WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood borne infections

  1. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadali, Fatemeh; Pourfathollah, Aliakbar

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P blood group "A" and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low.

  2. Risk of transmission of blood borne infections in climbing--consensus statement of UIAA Medcom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, V; Morrison, A; Küpper, T

    2011-03-01

    Blood borne infections such as hepatitis B, C (HBV, HBC) and human immunodeficiency disease (HIV) are major health problems globally. As the number of blood borne infections is postulated to increase among athletes, the question to the UIAA Medical Commission arises as to whether there is a risk of transmission in climbing. Using a nominal group consensus model approach a working group was formed during the UIAA Medical Commission's meeting in Adršpach-Zdoóov, in the Czech Republic, 2008. A working document was prepared and circulated via email. After several revisions the following final form was approved by written consent in lieu of a live meeting of the UIAA MedCom on 31st May, 2010: The main pathways of transmission of blood borne infections in athletes are similar to those experienced in the general population. The greatest risk to the athlete for contracting any blood borne pathogen infection is through sexual activity and parenteral drug use, and not in the sporting arena. The transmission risk in climbing is even smaller compared to contact sports. Mandatory HIV, HBV or HCV testing or widespread screening is not recommended, voluntary testing is recommended for all high risk athletes in the same way as for non-athletes. HIV and HBV positive climbers should not be banned from climbing or climbing competitions. The risk of transmission from infected athletes to other athletes is very low, the focus should be on preventive activities and education. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Blood borne viral infections among Danish Health Care Workers - frequent blood exposure but low prevalence of infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisker, Niels; Mygind, Lone H.; Krarup, Henrik B.; Licht, Dorthe; Georgsen, Jorgen; Christensen, Peer B.

    2004-01-01

    Denmark is a country with low prevalence and incidence of blood borne viral infections. Among health care workers (HCWs) vaccination for hepatitis B is only offered to high-risk groups. The aims of this cross sectional survey were to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B, -C, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among the staff at a Danish University hospital and to correlate this with risk factors for transmission. Additionally, we wanted to examine the current frequency of blood exposure, reporting habits and hepatitis B vaccination status in the staff. Of 1439 eligible hospital staffs included, 960 (67%) were HCWs. The overall human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-, hepatitis C Virus (HCV)- and hepatitis B Virus (HBV)-prevalence was 0% (0/1439), 0.14% (2/1439) and 1.6% (23/1439), respectively. Twenty-three percent of HCWs were vaccinated against HBV. Age, blood transfusion and stay in endemic areas were associated independently to HBV infection as opposed to job-category, duration of employment, HBV vaccination status and blood exposure. Based on a 4-week recall period, the incidence of percutaneous blood exposure was 1.5/person-year. In conclusion the HIV and hepatitis prevalence was low despite frequent blood exposure and the principal risk factors were unrelated to work. Danish HCWs do not seem to be at increased risk of hepatitis B even though universal HBV vaccination has not been implemented

  4. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, N Lakshmi; Krishnan, K Usha; Jayalakshmi, G; Vasanthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%). Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  5. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lakshmi Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  6. Iatrogenic blood-borne viral infections in refugee children from war and transition zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, Paul N

    2013-06-01

    Pediatric infectious disease clinicians in industrialized countries may encounter iatrogenically transmitted HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in refugee children from Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The consequences of political collapse and/or civil war-work migration, prostitution, intravenous drug use, defective public health resources, and poor access to good medical care-all contribute to the spread of blood-borne viruses. Inadequate infection control practices by medical establishments can lead to iatrogenic infection of children. Summaries of 4 cases in refugee children in Australia are a salient reminder of this problem.

  7. Outcome of Accidental Exposure Prone to Blood Borne Viral Infections in an Educational Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahnaz Sali

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk for transmission of blood-borne viruses (BBVs such as Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV due to occupational exposure is a major concern in the health care setting.Materials and Methods: This study among 337 health care workers (HCWs accidentally exposed to BBVs was carried out from January 2009 to March 2015. The data were reviewed in labbafinejhad hospital, Tehran, Iran.Results: 4 HCWs had exposure to HBS Ag positive, which HBS antibody titer of them was higher than 10 mlu/ml, 6 HCWs were exposed to HCV seropositive patients underwent laboratory investigations for  HCV-antibody on 4,12, 24 weeks that results were negative. 3 cases had exposure to HIV seropositive patients which received standard antiretroviral post exposure prophylaxis.Conclusion: Timely performance for PEP (Post Exposure Prophylaxis reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.prophylaxis. Conclusions: Timely performance for  PEP(Post Exposure Prophylaxis reducing BBVs transmission among HCWs.Key words: Outcome; Accidental Exposure; Blood Borne Viral Infections

  8. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    N Lakshmi Priya; K Usha Krishnan; G Jayalakshmi; S Vasanthi

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical ...

  9. Willingness to care for blood-borne virus-infected patients in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, T; Wada, K; Arphorn, S; Smith, D R

    2018-03-05

    Although stigma and discrimination by nurses against patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been reported, potential determinants of nurses' willingness to care for these patients have not been well studied in Thailand. To identify factors associated with Thai nurses' willingness to care for patients infected with HIV or HCV. Multivariable logistic regression analysis of data from a questionnaire completed by nurses at a large hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. Of 626 nurses, 546 (87%) nurses participated. Eleven per cent (59) and 6% (34) had previously experienced HIV- or HCV-infected blood contamination incidents, respectively. Forty-four per cent (240) and 38% (208) reported unwillingness to care for HIV- or HCV-infected patients, respectively. Willingness to care was less common [adjusted odds ratios 0.51 (0.34-0.74) for HIV and 0.62 (0.42-0.89) for HCV] in nurses aged ≥ 40 years and in those who feared HCV [0.63 (0.37-0.99)], but not HIV [0.84 (0.5-1.26)] transmission. Nurses who had confidence in protecting themselves against infection with HIV [1.84 (1.52-2.04)] and HCV [1.87 (1.45-2.18)], and accepting attitudes towards HIV-infected co-workers [1.39 (1.08-1.66)] but not HCV-infected co-workers [1.16 (0.83-1.5)], were more willing to care for HIV- and HCV-infected patients. Around 4 in 10 Thai nurses in our sample were unwilling to care for HIV- or HCV-infected patients. Minimizing the risk of nosocomial transmission and improving the public perception of infected individuals may help improve nurses' willingness to care for such patients, in Thailand or elsewhere.

  10. Blood borne infections in sport: risks of transmission, methods of prevention, and recommendations for hepatitis B vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordi, R; Wallace, W A

    2004-12-01

    Athletes are at risk of blood borne infections through bleeding injuries or injection of drugs with contaminated syringes. Prevention should focus on reducing non-sport associated risky behaviour, as well as dealing appropriately with bleeding injuries. The risk of transmission of hepatitis B virus is particularly high in athletes in contact and collision sports, those who live in or travel to endemic regions, injecting drug abusers, and those who practice first aid when there is no healthcare practitioner available. It is recommended that such athletes, and also adolescent athletes, should be vaccinated against the virus as a routine.

  11. Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Derived from CD4+ T Cells Contributes to Control of a Blood-Borne Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Mary F; de Melo, Gabrielly L; Anidi, Chioma; Hamburger, Rebecca; Kim, Chris Y; Lee, So Youn; Pham, Jennifer; Kim, Charles C

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic regulation of leukocyte population size and activation state is crucial for an effective immune response. In malaria, Plasmodium parasites elicit robust host expansion of macrophages and monocytes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that myeloid expansion during P. chabaudi infection is dependent upon both CD4+ T cells and the cytokine Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF). Single-cell RNA-Seq analysis on antigen-experienced T cells revealed robust expression of Csf1, the gene encoding MCSF, in a sub-population of CD4+ T cells with distinct transcriptional and surface phenotypes. Selective deletion of Csf1 in CD4+ cells during P. chabaudi infection diminished proliferation and activation of certain myeloid subsets, most notably lymph node-resident CD169+ macrophages, and resulted in increased parasite burden and impaired recovery of infected mice. Depletion of CD169+ macrophages during infection also led to increased parasitemia and significant host mortality, confirming a previously unappreciated role for these cells in control of P. chabaudi. This work establishes the CD4+ T cell as a physiologically relevant source of MCSF in vivo; probes the complexity of the CD4+ T cell response during type 1 infection; and delineates a novel mechanism by which T helper cells regulate myeloid cells to limit growth of a blood-borne intracellular pathogen.

  12. The United States Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Study: evidence for vector-borne transmission of the parasite that causes Chagas disease among United States blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantey, Paul T; Stramer, Susan L; Townsend, Rebecca L; Kamel, Hany; Ofafa, Karen; Todd, Charles W; Currier, Mary; Hand, Sheryl; Varnado, Wendy; Dotson, Ellen; Hall, Chris; Jett, Pamela L; Montgomery, Susan P

    2012-09-01

    Screening US blood donors for Trypanosoma cruzi infection is identifying autochthonous, chronic infections. Two donors in Mississippi were identified through screening and investigated as probable domestically acquired vector-borne infections, and the US T. cruzi Infection Study was conducted to evaluate the burden of and describe putative risk factors for vector-borne infection in the United States. Blood donors who tested enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay repeat reactive and positive by radioimmunoprecipitation assay, and whose mode of infection could not be identified, were evaluated with a questionnaire to identify possible sources of infection and by additional serologic and hemoculture testing for T. cruzi infection. Of 54 eligible donors, 37 (69%) enrolled in the study. Fifteen (41%) enrollees had four or more positive serologic tests and were considered positive for T. cruzi infection; one was hemoculture positive. Of the 15, three (20%) donors had visited a rural area of an endemic country, although none had stayed for 2 or more weeks. All had lived in a state with documented T. cruzi vector(s) or infected mammalian reservoir(s), 13 (87%) reported outdoor leisure or work activities, and 11 (73%) reported seeing wild reservoir animals on their property. This report adds 16 cases, including one from the Mississippi investigation, of chronic T. cruzi infection presumably acquired via vector-borne transmission in the United States to the previously reported seven cases. The estimated prevalence of autochthonous infections based on this study is 1 in 354,000 donors. Determining US foci of vector-borne transmission is needed to better assess risk for infection. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infects human brain microvascular endothelial cells without compromising blood-brain barrier integrity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palus, Martin; Vancová, Marie; Širmarová, J.; Elsterová, Jana; Perner, Jan; Růžek, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 507, JUL (2017), s. 110-122 ISSN 0042-6822 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV16-34238A; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * tick-borne encephalitis virus * blood-brain barrier * neuroinfection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Virology Impact factor: 3.353, year: 2016

  14. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  15. Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections among Male Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamza Yıldız

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the patients who have antisocial personality disorder (ASPD and the healthy individuals in terms of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs and Blood-Borne Transmitted Infections (BTIs prevalences. Methods: This study is a prospective, single-center, open-label, non-randomized controlled clinical study. There were two groups in the study. The patient group consistsed of 100 males who were diagnosed as ASPD with a clinical interview form. The control group consisted of 98 healthy males who did not have any psychiatric disorder. Dermatologic examination was performed, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The mean age of the patient group was 21.96±2.40 (range 20-37 years. The mean age of the control group was 24.20±2.88 (21-36 years. The most common disease was gonorrhea (25% followed by genital wart (11%, molluskum contagiosum (5%, HBsAg (4%, and HSV-2 seropositivity (4% in the patients group. In the control group, HSV-2 seropositivity (4.08%, genital wart (3.06%, molluskum contagiosum (3.06%, and gonorrhe (1.02% were commonly seen in the control group. STDs and/or BVTIs were found more common in the patients group (82% than that in the control group (45.91% (X2=30.62, p=0.000. Conclusions: The patients with ASPD are at greater risk than normal population to catch a STDs or BTIs because of their lower educational levels and riskier behaviors. This condition entertains a risk in the general population and the patients themselves.

  16. Fibrinolysis and proliferative endarteritis: two related processes in chronic infections? The model of the blood-borne pathogen Dirofilaria immitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier González-Miguel

    Full Text Available The interaction between blood-borne pathogens and fibrinolysis is one of the most important mechanisms that mediate invasion and the establishment of infectious agents in their hosts. However, overproduction of plasmin (final product of the route has been related in other contexts to proliferation and migration of the arterial wall cells and degradation of the extracellular matrix. We have recently identified fibrinolysis-activating antigens from Dirofilaria immitis, a blood-borne parasite whose key pathological event (proliferative endarteritis is produced by similar mechanisms to those indicated above. The objective of this work is to study how two of this antigens [actin (ACT and fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBAL] highly conserved in pathogens, activate fibrinolysis and to establish a relationship between this activation and the development of proliferative endarteritis during cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis. We demonstrate that both proteins bind plasminogen, enhance plasmin generation, stimulate the expression of the fibrinolytic activators tPA and uPA in endothelial cell cultures and are located on the surface of the worm in contact with the host's blood. ELISA, western blot and immunofluorescence techniques were employed for this purpose. Additionally, the implication of lysine residues in this interaction was analyzed by bioinformatics. The involvement of plasmin generated by the ACT/FBAL and plasminogen binding in cell proliferation and migration, and degradation of the extracellular matrix were shown in an "in vitro" model of endothelial and smooth muscle cells in culture. The obtained results indicate that ACT and FBAL from D. immitis activate fibrinolysis, which could be used by the parasite like a survival mechanism to avoid the clot formation. However, long-term overproduction of plasmin can trigger pathological events similar to those described in the emergence of proliferative endarteritis. Due to the high degree of

  17. Photosensitized inactivation of infectious blood-borne human parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, Millard M.; Sogandares-Bernal, Franklin M.; Matthews, James Lester

    1995-05-01

    Blood-borne viruses and protozoan parasites that are infectious to humans pose risk world-wide of infection transmission through blood and blood product transfusion. Blood-borne infectious viruses include human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-I), which causes AIDS; hepatitis C virus, which can cause chronic hepatitis; and cytomegalovirus, which can be dangerous to immunocompromised patients, e.g., the newborn, transplant recipients, and AIDS patients. Infectious blood-borne protozoan parasites include Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas' disease, endemic throughout Central and South America; the Trypanosoma species causing African sleeping sickness endemic in Central Africa; and Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malignant and increasingly drug- resistant human malaria prevalent throughout the tropics. Some researchers have focused on using photosensitizers to inactivate HIV-I and other viruses in whole blood, packed red cells, and platelet concentrates without compromising blood product function. Our group previously has reported photosensitized in vitro inactivation of P. falciparum and the mouse malaria organism Plasmodium berghei in whole blood using hematoporphyrin derivative (HPD) and of T. cruzi using benzoporphyrin derivatives BPDMA and BPDDA, dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE), and hydroxyethylvinyldeuteroporphyrin (HEVD). These results suggest that continued investigation is warranted to evaluate the potential for photosensitized inactivation of blood-borne parasites in blood banking.

  18. Blood-Borne Pathogens: Guidelines for Athletic Trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Athletic Training, 1995

    1995-01-01

    These guidelines cover athletic trainers and blood-borne pathogens at athletic events, student athletic trainer education, universal precautions and Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations, medical records and confidentiality, infected athletic trainers, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) testing, HBV…

  19. HIV, Other Blood-Borne Viruses and Sexually Transmitted Infections amongst Expatriates and Travellers to Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Gemma; Lobo, Roanna; Brown, Graham; Macri, Chloe; Smith, Hannah; Maycock, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    In some high-income countries, a proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other blood-borne virus (BBV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses have been reported as acquired overseas in low- and middle-income countries. A review was conducted to explore HIV, other BBV or STI related knowledge, risk behavior and acquisition amongst expatriates and travelers, particularly males, travelling from high to low- and middle-income countries. Seven academic databases were searched for 26 peer reviewed articles that met inclusion criteria. Significant variability in the studies was noted, in age, travel duration and frequency and outcomes/risk factors measured and reported on. Risk factors described included longer duration of stay; being single; travel for romance or sex; alcohol and other drug use; lack of travel advice; being male; higher number of sexual partners; and inconsistent condom use. Vaccination, pre-travel health advice, and having fewer sexual partners were described as protective. Studies are needed focusing on the social context in which risk-taking occurs. Better collaboration is essential to deliver comprehensive health promotion interventions alongside more consistent pre- and post- travel testing and advice. Policy measures are crucial, including consistent evaluation indicators to assess impacts of HIV, other BBVs or STIs in the context of mobility. Risks and responses for these epidemics are shared globally. PMID:27999275

  20. HIV, Other Blood-Borne Viruses and Sexually Transmitted Infections amongst Expatriates and Travellers to Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Gemma; Lobo, Roanna; Brown, Graham; Macri, Chloe; Smith, Hannah; Maycock, Bruce

    2016-12-16

    In some high-income countries, a proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other blood-borne virus (BBV) or sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnoses have been reported as acquired overseas in low- and middle-income countries. A review was conducted to explore HIV, other BBV or STI related knowledge, risk behavior and acquisition amongst expatriates and travelers, particularly males, travelling from high to low- and middle-income countries. Seven academic databases were searched for 26 peer reviewed articles that met inclusion criteria. Significant variability in the studies was noted, in age, travel duration and frequency and outcomes/risk factors measured and reported on. Risk factors described included longer duration of stay; being single; travel for romance or sex; alcohol and other drug use; lack of travel advice; being male; higher number of sexual partners; and inconsistent condom use. Vaccination, pre-travel health advice, and having fewer sexual partners were described as protective. Studies are needed focusing on the social context in which risk-taking occurs. Better collaboration is essential to deliver comprehensive health promotion interventions alongside more consistent pre- and post- travel testing and advice. Policy measures are crucial, including consistent evaluation indicators to assess impacts of HIV, other BBVs or STIs in the context of mobility. Risks and responses for these epidemics are shared globally.

  1. Deceased Organ Donors With a History of Increased Risk Behavior for the Transmission of Blood-Borne Viral Infection: The UK Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Patrick B; Summers, Dominic M; Robb, Matthew; Hulme, William; Ushiro-Lumb, Ines; Watson, Christopher J E; Neuberger, James; Bradley, J Andrew

    2017-07-01

    Deceased organ donors are routinely screened for behaviors that increase the risk of transmissible blood-borne viral (BBV) infection, but the impact of this information on organ donation and transplant outcome is not well documented. Our aim was to establish the impact of such behavior on organ donation and utilization, as well transplant recipient outcomes. We identified all UK deceased organ donors from 2003 to 2015 with a disclosed history of increased risk behavior (IRB) including intravenous drug use (IVDU), imprisonment and increased risk sexual behavior. Of 17 262 potential donors, 659 (3.8%) had IRB for BBV and 285 (1.7%) were seropositive for BBV, of whom half had a history of IRB (mostly IVDU [78.5%]). Of actual donors with IRB, 393 were seronegative for viral markers at time of donation. A history of recent IVDU was associated with fewer potential donors proceeding to become actual organ donors (64% vs 75%, P = 0.007). Donors with IRB provided 1091 organs for transplantation (624 kidneys and 467 other organs). Transplant outcome was similar in recipients of organs from donors with and without IRB. There were 3 cases of unexpected hepatitis C virus transmission, all from an active IVDU donor who was hepatitis C virus seronegative at time of donation, but was found to be viremic on retrospective testing. Donors with a history of IRB provide a valuable source of organs for transplantation with good transplant outcomes and there is scope for increasing the use of organs from such donors.

  2. Prevalence and estimated incidence of blood-borne viral pathogen infection in organ and tissue donors from northern Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahariadis, G; Plitt, S S; O'Brien, S; Yi, Q-L; Fan, W; Preiksaitis, J K

    2007-01-01

    To determine the potential safety benefit of introducing nucleic acid testing (NAT) in tissue and organ donors, the risk of virus transmission was examined in a Canadian population. Anonymous data on Northern Alberta tissue and organ donors from 1998 to 2004 were used to determine the seroprevalence and estimate the seroincidence and residual risk of HIV, HBV, HCV and HTLV infection. Of the 3372 donors identified, 71.1% were surgical bone, 13.2% were living organ and 15.6% were deceased organ/tissue donors. Seroprevalence was: HIV 0.00%, HBV 0.09%, HCV 0.48% and HTLV 0.03%. Incidence (/100,000 p-yrs) and residual risks (/100,000 donors) could only be estimated for HBV (24.2 and 3.9) and HCV (11.2 and 2.2). Risk estimates were higher for deceased donors than surgical bone donors. HCV had the highest prevalence and HBV had the highest estimated incidence. HIV and HTLV risks were extremely low precluding accurate quantification. In this region of low overall viral prevalence, HCV NAT would be most effective in deceased organ donors. In surgical bone donors the cost of implementing NAT is high without significant added safety benefit.

  3. TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS INFECTION IN HUMANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrnjaković Cvjetković, Ivana; Cvjetković, Dejan; Patić, Aleksandra; Radovanov, Jelena; Kovacević, Gordana; Milosević, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne meningoencephalitis virus is a flavivirus that causes the most important vector-borne central nervous system infection in many countries of Europe and Asia. There are three subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus: European, Siberian and the Far-Eastern subtype. In endemic areas, the virus remains in transmissive cycles between Ixodes ticks and small rodents. In most cases (70-98%) infection goes asymptomatically. In about one-third of meningitis cases, meningoencephalitis or meningomyelitis is developed. Postencephalytic syndrome may be the complication of the infection, presenting with neurological symptoms. Etiologic diagnosis of tick-borne meningoencephalitis is only made on basis of laboratory analyses. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction is used for determining the presence of virus in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid can be detected by serological tests. The most efficient way to control this potentially severe disease with possible serious long-term consequences is vaccination. It should be recommended to persons who live or travel to endemic areas. In Serbia, tick-borne encephalitis virus infection belongs to the list of reportable diseases; however, there are no reported cases because the diagnostics is not performed routinely. We believe that the significance of this zoonosis must be examined in our country and some of its parts because of preliminary positive serological findings found out in Vojvodina as well as because of reported cases in neighboring countries such as Hungary and Croatia and its worldwide distribution.

  4. No transmission of blood-borne viruses among hospital staff despite frequent blood exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskandarani, Hassan Ali; Kehrer, Michala; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Exposure to blood and body fluids (BBF) is a major concern for health-care workers (HCWs) and implies a risk of infection with blood-borne pathogens. However, in Denmark, no exposure incidence studies among HCWs have been reported for the past ten years. The aims of this study were ...... of exposure, 35% had a three-month blood test and 17% had a six-month test. CONCLUSION: Despite a high rate of exposure to BBF among HCWs, the risk of infection was low. FUNDING: no external funding received. TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant....

  5. ACTUAL TICK-BORNE INFECTIONS IN CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Gorovenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean Peninsula is located in the Northern part of the Black sea, from the East it is washed by the Sea of Azov, to the South and West by the Black Sea. The unique geographical and climatic conditions facilitate leptospirosis, tularemia, tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, intestinal yersiniosis, pseudotuberculosis, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Mediterranean fever, Q-fever and other infectious diseases natural foci formation on the territory of Crimea Republic. Tick-borne natural focal infections have the most significance due to favorable epidemiologic conditions especially on the background of high raid ticks attacks on people. A leading role in the epizootology and epidemiology of tick-borne natural-focal infections of the Crimea are playing Ixodidae that occur in different landscape-climatic zones, with the greatest their species diversity is observed in mountain-foothill, forest and forest-steppe regions. There are about 30 species in Ixodidae fauna of the Crimean Peninsula. Ticks species composition identification shows that over 50% of people attacks episodes in the Crimea on recent years is caused by Ixodes ricinus ticks species, the remaining are associated with Haemophisalis punctata, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, Dermacentor marginatus and other. Refusal of treatment in medical institutions of the people affected by tick bites, and the possibility of an attack on people subtle phases of mites are lubricates the real picture of the frequency of contacts of the population with ticks and complicates the forecasting of the epidemiological situation. This review summarizes the available information about spreading of tick-borne encephalitis, Lyme disease, Mediterranean and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fevers on the territory of Crimea Republic and demonstrates the modern trends and manifestations of epidemic process of these nosological forms. The results

  6. Use of GetCheckedOnline, a Comprehensive Web-based Testing Service for Sexually Transmitted and Blood-Borne Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Mark; Salway, Travis; Haag, Devon; Fairley, Christopher K; Wong, Jason; Grennan, Troy; Uddin, Zhaida; Buchner, Christopher S; Wong, Tom; Krajden, Mel; Tyndall, Mark; Shoveller, Jean; Ogilvie, Gina

    2017-03-20

    The British Columbia Centre for Disease Control implemented a comprehensive Web-based testing service GetCheckedOnline (GCO) in September 2014 in Vancouver, Canada. GCO's objectives are to increase testing for sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs), reach high-prevalence populations facing testing barriers, and increase clinical STI service capacity. GCO was promoted through email invitations to provincial STI clinic clients, access codes to clients unable to access immediate clinic-based testing (deferred testers), and a campaign to gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM). The objective of the study was to report on characteristics of GCO users, use and test outcomes (overall and by promotional strategy) during this pilot phase. We used GCO program data, website metrics, and provincial STI clinic records to describe temporal trends, progression through the service pathway, and demographic, risk, and testing outcomes for individuals creating GCO accounts during the first 15 months of implementation. Of 868 clients creating accounts, 318 (36.6%) submitted specimens, of whom 96 (30.2%) tested more than once and 10 (3.1%) had a positive STI diagnosis. The proportion of clients submitting specimens increased steadily over the course of the pilot phase following introduction of deferred tester codes. Clients were diverse with respect to age, gender, and ethnicity, although youth and individuals of nonwhite ethnicity were underrepresented. Of the 506 clients completing risk assessments, 215 (42.5%) were MSM, 89 (17.6%) were symptomatic, 47 (9.3%) were STI contacts, 232 (45.8%) reported condomless sex, 146 (28.9%) reported ≥4 partners in the past 3 months, and 76 (15.0%) reported a recent STI. A total of 63 (12.5%) GCO clients were testing for the first time. For 868 accounts created, 337 (38.8%) were by clinic invitations (0 diagnoses), 298 (34.3%) were by deferred testers (6 diagnoses), 194 (22.4%) were by promotional campaign (3

  7. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovi, P.; Vohr, B.; Ment, L.R.; Doyle, L.W.; McGarvey, L.; Morrison, K.M.; Evensen, K.A.I.; Pal, S. van der; Grunau, R.E.; Brubakk, A.M.; Andersson, S.; Saigal, S.; Kajantie, E.

    2016-01-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To

  8. The absorbed dose to blood from blood-borne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hänscheid, H; Fernández, M; Lassmann, M

    2015-01-01

    The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10 −11  Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1–1.2·10 −11  Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m. (paper)

  9. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana; Cvjetković Dejan; Patić Aleksandra; Radovanov Jelena; Kovačević Gordana; Milošević Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Tick-borne meningoencephalitis virus is a flavivirus that causes the most important vector-borne central nervous system infection in many countries of Europe and Asia. There are three subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus: European, Siberian and the Far-Eastern subtype. Transmission. In endemic areas, the virus remains in transmissive cycles between Ixodes ticks and small rodents. Clinical picture. In most cases (70−98%) infection goes asy...

  10. Equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the emergence and establishment of equine tick-borne infections in the Netherlands, with particular attention to their diagnosis, clinical relevance and treatment. Four tick-borne agents (Borrelia burgdorferi, Theileria equi, Babesia caballi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum)

  11. Impact of leucocyte depletion and prion reduction filters on TSE blood borne transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lacroux

    Full Text Available The identification in the UK of 4 v-CJD infected patients thought to be due to the use of transfused Red Blood Cell units prepared from blood of donors incubating v-CJD raised major concerns in transfusion medicine. The demonstration of leucocyte associated infectivity using various animal models of TSE infection led to the implementation of systematic leuco-depletion (LD of Red Blood cells concentrates (RBCs in a number of countries. In the same models, plasma also demonstrated a significant level of infectivity which raised questions on the impact of LD on the v-CJD transmission risk. The recent development of filters combining LD and the capture of non-leucocyte associated prion infectivity meant a comparison of the benefits of LD alone versus LD/prion-reduction filters (LD/PR on blood-borne TSE transmission could be made. Due to the similarity of blood/plasma volumes to human transfusion medicine an experimental TSE sheep model was used to characterize the abilities of whole blood, RBCs, plasma and buffy-coat to transmit the disease through the transfusion route. The impact of a standard RBCs LD filter and of two different RBCs LD/PR prototype filters on the disease transmission was then measured. Homologous recipients transfused with whole-blood, buffy-coat and RBCs developed the disease with 100% efficiency. Conversely, plasma, when intravenously administered resulted in an inconstant infection of the recipients and no disease transmission was observed in sheep that received cryo-precipitated fraction or supernatant obtained from infectious plasma. Despite their high efficacy, LD and LD/PR filtration of the Red Blood Cells concentrate did not provide absolute protection from infection. These results support the view that leuco-depletion strongly mitigates the v-CJD blood borne transmission risk and provide information about the relative benefits of prion reduction filters.

  12. Impact of leucocyte depletion and prion reduction filters on TSE blood borne transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Bougard, Daisy; Litaise, Claire; Simmons, Hugh; Corbiere, Fabien; Dernis, Dominique; Tardivel, René; Morel, Nathalie; Simon, Stephanie; Lugan, Séverine; Costes, Pierrette; Weisbecker, Jean Louis; Schelcher, François; Grassi, Jacques; Coste, Joliette; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    The identification in the UK of 4 v-CJD infected patients thought to be due to the use of transfused Red Blood Cell units prepared from blood of donors incubating v-CJD raised major concerns in transfusion medicine. The demonstration of leucocyte associated infectivity using various animal models of TSE infection led to the implementation of systematic leuco-depletion (LD) of Red Blood cells concentrates (RBCs) in a number of countries. In the same models, plasma also demonstrated a significant level of infectivity which raised questions on the impact of LD on the v-CJD transmission risk. The recent development of filters combining LD and the capture of non-leucocyte associated prion infectivity meant a comparison of the benefits of LD alone versus LD/prion-reduction filters (LD/PR) on blood-borne TSE transmission could be made. Due to the similarity of blood/plasma volumes to human transfusion medicine an experimental TSE sheep model was used to characterize the abilities of whole blood, RBCs, plasma and buffy-coat to transmit the disease through the transfusion route. The impact of a standard RBCs LD filter and of two different RBCs LD/PR prototype filters on the disease transmission was then measured. Homologous recipients transfused with whole-blood, buffy-coat and RBCs developed the disease with 100% efficiency. Conversely, plasma, when intravenously administered resulted in an inconstant infection of the recipients and no disease transmission was observed in sheep that received cryo-precipitated fraction or supernatant obtained from infectious plasma. Despite their high efficacy, LD and LD/PR filtration of the Red Blood Cells concentrate did not provide absolute protection from infection. These results support the view that leuco-depletion strongly mitigates the v-CJD blood borne transmission risk and provide information about the relative benefits of prion reduction filters.

  13. Online interventions to address HIV and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections among young gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Rod; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Salway, Travis; Gilbert, Mark; Shoveller, Jean

    2017-11-01

    Globally, young gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (gbMSM) continue to experience disproportionately high rates of HIV and other sexually transmitted and blood-borne infections (STBBIs). As such, there are strong public health imperatives to evaluate innovative prevention, treatment and care interventions, including online interventions. This study reviewed and assessed the status of published research (e.g. effectiveness; acceptability; differential effects across subgroups) involving online interventions that address HIV/STBBIs among young gbMSM. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Google Scholar to identify relevant English-language publications from inception to November 2016. Studies that assessed an online intervention regarding the prevention, care, or treatment of HIV/STBBIs were included. Studies with online interventions show promise at addressing HIV/STBBI among young gbMSM, to date, little emphasis has been placed on assessing: (i) potential differential effects of interventions across subgroups of young gbMSM; (ii) effectiveness studies of interventions in the dissemination phase; and (iii) on some "key" populations of young gbMSM (e.g. those who are: transgender, from low-income settings and/or HIV positive). Future research that unpacks the potentially distinctive experiences of particular subgroups with "real world" interventions is needed. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of the International AIDS Society.

  14. Cross-sectional assessment of prevalence and correlates of blood-borne and sexually-transmitted infections among Afghan National Army recruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Catherine S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few data are available in Afghanistan to shape national military force health practices, particularly with regard to sexually-transmitted infections (STIs. We measured prevalence and correlates of HIV, syphilis, herpes simplex 2 virus (HSV-2, and hepatitis C virus (HCV among Afghan National Army (ANA recruits. Methods A cross-sectional sample of male ANA recruits aged 18–35 years were randomly selected at the Kabul Military Training Center between February 2010 and January 2011. Participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire and serum-based rapid testing for syphilis and hepatitis C virus antibody on-site; HIV and HSV-2 screening, and confirmatory testing were performed off-site. Prevalence of each infection was calculated and logistic regression analysis performed to identify correlates. Results Of 5313 recruits approached, 4750 consented to participation. Participants had a mean age of 21.8 years (SD±3.8, 65.5% had lived outside Afghanistan, and 44.3% had no formal education. Few reported prior marijuana (16.3%, alcohol (5.3%, or opiate (3.4% use. Of sexually active recruits (58.7%, N = 2786, 21.3% reported paying women for sex and 21.3% reported sex with males. Prevalence of HIV (0.063%, 95% CI: 0.013- 0.19, syphilis (0.65%, 95% CI: 0.44 – 0.93, and HCV (0.82%, 95% CI: 0.58 – 1.12 were quite low. Prevalence of HSV-2 was 3.03% (95% CI: 2.56 - 3.57, which was independently associated with age (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.09 and having a television (socioeconomic marker (AOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03 – 2.05. Conclusion Though prevalence of HIV, HCV, syphilis, and HSV-2 was low, sexual risk behaviors and intoxicant use were present among a substantial minority, indicating need for prevention programming. Formative work is needed to determine a culturally appropriate approach for prevention programming to reduce STI risk among Afghan National Army troops.

  15. Dangers of injections overuse in developing countries with a high HIV/ AIDS prevalence: a review on HIV risk hazards, traumatic effects and other blood borne infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nsimba SED

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Use of injections is commonly practiced in both developed and developing countries. However, in developing countries like Tanzania, both public and private health care providers prescribe and administer injections to clients/patients. The private sector in developing countries is on the leading side for several reasons and becomes the main one being economic or financial gains through charging patients who demand or request or need an injection. Injections in Tanzania are believed by clients/patients or consumers to work fast or better or more effective than oral medications/tablets. This belief is based on the pharmacological advantage of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of injectables versus oral medications/tablets. Despite the curative advantage injections have in a human body, these injections must be administered by qualified personnel in our health facilities applying both aseptic and sterile techniques in order to minimize/prevent trauma which may lead to paralysis after damaging sciatic nerve to gluteal muscle, nerve to deltoid muscle, continuous bleeding in individuals with bleeding disorders such as haemophilia, or thrombocytopenia, and spread of infections such as HIV, hepatitis B, C, poliomyelitis, osteomyelitis and other abscesses. Thus, there is a need to institute educational interventions targeting all the three levels i.e. health care providers (clinicians and nurses in public and private facilities, clients/patients or consumers of care who attend in these facilities and not forgetting injection drug users and traditional healers/practitioners from the informal health sector in our society

  16. Toxoplasmosis as a food-borne infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đurković-Đaković, O.

    2017-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a globally distributed parasite that infects all mammals, including one third of the world population. Long known to cause disease in the developing foetus and in immunosuppressed individuals, a body of data that has emerged in the past decades suggests its role in human pathology may be even more important. The WHO and FAO have recently established toxoplasmosis as a foodborne infection of global concern, with a disease burden the greatest of all parasitic infections. Transmission of toxoplasmosis occurs by ingesting tissue cysts from undercooked meat and meat products, and oocysts from the environment with contaminated fresh produce or water. This review provides an update on the current understanding of toxoplasmosis, focusing on the risk of infection from food of animal origin, with particular reference to the risk in Serbia and the region of South-East Europe.

  17. The location of splenic NKT cells favours their rapid activation by blood-borne antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, Patricia; Sánchez-Niño, María Dolores; van Rooijen, Nico; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D

    2012-05-16

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells play an important role in mounting protective responses to blood-borne infections. However, though the spleen is the largest blood filter in the body, the distribution and dynamics of NKT cells within this organ are not well characterized. Here we show that the majority of NKT cells patrol around the marginal zone (MZ) and red pulp (RP) of the spleen. In response to lipid antigen, these NKT cells become arrested and rapidly produce cytokines, while the small proportion of NKT cells located in the white pulp (WP) exhibit limited activation. Importantly, disruption of the splenic MZ by chemical or genetic approaches results in a severe reduction in NKT cell activation indicating the need of cooperation between both MZ macrophages and dendritic cells for efficient NKT cell responses. Thus, the location of splenic NKT cells in the MZ and RP facilitates their access to blood-borne antigen and enables the rapid initiation of protective immune responses.

  18. Arthropod-borne infections in travelled dogs in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Pet animal movement is ever increasing within the European Union and in that context canine vectorborne infections gained a considerable importance. Information on these infections in travelled dogs is nevertheless limited. A first prospective study on vector-borne infections was conducted in 106 dogs travelling from Germany to countries in South and South-East Europe. The dogs were screened prior to and consecutively up to three times after travel by haematological (Giemsa-stained buffy coat smears, Knott's-Test), molecular biological (PCR) as well as serological (IFAT, DiroChek(®)-ELISA) methods for arthropod-borne infections. Seven animals were seropositive for antibodies against Babesia canis sspp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis prior to travel to Italy, Spain, France, Croatia, Greece, or Hungary. In the consecutive screening after return there was no increase in the number of seropositive dogs. None was positive in direct methods. The mean duration of the stay was 17 days and 51% of the dogs were prophylactically treated with ectoparasiticidal formulations. Preliminary data from this study on canine vector-borne infections indicate a low risk for infection during a limited single stay in endemic countries. © D. Hamel et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2013.

  19. Knowledge, attitude, and practice of Iranian surgeons about blood-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghimi, Mehrdad; Marashi, Seyed Ali; Kabir, Ali; Taghipour, Hamid Reza; Faghihi-Kashani, Amir Hossein; Ghoddoosi, Iraj; Alavian, Seyed Moayed

    2009-01-01

    Perhaps more than any other healthcare worker, it is the surgeons who are at an increased risk of exposure to hepatitis B (HB) virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. The aim of this study was to evaluate surgeons' concerns regarding risk awareness and behavioral methods of protection against blood-borne pathogen transmission during surgery. A 31-item questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.73 was used. Of 575 surgeons invited to participate from three universities and one national annual surgical society between May and July 2007, 430 (75%) returned completed forms. Concern about being infected with blood-borne diseases was more than 70 (from a total score of 100). Only 12.9% of surgeons always used double gloves. Complete vaccination against HB was done in about 76% of surgeons and only 56.8% had checked their HB surface antibody (anti-HBs) level. Older surgeons never used double gloves (P = 0.001). Iranian surgeons are not aware of the correct percentage of infected patients with and seroconversion rate of blood-borne diseases, do not use double gloves adequately, do not report their needlestick injuries, vaccinate against HB, and check anti-HBs after vaccination. Educational meetings, pamphlets, and facilities must be provided to health care workers, informing them of hazards, prevention, and postexposure prophylaxis to needlestick injuries, vaccination efficacy, and wearing double gloves.

  20. Sero-Prevalence of Cytomegalovirus Infection among New -Born ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in newborn babies in our environment and hence the suitability of cord blood for stem cell transplantation. Methodology: Cord blood sera of 212 babies in the labour room of the University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) ...

  1. Vector-Borne Infections in Tornado-Displaced and Owner-Relinquished Dogs in Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Anne W; Little, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of infection with vector-borne agents in a cross-section of dogs from Oklahoma, where canine vector-borne diseases are common, blood samples were evaluated through serology and molecular analysis. Antibodies reactive to Ehrlichia spp., Rickettsia rickettsii, R. montanensis, and "R. amblyommii" were detected in 10.5% (11/105), 74.3% (78/105), 58.1% (61/105), and 55.2% (58/105) of dogs, respectively. Presence of spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. DNA was identified in 13.1% (8/61) of shelter dogs but not in any pet dogs (0/44). DNA of "R. amblyommii" was confirmed by sequencing, constituting the first report of this agent in a naturally infected dog. Antigen of Dirofilaria immitis was detected in 10.5% (11/105) and 16.2% (17/105) of samples before and after heat treatment, respectively. In total, 87.6% (92/105) of the dogs had evidence of infection with at least one vector-borne disease agent, confirming high risk of exposure to multiple vector-borne disease agents, several of which are zoonotic.

