transition from tumbling to tank-treading occurred at a shear rate of 20 s( - 1). The simulation of an RBC in steady and unsteady parallel shear flows (Couette flows) showed that the deformation parameters of the RBC were consistent with experimental results. The RBC in Poiseuille flow migrated radially towards the central axis of the flow channel. Axial migration became faster with an increase in the viscosity of the media, qualitatively consistent with experimental results. These results demonstrate that the proposed model satisfies the essential conditions for simulating RBC behavior in blood flow. Finally, a large-scale RBC flow simulation was implemented to show the capability of the proposed model for analyzing the mesoscopic nature of blood flow.

  4. Red-blood-cell alloimmunisation in relation to antigens' exposure and their immunogenicity: a cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, D.; Middelburg, R.A.; Haas, M. de; Zalpuri, S.; Vooght, K.M. De; Kerkhof, D. van de; Visser, O; Pequeriaux, N.C.V.; Hudig, F.; Schonewille, H.; Zwaginga, J.J.; Bom, J.G. Van Der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Matching donor red blood cells based on recipient antigens prevents alloimmunisation. Knowledge about the immunogenicity of red-blood-cell antigens can help optimise risk-adapted matching strategies. We set out to assess the immunogenicity of red-blood-cell antigens. METHODS: In an incid

  5. Utilization and quality of cryopreserved red blood cells in transfusion medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, S.; Noorman, F.; Badloe, J. F.; Lagerberg, J. W. M.

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreserved (frozen) red blood cells have been used in transfusion medicine since the Vietnam war. The main method to freeze the red blood cells is by usage of glycerol. Although the usage of cryopreserved red blood cells was promising due to the prolonged storage time and the limited cellular det

  6. Development and testing of a new disposable sterile device for labelling white blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Signore, A.; Glaudemans, A. W. J. M.; Malviya, G.; Lazzeri, E.; Prandini, N.; Viglietti, A. L.; De Vries, E. F. J.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. White blood cell (WBC) labelling requires isolation of cells from patient's blood under sterile conditions using sterile materials, buffers and disposables under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions. Till now, this limited the use of white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC-S) only to well eq

  7. Molecular aging and rejuvenation of human muscle stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Morgan E; Suetta, Charlotte; Conboy, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    Very little remains known about the regulation of human organ stem cells (in general, and during the aging process), and most previous data were collected in short-lived rodents. We examined whether stem cell aging in rodents could be extrapolated to genetically and environmentally variable humans....... Our findings establish key evolutionarily conserved mechanisms of human stem cell aging. We find that satellite cells are maintained in aged human skeletal muscle, but fail to activate in response to muscle attrition, due to diminished activation of Notch compounded by elevated transforming growth...... factor beta (TGF-beta)/phospho Smad3 (pSmad3). Furthermore, this work reveals that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/phosphate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) signalling declines in human muscle with age, and is important for activating Notch in human muscle stem cells. This molecular...

  8. MEASUREMENT OF REGIONAL BONE BLOOD FLOW IN THE CANINE MANDIBULAR RAMUS USING RADIOLABELLED TOAD RED BLOOD CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛驰; 王翰章

    1994-01-01

    Toad red blood cells were used to measure regional bone blood flow in the canine mandibular ramus.The blood cells were labelled with sodium pertechnetate and fixed in 10% formalin;they were 22×15 μm in size and had a specific gravity close to that of dog red blood cells.These cells had no discernible effect on systemic hemody-namics after injection,did not agglutinate,were well mixed and evenly distributed throughout the body,and were completely extracted in one circulation through the mandible.The mandibular ramus was divided into six regions,and the blood flow rates in each were found to be similar to those reported in previous studies with radiolabelled carbonized,microspheres.Furthermore,the blood flow distribution pattern of the mandibular ramus determined in this study was identical to that of our previous study using the bone-seeking radionuclide method.We suggest that radiolabelled toad red blood cells are an ideal marker for measuring regional blood flow in the canine mandible.

  9. Utilization and quality of cryopreserved red blood cells in transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkelman, S; Noorman, F; Badloe, J F; Lagerberg, J W M

    2015-02-01

    Cryopreserved (frozen) red blood cells have been used in transfusion medicine since the Vietnam war. The main method to freeze the red blood cells is by usage of glycerol. Although the usage of cryopreserved red blood cells was promising due to the prolonged storage time and the limited cellular deterioration at subzero temperatures, its usage have been hampered due to the more complex and labour intensive procedure and the limited shelf life of thawed products. Since the FDA approval of a closed (de) glycerolization procedure in 2002, allowing a prolonged postthaw storage of red blood cells up to 21 days at 2-6°C, cryopreserved red blood cells have become a more utilized blood product. Currently, cryopreserved red blood cells are mainly used in military operations and to stock red blood cells with rare phenotypes. Yet, cryopreserved red blood cells could also be useful to replenish temporary blood shortages, to prolong storage time before autologous transfusion and for IgA-deficient patients. This review describes the main methods to cryopreserve red blood cells, explores the quality of this blood product and highlights clinical settings in which cryopreserved red blood cells are or could be utilized.

  10. Of macrophages and red blood cells; a complex love story.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djuna Zoe de Back

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macrophages tightly control the production and clearance of red blood cells (RBC. During steady state haematopoiesis, approximately 1010 red blood cells are produced per hour within erythroblastic islands in humans. In these erythroblastic islands, resident bone marrow macrophages provide erythroblasts with interactions that are essential for erythroid development. New evidence suggests that not only under homeostasis but also under stress conditions, macrophages play an important role in promoting erythropoiesis. Once RBC have matured, these cells remain in circulation for about 120 days. At the end of their life span, RBC are cleared by macrophages residing in the spleen and the liver. Current theories about the removal of senescent RBC and the essential role of macrophages will be discussed as well as the role of macrophages in facilitating the removal of damaged cellular content from the RBC. In this review we will provide an overview on the role of macrophages in the regulation of RBC production, maintenance and clearance. In addition, we will discuss the interactions between these two cell types during transfer of immune complexes and pathogens from RBC to macrophages.

  11. Isolation of rare tumor cells from blood cells with buoyant immuno-microbubbles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixin Shi

    Full Text Available Circulating tumor cells (CTCs are exfoliated at various stages of cancer, and could provide invaluable information for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancers. There is an urgent need for the development of cost-efficient and scalable technologies for rare CTC enrichment from blood. Here we report a novel method for isolation of rare tumor cells from excess of blood cells using gas-filled buoyant immuno-microbubbles (MBs. MBs were prepared by emulsification of perfluorocarbon gas in phospholipids and decorated with anti-epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM antibody. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (85% and rapidly (within 15 minutes bound to various epithelial tumor cells suspended in cell medium. EpCAM-targeted MBs efficiently (88% isolated frequent tumor cells that were spiked at 100,000 cells/ml into plasma-depleted blood. Anti-EpCAM MBs efficiently (>77% isolated rare mouse breast 4T1, human prostate PC-3 and pancreatic cancer BxPC-3 cells spiked into 1, 3 and 7 ml (respectively of plasma-depleted blood. Using EpCAM targeted MBs CTCs from metastatic cancer patients were isolated, suggesting that this technique could be developed into a valuable clinical tool for isolation, enumeration and analysis of rare cells.

  12. Elevated red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in black blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H

    1978-01-01

    Mean levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) were significantly increased in erythrocytes (RBC) from 43 nonanemic black blood donors (4.80 +/- 0.06 micromoles/l RBC) compared with 22 white donors 4.47 +/- 0.08 micromoles/l RBCs from eight of the 12 black donors with DPG levels greater than 5 micromoles/l RBC. Although a potentially hemolytic disorder could be defined in four (AS hemoglobin, beta-Thalassemia minor, G6PD deficiency), reticulocyte counts were normal. However, when RBCs from the subgroup were compared to RBCs from an additional 25 unselected white donors, the following suggested an abnormally large population of young RBCs in the subgroup: 1) normal or elevated RBC-ATP with normal serum phosphate level; 2) significantly increased activities of RBC age-dependent enzymes hexokinase (p less than 0.02), pyruvate kinase (p less than 0.05), and glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase (p less than 0.01), with normal activity of phosphoglycerate kinase, an age-independent enzyme; 3) decreased dense (older) RBCs as determined by sedimentation in phthalate esters. Since DPG is increased in young RBCs and falls as the RBC ages, loss of older relatively DPG depleted RBCs due to shortened survival could account for the elevated DPG levels seen in the subgroup.