  2. A multicentre molecular analysis of hepatitis B and blood-borne virus coinfections in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Linda; Carr, Michael J; Dean, Jonathan; Nguyen, Linh Thuy; Ta Thi, Thu Hong; Nguyen, Binh Thanh; Connell, Jeff; Coughlan, Suzie; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Hall, William W; Thi, Lan Anh Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654) were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (17.4%, n = 174/1000) and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575) than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; pa predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%); genotypes C1 (14.6%), B2 (2.7%) and C5 (0.5%) were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41%) than genotype C (3%; pa' region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187) of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187) and 5.3% (n = 10/187) specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective management strategies.

  3. WNV infection - an emergent vector borne viral infection in Serbia: Current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne Flavivirus with zoonotic potential. Virus is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and mosquito vectors, but occasionally infects other vertebrates. The infection in horses and humans can be asymptomatic or it can have different clinical manifestations ranging from light febrile diseases to fatal meningoencephalitis. Recently, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences for birds, humans and horses have increased dramatically throughout central and south Europe, including Serbia, posing a serious veterinary and public health problem. The emergency of WNV infections in Serbia is described through the current epidemiology situation based on recent data on the incidence of WNV infection among virus natural hosts and vectors; sentinel (horses and other animal species, and in human population. The results of the WNV serology studies conducted on horse blood samples collected in different occasions during the last six years, and the results of the serology studies conducted among other animal species like pigs, wild boars, roe deer and dogs in Serbia are presented and discussed. Also, the results of the first studies on WNV presence in mosquito vectors and in wild birds as virus natural hosts in Serbia are presented and analyzed. In addition, the data on the WNV serology studies conducted in human population in Serbia in the last few years, and the existing data of WNV outbreaks in 2012 and 2013 are included. Regarding the existing knowledge on WNV epidemiology situation, the crucial role of veterinary service in early detection of WNV presence and ongoing national program of WNV surveillance in sentinel animals, mosquitoes and wild birds are discussed.

  4. The location of splenic NKT cells favours their rapid activation by blood-borne antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, Patricia; Sánchez-Niño, María Dolores; van Rooijen, Nico; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells play an important role in mounting protective responses to blood-borne infections. However, though the spleen is the largest blood filter in the body, the distribution and dynamics of NKT cells within this organ are not well characterized. Here we show that the majority of NKT cells patrol around the marginal zone (MZ) and red pulp (RP) of the spleen. In response to lipid antigen, these NKT cells become arrested and rapidly produce cytokines, while the small proportion of NKT cells located in the white pulp (WP) exhibit limited activation. Importantly, disruption of the splenic MZ by chemical or genetic approaches results in a severe reduction in NKT cell activation indicating the need of cooperation between both MZ macrophages and dendritic cells for efficient NKT cell responses. Thus, the location of splenic NKT cells in the MZ and RP facilitates their access to blood-borne antigen and enables the rapid initiation of protective immune responses. PMID:22505026

  5. Analysis of CHIKV in Mosquitoes Infected via Artificial Blood Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann, Jeremy P; Powers, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    Having a mechanism to assess the transmission dynamics of a vector-borne virus is one critical component of understanding the life cycle of these viruses. Laboratory infection systems using artificial blood meals is one valuable approach for monitoring the progress of virus in its mosquito host and evaluating potential points for interruption of the cycle for control purposes. Here, we describe an artificial blood meal system with Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and the processing of mosquito tissues and saliva to understand the movement and time course of virus infection in the invertebrate host.

  6. Clinico-epidemiologichesky aspects of the mixed tick-borne infections in the endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Aleshkovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detection of clinico-epidemiological features of the mixed tick-borne infections – tick-borne Lyme disease and a human granulocytic anaplasmosis was the purpose of the conducted research. During the spring – summer period 146 patients with tick-borne borreliosis were surveyed. As a result at 45 (30,82% patients authentically diagnosed the mixed tick-borne infection. Features of clinical manifestations of a mixed tick-borne infection revealed: catarrhal phenomena (20%, liver defeats (33%, nephros (31, 7%, frequent secondary erythems (20%. Changes in haemogram defined: thrombocytopenia (42,2%, anemia (20%, leukopenia (13,3%.

  7. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Brites-Neto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations.

  8. A multicentre molecular analysis of hepatitis B and blood-borne virus coinfections in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dunford

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (HBV infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654 were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs (17.4%, n = 174/1000 and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575 than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; p<0.001. Coinfection with HIV was seen in 28% of HBV-infected IDUs (n = 49/174 and 15.2% of commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 15/99. HCV infection was present in 89.8% of the HBV-HIV coinfected IDUs (n = 44/49 and 40% of HBV-HIV coinfected CSWs (n = 16/40. Anti-HDV was detected in 10.7% (n = 34/318 of HBsAg positive individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene (n = 187 showed a predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%; genotypes C1 (14.6%, B2 (2.7% and C5 (0.5% were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41% than genotype C (3%; p<0.0001. In the immunodominant 'a' region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187 of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187 and 5.3% (n = 10/187 specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective

  9. Geographic range of vector-borne infections and their vectors: the role of African wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vuuren, M; Penzhorn, B L

    2015-04-01

    The role of African wildlife in the occurrence of vector-borne infections in domestic animals has gained renewed interest as emerging and re-emerging infections occur worldwide at an increasing rate. In Africa, biodiversity conservation and the expansion of livestock production have increased the risk of transmitting vector-borne infections between wildlife and livestock. The indigenous African pathogens with transboundary potential, such as Rift Valley fever virus, African horse sickness virus, bluetongue virus, lumpy skin disease virus, African swine fever virus, and blood-borne parasites have received the most attention. There is no evidence for persistent vector-borne viral infections in African wildlife. For some viral infections, wildlife may act as a reservoir through the inter-epidemic circulation of viruses with mild or subclinical manifestations. Wildlife may also act as introductory or transporting hosts when moved to new regions, e.g. for lumpy skin disease virus, Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus. Wildlife may also act as amplifying hosts when exposed to viruses in the early part of the warm season when vectors are active, with spillover to domestic animals later in the season, e.g. with bluetongue and African horse sickness. Some tick species found on domestic animals are more abundant on wildlife hosts; some depend on wildlife hosts to complete their life cycle. Since the endemic stability of a disease depends on a sufficiently large tick population to ensure that domestic animals become infected at an early age, the presence of wildlife hosts that augment tick numbers may be beneficial. Many wild ungulate species are reservoirs of Anaplasma spp., while the role of wildlife in the epidemiology of heartwater (Ehrlichia ruminantium infection) has not been elucidated. Wild ungulates are not usually reservoirs of piroplasms that affect livestock; however, there are two exceptions: zebra, which are reservoirs of Babesia caballi and Theileria

  10. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infects rat astrocytes but does not affect their viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Potokar

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV causes one of the most dangerous human neuroinfections in Europe and Asia. To infect neurons it must cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB, and presumably also cells adjacent to the BBB, such as astrocytes, the most abundant glial cell type. However, the knowledge about the viral infection of glial cells is fragmental. Here we studied whether TBEV infects rat astrocytes. Rats belong to an animal group serving as a TBEV amplifying host. We employed high resolution quantitative fluorescence microscopy to investigate cell entry and cytoplasmic mobility of TBEV particles along with the effect on the cell cytoskeleton and cell survival. We report that infection of astrocytes with TBEV increases with time of exposure to TBEV and that with post-infection time TBEV particles gained higher mobility. After several days of infection actin cytoskeleton was affected, but cell survival was unchanged, indicating that rat astrocytes resist TBEV-mediated cell death, as reported for other mammalian cells. Therefore, astrocytes may present an important pool of dormant TBEV infections and a new target for therapeutic intervention.

  11. High Cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNAemia Predicts CMV Sequelae in Asymptomatic Congenitally Infected Newborns Born to Women With Primary Infection During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forner, Gabriella; Abate, Davide; Mengoli, Carlo; Palù, Giorgio; Gussetti, Nadia

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the kinetics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) clearance in blood and urine and the relationship between the viral load in blood at birth and the development of late-onset sequelae in asymptomatic congenital CMV infection. Thirty-three newborns with congenital asymptomatic CMV infection born to women with primary CMV infection during pregnancy were enrolled. CMV infection was monitored by polymerase chain reaction analysis of blood and urine. The follow-up examination was concluded at 6 years of age. Ten infants developed postnatal sequelae, whereas twenty-three infants remained asymptomatic. Fifty percent of babies cleared CMV in blood and urine within 3 and 36 months, respectively. Logistic multivariate regression revealed that the risk of neonatal clinical disease crossed the level of 50% with a DNAemia at birth of ≥ 12,000 copies/mL (P = .0002). The risk of hearing deficit crossed the level of 50% with a DNAemia at birth of ≥ 17,000 copies/mL (P = .0001). No significant difference was found between the kinetics of CMV clearance in asymptomatic children as compared to babies with late-onset disease. Asymptomatic newborns with a CMV DNAemia at birth of ≥ 12,000 copies/mL were more likely to experience CMV-related sequelae. The risk of hearing deficit increased with a viral load in blood of ≥ 17,000 copies/mL. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. HAEMATOLOGICAL IMPACT OF NATURALLY OCCURING TICK BORNE HAEMOPARASITIC INFECTIONS IN CATTLE OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Debbarma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Haemoparasites reduces productivity and may lead to high mortality among animals. The present study was carried out to evaluate the heamotological change in cattle of different districts in West Bengal, India affected with naturally occurring tick- borne haemoparasitic diseases (TBHD. A total of 310 cattle blood samples were screened for the presence of haemoparasites from July, 2015 to June, 2016. The blood samples were examined for haemoparasites by making thin blood smear and staining with Giemsa’s stain. The result showed that108 (34.84% cattle were found positive with TBHD, out of which 22.9% were Theileria sp, 5.8% were Babesia sp., 11.93% Anaplasma sp., and 5.8% were having mixed infection, respectively. The positive samples were subjected to estimations of haematological parameters i. e. Haemoglobin concentration (Hb, packed cell volume (PCV, total erythrocyte count (TEC and Total leucocytes count (TLC using standard protocol. The haematological analysis showed statistically a significant (p<0.01 decreased levels of Hb, PCV, TEC and TLC in infected groups of cattle compared to infection free group cattle. This is probably the first systematic report in West Bengal, India. The result showed the haemoparasites have a negative impact on haematological parameters. This study may be useful in disease epidemiological map preparation, parasitic control policy preparation of the study areas.

  13. Hepatocellular carcinoma in urban born blacks: frequency and relation to hepatitis B virus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Kew, M C; Kassianides, C; Hodkinson, J; Coppin, A; Paterson, A C

    1986-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus infection is far less common in urban born than in rural born southern African blacks, who also have a high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma. A case-control study was carried out to determine the relative frequency of hepatocellular carcinoma and its relation to hepatitis B virus infection in urban born blacks. Three hundred and ninety two black patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and matched controls seen at two city hospitals were classified by questioning ...

  14. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. PMID:26085552

  15. Blood Groups in Infection and Host Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooling, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Blood group antigens represent polymorphic traits inherited among individuals and populations. At present, there are 34 recognized human blood groups and hundreds of individual blood group antigens and alleles. Differences in blood group antigen expression can increase or decrease host susceptibility to many infections. Blood groups can play a direct role in infection by serving as receptors and/or coreceptors for microorganisms, parasites, and viruses. In addition, many blood group antigens facilitate intracellular uptake, signal transduction, or adhesion through the organization of membrane microdomains. Several blood groups can modify the innate immune response to infection. Several distinct phenotypes associated with increased host resistance to malaria are overrepresented in populations living in areas where malaria is endemic, as a result of evolutionary pressures. Microorganisms can also stimulate antibodies against blood group antigens, including ABO, T, and Kell. Finally, there is a symbiotic relationship between blood group expression and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wróblewska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.

  17. The risk of a mosquito-borne infection in a heterogeneous environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Smith

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A common assumption about malaria, dengue, and other mosquito-borne infections is that the two main components of the risk of human infection--the rate at which people are bitten (human biting rate and the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious--are positively correlated. In fact, these two risk factors are generated by different processes and may be negatively correlated across space and time in heterogeneous environments. Uneven distribution of blood-meal hosts and larval habitat creates a spatial mosaic of demograPhic sources and sinks. Moreover, mosquito populations fluctuate temporally, forced by environmental variables such as rainfall, temperature, and humidity. These sources of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of mosquito populations generate variability in the human biting rate, in the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious, and in the risk of human infection. To understand how heterogeneity affects the epidemiology of mosquito-borne infections, we developed a set of simple models that incorporate heterogeneity in a stepwise fashion. These models predict that the human biting rate is highest shortly after the mosquito densities peak, near breeding sites where adult mosquitoes emerge, and around the edges of areas where humans are aggregated. In contrast, the proportion of mosquitoes that are infectious reflects the age structure of mosquito populations; it peaks where old mosquitoes are found, far from mosquito breeding habitat, and when mosquito population density is declining. Finally, we show that estimates for the average risk of infection that are based on the average entomological inoculation rate are strongly biased in heterogeneous environments.

  18. Occupational exposure to blood-borne or body fluid pathogens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Healthcare workers are at risk of transmission of hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency viruses following accidental exposure to blood and body fluids. Interns are a vulnerable group of healthcare workers, cited as having the highest incidence of accidental needle-stick injuries and splashes with ...

  19. Reducing Blood-borne Exposure in Interventional Radiology: What the IR Should Know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tso, David K. [University of British Columbia, Department of Radiology (Canada); Athreya, Sriharsha, E-mail: sathreya@stjoes.ca [St. Joseph' s Healthcare Hamilton, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Canada)

    2013-08-01

    Interventional radiologists are at risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens in their day-to-day practice. Percutaneous exposure from unsafe sharps handling, mucocutaneous exposure from body fluid splashes, and glove perforation from excessive wear can expose the radiologist to potentially infectious material. The increasing prevalence of blood-borne pathogens, including hepatitis B and C, and human immunodeficiency virus, puts nurses, residents, fellows, and interventional radiologists at risk for occupational exposure. This review outlines suggestions to establish a culture of safety in the interventional suite.

  20. Standardization of NAT for Blood-Borne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Sally A; Chudy, Michael; Nübling, C Micha

    2015-07-01

    Assays based on nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) are increasingly used for screening of blood and for diagnosis or monitoring of patients. Both regulatory requirements for blood screening and international recommendations for the treatment of patients are based on common reference materials available globally for the standardization of NAT assays. World Health Organization International Standards (WHO ISs) and International Reference Panels (WHO IRPs) are primary reference materials. The characterization and manufacture of WHO reference materials as well as their evaluation is performed on behalf of the WHO by collaborating centers; their establishment is decided upon by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS). The potency of the first WHO IS is defined by the 'international unit' (IU) which should be maintained upon replacement of the IS. The IU, unlike copy number or genome equivalent, is defined by the IS with a physical existence, is available worldwide, and allows traceability and comparability of results. The anticipated use of WHO ISs is the calibration of secondary standards or the validation of essential assay features, e.g. limit of detection.

  1. Immunity against diphtheria and tetanus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Danish men born 1950-59

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Kjeldsen, K; Heron, I

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the possible need for vaccination against diphtheria and tetanus of patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), antibodies were measured in blood samples from 78 Danish HIV-infected men, born 1950-59, who could be expected to have received primary vaccination before...... they contracted the HIV infection. No patients (95% confidence interval: 0-4) had tetanus antibodies below the protective level, whereas 24 of the 78 patients (16-33) were unprotected against diphtheria. In the background population of the same age group and sex, 5% and 10% have been found unprotected against...... tetanus and diphtheria, respectively. No relationship between disease stages and antibody levels could be found. Neither was there any difference between patients with normal and reduced numbers of CD4+ lymphocytes. From 25 patients two blood samples were taken at an interval of at least one year. Anti...

  2. Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors of ages between 16 and 65 years. Both first time ...

  3. 1. Transfusion Transmissible Infections among Voluntary Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    ABSTRACT. Background: HIV1&2, HBsAg, anti-HCV and syphilis antibody are mandatory disease marker tests of Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs) conducted on every donated unit of blood in Zambia. Blood is donated by first time voluntary donors and repeat/regular donors ofages between 16 and 65 years.

  4. Blood biochemistry responses of chickens experimentally infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the blood biochemistry responses of cockerels experimentally infected with a velogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strain, KUDU 113. One hundred Isa white cockerels were used for the study. The cockerels were obtained at day-old and randomly divided into groups A- vaccinated and infected, ...

  5. A multiscale Cauchy-Born meshfree model for deformability of red blood cells parasitized by Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. W.; Ademiloye, A. S.; Liew, K. M.

    In normal physiological and healthy conditions, red blood cells (RBCs) deform readily as they pass through the microcapillaries and the spleen, however, upon invasion by the malaria parasite, the host RBC membrane begins to lose their deformability. In spite of the progress in understanding malaria pathogenesis, the primary mechanism responsible for the loss of deformability remains unclear. In this paper, we examine the effects of Plasmodium falciparum infection and maturation on the deformability of parasitized or infected red blood cells (iRBCs) by means of a three-dimensional (3D) multiscale red blood cell (RBC) framework. This multiscale framework is developed based on the Cauchy-Born rule and the meshfree IMLS-Ritz method. The atomistic scale strain energy density function of the RBC membrane was computed using a selected representative cell based on the membrane spectrin network. The results obtained from our numerical simulations affirm that the presence of malaria infection significantly increases the rigidity of RBC membrane. It was observed that in the trophozoite and schizont infection stages, biconcave cell geometry leads to better prediction than nearly spherical geometry in comparison with experimental studies. Furthermore, we confirm that increase in temperature also results to increased stiffening of the cell membrane. Lastly, the observed decrease in the deformability of iRBC membrane may be primarily due to the structural remodeling and changes in the microstructure of the membrane rather than the change in cell shape.

  6. A nurse-led intervention improved blood-borne virus testing and vaccination in Victorian prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Rebecca J; White, Bethany; Kinner, Stuart A; Stoové, Mark; Guy, Rebecca; Hellard, Margaret E

    2016-12-01

    Testing is the first step in treatment and care for blood-borne viruses (BBVs) and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). As new treatments for viral hepatitis emerge, it is important to document effective models for BBV/STI testing. A nurse-led intervention was implemented across three prisons in Victoria to improve BBV/STI testing. We evaluated the impact of the intervention on BBV/STI testing rates and hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination for reception prisoners. BBV/STI testing and HBV vaccination data were collected from the medical files of 100 consecutive reception prisoners at three prisons (n=300) prior to and after the intervention was implemented. BBV testing increased significantly from 21% of prisoners to 62% post-intervention. Testing for some STIs increased significantly, but remained low: 5% to 17% for chlamydia and 1% to 5% for gonorrhoea. HBV vaccination increased significantly from 2% to 19%. The nurse-led intervention resulted in substantially increased testing and vaccination, demonstrating the benefits of a concerted effort to improve BBV and STI management in correctional settings. The availability of new treatments for hepatitis C has precipitated expansion of treatment in prisons. Improving the testing rate of prisoners, the first step in the treatment cascade, will maximise the benefits. © 2016 Public Health Association of Australia.

  7. Using Mindfulness to Develop Health Education Strategies for Blood Borne Virus Prevention in Injecting Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Carla; Laybutt, Becky; Carruthers, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Prevention education has had limited success in reducing transmission of blood borne virus among people who inject drugs. Innovative approaches to prevention education are required. Method: This study used video recordings of injecting episodes and interviews with participants reviewing their video recordings to explore the concept of…

  8. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of cultured mouse macrophages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ahantarig, A.; Růžek, Daniel; Vancová, Marie; Janowitz, A.; Šťastná, Hana; Tesařová, Martina; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 5 (2009), s. 283-290 ISSN 0300-5526 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/1479; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * macrophage s * electron microscopy Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.106, year: 2009

  9. Risk of acquiring tick-borne infections in forestry workers from Lazio, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzi, S; Martini, A; Binazzi, A; Marinaccio, A; Vonesch, N; D'Amico, W; Moro, T; Fiorentini, C; Ciufolini, M G; Visca, P; Tomao, P

    2010-12-01

    The seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus was evaluated in a group of forestry rangers in the Lazio region of Italy. One hundred and forty-five forestry rangers and 282 blood donors were examined by two-tiered serological tests for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus. Information on occupation, residence, tick bites, outdoor leisure activities and other risk factors was obtained. The prevalence of IgG/IgM antibodies to B. burgdorferi showed no statistical difference between the two groups, but there was a higher occurrence of IgM antibodies. There were significant differences between indoor and outdoor, urban and rural workplaces among the 145 exposed workers (χ² test: p forestry rangers positive to B. burgdorferi (χ² test: p Forestry rangers from the Lazio region did not have a higher risk of Borrelia infection than the blood donors, though an increase in the risk for outdoor tasks in a rural environment was observed.

  10. Cytomegalovirus infectivity in whole blood following leukocyte reduction by filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipson, S M; Shepp, D H; Match, M E; Axelrod, F B; Whitbread, J A

    2001-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) may be transmitted by transfusion of whole blood and cellular components processed according to standard processing procedures. A need exists to develop new procedures to remove CMV and other leukocyte-borne viruses from donor blood. Ten patients (AIDS/bone marrow transplants) who were CMV antigenemic (virus subsequently confirmed by isolation), donated 50 mL of venous blood within 24 to 72 hours of the initial antigen detection. Twenty-five-milliliter aliquots of each specimen were passed through Purecell Neo Neonatal Leukocyte Reduction Filters (Pall, East Hills, NY). The remaining 25-mL nonfiltered aliquots, as well as the blood filtrates, were subjected to infectivity endpoint determinations. The Purecell Neo filter effected a 3 to 4 log10 leukocyte reduction. CMV input titers ranged from less than 10 to 7.3 x 10(1) median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50) per milliliter. CMV was not isolated from any postfiltration effluent (i.e., leukocytes, erythrocytes, or plasma). CMV DNA was not detected by nested polymerase chain reaction in 8 of 10 postfiltrate blood specimens. The Purecell Neo filter was efficacious in eliminating or significantly reducing viral (CMV) load in venous blood.

  11. Tick-borne pathogens in the blood of wild and domestic ungulates in South Africa: interplay of game and livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggoetz, M; Schmid, M; Ston, D; Wyss, V; Chevillon, C; Pretorius, A-M; Gern, L

    2014-03-01

    We screened for tick-borne pathogens blood samples from 181 wild and domestic ungulates belonging to 18 host species in 4 South African Provinces. Polymerase chain reaction followed by reverse line blotting and sequencing allowed detecting 16 tick-borne pathogen species belonging to the genera Babesia, Theileria, Anaplasma, and Ehrlichia. Ten pathogen species were involved in 29 new host-pathogen combinations. Most infections (77.9%) involved more than one pathogen species. Principal component analysis (PCA) assigned the 163 infections, identified to species level, to 4 groups. Three groups were associated with sheep, cattle, and horse and their respective wild counterparts. Each group was characterised by high homogeneity in pathogen assemblage and host phylogenetic status. These groups characterised the most privileged transmission routes between and among wild and domestic ungulates. The 4th group showed high heterogeneity in pathogen assemblage and host phylogenetic status. This group seems to indicate frequent spill over events in impala of pathogens that usually circulate among cattle- or sheep-related species. Within 6 localities, we sampled an equal number of wild and domestic animals (n=128). On this dataset once having controlled for the significant variation among localities, the infection prevalence and intensity of infection did not differ significantly between wild and domestic hosts. This suggests that both animal types, domestic and wild hosts, could act as evenly efficient sources of infection for themselves and for each other. Overall, this study shed new light on the pathogen circulation naturally achieved at the interplay between wild and domestic ungulates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Routine testing for blood-borne viruses in prisons: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Caroline; Pevalin, David J; O'Moore, Éamonn

    2015-12-01

    People in prison have a higher burden of blood-borne virus (BBV) infection than the general population, and prisons present an opportunity to test for BBVs in high-risk, underserved groups. Changes to the BBV testing policies in English prisons have recently been piloted. This review will enable existing evidence to inform policy revisions. We describe components of routine HIV, hepatitis B and C virus testing policies in prisons and quantify testing acceptance, coverage, result notification and diagnosis. We searched five databases for studies of both opt-in (testing offered to all and the individual chooses to have the test or not) and opt-out (the individual is informed the test will be performed unless they actively refuse) prison BBV testing policies. Forty-four studies published between 1989 and 2013 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 82% were conducted in the USA, 91% included HIV testing and most tested at the time of incarceration. HIV testing acceptance rates ranged from 22 to 98% and testing coverage from 3 to 90%. Mixed results were found for equity in uptake. Six studies reported reasons for declining a test including recent testing and fear. While the quality of evidence is mixed, this review suggests that reasonable rates of uptake can be achieved with opt-in and, even better, with opt-out HIV testing policies. Little evidence was found relating to hepatitis testing. Policies need to specify exclusion criteria and consider consent processes, type of test and timing of the testing offer to balance acceptability, competence and availability of individuals. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  13. Prevalensi Blood Borne Virus pada Pasien Hemodialisis Kronik di Instalasi Hemodialisis RSMH Palembang

    OpenAIRE

    Liana, Phey; Rahadiyanto, Kemas Ya’kub; Maulana, Dodi

    2015-01-01

    Pasien hemodialisis kronik lebih berisiko untuk mendapat infeksi Blood Borne Virus (BBV) seperti hepatitis B, hepatitis C, dan HIV karena penggunaan akses vaskular berulang. Pada pasien hemodialisis terdapat tiga faktor risiko utama mempengaruhi terjadinya penularan infeksi BBV yaitu, riwayat transfusi darah, riwayat transplantasi ginjal, dan durasi hemodialisis. Prevalensi BBV pada pasien hemodialisis berkisar 12-29%. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi BBV di lingkungan hem...

  14. Staphylococcal Blood Stream Infections in Cancer Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer Patients. Dear Sir,. Cancer patients are at an increased risk of the blood stream infections (BSI) due to their immune-compromised status, repeated ... Table 1: Details of the Staphylococci isolated from BSI. Staphylococcal isolates. Number. (%). Number of methicillin resistant isolates (%). Number of patients who.

  15. Blood-Borne Markers of Fatigue in Competitive Athletes – Results from Simulated Training Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksteden, Anne; Skorski, Sabrina; Schwindling, Sascha; Hammes, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover) have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength) at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1), after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8) and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11). Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue) which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery). With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l), urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl), free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml) and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml). For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l) only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling and by CK

  16. Blood-Borne Markers of Fatigue in Competitive Athletes - Results from Simulated Training Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksteden, Anne; Skorski, Sabrina; Schwindling, Sascha; Hammes, Daniel; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Meyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover) have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength) at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1), after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8) and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11). Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue) which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery). With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l), urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl), free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml) and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml). For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l) only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling and by CK

  17. Blood-Borne Markers of Fatigue in Competitive Athletes - Results from Simulated Training Camps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hecksteden

    Full Text Available Assessing current fatigue of athletes to fine-tune training prescriptions is a critical task in competitive sports. Blood-borne surrogate markers are widely used despite the scarcity of validation trials with representative subjects and interventions. Moreover, differences between training modes and disciplines (e.g. due to differences in eccentric force production or calorie turnover have rarely been studied within a consistent design. Therefore, we investigated blood-borne fatigue markers during and after discipline-specific simulated training camps. A comprehensive panel of blood-born indicators was measured in 73 competitive athletes (28 cyclists, 22 team sports, 23 strength at 3 time-points: after a run-in resting phase (d 1, after a 6-day induction of fatigue (d 8 and following a subsequent 2-day recovery period (d 11. Venous blood samples were collected between 8 and 10 a.m. Courses of blood-borne indicators are considered as fatigue dependent if a significant deviation from baseline is present at day 8 (Δfatigue which significantly regresses towards baseline until day 11 (Δrecovery. With cycling, a fatigue dependent course was observed for creatine kinase (CK; Δfatigue 54±84 U/l; Δrecovery -60±83 U/l, urea (Δfatigue 11±9 mg/dl; Δrecovery -10±10 mg/dl, free testosterone (Δfatigue -1.3±2.1 pg/ml; Δrecovery 0.8±1.5 pg/ml and insulin linke growth factor 1 (IGF-1; Δfatigue -56±28 ng/ml; Δrecovery 53±29 ng/ml. For urea and IGF-1 95% confidence intervals for days 1 and 11 did not overlap with day 8. With strength and high-intensity interval training, respectively, fatigue-dependent courses and separated 95% confidence intervals were present for CK (strength: Δfatigue 582±649 U/l; Δrecovery -618±419 U/l; HIIT: Δfatigue 863±952 U/l; Δrecovery -741±842 U/l only. These results indicate that, within a comprehensive panel of blood-borne markers, changes in fatigue are most accurately reflected by urea and IGF-1 for cycling

  18. Cytomegalovirus blood viral load and hearing loss in young children with congenital infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Shannon A; Novak, Zdenek; Fowler, Karen B; Arora, Nitin; Britt, William J; Boppana, Suresh B

    2009-07-01

    This study was designed to determine whether elevated viral load in infants and young children is associated with congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV)-related hearing loss. Blood samples were obtained from 135 children with congenital CMV infection. CMV DNA in the peripheral blood was quantitated with a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Viral load measurements were analyzed in 3 different age groups (load >3500 genomic equivalents per milliliter (ge/mL) at load load is not associated with hearing loss in children with congenital CMV infection. However, a viral load of loss in children born with asymptomatic congenital infection.

  19. Hatchery-borne Salmonella enterica serovar Tennessee infections in broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.P.; Brown, D.J.; Madsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    A substantial increase in the prevalence of S. enterica serovar Tennessee was observed in broiler flocks in Denmark at the turn of the year 1994 and in the following months. Epidemiological data indicated that a single hatchery was involved in spreading of the infection. Molecular characterization...... of S. enterica serovar Tennessee isolates from Danish broilers (1992 to 1995), the suspected hatchery and strains from various other sources included for comparison was initiated in order to trace the source of infection of the broilers. In general, strains of S. enterica ser. Tennessee showed only....... Restriction enzyme analysis of the plasmid ensured that the plasmids from broilers and the hatchery were identical. By analysis of cleaning and disinfection procedures and by sampling of different control points in the hatchery it was shown that S. enterica ser. Tennessee had colonized areas of the hatchers...

  20. Psychosocial Factors at Work and Blood-Borne Exposure among Nurses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure to human blood and body fluids is a common risk for nurses. Many factors can affect the prevalence and incidence of this occupational hazard. Psychosocial factors at work may be a risk factor for the exposure. Objective: To assess needle stick, sharp injury and mucus exposure to blood-borne pathogens among nurses in Iran and to determine the association between these exposures and psychosocial factors at work. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on nurses in a public hospital, Tehran, Iran. 364 nurses received and 339 completed and returned a self-reported questionnaire containing demographic data, history of exposure to blood-borne pathogens at work during previous year and the General Nordic questionnaire for psychological and social factors at work (QPS Nordic 34+ Questionnaire. Results: Of 339 participants, 197 (58.1% reported needle-stick injury, 186 (54.6% reported another type of sharp injury, and 112 (33% reported a mucous membrane exposure during the previous year. More than half of the participants who had history of exposure, had not reported it. Those with middle or high level of stress had higher crude and adjusted odds than those with lower stress for all kinds of exposure. Adjusted odds ratios for high stress group (ranging from 2.8 to 4.4 were statistically different from 1. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of needle-stick and sharp injury and mucous membrane exposure to patients' blood or body fluids among studied nurses. There is a significant association between increasing psychosocial factors at work and exposure to blood-borne pathogens among this group of nurses.

  1. Mosquito-borne viral infections in southern Africa: a public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are at potential risk of acquiring these diseases in the occupational setting, which further compounds the problem. Mosquito-borne viral infections therefore become of public health interest in the following circumstances: • a potential epidemic. • a potential fatal, untreatable disease; and. • a potential risk to health personnel ...

  2. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-31

    Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (pCosta Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Blood-borne biomarkers of mortality risk: systematic review of cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Barron

    Full Text Available Lifespan and the proportion of older people in the population are increasing, with far reaching consequences for the social, political and economic landscape. Unless accompanied by an increase in health span, increases in age-related diseases will increase the burden on health care resources. Intervention studies to enhance healthy ageing need appropriate outcome measures, such as blood-borne biomarkers, which are easily obtainable, cost-effective, and widely accepted. To date there have been no systematic reviews of blood-borne biomarkers of mortality.To conduct a systematic review to identify available blood-borne biomarkers of mortality that can be used to predict healthy ageing post-retirement.Four databases (Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science were searched. We included prospective cohort studies with a minimum of two years follow up and data available for participants with a mean age of 50 to 75 years at baseline.From a total of 11,555 studies identified in initial searches, 23 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Fifty-one blood borne biomarkers potentially predictive of mortality risk were identified. In total, 20 biomarkers were associated with mortality risk. Meta-analyses of mortality risk showed significant associations with C-reactive protein (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.42, p<0.001; Cancer-mortality 1.62, p<0.009; CVD-mortality 1.31, p = 0.033, N Terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptide (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.43, p<0.001; CHD-mortality 1.58, p<0.001; CVD-mortality 1.67, p<0.001 and white blood cell count (Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality 1.36, p = 0.001. There was also evidence that brain natriuretic peptide, cholesterol fractions, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, fibrinogen, granulocytes, homocysteine, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, neutrophils, osteoprotegerin, procollagen type III aminoterminal peptide, serum uric acid, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, tissue inhibitor of

  4. COMPARABLE CYTOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC OF BLOOD SMEARS ON BABESIA INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokhyl S.І.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In last time Babesiosis as a tick-borne hemoprotozoans human disease have a very important role in differentil diagnostics of modern infectious medicine. It caused by protozon of the genus Babesia, which invade and destory erythrocytes. Babesiosis olso has been called tick fever. So, Babesia has been known by other genus names, including Nuttallia, Microbabesia, Babesialla, and Gonderia. Because all Babesia species are piroplasms, a more inclusive term for anthropozoonotic infections caused by these organisms would be piroplasmosis.They detective complicacy are bild that, tick-borne disease agents from prolongate life cycles involving arthropod and vertebrate host. The complexity is enhanced by the diversity of hosts in different biotopes, which depends on factors life type of vegetation, climate and/or human influence, such as restoration of former industrial sites, which leads to the development of new biotopes. So, on the one hand, new habitats for plants and animals including ticks, and nature are created. About the first case of babesiosis infection was reported as a cause of human sickness in 1969 in northeastern United State. Several hundred cases are now reported from this region each year. The disease is characterized by a grandual oncet of malaise with anorexia, fever, headaches, myalgia, and other vague symptoms, which may persist for long period. Occasionally dangerous fulminating infections occur particularly in immunocompromised or aged individuals. The purpose of the present research was to study of the cytological diagnostic of blood smears from object’s with the Babesia infection. Materials and methods. Blood smears (by Romanovsky- Gimze (standart, Wright’s standart and staining, the author’s modification, 2014 of domestic dogs (n = 31 of both sexes with Babesia infection at the age from 3 months to 6 years served as the material for the study. The preparations were fixed during 1-2 seconds with 96 % ethyl alcohol. Then

  5. Families Living with Blood-Borne Viruses: The Case for Extending the Concept of “Serodiscordance”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Persson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “serodiscordance” (mixed infection status is primarily associated with epidemiological concerns about HIV transmission risk in couples. We make the case for extending this concept to include families with mixed HIV and viral hepatitis status. Social research on couples with mixed HIV and hepatitis C status has laid an important foundation for illuminating how experiences of serodiscordance within intimate partnerships are much broader than concerns about risk. This body of work attests to serodiscordance holding promise as a valuable concept for understanding viral infections as socially situated and intensely relational phenomena. However, serodiscordance is still limited as a concept because of its near universal focus on couples. It is rarely applied to wider relationships, including family networks beyond the couple. Despite evidence in the literature that families are affected by blood-borne viruses in multiple social, emotional, financial, and generational ways, the concept of serodiscordance does not capture these broader dynamics. Making serodiscordance more inclusive is an important step in recognising the diverse ways families’ everyday lives, relationships, and futures can be entangled with HIV, hepatitis C, and hepatitis B, and for understanding how today’s era of effective treatment options might shape the “family life” of viral infections.

  6. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in blood and splenic samples from dogs with splenic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movilla, Rebeca; Altet, Laura; Serrano, Lorena; Tabar, María-Dolores; Roura, Xavier

    2017-03-13

    The spleen is a highly perfused organ involved in the immunological control and elimination of vector-borne pathogens (VBP), which could have a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of splenic disease. This study aimed to evaluate certain VBP in samples from dogs with splenic lesions. Seventy-seven EDTA-blood and 64 splenic tissue samples were collected from 78 dogs with splenic disease in a Mediterranean area. Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Ehrlichia/Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania infantum, hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. and Rickettsia spp. were targeted using PCR assays. Sixty EDTA-blood samples from dogs without evidence of splenic lesions were included as a control group. More than half (51.56%) of the biopsies (33/64) were consistent with benign lesions and 48.43% (31/64) with malignancy, mostly hemangiosarcoma (25/31). PCR yielded positive results in 13 dogs with spleen alterations (16.67%), for Babesia canis (n = 3), Babesia gibsoni (n = 2), hemotropic Mycoplasma spp. (n = 2), Rickettsia massiliae (n = 1) and "Babesia vulpes" (n = 1), in blood; and for B. canis, B. gibsoni, Ehrlichia canis and L. infantum (n = 1 each), in spleen. Two control dogs (3.3%) were positive for B. gibsoni and H. canis (n = 1 each). Benign lesions were detected in the 61.54% of infected dogs (8/13); the remaining 38.46% were diagnosed with malignancies (5/13). Infection was significantly associated to the presence of splenic disease (P = 0.013). There was no difference in the prevalence of infection between dogs with benign and malignant splenic lesions (P = 0.69); however B. canis was more prevalent in dogs with hemangiosarcoma (P = 0.006). VBP infection could be involved in the pathogenesis of splenic disease. The immunological role of the spleen could predispose to alterations of this organ in infected dogs. Interestingly, all dogs with B. canis infection were diagnosed with hemangiosarcoma in the present survey. As previously

  7. Kinetic analysis of ex vivo human blood infection by Leishmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inmaculada Moreno

    Full Text Available The leishmanioses, vector-borne diseases caused by the trypanosomatid protozoan Leishmania, are transmitted to susceptible mammals by infected phlebotomine sand flies that inoculate promastigotes into hemorrhagic pools created in host skin. We assumed that promastigotes are delivered to a blood pool, and analyzed early promastigote interactions (0-5 min with host components, which lead to parasite endocytosis by blood leukocytes, and to host infection. Promastigotes were incubated with NHS or with heparinized blood in near-physiological conditions, and we used cell radioimmunoassay and flow cytometry to measure the on-rate constants (k(+1 of promastigote interactions with natural opsonins and erythrocytes. We obtained quantitative data for parasitized cells to determine the time-course of promastigote binding and internalization by blood leukocytes. In these reactions, promastigotes bind natural opsonins, immune adhere to erythrocytes and activate complement cytolysis, which kills approximately 95% of promastigotes by 2 min post-infection. C3-promastigote binding is a key step in opsonization; nascent C3-promastigotes are the substrate for two simultaneous reactions, C3-promastigote immune adherence (IA to erythrocytes and complement-mediated promastigote killing. The k(+1 for IA was 75-fold greater than that for promastigote killing, showing that IA facilitates promastigote endocytosis and circumvents lysis. At 5 min post-infection, when reaction velocity is still linear and promastigote concentration is not limiting, 17.4% of granulocytes and 10.7% of monocytes had bound promastigotes, of which approximately 50% and approximately 25%, respectively, carried surface-bound (live or internalized (live and dead leishmanias. Of other leukocyte types, 8.5% of B cells bound but did not internalize promastigotes, and T cells, NK cells and CD209(+ dendritic cells did not bind parasites. These data show that, once in contact with blood, promastigote

  8. [Why are HIV-infected infants still being born in Spain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Ibieta, M; Ramos Amador, J T; Guillén Martín, S; González-Tomé, María I; Navarro Gómez, M; Iglesias González-Nicolás, E; Rubio Gribble, B; de José Gómez, M I; Beceiro Mosquera, J; Regidor, J; De Santos Butragueño, M J; Martínez Guardia, N; Roa Francia, M A

    2007-08-01

    Despite the success of preventive measures against mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus-1 and -2 (HIV-1 and -2) in developed countries, HIV-infected infants continue to be born. The aim of this study was to evaluate failures in the prevention of MTCT and the clinical characteristics of infected infants. The Foundation for the Investigation and Prevention of AIDS in Spain (FIPSE) Cohort in Madrid prospectively follows up children at risk of MTCT HIV born in eight public hospitals in Madrid. From May 2000 to December 2005, 632 children born to HIV-infected mothers were evaluated. Data from pregnancy follow-up, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and symptoms at diagnosis in infected infants were analyzed. Nine infants were infected. The rate of vertical transmission was 1.42 (95% CI 0.7-2.68). Of the nine mothers, seven had not received ART during pregnancy (and five had not received ART at delivery). Of the mothers who received ART, one had only done so for the last month of pregnancy. Two infants were given three drugs as prevention of MTCT, one received bitherapy and six received monotherapy. The median age at diagnosis was 2.4 months (range 7 days-2 years). The mean plasma viral load at diagnosis was 276,000 copies/ml (range: 11,900-1,000,000). Five of the infants were symptomatic at diagnosis (P. jirovaci pneumonia in two, sepsis in one, recurrent bacterial infections in one, hepatosplenomegaly in one). Four of the nine infants had been admitted to hospital prior to HIV diagnosis. Missed opportunities for the prevention of MTCT were identified in eight of the nine HIV-infected infants (89%). Administration of AZT during labor in HIV-infected mothers and triple therapy for the prevention of MTCT in high risk infants is not universal. Hospital admission in young infants at risk might lead to suspicion of infection in infants born to HIV-infected mothers. Improved implementation of all the preventive measures for MTCT should be encouraged.

  9. Blood-borne parasites in the Black Vulture Coragyps atratus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    parasitemia with few life stages present. Density of microfilariae was not measured - no standardized protocol for evaluation of microfilaria density exists. Microfilarial infections demonstrate high levels of periodicity in the blood stream, with the level of periodicity varying greatly by species (Kloss et al. 2003, Nogami et al.

  10. Co-infection and genetic diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer from Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welc-Falęciak, Renata; Werszko, Joanna; Cydzik, Krystian; Bajer, Anna; Michalik, Jerzy; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2013-05-01

    Wild species are essential hosts for maintaining Ixodes ticks and the tick-borne diseases. The aim of our study was to estimate the prevalence, the rate of co-infection with Babesia, Bartonella, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and the molecular diversity of tick-borne pathogens in roe deer in Poland. Almost half of the tested samples provided evidence of infection with at least 1 species. A. phagocytophilum (37.3%) was the most common and Bartonella (13.4%) the rarest infection. A total of 18.3% of all positive samples from roe deer were infected with at least 2 pathogens, and one-third of those were co-infected with A. phagocytophilum, Bartonella, and Babesia species. On the basis of multilocus molecular studies we conclude that: (1) Two different genetic variants of A. phagocytophilum, zoonotic and nonzoonotic, are widely distributed in Polish roe deer population; (2) the roe deer is the host for zoonotic Babesia (Bab. venatorum, Bab. divergens), closely related or identical with strains/species found in humans; (3) our Bab. capreoli and Bab. divergens isolates differed from reported genotypes at 2 conserved base positions, i.e., positions 631 and 663; and (4) this is the first description of Bart. schoenbuchensis infections in roe deer in Poland. We present 1 of the first complex epidemiological studies on the prevalence of Babesia, Bartonella, and A. phagocytophilum in naturally infected populations of roe deer. These game animals clearly have an important role as reservoir hosts of tick-borne pathogens, but the pathogenicity and zoonotic potential of the parasite genotypes hosted by roe deer requires further detailed investigation.

  11. Surveillance of Vector-Borne Infections (Chikungunya, Dengue, and Malaria) in Bo, Sierra Leone, 2012-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariano, Donald F; Taitt, Chris R; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Bangura, Umaru; Bockarie, Alfred S; Bockarie, Moses J; Lahai, Joseph; Lamin, Joseph M; Leski, Tomasz A; Yasuda, Chadwick; Stenger, David A; Ansumana, Rashid

    2017-10-01

    Malaria remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in West Africa, but the contribution of other vector-borne infections (VBIs) to the burden of disease has been understudied. We used rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for three VBIs to test blood samples from 1,795 febrile residents of Bo City, Sierra Leone, over a 1-year period in 2012-2013. In total, 24% of the tests were positive for malaria, fewer than 5% were positive for markers of dengue virus infection, and 39% were positive for IgM directed against chikungunya virus (CHIKV) or a related alphavirus. In total, more than half (55%) of these febrile individuals tested positive for at least one of the three VBIs, which highlights the very high burden of vector-borne diseases in this population. The prevalence of positives on the Chikungunya IgM and dengue tests did not vary significantly with age ( P > 0.36), but higher rates of malaria were observed in children Chikungunya IgM RDTs were moderately correlated with rainfall ( r 2 = 0.599). Based on the high prevalence of positive results on the Chikungunya IgM RDTs from individuals Bo and its environs, there is a need to examine whether an ecological shift toward a greater burden from CHIKV or related alphaviruses is occurring in other parts of Sierra Leone or the West African region.

  12. Risk of acquiring tick-borne infections in forestry workers from Lazio, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The seroprevalence of antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi and tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus was evaluated in a group of forestry rangers in the Lazio region of Italy. One hundred and forty-five forestry rangers and 282 blood donors were examined by two-tiered serological tests for B. burgdorferi and TBE virus. Information on occupation, residence, tick bites, outdoor leisure activities and other risk factors was obtained. The prevalence of IgG/IgM antibodies to B. bur...

  13. Awareness of the Risk of Exposure to Infectious Material and the Behaviors of Polish Paramedics with Respect to the Hazards from Blood-Borne Pathogens—A Nationwide Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Garus-Pakowska

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: To determine paramedics’ frequency of contact with blood and other body fluids, as well as the analysis of knowledge of paramedics about blood-borne infections, their attitudes to patients infected with blood-borne viruses, and the post-exposure procedures implemented by paramedics; (2 Methods: An anonymous questionnaire among 190 paramedics working in various health care facilities in Poland (adjusted response rate, 76.3%; (3 Results: 78% of paramedics had contact with potentially infectious material at least several times a week. Paramedics’ knowledge on transferring infection was insufficient. Paramedics with longer employment time and better professional experience suffered fewer injuries with used needles/medical tools (p = 0.079. Most frequently reported factors that prevented the use of personal protective equipment were emergency situations (19.5%, skin irritations and contact allergies (19% and, in the case of protective gloves, reduced manual dexterity (16%. In total, 82% of paramedics were concerned about the risk of being infected with HIV, HBV or HCV as a result of performing their job. In total, 97% of paramedics behaved more carefully while caring for infected patients. In total, 90% of the paramedics never refrained from performing the specific procedures necessary to help the patient whom they knew to be infected; (4 Conclusions: Despite the paramedics’ insufficient theoretical knowledge about the risk of blood-borne infections, the emphasis in the training of future paramedics should be on classes perfecting practical skills, because growing experience significantly reduces the risk of injury.

  14. Functional and genetic predisposition to rhinovirus lower respiratory tract infections in prematurely born infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drysdale, Simon B; Alcazar, Mireia; Wilson, Theresa; Smith, Melvyn; Zuckerman, Mark; Hodemaekers, Hennie M; Janssen, Riny; Bont, Louis; Johnston, Sebastian L; Greenough, Anne

    2016-12-01

    Term born infants are predisposed to human rhinovirus (HRV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) by reduced neonatal lung function and genetic susceptibility. Our aim was to investigate whether prematurely born infants were similarly predisposed to HRV LRTIs or any other viral LRTIs. Infants born less than 36 weeks of gestational age were recruited. Prior to neonatal/maternity unit discharge, lung function (functional residual capacity by helium gas dilution and multiple breath washout, lung clearance index and compliance (C rs ), and resistance (R rs ) of the respiratory system) was assessed and DNA samples assessed for eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in seven genes: ADAM33, IL10, MMP16 NFκB1A,SFTPC, VDR, and NOS2A. Infants were prospectively followed until 1 year corrected age. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sent whenever an infant developed a LRTI and tested for 13 viruses. One hundred and thirty-nine infants were included in the analysis. Infants who developed HRV LRTIs had reduced C rs (1.6 versus 1.2 mL/cmH 2 O/kg, p = 0.044) at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. A SNP in the gene coding for the vitamin D receptor was associated with the development of HRV LRTIs and any viral LRTIs (p = 0.02). Prematurely born infants may have both a functional and genetic predisposition to HRV LRTIs. What is Known: • Term born infants are predisposed to rhinovirus lower respiratory tract (HRV LRTIs) infection by reduced neonatal lung function. • Term born infants requiring hospitalisation due to HRV bronchiolitis were more likely to have single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the IL-10 gene. What is New: • Prematurely born infants who developed a HRV LRTI had lower C rs before maternity unit discharge. • A SNP in the gene coding for the vitamin D receptor was associated with the development of HRV LRTIs and overall respiratory viral LRTIs in prematurely born infants.

  15. No transmission of blood-borne viruses among hospital staff despite frequent blood exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskandarani, Hassan Ali; Kehrer, Michala; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2014-01-01

    to provide an updated evaluation of the annual frequency of registered exposures during the 2003-2012 period, the prevalence and incidence of transmission of HIV, HBV and HCV among HCWs, the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV among source patients, the follow-up by HBV vaccination and blood sampling in exposed...... HCWs and, finally, reporting habits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All registered first-time cases of BBF exposure at Odense University Hospital during the 2003-2012 period were included. The exposed HCW and source patient were linked to a laboratory database to obtain the test results for HIV, HBV, HCV...... and the anti-HBs level at baseline and after exposure. For 2012, a detailed analysis of BBF exposure was performed. RESULTS: A total of 2,274 first-time BBF exposures were analysed. We observed a 35% increase in the reported incidence of exposures in the period. The prevalence and incidence of HIV, HBV and HCV...

  16. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg G. Duscher

    2015-04-01

    The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain.

  17. The association between tick-borne infections, Lyme borreliosis and autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransfield, Robert C; Wulfman, Jeffrey S; Harvey, William T; Usman, Anju I

    2008-01-01

    Chronic infectious diseases, including tick-borne infections such as Borrelia burgdorferi may have direct effects, promote other infections and create a weakened, sensitized and immunologically vulnerable state during fetal development and infancy leading to increased vulnerability for developing autism spectrum disorders. A dysfunctional synergism with other predisposing and contributing factors may contribute to autism spectrum disorders by provoking innate and adaptive immune reactions to cause and perpetuate effects in susceptible individuals that result in inflammation, molecular mimicry, kynurenine pathway changes, increased quinolinic acid and decreased serotonin, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and excitotoxicity that impair the development of the amygdala and other neural structures and neural networks resulting in a partial Klüver-Bucy Syndrome and other deficits resulting in autism spectrum disorders and/or exacerbating autism spectrum disorders from other causes throughout life. Support for this hypothesis includes multiple cases of mothers with Lyme disease and children with autism spectrum disorders; fetal neurological abnormalities associated with tick-borne diseases; similarities between tick-borne diseases and autism spectrum disorder regarding symptoms, pathophysiology, immune reactivity, temporal lobe pathology, and brain imaging data; positive reactivity in several studies with autistic spectrum disorder patients for Borrelia burgdorferi (22%, 26% and 20-30%) and 58% for mycoplasma; similar geographic distribution and improvement in autistic symptoms from antibiotic treatment. It is imperative to research these and all possible causes of autism spectrum disorders in order to prevent every preventable case and treat every treatable case until this disease has been eliminated from humanity.

  18. Use of irradiation to control infectivity of food-borne parasites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Food-borne parasitic diseases are common throughout the world, pose significant health problems and cause economic losses in terms of agricultural commodities and human productivity. The diseases usually occur through consumption of raw or partially cooked foods with are infected by various parasites (e.g. tapeworms, roundworms, flukes, parasitic protozoa, etc.). The problem is significant in developing countries where the population has the habit of consuming raw food of animal origin. Available data, with the exception of data on Trichinella spiralis, a parasitic nematode, were insufficient for the use of irradiation technology to control food-borne parasites. Therefore, a Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on the Use of Irradiation to Control Infectivity of Food-Borne Parasites was implemented by the FAO/IAEA in 1986. The results of the work carried out over five years (1986-1991) by twelve researchers participating in the programme, have established conclusively the potential for application of food irradiation in the control of liver flukes, tapeworms, roundworms, trichinosis, toxoplasmosis, etc. This report includes the conclusions and recommendations of the participants concerning the results obtained and need for further research. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Lethal Experimental Tick-Borne Encephalitis Infection: Influence of Two Strains with Similar Virulence on the Immune Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsova, Anastasia S; Motuzova, Oxana V; Kuragina, Vera M; Akhmatova, Nelli K; Gmyl, Larissa V; Kondrat'eva, Yaroslava I; Kozlovskaya, Liubov I; Rogova, Yulia V; Litov, Alexander G; Romanova, Lidiya Iu; Karganova, Galina G

    2016-01-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a tick-transmitted arbovirus that causes serious diseases in humans in Europe and Northern Asia. About 6000-10,000 cases are registered annually, and one-third of them lead to sequela with different degrees of severity. Two TBEV strains (Absettarov and EK-328) similar in virulence rate in laboratory mice were used to study pathogenesis and immune response upon lethal infection in mice. The strains differed in the dynamics of appearance of virus, IFNs and other cytokines in blood of mice, and ability to induce a cytokine storm in the terminal stages of disease and a non-sterile immunity. Moreover, the TBEV strains differed in characteristics of their interactions with DCs: level of reproduction in these cells, virus dose triggering IFN-α production, and impact on DCs' maturation. Infection of DCs with Absettarov strain led to IFN-α induction only at high multiplicity of infection (MOI), and an increased amount of the mature DCs with high adhesion activity and low-level of MHCII positive cells. While reproduction of the EK-328 strain in DCs was less efficient, a low dose of the virus induced IFN-α production and stimulated maturation of DCs with relatively low adhesive capacity, but with the high percentage of cells expressing MHCII molecules. Thus, the studied strains differed significantly in the impact on DCs' maturation and antigen presentation to CD4 + lymphocytes. Injection of low (10 3 PFU) and high (10 6 PFU) doses of both TBEV strains caused a lethal infection in mice. At the same time, the dose of the virus in the inoculum, regardless of the strain properties, affected the following virulence characteristics: the time of virus appearance in brain (day 4-5 vs. day 1 p.i.), time of IFN-α appearance in blood (10 h vs. 5 h p.i.), concentration of IFN-α in blood, and induction of IFN-α during infection of DCs. Therefore, virulent TBEV strains during lethal infection can interact differently with the host immune

  20. Blood transfusion transmission of the tick-borne relapsing fever spirochete Borrelia miyamotoi in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Peter J; Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Steeves, Tanner K; Fish, Durland

    2015-03-01

    Borrelia miyamotoi, a recently discovered relapsing fever spirochete, occurs in hard-bodied ticks wherever Lyme disease is endemic. Human infection is associated with relapsing fever and can cause meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised patients. A few cases of transfusion transmission of other relapsing fever spirochete species have been reported but none for B. miyamotoi. Our objective was to determine whether B. miyamotoi transfusion transmission could occur in a murine transfusion model. Herein, we report transfusion transmission of B. miyamotoi through fresh or stored red blood cells (RBCs) in a mouse model. Inbred mice were transfused with B. miyamotoi-infected murine blood that was either freshly collected or stored for 7 days before transfusion. Recipient blood was then longitudinally examined after transfusion by smear and wet mount for evidence of spirochetemia. Motile spirochetes were observed in immunocompromised (SCID) mouse recipients for 28 days after transfusion of both fresh and stored murine B. miyamotoi-infected RBCs. Transient spirochetemia was observed in immunocompetent DBA/2 and C57BL/6 mice, with spirochete clearance occurring within 5 days after transfusion. These data demonstrate that transfusion transmission of B. miyamotoi can occur in mice and suggest that it also may occur in humans. © 2014 AABB.

  1. Clinical Implications for Children Born With Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Following a Negative Amniocentesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilavsky, Efraim; Pardo, Joseph; Attias, Joseph; Levy, Itzhak; Magny, Jean-François; Ville, Yves; Leruez-Ville, Marianne; Amir, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Recently, congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection was reported irrespective of a negative amniotic fluid prenatal analysis for cytomegalovirus (CMV). The question of whether this phenomenon represents low sensitivity of the test or late development of fetal infection (after amniocentesis) was discussed, but not answered. However, if late transmission is the rule, then infants born with cCMV after negative amniocentesis would be expected to carry better prognosis than those who tested positive. Data of all infants with cCMV infection, followed in 2 pediatric centers from 2006 to 2015, were reviewed. Infant outcome after birth of symptomatic vs asymptomatic disease was compared with infants born after a negative amniocentesis (study group) and those with a positive amniocentesis (control group). Amniocentesis was performed in 301 pregnancies of our cohort of infants with cCMV and was negative for CMV in 47 (15.6%). There were fewer symptomatic cCMV neonates in the study group than in the control group (4.3% vs 25%; P < .001). Hearing impairment at birth was also less frequent in the study group (2.2% vs 17.4%; P = .012). None of the children in the study group had neurologic sequelae at long-term follow up, compared with 13 (14.1%) in the control group (P < .001). Although negative amniocentesis does not exclude cCMV, infants with cCMV born after a negative amniocentesis seldom present with mild clinical symptoms or cerebral ultrasound features at birth. These children also have a very good long-term outcome. Our findings support the theory of a late development of fetal infection, after the time of the amniocentesis. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Bacterial blood stream infections and antibiogram among febrile ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , ceftriaxone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. The present study revealed that bacterial blood stream infections linked with high levels of drug resistance would pose a challenge in treatment of patients with BSIs. Hence, blood culture with ...

  3. Prevalence of Blood-Borne Viruses in Health Care Workers of a Northern District in Pakistan: Risk Factors and Preventive Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zuhaib Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blood-borne viral infections like viral hepatitis are highly prevalent in Pakistan. There is also a potential threat of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV spread in the country. Health care workers (HCWs are a high risk population for acquiring such viral infections and potential spread to the patients. This study aimed to determine the frequency of three blood-borne viruses: HCV, HBV, and HIV in HCWs of district Malakand in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK province of Pakistan. Moreover, risk factors and preventive behaviors among HCWs were investigated in detail. Materials and Methods. Prevalence was investigated using serological assays followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR based characterization. A total of 626 health care workers working at 17 different health care units, belonging to 6 different job categories, were included in this study. Results. HIV was not detected in the HCWs while rate of prevalence of HCV and HBV was far less (0.8 % and 0.64 %, resp. as compared to general population (4.7%–38%. The majority of HCWs were aware of the mode of spread of these viruses and associated risk factors. Needle stick injury was found to be the most important risk factor for possible acquisition of these infections.

  4. The First case of Locally Acquired Tick-Borne Babesia Microti Infection in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared MP Bullard

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A child with a complicated medical history that included asplenia acquired an infection with Babesia microti in the summer of 2013 and had not travelled outside of Manitoba. Although the clinical findings were subtle, astute laboratory work helped to reach a preliminary identification of Babesia species, while reference laboratory testing confirmed the diagnosis. Blacklegged ticks (Ixodes scapularis are known to transmit Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the province; however, the present case represents the first known instance of tick-borne B microti, both in Manitoba and in Canada. The expanding territory of the blacklegged tick increases the relevance of this emerging infection. Clinicians, laboratory medical practitioners and public health officials should be aware of B microti as a potential locally acquired infection in Canada.

  5. Whole Blood Polymerase Chain Reaction in a Neonate with Disseminated Herpes Simplex Virus Infection and Liver Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A. Scoble

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A late preterm neonate born by cesarean section with intact membranes presented at 9 days of life with shock and liver failure. Surface cultures were negative but whole blood polymerase chain reaction was positive for herpes simplex virus type 2, underscoring the value of this test in early diagnosis of perinatally acquired disseminated herpes simplex virus infection without skin lesions.

  6. A comparison of DNA extraction protocols from blood spotted on FTA cards for the detection of tick-borne pathogens by Reverse Line Blot hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Zerihun; Ahmed, Jabbar Sabir; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Nijhof, Ard Menzo

    2017-01-01

    An essential step in the molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in blood is the extraction of DNA. When cooled storage of blood under field conditions prior to DNA extraction in a dedicated laboratory is not possible, the storage of blood on filter paper forms a promising alternative. We evaluated six DNA extraction methods from blood spotted on FTA Classic ® cards (FTA cards), to determine the optimal protocol for the subsequent molecular detection of TBPs by PCR and the Reverse Line Blot hybridization assay (RLB). Ten-fold serial dilutions of bovine blood infected with Babesia bovis, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale or Ehrlichia ruminantium were made by dilution with uninfected blood and spotted on FTA cards. Subsequently, DNA was extracted from FTA cards using six different DNA extraction protocols. DNA was also isolated from whole blood dilutions using a commercial kit. PCR/RLB results showed that washing of 3mm discs punched from FTA cards with FTA purification reagent followed by DNA extraction using Chelex ® resin was the most sensitive procedure. The detection limit could be improved when more discs were used as starting material for the DNA extraction, whereby the use of sixteen 3mm discs proved to be most practical. The presented best practice method for the extraction of DNA from blood spotted on FTA cards will facilitate epidemiological studies on TBPs. It may be particularly useful for field studies where a cold chain is absent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. [Asymptomatic infections in man: a Trojan horse for the introduction and spread of mosquito-borne arboviruses in non-endemic areas?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    2011-08-01

    In mosquito-borne arbovirus infections in man the asymptomatic cases are much more frequent than the symptomatic ones, but their true role in the introduction and subsequent spread of such diseases in non-endemic areas remains to be clarified. We have collected pertinent data from English and French literature from 1952 to 2010 through Pubmed and other bibliographic sources. Data were analysed to assess if viremia in asymptomatic human arbovirus infections might be sufficient to represent a true risk for introduction in non-endemic areas. During dengue and chikungunya fever outbreaks, humans are believed to be the only vertebrate hosts. Since a very large number of individuals are infected and since viremic levels are known to vary by many orders of magnitude in symptomatic patients, it is reasonable to augur that a proportion of asymptomatic cases might reach levels of viremia sufficient to infect competent mosquitoes. Moreover, in both dengue and chikungunya fever, nosocomial infections have been identified representing an alternative opportunity for virus introduction in non-endemic areas. In zoonotic mosquito-borne arbovirus infections such as Japanese encephalitis or West Nile infection, the situation is quite different since humans are considered as "dead-end" hosts. However, the very large number of asymptomatic cases arising during outbreaks and the existence of newly recognised ways of contamination (blood transfusion, organ transplantation, transplacental way etc.) may also ensure their introduction and subsequent spread in new areas.

  8. Individual Patterns in Blood-Borne Indicators of Fatigue-Trait or Chance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julian, Ross; Meyer, Tim; Fullagar, Hugh H K; Skorski, Sabrina; Pfeiffer, Mark; Kellmann, Michael; Ferrauti, Alexander; Hecksteden, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Julian, R, Meyer, T, Fullagar, HHK, Skorski, S, Pfeiffer, M, Kellmann, M, Ferrauti, A, and Hecksteden, A. Individual patterns in blood-borne indicators of fatigue-trait or chance. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 608-619, 2017-Blood-borne markers of fatigue such as creatine kinase (CK) and urea (U) are widely used to fine-tune training recommendations. However, predictive accuracy is low. A possible explanation for this dissatisfactory characteristic is the propensity of athletes to react to different patterns of fatigue indicators (e.g., predominantly muscular [CK] or metabolic [U]). The aim of the present trial was to explore this hypothesis by using repetitive fatigue-recovery cycles. A total of 22 elite junior swimmers and triathletes (18 ± 3 years) were monitored for 9 weeks throughout 2 training phases (low-intensity, high-volume [LIHV] and high-intensity, low-volume [HILV] phases). Blood samples were collected each Monday (recovered) and Friday (fatigued) morning. From measured values of CK, U, free-testosterone (FT), and cortisol (C) as determined in the rested and fatigued state, respectively, Monday-Friday differences (Δ) were calculated and classified by magnitude before calculation of ratios (ΔCK/ΔU and ΔFT/ΔC). Coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated as group-based estimates of reproducibility. Linear mixed modeling was used to differentiate inter- and intraindividual variability. Consistency of patterns was analyzed by comparing with threshold values (1.1 for all weeks). Reproducibility was very low for fatigue-induced changes (CV ≥ 100%) with interindividual variation accounting for 45-60% of overall variability. Case-wise analysis indicated consistent ΔCK/ΔU patterns for 7 individuals in LIHV and 7 in HILV; 5 responded consistently throughout. For ΔFT/ΔC the number of consistent patterns was 2 in LIHV and 3 in HILV. These findings highlight the potential value of an individualized and multivariate approach in the assessment of fatigue.

  9. Electron Tomography Analysis of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection in Human Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bílý, Tomáš; Palus, Martin; Eyer, Luděk; Elsterová, Jana; Vancová, Marie; Růžek, Daniel

    2015-06-15

    Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes serious, potentially fatal neurological infections that affect humans in endemic regions of Europe and Asia. Neurons are the primary target for TBEV infection in the central nervous system. However, knowledge about this viral infection and virus-induced neuronal injury is fragmental. Here, we directly examined the pathology that occurs after TBEV infection in human primary neurons. We exploited the advantages of advanced high-pressure freezing and freeze-substitution techniques to achieve optimal preservation of infected cell architecture. Electron tomographic (ET) reconstructions elucidated high-resolution 3D images of the proliferating endoplasmic reticulum, and individual tubule-like structures of different diameters in the endoplasmic reticulum cisternae of single cells. ET revealed direct connections between the tubule-like structures and viral particles in the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, ET showed connections between cellular microtubules and vacuoles that harbored the TBEV virions in neuronal extensions. This study was the first to characterize the 3D topographical organization of membranous whorls and autophagic vacuoles in TBEV-infected human neurons. The functional importance of autophagy during TBEV replication was studied in human neuroblastoma cells; stimulation of autophagy resulted in significantly increased dose-dependent TBEV production, whereas the inhibition of autophagy showed a profound, dose-dependent decrease of the yield of infectious virus.

  10. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Hercules; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus ('Dengue-like syndrome'). The real-time PCR and serological methods have been successfully applied for the diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic, since there is no specific antiviral treatment or a vaccine. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, incidents of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches for prevention and control.

  11. The risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections at the Gabonese National Blood Transfusion Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rerambiah, Leonard Kounegnigan; Rerambiah, Laurence Essola; Bengone, Calixte; Djoba Siawaya, Joel F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood transfusions carry the risk of transmitting blood-borne infections. In contrast to the situation in the developed world, there is a limited number of studies examining this problem in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study we aimed to calculate the risks of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection from units of blood issued by the Gabonese Blood Transfusion Centre between 2009 and 2011. Materials and methods All the donations were tested for infectious diseases and the seroconversion incidence rates of HIV, HBV and HCV were calculated. The residual risk of transfusion-associated transmission for each virus was calculated by multiplying the seroconversion rates by the window period expressed in fractions of a year. Results The risks of becoming infected with HIV, HCV, and HBV in subjects receiving units of blood from the Gabonese Blood Transfusion Centre were 64.7, 207.94 and 534.53 per million donations, respectively. Conclusions This study, which is the first to quantify the true risks of transfusion-transmitted infections in Gabon, reveals and confirms the need to reinforce preventative and screening strategies to improve transfusion safety in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24333085

  12. Congenital cytomegalovirus infections and glycoprotein B genotypes in live-born infants: a prevalence study in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahiner, Fatih; Cekmez, Ferhat; Cetinkaya, Merih; Kaya, Guven; Kalayci, Tugce; Gunes, Omer; Sener, Kenan; Yapar, Mehmet; Tunc, Turan; Ecemis, Tolga; Cekmez, Yasemin; Kubar, Ayhan

    2015-07-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections are the leading cause of infectious hearing loss and central nervous system disease among children worldwide. In this study, we aimed to determine the birth prevalence of congenital CMV infection in live-born infants in Turkey. In total, 944 consecutive live-born infants born from 926 pregnant women were included in this study. CMV-DNA was investigated in saliva samples of all newborns within the first 3 days after birth using TaqMan-based real-time PCR. The birth prevalence of congenital CMV infection in live-born infants was 1.91% (18/944), and all congenitally infected infants were asymptomatic at birth. The prevalence of congenital CMV infection was 16.7% (3/18) in twin pregnancies and 1.32% (12/908) in single pregnancies (p = 0.002). Genotyping analysis showed glycoprotein B-1 (gB1) to be the most frequently detected genotype at 83.3%. The study results suggest that the majority of congenital CMV infection in Turkey occurs following nonprimary maternal infection. We believe that congenital CMV infection and its long-term effects have been underestimated in our country, as infected infants are usually asymptomatic at birth.

  13. Early Determinants of Blood Pressure and Renal Function: Follow-up of very preterm born individuals until young adulcy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Keijzer-Veen (Mandy)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractIn summary, the studies described in this thesis suggest that premature birth affects renal function and blood pressure at (young) adult age, and especially when born both SGA and premature. Minor differences are already detectable at young adult age. The biological mechanism is

  14. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  15. Peripheral Blood Leucocyte Apoptosis in Two Dogs Infected with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood leucocyte apoptosis in the trypanosome-infected natural hosts is yet to be documented and recognized as a feature of trypanosomiasis. We provide evidence of marked peripheral blood leucocyte apoptosis in two cases of dogs severely infected with Trypanosoma congolense. It is expected that this case report will ...

  16. Country of infection among HIV-infected patients born abroad living in French Guiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriouch, Leila; Van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Adenis, Antoine; Couppié, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Background Over 75% of patients in the HIV cohort in French Guiana are of foreign origin. Our objective was to estimate what proportion of the migrant population of HIV-infected patients in Cayenne had been infected in French Guiana. Methods We included patients of known foreign origin who were followed in Cayenne, for whom the year of arrival in French Guiana was known and the initial CD4 count at the time of diagnosis was available. The time between seroconversion and time at diagnosis was estimated using the formula [square root (CD4 at seroconversion)-square root(CD4 at HIV diagnosis)] / slope of CD4 decline.CD4 counts at the time of infection and the slope were computed in an age and ethnicity-dependent variable. Results The median estimated time between infection and diagnosis was 4.5 years (IQR = 0.2–9.2). Overall, using a median estimate of CD4 count at the time of infection, it was estimated that 53.2% (95% CI = 48.3–58%) of HIV infected foreign patients had acquired HIV after having arrived in French Guiana. Patients having arrived in French Guiana before and during the 1990s and those receiving their HIV diagnosis before 2010 were more likely to have been infected in French Guiana. Conclusions Contrary to widespread belief suggesting that most migrants are already HIV-infected when they arrive in French Guiana, a large proportion of foreign HIV patients seem acquire the virus in French Guiana.There is still much to do in terms of primary prevention and testing among migrants. PMID:29420591

  17. Country of infection among HIV-infected patients born abroad living in French Guiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacher, Mathieu; Adriouch, Leila; Van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Adenis, Antoine; Couppié, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Over 75% of patients in the HIV cohort in French Guiana are of foreign origin. Our objective was to estimate what proportion of the migrant population of HIV-infected patients in Cayenne had been infected in French Guiana. We included patients of known foreign origin who were followed in Cayenne, for whom the year of arrival in French Guiana was known and the initial CD4 count at the time of diagnosis was available. The time between seroconversion and time at diagnosis was estimated using the formula [square root (CD4 at seroconversion)-square root(CD4 at HIV diagnosis)] / slope of CD4 decline.CD4 counts at the time of infection and the slope were computed in an age and ethnicity-dependent variable. The median estimated time between infection and diagnosis was 4.5 years (IQR = 0.2-9.2). Overall, using a median estimate of CD4 count at the time of infection, it was estimated that 53.2% (95% CI = 48.3-58%) of HIV infected foreign patients had acquired HIV after having arrived in French Guiana. Patients having arrived in French Guiana before and during the 1990s and those receiving their HIV diagnosis before 2010 were more likely to have been infected in French Guiana. Contrary to widespread belief suggesting that most migrants are already HIV-infected when they arrive in French Guiana, a large proportion of foreign HIV patients seem acquire the virus in French Guiana.There is still much to do in terms of primary prevention and testing among migrants.

  18. A review of the use of blood and blood products in HIV-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite numerous publications on the appropriate use of blood and blood products, few specifically consider the role of transfusion in the management of HIV. This review is a synthesis of conditions encountered in the management of HIV-infected patients where the transfusion of blood or blood products may be indicated.

  19. Low occurrence of HBsAg but high frequency of transient occult HBV infection in vaccinated and HBIG-administered infants born to HBsAg positive mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan; Li, Tingting; Allain, Jean-Pierre; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Yuming; Zhong, Mei; Fu, Yongshui; Li, Chengyao

    2017-12-01

    The status of chronic and occult HBV infection (OBI) in neonatal hepatitis B vaccine and immunoglobulin (HBIG) vaccinated infants born to HBsAg+ mothers was investigated at a major hospital in China. Seventy-seven and 15 blood samples were collected in first or second follow-up detection from the vaccinated babies aged 3-36 months born to 43 HBsAg+ or plus 25 HBeAg+ mothers. HBV infection was analyzed between the paired baby and mother by serology and DNA analysis. Among 77 children born to 68 HBsAg+ mothers, 3.9% (3/77) were HBsAg+, and 36.4% (28/77) were HBV DNA+/HBsAg- (OBIs) by a single PCR, respectively. Thirteen of 28 HBV DNA+/HBsAg- samples were conformed by two PCRs or S sequence, which accounted for 16.9% (13/77) of children. Three HBsAg+ and six OBIs were genotyped in consistent with their mother's HBV strains. Of 77 babies' blood samples, anti-HBs reactivity varied slightly according to age groups, while passively transmitted anti-HBc reactivity declined from 100% high reactivity at age 3-5 months to mostly negative at age ≥12 months. Babies with apparent OBI had higher levels of anti-HBc and lower levels of anti-HBs than those without OBI but all eight OBI babies with second follow-up samples became HBV DNA negative beyond 1 year of age. The vaccinated infants born to HBsAg+ mothers presented the low rate of HBsAg occurrence as vaccination failure and high frequency of viral persistence in the form of transient OBIs since no evidence of active HBV infection occurred beyond 1 year of age. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Enhanced Th17 phenotype in uninfected neonates born from viremic HIV-1-infected pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hygino, Joana; Vieira, Morgana M; Guillermo, Landi V; Silva-Filho, Renato G; Saramago, Carmen; Lima-Silva, Agostinho A; Andrade, Regis M; Andrade, Arnaldao F B; Brindeiro, Rodrigo M; Tanuri, Amilcar; Guimarães, Vander; de Melo Bento, Cleonice Alves

    2011-04-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the in vitro functional profile of T cells from uninfected neonates born from HIV-1-infected pregnant women who controlled (G1) or not (G2) the virus replication. We demonstrated that the lymphoproliferation of T cell to polyclonal activators was higher in the G2 as compared with G1. Nevertheless, no detectable proliferative response was observed in response to HIV-1 antigens in both neonate groups. Cytokine dosage in the supernatants of these polyclonally activated T cell cultures demonstrated that, while IL-10 was the dominant cytokine produced in G1, Th17-related cytokines were significantly higher in G2 neonates. The higher Th17 phenotype tendency in G2 was related to high production of IL-23 by lipopolysaccharide-activated monocyte-derived dendritic cells from these neonates. Our results demonstrated immunological disorders in uninfected neonates born from viremic HIV-1-infected mothers that can help to explain why some of these children have elevated risk of clinical morbidity and mortality due to pathological hypersensitivity.

  1. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duscher, Georg G.; Leschnik, Michael; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter; Joachim, Anja

    2014-01-01

    Austria's mammalian wildlife comprises a large variety of species, acting and interacting in different ways as reservoir and intermediate and definitive hosts for different pathogens that can be transmitted to pets and/or humans. Foxes and other wild canids are responsible for maintaining zoonotic agents, e.g. Echinococcus multilocularis, as well as pet-relevant pathogens, e.g. Hepatozoon canis. Together with the canids, and less commonly felids, rodents play a major role as intermediate and paratenic hosts. They carry viruses such as tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), bacteria including Borrelia spp., protozoa such as Toxoplasma gondii, and helminths such as Toxocara canis. The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain. PMID:25830102

  2. ABO, rhesus blood groups and transfusion-transmitted infections ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Few studies focused on the study of blood groups in Gabon. This study aimed to determine the phenotypic frequency of ABO and Rhesus antigens in blood donors of Libreville and to assess the association between ABO blood groups and transfusion-transmitted infections. Materials and Methods: The study of ...

  3. Availability of dental services for patients with blood-borne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellock, D J; Carlin, E M

    2002-08-01

    Dental practitioners were surveyed, using a self-completed postal questionnaire, to assess their attitudes to managing patients with blood-borne viruses (BBV) and to identify dental services available for such patients in North Nottinghamshire. Questionnaires were completed by 79 (65.3%) of the 121 practitioners from 43 (82.7%) of the 52 study practices. Previous BBV experience was reported by 44 (55.7%), 31 (39.2%), 20 (25.3%) respondents for hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV), HIV, respectively. Over two-thirds would maintain existing patients with subsequently diagnosed BBV on their lists, approximately one-third would accept new BBV patients. Risk factors for BBV of homo/bisexuality and injecting drug use were not asked by 71 (89.9%) and 49 (62.0%) practitioners, respectively. Universal precautions were employed by 67 (84.8%) practitioners regardless of the patient's status and by seven practitioners for known BBV patients. The advice of the General Dental Council, British Dental Association, and the use of universal precautions are discussed.

  4. Study on the use of toltrazuril to eliminate Neospora caninum in congenitally infected lambs born from experimentally infected ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed-Hussain, S S; Howe, L; Pomroy, W E; West, D M; Hardcastle, M; Williamson, N B

    2015-06-15

    To determine if toltrazuril was effective in eliminating Neospora caninum infection from congenitally infected lambs. Twenty-eight ewes were allocated to 3 groups where animals in Groups A and B were inoculated with 1 × 10(7)N. caninum tachyzoites on Day 120 of gestation and Group C was maintained as a negative control group. Lambs born from ewes in Group A were treated with toltrazuril (20mg/kg) on Days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after birth. Lambs in Groups B and C were untreated. All lambs in Groups A and B were seropositive at 12 weeks of age. At 12 weeks of age, no differences between lambs in Group A and Group B were observed in serological results (ELISA and western blot), presence of N. caninum-related brain histopathological lesions or the number of organisms detected by qPCR. Group C remained negative for serology, detection of N. caninum DNA as well as histopathology throughout the study. Results indicate that N. caninum congenitally-infected lambs had a continuing infection with N. caninum despite being treated with toltrazuril. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Rise and Fall of Vector Infectivity During Sequential Strain Displacements by Mosquito-Borne Dengue Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Christy C.; Young, Katherine I.; Johnson, William L.; Villa, Maria E.; Buraczyk, Cynthia A.; Messer, William B.; Hanley, Kathryn A.