  13. Lowering of blood pressure by increasing hematocrit with non nitric oxide scavenging red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Vázquez, Beatriz Y; Cabrales, Pedro; Tsai, Amy G; Johnson, Paul C; Intaglietta, Marcos

    2008-02-01

    Isovolemic exchange transfusion of 40% of the blood volume in awake hamsters was used to replace native red blood cells (RBCs) with RBCs whose hemoglobin (Hb) was oxidized to methemoglobin (MetHb), MetRBCs. The exchange maintained constant blood volume and produced different final hematocrits (Hcts), varying from 48 to 62% Hct. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) did not change after exchange transfusion, in which 40% of the native RBCs were replaced with MetRBCs, without increasing Hct. Increasing Hct with MetRBCs lowered MAP by 12 mm Hg when Hct was increased 12% above baseline. Further increases of Hct with MetRBCs progressively returned MAP to baseline, which occurred at 62% Hct, a 30% increase in Hct from baseline. These observations show a parabolic "U" shaped distribution of MAP against the change in Hct. Cardiac index, cardiac output divided by body weight, increased between 2 and 17% above baseline for the range of Hcts tested. Peripheral vascular resistance (VR) was decreased 18% from baseline when Hct was increased 12% from baseline. VR and MAP were above baseline for increases in Hct higher than 30%. However, vascular hindrance, VR normalized by blood viscosity (which reflects the contribution of vascular geometry), was lower than baseline for all the increases in Hct tested with MetRBC, indicating prevalence of vasodilation. These suggest that acute increases in Hct with MetRBCs increase endothelium shear stress and stimulate the production of vasoactive factors (e.g., nitric oxide [NO]). When MetRBCs were compared with functional RBCs, vasodilation was augmented for MetRBCs probably due to the lower NO scavenging of MetHb. Consequently, MetRBCs increased the viscosity related hypotension range compared with functional RBCs as NO shear stress vasodilation mediated responses are greater.

  14. ROS, Cell Senescence, and Novel Molecular Mechanisms in Aging and Age-Related Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierpaola Davalli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aging process worsens the human body functions at multiple levels, thus causing its gradual decrease to resist stress, damage, and disease. Besides changes in gene expression and metabolic control, the aging rate has been associated with the production of high levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS and/or Reactive Nitrosative Species (RNS. Specific increases of ROS level have been demonstrated as potentially critical for induction and maintenance of cell senescence process. Causal connection between ROS, aging, age-related pathologies, and cell senescence is studied intensely. Senescent cells have been proposed as a target for interventions to delay the aging and its related diseases or to improve the diseases treatment. Therapeutic interventions towards senescent cells might allow restoring the health and curing the diseases that share basal processes, rather than curing each disease in separate and symptomatic way. Here, we review observations on ROS ability of inducing cell senescence through novel mechanisms that underpin aging processes. Particular emphasis is addressed to the novel mechanisms of ROS involvement in epigenetic regulation of cell senescence and aging, with the aim to individuate specific pathways, which might promote healthy lifespan and improve aging.

  15. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  16. Aging affects B-cell antigen receptor repertoire diversity in primary and secondary lymphoid tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabibian-Keissar, Hilla; Hazanov, Lena; Schiby, Ginette; Rosenthal, Noemie; Rakovsky, Aviya; Michaeli, Miri; Shahaf, Gitit Lavy; Pickman, Yishai; Rosenblatt, Kinneret; Melamed, Doron; Dunn-Walters, Deborah; Mehr, Ramit; Barshack, Iris

    2016-02-01

    The elderly immune system is characterized by reduced responses to infections and vaccines, and an increase in the incidence of autoimmune diseases and cancer. Age-related deficits in the immune system may be caused by peripheral homeostatic pressures that limit bone marrow B-cell production or migration to the peripheral lymphoid tissues. Studies of peripheral blood B-cell receptor spectratypes have shown that those of the elderly are characterized by reduced diversity, which is correlated with poor health status. In the present study, we performed for the first time high-throughput sequencing of immunoglobulin genes from archived biopsy samples of primary and secondary lymphoid tissues in old (74 ± 7 years old, range 61-89) versus young (24 ± 5 years old, range 18-45) individuals, analyzed repertoire diversities and compared these to results in peripheral blood. We found reduced repertoire diversity in peripheral blood and lymph node repertoires from old people, while in the old spleen samples the diversity was larger than in the young. There were no differences in somatic hypermutation characteristics between age groups. These results support the hypothesis that age-related immune frailty stems from altered B-cell homeostasis leading to narrower memory B-cell repertoires, rather than changes in somatic hypermutation mechanisms.

  17. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cytlak, Urszula; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    by such flow, as well as the local membrane deformations generated in certain pathological conditions, such as sickle cell anemia, have been shown to increase membrane permeability, based largely on experimentation with red cell suspensions. We attempted here the first measurements of membrane currents......-activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+)-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and to the increased Ca(2+) content of red cells in certain hereditary anemias such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.......BACKGROUND: The mechanical, rheological and shape properties of red blood cells are determined by their cortical cytoskeleton, evolutionarily optimized to provide the dynamic deformability required for flow through capillaries much narrower than the cell's diameter. The shear stress induced...

  18. Smooth muscle progenitor cells from peripheral blood promote the neovascularization of endothelial colony-forming cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Hyung Joon; Seo, Ha-Rim [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Hyo Eun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Jae Hyung; Yu, Cheol Woong; Hong, Soon Jun [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Seok [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Do-Sun, E-mail: dslmd@kumc.or.kr [Department of Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • Two distinct vascular progenitor cells are induced from adult peripheral blood. • ECFCs induce vascular structures in vitro and in vivo. • SMPCs augment the in vitro and in vivo angiogenic potential of ECFCs. • Both cell types have synergistic therapeutic potential in ischemic hindlimb model. - Abstract: Proangiogenic cell therapy using autologous progenitors is a promising strategy for treating ischemic disease. Considering that neovascularization is a harmonized cellular process that involves both endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, peripheral blood-originating endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) and smooth muscle progenitor cells (SMPCs), which are similar to mature endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, could be attractive cellular candidates to achieve therapeutic neovascularization. We successfully induced populations of two different vascular progenitor cells (ECFCs and SMPCs) from adult peripheral blood. Both progenitor cell types expressed endothelial-specific or smooth muscle-specific genes and markers, respectively. In a protein array focused on angiogenic cytokines, SMPCs demonstrated significantly higher expression of bFGF, EGF, TIMP2, ENA78, and TIMP1 compared to ECFCs. Conditioned medium from SMPCs and co-culture with SMPCs revealed that SMPCs promoted cell proliferation, migration, and the in vitro angiogenesis of ECFCs. Finally, co-transplantation of ECFCs and SMPCs induced robust in vivo neovascularization, as well as improved blood perfusion and tissue repair, in a mouse ischemic hindlimb model. Taken together, we have provided the first evidence of a cell therapy strategy for therapeutic neovascularization using two different types of autologous progenitors (ECFCs and SMPCs) derived from adult peripheral blood.

  19. Simulation of red blood cell aggregation in shear flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, B; Bascom, P A; Cobbold, R S

    1997-01-01

    A simulation model has been developed for red blood cell (RBC) aggregation in shear flow. It is based on a description of the collision rates of RBC, the probability of particles sticking together, and the breakage of aggregates by shear forces. The influence of shear rate, hematocrit, aggregate fractal dimension, and binding strength on aggregation kinetics were investigated and compared to other theoretical and experimental results. The model was used to simulate blood flow in a long large diameter tube under steady flow conditions at low Reynolds numbers. The time and spatial distribution of the state of aggregation are shown to be in qualitative agreement with previous B-mode ultrasound studies in which a central region of low echogenicity was noted. It is suggested that the model can provide a basis for interpreting prior measurements of ultrasound echogenicity and may help relate them to the local state of aggregation.

  20. Analysis of White Blood Cell Dynamics in Nailfold Capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquard, Aurélien; Butterworth, Ian; Sánchez-Ferro, Alvaro; Giancardo, Luca; Soenksen, Luis; Cerrato, Carolina; Flores, Rafael; Castro-González, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Based on video data acquired with low-cost, portable microscopy equipment, we introduce a semi-automatic method to count visual gaps in the blood flow as a proxy for white blood cells (WBC) passing through nailfold capillaries. Following minimal user interaction and a pre-processing stage, our method consists in the spatio-temporal segmentation and analysis of capillary profiles. Besides the mere count information, it also estimates the speed associated with every WBC event. The accuracy of our algorithm is validated through the analysis of two capillaries acquired from one healthy subject. Results are compared with manual counts from four human raters and confronted with related physiological data reported in literature. PMID:26738019

  1. Blood pressure in old age : exploring the relation with the structure, function and hemodynamics of the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster-Dingley, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing age the prevalence of hypertension rises. High blood pressure at midlife is associated with cognitive impairment. Nevertheless, in older persons a lower rather than a higher blood pressure is associated with incident dementia. The main purpose of the work in this thesis was to explor

  2. Very preterm birth is a risk factor for increased systolic blood pressure at a young adult age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Keijzer-Veen (Mandy); A. Dülger (Arzu); F.W. Dekker (Friedo); J. Nauta (Jeroen); A.J. van der Heijden (Bert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChildren born very prematurely who show intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are suggested to be at risk of developing high blood pressure as adults. Renal function may already be impaired by young adult age. To study whether very preterm birth affects blood pressure in young adults, w

  3. Metabolic pathways that correlate with post-transfusion circulation of stored murine red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wolski, Karen; Fu, Xiaoyoun; Dumont, Larry J; Roback, John D; Waterman, Hayley; Odem-Davis, Katherine; Howie, Heather L; Zimring, James C

    2016-05-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells is a very common inpatient procedure, with more than 1 in 70 people in the USA receiving a red blood cell transfusion annually. However, stored red blood cells are a non-uniform product, based upon donor-to-donor variation in red blood cell storage biology. While thousands of biological parameters change in red blood cells over storage, it has remained unclear which changes correlate with function of the red blood cells, as opposed to being co-incidental changes. In the current report, a murine model of red blood cell storage/transfusion is applied across 13 genetically distinct mouse strains and combined with high resolution metabolomics to identify metabolic changes that correlated with red blood cell circulation post storage. Oxidation in general, and peroxidation of lipids in particular, emerged as changes that correlated with extreme statistical significance, including generation of dicarboxylic acids and monohydroxy fatty acids. In addition, differences in anti-oxidant pathways known to regulate oxidative stress on lipid membranes were identified. Finally, metabolites were identified that differed at the time the blood was harvested, and predict how the red blood cells perform after storage, allowing the potential to screen donors at time of collection. Together, these findings map out a new landscape in understanding metabolic changes during red blood cell storage as they relate to red blood cell circulation.

  4. Why and how does collective red blood cells motion occur in the blood microcirculation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghigliotti, Giovanni; Selmi, Hassib; Asmi, Lassaad El; Misbah, Chaouqi

    2012-10-01

    The behaviour of red blood cells (RBCs), modelled as vesicles, in Poiseuille flow, mimicking the microvasculature, is studied with numerical simulations in two dimensions. RBCs moving in the centre of the Poiseuille flow (as in blood capillaries) are shown to attract each other and form clusters only due to hydrodynamic interactions, provided that their distance at a given time is below a certain critical value. This distance depends on physical parameters, such as the flow strength. Our simulations reveal that clusters are unstable above a threshold value in the number of forming RBCs, beyond which one or few cells escape the pack by a self-regulating mechanism that select the marginally stable size. This size selection depends on the flow strength as well as on the RBC swelling ratio. The results are interpreted via the analysis of the perturbation of the flow field induced by the vesicles and the interplay with bending and tension forces. This sheds a novel light on the process of collective motion of RBCs observed in vivo.

  5. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijal, Renee S., E-mail: rmijal@epi.msu.edu; Holzman, Claudia B. [Department of Epidemiology, Michigan State University, B601 W. Fee Hall, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  6. Manipulation on human red blood cells with femtosecond optical tweezers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Zhou; Haifeng Yang; Jianke Di; Enlan Zhao

    2008-01-01

    Different types of femtosecond optical tweezers have become a powerful tool in the modern biological field. However, how to control the irregular targets, including biological cells, using femtosecond optical tweezers remains to be explored. In this study, human red blood cells (hRBCs) are manipulated with femtosecond optical tweezers, and their states under different laser powers are investigated. The results indicate that optical potential traps only can capture the edge of hRBCs under the laser power from 1.4 to 2.8 mW, while it can make hRBCs turn over with the laser power more than 2.8 roW. It is suggested that femtosecond optical tweezers could not only manipulate biological cells, but also subtly control its states by adjusting the laser power.

  7. Cell Registration and Flickering Detection for the Complexity Analysis of Red Blood Cell Dynamics with GSM Exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Tong-ning; ZHANG Chen; LV Bin; YANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBC)' flickering present the dynamic properties of the cytomembrane. Its complexity could be used for aging analysis or the evaluation for the storage quality. The flickering activity is a kind of reversible perpendicular motion of the specified pixel. Therefore, the complexity analysis depends on the reliable detection of temporal variation for the gray-scale values from each pixel of the cells. In this paper, we improved our previous work on the screening of the horizontal drifted cells with a surface based on cell registration method and the effect of GSM exposure to the dynamic properties of the RBCs in terms of multi-scale sample entropy was presented in the paper.

  8. Lung function, transfusion, pulmonary capillary blood volume and sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Alan; McGhee, Emily; Robinson, Polly; Rees, David; Height, Susan; Greenough, Anne

    2016-02-01

    Lung function abnormalities occur in children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and may be associated with elevated pulmonary blood volume. To investigate that association, we determined whether blood transfusion in SCD children acutely increased pulmonary capillary blood volume (PCBV) and increased respiratory system resistance (Rrs5). Measurements of Rrs5 and spirometry were made before and after blood transfusion in 18 children, median age 14.2 (6.6-18.5) years. Diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide and nitric oxide were assessed to calculate the PCBV. Post transfusion, the median Rrs5 had increased from 127.4 to 141.3% predicted (pvolume from 39.7 to 64.1 ml/m2 (pvolume in one second (p=0.0056) and vital capacity (p=0.0008) decreased. The increase in Rrs5 correlated with the increase in PCBV (r=0.50, p=0.0493). Increased pulmonary capillary blood volume may at least partially explain the lung function abnormalities in SCD children.

  9. Radiolabeled red blood cells: status, problems, and prospects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1983-01-01

    Radionuclidic labels for red cells can be divided into two main categories - cohort or pulse labels, and random labels. The random labels are incorporated into circulating cells of all ages and the labeling process is usually carried out in vitro. The red cell labels in predominant use involve random labeling and employ technetium-99m, chromium-51, indium-111, and gallium-68, roughly in that order. The extent of usefulness depends on the properties of the label such as the half-life, decay mode, and in-vivo stability, etc. Labeled cells can be used for red cell survival measurements when the half-life of the radionuclide is sufficiently long. The major portion of this article deals with random labels.

  10. Cell surface alterations during blood-storage characterized by artificial aggregation of washed red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessel, E; Lerche, D

    1985-01-01

    Aggregation measurement of washed human erythrocytes (RBC) were carried out in a NaCl-PBS solution under laminar shear conditions. Artificial aggregation of fresh and stored erythrocytes was caused by decreased pH and reduced ionic strength and characterized by collision efficiency alpha. Generally, the collision efficiency alpha of stored erythrocytes rises with the increased storage time. Such an aggregation technique might be useful to detect and quantify changes of the membrane and/or the surface structure due to aging and/or storage.

  11. Stem Cell Heterogeneity of Mononucleated Cells from Murine Peripheral Blood: Molecular Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dain Yazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper was to determine the heterogeneity of primary isolated mononucleated cells that originated from the peripheral blood system by observing molecular markers. The isolated cells were cultured in complete medium for 4 to 7 days prior to the separation of different cell types, that is, adherent and suspension. Following a total culture time of 14 days, adherent cells activated the Cd105 gene while suspension cells activated the Sca-1 gene. Both progenitor markers, Cbfa-1 and Ostf-1, were inactivated in both suspension and adherent cells after 14-day culture compared to cells cultured 3 days in designated differentiation medium. In conclusion, molecular analyses showed that primary mononucleated cells are heterogeneous, consisting of hematopoietic stem cells (suspension and mesenchymal stem cells (adherent while both cells contained no progenitor cells.

  12. Production of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Reprogramming of Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Zia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood cells are the simple, efficient and economical source for the production of induced pluripotent cells. The discovery of induced pluripotent cells was not novel; it was pedestal on the scientific principals and technologies which have been developed over last six decades. These are nuclear transfer and the cloning of Animals, Pluripotent cell lines and fusion hybrids and Transcription Factors and lineage switching. The use of human embryonic stem cells in regenerative medicines was a breakthrough but make use of these cells arise ethical issues as they are obtained from human embryos. An alternative advancement using induced pluripotent stem cells, which mimics the embryonic stem cells has the significant gain that they replaced the embryonic stem cells. The pluripotent cells can be induced from terminally differentiated somatic cells by the Induction of only four defined factors including c-Myc, klf4, Oct4 and Sox2 which are enough to alter the fate of cell.