    2016-01-01

    Each of the four serotypes of mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV-1-4) comprises multiple, genetically-distinct strains. Competitive displacement between strains within a serotype is a common feature of DENV epidemiology and can trigger outbreaks of dengue disease. We investigated the mechanisms underlying two sequential displacements by DENV-3 strains in Sri Lanka that each coincided with abrupt increases in dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) incidence. First, the post-DHF strain, displaced the pre-DHF strain in the 1980s. We have previously shown that post-DHF is more infectious than pre-DHF for the major DENV vector, Aedes aegypti. Then, the ultra-DHF strain evolved in situ from post-DHF and displaced its ancestor in the 2000s. We predicted that ultra-DHF would be more infectious for Ae. aegypti than post-DHF but found that ultra-DHF infected a significantly lower percentage of mosquitoes than post-DHF. We therefore hypothesized that ultra-DHF had effected displacement by disseminating in Ae. aegypti more rapidly than post-DHF, but this was not borne out by a timecourse of mosquito infection. To elucidate the mechanisms that shape these virus-vector interactions, we tested the impact of RNA interference, the principal mosquito defense against DENV, on replication of each of the three DENV strains. Replication of all strains was similar in mosquito cells with dysfunctional RNAi, but in cells with functional RNAi, replication of pre-DHF was significantly suppressed relative to the other two strains. Thus differences in susceptibility to RNAi may account for the differences in mosquito infectivity between pre-DHF and post-DHF, but other mechanisms underlie the difference between post-DHF and ultra-DHF. PMID:27500505

  6. Blood borne hormones in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure, the role of circumventricular organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Skrzypecki, Janusz

    2014-04-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that blood borne hormones modulate brain mechanisms regulating blood pressure. This appears to be mediated by the circumventricular organs which are located in the walls of the brain ventricular system and lack the blood-brain barrier. Recent evidence shows that neurons of the circumventricular organs express receptors for the majority of cardiovascular hormones. Intracerebroventricular infusions of hormones and their antagonists is one approach to evaluate the influence of blood borne hormones on the neural mechanisms regulating arterial blood pressure. Interestingly, there is no clear correlation between peripheral and central effects of cardiovascular hormones. For example, angiotensin II increases blood pressure acting peripherally and centrally, whereas peripherally acting pressor catecholamines decrease blood pressure when infused intracerebroventricularly. The physiological role of such dual hemodynamic responses has not yet been clarified. In the paper we review studies on hemodynamic effects of catecholamines, neuropeptide Y, angiotensin II, aldosterone, natriuretic peptides, endothelins, histamine and bradykinin in the context of their role in a cross-talk between peripheral and brain mechanisms involved in the regulation of arterial blood pressure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Socio-economic, industrial and cultural parameters of pig-borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, G

    2013-07-01

    The pork-processing industry has been possibly the fastest growing sector of the food industry in recent years. Specialization, genetic homogenization of the pig population, high density of the breeding population, reduced human-animal interactions, slaughter at a lower age and increased international trade of live animals and pork are parameters that affect, positively or negatively, the emergence of novel pig-borne pathogens, many of which are pig-specific, and many of which have significant zoonotic potential, as observed in recent outbreaks of Nipah virus and Streptococcus suis in Southeast Asia and China, respectively. Numerous other pathogens are transmitted to humans through direct contact with or consumption of pig products, and globalization trends in trade and human population movements have resulted in outbreaks of pig-borne diseases even in Muslim countries and in Israel, where pork consumption is religiously prohibited. The role of pigs as potential reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant pathogens or genes encoding resistance, and the role of feral pigs as a reservoir of zoonotic disease, are scientific fields in direct need of further research. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  8. Rapid and efficient clearance of blood-borne virus by liver sinusoidal endothelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha P Ganesan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The liver removes quickly the great bulk of virus circulating in blood, leaving only a small fraction to infect the host, in a manner characteristic of each virus. The scavenger cells of the liver sinusoids are implicated, but the mechanism is entirely unknown. Here we show, borrowing a mouse model of adenovirus clearance, that nearly all infused adenovirus is cleared by the liver sinusoidal endothelial cell (LSEC. Using refined immunofluorescence microscopy techniques for distinguishing macrophages and endothelial cells in fixed liver, and identifying virus by two distinct physicochemical methods, we localized adenovirus 1 minute after infusion mainly to the LSEC (∼90%, finding ∼10% with Kupffer cells (KC and none with hepatocytes. Electron microscopy confirmed our results. In contrast with much prior work claiming the main scavenger to be the KC, our results locate the clearance mechanism to the LSEC and identify this cell as a key site of antiviral activity.

  9. Differential outcomes of Zika virus infection in Aedes aegypti orally challenged with infectious blood meals and infectious protein meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Jang S; Lyons, Amy C; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Park, So Lee; Higgs, Stephen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2017-01-01

    Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures. The latter approach using so-called artificial blood meals is more frequently used since it is readily optimized to maximize viral titer, negates the use of animals and can be used with viruses for which there are no small animal models. Use of artificial blood meals has enabled numerous studies on mosquito infections with a wide variety of viruses; however, as described here, with suitable modification it can also be used to study the interplay between infection, specific blood components, and physiological consequences associated with blood engorgement. For hematophagous female mosquitoes, blood is the primary nutritional source supporting all physiological process including egg development, and also influences neurological processes and behaviors such as host-seeking. Interactions between these blood-driven vector biological processes and arbovirus infection that is mediated via blood engorgement have not yet been specifically studied. This is in part because presentation of virus in whole blood inevitably induces enzymatic digestion processes, hormone driven oogenesis, and other biological changes. In this study, the infection process of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Aedes aegypti was characterized by oral exposure via viral suspension meals within minimally bovine serum albumin complemented medium or within whole blood. The use of bovine serum albumin in infectious meals provides an opportunity to evaluate the role of serum albumin during the process of flavivirus

  10. transfusion transmissible viral infections among potential blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    BLOOD DONORS IN IBADAN, NIGERIA. Afolabi, A.Y.*1, Abraham, A.2, Oladipo, E.K.1,Adefolarin, A.O. 3and Fagbami, A.H.1. 1Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, LadokeAkintola University of. Technology, Ogbomoso, Nigeria.2Department of Haematology, Blood Bank Unit, ...

  11. Fumonisin B1 and beauvericin accumulation in wheat kernels after seed-borne infection with Fusarium proliferatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqing Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium proliferatum is a fungal pathogen causing ear rot of maize. The fungus infects a range of other plants but the economic impact of these diseases has not been established. Recently, F. proliferatum and its mycotoxin fumonisin were found in wheat grains. Here we report that seed-borne infection of wheat with F. proliferatum resulted in systemic colonization of wheat plants and contamination of wheat grains with fumonisins and beauvericin. F. proliferatum strains originating from different hosts were able to infect wheat via seeds. Colonization of wheat plants with the fungus was highest in the stems, followed by leaves; one third of the strains reached kernels, causing accumulation of fumonisins and beauvericin to 15–55 µg kg-1. The results show that seed-borne infection of wheat with F. proliferatum can lead to contamination of wheat kernels with mycotoxins fumonisins and beauvericin.  

  12. Selective response of Ricinus communis seedlings to soil borne rhizoctonia infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings of Ricinus communis tolerated soil-borne Rhizoctonia infection in strain dependent manner. There was no connection revealed between pathogenicity of strains and their origin or taxonomic position, however, the castor plant proved to be susceptible to most strains highly pathogenic to other host plants as well. Rhizoctonia zeae (teleomorph: Waitea circinata, a species new for European flora, was less aggressive to R. communis as the most potent R. solani strains. The effect of Rhizoctonia infection on mass accumulation of hypocotyls was more prominent than that on cotyledons. The protein content and glutathione S-transferase (GST activity increased in parallel with evolution of disease syndrome. Metalaxyl, an acetanilide type systemic anti-omycete fungicide induced locally the GST activity in R. communis cotyledons with 24 hours lag phase, and this induction was altered in the seedlings grown in Rhizoctonia infested soil by strain dependent manner. It might be concluded, that the stress response related detoxication mechanisms of plants in tolerant host/parasite pairs take effect at higher level than in highly susceptible relationships.

  13. Distribution of HIV Infections Among Blood Donors in Abia State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A five-year retrospective study on the distribution of HIV infection among blood donors was conducted at the Nigerian Christian Hospital, Onicha Ngwa. A total of 8862 prospective blood donors (comprising of 6504 males and 2358 females) were screened for HIV using the ELISA technique. Nine hundred and thirty five ...

  14. Prevention of catheter-related blood stream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2007-08-01

    Catheter-related blood stream infections are a morbid complication of central venous catheters. This review will highlight a comprehensive approach demonstrated to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. Elements of prevention important to inserting a central venous catheter include proper hand hygiene, use of full barrier precautions, appropriate skin preparation with 2% chlorhexidine, and using the subclavian vein as the preferred anatomic site. Rigorous attention needs to be given to dressing care, and there should be daily assessment of the need for central venous catheters, with prompt removal as soon as is practicable. Healthcare workers should be educated routinely on methods to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections. If rates remain higher than benchmark levels despite proper bedside practice, antiseptic or antibiotic-impregnated catheters can also prevent infections effectively. A recent program utilizing these practices in 103 ICUs in Michigan resulted in a 66% decrease in infection rates. There is increasing recognition that a comprehensive strategy to prevent catheter-related blood stream infections can prevent most infections, if not all. This suggests that thousands of infections can potentially be averted if the simple practices outlined herein are followed.

  15. Transfusion transmissible viral infections among potential blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effective approach for prevention and control of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs). Also, it has been documented that sub-standard test kits are mostly used in resource limited settings for transfusion related diagnosis. However, the role of ...

  16. Rabies virus infection in Eptesicus fuscus bats born in captivity (naïve bats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April D Davis

    Full Text Available The study of rabies virus infection in bats can be challenging due to quarantine requirements, husbandry concerns, genetic differences among animals, and lack of medical history. To date, all rabies virus (RABV studies in bats have been performed in wild caught animals. Determining the RABV exposure history of a wild caught bat based on the presence or absence of viral neutralizing antibodies (VNA may be misleading. Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of VNA following natural or experimental inoculation is often ephemeral. With this knowledge, it is difficult to determine if a seronegative, wild caught bat has been previously exposed to RABV. The influence of prior rabies exposure in healthy, wild caught bats is unknown. To investigate the pathogenesis of RABV infection in bats born in captivity (naïve bats, naïve bats were inoculated intramuscularly with one of two Eptesicus fuscus rabies virus variants, EfV1 or EfV2. To determine the host response to a heterologous RABV, a separate group of naïve bats were inoculated with a Lasionycteris noctivagans RABV (LnV1. Six months following the first inoculation, all bats were challenged with EfV2. Our results indicate that naïve bats may have some level of innate resistance to intramuscular RABV inoculation. Additionally, naïve bats inoculated with the LnV demonstrated the lowest clinical infection rate of all groups. However, primary inoculation with EfV1 or LnV did not appear to be protective against a challenge with the more pathogenic EfV2.

  17. Predicting the emergence of tick-borne infections based on climatic changes in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Joon-Seok; Adjemian, Jennifer Zipser; Kim, Heung-Chul; Ko, Sungjin; Klein, Terry A; Foley, Janet

    2008-04-01

    Granulocytic anaplasmosis (GA) and monocytic ehrlichiosis (ME) are maintained in wild rodent reservoirs and tick vectors in the Republic of Korea. This study investigated the prevalence of 2 tick-borne pathogens, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia chaffeensis, in wild rodents and ticks in central Korea to identify any significant associations with existing or changing climatic conditions. Specifically, the goal of this study was to develop simple models for the probability of occurrence of an epidemic of GA or ME as a function of climate in an area in a given year. Climatic data from 2 regions, Munsan and Dongducheon, Gyeonggi, in central Korea (between the Demilitarized Zone and Seoul, latitude between 37 degrees N-38 degrees N and longitude between 127 degrees E-128 degrees E), were analyzed with respect to the prevalence of GA and ME in Paju, Yoncheon, Pocheon, and Dongducheon for the period from 2001 to 2005. Rates of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis decreased as the total yearly precipitation levels and daily humidity increased, and as the daily mean sunshine hours decreased. Rates of A. phagocytophilum and E. chaffeensis from rodent ticks and rodents increased in the fall season. Linear regression analyses evaluating the numbers of positive samples by sample type found that rodent ticks were 6.64 times more likely to be actively infected with A. phagocytophilum than grass ticks or rodents, though the likelihood of any samples testing positive for this pathogen decreased by 0.17 as the annual mean level of precipitation increased by 1 mm. For E. chaffeensis, rodents were 15.67 times more likely to be infected than ticks. Logistic regression analyses evaluating each sample separately found that the odds of infection with A. phagocytophilum were nearly 5 times greater for rodents than ticks. In these analyses, precipitation was one potential factor to account for the prevalence of tickborne diseases.

  18. Blood-borne LPS is rapidly eliminated by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells via HDL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhili; Mates, Jessica M.; Cheplowitz, Alana M.; Hammer, Lindsay P.; Maiseyeu, Andrei; Phillips, Gary S.; Wewers, Mark D.; Rajaram, Murugesan V.S.; Robinson, John M.; Anderson, Clark L.; Ganesan, Latha P.

    2016-01-01

    During Gram-negative bacterial infections, excessive lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces inflammation and sepsis via action on immune cells. However, the bulk of LPS can be cleared from circulation by the liver. Liver clearance is thought to be a slow process mediated exclusively by phagocytic resident macrophages, Kupffer cells (KC). However, we discovered that LPS disappears rapidly from the circulation, with a half-life of 2–4 minutes in mice and liver eliminates about three quarters of LPS from blood circulation. Using microscopic techniques, we found that ~75% of fluor-tagged LPS in liver became associated with liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSEC) and only ~25% with KC. Notably, the ratio of LSEC-KC associated LPS remained unchanged 45 min after infusion, indicating that LSEC independently processes the LPS. Most interestingly, results of kinetic analysis of LPS bioactivity, using modified limulus amebocyte lysate assay, suggest that recombinant factor-C, an LPS binding protein, competitively inhibits HDL-mediated LPS association with LSEC early in the process. Supporting the previous notion 3 min post-infusion, 75% of infused fluorescently-tagged LPS-HDL complex associates with LSEC, suggesting that HDL facilitates LPS clearance. These results lead us to propose a new paradigm of LSEC and HDL in clearing LPS with a potential to avoid inflammation during sepsis. PMID:27534554

  19. Distribution of Cytomegalovirus Genotypes among Neonates Born to Infected Mothers in Islamabad, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Mujtaba

    Full Text Available Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV infection contributes to considerable long-term sequelae in neonates and children all over the world. The association between viral genotypes and severity of clinical cytomegalovirus (CMV infection is yet to be defined. The objective of this study was to find the impact of active CMV infection during pregnancy and the clinical significance of genotypes in neonates with congenital cytomegalovirus infections in Pakistan.A total of 409 blood samples from pregnant women seeking health care services at the two antenatal hospitals of Islamabad during January to December 2012 were tested by ELISA and nested-PCR. Pregnant women with active infection (detected as IgM positive, PCR positive or positive on both assays were followed until delivery, to detect the outcome of overt cCMV infection in neonates. Genetic characterization of CMV strains was performed by sequence analysis of envelope glycoproteins: gB, gN and gH to detect the contributing CMV genotypes.The seroprevalence of anti-CMV IgG and IgM was 97.5% (399 out of 409 and 12.7% (52 out of 409, respectively, while 20% (82/409 pregnant women were found positive for CMV DNA by PCR. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant association of active infection with parity [OR = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.82-2.62, p = 0.04], febrile illness [OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.76-3.65, p = 0.01] and jaundice [OR = 22.5, 95% CI = 4.53-85.02, p = 0.002]. We were able to isolate virus in 41 out of 70 neonates; 36.6% (15 out of 41 of them were symptomatic at birth while 63.4% (26 out of 41 were asymptomatic. The most prominent clinical feature observed in symptomatic neonates was hepatosplenomegaly (26.6%; 4 out of 15. All three genotypes gB, gN and gH were found with the highest frequency of gB1 genotype, found in 75% infants with hepatic damage. Phylogenetic analysis of Pakistani strains showed 96%-100% homology to their prototype strains.Active CMV infection during pregnancy is a major cause

  20. Staphylococcal Blood Stream Infections in Cancer Patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resistance patterns of all. Staphylococci identified as pathogens were analyzed. Out of total 512 blood samples received, 157 (30.7%) were flagged as positive. Totally, 77 out of 157 (49%) grew. Gram-positive organisms, 39 (24.8%) grew Gram-negative organisms and one grew Candida albicans on subculture.

  1. Infectivity of blood products from donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Mihaljevic, Ivanka; Gonzalez-Fraile, Maria Isabel

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Recipients of previous donations from OBI donors were investigated...... blood cells [RBCs], p transfusion-transmitted infection in 10 cases and excluded it in one case. CONCLUSION: Blood......-recipients pairs carried antibodies to HBV core (anti-HBc) as evidence of previous HBV infection. Subtracting 15% of anti-HBc population background, the adjusted transmission rate was 28%. Anti-HBc prevalence increased to 28 of 44 (63.8%) in unvaccinated recipients receiving anti-HBs-negative OBI blood products...

  2. A hypothesis for explaining single outbreaks (like the Black Death in European cities) of vector-borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burattini, M N; Coutinho, F A B; Massad, E

    2009-07-01

    We propose a mechanism by which single outbreaks of vector-borne infections can happen even when the value of the basic reproduction number, R(0), of the infection is below one. With this hypothesis we have shown that dynamical models simulations demonstrate that the arrival of a relatively small (with respect to the host population) number of infected vectors can trigger a short-lived epidemic but with a huge number of cases. These episodes are characterized by a sudden outbreak in a previously virgin area that last from weeks to a few months, and then disappear without leaving vestiges. The hypothesis proposed in this paper to explain those single outbreaks of vector-borne infections, even when total basic reproduction number, R(0), is less than one (which explain the fact that those infections fail to establish themselves at endemic levels), is that the vector-to-host component of R(0) is greater than one and that a sufficient amount of infected vectors are imported to the vulnerable area, triggering the outbreak. We tested the hypothesis by performing numerical simulations that reproduce the observed outbreaks of chikungunya in Italy in 2007 and the plague in Florence in 1348. The theory proposed provides an explanation for isolated outbreaks of vector-borne infections, ways to calculate the size of those outbreaks from the number of infected vectors arriving in the affected areas. Given the ever-increasing worldwide transportation network, providing a high degree of mobility from endemic to virgin areas, the proposed mechanism may have important implications for public health planning.

  3. Do blood parasites infect Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in the wild? Prospective investigation and climatogeographic considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanstreels, Ralph Eric Thijl; Uhart, Marcela; Rago, Virginia; Hurtado, Renata; Epiphanio, Sabrina; Catão-Dias, José Luiz

    2017-04-01

    Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) are native to Argentina, Chile and the Falkland Islands. Magellanic penguins are highly susceptible to blood parasites such as the mosquito-borne Plasmodium spp., which have been documented causing high morbidity and mortality in zoos and rehabilitation centres. However, to date no blood parasites have been detected in wild Magellanic penguins, and it is not clear whether this is reflective of their true absence or is instead related to an insufficiency in sampling effort or a failure of the diagnostic methods. We examined blood smears of 284 Magellanic penguins from the Argentinean coast and tested their blood samples with nested polymerase chain reaction tests targeting Haemoproteus, Plasmodium, Leucocytozoon and Babesia. No blood parasites were detected. Analysing the sampling effort of previous studies and the climatogeography of the region, we found there is strong basis to conclude that haemosporidians do not infect wild Magellanic penguins on the Argentinean coast. However, at present it is not possible to determine whether such parasites occur on the Chilean coast and at the Falkland Islands. Furthermore, it is troubling that the northward distribution expansion of Magellanic penguins and the poleward distribution shift of vectors may lead to novel opportunities for the transmission of blood parasites.

  4. Blood-borne virus transmission in healthcare settings in Ireland: review of patient notification exercises 1997-2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohue, S

    2012-01-21

    A review of patient notification exercises (PNEs) carried out in Ireland between 1997 and 2011 to investigate potential exposure to blood-borne viruses (BBVs) in healthcare settings was undertaken to inform future policy and practice. A questionnaire was sent to key informants in the health services to identify all relevant PNEs. Structured interviews were conducted with key investigators, and available documentation was examined. Ten BBV-related PNEs were identified. Despite testing over 2000 patients, only one case of transmission was found. However, in-depth local investigations before undertaking the PNEs identified six cases of healthcare-associated transmission.

  5. Bacterial and protozoal agents of canine vector-borne diseases in the blood of domestic and stray dogs from southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Carla; Almeida, Bruno; Coimbra, Mónica; Fernandes, Maria Catarina; Cristóvão, José Manuel; Ramos, Cláudia; Martins, Ângela; Martinho, Filipe; Silva, Pedro; Neves, Nuno; Nunes, Mónica; Vieira, Maria Luísa; Cardoso, Luís; Campino, Lenea

    2015-03-23

    The so-called canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD) are caused by a wide range of pathogens transmitted by arthropods. In addition to their veterinary importance, many of these canine vector-borne pathogens can also affect the human population due to their zoonotic potential, a situation that requires a One Health approach. As the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in cats from southern Portugal has been recently evaluated, the aim of the present study was to assess if the same agents were present in dogs living in the same area, and to assess positivity-associated risk factors. One thousand and ten dogs (521 domestic and 489 stray) from veterinary medical centres and animal shelters in southern Portugal were enrolled. Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Babesia spp., Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania infantum infections were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays in blood samples. Sixty-eight (6.7%) dogs were PCR-positive to at least one of the tested CVBD agent species, genera or complex, including one dog found positive to two different genera. Nineteen (1.9%) dogs were positive to Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., eight (0.8%) to B. burgdorferi s.l., 31 (3.1%) to Hepatozoon spp. and 11 (1.1%) to L. infantum. Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, B. burgdorferis.l. and Hepatozoon canis were identified by DNA sequencing, including one animal confirmed with both A. platys and H. canis. Furthermore, Wolbachia spp. was amplified in blood from four dogs. None of the tested dogs was positive by PCR for Bartonella spp. or Babesia spp. The molecular identification of CVBD agents in southern Portugal, some of them with zoonotic concern, reinforces the importance to alert the veterinary community, owners and public health authorities to prevent the risk of transmission of vector-borne pathogens among dogs and to other vertebrate hosts including humans. The prevalence of the selected pathogens was lower than that previously

  6. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. The impact of maternal HIV infection on cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in exposed non-infected newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis-Alves Suiellen C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children born to HIV+ mothers are exposed intra-utero to several drugs and cytokines that can modify the developing immune system, and influence the newborn's immune response to infections and vaccines. We analyzed the relation between the distribution of cord blood lymphocyte subsets and cytokine profile in term newborns of HIV+ mothers using HAART during pregnancy and compared them to normal newborns. Methods In a prospective, controlled study, 36 mother-child pairs from HIV+ mothers and 15 HIV-uninfected mothers were studied. Hematological features and cytokine profiles of mothers at 35 weeks of pregnancy were examined. Maternal and cord lymphocyte subsets as well as B-cell maturation in cord blood were analyzed by flow cytometry. The non-stimulated, as well as BCG- and PHA-stimulated production of IL2, IL4, IL7, IL10, IL12, IFN-γ and TNF-alpha in mononuclear cell cultures from mothers and infants were quantified using ELISA. Results After one year follow-up none of the exposed infants became seropositive for HIV. An increase in B lymphocytes, especially the CD19/CD5+ ones, was observed in cord blood of HIV-exposed newborns. Children of HIV+ hard drug using mothers had also an increase of immature B-cells. Cord blood mononuclear cells of HIV-exposed newborns produced less IL-4 and IL-7 and more IL-10 and IFN-γ in culture than those of uninfected mothers. Cytokine values in supernatants were similar in infants and their mothers except for IFN-γ and TNF-alpha that were higher in HIV+ mothers, especially in drug abusing ones. Cord blood CD19/CD5+ lymphocytes showed a positive correlation with cord IL-7 and IL-10. A higher maternal age and smoking was associated with a decrease of cord blood CD4+ cells. Conclusions in uninfected infants born to HIV+ women, several immunological abnormalities were found, related to the residual maternal immune changes induced by the HIV infection and those associated with antiretroviral

  8. Molecular epidemiological survey and genetic analysis of vector-borne infections of cattle in Luzon Island, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochirkhuu, Nyamsuren; Konnai, Satoru; Mingala, Claro N; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Villanueva, Marvin; Pilapil, Flor Marie Immanuelle R; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2015-09-15

    In the Philippines, vector-borne disease is one of the important problems in the livestock industry. To elucidate the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in cattle on Luzon Island, the Philippines, the prevalence of five protozoan agents was assessed by polymerase chain reaction. Out of the 339 samples, 324 (95.5%), 154 (45.4%), 209 (61.6%), 140 (41.3%), and 2 (0.6%) were positive for Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina, Babesia bovis, Theileria spp., and Trypanosoma evansi infections, respectively. Mixed infections were detected in 290 (85.5%) samples, of which 115 (33.9%) had two pathogens, 144 (42.5%) had three pathogens, and 31 (9.1%) had four kinds of pathogens. 16S rRNA gene was 100% identical in A. marginale compared with the same lineage across the world. B. bovis RAP-1 and B. bigemina AMA-1 genes were identical with 92.27%-100% and 97.07%-100% sequences, respectively, in the database (Asian isolates). MPSP genes of Theileria spp. were 83.51%-100% identical with the one another. Phylogenetic analysis showed that they belong to the groups of T. sergenti and T. buffeli. Positive rates of the tick-borne pathogens were extremely high in this area. These findings provide vital information that can be used for the planning and execution of effective control measures for vector-borne diseases in the Philippine cattle industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Mosquito-Borne Flavivirus Superinfection in Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) Cells Persistently Infected with Culex Flavivirus (Flaviviridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwata, Ryusei; Isawa, Haruhiko; Hoshino, Keita; Sasaki, Toshinori; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Maeda, Ken; Sawabe, Kyoko

    2015-03-01

    Superinfection exclusion is generally defined as a phenomenon in which a pre-existing viral infection prevents a secondary viral infection; this has also been observed in infections with mosquito-borne viruses. In this study, we examined the superinfection exclusion of the vertebrate-infecting flaviviruses, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and dengue virus (DENV), by stable and persistent infection with an insect-specific flavivirus, Culex flavivirus (CxFV), in a Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles cell line (CTR cells). Our experimental system was designed based on the premise that wild Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes naturally infected with CxFV are superinfected with JEV by feeding on JEV-infected animals. As a result, we found no evidence of the superinfection exclusion of both JEV and DENV by pre-existing CxFV infection at the cellular level. However, JEV superinfection induced severe cytopathic effects on persistently CxFV-infected CTR cells. These observations imply the possibility that JEV superinfection in CxFV-infected Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes has an adverse effect on their fitness. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Blood-borne parasites in the Black Vulture Coragyps atratus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood parasites of 17 Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) were surveyed. The birds were captured from two sites- a garbage dump in Miramar, Puntarenas and a beach in Cuajiniquil, Guanacaste, of Costa Rica. Two blood smears were made per bird, stained, and examined for Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, Trypanosoma, ...

  11. Absorption of milk-borne insulin-like growth factor-I into portal blood of suckling rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipps, A F; Dvorák, B; Kling, P J; Grille, J G; Koldovský, O

    2000-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are potent mitogens that have been implicated in control of growth and development during the perinatal period. These hormones are also present in biologically significant quantities in mammalian milks. Although one site of action of these IGFs may be at the intestinal level, current information about whether they pass intact into the circulation is conflicting. To test the hypothesis that milk-borne IGFs are absorbed into blood in receptor-active form, suckling rats were given either recombinant human (rh)125I-IGF-I or -II (4 x 10(6) counts per minute [cpm]), and the activity present in portal and cardiac blood was examined at 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after ingestion for presence of appropriate molecular weight peptides in these samples. In selected samples, purified radioactive samples were tested for their ability to bind competitively to crude membranes bearing IGF receptors. The results of these studies indicate that rh125I-IGF-I is absorbed in receptor-active form into the portal circulation and that maximal amounts are present 20 to 30 minutes after ingestion. Estimation of the presence of intact hormone was made on the basis of the elution profile of samples when run on gel chromatography as well as reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Isolated samples from portal blood also bound competitively to placental membranes bearing IGF receptors. In contrast, rh125I-IGF-II could not be demonstrated in receptor-active form in portal blood. Chromatography showed appropriate sized peaks with greater activity in portal than cardiac samples, but competitive binding was not appreciated. It is likely that at least milk-borne IGF-I is absorbed intact and may exert effects on liver and other peripheral tissues. In addition, this study lends further credence to the possibility of an enterohepatic circulation for IGF-I.

  12. Poor knowledge – predictor of nonadherence to universal precautions for blood borne pathogens at first level care facilities in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandir Subhash

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We conducted an assessment of knowledge about blood borne pathogens (BBP and use of universal precautions at first level care facilities (FLCF in two districts of Pakistan. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey and selected three different types of FLCFs ; public, general practitioners and unqualified practitioners through stratified random sampling technique. At each facility, we interviewed a prescriber, a dispenser, and a housekeeper for knowledge of BBPs transmission and preventive practices, risk perception, and use of universal precautions. We performed multiple linear regression to assess the effect of knowledge score (11 items on the practice of universal precautions score (4 items- use of gloves, gown, needle recapping, and HBV vaccination. Results We interviewed 239 subjects. Most of the participants 128 (53% were recruited from general practitioners clinics and 166 (69.5% of them were dispensers. Mean (SD knowledge score was 3.8 (2.3 with median of 4. MBBS prescribers had the highest knowledge score while the housekeepers had the lowest. Mean universal precautions use score was 2.7 ± 2.1. Knowledge about mode of transmission and the work experience alone, significantly predicted universal precaution use in multiple linear regression model (adR2 = 0.093. Conclusion Knowledge about mode of transmission of blood borne pathogens is very low. Use of universal precautions can improve with increase in knowledge.

  13. Reduction of prion infectivity in packed red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Rodrigo; Buytaert-Hoefen, Kimberley A.; Gonzalez-Romero, Dennisse; Castilla, Joaquin; Hansen, Eric T.; Hlavinka, Dennis; Goodrich, Raymond P.; Soto, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The link between a new variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and the consumption of prion contaminated cattle meat as well as recent findings showing that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion have raised public health concerns. Currently, a reliable test to identify prions in blood samples is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to remove scrapie prion protein (PrP Sc ) and infectivity from red blood cell (RBC) suspensions by a simple washing procedure using a cell separation and washing device. The extent of prion removal was assessed by Western blot, PMCA and infectivity bioassays. Our results revealed a substantial removal of infectious prions (≥3 logs of infectivity) by all techniques used. These data suggest that a significant amount of infectivity present in RBC preparations can be removed by a simple washing procedure. This technology may lead to increased safety of blood products and reduce the risk of further propagation of prion diseases.

  14. Viral Infectivity Markers in Donor Blood: A Retrospective Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 12,540 homologous donors seen between 1993 and 1999 at the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (U.M.T.H) blood bank were analysed with respect to the frequency of viral infectivity markers (HBsAg and HIV antibodies) as it relates to donor categories. Fifteen percent and 4.07% of voluntary donors were ...

  15. Viral transfusion transmissible infections amongst blood donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 These safety procedures refer to the small preliminary donation made on site. This is firstly cross-matched for compatibility with the intended recipient, if the donor is suitable the blood sample is then screened for the listed infectious agents. It is only those individuals who are clear of infection and compatible with the.

  16. The homeostasis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob M A Mauritz

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The asexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite responsible for severe malaria, occurs within red blood cells. A merozoite invades a red cell in the circulation, develops and multiplies, and after about 48 hours ruptures the host cell, releasing 15-32 merozoites ready to invade new red blood cells. During this cycle, the parasite increases the host cell permeability so much that when similar permeabilization was simulated on uninfected red cells, lysis occurred before approximately 48 h. So how could infected cells, with a growing parasite inside, prevent lysis before the parasite has completed its developmental cycle? A mathematical model of the homeostasis of infected red cells suggested that it is the wasteful consumption of host cell hemoglobin that prevents early lysis by the progressive reduction in the colloid-osmotic pressure within the host (the colloid-osmotic hypothesis. However, two critical model predictions, that infected cells would swell to near prelytic sphericity and that the hemoglobin concentration would become progressively reduced, remained controversial. In this paper, we are able for the first time to correlate model predictions with recent experimental data in the literature and explore the fine details of the homeostasis of infected red blood cells during five model-defined periods of parasite development. The conclusions suggest that infected red cells do reach proximity to lytic rupture regardless of their actual volume, thus requiring a progressive reduction in their hemoglobin concentration to prevent premature lysis.

  17. Short communication: high prevalence of drug resistance in HIV type 1-infected children born in Honduras and Belize 2001 to 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Leda; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Murillo, Wendy; Naver, Lars; Largaespada, Natalia; Albert, Jan; Karlsson, Annika C

    2011-10-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has had a great impact on the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1. However, development of drug resistance, which could be subsequently transmitted to the child, is a major concern. In Honduras and Belize the prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-1-infected children remains unknown. A total of 95 dried blood spot samples was obtained from HIV-1-infected, untreated children in Honduras and Belize born during 2001 to 2004, when preventive antiretroviral therapy was often suboptimal and consisted of monotherapy with nevirapine or zidovudine. Partial HIV-1 pol gene sequences were successfully obtained from 66 children (Honduras n=55; Belize n=11). Mutations associated with drug resistance were detected in 13% of the Honduran and 27% of the Belizean children. Most of the mutations detected in Honduras (43%) and all mutations detected in Belize were associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, which was expected from the wide use of nevirapine to prevent MTCT during the study period. In addition, although several mothers reported that they had not received antiretroviral therapy, mutations associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors were found in Honduras. This suggests prior and unreported use of these drugs, or that these women had been infected with resistant virus. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, the presence of drug resistance-associated mutations in HIV-1-infected Honduran and Belizean children.

  18. Blood-Borne Candidatus Borrelia algerica in a Patient with Prolonged Fever in Oran, Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Fotso Fotso, Aurélien; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Mouffok, Nadjet; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2015-01-01

    To improve the knowledge base of Borrelia in north Africa, we tested 257 blood samples collected from febrile patients in Oran, Algeria, between January and December 2012 for Borrelia species using flagellin gene polymerase chain reaction sequencing. A sequence indicative of a new Borrelia sp. named Candidatus Borrelia algerica was detected in one blood sample. Further multispacer sequence typing indicated this Borrelia sp. had 97% similarity with Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, and B...

  19. Blood-borne biomarkers and bioindicators for linking exposure to health effects in environmental health science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, M Ariel Geer; Kormos, Tzipporah M; Pleil, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Environmental health science aims to link environmental pollution sources to adverse health outcomes to develop effective exposure intervention strategies that reduce long-term disease risks. Over the past few decades, the public health community recognized that health risk is driven by interaction between the human genome and external environment. Now that the human genetic code has been sequenced, establishing this "G × E" (gene-environment) interaction requires a similar effort to decode the human exposome, which is the accumulation of an individual's environmental exposures and metabolic responses throughout the person's lifetime. The exposome is composed of endogenous and exogenous chemicals, many of which are measurable as biomarkers in blood, breath, and urine. Exposure to pollutants is assessed by analyzing biofluids for the pollutant itself or its metabolic products. New methods are being developed to use a subset of biomarkers, termed bioindicators, to demonstrate biological changes indicative of future adverse health effects. Typically, environmental biomarkers are assessed using noninvasive (excreted) media, such as breath and urine. Blood is often avoided for biomonitoring due to practical reasons such as medical personnel, infectious waste, or clinical setting, despite the fact that blood represents the central compartment that interacts with every living cell and is the most relevant biofluid for certain applications and analyses. The aims of this study were to (1) review the current use of blood samples in environmental health research, (2) briefly contrast blood with other biological media, and (3) propose additional applications for blood analysis in human exposure research.

  20. Infection and injury of human astrocytes by tick-borne encephalitis virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palus, Martin; Bílý, Tomáš; Elsterová, Jana; Langhansová, Helena; Salát, J.; Vancová, Marie; Růžek, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 95, Pt 11 (2014), s. 2411-2426 ISSN 0022-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116; GA ČR GAP302/12/2490; GA TA ČR TE01020118 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis * Tick-borne encephalitis virus * human Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.183, year: 2014

  1. Prevalence, genetic diversity and potential clinical impact of blood-borne and enteric protozoan parasites in native mammals from northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Amanda; Reiss, Andrea; Jackson, Bethany; Warren, Kristin; Paparini, Andrea; Gillespie, Graeme; Stokeld, Danielle; Irwin, Peter; Ryan, Una

    2017-04-30

    A molecular survey was conducted to provide baseline information on the prevalence, genetic diversity and potential clinical impacts of blood-borne and enteric protozoans in native wild mammals from the Northern Territory (NT). A total of 209 blood and 167 faecal samples were collected from four target species; the northern brown bandicoot (Isoodon macrourus), common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), northern quoll (Dasyurus hallucatus) and brush-tailed rabbit-rat (Conilurus penicillatus). Blood samples were screened by PCR at the 18S rRNA gene for trypanosomes, piroplasms and haemogregarines, with faecal samples tested for Cryptosporidium spp. at the 18S rRNA locus, and for Giardia spp. at the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) and 18S rRNA loci. The potential clinical impact was investigated by associating clinical, haematological and biochemical parameters with presence or absence of infection. Overall, 22.5% (95% CI: 17.0-28.8%) of the animals tested were positive for haemoprotozoans. Trypanosomes were found in 26.6% (95% CI: 18.7-35.7%) of the bandicoots and were identified as Trypanosoma vegrandis G6, except for one unique genotype, most similar to T. vegrandis G3 (genetic distance=7%). The prevalence of trypanosomes in possums was 23.7% (95% CI: 11.4-40.2%), and the genotypes identified clustered within the T. noyesi clade. The presence of Babesia sp. and Hepatozoon sp. was confirmed in bandicoots only, both at a prevalence of 9.7% (95% CI: 2.7-9.2%). The total prevalence of intestinal protozoan parasites observed was relatively low (3%; 95% CI: 1.0-6.9%). No evidence of clinical disease associated with protozoan parasitic infection was observed, however bandicoots positive for Trypanosoma exhibited a significantly lower packed cell volume (PCV) compared to negative bandicoots (p=0.046). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first research conducted in the NT to characterise protozoan parasites in threatened native mammals using both molecular and

  2. Survey of canine tick-borne diseases in Lábrea, Brazilian Amazon: ‘accidental’ findings of Dirofilaria immitis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Sousa Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 99 domestic dogs from the urban and rural areas of the Lábrea municipality, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Canine serum samples were tested by immunofluorescence assay against Rickettsia spp., which revealed that only 3.0% (1/33 and 7.6% (5/66 of the dogs from urban and rural areas, respectively, reacted positively to at least one Rickettsia species. DNA was extracted from canine blood and tested by a battery of PCR assays targeting protozoa of the genera Babesia and Hepatozoon, and bacteria of the genera Rickettsia and Ehrlichia and family Anaplasmataceae. All samples were negative in the PCR assays targeting the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia. For Anaplasmataceae, 3% (1/33 and 39.4% (26/66 of the urban and rural dogs, respectively, yielded amplicons that generated DNA sequences 100% identical to the corresponding sequence of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Dirofilaria immitis. Because of these results, all canine DNA samples were further tested in a PCR assay targeting filarial nematodes, which was positive for 18.2% (6/33 and 57.6% (38/66 urban and rural dogs, respectively. Filarial-PCR products generated DNA sequences 100% identical to D. immitis. While tick-borne infections were rare in Lábrea, D. immitis infection rates were among the highest reported in South America.