  13. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Ibitokou

    Full Text Available Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective study, both in Benin and Tanzania, including ∼1000 pregnant women in each site with systematic follow-up at scheduled antenatal visits until delivery. We used ex vivo flow cytometry to identify peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC profiles that are associated with PAM and anaemia, determining the phenotypic composition and activation status of PBMC in selected sub-groups with and without PAM both at inclusion and at delivery in a total of 302 women. Both at inclusion and at delivery PAM was associated with significantly increased frequencies both of B cells overall and of activated B cells. Infection-related profiles were otherwise quite distinct at the two different time-points. At inclusion, PAM was associated with anaemia, with an increased frequency of immature monocytes and with a decreased frequency of regulatory T cells (Treg. At delivery, infected women presented with significantly fewer plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DC, more myeloid DC expressing low levels of HLA-DR, and more effector T cells (Teff compared to uninfected women. Independent associations with an increased risk of anaemia were found for altered antigen-presenting cell frequencies at inclusion, but for an increased frequency of Teff at delivery. Our findings emphasize the prominent role played by B cells during PAM whenever it arises during pregnancy, whilst also revealing signature changes in other circulating cell types that, we conclude, primarily reflect the relative duration of the infections. Thus, the acute, recently-acquired infections present at delivery were marked by changes in DC and Teff frequencies, contrasting with infections at inclusion, considered chronic in

  14. Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Peripheral Blood of Cardiac Catheterization Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheir Korraa1, Tawfik M.S.1, Mohamed Maher 2 and Amr Zaher

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the rejuvenation capacity among cardiac catheterization technicians occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. Subjects and methods: The individual annual collective dose information was measured by thermoluminscent personal dosimeters (TLD for those technicians and found to be ranging between 2.16 and 8.44 mSv/y. Venous blood samples were obtained from 30 cardiac catheterization technicians exposed to X-ray during fluoroscopy procedures at the National Heart Institute in Embaba. The control group involved 25 persons not exposed to ionizing radiation and not working in hospitals in addition to 20 persons not exposed to ionizing radiation and working in hospitals. Blood samples were assayed for total and differential blood counts, micronucleus formation (FMN plasma stromal derived growth factor-1α (SDF-1 α and cell phenotype of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs, whose surface markers were identified as the CD34, CD133 and kinase domain receptors (KDR. Results: SDF-1α (2650± 270 vs. 2170 ± 430 pg/ml and FMN (19.9 ± 5.5 vs. 2.8 ± 1.4/1000 cells were significantly higher among cardiac catheterization staff compared to those of the controls respectively. Similarly, EPCs: CD34 (53 ± 3.9 vs. 48 ± 8.5/105 mononuclear cells, CD133 (62.4 ± 4.8 vs. 54.2 ± 10.6 /105 mononuclear cells KDR (52.7 ± 10.6 vs.43.5± 8.2 /105 mononuclear cells were also significantly higher among cardiac catheterization staff compared to the values of controls respectively. Smoking seemed to have a positive effect on the FMN and SDF-1 but had a negative effect on EPCs. It was found that among cardiac catheterization staff, the numbers of circulating progenitor cells had increased and accordingly there was an increased capacity for tissue repair. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present work shows that occupational exposure to radiation, well within permissible levels, leaves a genetic mark on the

  15. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged lead tests in children aged lead in the water, the water advisory likely reduced tap water consumption and increased consumption of bottled water. Characterizing exposure to lead contaminated drinking water among children aged <6 years living in Flint can help guide appropriate interventions.

  16. High white blood cell count at diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: biological background and prognostic impact. Results from the NOPHO ALL-92 and ALL-2000 studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkeviciene, G; Forestier, E; Hellebostad, M;

    2011-01-01

    Prognostic impact of peripheral blood white blood cell count (WBC) at the diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was evaluated in a population-based consecutive series of 2666 children aged 1–15 treated for ALL between 1992 and 2008 in the five Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland...

  17. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I;

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB...

  18. Effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum treatment on radiolabeling of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells in Wistar rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarroz, Monica Oliveira; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Rocha, Gabrielle de Souza; Pereira, Marcia Oliveira [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Geller, Mauro [Centro Universitario Serra dos Orgaos, Teresopolis, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Presta, Giuseppe Antonio [Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UNIRIO), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Biomedico. Dept. de Fisiologia Humana

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of in vivo treatment with an aqueous cinnamon extract on the labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99m}Tc and on the morphology of red blood cells from Wistar rats. Animals were treated with cinnamon extract at different doses and for different periods of time. As controls, animals treated with 0.9% NaCl. Labeling of blood constituents with {sup 99}mTc was performed. Plasma, blood cells and insoluble fractions were isolated. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Also, blood smears were prepared to morphological analysis of red blood cells from. Data showed that in vivo cinnamon extract did not significantly (p>0.05) modify the %ATI of blood constituents and morphology of red blood cells. The results suggest that in vivo aqueous cinnamon could not affect the membrane structures involved in transport of ions or the oxidation state of stannous and pertechnetate ions. (author)

  19. Alternating electric field-induced changes in morphological features of mouse blood in relation to age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baskuryan, A.K.; Kartashev, A.G.

    Outbred white mice were employed in a study on the effects of alternating electric fields (50 Hz, 40 +/- 5 kV/m) on blood morphology in relation to age. Exposure of 15-60-day old mice for 5 days resulted in marked anemia and reticulocytosis. With a 10-day exposure, erythrocyte counts fell by 30%; after 20 days of exposure, recovery of the red elements was evident in conjunction with leucocytosis. After 40 days of exposure, the blood counts were essentially normal. Exposure of adult (60-100 days) mice resulted in leucopenia, that disappeared after 10 days of exposure, with further exposure for 20-40 days accompanied by basically normal counts. Aged mice (240-260 days) were entirely refractory to the effects of the alternating electric field. These findings indicate that juvenile mice are most susceptible to the physical agent in question, but that the changes are temporary and apparently reflect adaptive changes in the erythropoietic system. 1 reference.

  20. Seroepidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I in blood donors of Northeastern Iran, Sabzevar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtab Maghsudlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I infection is considered as a public health challenge in endemic areas. The virus is associated with severe diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. One of the major routes of the HTLV-I transmission includes blood transfusion. Sabzevar is located in the endemic region of HTLV-I infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection in the blood donors in Sabzevar. Materials and Methods: A total of 35,067 blood donors in Sabzevar from March 2009 to April 2012 who were screened with HTLV-I on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening test were included in this survey. Reactive samples that confirmed by western blot were considered to be seropositive cases. The required data were obtained from blood donors′ database of blood transfusion service. Results: The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 based on the positive result of western blot test was 0.14%. The seropositive donors aged 17-59 years with a mean age of 38.10 ± 11.82. The prevalence rates of HTLV-I infection in 3 years of study were 0.19%, 0.14%, and 0.09%, respectively. A significant relation between age, sex, educational level, and history of blood donation was observed with seropositivity of HTLV-I. Conclusion: The improvement of donor selection and laboratory screening caused a decline in the prevalence of infection in blood donors. Given the lower prevalence of infection in regular donors with lower age and higher educational level, more efforts should be done to attract blood donors from these populations.

  1. Manipulation of red blood cells with electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboonchi, Hossain; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2009-11-01

    Manipulation of bioparticles and macromolecules is the central task in many biological and biotechnological processes. The current methods for physical manipulation takes advantage of different forces such as acoustic, centrifugal, magnetic, electromagnetic, and electric forces, as well as using optical tweezers or filtration. Among all these methods, however, the electrical forces are particularly attractive because of their favorable scale up with the system size which makes them well-suited for miniaturization. Currently the electric field is used for transportation, poration, fusion, rotation, and separation of biological cells. The aim of the current research is to gain fundamental understanding of the effect of electric field on the human red blood cells (RBCs) using direct numerical simulation. A front tracking/finite difference technique is used to solve the fluid flow and electric field equations, where the fluid in the cell and the blood (plasma) is modeled as Newtonian and incompressible, and the interface separating the two is treated as an elastic membrane. The behavior of RBCs is investigated as a function of the controlling parameters of the problem such as the strength of the electric field.

  2. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eBangen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors, advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor. This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus, inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus, and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines.

  3. Stem cells: Potential therapy for age-related diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kassem, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive failing of tissues and organs of the human body leading to a large number of age-related diseases. Regenerative medicine is an emerging clinical discipline that aims to employ cellular medicines (normal cells, ex vivo expanded cells, or tissue......-engineered organs) to restore the functions of damaged or defective tissues and organs and thus to "rejuvenate" the failing aging body. One of the most important sources for cellular medicine is embryonic and adult (somatic) stem cells (SSCs). One example of SCCs with enormous clinical potential is the mesenchymal...... stem cells (MSCs) that are present in the bone marrow and are able to differentiate into cell types such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, endothelial cells, and probably also neuron-like cells. Because of the ease of their isolation and their extensive differentiation potential, MSCs are among the first...

  4. Yeast extract with blood plasma in diets for piglets from 21 to 35 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Maria Carlos Pereira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of yeast extract as a partial replacemer of blood plasma in piglet diets and its effect on the performance and intestinal morphometry of pigs weaned at 21 days of age. One hundred and twenty animals were randomized into blocks, with five diets (4.0% blood plasma; 2.0% blood plasma with 0.0; 1.0; 2.0 or 3.0% yeast extract, six replicates and four pigs per experimental unit. At 35 days of age, one pig per experimental unit was slaughtered in order to evaluate duodenal and jejunal morphometry. The levels of yeast extract had a quadratic impact on daily feed intake and final weight, which increased up to the estimated level of 1.91%. Daily weight gain and feed conversion rate were not affected. A comparison between diets containing different levels of yeast extract and the basal diet showed that the diets containing 2.0% and 1.0% yeast extract provided the highest final weight and the worst feed conversion rate, respectively. Duodenal villus height and crypt depth were quadratically affected by yeast extract levels and the best results were achieved with the estimated levels of 1.64 and 1.16%, respectively. The levels of yeast extract provided a linear increase in the duodenal villus:crypt ratio, but did not change the morphometric variables of the jejunum. No difference was found in the morphometric variables of the duodenum and jejunum when diets containing different levels of yeast extract were compared with the basal diet. The results suggest that the inclusion of 1.91% yeast extract allows for a partial replacement for plasma in the diet, decreasing plasma inclusion from 4.0 to 2.0%.

  5. When aging reaches CD4+ T-cells: phenotypic and functional changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Moro-García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Beyond midlife, the immune system shows aging features and its defensive capability becomes impaired, by a process known as immunosenescence that involves many changes in the innate and adaptive responses. Innate immunity seems to be better preserved globally, while the adaptive immune response exhibits profound age-dependent modifications. Elderly people display a decline in numbers of naïve T-cells in peripheral blood and lymphoid tissues, while, in contrast, their proportion of highly differentiated effector and memory T-cells, such as the CD28null T-cells, increases markedly. Naïve and memory CD4+ T-cells constitute a highly dynamic system with constant homeostatic and antigen-driven proliferation, influx, and loss of T-cells. Thymic activity dwindles with age and essentially ceases in the later decades of life, severely constraining the generation of new T-cells. Homeostatic control mechanisms are very effective at maintaining a large and diverse subset of naïve CD4+ T-cells throughout life, but although later than in CD8+T-cell compartment, these mechanisms ultimately fail with age.

  6. Measuring skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution by laser ektacytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikitin, S Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Lugovtsov, A E [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ustinov, V D [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Computational Mathematics and Cybernetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-31

    An algorithm is proposed for measuring the parameters of red blood cell deformability distribution based on laser diffractometry of red blood cells in shear flow (ektacytometry). The algorithm is tested on specially prepared samples of rat blood. In these experiments we succeeded in measuring the mean deformability, deformability variance and skewness of red blood cell deformability distribution with errors of 10%, 15% and 35%, respectively. (laser biophotonics)

  7. General coarse-grained red blood cell models: I. Mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    FEDOSOV, DMITRY A.; Caswell, Bruce; Karniadakis, George E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a rigorous procedure to derive coarse-grained red blood cell (RBC) models, which lead to accurate mechanical properties of realistic RBCs. Based on a semi-analytic theory linear and non-linear elastic properties of the RBC membrane can be matched with those obtained in optical tweezers stretching experiments. In addition, we develop a nearly stress-free model which avoids a number of pitfalls of existing RBC models, such as non-biconcave equilibrium shape and dependence of RBC mech...

  8. Manipulation of microparticles and red blood cells using optoelectronic tweezers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Verma; R Dasgupta; N Kumar; S Ahlawat; A Uppal; P K Gupta

    2014-02-01

    We report the development of an optoelectronic tweezers set-up which works by lightinduced dielectrophoresis mechanism to manipulate microparticles. We used thermal evaporation technique for coating the organic polymer, titanium oxide phthalocyanine (TiOPc), as a photoconductive layer on ITO-coated glass slide. Compare to the conventional optical tweezers, the technique requires optical power in W range and provides a manipulation area of a few mm2. The set-up was used to manipulate the polystyrene microspheres and red blood cells (RBCs). The RBCs could be attracted or repelled by varying the frequency of the applied AC bias.

  9. Swinging of red blood cells under shear flow

    CERN Document Server

    Abkarian, M; Viallat, A; Abkarian, Manouk; Faivre, Magalie; Viallat, Annie

    2007-01-01

    We reveal that under moderate shear stress (of the order of 0.1 Pa) red blood cells present an oscillation of their inclination (swinging) superimposed to the long-observed steady tanktreading (TT) motion. A model based on a fluid ellipsoid surrounded by a visco-elastic membrane initially unstrained (shape memory) predicts all observed features of the motion: an increase of both swinging amplitude and period (1/2 the TT period) upon decreasing the shear stress, a shear stress-triggered transition towards a narrow shear stress-range intermittent regime of successive swinging and tumbling, and a pure tumbling motion at lower shear stress-values.

  10. The nature of multiphoton fluorescence from red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saytashev, Ilyas; Murphy, Michael; Osseiran, Sam; Spence, Dana M.; Evans, Conor L.; Dantus, Marcos

    2016-03-01

    We report on the nature of multiphoton excited fluorescence observed from human erythrocytes (red blood cells RBC's) and their "ghosts" following 800nm sub-15 fs excitation. The detected optical signal is assigned as two-photon excited fluorescence from hemoglobin. Our findings are supported by wavelength-resolved fluorescence lifetime decay measurements using time-correlated single photon counting system from RBC's, their ghosts as well as in vitro samples of various fluorophores including riboflavin, NADH, NAD(P)H, hemoglobin. We find that low-energy and short-duration pulses allow two-photon imaging of RBC's, but longer more intense pulses lead to their destruction.

  11. THE PURE RED BLOOD CELL APLASIA IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Dzumabaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The pure red blood cell aplasia of renal transplant recipients caused by parvovirus B19 (PB19 is characterized by persistent anemia which resistant to erythropoietin therapy, lack of reticulocytes, bone marrow hypoplasia, and clinically accompanied by severe recurrent bacterial, fungal and viral infection. In case of reactivation PB19 it is necessarv, first of all, eliminate the causes activation of this virus and to cancel or reduce the dose of drugs which depressed the normal hematopoiesis germs, thus to reduce the pancytopenia associating complications in this population. 

  12. Defining Molecular Phenotypes of Mesenchymal and hematopoietic Stem Cells derived from Peripheral blood of Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia patients for regenerative stem cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potdar, Pd; Subedi, Rp

    2011-01-01

    Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL) is a clonal myeloid disorder affecting all age groups, characterized by accumulation of immature blast cells in bone marrow and in peripheral blood. Autologous Bone Marrow Transplantation is a present treatment for cure of ALL patients, which is very expensive, invasive process and may have possibility of transplantation of malignant stem cells to patients. In the present study, we hypothesized to isolate large number of normal Mesenchymal & Hematopoietic stem cells from peripheral blood of ALL patients, which will be further characterized for their normal phenotypes by using specific molecular stem cell markers. This is the first study, which defines the existing phenotypes of isolated MSCs and HSCs from peripheral blood of ALL patients. We have established three cell lines in which two were Mesenchymal stem cells designated as MSCALL and MSCnsALL and one was suspension cell line designated as HSCALL. The HSCALL cell line was developed from the lymphocyte like cells secreted by MSCALL cells. Our study also showed that MSCALL from peripheral blood of ALL patient secreted hematopoietic stem cells in vitro culture. We have characterized all three-cell lines by 14 specific stem cell molecular markers. It was found that both MSC cell lines expressed CD105, CD13, and CD73 with mixed expression of CD34 and CD45 at early passage whereas, HSCALL cell line expressed prominent feature of hematopoietic stem cells such as CD34 and CD45 with mild expression of CD105 and CD13. All three-cell lines expressed LIF, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, IL6, and DAPK. These cells mildly expressed COX2 and did not express BCR-ABL. Overall it was shown that isolated MSCs and HSCs can be use as a model system to study the mechanism of leukemia at stem cell level and their use in stem cell regeneration therapy for Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia.