  3. Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Taiwan: Comparison between women born in Taiwan and other southeast countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yu-Jie

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taiwan's national vaccination program has successfully decreased the prevalence of hepatitis B infection after twenty years of implementation and might be indirectly beneficial to the second generation. In this study, we compared the hepatitis B infection status of two groups: pregnant Taiwanese women and other Southeast Asian women, who because they had immigrated later in life to Taiwan by marriage to a Taiwanese man, had not been exposed to that vaccination program to evaluate the effect of hepatitis vaccination program on women of child-bearing age and further explored the potential impact of immigration on the hepatitis B public health policy in Taiwan. Methods Data was collected from 10,327 women born in Taiwan and 1,418 women born in other Southeast Asian countries, both groups receiving prenatal examinations at Fooyin University Hospital between 1996 and 2005. The results of serum hepatitis B s-Antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B e-Antigen (HBeAg tests and other demographic data were obtained by medical chart review. Results The pregnant women from Taiwan had a higher HBsAg positive rate (15.5% but lower HBeAg(+/HBsAg(+ ratio (32.1% than the women from other countries (8.9% and 52.4%. For those born before July, 1984, the period of no national vaccination program, Taiwanese women had a higher HBsAg positive rate than other Southeast Asian women (15.7% vs. 8.4%, but for women born after that day and before June 1986, the period of vaccination for high risk newborns, the HBsAg positive rates found to be slightly lower for Taiwanese women than for other Southeast Asian women (11.4% vs. 12.3% and the difference was more significant (3.1% vs. 28.6% after June 1986, the period of vaccination for all newborns. While the HBeAg(+/HBsAg(+ ratios decreased with age in both groups, they were consistently higher in women from other Southeast Asian countries than in women born in Taiwan after age 20. Conclusion In Taiwan, the neonatal

  4. Alteration of blood-brain barrier integrity by retroviral infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe V Afonso

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The blood-brain barrier (BBB, which forms the interface between the blood and the cerebral parenchyma, has been shown to be disrupted during retroviral-associated neuromyelopathies. Human T Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disease associated with BBB breakdown. The BBB is composed of three cell types: endothelial cells, pericytes and astrocytes. Although astrocytes have been shown to be infected by HTLV-1, until now, little was known about the susceptibility of BBB endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection and the impact of such an infection on BBB function. We first demonstrated that human cerebral endothelial cells express the receptors for HTLV-1 (GLUT-1, Neuropilin-1 and heparan sulfate proteoglycans, both in vitro, in a human cerebral endothelial cell line, and ex vivo, on spinal cord autopsy sections from HAM/TSP and non-infected control cases. In situ hybridization revealed HTLV-1 transcripts associated with the vasculature in HAM/TSP. We were able to confirm that the endothelial cells could be productively infected in vitro by HTLV-1 and that blocking of either HSPGs, Neuropilin 1 or Glut1 inhibits this process. The expression of the tight-junction proteins within the HTLV-1 infected endothelial cells was altered. These cells were no longer able to form a functional barrier, since BBB permeability and lymphocyte passage through the monolayer of endothelial cells were increased. This work constitutes the first report of susceptibility of human cerebral endothelial cells to HTLV-1 infection, with implications for HTLV-1 passage through the BBB and subsequent deregulation of the central nervous system homeostasis. We propose that the susceptibility of cerebral endothelial cells to retroviral infection and subsequent BBB dysfunction is an important aspect of HAM/TSP pathogenesis and should be considered in the design of future therapeutics strategies.

  5. Blood-borne parasites in the Black Vulture Coragyps atratus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    Biodiversity, USA marianlwahl@gmail.com. Abstract. Blood parasites of 17 Black Vultures (Coragyps atratus) were surveyed. The birds were captured from two sites- a garbage dump in Miramar, Puntarenas and a beach in Cuajiniquil, Guanacaste, ... Mosquitoes are the primary vectors. (Atkinson et al. 1991, Ritchie et al.

  6. Removal of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells from whole blood by leukoreduction filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardo, Lisa J; Salata, Jeanne; Wilder, Donna

    2009-02-01

    There has been an unexplained decrease in the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria in recent years. The decrease in incidence has paralleled the increasing use of leukoreduction filters. Malaria-infected red blood cells (RBCs) share surface characteristics of hemoglobin S-containing cells. Because units collected from donors with sickle trait do not filter optimally due to adherence of RBCs to the filters, the possibility that malaria-infected RBCs may also adhere to filters was investigated. Malaria-infected whole blood or calcium ionophore (A25187)-treated and control RBCs were filtered with leukoreduction filters. Quantitation of malaria-infected RBCs before and after filtration was performed by flow cytometry to determine the presence of DNA within RBCs, indicating malaria infection. Annexin V binding was also determined before and after filtration of RBCs treated with A25187. Immediately after filtration, filters were fixed and examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. There were at least three configurations of adherence of malaria-infected RBCs demonstrated within the filters. The first was direct adherence of infected RBCs to filter fibers; the second involved adherence of malaria-infected RBCs to platelets, which were adherent to filter fibers; and the third was adherence of infected RBCs to other RBCs. Filtration also resulted in preferential removal of phosphatidylserine (PS)-expressing cells as seen by the reduction of annexin V binding after filtration. This was further confirmed by electron micrographic examination of the filters in which untreated RBCs sit within the filter resting on top of filter fibers; however, calcium ionophore-treated RBCs are seen to cling tightly to the fibers. PS expression by RBCs leads to their adherence within leukoreduction filters. Malaria-infected RBCs are retained via more than one mechanism. The efficiency of removal requires further study.

  7. Blood-Borne Candidatus Borrelia algerica in a Patient with Prolonged Fever in Oran, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso Fotso, Aurélien; Angelakis, Emmanouil; Mouffok, Nadjet; Drancourt, Michel; Raoult, Didier

    2015-11-01

    To improve the knowledge base of Borrelia in north Africa, we tested 257 blood samples collected from febrile patients in Oran, Algeria, between January and December 2012 for Borrelia species using flagellin gene polymerase chain reaction sequencing. A sequence indicative of a new Borrelia sp. named Candidatus Borrelia algerica was detected in one blood sample. Further multispacer sequence typing indicated this Borrelia sp. had 97% similarity with Borrelia crocidurae, Borrelia duttonii, and Borrelia recurrentis. In silico comparison of Candidatus B. algerica spacer sequences with those of Borrelia hispanica and Borrelia garinii revealed 94% and 89% similarity, respectively. Candidatus B. algerica is a new relapsing fever Borrelia sp. detected in Oran. Further studies may help predict its epidemiological importance. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Prevalence, clinical staging and risk for blood-borne transmission of Chagas disease among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Yves; Gétaz, Laurent; Wolff, Hans; Holst, Marylise; Mauris, Anne; Tardin, Aglaé; Sztajzel, Juan; Besse, Valérie; Loutan, Louis; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Jannin, Jean; Albajar Vinas, Pedro; Luquetti, Alejandro; Chappuis, François

    2010-02-02

    Migration of Latin Americans to the USA, Canada and Europe has modified Chagas disease distribution, but data on imported cases and on risks of local transmission remain scarce. We assessed the prevalence and risk factors for Chagas disease, staged the disease and evaluated attitudes towards blood transfusion and organ transplant among Latin American migrants in Geneva, Switzerland. This cross-sectional study included all consecutive Latin American migrants seeking medical care at a primary care facility or attending two Latino churches. After completing a questionnaire, they were screened for Chagas disease with two serological tests (Biomérieux ELISA cruzi; Biokit Bioelisa Chagas). Infected subjects underwent a complete medical work-up. Predictive factors for infection were assessed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.1012 persons (females: 83%; mean age: 37.2 [SD 11.3] years, Bolivians: 48% [n = 485]) were recruited. 96% had no residency permit. Chagas disease was diagnosed with two positive serological tests in 130 patients (12.8%; 95%CI 10.8%-14.9%), including 127 Bolivians (26.2%; 95%CI 22.3%-30.1%). All patients were in the chronic phase, including 11.3% with cardiac and 0.8% with digestive complications. Predictive factors for infection were Bolivian origin (OR 33.2; 95%CI 7.5-147.5), reported maternal infection with T. cruzi (OR 6.9; 95%CI 1.9-24.3), and age older than 35 years (OR 6.7; 95%CI 2.4-18.8). While 22 (16.9%) infected subjects had already donated blood, 24 (18.5%) and 34 (26.2%) considered donating blood and organs outside Latin America, respectively. Chagas disease is highly prevalent among Bolivian migrants in Switzerland. Chronic cardiac and digestive complications were substantial. Screening of individuals at risk should be implemented in nonendemic countries and must include undocumented migrants.

  9. Thermographic visualization of leaf response in cucumber plants infected with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Ling, Ning; Dong, Xian; Zhu, Yiyong; Shen, Qirong; Guo, Shiwei

    2012-12-01

    Infection with the soil-borne pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC), which causes Fusarium wilt of cucumber plants, might result in changes in plant transpiration and water status within leaves. To monitor leaf response in cucumber infected with FOC, digital infrared thermography (DIT) was employed to detect changes in leaf temperature. During the early stages of FOC infection, stomata closure was induced by ABA in leaves, resulting in a decreased transpiration rate and increased leaf temperature. Subsequently, cell death occurred, accompanied by water loss, resulting in a little decrease in leaf temperature. A negative correlation between transpiration rate and leaf temperature was existed. But leaf temperature exhibited a special pattern with different disease severity on light-dark cycle. Lightly wilted leaves had a higher temperature in light and a lower temperature in dark than did in healthy leaves. We identified that the water loss from wilted leaves was regulated not by stomata but rather by cells damage caused by pathogen infection. Finally, water balance in infected plants became disordered and dead tissue was dehydrated, so leaf temperature increased again. These data suggest that membrane injury caused by FOC infection induces uncontrolled water loss from damaged cells and an imbalance in leaf water status, and ultimately accelerate plant wilting. Combining detection of the temperature response of leaves to light-dark conditions, DIT not only permits noninvasive detection and indirect visualization of the development of the soil-borne disease Fusarium wilt, but also demonstrates certain internal metabolic processes correlative with water status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Occult hepatitis B virus infection in anti-HBs-positive infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haixia Su

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of occult HBV infection (OBI among children and to characterize virology of occult HBV, we conducted an epidemiological survey. METHODS: 186 HB-vaccinated infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers were included in the study. Serological tests for HBV markers were performed using commercial ELISA kits. Real-time quantitative PCR and nested PCR were used to detect HBV DNA. PCR products of the C and pre-S/S regions were sequenced and analyzed. RESULTS: 1.61% (3/186 infants were HBsAg positive, and 4.92% (9/183 infants were considered as occult infection. The viral load of mothers was associated with occult infection (P = 0.020. Incomplete three-dose injections of HB vaccine was associated with HBV infection (P = 0.022. Six OBI infants were positive for anti-HBs, but their titers were not greater than 100 mIU/mL. Seven isolated HBV pre-S/S sequences were obtained from nine OBI infants. Three of the sequences were genotype C, and four of the sequences were genotype C/D. Escape mutation S143L was found in the four sequences of genotype C/D. All seven sequences lacked G145R and other escape mutation in S region. CONCLUSIONS: Occult HBV infection was detected in anti-HBs positive infants born to HBsAg-positive mothers in China. Occult infection was associated with absent anti-HBs or with low anti-HBs level, high maternal viral loads and escape mutations in the S gene.

  11. Early weaning increases diarrhea morbidity and mortality among uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Ashraf; Arpadi, Stephen; Kankasa, Chipepo; Sinkala, Moses; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Kuhn, Louise

    2011-05-01

    Early weaning may reduce human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission but may have deleterious consequences for uninfected children. Here we evaluate effects of early weaning on diarrhea morbidity and mortality of uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers. HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomly assigned to breastfeeding for 4 months only or to continue breastfeeding until the mother decided to stop. Replacement and complementary foods were provided and all women were counseled around feeding and hygiene. Diarrhea morbidity and mortality were assessed in 618 HIV-uninfected singletons alive and still breastfeeding at 4 months. Intent-to-treat analyses and comparisons based on actual feeding practices were conducted using regression methods. Between 4 and 6 months, diarrheal episodes were 1.8-fold (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-2.4) higher in the short compared with long breastfeeding group. Associations were stronger based on actual feeding practices and persisted after adjustment for confounding. At older ages, only more severe outcomes, including diarrhea-related hospitalization or death (relative hazard [RH], 3.2, 95% CI, 2.1-5.1 increase 4-24 months), were increased among weaned children. Continued breastfeeding is associated with reduced risk of diarrhea-related morbidity and mortality among uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers in this low-resource setting despite provision of replacement and complementary food and counseling. NCT00310726.

  12. Growth of infants born to HIV-infected women when fed a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Beckh-Arnold E and Cooper PA. Department of ... Correspondence to: Prof P Cooper, e-mail: peter.cooper@wits.ac.za. Growth of infants born to .... Those who tested positive received full post-test counselling, which included discussion of ...

  13. Ixodes ricinus tick saliva modulates tick-borne encephalitis virus infection of dendritic cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fialová, Anna; Cimburek, Zdeněk; Iezzi, G.; Kopecký, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 7 (2010), s. 580-585 ISSN 1286-4579 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600960811 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Tick-borne encephalitis virus * Dendritic cell * Tick saliva * Ixodes ricinus Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2010

  14. Exploring of primate models of tick-borne flaviviruses infection for evaluation of vaccines and drugs efficacy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia S Pripuzova

    Full Text Available Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV is one of the most prevalent and medically important tick-borne arboviruses in Eurasia. There are overlapping foci of two flaviviruses: TBEV and Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV in Russia. Inactivated vaccines exist only against TBE. There are no antiviral drugs for treatment of both diseases. Optimal animal models are necessary to study efficacy of novel vaccines and treatment preparations against TBE and relative flaviviruses. The models for TBE and OHF using subcutaneous inoculation were tested in Cercopithecus aethiops and Macaca fascicularis monkeys with or without prior immunization with inactivated TBE vaccine. No visible clinical signs or severe pathomorphological lesions were observed in any monkey infected with TBEV or OHFV. C. aethiops challenged with OHFV showed massive hemolytic syndrome and thrombocytopenia. Infectious virus or viral RNA was revealed in visceral organs and CNS of C. aethiops infected with both viruses; however, viremia was low. Inactivated TBE vaccines induced high antibody titers against both viruses and expressed booster after challenge. The protective efficacy against TBE was shown by the absence of virus in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS of immunized animals after challenge. Despite the absence of expressed hemolytic syndrome in immunized C. aethiops TBE vaccine did not prevent the reproduction of OHFV in CNS and visceral organs. Subcutaneous inoculation of M. fascicularis with two TBEV strains led to a febrile disease with well expressed viremia, fever, and virus reproduction in spleen, lymph nodes and CNS. The optimal terms for estimation of the viral titers in CNS were defined as 8-16 days post infection. We characterized two animal models similar to humans in their susceptibility to tick-borne flaviviruses and found the most optimal scheme for evaluation of efficacy of preventive and therapeutic preparations. We also identified M. fascicularis to be more susceptible to

  15. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils from Nepeta cataria L. against Common Causes of Food-Borne Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Shariati, Samaneh; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Khashei, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nepeta cataria L. is traditionally consumed as a food additive. The effects of three different harvest stages of N. cataria essential oils (EOs) against most common causes of food-borne infections were evaluated by broth microdilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The chemical composition of the EOs from N. cataria has been analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The analysis of the EOs indicated that 4a- α ,7- α ,7a- β -nep...

  16. A three-dimensional comparison of tick-borne flavivirus infection in mammalian and tick cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle K Offerdahl

    Full Text Available Tick-borne flaviviruses (TBFV are sustained in nature through cycling between mammalian and tick hosts. In this study, we used African green monkey kidney cells (Vero and Ixodes scapularis tick cells (ISE6 to compare virus-induced changes in mammalian and arthropod cells. Using confocal microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and electron tomography (ET, we examined viral protein distribution and the ultrastructural changes that occur during TBFV infection. Within host cells, flaviviruses cause complex rearrangement of cellular membranes for the purpose of virus replication. Virus infection was accompanied by a marked expansion in endoplasmic reticulum (ER staining and markers for TBFV replication were localized mainly to the ER in both cell lines. TEM of Vero cells showed membrane-bound vesicles enclosed in a network of dilated, anastomosing ER cisternae. Virions were seen within the ER and were sometimes in paracrystalline arrays. Tubular structures or elongated vesicles were occasionally noted. In acutely and persistently infected ISE6 cells, membrane proliferation and vesicles were also noted; however, the extent of membrane expansion and the abundance of vesicles were lower and no viral particles were observed. Tubular profiles were far more prevalent in persistently infected ISE6 cells than in acutely infected cells. By ET, tubular profiles, in persistently infected tick cells, had a cross-sectional diameter of 60-100 nm, reached up to 800 nm in length, were closed at the ends, and were often arranged in fascicle-like bundles, shrouded with ER membrane. Our experiments provide analysis of viral protein localization within the context of both mammalian and arthropod cell lines as well as both acute and persistent arthropod cell infection. Additionally, we show for the first time 3D flavivirus infection in a vector cell line and the first ET of persistent flavivirus infection.

  17. Subfornical Organ Mediates Sympathetic and Hemodynamic Responses to Blood-borne Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Beltz, Terry G.; Yu, Yang; Johnson, Alan Kim; Felder, Robert B.

    2013-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines play an important role in regulating autonomic and cardiovascular function in hypertension and heart failure. Peripherally administered pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) act upon the brain to increase blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR) and sympathetic nerve activity. These molecules are too large to penetrate blood brain barrier (BBB), and so the mechanisms by which they elicit these responses remain unknown. We tested the hypothesis that the subfornical organ (SFO), a forebrain circumventricular organ that lacks a BBB, plays a major role in mediating the sympathetic and hemodynamic responses to circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Intracarotid artery (ICA) injection of TNF-α (200 ng) or IL-1β (200 ng) dramatically increased mean BP (MBP), HR and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in rats with sham lesions of the SFO (SFO-s). These excitatory responses to ICA TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly attenuated in SFO-lesioned (SFO-x) rats. Similarly, the increases in MBP, HR and RSNA in response to intravenous (IV) injections of TNF-α (500 ng) or IL-1β (500 ng) in SFO-s rats were significantly reduced in the SFO-x rats. Immunofluorescent staining revealed a dense distribution of the p55 TNF-α receptor and the IL-1 receptor accessory protein, a subunit of the IL-1 receptor, in the SFO. These data suggest that SFO is a predominant site in the brain at which circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines act to elicit cardiovascular and sympathetic responses. PMID:23670302

  18. Enhanced Detection of Cancer Biomarkers in Blood-Borne Extracellular Vesicles Using Nanodroplets and Focused Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paproski, Robert J; Jovel, Juan; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Lewis, John D; Zemp, Roger J

    2017-01-01

    The feasibility of personalized medicine approaches will be greatly improved by the development of noninvasive methods to interrogate tumor biology. Extracellular vesicles shed by solid tumors into the bloodstream have been under recent investigation as a source of tumor-derived biomarkers such as proteins and nucleic acids. We report here an approach using submicrometer perfluorobutane nanodroplets and focused ultrasound to enhance the release of extracellular vesicles from specific locations in tumors into the blood. The released extracellular vesicles were enumerated and characterized using micro flow cytometry. Only in the presence of nanodroplets could ultrasound release appreciable levels of tumor-derived vesicles into the blood. Sonication of HT1080-GFP tumors did not increase the number of circulating tumor cells or the metastatic burden in the tumor-bearing embryos. A variety of biological molecules were successfully detected in tumor-derived extracellular vesicles, including cancer-associated proteins, mRNAs, and miRNAs. Sonication of xenograft HT1080 fibrosarcoma tumors released extracellular vesicles that contained detectable RAC1 mRNA with the highly tumorigenic N92I mutation known to exist in HT1080 cells. Deep sequencing serum samples of embryos with sonicated tumors allowed the identification of an additional 13 known heterozygous mutations in HT1080 cells. Applying ultrasound to HT1080 tumors increased tumor-derived DNA in the serum by two orders of magnitude. This work is the first demonstration of enhanced extracellular vesicle release by ultrasound stimulation and suggests that nanodroplets/ultrasound offers promise for genetic profiling of tumor phenotype and aggressiveness by stimulating the release of extracellular vesicles. Cancer Res; 77(1); 3-13. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Blood parasites infections in domiciled dogs in an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Daniel Sant’Anna Leal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Leal P.D.S., Moraes M.I.M.R., Barbosa L.L. deO. & Lopes C.W.G. [Blood parasites infections in domiciled dogs in an animal health service in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.] Infecção por hematozoários nos cães domésticos atendidos em serviço de saúde animal, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(Supl.1:55-62, 2015. Curso de Pós-Graduação de Ciências Veterinárias, Anexo 1, Instituto de Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR 465 Km 7, Campus Seropédica, BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-970, Brasil. E-mail: pauloleal@ctiveterinario.com.br The vector-borne diseases in dogs are caused by pathogens with different biological behaviors that result in different clinical and laboratory findings presentations. The diagnosis of these diseases is a challenge for veterinarians and those caused by obligate intracellular blood parasites of blood cells constitute vogeli of Babesia canis, Anaplasma platys, Erhlichia canis and Mycoplasma canis. This paper looks at the frequency of these parasites in 204 laboratory results dogs treated at the Intensive Care Unit and Emergency Veterinary through CBC and research of blood parasites in blood estiraço and concentrate platelets and leukocytes. There was one or more species of haemoparasites in 132 dogs (64.7% through blood samples. They were observed: 7 (5.3% dogs for B. c. vogeli, 64 (48.5% for A. platys, 16 (12.2% for M. canis, A. platys and E. canis in one (0.7%, A. platys and M. canis in 36 dogs (27.3%, M. canis and B. c. vogeli five (3.8%, M. canis and E. canis one (0.7%, A. platys, B. c. vogeli and M. canis in two (1.50%, confirming thus the high frequency of blood parasites in pet dogs in an urban environment, treated in the routine, the importance of viewing parasitic inclusions in leukocytes, platelets and red blood cells, It thus demonstrating the need for greater attention to the diagnosis of multiple infections by different parasitic

  20. Potential impact of climate change on emerging vector-borne and other infections in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baylis, Matthew

    2017-12-05

    Climate is one of several causes of disease emergence. Although half or more of infectious diseases are affected by climate it appears to be a relatively infrequent cause of human disease emergence. Climate mostly affects diseases caused by pathogens that spend part of their lifecycle outside of the host, exposed to the environment. The most important routes of transmission of climate sensitive diseases are by arthropod (insect and tick) vectors, in water and in food. Given the sensitivity of many diseases to climate, it is very likely that at least some will respond to future climate change. In the case of vector-borne diseases this response will include spread to new areas. Several vector-borne diseases have emerged in Europe in recent years; these include vivax malaria, West Nile fever, dengue fever, Chikungunya fever, leishmaniasis, Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis. The vectors of these diseases are mosquitoes, sand flies and ticks. The UK has endemic mosquito species capable of transmitting malaria and probably other pathogens, and ticks that transmit Lyme disease. The UK is also threatened by invasive mosquito species known to be able to transmit West Nile, dengue, chikungunya and Zika, and sand flies that spread leishmaniasis. Warmer temperatures in the future will increase the suitability of the UK's climate for these invasive species, and increase the risk that they may spread disease. While much attention is on invasive species, it is important to recognize the threat presented by native species too. Proposed actions to reduce the future impact of emerging vector-borne diseases in the UK include insect control activity at points of entry of vehicles and certain goods, wider surveillance for mosquitoes and sand flies, research into the threat posed by native species, increased awareness of the medical profession of the threat posed by specific diseases, regular risk assessments, and increased preparedness for the occurrence of a disease emergency.

  1. Morphological changes in human neural cells followign tick-borne encephalitis infection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Vancová, Marie; Tesařová, Martina; Ahantarig, A.; Kopecký, Jan; Grubhoffer, Libor

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 7 (2009), s. 1649-1658 ISSN 0022-1317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/08/1509; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis virus * human neural cells * central nervous system Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.260, year: 2009

  2. Reduction of Leishmania donovani infectivity in whole blood using riboflavin and ultraviolet light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonnetti, Laura; Thorp, Aaron M; Reddy, Heather L; Keil, Shawn D; Doane, Suzann K; Goodrich, Raymond P; Leiby, David A

    2015-02-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp. that is transmitted by sandflies. Travelers to endemic areas, and US military personnel stationed in the Middle East, are at risk for contracting the disease. Whole blood (WB) units were spiked with human monocytes infected with L. donovani amastigotes to a final concentration of approximately 10(5) infected cells/mL. After riboflavin (RB) addition, units were exposed to 80 J/mLRBCs ultraviolet (UV) light. One pretreatment (collected after RB addition) and one posttreatment sample were collected, serially diluted in culture medium, and incubated at 22°C for up to 5 weeks. Parasite viability was determined by microscopic observation for replicating promastigote forms. Mirasol treatment of 3 units of L. donovani-infected WB with RB and UV light resulted in a parasite reduction of 2.3 ± 0.12 log. Partial reduction of L. donovani can be achieved in WB using RB and UV light. This technology may be useful when potential donors are exposed to Leishmania sp. during residence, travel, or military deployment to an endemic area. © 2014 AABB.

  3. Latent tuberculosis infection in foreign-born communities: Import vs. transmission in The Netherlands derived through mathematical modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloet, Serieke; Cobelens, Frank; Bootsma, Martin

    2018-01-01

    While tuberculosis (TB) represents a significant disease burden worldwide, low-incidence countries strive to reach the WHO target of pre-elimination by 2035. Screening for TB in immigrants is an important component of the strategy to reduce the TB burden in low-incidence settings. An important option is the screening and preventive treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI). Whether this policy is worthwhile depends on the extent of transmission within the country, and introduction of new cases through import. Mathematical transmission models of TB have been used to identify key parameters in the epidemiology of TB and estimate transmission rates. An important application has also been to investigate the consequences of policy scenarios. Here, we formulate a mathematical model for TB transmission within the Netherlands to estimate the size of the pool of latent infections, and to determine the share of importation–either through immigration or travel- versus transmission within the Netherlands. We take into account importation of infections due to immigration, and travel to the country of origin, focusing on the three ethnicities most represented among foreign-born TB cases (after exclusion of those overrepresented among asylum seekers): Moroccans, Turkish and Indonesians. We fit a system of ordinary differential equations to the data from the Netherlands Tuberculosis Registry on (extra-)pulmonary TB cases from 1995–2013. We estimate that about 27% of Moroccans, 25% of Indonesians, and 16% of Turkish, are latently infected. Furthermore, we find that for all three foreign-born communities, immigration is the most important source of LTBI, but the extent of within-country transmission is much lower (about half) for the Turkish and Indonesian communities than for the Moroccan. This would imply that contact investigation would have a greater yield in the latter community than in the former. Travel remains a minor factor contributing LTBI, suggesting that targeting

  4. Latent tuberculosis infection in foreign-born communities: Import vs. transmission in The Netherlands derived through mathematical modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester Korthals Altes

    Full Text Available While tuberculosis (TB represents a significant disease burden worldwide, low-incidence countries strive to reach the WHO target of pre-elimination by 2035. Screening for TB in immigrants is an important component of the strategy to reduce the TB burden in low-incidence settings. An important option is the screening and preventive treatment of latent TB infection (LTBI. Whether this policy is worthwhile depends on the extent of transmission within the country, and introduction of new cases through import. Mathematical transmission models of TB have been used to identify key parameters in the epidemiology of TB and estimate transmission rates. An important application has also been to investigate the consequences of policy scenarios. Here, we formulate a mathematical model for TB transmission within the Netherlands to estimate the size of the pool of latent infections, and to determine the share of importation-either through immigration or travel- versus transmission within the Netherlands. We take into account importation of infections due to immigration, and travel to the country of origin, focusing on the three ethnicities most represented among foreign-born TB cases (after exclusion of those overrepresented among asylum seekers: Moroccans, Turkish and Indonesians. We fit a system of ordinary differential equations to the data from the Netherlands Tuberculosis Registry on (extra-pulmonary TB cases from 1995-2013. We estimate that about 27% of Moroccans, 25% of Indonesians, and 16% of Turkish, are latently infected. Furthermore, we find that for all three foreign-born communities, immigration is the most important source of LTBI, but the extent of within-country transmission is much lower (about half for the Turkish and Indonesian communities than for the Moroccan. This would imply that contact investigation would have a greater yield in the latter community than in the former. Travel remains a minor factor contributing LTBI, suggesting that

  5. Elevations of inflammatory proteins in neonatal blood are associated with obesity and overweight among 2-year-old children born extremely premature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perrin, Eliana M; O'Shea, T Michael; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Bose, Carl; Allred, Elizabeth N; Fichorova, Raina N; van der Burg, Jelske W; Leviton, Alan

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is associated with elevated blood concentrations of inflammation markers. It is not known to what extent inflammation precedes the development of obesity. METHODS: In a cohort of 882 infants born before 28 weeks of gestation, we examined relationships between

  6. Rickettsial Infections among Ctenocephalides felis and Host Animals during a Flea-Borne Rickettsioses Outbreak in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Carrie; Krueger, Laura; Macaluso, Kevin R.; Odhiambo, Antony; Nguyen, Kiet; Farris, Christina M.; Luce-Fedrow, Alison; Bennett, Stephen; Jiang, Ju; Sun, Sokanary; Cummings, Robert F.; Richards, Allen L.

    2016-01-01

    Due to a resurgence of flea-borne rickettsioses in Orange County, California, we investigated the etiologies of rickettsial infections of Ctenocephalides felis, the predominant fleas species obtained from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and domestic cats (Felis catus), collected from case exposure sites and other areas in Orange County. In addition, we assessed the prevalence of IgG antibodies against spotted fever group (SFGR) and typhus group (TGR) rickettsiae in opossum sera. Of the 597 flea specimens collected from opossums and cats, 37.2% tested positive for Rickettsia. PCR and sequencing of rickettsial genes obtained from C. felis flea DNA preparations revealed the presence of R. typhi (1.3%), R. felis (28.0%) and R. felis-like organisms (7.5%). Sera from opossums contained TGR-specific (40.84%), but not SFGR-specific antibodies. The detection of R. felis and R. typhi in the C. felis fleas in Orange County highlights the potential risk for human infection with either of these pathogens, and underscores the need for further investigations incorporating specimens from humans, animal hosts, and invertebrate vectors in endemic areas. Such studies will be essential for establishing a link in the ongoing flea-borne rickettsioses outbreaks. PMID:27537367

  7. Laboratory diagnosis of infections due to blood and tissue parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Jon E

    2009-10-01

    Microscopy remains the cornerstone of the laboratory diagnosis of infections due to blood and tissue parasites. Examination of thick and thin peripheral blood smears stained with Giemsa or other appropriate stains is used for detection and identification of species of Plasmodium, Babesia, Trypanosoma, Brugia, Mansonella, and Wuchereria. Even in the hands of well-trained technologists, diagnosis may be hampered by the sparseness of organisms on the slide and by the subjective nature of differentiating similar-appearing organisms. Microscopy and/or culture of ulcer, bone marrow, tissue aspirate, and biopsy samples are useful for the diagnosis of African trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, trichinosis, and leishmaniasis. Serologic assays are available for the diagnosis of a number of these infections, but none of these assays are sensitive or specific enough to be used on their own to establish a diagnosis. In particular, the use of assays for the diagnosis of infection with a particular helminth will often cross-react with antibodies to a different helminth. Very sensitive polymerase chain reaction assays have been developed for a number of these parasites and are available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and from several referral laboratories.

  8. HIV-1 isolation from infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dispinseri, Stefania; Saba, Elisa; Vicenzi, Elisa; Kootstra, Neeltje A; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) allows retrieval of replication-competent viral variants. In order to impose the smallest possible selective pressure on the viral isolates, isolation must be carried out in primary cultures of cells and not in tumor derived cell lines. The procedure involves culture of PBMCs from an infected patient with phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC from seronegative donors, which provide susceptible target cells for HIV replication. HIV can be isolated from the bulk population of PBMCs or after cloning of the cells to obtain viral biological clones. Viral production is determined with p24 antigen (Ag) detection assays or with reverse transcriptase (RT) activity assay. Once isolated, HIV-1 can be propagated by infecting PHA-stimulated PBMCs from healthy donors. Aliquots from culture with a high production of virus are stored for later use.

  9. Water-borne Infections, Weather Variability and Climate Change in Eastern Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirrell, A.; Naumova, E. N.; Liss, A.

    2012-12-01

    For this project, a time-series analysis of existing data will be used to assess temporal and spatial associations between long-term, seasonal and short-term weather variability and water-borne infectious diseases in several Siberian municipalities. Building on these associations, we will generate estimates of future changes in infectious disease patterns based upon existing forecasts of climate change and likely increases in extreme weather events in Eastern Russia. Finally, we will contemplate the public health implications of these findings, and offer appropriate policy recommendations.

  10. Microcephaly Prevalence in Infants Born to Zika Virus-Infected Women: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus is an emergent flavivirus transmitted by Aedes genus mosquitoes that recently reached the Americas and was soon implicated in an increase of microcephaly incidence. The objective of the present study is to systematically review the published data and perform a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of microcephaly in babies born to Zika virus-infected women during pregnancy. We searched PubMed and Cochrane databases, included cohort studies, and excluded case reports and case series publications. We extracted sample sizes and the number of microcephaly cases from eight studies, which permitted a calculation of prevalence rates that are pooled in a random-effects model meta-analysis. We estimated the prevalence of microcephaly of 2.3% (95% CI = 1.0–5.3%) among all pregnancies. Limitations include mixed samples of women infected at different pregnancy times, since it is known that infection at the first trimester is associated with higher risk to congenital anomalies. The estimates are deceptively low, given the devastating impact the infection causes over children and their families. We hope our study contributes to public health knowledge to fight Zika virus epidemics to protect mothers and their newborns. PMID:28783051

  11. Survey of Blood Collection Centers and Implementation of Guidance for Prevention of Transfusion-Transmitted Zika Virus Infection--Puerto Rico, 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Amber M; Sapiano, Mathew R P; Basavaraju, Sridhar V; Kuehnert, Matthew J; Rivera-Garcia, Brenda

    2016-04-15

    Since November 2015, Puerto Rico has reported active mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus. Because of the potential for Zika virus to be transmitted through transfusion of blood components, and because a high percentage of persons infected with Zika virus are asymptomatic, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommended that blood collections cease in areas of the United States affected by active vector-borne transmission of Zika virus until laboratory screening of blood donations or pathogen reduction technology (PRT) for treatment of blood components can be implemented. To inform efforts to maintain the safety and availability of the blood supply in Puerto Rico, CDC, in collaboration with the Puerto Rico Department of Health, conducted a rapid assessment of blood collection and use on the island. A total of 139,369 allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) units, 45,243 platelet units, and 56,466 plasma units were collected in or imported to Puerto Rico during 2015, and 135,966 allogeneic RBC units, 13,526 therapeutic platelet units, and 25,775 plasma units were transfused. Because of the potential for local Zika virus transmission in areas with a competent mosquito vector, other areas of the United States should develop plans to ensure local blood safety and adequacy. Blood collection organizations and public health agencies should collaborate to maintain the safety and availability of local blood supplies in accordance with FDA guidance.

  12. The frequency of blood-born viral infections in a population of multitransfused Brazilian patients Freqüência de infecções virais transmitidas por transfusões em uma população de pacientes brasileiros multitransfundidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas T. Covas

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of viral markers for hepatitis B (HBV and C (HCV, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 and human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1 was evaluated in 32 Brazilian ß-thalassemia multitransfused patients. Additionaly the serum concentrations of ferritin and alanine aspartate transaminase (ALAT were determined. The results show a high prevalence of markers of infection by HBV (25.0% and HCV (46.8% and a low prevalence of markers for HIV-1 and HTLV-1. No correlations were demonstrated between the presence of the hepatitis markers and the number of units transfused or the serum concentrations of ferritin and ALAT.A freqüência de marcadores virais para hepatite B (HBV, C (HCV, vírus da imunodeficiência humana-1 (HIV-1 e vírus linfotrópico-T humano (HTLV-1 foi avaliada em 32 pacientes brasileiros multitransfundidos, portadores de ß-talassemia. Adicionalmente determinou-se a concentração sérica de transaminase alani-na aspártica (ALAT e de ferritina. Os resultados mostraram alta prevalência de marcadores para HBV (25,0% e HCV (46,8% e baixa prevalência de marcadores para HIV-1 e HTLV-1. Não se demonstrou correlação entre a presença de marcadores para hepatite e o número de unidades transfundidas ou com as concentrações séricas de ferritina e ALAT.

  13. Pregnancy history and blood-borne microvesicles in middle aged women with and without coronary artery calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Virginia M; Garovic, Vesna D; Bailey, Kent R; Lahr, Brian D; Mielke, Michelle M; White, Wendy M; Jayachandran, Muthuvel

    2016-10-01

    Having a history of preeclampsia increases the risk for future coronary artery calcification (CAC). This study evaluated the association of blood-borne, cell-derived microvesicles (MV) with CAC in middle-aged women. Twelve pre-selected, antigen-specific MV were measured by digital flow cytometry in the blood of age- and parity-matched women (median age 60 years) without a history of cardiovascular events, but with either a history of preeclampsia (PE, n = 39) or normotensive pregnancy (NP, n = 40). CAC was determined by computed tomography. CAC scores ranged from 0 to 47 and 0-602 Agatston Units in the NP and PE groups, respectively. Waist circumference and insulin resistance were greatest in PE women with CAC. MV positive for tissue factor or stem/progenitor cell antigen (CD117) differed between NP and PE groups. In univariate analysis, those positive for tissue factor, ICAM-1, stem cells, and adipocytes (P16-set) antigens associated with CAC in the PE group. Principal components (PC) analysis reduced the MV variables to three independent dimensions. PC1 showed a modest correlation with CAC scores in the PE group (ρ = 0.31, p = 0.06) and associated with CAC in a multivariable model on pooled groups that included all 3 PC variables when adjusted for pregnancy status (p = 0.03). The association was lost when corrected for body mass index or waist circumference. In women with a history of PE and elevated metabolic risk profile, a group of specific antigen-positive MV associated with CAC. These MV may reflect cellular processes associated with CAC. Their diagnostic potential for CAC remains to be determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Surveillance should be strengthened to improve epidemiological understandings of mosquito-borne Barmah Forest virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Durrheim

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Barmah Forest virus (BFV is a mosquito-borne virus causing epidemic polyarthritis in Australia. This study used case follow-up of cases from the surveillance system to demonstrate that routinely collected BFV notification data were an unreliable indicator of the true location of exposure.Methods: BFV notifications from June 2001 to May 2011 were extracted from the New South Wales (NSW Notifiable Conditions Information Management System to study case distribution. Disease cluster analysis was performed using spatial scan statistics. Exposure history data were collected from cases notified in 2010 and 2011 to accurately determine travel to high-risk areas.Results: Cluster analysis using address data identified an area of increased BFV disease incidence in the mid-north coast of NSW contiguous with estuarine wetlands. When travel to this area was investigated, 96.7% (29/30 cases reported having visited coastal regions within four weeks of developing symptoms.Discussion: Along the central NSW coastline, extensive wetlands occur in close proximity to populated areas. These wetlands provide ideal breeding habitats for a range of mosquito species implicated in the transmission of BFV. This is the first study to fully assess case exposure with findings suggesting that sporadic cases of BFV in people living further away from the coast do not reflect alternative exposure sites but are likely to result from travel to coastal regions. Spatial analysis by case address alone may lead to inaccurate understandings of the true distribution of arboviral diseases. Subsequently, this information has important implications for the collection of mosquito-borne disease surveillance information and public health response strategies.