  13. Effect of curcumin on aging retinal pigment epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu W

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhu,1,* Yan Wu,2,* Yi-Fang Meng,1 Jin-Yu Wang,1 Ming Xu,1 Jian-Jun Tao,1 Jiong Lu1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Changshu No 2 People’s Hospital, Changshu, 2Department of Ophthalmology, The First People’s Hospital of Kunshan Affiliated with Jiangsu University, Suzhou, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD is now one of the leading causes of blindness in the elderly population. The antioxidative effects of curcumin on aging retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells are still unclear. We conducted an in vitro study to investigate the effects of curcumin on aging RPE cells. A pulsed H2O2 exposure aging model was adopted. Aging RPE cells were treated with curcumin 20 µM, 40 µM, and 80 µM. Apoptosis of RPE cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. The intracellular reactive oxygen species concentration was detected using a specific probe and apoptosis-associated proteins were detected by Western blot. Expression of oxidative biomarkers, including superoxide dismutase, maleic dialdehyde, and glutathione, was detected commercially available assay kits. Compared with normal cells, lower cell viability, higher apoptosis rates, and more severe oxidation status were identified in the aging RPE cell model. Curcumin improved cell viability and decreased apoptosis and oxidative stress. Further, curcumin had a significant influence on expression of apoptosis-associated proteins and oxidative stress biomarkers. In conclusion, treatment with curcumin was able to regulate proliferation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in aging RPE cells. Accordingly, application of curcumin may be a novel strategy to protect against age-related change in AMD. Keywords: curcumin, retinal pigment epithelium, apoptosis, age-related macular degeneration

  14. Efficient induction of pluripotent stem cells from menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Li, Xiaoni; Zhao, Hongxi; Feng, Ruopeng; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Tai, Dapeng; An, Guangyu; Wen, Jinhua; Tan, Jichun

    2013-04-01

    The technology to reprogram human somatic cells back to pluripotency allows the production of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and holds a great promise for regenerative medicine. Choosing the most suitable cell type for induction and reducing the risk of viral transgene activation, especially oncogene activation, are important for iPSC research. To date, human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) are the most frequent cell source used for iPSC generation, but they have several limitations. An invasive skin biopsy must be performed to obtain HDFs, and HDFs must be cultured for a prolonged period before they can be used for experiments. Thus, in an effort to develop a suitable source for iPSC studies to avoid the limitations mentioned above, we have here identified stromal cells derived from menstrual blood (MenSCs) as suitable candidates. In the present study, we found that MenSCs can be reprogrammed to pluripotent status by doxycycline-inducible lentiviral transduction of OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4. Additionally, we found that MenSCs have a significantly higher reprogramming efficiency than HDFs. The combination of OCT4 and SOX2 is sufficient to reprogram MenSCs into iPSCs without the use of c-MYC or KLF4. The resulting MenSC-iPSCs showed the same characteristics as human embryonic stem cells with regard to morphology, pluripotent markers, gene expression, and the epigenetic status of pluripotent-cell-specific genes. These cells were able to differentiate into various cell types of all 3 germ layers both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, MenSCs may be a preferred candidate for generation of iPSCs.

  15. Photodynamic treatment of red blood cell concentrates for virus inactivation enhances red blood cell aggregation: protection with antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Hur, E; Barshtein, G; Chen, S; Yedgar, S

    1997-10-01

    Photodynamic treatment (PDT) using phthalocyanines and red light appears to be a promising procedure for decontamination of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates for transfusion. A possible complication of this treatment may be induced aggregation of RBC. The production of RBC aggregates was measured with a novel computerized cell flow properties analyzer (CFA). The PDT of RBC concentrates with sulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine (AIPcS4) and the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4 under virucidal conditions markedly enhanced RBC aggregation and higher shear stress was required to disperse these aggregates. The clusters of cells were huge and abnormally shaped, unlike the rouleaux formed by untreated RBC. This aggregation was prevented when a mixture of antioxidants was included during PDT. Addition of the antioxidants after PDT reduced aggregation only partially. It is concluded that inclusion of antioxidants during PDT of RBC concentrates prior to transfusion may reduce or eliminate the hemodynamic risk that the virucidal treatment may present to the recipient.

  16. A micro-scale simulation of red blood cell passage through symmetric and asymmetric bifurcated vessels

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tong; Xing, Zhongwen

    2016-01-01

    Blood exhibits a heterogeneous nature of hematocrit, velocity, and effective viscosity in microcapillaries. Microvascular bifurcations have a significant influence on the distribution of the blood cells and blood flow behavior. This paper presents a simulation study performed on the two-dimensionalmotions and deformation of multiple red blood cells in microvessels with diverging and converging bifurcations. Fluid dynamics and membrane mechanics were incorporated. Effects of cell shape, hematocrit, and deformability of the cell membrane on rheological behavior of the red blood cells and the hemodynamics have been investigated. It was shown that the blood entering the daughter branch with a higher flow rate tended to receive disproportionally more cells. The results also demonstrate that red blood cells in microvessels experienced lateral migration in the parent channel and blunted velocity profiles in both straight section and daughter branches, and this effect was influenced by the shape and the initial posit...

  17. Biological effects of the electrostatic field: red blood cell-related alterations of oxidative processes in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Hayk A.; Sahakyan, Gohar V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine activities of pro-/antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and oxidative modification of proteins and lipids in red blood cells (RBCs) and blood plasma of rats exposed to electrostatic field (200 kV/m) during the short (1 h) and the long periods (6 day, 6 h daily). Short-term exposure was characterized by the increase of oxidatively damaged proteins in blood of rats. This was strongly expressed in RBC membranes. After long-term action, RBC content in peripheral blood was higher than in control ( P < 0.01) and the attenuation of prooxidant processes was shown.

  18. Cell differentiation mediated by co-culture of human umbilical cord blood stem cells with murine hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Maria; Wulf-Goldenberg, Annika; Purfürst, Bettina; Siegert, Antje; Keil, Marlen; Eckert, Klaus; Fichtner, Iduna

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, purified human cord blood stem cells were co-cultivated with murine hepatic alpha mouse liver 12 (AML12) cells to compare the effect on endodermal stem cell differentiation by either direct cell-cell interaction or by soluble factors in conditioned hepatic cell medium. With that approach, we want to mimic in vitro the situation of preclinical transplantation experiments using human cells in mice. Cord blood stem cells, cultivated with hepatic conditioned medium, showed a low endodermal differentiation but an increased connexin 32 (Cx32) and Cx43, and cytokeratin 8 (CK8) and CK19 expression was monitored by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Microarray profiling indicated that in cultivated cord blood cells, 604 genes were upregulated 2-fold, with the highest expression for epithelial CK19 and epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin). On ultrastructural level, there were no major changes in the cellular morphology, except a higher presence of phago(ly)some-like structures observed. Direct co-culture of AML12 cells with cord blood cells led to less incisive differentiation with increased sex-determining region Y-box 17 (SOX17), Cx32 and Cx43, as well as epithelial CK8 and CK19 expressions. On ultrastructural level, tight cell contacts along the plasma membranes were revealed. FACS analysis in co-cultivated cells quantified dye exchange on low level, as also proved by time relapse video-imaging of labelled cells. Modulators of gap junction formation influenced dye transfer between the co-cultured cells, whereby retinoic acid increased and 3-heptanol reduced the dye transfer. The study indicated that the cell-co-cultured model of human umbilical cord blood cells and murine AML12 cells may be a suitable approach to study some aspects of endodermal/hepatic cell differentiation induction.

  19. Age-related differences in cerebral blood flow underlie the BOLD FMRI signal in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela eMoses

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI has become a premiere technique for studying the development and neural mediation of a wide range of typical and atypical behaviors in children. While the mechanism of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD FMRI signal has been a focus of investigation in the mature brain, it has been largely unexamined in the developing brain. One critical component of the BOLD signal that has been noted to change with age is cerebral blood flow (CBF. Reports of CBF in children based on clinical radioactive tracing methods have found elevated CBF in childhood relative to adulthood, which could affect the BOLD response. This study used noninvasive arterial spin labeling (ASL MRI to study resting state and activity-driven CBF in conjunction with the functional BOLD response in healthy children 8 and 12 years of age and in adults. Participants performed a finger tapping task to generate robust activation measured in the motor cortex. Quantification of resting state CBF demonstrated higher CBF in 8 year olds and in 12 year olds relative to adults. The absolute increase in CBF between baseline rest and peak response during the motor task was also higher in children compared to adults. In contrast, the relative increase of CBF above baseline, expressed as percent of CBF change, was comparable across groups. The percent of BOLD signal change was also stable across age groups. This set of findings suggest that along with elevated CBF in childhood, other component processes of the BOLD response are also in an elevated state such that together they yield a net BOLD effect that resembles adults. These findings are consistent with our previous examination hemodynamics in primary sensory cortex. Although the magnitude of the BOLD response appears consistent between childhood and adulthood, the underlying physiology and cerebrovascular dynamics that give rise to the BOLD effect differ between immature and mature brains neural

  20. Polymer/hemoglobin assemblies: biodegradable oxygen carriers for artificial red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taihang; Jing, Xiabin; Huang, Yubin

    2011-07-07

    In routine clinical procedures, blood transfusion is now suffering from the defects of the blood products, like cross-matching, short storage time and virus infection. Various blood substitutes have been designed by researchers through continual efforts. With recent progress in nanotechnology, new types of artificial red blood cells with cellular structure are available. This article aims to describe some artificial red blood cells which encapsulate or conjugate hemoglobin molecules through various approaches, especially the nanoscale self-assembly technique, to mitigate the adverse effects of free hemoglobin molecules. These types of artificial red blood cell systems, which make use of biodegradable polymers as matrix materials, show advantages over the traditional types.