  15. Cord blood thyroid tests in boys born with and without cryptorchidism: correlations with birth parameters and in utero xenobiotics exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucker-Davis, Francoise; Ferrari, Patricia; Boda-Buccino, Mireille; Wagner-Mahler, Kathy; Pacini, Patricia; Gal, Jocelyn; Azuar, Pierre; Fenichel, Patrick

    2011-10-01

    In utero exposure to environmental chemicals can result in reproductive toxicity via endocrine disruption mechanisms. Whether some of those contaminants also have an impact on fetal thyroid function or pathways, and, thus, potentially on neuropsychological development, is still debated. We used samples from a cord blood (CB) and milk bank, established for a research on cryptorchidism and xenobiotic exposure to compounds known for their anti-androgenic and/or estrogenic activity, to study CB thyroid tests and their correlation with CB and milk xenobiotics concentrations in boys born in Nice area. No difference was found in thyroid tests between 60 cryptorchid boys and 76 matched controls (median thyroid stimulating hormone 5.97 vs. 6.55 mUI/L, free thyroxine [fT4] 13.1 vs. 12.9 pmol/L, free triiodothyronine [fT3] 1.9 vs. 2.1 pmol/L), with no influence of season of birth, gestational age, maternal smoking, or mode of delivery (except for higher fT4 in control boys born vaginally). FT4 was correlated with fetal growth only in cryptorchid boys. Since we had previously shown differences between cryptorchid and controls exposure, we studied correlations of thyroid tests with xenobiotics in control boys only. All tested CB or maternal milk was contaminated by one or more selected xenobiotics, mainly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro diphenyl dichloroethylène (DDE), dibutylphthalate, hexachlorobenzene, and bisphenol A. We found a significant negative correlation between fT4 and concentrations of PCB118, PC180, and DDE in milk (respectively r = -0.342, p xenobiotics, except for a weak negative trend with CB bisphenol A (r = -0.25, p = 0.077). CB thyroid tests are within normal range in cryptorchid boys, similar to controls. Our data in controls suggest a possible weak correlation between in utero exposure to some xenobiotics (PCBs, DDE) and fT3 and fT4 CB concentrations, with usually negative correlations with fT4 and positive with fT3 concentrations, which we

  16. Seroprevalence of Babesia microti infection in Canadian blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Sheila F; Delage, Gilles; Scalia, Vito; Lindsay, Robbin; Bernier, France; Dubuc, Sophie; Germain, Marc; Pilot, Gerry; Yi, Qi-Long; Fearon, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Human babesiosis, caused by the intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite Babesia microti, is primarily transmitted by tick bites and is also transmitted by transfusion. Infections have been identified in U.S. blood donors close to Canadian borders. We aimed to assess the risk of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in Canada by examining infections in ticks and seroprevalence in blood donors. Passive surveillance (receipt of ticks submitted by the public) was used to identify regions for tick drag sampling (active surveillance, 2009-2014). All ticks were tested for B. microti using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (Imugen, Inc.). Between July and December 2013, blood donations from selected sites (southern Manitoba, Ontario, Québec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia) near endemic U.S. regions were tested for antibody to B. microti. Donors completed a questionnaire about risk travel and possible tick exposure. Of approximately 12,000 ticks submitted, 14 were B. microti positive (10 in Manitoba, one in Ontario, one in Québec, two in New Brunswick). From active tick surveillance, six of 361 ticks in Manitoba were positive (1.7%), three of 641 (0.5%) in Québec, and none elsewhere. There were 26,260 donors at the selected sites of whom 13,993 (53%) were tested. None were positive for antibody to B. microti. In 2013, 47% of donors visited forested areas in Canada, and 41% traveled to the United States. The data do not suggest that laboratory-based testing is warranted at this time. However, there are indicators that B. microti may be advancing into Canada and ongoing monitoring of tick populations and donor seroprevalence is indicated. © 2015 AABB.

  17. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils from Nepeta cataria L. against Common Causes of Food-Borne Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zomorodian, Kamiar; Saharkhiz, Mohammad Jamal; Shariati, Samaneh; Pakshir, Keyvan; Rahimi, Mohammad Javad; Khashei, Reza

    2012-01-01

    Nepeta cataria L. is traditionally consumed as a food additive. The effects of three different harvest stages of N. cataria essential oils (EOs) against most common causes of food-borne infections were evaluated by broth microdilution method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The chemical composition of the EOs from N. cataria has been analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The analysis of the EOs indicated that 4a-α,7-α,7a-β-nepetalactone (55-58%) and 4a-α,7-β,7a-α-nepetalactone (30-31.2%) were the major compounds of the EOs at all developmental stages. The results showed that the tested EOs exhibited antimicrobial activities against the food-borne pathogens at concentrations of 0.125-2 μL/mL. Based on these results, the EO of N. cataria can possibly be used in food products as a natural preservative agent.

  18. Zika Virus Infection and Prolonged Viremia in Whole-Blood Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansuy, Jean Michel; Mengelle, Catherine; Pasquier, Christophe; Chapuy-Regaud, Sabine; Delobel, Pierre; Martin-Blondel, Guillaume; Izopet, Jacques

    2017-05-01

    We tested whole-blood and plasma samples from immunocompetent patients who had had benign Zika virus infections and found that Zika virus RNA persisted in whole blood substantially longer than in plasma. This finding may have implications for diagnosis of acute symptomatic and asymptomatic infections and for testing of blood donations.

  19. Co-infection dynamics of a major food-borne zoonotic pathogen in chicken

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skanseng, Beate; Trosvik, Pal; Zimonja, Monika

    2007-01-01

    , with an important reservoir in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of chickens, was used as a model. We investigated the co-colonisation dynamics of seven C. jejuni strains in a chicken GI infection trial. The seven strains were isolated from an epidemiological study showing multiple strain infections at the farm level....... We analysed time-series data, following the Campylobacter colonisation, as well as the dominant background flora of chickens. Data were collected from the infection at day 16 until the last sampling point at day 36. Chickens with two different background floras were studied, mature ( treated...... with Broilact, which is a product consisting of bacteria from the intestinal flora of healthy hens) and spontaneous. The two treatments resulted in completely different background floras, yet similar Campylobacter colonisation patterns were detected in both groups. This suggests that it is the chicken host...

  20. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, M.C.; Mitchell, R.S.; Baldwin, J.C.; James, D.R.; Olcott, C. IV; Mehigan, J.T.; McDougall, I.R.; Miller, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of 111 In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% [11 of 25] if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% [14 of 14]); there were no false negative results

  1. Listeria monocytogenes infection in poultry and its public health importance with special reference to food borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhama, Kuldeep; Verma, Amit Kumar; Rajagunalan, S; Kumar, Amit; Tiwari, Ruchi; Chakraborty, Sandip; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-04-01

    Listeriosis is a disease that causes septicemia or encephalitis in humans, animals and birds. Although, the disease is rare and sporadic in poultry but if occurs then causes septicemia or sometimes localized encephalitis. Occasionally, the disease is seen in young chicks and the causative agent, like in humans and animals, is Listeria monocytogenes. The organism is capable to infect almost all animals and poultry; however, outbreaks of listeriosis are infrequent in birds. It is widely distributed among avian species and chickens, turkeys, waterfowl (geese, ducks), game birds, pigeons, parrots, wood grouse, snowy owl, eagle, canaries, which appear to be the most commonly affected. Chickens are thought to be the carriers of Listeria and also the prime reservoirs for the infection and thus contaminate the litter and environment of the poultry production units. Listeriosis is often noticed along with other poultry diseases such as coccidiosis, infectious coryza, salmonellosis, campylobacteriosis and parasitic infections, signifying the opportunistic nature of the organism. Intestinal colonization of poultry and the presence of L. monocytogenes in feces represent a potential source of the organism for listeriosis in ruminants. Man gets infection from raw broiler meat due to Listeria contamination and unhygienic conditions of the processing area, rather than acquiring direct infection from birds. With the changing food habits of the people, the health consciousness is also increasing and since listeriosis has now been recognized as an emerging food borne zoonoses. Therefore, this review has been compiled to make aware the poultry producers and the consumers of poultry meat/products regarding the importance of the disease and its public health significance.

  2. Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections Among Blood Donors from Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis B and C Viral Infections Among Blood Donors from Rural Ghana. B Nkrumah, M Owusu, HO Frempong, P Averu. Abstract. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and co-infections among blood donors in a rural community of Ghana. Design: A retrospective study. Method: Samples ...

  3. Ascaris suum infections in pigs born and raised on contaminated paddocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, Helena; Roepstorff, Allan Knud

    2006-01-01

    The transmission of Ascaris suum was studied in outdoor reared pigs. From May to June 2001, 6 farrowing paddocks were naturally contaminated with A. suum using experimentally infected seeder pigs. Early July, 1 sow farrowed on each paddock. One piglet per litter was slaughtered every second week...

  4. MODERN PARASITIC SYSTEMS OF TICK-BORNE INFECTIONS IN LVIV OBLAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedoruk V.,

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of parasitic systems of associated with ixodal ticks infections in the Lviv region for the period 2007-2012 were analyzed. The main vectors and reservoirs, carrying at the present stage a high loimopotential of natural dangerous diseases foci were submitted.

  5. mortality in a cohort of children born to hiv-1 infected women from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diarrhoea, pneumonia, failure to thrive and severe thrush. These findings, together with neurological abnormalities, often presaged rapid deterioration and death. Conclusions. Mortality among children with vertically acquired HIV infection is high in the first year of life. Death in these subjects was due to the common causes ...

  6. Mortality in a cohort of children born to HIV-1 infected women from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The commonest diagnoses at the time of death were diarrhoea, pneumonia, failure to thrive and severe thrush. These findings, together with neurological abnormalities, often presaged rapid deterioration and death. Conclusions. Mortality among children with vertically acquired HIV infection is high in the first year of life.

  7. Tick-borne disease infections in the traditional cattle farming system ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The percentages of East Coast fever-infected herds (p = 0.0000252) and animals (p = 0.000842) that were sprayed once per month were significantly higher than those ... The apparent low community's motivation to adopt the dipping scheme which has been revived through government support calls for further investigation.

  8. Prevalence of respiratory tract infections, allergies and assessment of humoral immunity within the Malopolska region's cohort of 11- year old children born with extremely low birth weight in comparison with to their term born peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasada, Magdalena; Klimek, Małgorzata; Durlak, Wojciech; Kotula, Monika; Tomasik, Tomasz; Kwinta, Przemko

    2016-01-01

    Children born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) have more respiratory tract complications during childhood. Little is known about respiratory and allergy problems in ELBW children at the threshold of adolescence. A follow-up study was conducted at the age of 11 among ELBW children (n=65) and age-matched controls (n=36). The primary outcomes in the study were the occurrence of respiratory and allergy problems and the rate of hospitalization due to respiratory complications at the age of 11 years, assessed with a questionnaire. Secondary outcome variables were serum levels of immunoglobulin classes. ELBW children had more respiratory tract infections (31 vs.11%, p = 0.03), but less allergies (3 vs. 22%, p allergies at the age of 11 years compared with children born at term. Lower respiratory tract problems decrease in ELBW children with age. Respiratory tract infections are not connected with deficiency in humoral immunity.

  9. Experimental infection of goats with tick-borne encephalitis virus and the possibilities to prevent virus transmission by raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Zsuzsanna; Egyed, László; Ferenczi, Emőke; Bán, Enikő; Szomor, Katalin N; Takács, Mária; Berencsi, György

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection of goats and the possibilities to prevent human milk-borne infections either by immunizing animals or the heat treatment of milk. An experiment was conducted with 20 milking goats. Ten goats (half of them immunized) were challenged with live TBEV and 10 were left uninfected. Clinical signs and body temperatures of the animals were recorded and milk samples were collected daily. The presence of viral RNA and infectious virions in milk were detected by RT-PCR and intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice, respectively. Milk samples containing infectious virions were subjected to various heat treatment conditions and retested afterwards to assess the effect on infectivity. The infected goats did not show any clinical signs or fever compared to uninfected ones. Infectious virions were detected for 8-19 days from the milk samples (genome for 3-18 days by PCR) of infected goats. Immunized goats did not shed the virus. After heat treatment of the milk, the inoculated mice survived. Goats shed the virus with their milk without showing any symptoms. Human milk-borne infections can be avoided both by immunizing goats and boiling/pasteurizing infected milk. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M.; Molier, Michel; Bart, Aldert; Zaaijer, Hans L.

    2016-01-01

    Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands. Birth in a country endemic for Chagas

  11. Divergent response profile in activated cord blood T cells from first-born child implies birth-order-associated in utero immune programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragh, M; Larsen, J M; Thysen, A H; Rasmussen, M A; Wolsk, H M; Bisgaard, H; Brix, S

    2016-03-01

    First-born children are at higher risk of developing a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of 'birth-order effects' on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. We studied the association between birth order and the functional response of stimulated cord blood T cells. Purified cord blood T cells were polyclonally activated with anti-CD3-/anti-CD28-coated beads in a subgroup of 28 children enrolled in the COPSAC2010 birth cohort. Expression levels of seven activation markers on helper and cytotoxic T cells as well as the percentage of CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-17, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and IL-10 was measured in the supernatants. IL-10 secretion (P = 0.007) and CD25 expression on CD4(+) helper T cells (P = 0.0003) in the activated cord blood T cells were selectively reduced in first-born children, while the percentage of circulating CD4(+) CD25(+) cord blood T cells was independent of birth order. First-born infants display a reduced anti-inflammatory profile in T cells at birth. This possible in utero 'birth-order' T-cell programming may contribute to later development of immune-mediated diseases by increasing overall immune reactivity in first-born children as compared to younger siblings. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A new reportable disease is born: Taiwan Centers for Disease Control's response to emerging Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Angela Song-En; Shu, Pei-Yun; Yang, Chin-Hui

    2016-04-01

    Zika virus infection, usually a mild disease transmitted through the bite of Aedes mosquitos, has been reported to be possibly associated with microcephaly and neurologic complications. Taiwan's first imported case of Zika virus infection was found through fever screening at airport entry in January 2016. No virus was isolated from patient's blood taken during acute illness; however, PCR products showed that the virus was of Asian lineage closely related to virus from Cambodia. To prevent Zika virus from spreading in Taiwan, the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control has strengthened efforts in quarantine and surveillance, increased Zika virus infection diagnostic capacity, implemented healthcare system preparedness plans, and enhanced vector control program through community mobilization and education. Besides the first imported case, no additional cases of Zika virus infection have been identified. Furthermore, no significant increase in the number of microcephaly or Guillain- Barré Syndrome has been observed in Taiwan. To date, there have been no autochthonous transmissions of Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. The mosquito borne West Nile virus infection: is it threating to Egypt or a neglected endemic disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Khater, Mai Khater M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus belonging to the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. The virus is found in temperate and tropical regions worldwide, but first identified in the West Nile sub-region in the East African nation of Uganda in 1937. Prior to the mid-1990s WNV infection was sporadically and considered a minor risk for humans, until an outbreak in Algeria in 1994, with cases of WNV-caused encephalitis, and the first large outbreak in Romania in 1996; with a high number of cases with neuroinvasive disease. WNV has now spread globally to Europe beyond the Mediterranean Basin and the United States, is now considered to be an endemic pathogen in worldwide especially in Africa The WNV transmission is mainly b y v a rious mosquitoes species, also tickswere incriminated The birds especially passerines are the most commonly infected animal and serving as the prime reservoir host In Egypt more than 110 mosquito species and subspecies and more than 32 genera of ticks were identified. Besides, not less than 150 species of migratory birds visit Egypt annually in addition to 350 resident ones. This review provided an overview of the current understanding flaviviruses mainly WNFV. Primary care physician and senior nurse should be able to include the disaster diseases in differential diagnosis of various clinical conditions. They should take a thorough history to request specific dependable laboratory test(s) as soon as possible, and positive patient should be transferred to the fever hospital.

  14. Effects of blood products on nosocomial infections in liver transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkardesler, Sevda; Avkan-Oguz, Vildan; Akan, Mert; Unek, Tarkan; Ozbilgin, Mucahit; Meseri, Reci; Cimen, Meltem; Karademir, Sedat

    2013-12-01

    Infection is the most severe complication after an organ transplant. Blood cell transfusion is an independent risk factor for adverse events, including infection in the recipient. This study sought to evaluate the effect of blood product transfusions on nosocomial infections in liver transplant patients. Patients who underwent a liver transplant at our hospital between 2003 and 2010 were recruited for this study. Exclusion criteria were incomplete records, patients who were hospitalized for more than 48 hours during the 4 weeks before transplant, and pediatric transplants. Incidence of nosocomial infections, which were defined as infections occurring within 30 days after transplant was the primary endpoint. The incidence of nosocomial infections was 28.7%. The number of transfusions of packed red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma was significantly higher in patients with nosocomial infection compared with patients without nosocomial infection (P = .018 and P = .039). Blood products dose-dependently contributed to nosocomial infections. Transfusions of ≥ 7.5 units of red blood cells (odds ratio: 2.8) or ≥ 12.5 units of fresh frozen plasma (odds ratio: 3.27) were associated with nosocomial infections (P = .042 and P = .015). The infection-related mortality rate was 10.3%. Blood product transfusions are associated with an increased rate of nosocomial infections, which contributes to higher morbidity and mortality.

  15. A method to preserve low parasitaemia Plasmodium-infected avian blood for host and vector infectivity assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jenny S; Giannitti, Federico; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Tell, Lisa A; Snipes, Joy; Wright, Stan; Cornel, Anthony J

    2016-03-11

    Avian malaria vector competence studies are needed to understand more succinctly complex avian parasite-vector-relations. The lack of vector competence trials may be attributed to the difficulty of obtaining gametocytes for the majority of Plasmodium species and lineages. To conduct avian malaria infectivity assays for those Plasmodium spp. and lineages that are refractory to in vitro cultivation, it is necessary to obtain and preserve for short periods sufficient viable merozoites to infect naïve donor birds to be used as gametocyte donors to infect mosquitoes. Currently, there is only one described method for long-term storage of Plasmodium spp.-infected wild avian blood and it is reliable at a parasitaemia of at least 1%. However, most naturally infected wild-caught birds have a parasitaemia of much less that 1%. To address this problem, a method for short-term storage of infected wild avian blood with low parasitaemia (even ≤ 0.0005%) has been explored and validated. To obtain viable infective merozoites, blood was collected from wild birds using a syringe containing the anticoagulant and the red blood cell preservative citrate phosphate dextrose adenine solution (CPDA). Each blood sample was stored at 4 °C for up to 48 h providing sufficient time to determine the species and parasitaemia of Plasmodium spp. in the blood by morphological examination before injecting into donor canaries. Plasmodium spp.--infected blood was inoculated intravenously into canaries and once infection was established, Culex stigmatosoma, Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes were then allowed to feed on the infected canaries to validate the efficacy of this method for mosquito vector competence assays. Storage of Plasmodium spp.--infected donor blood at 4 °C yielded viable parasites for 48 h. All five experimentally-infected canaries developed clinical signs and were infectious. Pathologic examination of three canaries that later died revealed splenic lesions typical of

  16. Zoonotic and Vector-Borne Infections Among Urban Homeless and Marginalized People in the United States and Europe, 1990-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibler, Jessica H; Zakhour, Christine M; Gadhoke, Preety; Gaeta, Jessie M

    2016-07-01

    In high-income countries, homeless individuals in urban areas often live in crowded conditions with limited sanitation and personal hygiene. The environment of homelessness in high-income countries may result in intensified exposure to ectoparasites and urban wildlife, which can transmit infections. To date, there have been no systematic evaluations of the published literature to assess vector-borne and zoonotic disease risk to these populations. The primary objectives of this study were to identify diversity, prevalence, and risk factors for vector-borne and zoonotic infections among people experiencing homelessness and extreme poverty in urban areas of high-income countries. We conducted a systematic review and narrative synthesis of published epidemiologic studies of zoonotic and vector-borne infections among urban homeless and very poor people in the United States and Europe from 1990 to 2014. Thirty-one observational studies and 14 case studies were identified (n = 45). Seroprevalence to the human louse-borne pathogen Bartonella quintana (seroprevalence range: 0-37.5%) was identified most frequently, with clinical disease specifically observed among HIV-positive individuals. Seropositivity to Bartonella henselae (range: 0-10.3%) and Rickettsia akari (range: 0-16.2%) was noted in multiple studies. Serological evidence of exposure to Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella elizabethae, West Nile virus, Borellia recurrentis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, Wohlfartiimonas chitiniclastica, Seoul hantavirus (SEOV), and Leptospira species was also identified in published studies, with SEOV associated with chronic renal disease later in life. HIV infection, injection drug use, and heavy drinking were noted across multiple studies as risk factors for infection with vector-borne and zoonotic pathogens. B. quintana was the most frequently reported vector-borne infection identified in our article. Delousing efforts and active surveillance among HIV

  17. Development of an animal-borne blood sample collection device and its deployment for the determination of cardiovascular and stress hormones in phocid seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takei, Yoshio; Suzuki, Ippei; Wong, Marty K S; Milne, Ryan; Moss, Simon; Sato, Katsufumi; Hall, Ailsa

    2016-10-01

    An animal-borne blood sampler with data-logging functions was developed for phocid seals, which collected two blood samples for the comparison of endocrinological/biochemical parameters under two different conditions. The sampler can be triggered by preset hydrostatic pressure, acceleration (descending or ascending), temperature, and time, and also manually by light. The sampling was reliable with 39/50 (78%) successful attempts to collect blood samples. Contamination of fluids in the tubing to the next blood sample was seals ( Phoca vitulina ), the automated blood-sampling method was less stressful than direct blood withdrawal, as evidenced by lower levels of stress hormones ( P seal blood. Using the sampler, plasma levels of cardiovascular hormones, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), AVP, and ANG II were compared in grey seals ( Halichoerus grypus ), between samples collected when the animals were on land and in the water. HPLC analyses determined that [Met 12 ] ANP (1-28) and various forms of angiotensins (ANG II, III, and IV) were circulating in seal blood. Although water immersion profoundly changes the plasma levels of cardiovascular hormones in terrestrial mammals, there were only tendencies toward an increase in ANP ( P = 0.069) and a decrease in AVP ( P = 0.074) in the seals. These results suggest that cardiovascular regulation in phocid seals may have undergone adaptation during evolution of the carnivore to a semiaquatic lifestyle. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Assessment of prion reduction filters in decreasing infectivity of ultracentrifuged 263K scrapie-infected brain homogenates in "spiked" human blood and red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Franco; Sowemimo-Coker, Samuel; Abdel-Haq, Hanin; Sbriccoli, Marco; Graziano, Silvia; Valanzano, Angelina; Berardi, Vito Angelo; Galeno, Roberta; Puopolo, Maria; Pocchiari, Maurizio

    2014-04-01

    The safety of red blood cells (RBCs) is of concern because of the occurrence of four transfusion-transmitted variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) cases in the United Kingdom. The absence of validated screening tests requires the use of procedures to remove prions from blood to minimize the risk of transmission. These procedures must be validated using infectious prions in a form that is as close as possible to one in blood. Units of human whole blood (WB) and RBCs were spiked with high-speed supernatants of 263K scrapie-infected hamster brain homogenates. Spiked samples were leukoreduced and then passed through prion-removing filters (Pall Corporation). In another experiment, RBCs from 263K scrapie-infected hamsters were treated as above, and residual infectivity was measured by bioassay. The overall removal of infectivity by the filters from prion-spiked WB and RBCs was approximately two orders of magnitude. No infectivity was detected in filtered hamster RBCs endogenously infected with scrapie. The use of prion-removing filters may help to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted vCJD. To avoid overestimation of prion removal efficiency in validation studies, it may be more appropriate to use supernates from ultracentrifugation of scrapie-infected hamster brain homogenate rather than the current standard brain homogenates. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  19. THE CASE OF MIXED TICK-BORNE INFECTIONS – TICK-BORNE ENCEPHALITIS AND LYME DISEASE (B. GARINII, B. AFZELII IN THE KEMEROVO REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анатолий Васильевич Субботин

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion. 1. The stable detection of TBE IgG antibodies at a high level indicates the absence of depression of humoral immunity in the application of the antibiotic Ceftriaxone. 2. A long term persistence of IgM antibodies in serum to Lyme disease, identification of the TBE antigen in serum and IgG antibodies in the cerebrospinal fluid of a patient, indicates incomplete elimination of the pathogen on the background of the therapy, causing the patient developed chronic mixed focal forms of TBE with latent form of ixodes tick-borne borreliosis. 3. Patient exhibits clinical symptoms of TBE (Epilepsy of Kozhevnikov.

  20. Oral Immunization with OspC Does Not Prevent Tick-Borne Borrelia burgdorferi Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Rita; Richer, Luciana; Johnson, Daniel L; Gomes-Solecki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Oral vaccination strategies are of interest to prevent transmission of Lyme disease as they can be used to deliver vaccines to humans, pets, and to natural wildlife reservoir hosts of Borrelia burgdorferi. We developed a number of oral vaccines based in E. coli expressing recombinant OspC type K, OspB, BBK32 from B. burgdorferi, and Salp25, Salp15 from Ixodes scapularis. Of the five immunogenic candidates only OspC induced significant levels of antigen-specific IgG and IgA when administered to mice via the oral route. Antibodies to OspC did not prevent dissemination of B. burgdorferi as determined by the presence of spirochetes in ear, heart and bladder tissues four weeks after challenge. Next generation sequencing of genomic DNA from ticks identified multiple phyletic types of B. burgdorferi OspC (A, D, E, F, I, J, K, M, Q, T, X) in nymphs that engorged on vaccinated mice. PCR amplification of OspC types A and K from flat and engorged nymphal ticks, and from heart and bladder tissues collected after challenge confirmed sequencing analysis. Quantification of spirochete growth in a borreliacidal assay shows that both types of spirochetes (A and K) survived in the presence of OspC-K specific serum whereas the spirochetes were killed by OspA specific serum. We show that oral vaccination of C3H-HeN mice with OspC-K induced significant levels of antigen-specific IgG. However, these serologic antibodies did not protect mice from infection with B. burgdorferi expressing homologous or heterologous types of OspC after tick challenge.

  1. An analysis of the predictive value of the HIV Ag/Ab screening assay within the performance characteristics of the DiaSorin LIAISON XL for the detection of blood-borne viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Khoa T D; Götz, Hannelore; Slingerland, Bibi C G C; Klaasse, Janienne; Schutten, Martin; GeurtsvanKessel, Corine H

    2018-05-01

    Correct identification of blood borne viral infections, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is crucial in detection and follow up of infection in patients. We evaluated the diagnostic performance of the DiaSorin LIAISON XL (LIAISON XL) for screening of HBV, HCV and HIV infection. In addition, we investigated the variability of the signal-to-cuttoff ratio (S/CO) of the LIAISON XL HIV Ag/Ab assay and it's predictive value in subsequent confirmation of HIV-1 infection. We analyzed 16,497 blood samples on which HBV, HCV and HIV screening was performed. We defined A) archived samples previously tested with an arbitrary result in the Abbott ARCHITECT i2000SR system; B) prospectively collected samples which were simultaneously tested on the LIAISON XL and ARCHITECT i2000SR; C) prospectively collected serum samples for HIV testing which were tested solely on the LIAISON XL. The agreements of HBV-, HCV-, and HIV markers between the two compared systems are remarkably high. Among the samples which were prospectively tested for HIV Ab/Ag on the LIASON XL, 229 (1.6%) were reactive of which 141 (61.6%) could be confirmed. Increasing the signal-to-cutoff value to 4 could increase the positive predictive value (PPV) to 88.1% without decreasing sensitivity. The LIAISON XL system proved to be an excellent system for diagnosing HBV, HCV, and HIV. Our data for the first time showed that increasing the HIV S/CO ratio was safe and increased the PPV for confirmed HIV infection in the tested population. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. ABO Blood Groups Influence Macrophage-mediated Phagocytosis of Plasmodium falciparum-infected Erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch, Donald R.; Hult, Annika K.; Olsson, Martin L.; Liles, W. Conrad; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M.; Kain, Kevin C.

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte polymorphisms associated with a survival advantage to Plasmodium falciparum infection have undergone positive selection. There is a predominance of blood group O in malaria-endemic regions, and several lines of evidence suggest that ABO blood groups may influence the outcome of P. falciparum infection. Based on the hypothesis that enhanced innate clearance of infected polymorphic erythrocytes is associated with protection from severe malaria, we investigated whether P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes are more efficiently cleared by macrophages than infected A and B erythrocytes. We show that human macrophages in vitro and mouse monocytes in vivo phagocytose P. falciparum-infected O erythrocytes more avidly than infected A and B erythrocytes and that uptake is associated with increased hemichrome deposition and high molecular weight band 3 aggregates in infected O erythrocytes. Using infected A1, A2, and O erythrocytes, we demonstrate an inverse association of phagocytic capacity with the amount of A antigen on the surface of infected erythrocytes. Finally, we report that enzymatic conversion of B erythrocytes to type as O before infection significantly enhances their uptake by macrophages to observed level comparable to that with infected O wild-type erythrocytes. These data provide the first evidence that ABO blood group antigens influence macrophage clearance of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes and suggest an additional mechanism by which blood group O may confer resistance to severe malaria. PMID:23071435

  3. Occult Hbv Infection in Hbsag Negative and Anti-Hbc Positive Blood Donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Shebanizadeh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In recent years with introduction of better screening tests, the risk of infection with transfusion-transmitted viruses has been reduced remarkably, although obtaining a zero-risk blood supply still remains international blood transfusion services goal. The routine test for detection of HBV infected blood samples is examination of HBsAg with ELISA method but in occult HBV infection, HBsAg is not detectable by ELISA. Therefore, a more sensitive or complementary test is needed. Some international blood transfusion services have introduced anti-HBc screening as a surrogate test for the presence of HBV infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of occult HBV infection in Isfahanian blood donors and the potential value of anti-HBc testing of donors as a screening test to detect occult HBV infection. Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 545 blood units were collected (from Isfahan blood center and tested by HBsAg ELISA kit from April to June 2004 and then all HBsAg negative samples were tested by anti-HBc ELISA kit. To detect occult HBV infection, all HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples were tested by PCR method. Results: All samples were negative for HBsAg while 43 blood units were anti-HBc positive (8%. These HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood units were tested for HBV DNA of which five units (%11.6 were HBV DNA positive. Conclusion: Occult HBV infection is a clinical form of HBV infection that cannot be detected by usual method (ELISA for HBsAg and therefore more sensitive techniques are needed for detection of HBV infection. PCR is a sensitive technique that detects HBV DNA even in a trace mounts. Our results identified that more sensitive and complementary tests such as, PCR and anti-HBc, are essential and helpful to ensure safety of blood units.

  4. Usutu virus infections among blood donors, Austria, July and August 2017 - Raising awareness for diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakonyi, Tamás; Jungbauer, Christof; Aberle, Stephan W; Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Dimmel, Katharina; Stiasny, Karin; Allerberger, Franz; Nowotny, Norbert

    2017-10-01

    Between July and August 2017, seven of 12,047 blood donations from eastern Austria, reacted positive to West Nile virus (WNV) in the cobas test (Roche). Follow-up investigations revealed Usutu virus (USUV) nucleic acid in six of these. Retrospective analyses of four blood donors diagnosed as WNV-infected in 2016 showed one USUV positive. Blood transfusion services and public health authorities in USUV-endemic areas should be aware of a possible increase of human USUV infections.

  5. Differential Characteristics of Viral siRNAs between Leaves and Roots of Wheat Plants Naturally Infected with Wheat Yellow Mosaic Virus, a Soil-Borne Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linying; Andika, Ida Bagus; Xu, Yu; Zhang, Yan; Xin, Xiangqi; Hu, Lifeng; Sun, Zongtao; Hong, Gaojie; Chen, Yang; Yan, Fei; Yang, Jian; Li, Junmin; Chen, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    RNA silencing is an important innate antiviral defense in plants. Soil-borne plant viruses naturally infect roots via soil-inhabiting vectors, but it is unclear how antiviral RNA silencing responds to virus infection in this particular tissue. In this study, viral small interfering RNA (siRNA) profiles from leaves and roots of wheat plants naturally infected with a soil-borne virus, wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV, genus Bymovirus ), were analyzed by deep sequencing. WYMV siRNAs were much more abundant in roots than leaves, which was positively correlated with the accumulation of viral RNA. WYMV siRNAs in leaves and roots were predominantly 21- and 22-nt long and equally derived from the positive- and negative-strands of the viral genome. WYMV siRNAs from leaves and roots differed in distribution pattern along the viral genome. Interestingly, compared to siRNAs from leaves (and most other reports), those from roots obviously had a lower A/U bias at the 5'-terminal nucleotide. Moreover, the expression of Dicer-like genes upon WYMV infection were differently regulated between leaves and roots. Our data suggest that RNA silencing in roots may operate differently than in leaves against soil-borne virus invasion.

  6. Seroepidemiology of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in healthy blood donors of Durango, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Martínez Sergio

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii infection in blood donors could represent a risk for transmission in blood recipients. There is scarce information about the epidemiology of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Mexico. Therefore, we sought to determine the prevalence of T. gondii infection and associated socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics in a population of healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico. Methods Four hundred and thirty two blood donors in two public blood banks of Durango City, Mexico were examined for T. gondii infection between August to September 2006. Blood donors were tested for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays (Diagnostic Automation Inc., Calabasas, CA, USA. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics from each participant were also obtained. Results Thirty two (7.4% of 432 blood donors had IgG anti-T. gondii antibodies. Eight (1.9% of them had also IgM anti-T. gondii antibodies. Multivariate analysis using logic regression showed that T. gondii infection was associated with the presence of cats at home (adjusted OR = 3.81; 95% CI: 1.45–10.01. The age group of 45–60 years showed a significantly higher frequency of T. gondii infection than the group of 25–34 years (p = 0.02. Blood donors without education had a significantly higher frequency of infection (15.8% than those with 13–19 years of education (4.5% (p = 0.04. Other characteristics of blood donors including male gender, consumption of undercooked meat or blood transfusion did not show an association with infection. Conclusion The prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors of Durango City, Mexico is lower than those reported in blood donors of south and central Mexico, and is one of the lowest reported in blood donors worldwide. T. gondii infection in our blood donors was most likely acquired by contact with cats. Prevalence of infection increased with age and decreased

  7. Molecular evidence of tick-borne hemoprotozoan-parasites (Theileria ovis and Babesia ovis) and bacteria in ticks and blood from small ruminants in Northern Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadi, Atef; Leulmi, Hamza; Boucheikhchoukh, Mehdi; Benakhla, Ahmed; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    Using qPCR, standard PCR and/or sequencing, we investigated the presence of tick-associated microorganisms in ticks and blood from sheep and goats from Souk Ahras, Algeria. Borrelia theileri, was detected in (7/120, 5.8%) blood from sheep and (13/120, 10.8%) goats. Anaplasma ovis was screened in (38/73, 52%) Rhipicephalus bursa and (5/22, 22.7%) R. turanicus and in (74/120, 61.7%), (65/120, 54.2%) blood of sheep and goats respectively. Coxiella burnetii tested positive in R. bursa (4/73, 5.5%) and (7/120, 5.8%) blood of sheep and (2/120, 1.7%) goats. Theileria ovis was detected in (50/147, 34%) R. bursa and (3/22, 13.6%) R. turanicus and in (64/120, 53.3%) blood of sheep and (25/120, 20.8%) goats. Babesia ovis was screened positive in (23/147, 15.6%) R. bursa and (7/48, 14.6%) R. turanicus. Our findings expand knowledge about the repertoire of tick-borne microorganisms present in ectoparasites and/or the blood of small ruminants in Algeria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk of blood splashes to the eye during surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-02-25

    Feb 25, 2009 ... The prevalence of blood-borne diseases such as hepatitis. B, hepatitis C and HIV is increasing globally. Sub-Saharan. Africa is one of the worst-affected regions. The risk of infection from these blood-borne pathogens has become a significant occupational hazard for many categories of health care workers ...

  9. Postoperative infection and natural killer cell function following blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Andersen, A J; Christiansen, P M

    1992-01-01

    The frequency of infection in 197 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery and having either no blood transfusion, transfusion with whole blood, or filtered blood free from leucocytes and platelets was investigated in a prospective randomized trial. Natural killer cell function was measured...... before operation and 3, 7 and 30 days after surgery in 60 consecutive patients. Of the patients 104 required blood transfusion; 48 received filtered blood and 56 underwent whole blood transfusion. Postoperative infections developed in 13 patients transfused with whole blood (23 per cent, 95 per cent...... confidence interval 13-32 per cent), in one patient transfused with blood free from leucocytes and platelets (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.05-11 per cent) and in two non-transfused patients (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.3-8 per cent) (P less than 0.01). Natural killer cell...

  10. Integrated mapping of establishment risk for emerging vector-borne infections: a case study of canine leishmaniasis in southwest France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke Hartemink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin, where the dog is the main reservoir host. The disease's causative agent, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by blood-feeding female sandflies. This paper reports an integrative study of canine leishmaniasis in a region of France spanning the southwest Massif Central and the northeast Pyrenees, where the vectors are the sandflies Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled in 2005 using sticky traps placed uniformly over an area of approximately 100 by 150 km. High- and low-resolution satellite data for the area were combined to construct a model of the sandfly data, which was then used to predict sandfly abundance throughout the area on a pixel by pixel basis (resolution of c. 1 km. Using literature- and expert-derived estimates of other variables and parameters, a spatially explicit R(0 map for leishmaniasis was constructed within a Geographical Information System. R(0 is a measure of the risk of establishment of a disease in an area, and it also correlates with the amount of control needed to stop transmission. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first analysis that combines a vector abundance prediction model, based on remotely-sensed variables measured at different levels of spatial resolution, with a fully mechanistic process-based temperature-dependent R(0 model. The resulting maps should be considered as proofs-of-principle rather than as ready-to-use risk maps, since validation is currently not possible. The described approach, based on integrating several modeling methods, provides a useful new set of tools for the study of the risk of outbreaks of vector-borne diseases.

  11. White blood cell-based detection of asymptomatic scrapie infection by ex vivo assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Halliez

    Full Text Available Prion transmission can occur by blood transfusion in human variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and in experimental animal models, including sheep. Screening of blood and its derivatives for the presence of prions became therefore a major public health issue. As infectious titer in blood is reportedly low, highly sensitive and robust methods are required to detect prions in blood and blood derived products. The objectives of this study were to compare different methods--in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo assays--to detect prion infectivity in cells prepared from blood samples obtained from scrapie infected sheep at different time points of the disease. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA and bioassays in transgenic mice expressing the ovine prion protein were the most efficient methods to identify infected animals at any time of the disease (asymptomatic to terminally-ill stages. However scrapie cell and cerebellar organotypic slice culture assays designed to replicate ovine prions in culture also allowed detection of prion infectivity in blood cells from asymptomatic sheep. These findings confirm that white blood cells are appropriate targets for preclinical detection and introduce ex vivo tools to detect blood infectivity during the asymptomatic stage of the disease.

  12. A protein microarray for the rapid screening of patients suspected of infection with various food-borne helminthiases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Xu Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Food-borne helminthiases (FBHs have become increasingly important due to frequent occurrence and worldwide distribution. There is increasing demand for developing more sensitive, high-throughput techniques for the simultaneous detection of multiple parasitic diseases due to limitations in differential clinical diagnosis of FBHs with similar symptoms. These infections are difficult to diagnose correctly by conventional diagnostic approaches including serological approaches. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, antigens obtained from 5 parasite species, namely Cysticercus cellulosae, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Paragonimus westermani, Trichinella spiralis and Spirometra sp., were semi-purified after immunoblotting. Sera from 365 human cases of helminthiasis and 80 healthy individuals were assayed with semi-purified antigens by both a protein microarray and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The sensitivity, specificity and simplicity of each test for the end-user were evaluated. The specificity of the tests ranged from 97.0% (95% confidence interval (CI: 95.3-98.7% to 100.0% (95% CI: 100.0% in the protein microarray and from 97.7% (95% CI: 96.2-99.2% to 100.0% (95% CI: 100.0% in ELISA. The sensitivity varied from 85.7% (95% CI: 75.1-96.3% to 92.1% (95% CI: 83.5-100.0% in the protein microarray, while the corresponding values for ELISA were 82.0% (95% CI: 71.4-92.6% to 92.1% (95% CI: 83.5-100.0%. Furthermore, the Youden index spanned from 0.83 to 0.92 in the protein microarray and from 0.80 to 0.92 in ELISA. For each parasite, the Youden index from the protein microarray was often slightly higher than the one from ELISA even though the same antigen was used. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The protein microarray platform is a convenient, versatile, high-throughput method that can easily be adapted to massive FBH screening.

  13. Sandflies and sandfly-borne infections of humans in Central Europe in the light of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspöck, Horst; Gerersdorfer, Thomas; Formayer, Herbert; Walochnik, Julia

    2008-01-01

    In Europe, sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) are typical Mediterranean faunal elements of low expansivity, which are widely distributed in more than 20 species in many parts of Southern Europe. A few species have extended their distribution to the northwest invading extramediterranean regions (Western, Eastern Europe); any occurrence in Central Europe north of the Alps was excluded until recently. Since 1999 sandflies have been found in several parts in Germany and in Belgium; originally these records were ascribed to climate change and global warming. Meanwhile, the more likely assumption is that sandflies have always, probably since the Holocene climate optima (ca. 4500 and 2500 B.C.), been in Central Europe sporadically to where they have come as immigrants (or re-immigrants) from Mediterranean refugial areas. It is, however, without question that global warming will lead to an extension of the distributional areas of sandflies. A climatological analysis of the localities where sandflies have been found in Central Europe has revealed that temperature is the key factor. A comparison of climatological parameters in sandfly-localities with the climatic conditions in Austria (where sandflies have not yet been found) has shown that an increase of temperature by 1 degrees C in January (Ph. mascittii) or 1 degrees C in July (Ph. neglectus), respectively, would lead to suitable conditions for the occurrence of sandflies in certain parts of Austria. (The scenarios for an increase of temperature until the end of the century vary between 1.5 degrees C to 4.5 degrees C; 3 degrees C seem to be realistic also for critical climatologists.) Leishmaniae certainly do not occur in Central Europe primarily, but an increasing number of infections in humans, as well as in animals, acquired in Central Europe has been registered. It is highly likely that these infections are due to sandflies which have been infected by sucking blood on infected dogs. Dogs infected with

  14. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M.; Bilal, M.; Anwar, S.; Rehman, A.; Ahmed, M.

    2013-03-01

    We present the optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired from 18 blood serum samples using a laser at 532 nm as the excitation source. A multivariate regression model based on partial least-squares regression is developed that uses Raman spectra to predict dengue infection with leave-one-sample-out cross validation. The prediction of dengue infection by our model yields correlation coefficient r2 values of 0.9998 between the predicted and reference clinical results. The model was tested for six unknown human blood sera and found to be 100% accurate in accordance with the clinical results.

  15. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, M; Bilal, M; Anwar, S; Rehman, A; Ahmed, M

    2013-01-01

    We present the optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in human blood serum using Raman spectroscopy. Raman spectra were acquired from 18 blood serum samples using a laser at 532 nm as the excitation source. A multivariate regression model based on partial least-squares regression is developed that uses Raman spectra to predict dengue infection with leave-one-sample-out cross validation. The prediction of dengue infection by our model yields correlation coefficient r 2 values of 0.9998 between the predicted and reference clinical results. The model was tested for six unknown human blood sera and found to be 100% accurate in accordance with the clinical results. (letter)

  16. Presence of Cytomegalovirus in urine and blood of pregnant women with primary infection might be associated with fetal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delforge, Marie-Luce; Costa, Elena; Brancart, Françoise; Goldman, Deborah; Montesinos, Isabel; Zaytouni, Siham; Marchant, Arnaud; Donner, Catherine

    2017-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) congenital infection can result from primary infection, reinfection or reactivation among pregnant women. The risk of vertical transmission is much higher in case of primary infection, and the transmission rate increases with gestational age. However there are still many questions about maternal markers that can predict whether the virus will be transmitted to the fetus. To investigate the relationship between the presence and the quantity of CMV in urine and blood of women presenting a primary CMV infection during pregnancy and the presence of congenital infection in their offspring. Detection and quantification of CMV DNA was performed on 150 urine samples and 114 blood samples from 150 pregnant women with proven CMV primary infection. Transmission rate was 36.7% (55/150). A statistically significant association was found between the presence of CMV in maternal urine and newborn infection (OR 2.03 95%CI 1.03-3.99). A clearly significant association was found between the presence of CMV in maternal blood and newborn infection (OR 3.14 95% CI 1.38-7.16). Taking into consideration those samples that are positive for CMV in maternal urine, the median value of viral load was significantly higher in those patients who transmitted to offspring (P=0.015). No significant association between viral load in maternal blood and newborn infection was observed. The presence of CMV in maternal urine and maternal blood correlated to the transmission of CMV to offspring in our cohort. The median viral load in urine is higher in women who transmitted. These markers may help to identify pregnant women at risk to transmit to the fetus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Growth faltering due to breastfeeding cessation in uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpadi, Stephen; Fawzy, Ashraf; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Kankasa, Chipepo; Sinkala, Moses; Mwiya, Mwiya; Thea, Donald M; Kuhn, Louise

    2009-08-01

    The effect of breastfeeding on growth in HIV-exposed infants is not well described. The objective was to evaluate the effect of early breastfeeding cessation on growth. In a trial conducted in Lusaka, Zambia, HIV-infected mothers were randomly assigned to exclusive breastfeeding for 4 mo followed by rapid weaning to replacement foods or exclusive breastfeeding for 6 mo followed by introduction of complementary foods and continued breastfeeding for a duration of the mother's choice. Weight-for-age z score (WAZ), length-for-age z score (LAZ), and weight-for-length z score (WLZ) and the self-reported breastfeeding practices of 593 HIV-uninfected singletons were analyzed. Generalized estimating equations were used to adjust for confounders. WAZ scores declined precipitously between 4.5 and 15 mo. The decline was slower in the breastfed infants. At 9, 12, and 15 mo, mean WAZs were, respectively, -0.74, -0.92, and -1.06 in infants who were reportedly breastfed and were -1.07, -1.20, and -1.31 in the weaned infants (P = 0.003, 0.007, and 0.02, respectively). No differences were observed past 15 mo. Breastfeeding practice was not associated with LAZ, which declined from -0.98 to -2.24 from 1 to 24 mo. After adjustment for birth weight, maternal viral load, body mass index, education, season, and marital and socioeconomic status, not breastfeeding was associated with a 0.28 decline in WAZ between 4.5 and 15 mo (P < 0.0001). During the rainy season, not breastfeeding was associated with a larger WAZ decline (0.33) than during the dry season (0.22; P for interaction = 0.02). Early growth is compromised in uninfected children born to HIV-infected Zambian mothers. Continued breastfeeding partially mitigates this effect through 15 mo. Nutritional interventions to complement breastfeeding after 6 mo are urgently needed. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00310726.

  18. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmitted infection among blood donors at Jijiga blood bank, Eastern Ethiopia: retrospective 4 years study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Yusuf; Bekele, Alemayehu

    2016-02-27

    A transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) is any infection that is transmissible from person to- person through parenteral administration of blood or blood products. The magnitude of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) varies from country to country depending on TTI's load in that particular population. Measuring their severity, WHO (World Health Organization) has recommended pre-transfusion blood test for Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Syphilis as mandatory. The aim of the current study was to assess the trend and prevalence of TTI among blood donors in Jijiga Blood Bank between 2010 and 2013. A Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the records from 2010 to 2013 at Jijiga Blood Bank. All blood donors who presented to the blood bank and screened for TTI during the study period were included. The data was collected, entered and analyzed using Epi Info 3.5.1 & Microsoft Excel 2007. The descriptive statistics were determined in means of percentages. Chi-square was used for trend analysis and p-value was used to declare the statistical significance between the variable. There were a total of 4224 people donated blood during study period. Males formed the majority of the donor population accounting for 4171 (98.7%). Majority 4139 (98%) of donors were Replacement donors. The overall prevalence of transfusion-transmitted infection was 487/4224 (11.5%). The prevalence for HBsAg, HCV, HIV, & Syphilis antibodies was 460 (10. 9%), 17 (0.4%), 6 (0.1%) and 4 (0.1%) respectively. Majority 460/487 (94.5%) of infection was HBsAg. Statistically significant difference was observed in number of donation as well as sero-positivity from year 2010 to 2013 (Chi-square 9.24, p value = 0.02), in Trends of HBsAg from year to year (Chi-square 11.14, p value = 0.01), HIV virus was seen as the age of donors increases (Chi-square 8.37, p value = 0.01) and There was also statistically significance

  19. West Nile virus lineage 2 infection in a blood donor from Vienna, Austria, August 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbauer, C; Hourfar, M K; Stiasny, K; Aberle, S W; Cadar, D; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; Mayr, W R

    2015-03-01

    Eastern Austria is neighbouring regions with ongoing West Nile virus (WNV) transmissions. Three human WNV infections had been diagnosed during the past decade in Austria. The Austrian Red Cross Blood Service (ARC-BS) started a first voluntary screening for WNV in blood donors from Eastern Austria by Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) in June 2014. This is also the most extensive WNV surveillance programme in humans in Austria so far. In August 2014, one autochthonous WNV infection was detected in a blood donor from Vienna. By now, one in 67,800 whole blood donations was found to be positive for WNV RNA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Diagnosis of arterial prosthetic graft infection by /sup 111/In oxine white blood cell scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, P.P.; Miller, D.C.; Jamieson, S.W.; Mitchell, R.S.; Reitz, B.A.; Olcott, C.; Mehigan, J.T.; Silberstein, R.J.; McDougall, I.R.

    1982-08-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infected prosthetic arterial grafts is difficult, despite the application of diverse diagnostic modalities. Delay in making the diagnosis is largely responsible for the high amputation and mortality rates associated with this complication. In nine patients with suspected graft infections, /sup 111/In white blood cell scanning was useful and accurate. Graft infection was proved in five cases and ruled out in three. One false-positive scan was due to a sigmoid diverticular abscess overlying the graft. /sup 111/In white blood cell scans may improve the accuracy of diagnosing infected prosthetic grafts, which may result in better limb and patient salvage rates.

  1. Diagnosis of arterial prosthetic graft infection by 111In oxine white blood cell scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, P.P.; Miller, D.C.; Jamieson, S.W.; Mitchell, R.S.; Reitz, B.A.; Olcott, C.; Mehigan, J.T.; Silberstein, R.J.; McDougall, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infected prosthetic arterial grafts is difficult, despite the application of diverse diagnostic modalities. Delay in making the diagnosis is largely responsible for the high amputation and mortality rates associated with this complication. In nine patients with suspected graft infections, 111 In white blood cell scanning was useful and accurate. Graft infection was proved in five cases and ruled out in three. One false-positive scan was due to a sigmoid diverticular abscess overlying the graft. 111 In white blood cell scans may improve the accuracy of diagnosing infected prosthetic grafts, which may result in better limb and patient salvage rates

  2. The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, A; Yimam, Y; Madhivanan, P; Erko, B

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nature of association of ABO blood type with helminth infection and related reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Stool samples were collected from 403 school-age children attending Tikur Wuha Elementary School from February to April 2011. Helminth infection was examined using formol-ether concentration and thick Kato-Katz (two slides per stool specimen) techniques. Haemoglobin level was determined using a HemoCue machine and ABO blood type was determined using the antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status was assessed using height and weight measurements. Out of 403 children examined, 169, 120, 96 and 18 had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. The prevalences of helminth infections were 46.9% for hookworm, 24.6% for Schistosoma mansoni, 4.2% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.7% for Trichuris trichiura and 58.3% for any helminth species. The relative odds of infection with at least one helminth species was significantly higher among children with blood type A (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.45) or blood type B (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.22-3.56) as compared to children with blood type O. Among children infected with helminths, mean haemoglobin concentration was lower in those with blood type A than those with blood type O (β, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.01). The relative odds of hookworm infection (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08-2.92) and related reduction in haemogobin levels (β, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.04) was higher among children with blood type A as compared to those with blood type O. Although the difference was not significant, the relative odds of S. mansoni or A. lumbricoides infections and related reduction in haemoglobin levels was also higher in children with blood type A or B as compared to children with blood type O. In conclusion, children with blood type A are associated with an increased risk of helminth, particularly hookworm, infection and related reduction

  3. Plasmodium falciparum Liver Stage Infection and Transition to Stable Blood Stage Infection in Liver-Humanized and Blood-Humanized FRGN KO Mice Enables Testing of Blood Stage Inhibitory Antibodies (Reticulocyte-Binding Protein Homolog 5 In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lander Foquet

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The invention of liver-humanized mouse models has made it possible to directly study the preerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum. In contrast, the current models to directly study blood stage infection in vivo are extremely limited. Humanization of the mouse blood stream is achievable by frequent injections of human red blood cells (hRBCs and is currently the only system with which to study human malaria blood stage infections in a small animal model. Infections have been primarily achieved by direct injection of P. falciparum-infected RBCs but as such, this modality of infection does not model the natural route of infection by mosquito bite and lacks the transition of parasites from liver stage infection to blood stage infection. Including these life cycle transition points in a small animal model is of relevance for testing therapeutic interventions. To this end, we used FRGN KO mice that were engrafted with human hepatocytes and performed a blood exchange under immune modulation to engraft the animals with more than 50% hRBCs. These mice were infected by mosquito bite with sporozoite stages of a luciferase-expressing P. falciparum parasite, resulting in noninvasively measurable liver stage burden by in vivo bioluminescent imaging (IVIS at days 5–7 postinfection. Transition to blood stage infection was observed by IVIS from day 8 onward and then blood stage parasitemia increased with a kinetic similar to that observed in controlled human malaria infection. To assess the utility of this model, we tested whether a monoclonal antibody targeting the erythrocyte invasion ligand reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (with known growth inhibitory activity in vitro was capable of blocking blood stage infection in vivo when parasites emerge from the liver and found it highly effective. Together, these results show that a combined liver-humanized and blood-humanized FRGN mouse model infected with luciferase-expressing P. falciparum will be a

  4. Enhanced localization of liposomes with prolonged blood circulation time in infected lung tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.A.J.M. Bakker-Woudenberg (Irma); A.F. Lokerse (A.); M.T. ten Kate (Marian); G. Storm (Gert)

    1992-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract In an experimental model of unilateral pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniea in rats we investigated whether intravenous administration of liposomes with prolonged blood circulation time resulted in significant localization of liosomes in infected lung tissu.

  5. White blood cell scintigraphy for differentiation of infection and aseptic loosening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Lene; Buhl, Anna; Oersnes, Thue

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis of an infected arthroplasty is often difficult. Fever, abnormal physical findings, radiographic changes, findings at bone scintigraphy, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP, and leucocytosis are not specific enough. We evaluated the diagnostic value of white blood cell...

  6. Sindbis virus infection alters blood feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-De; Bowers, Doria F

    2012-03-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes infected systemically with Sindbis virus (SINV) took longer than uninfected mosquitoes to locate and fully engorge on blood. On days 7 and 14 postexposure, blood feeding took 1.3 and 1.5 times longer in mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection, respectively. SINV dissemination did not affect the average weight of unfed Ae. aegypti, but did result in a 10 and 12% increase in blood imbibed compared with mosquitoes without a positive SINV dissemination and non-SINV-exposed mosquitoes, respectively. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection fed an average of 4 h sooner than uninfected mosquitoes when offered a bloodmeal contained inside a DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) saturated (30%) bovine sausage casing. Together, these results indicate that behavioral changes in mosquito host-seeking, blood feeding and sensitivity to DEET occurred in mosquitoes after SINV infection and dissemination.

  7. Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infection Rate after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adult MSICU. The study was initiated as a quality improvement project to reduce CLABSI rate in ICU. The study was selected in response to annual infection control risk assessment where high. CLABSI rate was one of the five top scored risks of infection prevention control in the hospital. This risk assessment was done by ...

  8. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Various ABO Blood Groups of Kashmiri Population

    OpenAIRE

    Romshoo, Gh. Jeelani; Bhat, Md. Youssuf; Malik, G. M.; Rather, Ab. Rasheed; Naikoo, B. A.; Basu, Javaid A.; Hussain, Tajamul; Rashid, Samia

    1997-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to assess the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in various ABO blood groups of people of Kashmir. Method: The study comprised 80 individuals – 50 peptic ulcer patients (whose disease was diagnosed by endoscopy) and 30 asymptomatic volunteers. Every subject's blood group and Rhesus status was determined by standard serological tests. Helicobacter pylori infection was diagnosed by three different methods viz., one minute endoscopy room test (urease test...

  9. Blood lipids, infection, and inflammatory markers in the Tsimane of Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasunilashorn, Sarinnapha; Crimmins, Eileen M; Kim, Jung Ki; Winking, Jeff; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Finch, Caleb E

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about blood cholesterol (blood-C) levels under conditions of infection and limited diet. This study examines blood-C and markers of infection and inflammation in the Tsimane of the Bolivian Amazon, indigenous forager farmers living in conditions that model preindustrial European populations by their short life expectancy, high load of infections and inflammation, and limited diets. We use multivariate models to determine the relationships between lipid levels and markers of infection and inflammation. Adult Tsimane (N = 418, age 20-84) were characterized for blood lipids, cells, and inflammatory markers in relation to individual loads of parasites and village region. Most of the Tsimane (60%) carried at least one parasite species, averaging 1.3 species per person. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (total-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were below the U.S. norms and varied inversely with markers of infection and inflammation: C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), immunoglobulin (Ig) E and eosinophil count. Although no relationship of parasite load to blood-C was found, there was an association between anemia and parasite prevalence. We conclude that the highly infected environment of the Tsimane is related to low levels of blood total-C, HDL-C, and LDL-C. This may suggest a potential reason why arterial disease is largely absent in the Tsimane. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Food- and water-borne disease: using case control studies to estimate the force of infection that accounts for primary, sporadic cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G

    2013-06-01

    Disease models which take explicit account of heterogeneities in the risk of infection offer significant advantages over models in which the risk of infection is assumed to be uniform across all hosts. However, estimating the incidence rate (force of infection) in the different at-risk (exposure) groups is no easy matter. Classically, epidemiologists differentiate groups of hosts with different infection-risks according to their exposure to putative explanatory risk factors. The importance of these risk factors is assessed by case-control studies, in which the measure of effect (the difference in disease occurrence between one population and another) is the odds ratio. This paper describes for the first time how - and under what circumstances - the incidence in these different exposure groups can be estimated from odds ratios derived from case control studies in which controls have been selected by density sampling. This new estimation technique can be applied to any transmission modality but is especially useful in the case of models of food- and water-borne disease for which the case control literature represents a vast and, as yet, untapped resource. The paper finishes with a worked example using one of the most common of all food- and water-borne pathogens, Toxoplasma gondii. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical and molecular investigation of a canine distemper outbreak and vector-borne infections in a group of rescue dogs imported from Hungary to Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, Barbara; Spiri, Andrea M; Meli, Marina L; Grimm, Felix; Beatrice, Laura; Riond, Barbara; Bley, Tim; Jordi, Rolf; Dennler, Matthias; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-07-16

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a major pathogen of dogs and wild carnivores worldwide. In Switzerland, distemper in domestic dogs is rarely reported. In recent years, the import of dogs from Eastern Europe to Switzerland has steadily increased. In the present study, we describe a distemper outbreak in 15 rescue dogs that were imported from Hungary to Switzerland by an animal welfare organisation. The data on vaccination and medical history were recorded (14 dogs), and the samples were collected to investigate CDV and vector-borne infections (13 dogs) and canine parvovirus infection (12 dogs). The dogs were monitored for six months. One dog was euthanised directly after import. Thirteen dogs showed clinical signs after arrival, i.e., diarrhoea (57 %), coughing (43 %) and nasal and/or ocular discharge (21 %); radiographic findings that were compatible with bronchopneumonia were present in four dogs. CDV infection was diagnosed in 11 dogs (85 %); 10 dogs (91 %) tested PCR-positive in conjunctival swabs. Vector-borne infections (Babesia spp., Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis) were found in 4 dogs (31 %). Three dogs were hospitalized, and six dogs received ambulatory therapy for up to two months until recovery. None of the dogs developed neurological disease. CDV shedding was detected for a period of up to four months. Because dogs were put under strict quarantine until CDV shedding ceased, CDV did not spread to any other dogs. The CDV isolates showed 99 % sequence identity in the HA gene among each other and belonged to the Arctic-like lineage of CDV. The present study highlights the imminent risks of spreading contagious viral and vector-borne infections through the non-selective import of sick dogs and dogs with incomplete vaccination from Eastern Europe. CDV shedding was detected for several months after the cessation of clinical signs, which emphasised the roles of asymptomatic carriers in CDV epidemiology. A long-term follow-up using sensitive PCR and

  12. Hepatitis C virus infection rate in volunteer blood donors from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims. To establish the true incidence of HCV infection in volunteer blood donors in the Western Gape, and compare risk factors and clinical and biochemical features of viraemic and non-viraemic subjects. Methods. All donors attending the Western Province. Blood Transfusion Service between December 1992 and.

  13. Reduced Responsiveness of Blood Leukocytes to Lipopolysaccharide Does not Predict Nosocomial Infections in Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vught, Lonneke A.; Wiewel, Maryse A.; Hoogendijk, Arie J.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; Belkasim-Bohoudi, Hakima; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J.; van der Poll, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Critically ill patients show signs of immune suppression, which is considered to increase vulnerability to nosocomial infections. Whole-blood stimulation is frequently used to test the function of the innate immune system. We here assessed the association between whole-blood leukocyte responsiveness

  14. HIV Trafficking Between Blood and Semen During Early Untreated HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaillon, Antoine; Smith, Davey M; Vanpouille, Christophe; Lisco, Andrea; Jordan, Parris; Caballero, Gemma; Vargas, Milenka; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of HIV across anatomic compartments is important to design effective eradication strategies. In this study, we evaluated viral trafficking between blood and semen during primary HIV infection in 6 antiretroviral-naive men who have sex with men. Deep sequencing data of HIV env were generated from longitudinal blood plasma, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and seminal plasma samples. The presence or absence of viral compartmentalization was assessed using tree-based Slatkin-Maddison and distance-based Fst methods. Phylogeographic analyses were performed using a discrete Bayesian asymmetric approach of diffusion with Markov jump count estimation to evaluate the gene flow between blood and semen during primary HIV infection. Levels of DNA from human herpesviruses and selected inflammatory cytokines were also measured on genital secretions collected at baseline to evaluate potential correlates of increased viral migration between anatomic compartments. We detected varying degrees of compartmentalization in all 6 individuals evaluated. None of them maintained viral compartmentalization between blood and seminal plasma throughout the analyzed time points. Phylogeographic analyses revealed that the HIV population circulating in blood plasma populated the seminal compartment during the earliest stages of infection. In our limited data set, we found no association between local inflammation or herpesvirus shedding at baseline and viral trafficking between semen and blood. The early spread of virus from blood plasma to genital tract and the complex viral interplay between these compartments suggest that viral eradication efforts will require monitoring viral subpopulations in anatomic sites and viral trafficking during the course of infection.

  15. Screening of blood donors for chronic Coxiella burnetii infection after large Q fever outbreaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Ed; Hogema, Boris M.; Molier, Michel; Zaaijer, Hans L.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands experienced major Q fever outbreaks from 2007 through 2009. An increasing number of human chronic Q fever cases has been reported in the affected area. Blood donors unaware of chronic Coxiella burnetii infection might be infectious for transfusion recipients. Local blood donations

  16. Surface antigen-negative hepatitis B virus infection in Dutch blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout-Krikke, R. W.; Molenaar-de Backer, M. W. A.; van Swieten, P.; Zaaijer, H. L.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) is a reliable marker for HBV infection, but HBsAg-negative forms of HBV infection occur. The introduction of HBV DNA screening of Dutch blood donors, which were not preselected for absence of HBV core antibodies, enabled the characterization of

  17. Multiple surface antigen mutations in five blood donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Torres, P.; Ontañón, A.; Ponte, L. González; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Lelie, P. N.; Hemert, F. J. van; Boot, H. J.

    2008-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is characterized by the presence of HBV DNA while the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) remains undetectable. The HBV genomes in five asymptomatic blood donors with occult HBV infection and low viremia ( <10 to 1,000 HBV DNA copies/mL, genotype D) were studied. An

  18. Effect of Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms on the infection of passionflower with Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Marcelo Di Piero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protection of passion fruit plants against CABMV by using preparations from Agaricus brasiliensis and Lentinula edodes mushrooms. In experiments carried out in the greenhouse, the fruiting body extracts from some of the isolates of both mushrooms significantly reduced CABMV incidence in passion fruit plants. This protective effect occurred when the plant leaves, pre-treated with extracts, were later inoculated mechanically with the virus. However, the extracts did not protect the plants in experiments involving CABMV transmission by aphid vectors. An inhibitory effect of mushroom extracts on the virus particles was also demonstrated on Chenopodium quinoa, a CABMV local lesion host, by inoculating the plants with a mixture of extracts and virus suspension. Still in C. quinoa, the mushroom extracts from some isolates induced systemic resistance against the virus. These results showed that aqueous extracts from A. brasiliensis and L. edodes fruiting bodies had CABMV infectivity inhibitors, but that was not enough to control the viral disease on passion fruit plants at all, considering they were infected through a vector.O endurecimento dos frutos do maracujazeiro, causado pelo Cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus (CABMV, é um dos problemas mais sérios que atingem a cultura. Tentativas de se obter plantas resistentes ao vírus ou estirpes fracas premunizantes não apresentaram sucesso até o momento. O objetivo do presente estudo foi o de avaliar a proteção das plantas de maracujá contra o CABMV, utilizando preparações dos cogumelos Lentinula edodes e Agaricus blazei, através da indução de resistência. Em experimentos conduzidos no interior de casa de vegetação, os extratos de basidiocarpos de ambos os cogumelos reduziram significativamente a incidência da virose em plantas de maracujá que tiveram as folhas pré-tratadas com esses extratos e que foram posteriormente inoculadas

  19. Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection among Blood Donors in Georgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaller, Nickolas; Nelson, Kenrad E.; Aladashvili, Malvina; Badridze, Nino; Rio, Carlos del; Tsertsvadze, Tengiz

    2004-01-01

    Background: Growing awareness about the importance of blood safety for controlling the transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) has helped to decrease the spread of this virus in many settings. This study was conducted in order to evaluate potential risk factors for HCV infection among blood donors in Georgia. Methods: The study population consisted of 553 blood donors in three major Georgian cities; Tbilisi, the capital city and Batumi and Poti, naval port cities. Risk factors were examined using a behavior questionnaire. All blood samples were initially tested using 3rd generation anti-HCV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed using recombinant immunoblot assays and nucleic acid testing. Results: Forty-three blood donors, 7.8%, were confirmed HCV positive. Significant risk factors included: drug injection ever (OR: 42; 95% CI: 3.2-550.7); history of hepatitis (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 4.6-145.5); history of a previous surgical procedure (OR: 148.4; 95% CI: 26.9-817.4); blood transfusion (OR: 25.9; 95% CI: 3.2-210.9). Conclusions: This study found a very high prevalence of HCV among blood donors in Georgia. The main risk factor for HCV infection in this population of blood donors was previous contact with contaminated blood or blood products. Reliable screening of donors and their blood is critical for controlling the further spread of HCV in Georgia

  20. Catheter Related Blood Stream Infections In Patients Of The Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Coimbra de Castro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the prevalence of bloodstream infection associated with the Catheter related Blood stream infections in patients of the Intensive Care Unit, and the characteristics of its use and handling. Methods: Descriptive and transversal study with a sample of 88 participants. Data were collected through the observational method and the records in the medical records. The absolute and relative frequencies were used for data analysis. Results: 73.86% of the patients had central venous access in the subclavian vein, 100% used double lumen Catheter related Blood stream infections, 0.5% chlorhexidine solution for skin antisepsis, dressing coverage is performed mostly with Sterile gauze and tape, with a daily exchange. The rate of infection related to the use of the Catheter related Blood stream infections was (6.81%. The most infused pharmacological drugs were antimicrobials (69.32%. Conclusion: The study showed that care with central venous accesses is performed according to recommendations for prevention of bloodstream infection related to the use of these devices. The infection rate is close to the standards found in the literature. Key words: Central Venous Catheterization. Hospital Infection. Intensive care unit. Risk factors. Catheter-Related Infection..

  1. Infants' Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Composition Reflects Both Maternal and Post-Natal Infection with Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Nouatin

    Full Text Available Maternal parasitoses modulate fetal immune development, manifesting as altered cellular immunological activity in cord blood that may be linked to enhanced susceptibility to infections in early life. Plasmodium falciparum typifies such infections, with distinct placental infection-related changes in cord blood exemplified by expanded populations of parasite antigen-specific regulatory T cells. Here we addressed whether such early-onset cellular immunological alterations persist through infancy. Specifically, in order to assess the potential impacts of P. falciparum infections either during pregnancy or during infancy, we quantified lymphocyte subsets in cord blood and in infants' peripheral blood during the first year of life. The principal age-related changes observed, independent of infection status, concerned decreases in the frequencies of CD4+, NKdim and NKT cells, whilst CD8+, Treg and Teff cells' frequencies increased from birth to 12 months of age. P. falciparum infections present at delivery, but not those earlier in gestation, were associated with increased frequencies of Treg and CD8+ T cells but fewer CD4+ and NKT cells during infancy, thus accentuating the observed age-related patterns. Overall, P. falciparum infections arising during infancy were associated with a reversal of the trends associated with maternal infection i.e. with more CD4+ cells, with fewer Treg and CD8+ cells. We conclude that maternal P. falciparum infection at delivery has significant and, in some cases, year-long effects on the composition of infants' peripheral blood lymphocyte populations. Those effects are superimposed on separate and independent age- as well as infant infection-related alterations that, respectively, either match or run counter to them.

  2. Efficient uptake of blood-borne BK and JC polyomavirus-like particles in endothelial cells of liver sinusoids and renal vasa recta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaione Simon-Santamaria

    Full Text Available Liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs are specialized scavenger cells that mediate high-capacity clearance of soluble waste macromolecules and colloid material, including blood-borne adenovirus. To explore if LSECs function as a sink for other viruses in blood, we studied the fate of virus-like particles (VLPs of two ubiquitous human DNA viruses, BK and JC polyomavirus, in mice. Like complete virions, VLPs specifically bind to receptors and enter cells, but unlike complete virions, they cannot replicate. 125I-labeled VLPs were used to assess blood decay, organ-, and hepatocellular distribution of ligand, and non-labeled VLPs to examine cellular uptake by immunohisto- and -cytochemistry. BK- and JC-VLPs rapidly distributed to liver, with lesser uptake in kidney and spleen. Liver uptake was predominantly in LSECs. Blood half-life (∼1 min, and tissue distribution of JC-VLPs and two JC-VLP-mutants (L55F and S269F that lack sialic acid binding affinity, were similar, indicating involvement of non-sialic acid receptors in cellular uptake. Liver uptake was not mediated by scavenger receptors. In spleen, the VLPs localized to the red pulp marginal zone reticuloendothelium, and in kidney to the endothelial lining of vasa recta segments, and the transitional epithelium of renal pelvis. Most VLP-positive vessels in renal medulla did not express PV-1/Meca 32, suggesting location to the non-fenestrated part of vasa recta. The endothelial cells of these vessels also efficiently endocytosed a scavenger receptor ligand, formaldehyde-denatured albumin, suggesting high endocytic activity compared to other renal endothelia. We conclude that LSECs very effectively cleared a large fraction of blood-borne BK- and JC-VLPs, indicating a central role of these cells in early removal of polyomavirus from the circulation. In addition, we report the novel finding that a subpopulation of endothelial cells in kidney, the main organ of polyomavirus persistence, showed

  3. Indicators of fat distribution, serum lipids, and blood pressure in European women born in 1948--the European Fat Distribution Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seidell, J C; Cigolini, M; Charzewska, J; Ellsinger, B M; Di Biase, G; Björntorp, P; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.; Contaldo, F; Szostak, V; Scuro, L A

    In the spring of 1986, the authors studied the relation between body mass index and anthropometric indicators of fat distribution to cardiovascular risk factors (serum lipids and blood pressure) in approximately 450 women aged 38 years randomly selected from population registers in five European

  4. Where do Trypanosoma cruzi go? The distribution of parasites in blood components from fractionated infected whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancino-Faure, Beatriz; Fisa, Roser; Riera, Cristina; Girona-Llobera, Enrique; Jimenez-Marco, Teresa

    2016-09-01

    Platelets (PLTs) are the blood component most frequently involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transfusion transmission cases reported in the literature, although whole blood (WB) and red blood cells (RBCs) have also been incriminated. However, there is little knowledge of the parasite distribution among blood components. The aim of this study was to investigate in which blood component T. cruzi parasites concentrate the most, after fractionating artificially T. cruzi-infected WB. The T. cruzi parasite load was studied by a specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in WB, buffy coat (BC), PLT concentrates, RBCs before and after leukoreduction, and plasma (PL). The parasite load in WB experimentally infected with 1.5 × 10(6) parasites (2.78 × 10(3) parasite equivalents/mL) was unevenly distributed among the separated blood components. The highest level was found in the BC (6.94 × 10(3) parasite equivalents/mL) and RBCs before leukoreduction by filtration (2.51 × 10(3) parasite equivalents/mL), after which RBCs presented a 99.9% reduction in parasite levels. Both PL and PLTs, partially leukoreduced by centrifugation but nonfiltered, had low parasite levels, the lowest concentration being in PL. The highest parasite concentration was detected in the BC, followed by RBCs before leukoreduction. There is a notable risk of transfusion-transmitted Chagas disease associated with nonleukoreduced RBCs. Leukoreduction may be an effective prevention strategy for transfusion-transmitted T. cruzi infection, especially in endemic countries and in nonendemic countries with a high rate of immigration from Latin America. © 2016 AABB.

  5. Increased susceptibility of blood type O individuals to develop anemia in Plasmodium vivax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Sarah Stela; Milagres, Vanessa Gonçalves; Chaves, Daniel Gonçalves; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; Sousa, Tais Nobrega; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de

    2017-06-01

    Plasmodium vivax has been reported to cause severe malaria, and one of the main resulting complications is anemia. Considering that P. vivax infects only young erythrocytes, anemia has been associated with the destruction of infected and non-infected erythrocytes. However, few studies have focused on understanding the relationship between the pathogenesis of P. vivax malaria and human genetic polymorphisms. Although ABO groups seem to influence the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the association between P. vivax and ABO blood groups has been minimally investigated. Thus, we investigate the correlation between ABO blood groups and anemia induced by P. vivax infection. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms at the ABO gene were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR in P. vivax-infected subjects. The ABO blood types were associated with the hematological data of the patients. Our main finding was that type O infected-individuals showed lower levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to type A-infected individuals. The correlation between ABO blood groups and hemoglobin levels remained significant when a multiple linear regression was applied with the possible confounding effects of clinical-epidemiologic variables taken into account. The finding that type O individuals have a higher frequency of anemia is a first step to understand the mechanisms involved in malaria anemia, which could be associated to increased destruction of type O erythrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of antigen dosage on the hepatitis B vaccine response in infants born to hepatitis B-uninfected and hepatitis B-infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Guodong; Ma, Fubao; Chen, Haiping; Yang, Yunkai; Guo, Shaohong; Wang, Zhiguo; Liang, Xiaofeng; Li, Li; Cui, Fuqiang; Zhang, Longhua

    2015-08-07

    To compare the safety and immunogenicity of two dosages of recombinant hepatitis B (HB) vaccine administered to infants born to HB-uninfected and HB-infected mothers. A phase III, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was conducted with 506 healthy newborns. The newborns were assigned to three groups based on maternal levels of HB surface antigen (HBsAg) and HB e antigen (HBeAg): Group A, HBsAg negative; Group B, HBsAg positive and HBeAg negative; and Group C, HBsAg positive and HBeAg positive. Three doses of 10 or 5 μg recombinant HB vaccine were randomly administered by 1:1 within 24 h after birth, at 1 month and at 6 months. Safety data and pre- and postvaccination blood samples were collected. A total of 326, 93, and 87 subjects were included in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Both dosages of HB vaccine were well tolerated by all subjects. The most common injection-site adverse reactions (ARs) and systemic ARs were pain and fever. After 1 month of the third dose, the Group A infants who received the 10 μg HB vaccine achieved a higher geometric mean concentration (GMC) of HB surface antibody (anti-HBs) than those who received the 5 μg dosage. Maternal anti-HBs serostatus did not influence HB vaccine immunogenicity at either dosage. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the anti-HBs seroconversion rate, GMCs, or estimated vaccine efficacy (EVE) against perinatal transmission between Groups B and C, regardless of dosage. However, the seroconversion rate and EVE of the 5 μg HB vaccine was lower in Group C than in Group B. Both dosages of the HB vaccine were well tolerated and elicited a good immune response in infants of Group A, regardless of the maternal anti-HBs serostatus. EVE did not significantly differ between Groups B and C. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02152709. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Seroprevalence and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, HCV and syphilis infections among blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafesse, Tadesse Bekele; Gebru, Addis Adera; Gobalee, Semgne; Belay, Gosaye Degu; Belew, Molla Teferi; Ataro, Demelash; Ebrahim, Belay Ali; Shebeshi, Getachew Mekonnon; Yimam, Yonas

    2017-01-01

    Blood transfusion is one of the most important therapeutic options of life-saving intervention for recipients who are in diseased or non-diseased conditions with severe blood loss. However, it is associated with certain risks which can lead to adverse consequences that may cause acute or delayed complications and bring the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections including HIV, Hepatitis B & C and Syphilis. So, there might be a fatal risk instead of life saving. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive and reliable tabulation of available data on seroprevalence and diagnosis of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis infections among blood donors. We searched studies reporting the prevalence rate of HIV, HBV, HCV and Syphilis infections among blood donors that were published between October 2009 and June 2016, using databases of PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, Elsevier, ScienceDirect, EBSCO, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and Web of Science with keywords: ``Hepatitis C Virus'', ``Hepatitis B Virus'', ``HIV'', ``Syphilis'', ``Seroprevalence'', and ``blood donor''. The seroprevalence of HBV and HCV was highest in African countries as compared to others continents, predominantly the West African region with a range of 10.0% to 14.96% and 1.5% to 8.69%, respectively, while the overall seropositivity of HIV and syphilis infection show a significant declining pattern through successive years globally, even though relatively higher prevalence rate was observed among older age and those with low level of education. There is a problem during selection, diagnoses and screening process in developing nations primarily due to shortage of sensitive screening test kits, highly qualified human resource and lack of proper standard operating procedures and hence, the safety of blood and blood products are the primary threats in the region. Proper clinical diagnosis and screening method should be applied during blood donation and therefore, all the donated blood should be screened properly for

  8. Blood Values of Some Helminth-Infected Aquacultured Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nellie Lopez

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes, thrombocytes, lymphocytes and neutrophils were the principal blood cell types found in the blood of Clarias batrachus, Ophicephalus striatus, Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus. Eosinophils and basophils were observed in Ophicephalus striatus but were absent in Clarias batrachus. Eosinophils but no basophils were seen in Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus. Along with mature erythrocytes, immature, dividing, senile, and disintegrated erythrocytes were also observed from the circulating blood of the four fish species.From Clarias batrachus, eight species of helminths were recovered, namely, Cichlidogyrus sclerosus, Actinocleidus sp., Phyllodistomum sp., Opegaster minima, Gauhatiana batrachii, Bovienia serialis, Procamallanus darius, and Philometra sp. The parasites recovered from Ophicephalus striatus were Diplostomulum sp., Camallanus ophicephali, Arqulus indicus, and Lernaea cyprinacea. Cichlidogyrus sclerosus and Transversotrema laruei were collected from Oreochromis mossambicus and Oreochromis niloticus; from the latter, Gyrodactylus medius was also recovered. The average parasite burden was generally low.Parasitized and unparasitized fishes were active and appeared healthy. Blood values of parasitized fishes showed few significant differences from those of unparasitized fish groups. No parasitized fish group showed significant reduction in mean hematocrit and RBC count or significant increase in mean WBC count and mean % neutrophils in comparison with unparasitized group of the same fish species.

  9. HIV-1 isolation from infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dispinseri, Stefania; Saba, Elisa; Vicenzi, Elisa; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Scarlatti, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) isolation from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) allows retrieval of replication-competent viral variants. In order to impose the smallest possible selective pressure on the viral isolates, isolation must be carried out in primary cultures of cells and

  10. Original Paper Malaria Infection Among Blood Donors in Onitsha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-26

    Apr 26, 2011 ... the cold or sweating stage, headache and physically detected anaemia, shivering, pain at body joints, weakness and vomiting. The donors were also .... menstruation, pregnancy, lactation and iron deficiency anaemia often hinder women from donating blood. Sierra Leone J Biomed Res 2011| Vol. 3 No. 1.

  11. A Review of Methods for Detecting Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection in Tick, Animal, and Human Specimens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ergunay, K.; Tkachev, S.; Kozlova, I.; Růžek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), s. 4-12 ISSN 1530-3667 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/11/2116 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * serology * PCR * tick(s) * rodents Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.045, year: 2016

  12. Distribution of Mycoplasma haemofelis in blood and tissues following experimental infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasker, Séverine; Peters, Iain R; Day, Michael J; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J; Helps, Chris R

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe blood and tissue copy number distribution during Mycoplasma haemofelis infection and determine if sequestration of organisms in body tissues could explain blood copy number cycling in infected cats. Thirteen domestic-shorthaired cats were used. Blood samples were regularly collected, and at a differing time point post-infection for each cat, tissue samples also collected, for quantitative PCR (qPCR). Absolute haemoplasma copy numbers were calculated for all blood and tissue samples, as well as an estimation of the ratio of tissue haemoplasma copy number to that expected in the tissue if a positive qPCR result arose due to tissue blood supply alone. Cats with high or moderate M. haemofelis blood copy numbers at the time of tissue collection had fewer M. haemofelis copies in most tissues than expected due to the tissue blood supply alone; only splenic and lung tissues consistently contained more M. haemofelis. However tissues collected from cats at a time of very low M. haemofelis blood copy numbers, when putative copy number cycling nadirs were occurring, were usually qPCR negative. Hence no evidence of significant tissue M. haemofelis sequestration was found in this study to explain the copy number cycling reported with this feline haemoplasma species.