  1. Autistic children exhibit decreased levels of essential Fatty acids in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigandi, Sarah A; Shao, Hong; Qian, Steven Y; Shen, Yiping; Wu, Bai-Lin; Kang, Jing X

    2015-05-04

    Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential nutrients for brain development and function. However, whether or not the levels of these fatty acids are altered in individuals with autism remains debatable. In this study, we compared the fatty acid contents between 121 autistic patients and 110 non-autistic, non-developmentally delayed controls, aged 3-17. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of red blood cell (RBC) membrane phospholipids showed that the percentage of total PUFA was lower in autistic patients than in controls; levels of n-6 arachidonic acid (AA) and n-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were particularly decreased (pautism.

  2. Cell ageing: a flourishing field for neurodegenerative diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Brites

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cellular senescence is viewed as an irreversible cell-cycle arrest mechanism involving a complexity of biological progressive processes and the acquisition of diverse cellular phenotypes. Several cell-intrinsic and extrinsic causes (stresses may lead to diverse cellular signaling cascades that include oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage, excessive accumulation of misfolded proteins, impaired microRNA processing and inflammation. Here we review recent advances in the causes and consequences of brain cell ageing, including the senescence of endothelial cells at the central nervous system barriers, as well as of neurons and glial cells. We address what makes ageing an important risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and cerebrovascular disease. In particular, we highlight the importance of defects in mitochondrial dynamics, in the cathepsin activity imbalance, in cell-cell communication, in the accumulation of misfolded and unfolded proteins and in the microRNA profiling as having potential impact on cellular ageing processes. Another important aspect is that the absence of specific senescence biomarkers has hampered the characterization of senescent cells in ageing and age-associated diseases. In accordance, the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP or secretome was shown to vary in distinct cell types and upon different stressors, and SASP heterogeneity is believed to create subsets of senenescent cells. In addition to secreted proteins, we then place extracellular vesicles (exosomes and ectosomes as important mediators of intercellular communication with pathophysiological roles in disease spreading, and as emerging targets for therapeutic intervention. We also discuss the application of engineered extracellular vesicles as vehicles for drug delivery. Finally, we summarize current knowledge on methods to rejuvenate senescent cells

  3. Comparison of instruments for investigation of microcirculatory blood flow and red blood cell concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Doherty, Jim; McNamara, Paul; Clancy, Neil T.; Enfield, Joey G.; Leahy, Martin J.

    2009-05-01

    The use of laser Doppler perfusion imaging (LDPI) and laser speckle perfusion imaging (LSPI) is well known in the noninvasive investigation of microcirculatory blood flow. This work compares the two techniques with the recently developed tissue viability (TiVi) imaging system, which is proposed as a useful tool to quantify red blood cell concentration in microcirculation. Three systems are evaluated with common skin tests such as the use of vasodilating and vasoconstricting drugs (methlynicotinate and clobetasol, respectively) and a reactive hyperaemia maneuver (using a sphygmomanometer). The devices investigated are the laser Doppler line scanner (LDLS), the laser speckle perfusion imager (FLPI)-both from Moor Instruments (Axminster, United Kingdom)-and the TiVi imaging system (WheelsBridge AB, Linköping, Sweden). Both imaging and point scanning by the devices are used to quantify the provoked reactions. Perfusion images of vasodilatation and vasoconstriction are acquired with both LDLS and FLPI, while TiVi images are acquired with the TiVi imager. Time acquisitions of an averaged region of interest are acquired for temporal studies such as the reactive hyperaemia. In contrast to the change in perfusion over time with pressure, the TiVi imager shows a different response due its measurement of blood concentration rather than perfusion. The responses can be explained by physiological understanding. Although the three devices sample different compartments of tissue, and output essentially different variables, comparisons can be seen between the three systems. The LDLS system proves to be suited to measurement of perfusion in deeper vessels, while FLPI and TiVi showed sensitivity to more superficial nutritional supply. LDLS and FLPI are insensitive to the action of the vasoconstrictor, while TiVi shows the clear boundaries of the reaction. Assessment of the resolution, penetration depth, and acquisition rate of each instrument show complimentary features that should

  4. Blood analyte sensing using fluorescent dye-loaded red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sarah C.; Shao, Xiaole; Cooley, Nicholas; Milanick, Mark A.; Glass, Timothy E.; Meissner, Kenith E.

    2014-02-01

    Measurement of blood analytes provides crucial information about a patient's health. Some such analytes, such as glucose in the case of diabetes, require long-term or near-continuous monitoring for proper disease management. However, current monitoring techniques are far from ideal: multiple-per-day finger stick tests are inconvenient and painful for the patient; implantable sensors have short functional life spans (i.e., 3-7 days). Due to analyte transporters on red blood cell (RBC) membranes that equilibrate intracellular and extracellular analyte levels, RBCs serve as an attractive alternative for encapsulating analyte sensors. Once reintroduced to the blood stream, the functionalized RBCs may continue to live for the remainder of their life span (120 days for humans). They are biodegradable and biocompatible, thereby eliminating the immune system response common for many implanted devices. The proposed sensing system utilizes the ability of the RBCs to swell in response to a decrease in the osmolarity of the extracellular solution. Just before lysis, they develop small pores on the scale of tens of nanometers. While at low temperature, analyte-sensitive dyes in the extracellular solution diffuse into the perforated RBCs and become entrapped upon restoration of temperature and osmolarity. Since the fluorescent signal from the entrapped dye reports on changes in the analyte level of the extracellular solution via the RBC transporters, interactions between the RBCs and the dye are critical to the efficacy of this technique. In this work, we study the use of a near infrared pH sensitive dye encapsulated within RBCs and assess the ability to measure dye fluorescence in vivo.

  5. Mid-trimester fetal blood-derived adherent cells share characteristics similar to mesenchymal stem cells but full-term umbilical cord blood does not

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MinjunYu; ZhifengXiao; LiShen; LingsongLi

    2005-01-01

    Stem cell transplantation is a promising treatment for many conditions.Although stem cells can be isolated from many tissues, blood is the ideal source of these cells due to the ease of collection. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been paid increased attention because of their powerful proliferation and pluripotent differentiating ability. But whether MSCs reside in blood (newborn umbilical cord blood and fetal or adult peripheral blood) is also debatable. The present study showed that MSC-like cells could be isolated and expanded from 16-26 weeks fetal blood but were not acquired efficiently from full-term infants' umbilical cord blood (UCB). Adherent cells separated from postnatal UCB were heterogeneous in cell morphology. Their proliferation capacity was limited and they were mainly CD45+, which indicated their haematopoietic derivation. On the contrary, MSC-like cells shared a similar phenotype to bone marrow MSCs. They were CD34- CD45- CD44+ CD71+ CD90+ CD105+. They could be induced to differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic and neural lineage cells. Single cell clones also showed similar phenotype and differentiation ability. Our results suggest that early fetal blood is rich in MSCs but term UCB is not.

  6. Recent Stem Cell Advances: Cord Blood and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell for Cardiac Regeneration- a Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhekar, Sheetal Kashinath; Shende, Vikas Suresh; Chincholkar, Anjali Baburao

    2016-05-30

    Stem cells are primitive self renewing undifferentiated cell that can be differentiated into various types of specialized cells like nerve cell, skin cells, muscle cells, intestinal tissue, and blood cells. Stem cells live in bone marrow where they divide to make new blood cells and produces peripheral stem cells in circulation. Under proper environment and in presence of signaling molecules stem cells begin to develop into specialized tissues and organs. These unique characteristics make them very promising entities for regeneration of damaged tissue. Day by day increase in incidence of heart diseases including left ventricular dysfunction, ischemic heart disease (IHD), congestive heart failure (CHF) are the major cause of morbidity and mortality. However infracted tissue cannot regenerate into healthy tissue. Heart transplantation is only the treatment for such patient. Due to limitation of availability of donor for organ transplantation, a focus is made for alternative and effective therapy to treat such condition. In this review we have discussed the new advances in stem cells such as use of cord stem cells and iPSC technology in cardiac repair. Future approach of CB cells was found to be used in tissue repair which is specifically observed for improvement of left ventricular function and myocardial infarction. Here we have also focused on how iPSC technology is used for regeneration of cardiomyocytes and intiating neovascularization in myocardial infarction and also for study of pathophysiology of various degenerative diseases and genetic disease in research field.

  7. Stretching and relaxation of malaria-infected red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ting; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2013-09-03

    The invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by malaria parasites is a complex dynamic process, in which the infected RBCs gradually lose their deformability and their ability to recover their original shape is greatly reduced with the maturation of the parasites. In this work, we developed two types of cell model, one with an included parasite, and the other without an included parasite. The former is a representation of real malaria-infected RBCs, in which the parasite is treated as a rigid body. In the latter, where the parasite is absent, the membrane modulus and viscosity are elevated so as to produce the same features present in the parasite model. In both cases, the cell membrane is modeled as a viscoelastic triangular network connected by wormlike chains. We studied the transient behaviors of stretching deformation and shape relaxation of malaria-infected RBCs based on these two models and found that both models can generate results in agreement with those of previously published studies. With the parasite maturation, the shape deformation becomes smaller and smaller due to increasing cell rigidity, whereas the shape relaxation time becomes longer and longer due to the cell's reduced ability to recover its original shape.

  8. Red blood cell cluster separation from digital images for use in sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hidalgo, Manuel; Guerrero-Peña, F A; Herold-García, S; Jaume-I-Capó, Antoni; Marrero-Fernández, P D

    2015-07-01

    The study of cell morphology is an important aspect of the diagnosis of some diseases, such as sickle cell disease, because red blood cell deformation is caused by these diseases. Due to the elongated shape of the erythrocyte, ellipse adjustment and concave point detection are applied widely to images of peripheral blood samples, including during the detection of cells that are partially occluded in the clusters generated by the sample preparation process. In the present study, we propose a method for the analysis of the shape of erythrocytes in peripheral blood smear samples of sickle cell disease, which uses ellipse adjustments and a new algorithm for detecting notable points. Furthermore, we apply a set of constraints that allow the elimination of significant image preprocessing steps proposed in previous studies. We used three types of images to validate our method: artificial images, which were automatically generated in a random manner using a computer code; real images from peripheral blood smear sample images that contained normal and elongated erythrocytes; and synthetic images generated from real isolated cells. Using the proposed method, the efficiency of detecting the two types of objects in the three image types exceeded 99.00%, 98.00%, and 99.35%, respectively. These efficiency levels were superior to the results obtained with previously proposed methods using the same database, which is available at http://erythrocytesidb.uib.es/. This method can be extended to clusters of several cells and it requires no user inputs.

  9. Geometric localization of thermal fluctuations in red blood cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur A.; Bhaduri, Basanta; Popescu, Gabriel; Levine, Alex J.

    2017-01-01

    The thermal fluctuations of membranes and nanoscale shells affect their mechanical characteristics. Whereas these fluctuations are well understood for flat membranes, curved shells show anomalous behavior due to the geometric coupling between in-plane elasticity and out-of-plane bending. Using conventional shallow shell theory in combination with equilibrium statistical physics we theoretically demonstrate that thermalized shells containing regions of negative Gaussian curvature naturally develop anomalously large fluctuations. Moreover, the existence of special curves, “singular lines,” leads to a breakdown of linear membrane theory. As a result, these geometric curves effectively partition the cell into regions whose fluctuations are only weakly coupled. We validate these predictions using high-resolution microscopy of human red blood cells (RBCs) as a case study. Our observations show geometry-dependent localization of thermal fluctuations consistent with our theoretical modeling, demonstrating the efficacy in combining shell theory with equilibrium statistical physics for describing the thermalized morphology of cellular membranes. PMID:28242681

  10. Geometric localization of thermal fluctuations in red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Arthur A; Bhaduri, Basanta; Popescu, Gabriel; Levine, Alex J

    2017-02-27

    The thermal fluctuations of membranes and nanoscale shells affect their mechanical characteristics. Whereas these fluctuations are well understood for flat membranes, curved shells show anomalous behavior due to the geometric coupling between in-plane elasticity and out-of-plane bending. Using conventional shallow shell theory in combination with equilibrium statistical physics we theoretically demonstrate that thermalized shells containing regions of negative Gaussian curvature naturally develop anomalously large fluctuations. Moreover, the existence of special curves, "singular lines," leads to a breakdown of linear membrane theory. As a result, these geometric curves effectively partition the cell into regions whose fluctuations are only weakly coupled. We validate these predictions using high-resolution microscopy of human red blood cells (RBCs) as a case study. Our observations show geometry-dependent localization of thermal fluctuations consistent with our theoretical modeling, demonstrating the efficacy in combining shell theory with equilibrium statistical physics for describing the thermalized morphology of cellular membranes.

  11. Whole-blood culture is a valid low-cost method to measure monocytic cytokines - A comparison of cytokine production in cultures of human whole-blood, mononuclear cells and monocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Camilla T.; Lauritzen, Lotte; Calder, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    assessed the intra- and inter-individual variation in cytokine production. In 64 healthy men (age 19-40 years) IL-6, TNF and IL-10 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in supernatants from whole-blood, PBMC and monocytes cultured 24 h with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or UV-killed L acidophilus......Whole-blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures are used as non-validated surrogate measures of monocytic cytokine production. The aim of this investigation was to compare ex vivo cytokine production from human whole-blood and PBMC with that from isolated monocytes. We also...

  12. Path dependence of lithium ion cells aging under storage conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Laisuo; Zhang, Jianbo; Huang, Jun; Ge, Hao; Li, Zhe; Xie, Fengchao; Liaw, Bor Yann

    2016-05-01

    This work investigates path dependence of lithium ion cells that are stored under static and non-static conditions. In the static storage tests, the levels of temperature and state of charge (SOC) are kept constant. The results of 12 tests from a combination of three temperatures and four SOCs show that, as expected, the cell ages faster at higher temperature and higher SOC. However, the cell aging mode, while consistent for all the evaluated temperatures, is different at 95% SOC from that at lower SOCs. In the non-static storage tests, the levels of temperature and SOC vary with time during the test process. The effect of the sequence of stress levels on cell aging is studied statistically using the statistical method of analysis of variation (ANOVA). It is found that cell capacity fade is path independent of both SOC and temperature, while cell resistance increase is path dependent on SOC and path independent of temperature. Finally, rate-based empirical aging models are adopted to fit the cell aging in the static storage tests. The aging model for capacity fade is demonstrated to be applicable to the non-static tests with errors between -3% and +3% for all the tested conditions over 180 days.

  13. The DNA methylome of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingrui Li

    Full Text Available DNA methylation plays an important role in biological processes in human health and disease. Recent technological advances allow unbiased whole-genome DNA methylation (methylome analysis to be carried out on human cells. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing at 24.7-fold coverage (12.3-fold per strand, we report a comprehensive (92.62% methylome and analysis of the unique sequences in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from the same Asian individual whose genome was deciphered in the YH project. PBMC constitute an important source for clinical blood tests world-wide. We found that 68.4% of CpG sites and 80% displayed allele-specific expression (ASE. These data demonstrate that ASM is a recurrent phenomenon and is highly correlated with ASE in human PBMCs. Together with recently reported similar studies, our study provides a comprehensive resource for future epigenomic research and confirms new sequencing technology as a paradigm for large-scale epigenomics studies.

  14. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis multiprotein biomarkers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nardo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal progressive motor neuron disease, for which there are still no diagnostic/prognostic test and therapy. Specific molecular biomarkers are urgently needed to facilitate clinical studies and speed up the development of effective treatments. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used a two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis approach to identify in easily accessible clinical samples, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC, a panel of protein biomarkers that are closely associated with ALS. Validations and a longitudinal study were performed by immunoassays on a selected number of proteins. The same proteins were also measured in PBMC and spinal cord of a G93A SOD1 transgenic rat model. We identified combinations of protein biomarkers that can distinguish, with high discriminatory power, ALS patients from healthy controls (98%, and from patients with neurological disorders that may resemble ALS (91%, between two levels of disease severity (90%, and a number of translational biomarkers, that link responses between human and animal model. We demonstrated that TDP-43, cyclophilin A and ERp57 associate with disease progression in a longitudinal study. Moreover, the protein profile changes detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of ALS patients are suggestive of possible intracellular pathogenic mechanisms such as endoplasmic reticulum stress, nitrative stress, disturbances in redox regulation and RNA processing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that PBMC multiprotein biomarkers could contribute to determine amyotrophic lateral sclerosis diagnosis, differential diagnosis, disease severity and progression, and may help to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms.

  15. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part II: Distal blood pressure after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Distal blood pressure (DBP) determination after an exercise test is used on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd). In our department. the average age of these patients is about 60 years. The usual reference values for pressures after exercise were based on data...... collected in the early 1970s from healthy individuals in the age range 21-26 years. Our aims were to collect new reference data for DBP at ankle level after exercise based on older populations, and to compare between reference data for different age groups to find out whether the normal values are dependent...... on age. Material and methods. DBP after exercise was measured using the strain-gauge technique on individuals in two groups: group I comprising 25 healthy persons aged between 61 and 82 years, and group II 14 healthy persons aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results...

  16. 75 FR 62843 - Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell... Act, as amended) the Advisory Council on Blood Stem Cell Transplantation (ACBSCT) advises the.... L. 92-463), notice is hereby given of the following meeting: Name: Advisory Council on Blood...

  17. Quantification of the fraction poorly deformable red blood cells using ektacytometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Streekstra, G.J.; Dobbe, J.G.G.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a method to obtain the fraction of poorly deformable red blood cells in a blood sample from the intensity pattern in an ek