  13. How do Nutritional Stress and La Crosse Virus Infection Interact? Tests for Effects on Willingness to Blood Feed and Fecundity in Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westby, Katie M; Muturi, Ephantus J; Juliano, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that vector-borne pathogens should have low virulence for their vector because of selection against pathogens that harm the vector sufficiently to reduce transmission. Environmental factors such as nutritional stress can alter vector-pathogen associations by making the vectors more susceptible to pathogens (condition-dependent competence) and vulnerable to the harm caused by pathogen replication (condition-dependent virulence). We tested the hypotheses of condition-dependent competence and condition-dependent virulence by examining the interactive effects of short-term sugar deprivation and exposure to La Crosse virus (LACV) in female Aedes albopictus (Skuse). We predicted that infection status interacts with sugar deprivation to alter willingness to blood feed and fecundity in the second gonotrophic cycle (condition-dependent virulence). Sugar deprivation had no effect on body infection or disseminated infection rates. Infection status, sugar treatment, and their interaction had no effect on fecundity. Mosquitoes that had intermittent access to sugar were significantly more willing to take a second bloodmeal compared with those that had continuous access to sugar. Infection status and the interaction with sugar treatment had no effect on blood-feeding behavior. Thus, we found no evidence of short-term sugar deprivation leading to condition-dependent competence for, or condition-dependent virulence of, LACV in Ae. albopictus. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Elevations in mortality associated with weaning persist into the second year of life among uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Louise; Sinkala, Moses; Semrau, Katherine; Kankasa, Chipepo; Kasonde, Prisca; Mwiya, Mwiya; Hu, Chih-Chi; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Thea, Donald M; Aldrovandi, Grace M

    2010-02-01

    Early weaning has been recommended to reduce postnatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. We evaluated the safety of stopping breast-feeding at different ages for mortality of uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers. During a trial of early weaning, 958 HIV-infected mothers and their infants were recruited and followed up from birth to 24 months postpartum in Lusaka, Zambia. One-half of the cohort was randomized to wean abruptly at 4 months, and the other half of the cohort was randomized to continue breast-feeding. We examined associations between uninfected child mortality and actual breast-feeding duration and investigated possible confounding and effect modification. The mortality rate among 749 uninfected children was 9.4% by 12 months of age and 13.6% by 24 months of age. Weaning during the interval encouraged by the protocol (4-5 months of age) was associated with a 2.03-fold increased risk of mortality (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.13-3.65), weaning at 6-11 months of age was associated with a 3.54-fold increase (95% CI, 1.68-7.46), and weaning at 12-18 months of age was associated with a 4.22-fold increase (95% CI, 1.59-11.24). Significant effect modification was detected, such that risks associated with weaning were stronger among infants born to mothers with higher CD4(+) cell counts (>350 cells/microL). Shortening the normal duration of breast-feeding for uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers living in low-resource settings is associated with significant increases in mortality extending into the second year of life. Intensive nutritional and counseling interventions reduce but do not eliminate this excess mortality.

  15. Central Line Associated Blood Stream Infection Rate after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CLABSI) rates remains a problem in developing countries due to the variations in surveillance practices and/or infection risk as non.availability of national data. Aim: The aim of the following study was to find out the CLABSI rate before and after ...

  16. the prevalence of malaria parasitic infections in cord blood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-07-31

    Jul 31, 2013 ... infection from the mother to the foetus (Alphose et al., 2012) and malaria being the major cause of morbidity and mortality in .... This is supported by the fact that the prevalence of fetal anemia ... Bergstrom, S., Fernandes, A., Schwalbach, J. Perez, O. and Miyar R. (1993): Materno-fetal transmission of.

  17. La Crosse virus infection alters blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bryan T; Brewster, Carlyle C; Paulson, Sally L

    2012-11-01

    The effects of La Crosse virus (LACV) infection on blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were investigated in the laboratory by measuring the size of the bloodmeal imbibed and the extent of refeeding by virus-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. LACV-infected Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus took significantly less blood compared with uninfected mosquitoes. Twice as many virus-infected Ae. triseriatus mosquitoes refed compared with uninfected individuals (18 vs. 9%; P < 0.05); however, virus infection had no significant effect on the refeeding rate of Ae. albopictus. Reduction in bloodmeal size followed by an increased avidity for refeeding may lead to enhanced horizontal transmission of the LACV by its principal vector, Ae. triseriatus.

  18. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM AND CYTOGENETIC CHANGES IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD T-LYMPHOCYTES OF PATIENTS WITH ARTHRITIS ASSOCIATED WITH IXODES TICK-BORNE BORRELIOSIS IN THE NORTHERN REGIONS OF SIBERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Ilyinskikh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have previously conducted studies that demonstrate the increased level of cytogenetic disturbances in patients with Ixodes tick-borne borreliosis (ITB. The severity of arthritis associated with ITB (AITB is also ascertained to depend on whether the patient has certain HLA-DRB1 alleles.Objective: to assess the association between HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism and cytogenetic changes in the peripheral blood T lymphocytes of patients with AITB.Subjects and methods. 146 patients with AITB, 100 clinically healthy convalescents with ITB (CITB, and a control group of 98 healthy blood donors (HBDs without a history of tick-borne infections were examined using cytogenetic (micronucleus analysis of cytokinesis-blocked peripheral blood T lymphocytes and molecular genetic (PCR analysis of HLA-DRB1 gene polymorphism methods.Results and discussion. The frequency of cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes with micronuclei in the AITB group was significantly higher than that in the CITB and HBD groups (p<0.01 with the exception of the results obtained in the subgroup of patients with AITB who had the DRB1*10 allele (p>0.05. The highest levels of lymphocytes with micronuclei were observed in AITB patients with the DRB1*17(03, *01, and *04 alleles as compared to those in the CITB and HBD groups (p<0.001. The CITB group showed the most significant increase in the detection rate of lymphocytes with micronuclei in people with the DRB1*01, DRB1*04, or *17(03 alleles. At the same time, there were no significant differences in the number of lymphocytes with micronuclei in the HBD group, depending on the HLA-DRB1 gene alleles (p>0.05. Thus, the patients with AITB had the highest frequency of cytogenetic disorders with the exception of individuals with the DRB1*10 allele.

  19. Optical diagnosis of dengue virus infected human blood using Mueller matrix polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Shahzad; Firdous, Shamaraz

    2016-08-01

    Currently dengue fever diagnosis methods include capture ELISAs, immunofluorescence tests, and hemagglutination assays. In this study optical diagnosis of dengue virus infection in the whole blood is presented utilizing Mueller matrix polarimetry. Mueller matrices of about 50 dengue viral infected and 25 non-dengue healthy blood samples were recorded utilizing light source from 500 to 700 nm with scanning step of 10 nm. Polar decomposition of the Mueller matrices for all the blood samples was performed that yielded polarization properties including depolarization, diattenuation, degree of polarization, retardance and optical activity, out of which, depolarization index clusters up the diseased and healthy in to different separate groups. The average depolarized light in the case of dengue infection in the whole blood at 500 nm is 18%, whereas for the healthy blood samples it is 13.5%. This suggests that depolarization index of polarized light at the wavelengths of 500, 510, 520, 530 and 540 nm, we find that in case of depolarization index values are higher for dengue viral infection as compared to normal samples. This technique can effectively be used for the characterization of the dengue virus infected at an early stage of disease.

  20. Stored red blood cell transfusions: iron, inflammation, immunity, and infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitalnik, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    Emily Cooley was a highly regarded medical technologist and morphologist. The "Emily Cooley Lectureship and Award" was established to honor her, in particular, and medical technologists, in general. This article reviews some basic concepts about the "life of a red blood cell" (RBC) and uses these to discuss the actual and potential consequences that occur in patients after clearance of transfused refrigerator storage-damaged RBCs by extravascular hemolysis. © 2014 AABB.

  1. Asymptomatic infection by Leishmania infantum in blood donors from the Balearic Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera, Cristina; Fisa, Roser; López-Chejade, Paulo; Serra, Teresa; Girona, Enrique; Jiménez, Mteresa; Muncunill, José; Sedeño, Matilde; Mascaró, Martín; Udina, Maria; Gállego, Montserrrat; Carrió, Jaume; Forteza, Alejandro; Portús, Montserrat

    2008-07-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a zoonotic disease endemic throughout the Mediterranean basin. The existence of asymptomatic human infection entails the risk of transmission by blood transfusion. The prevalence of Leishmania infection was studied in 1437 blood donors from the Balearic Islands (Majorca, Formentera, and Minorca) using immunologic (Western blot [WB] and delayed-type hypersensitivity [DTH]), parasitologic (culture), and molecular (nested polymerase chain reaction [PCR]) methods. In addition, the efficiency of leukoreduction by filtration to remove the parasite was tested by nested PCR in the red blood cell (RBC) units. Leishmania antibodies were detected in 44 of the 1437 blood donors tested (3.1%). A sample of 304 donors from Majorca was selected at random. L. infantum DNA was amplified in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) in 18 of the 304 (5.9%), and cultures were positive in 2 of the 304 (0.6%). DTH was performed on 73 of the 304 donors and was positive for 8 of them (11%). Of the 18 donors with positive L. infantum nested PCR, only 2 were seropositive. All the RBC samples tested (13 of 18) from donors with a positive PBMNC nested PCR yielded negative nested PCR results after leukodepletion. Cryptic Leishmania infection is highly prevalent in blood donors from the Balearic Islands. DTH and L. infantum nested PCR appear to be more sensitive to detect asymptomatic infection than the serology. The use of leukodepletion filters appears to remove parasites from RBC units efficiently.

  2. A review of Candida species causing blood stream infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Giri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of candidemia has been on a rise worldwide. The epidemiology of invasive fungal infections in general and of candidemia in particular has changed in the past three decades because of a variety of factors like the AIDS epidemic, increased number of patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy for transplantation and the increasing use of antimicrobials in the hospital setups and even in the community. The important risk factors for candidemia include use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials, cancer chemotherapy, mucosal colonization by Candida species, indwelling vascular catheters like central venous catheters, etc. More than 90% of the invasive infections due to Candida species are attributed to five species-Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis, Candida tropicalis and Candida krusei. However, the list of new species of Candida isolated from clinical specimens continues to grow every year. Early diagnosis and proper treatment is the key for management of candidemia cases.

  3. Analysis of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Tangshan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Xiao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo investigate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection (OBI among the volunteer blood donors in Tangshan, China. MethodsEnzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum HBV markers in the blood donors. Nucleic acid test (NAT was performed in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-negative blood samples to detect HBV DNA, and Roche reagent was used to measure the viral load of HBV DNA in NAT-positive samples. ResultsAmong the HBsAg-negative blood samples of 116 741 blood donors, 39 (0.033% had positive results in NAT, and 35 (0.029% were confirmed with OBI. The viral load of HBV DNA was less than 102 IU/ml in 97.1% of the blood donors with OBI. Of the blood donors with OBI, 27 (77.1% were positive for at least one of hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb, hepatitis B e antigen, hepatitis B e antibody, and hepatitis B core antibody (HBcAb, and 8 (22.9% were negative for all serum HBV markers. Of the 27 positive blood donors, 22 (81.5% were positive for HBcAb, and 15 (55.6% were positive for HBsAb. ConclusionOBI occurs in some HBsAg-negative blood donors in Tangshan, and the viral load of HBV DNA is low. NAT is effective in increasing the detection rate of HBV infection.

  4. Leukoreduction by centrifugation does not eliminate Trypanosoma cruzi from infected blood units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzib, Doris; Hernández, Virginia Peña; Ake, Baldemar Canche; López, Ruth Alacantara; Monteón, Victor Manuel

    2009-06-01

    Current strategies to prevent transfusion-associated Chagas disease include the identification of Trypanosoma cruzi-infected blood donors through questionnaires and serologic tests. There are other procedures such as leukoreduction that prevent the transmission of infectious agents associated to white cells. The objective of the present work was to estimate the seroprevalence, evaluate the efficacy of leukoreduction by centrifugation to eliminate T. cruzi in infected blood units, and the correlation of immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses of seropositive blood donors with chronic chagasic cardiopathy. Over a period of 14 months, 33 out of 6600 blood donors (0.5%) at Centro Estatal de la Transfusión Sanguínea in Campeche State, México were seropositive for T. cruzi. Twenty seropositive blood units were submitted through leukoreduction by centrifugation, and in the fractions generated (red cell fraction, platelets, and the buffy-coat), we searched for the presence of T. cruzi using specific polymerase chain reaction. We detected parasite DNA in 50% to 60% of the fractions tested, suggesting that leukoreduction by centrifugation does not eliminate the microorganisms in the infected blood unit. We also observed that the level of IgG2 and IgG4 subclasses specific for T. cruzi in seropositive blood donors was lower than in chronic cardiopathic chagasic patients. In conclusion, leukoreduction by centrifugation has a limited role in eliminating T. cruzi in infected blood supply, and the low level of specific IgG2 and IgG4 could be a marker in the indeterminate phase of infection.

  5. Tattoo Pigments Are Observed in the Kupffer Cells of the Liver Indicating Blood-Borne Distribution of Tattoo Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Mitra; Sejersen, Tobias; Qvortrup, Klaus; Lerche, Catharina M; Serup, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Tattoo pigments are deposited in the skin and known to distribute to regional lymph nodes. Tattoo pigments are small particles and may be hypothesized to reach the blood stream and become distributed to peripheral organs. This has not been studied in the past. The aim of the study was to trace tattoo pigments in internal organs in mice extensively tattooed with 2 different tattoo ink products. Three groups of mice were studied, i.e., 10 tattooed black, 10 tattooed red, and 5 untreated controls. They were tattooed on the entire back with commercial tattoo inks, black and red. Mice were sacrificed after 1 year. Samples were isolated from tattooed skin, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney, and lung. Samples were examined for deposits of tattoo pigments by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM identified intracellular tattoo pigments in the skin and in lymph nodes. TEM in both groups of tattooed mice showed tattoo pigment deposits in the Kupffer cells in the liver, which is a new observation. TEM detected no pigment in other internal organs. Light microscopy showed dense pigment in the skin and in lymph nodes but not in internal organs. The study demonstrated black and red tattoo pigment deposits in the liver; thus, tattoo pigment distributed from the tattooed skin via the blood stream to this important organ of detoxification. The finding adds a new dimension to tattoo pigment distribution in the body, i.e., as observed via the blood in addition to the lymphatic pathway. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Blood group A and Rh(D)-negativity are associated with symptomatic West Nile virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaidarova, Zhanna; Bravo, Marjorie D.; Kamel, Hany T.; Custer, Brian S; Busch, Michael P.; Lanteri, Marion C.

    2016-01-01

    Background West Nile virus (WNV) infection is mostly asymptomatic but 20% of subjects report WNV fever and 1% of patients experience neurological diseases with higher rates in elderly and immunosuppressed persons. With no treatment and no vaccine to prevent the development of symptomatic infections, it is essential to understand prognostic factors influencing symptomatic disease outcome. Host genetic background has been linked to the development of WNV neuroinvasive disease. The present study investigates the association between the ABO and Rh(D) blood group status and WNV disease outcome. Study Design and Methods The distribution of blood groups was investigated within a cohort of 374 WNV+ blood donors including 244 asymptomatic (AS) and 130 symptomatic (S) WNV+ blood donors. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations between A, B, O and Rh(D) blood groups and WNV clinical disease outcome. Results Symptomatic WNV+ donors exhibited increased frequencies of blood group A (S 47.6% AS 36.8%, P=0.04, OR [95%CI] 1.56 [1.01–2.40]) and Rh(D)-negative individuals (S 21.5% AS 13.1%, P=0.03, OR [95%CI] 1.82 [1.04–3.18]). Conclusion The findings suggest a genetic susceptibility placing blood group A and Rh(D)-negative individuals at risk for the development of symptomatic disease outcome after WNV infection. PMID:27189860

  7. Toxicants in folk remedies: Implications of elevated blood lead in an American-born infant due to imported diaper powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwowski, Mateusz P.; Morman, Suzette A.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Law, Terence; Kellogg, Mark; Woolf, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Though most childhood lead exposure in the USA results from ingestion of lead-based paint dust, non-paint sources are increasingly implicated. We present interdisciplinary findings from and policy implications of a case of elevated blood lead (13–18 mcg/dL, reference level diaper powder. Analyses showed the powder contains 62 % lead by weight (primarily lead oxide) and elevated antimony [1000 parts per million (ppm)], arsenic (55 ppm), bismuth (110 ppm), and thallium (31 ppm). These metals are highly bioaccessible in simulated gastric fluids, but only slightly bioaccessible in simulated lung fluids and simulated urine, suggesting that the primary lead exposure routes were ingestion via hand-mouth transmission and ingestion of inhaled dusts cleared from the respiratory tract. Four weeks after discontinuing use of the powder, the infant’s venous blood lead level was 8 mcg/dL. Unregulated, imported folk remedies can be a source of toxicant exposure. Additional research on import policy, product regulation, public health surveillance, and culturally sensitive risk communication is needed to develop efficacious risk reduction strategies in the USA. The more widespread use of contaminated folk remedies in the countries from which they originate is a substantial concern.

  8. The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test and white blood cell count in acute throat infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkstén, B; Ekstrand, T; Gothefors, L; Ostberg, Y

    1975-01-01

    The clinical value of the NBT test and of leucocyte counts in the aetiological differentiation of acute throat infections was investigated. In our hands a frequency of less than 13% NBT positive neutrophils is considered as normal and a test value above 19% as "positive", i.e. indicating a bacterial infection. More than 19% or more than 1 800 NBT positive neutrophils per mm-3 blood were found in 10 of 18 patients with an infection caused by beta-haemolytic streptococci, in 1 of 2 patients with a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and in 1 patient with both a streptococcal and mycoplasmal infection, but in none of 19 patients with a viral infection. Since 8 of 18 patients with streptococcal throat infection had normal NBT test results, the NBT test apparently is of limited value in the early recognition of these infections. A high NBT test value would however support the diagnosis. The white blood cell and neutrophil counts were of little value in the differentiation between streptococcal and viral throat infection.

  9. Estimating the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in blood donors and pregnant women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabae, Koji; Satoh, Hiroshi; Nishiura, Hiroshi; Tanaka-Taya, Keiko; Okabe, Nobuhiko; Oishi, Kazunori; Matsumoto, Kunichika; Hasegawa, Tomonori

    2014-01-01

    Seroepidemiological study of parvovirus B19 has not taken place for some 20 years in Japan. To estimate the risk of parvovirus B19 infection in Japan among blood donors and pregnant women in this century, a seroepidemiological survey and statistical modeling of the force of infection were conducted. The time- and age-specific seroprevalence data were suggestive of strong age-dependency in the risk of infection. Employing a piecewise constant model, the highest forces of infection of 0.05 and 0.12 per year were observed among those aged 0-4 and 5-9 years, respectively, while estimates among older individuals were less than 0.01 per year. Analyzing the antigen detection data among blood donors, the age-specific proportion positive was highest among those aged 30-39 years, agreeing with the presence of dip in seroprevalence in this age-group. Among pregnant women, up to 107 fetal deaths and 21 hydrops fetalis were estimated to have occurred annually across Japan. Seroepidemiological profiles of PVB19 infection in Japan was characterized with particular emphasis on the risk of infection in blood donors and the burden of infection among pregnant women. When a vaccine becomes available in the future, a similar seroepidemiological study is expected to play a key role in planning the appropriate immunization policy.

  10. Gene expression patterns in blood leukocytes discriminate patients with acute infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Windy; Chung, Wendy; Mejias, Asuncion; Ardura, Monica; Glaser, Casey; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Piqueras, Bernard; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A. Karolina; Chaussabel, Damien

    2007-01-01

    Each infectious agent represents a unique combination of pathogen-associated molecular patterns that interact with specific pattern-recognition receptors expressed on immune cells. Therefore, we surmised that the blood immune cells of individuals with different infections might bear discriminative transcriptional signatures. Gene expression profiles were obtained for 131 peripheral blood samples from pediatric patients with acute infections caused by influenza A virus, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria. Thirty-five genes were identified that best discriminate patients with influenza A virus infection from patients with either E coli or S pneumoniae infection. These genes classified with 95% accuracy (35 of 37 samples) an independent set of patients with either influenza A, E coli, or S pneumoniae infection. A different signature discriminated patients with E coli versus S aureus infections with 85% accuracy (34 of 40). Furthermore, distinctive gene expression patterns were observed in patients presenting with respiratory infections of different etiologies. Thus, microarray analyses of patient peripheral blood leukocytes might assist in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases. PMID:17105821

  11. Higher sequence diversity in the vaginal tract than in blood at early HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Klein

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the majority of cases, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infection is transmitted through sexual intercourse. A single founder virus in the blood of the newly infected donor emerges from a genetic bottleneck, while in rarer instances multiple viruses are responsible for systemic infection. We sought to characterize the sequence diversity at early infection, between two distinct anatomical sites; the female reproductive tract vs. systemic compartment. We recruited 72 women from Uganda and Zimbabwe within seven months of HIV-1 infection. Using next generation deep sequencing, we analyzed the total genetic diversity within the C2-V3-C3 envelope region of HIV-1 isolated from the female genital tract at early infection and compared this to the diversity of HIV-1 in plasma. We then compared intra-patient viral diversity in matched cervical and blood samples with three or seven months post infection. Genetic analysis of the C2-V3-C3 region of HIV-1 env revealed that early HIV-1 isolates within blood displayed a more homogeneous genotype (mean 1.67 clones, range 1-5 clones than clones in the female genital tract (mean 5.7 clones, range 3-10 clones (p<0.0001. The higher env diversity observed within the genital tract compared to plasma was independent of HIV-1 subtype (A, C and D. Our analysis of early mucosal infections in women revealed high HIV-1 diversity in the vaginal tract but few transmitted clones in the blood. These novel in vivo finding suggest a possible mucosal sieve effect, leading to the establishment of a homogenous systemic infection.

  12. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  13. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubaire-Akiiki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  14. Frequency of HIV type 2 infections among blood donor population from India: A 10-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannangai R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In India, HIV-2 epidemic is alongside with HIV-1. Blood banks are introducing nucleic acid testing (NAT for screening. The limitation of NAT systems is the inability to detect HIV-2. Materials and Method : An analysis of HIV screening of a blood bank at a tertiary care center from 1998 to 2007 was carried out. Results : A total of 175026 donors were screened by serological assays and 789 were reactive for HIV antibody. Only 478 (61% were confirmed positive by Western blot/immunoblot. There were 465 (97.2% donations positive for HIV-1, 6 (1.3% for HIV-2 (monotypic infection and 7 (1.5% for HIV-1 and HIV-2 (dual infection. Conclusion : We show the presence of HIV-2 infection among the blood donors and the need for incorporating HIV-2 detection also in the NAT systems.

  15. [Can we rule out a congenital cytomegalovirus infection when the result of polymerase chain reaction in dried blood spots is negative?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vives-Oñós, Isabel; Soler-Palacín, Pere; Codina-Grau, María Gemma; Martín-Nalda, Andrea; López-Galera, Rosa María; Marín-Soria, José Luís; Figueras-Nadal, Concepció

    2014-11-01

    The detection of cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA by real time polymerase chain reaction (rt-PCR) in dried blood spots collected routinely for metabolic screening has been assessed for the retrospective diagnosis of congenital CMV (cCMV) infection in many studies, but not in Spain. The aim of this study is to analyze the diagnostic accuracy of this technique in our hospital. A cross-sectional retrospective observational study was conducted including all patients born between January, 2007 and September, 2012 with confirmed cCMV infection. The assessment of CMV DNA was made by using rt-PCR in dried blood spots of these patients. Fourteen patients were included: 4/14 were symptomatic and 4/14 had sequelae. The detection of CMV DNA by rt-PCR was positive in only 7 patients. A statistically significant relationship between low viral load at birth and negative rt-PCR in dried blood spots was demonstrated. Despite the low number of patients included, our data highlight an important amount of false negative results in the DNA CMV detection by rt-PCR in these samples for the retrospective diagnosis of cCMV infection, especially in cases with low viral load at birth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Tattoo Pigments Are Observed in the Kupffer Cells of the Liver Indicating Blood-Borne Distribution of Tattoo Ink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sepehri, Mitra; Steen Sejersen, Tobias; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    tattoo pigments in internal organs in mice extensively tattooed with 2 different tattoo ink products. MATERIAL/METHODS: Three groups of mice were studied, i.e., 10 tattooed black, 10 tattooed red, and 5 untreated controls. They were tattooed on the entire back with commercial tattoo inks, black and red......AIM: Tattoo pigments are deposited in the skin and known to distribute to regional lymph nodes. Tattoo pigments are small particles and may be hypothesized to reach the blood stream and become distributed to peripheral organs. This has not been studied in the past. The aim of the study was to trace....... Mice were sacrificed after 1 year. Samples were isolated from tattooed skin, lymph nodes, liver, spleen, kidney, and lung. Samples were examined for deposits of tattoo pigments by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: TEM identified intracellular tattoo pigments...

  17. Zika Virus Infects Human Sertoli Cells and Modulates the Integrity of the In Vitro Blood-Testis Barrier Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemann, David N; Strange, Daniel P; Maharaj, Payal N; Shi, Pei-Yong; Verma, Saguna

    2017-11-15

    Confirmed reports of Zika virus (ZIKV) in human seminal fluid for months after the clearance of viremia suggest the ability of ZIKV to establish persistent infection in the seminiferous tubules, an immune-privileged site in the testis protected by the blood-testis barrier, also called the Sertoli cell (SC) barrier (SCB). However, cellular targets of ZIKV in human testis and mechanisms by which the virus enters seminiferous tubules remain unclear. We demonstrate that primary human SCs were highly susceptible to ZIKV compared to the closely related dengue virus and induced the expression of alpha interferon (IFN-α), key cytokines, and cell adhesion molecules (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 [VCAM-1] and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 [ICAM-1]). Furthermore, using an in vitro SCB model, we show that ZIKV was released on the adluminal side of the SCB model with a higher efficiency than in the blood-brain barrier model. ZIKV-infected SCs exhibited enhanced adhesion of leukocytes that correlated with decreases in SCB integrity. ZIKV infection did not affect the expression of tight and adherens junction proteins such as ZO-1, claudin, and JAM-A; however, exposure of SCs to inflammatory mediators derived from ZIKV-infected macrophages led to the degradation of the ZO-1 protein, which correlated with increased SCB permeability. Taken together, our data suggest that infection of SCs may be one of the crucial steps by which ZIKV gains access to the site of spermatozoon development and identify SCs as a therapeutic target to clear testicular infections. The SCB model opens up opportunities to assess interactions of SCs with other testicular cells and to test the ability of anti-ZIKV drugs to cross the barrier. IMPORTANCE Recent outbreaks of ZIKV, a neglected mosquito-borne flavivirus, have identified sexual transmission as a new route of disease spread, which has not been reported for other flaviviruses. To be able to sexually transmit for months after the clearance of

  18. Role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in HBV intrauterine infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Qingliang; Zhao, Xiaxia; Yao Li, M D

    2013-12-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cell transportation from mother to baby in hepatitis B virus (HBV) intrauterine infection. Thirty HBsAg-positive pregnant women in the second trimester and their aborted fetuses were included in this study. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay was utilized to detect HBsAg in the peripheral blood of pregnant women and the femoral vein blood of their aborted fetuses. HBV-DNA in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and GSTM1 alleles of pregnant women and their aborted fetuses were detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and seminested PCR, respectively. We also examined the location of placenta HBsAg and HBcAb using immunohistochemical staining. The expression of placenta HBV-DNA was detected by in situ hybridization. For the 30 aborted fetuses, the HBV intrauterine infection rate was 43.33%. The HBV-positive rates of HBsAg in peripheral blood, serum, and PBMC were 10% (3/30), 23.33% (7/30), and 33.33% (10/30), respectively. Maternal-fetal PBMC transport was significantly positively correlated with fetal PBMC HBV-DNA (P = 0.004). Meanwhile, the rates of HBV infection gradually decreased from the maternal side to the fetus side of placenta (decidual cells > trophoblastic cells > villous mesenchymal cells > villous capillary endothelial cells). However, no significant correlation between placenta HBV infection and HBV intrauterine infection was observed (P = 0.410). HBV intrauterine infection was primarily due to peripheral blood mononuclear cell maternal-fetal transportation in the second trimester in pregnant women.

  19. ABO/Rh Blood Groups and Risk of HIV Infection and Hepatitis B Among Blood Donors of Abidjan, Côte D'ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siransy, Liliane Kouabla; Nanga, Zizendorf Yves; Zaba, Flore Sandrine; Tufa, Nyasenu Yawo; Dasse, Sery Romuald

    2015-09-01

    Hepatitis B and HIV infection are two viral infections that represent real global public health problems. In order to improve their management, some hypotheses suggest that genetic predispositions like ABO and Rh blood groups would influence the occurrence of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between ABO and Rhesus blood groups and the susceptibility to HIV infection and hepatitis B. We conducted a cross-sectional and analytical study in a population of voluntary blood donors in the Blood Transfusion Center of Abidjan. All blood donors who donated blood between January and June 2014 were tested for HBs antigen and anti-HIV antibodies (ELISA tests) and were ABO typed. The total number of examined blood donors during this period was 45,538, of which 0.32% and 8.07% were respectively infected with HIV and hepatitis B virus. O-group donors were more infected than non-O donors. Our study is an outline concerning the search for a link between ABO and Rh blood groups and hepatitis B and HIV infection. Further studies should be conducted to confirm the interaction between these two infections and contribute to the search for new therapeutic approaches.

  20. Low intensity blood parasite infections do not reduce the aerobic performance of migratory birds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dimitar; Ivanova, Karina; Zehtindjiev, Pavel

    2018-01-01

    Blood parasites (Haemosporidia) are thought to impair the flight performance of infected animals, and therefore, infected birds are expected to differ from their non-infected counterparts in migratory capacity. Since haemosporidians invade host erythrocytes, it is commonly assumed that infected individuals will have compromised aerobic capacity, but this has not been examined in free-living birds. We tested if haemosporidian infections affect aerobic performance by examining metabolic rates and exercise endurance in migratory great reed warblers (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) experimentally treated with Plasmodium relictum pGRW04 and in naturally infected wild birds over consecutive life-history stages. We found no effect of acute or chronic infections on resting metabolic rate, maximum metabolic rate or exercise endurance in either experimentally treated or free-living birds. Oxygen consumption rates during rest and while undergoing maximum exercise as well as exercise endurance increased from breeding to migration stages in both infected and non-infected birds. Importantly, phenotypic changes associated with preparation for migration were similarly unaffected by parasitaemia. Consequently, migratory birds experiencing parasitaemia levels typical of chronic infection do not differ in migratory capacity from their uninfected counterparts. Thus, if infected hosts differ from uninfected conspecifics in migration phenology, other mechanisms besides aerobic capacity should be considered. PMID:29386365

  1. Transfusion of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells is not a risk factor for nosocomial infections in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Judith; van Heerde, Marc; Markhorst, Dick G.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    Objectives: Transfusion of red blood cells is increasingly linked with adverse outcomes in critically ill children. We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte-depleted red blood cell transfusions were independently associated with increased development of bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated

  2. Clinical condition and comorbidity as determinants for blood culture positivity in patients with skin and soft-tissue infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Daalen, F. V.; Kallen, M. C.; van den Bosch, C. M. A.; Hulscher, M. E. J. L.; Geerlings, S. E.; Prins, J. M.

    2017-01-01

    The utility of performing blood cultures in patients with a suspected skin infection is debated. We investigated the association between blood culture positivity rates and patients' clinical condition, including acute disease severity and comorbidity. We performed a retrospective study, including

  3. Asymptomatic infections in blood donors harbouring Plasmodium: an invisible risk detected by molecular and serological tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Giselle F M C; Arroyo Sanchez, Maria C; Levi, José E; Fujimori, Mahyumi; Da Cruz Caramelo, Luiza; Sanchez, Arianni Rondelli; Ramos-Sanchez, Eduardo M; Inoue, Juliana; De Jesus Costa-Nascimento, Maria; Mendrone Junior, Alfredo; Di Santi, Silvia M

    2018-01-01

    Transfusion-transmitted malaria due to asymptomatic Plasmodium infections is a challenge for blood banks. There is a lack of data on the prevalence of asymptomatic infected blood donors and the incidence of transfusion-transmitted malaria in low endemicity areas worldwide. We estimated the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium in an area in which asymptomatic infections have been reported. To estimate the frequency of blood donors harbouring Plasmodium we used microscopy and molecular tools. Serological tests were applied to measure the exposure of candidates to Plasmodium antigens. Venous blood was collected from 91 candidates attending the "Pró-Sangue" Blood Centre Foundation in São Paulo, who lived in the municipality of Juquitiba, São Paulo, Brazil, where sporadic autochthonous cases of malaria have been described. Blood samples were used for parasitological, molecular and serological studies. Among the 91 samples examined, rare Plasmodium forms were observed in two donors. Genus real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated Plasmodium amplification in three candidates and species-specific nested polymerase chain reaction identified P. malariae in two. ELISA-IgG was reactive in 42.9% of samples for P. vivax (Pv-MSP1 19 ) and in 6.6% for P. falciparum (Pf-Zw). ELISA-IgM was reactive in 2.2% of samples for P. vivax and in 4.4% for P. falciparum. An indirect immunofluorescence assay was reactive for P. malariae in 15.4% of cases. Reservoirs of Plasmodium represent a challenge for blood banks, since studies have shown that high levels of submicroscopic infections can occur in low transmission areas. The risk of transfusion-transmitted malaria presented here points to the need to conduct molecular investigations of candidate donors with any positive malarial antibody test.

  4. A SCREENING RESEARCH OF PLASMA BLOOD DONORS FOR MARKERS PARVOVIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassia Ya. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (PV B19 replicates predominantly in progenitor cells of human erythrocytes and is transmitted by an airborne, vertical through and through blood or infected tissues. At-risk are pregnant women, people with immunodeficiency of different nature and individuals who need blood transfusions or organ transplantation. The available data indicate a high risk of infection through transfusion of blood containing the DNA of parvovirus B19, with viral load 105 copies/ml and above (Hourfar M.K. et al., 2011. According to the requirements of national regulations, the production of therapeutic drugs from plasma assumes the use of raw materials, free from viruses or with minimal viral load (Filatova E.C. et al., 2011. In some foreign countries a study of donor blood for the presence of DNA PV B19 is required; in our country the need for such screening is discussed (Giburt E.B. et al., 2013. Due to the fact that parvovirus is resistant to the methods of blood products desinfection, it is especially important to assess the quality of donor blood. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of the two markers parvovirus infection (IgG and PV B19 DNA in blood samples from one of the blood centers at St. Petersburg. Plasma samples from 100 blood donors from Military Medical Academy blood centre were tested by ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies of parvovirus B19. Positive samples were tested by PCR for the DNA of parvovirus B19. ELISA test system recomWell Parvovirus B19 IgG (Microgen GmbH, Germany and diagnostic kits of Federal State Institution of Science «Central research Institute for epidemiology» of Rospotrebnadzor (Moscow, Russia which are approved for use in RF was used according to the manufacturers instructions. It was shown that 78 out of 100 donors aged 18 to 58 years had IgG-antibodies.76 positive blood plasma samples were investigated by PCR, with the 19 donors have found DNA of parvovirus B19 (25%. Viral load of one donor was 106

  5. Superiority of West Nile Virus RNA Detection in Whole Blood for Diagnosis of Acute Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Yaniv; Mannasse, Batya; Koren, Ravit; Katz-Likvornik, Shiri; Hindiyeh, Musa; Mandelboim, Michal; Dovrat, Sara; Sofer, Danit; Mendelson, Ella

    2016-09-01

    The current diagnosis of West Nile virus (WNV) infection is primarily based on serology, since molecular identification of WNV RNA is unreliable due to the short viremia and absence of detectable virus in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Recent studies have shown that WNV RNA can be detected in urine for a longer period and at higher concentrations than in plasma. In this study, we examined the presence of WNV RNA in serum, plasma, whole-blood, CSF, and urine samples obtained from patients diagnosed with acute WNV infection during an outbreak which occurred in Israel in 2015. Our results demonstrate that 33 of 38 WNV patients had detectable WNV RNA in whole blood at the time of diagnosis, a higher rate than in any of the other sample types tested. Overall, whole blood was superior to all other samples, with 86.8% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 83.9% negative predictive value. Interestingly, WNV viral load in urine was higher than in whole blood, CSF, serum, and plasma despite the lower sensitivity than that of whole blood. This study establishes the utility of whole blood in the routine diagnosis of acute WNV infection and suggests that it may provide the highest sensitivity for WNV RNA detection in suspected cases. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×10(5) IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  7. Approaches to minimize infection risk in blood banking and transfusion practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, Paul F; Annen, Kyle; Ramsey, Glenn

    2011-02-01

    The use of blood donor history and state-of-the-art FDA-licensed serological and nucleic acid testing (NAT) assays have greatly reduced the "infectious window" for several transfusion-transmitted pathogens. Currently transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV), hepatitis viruses and West Nile Virus are rare events. The seroprevalence of cytomegalovirus in the donor population is high and cytomegalovirus infection can cause significant complications for immunocompromised recipients of blood transfusion. Careful use of CMV seronegative blood resources and leukoreduction of blood products are able to prevent most CMV infections in these patients. Currently, bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates is the greatest remaining infectious disease risk in blood transfusion. Specialized donor collection procedures reduce the risk of bacterial contamination of blood products; blood culture and surrogate testing procedures are used to detect potential bacterially contaminated platelet products prior to transfusion. A rapid quantitative immunoassay is now available to test for the presence of lipotechoic acid and lipopolysaccharide bacterial products prior to platelet transfusion. Attention has now turned to emerging infectious diseases including variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, dengue, babesiosis, Chagas' disease and malaria. Challenges are presented to identify and prevent transmission of these agents. Several methods are being used or in development to reduce infectivity of blood products, including solvent-detergent processing of plasma and nucleic acid cross-linking via photochemical reactions with methylene blue, riboflavin, psoralen and alkylating agents. Several opportunities exist to further improve blood safety through advances in infectious disease screening and pathogen inactivation methods.

  8. Early determinants of blood pressure and renal function : follow-up of very preterm born individuals young adulcy [vroege determinanten van bloeddruk en nierfunctie : follow-up van zeer prematuur geborenen tot in young volwassenheid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer-Veen, M.G.

    2006-01-01

    In summary, the studies described in this thesis suggest that premature birth affects renal function and blood pressure at (young) adult age, and especially when born both SGA and premature. Minor differences are already detectable at young adult age. The biological mechanism is likely to originate

  9. A review of the use of blood and blood products in HIV-infected

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-01

    Jun 1, 2012 ... (folate, vitamin B12, iron), co-infection with other agents both opportunistic (e.g. ..... and vitamin B12. The response to vitamin B12 occurs within 48 to 72 hours. Serum potassium levels can fall during initial therapy for severe. Vitamin B12 or folate ..... intravenous replacement fluids, oxygen and immediate ...

  10. Vector-borne parasitic infections in dogs in the Baltic and Nordic countries: A questionnaire study to veterinarians on canine babesiosis and infections with Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiškina, Valentina; Jokelainen, Pikka

    2017-09-15

    Canine vector-borne diseases have been spreading northwards in Europe, and canine babesiosis and infections with Dirofilaria immitis (heartworm) and Dirofilaria repens have been diagnosed also in the Baltic and the Nordic countries. We used an online questionnaire to survey how large a proportion of veterinarians in the Baltic (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) and the Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden) saw canine babesiosis cases and dogs infected with D. immitis and D. repens in 2016. In addition, questions regarding transmission, zoonotic potential, clinical signs, and treatment of the infections were asked. The questionnaire was completed by 122 veterinarians. In 2016, 23% of them had seen at least one case of canine babesiosis, 15% at least one dog with D. immitis infection, and 9% at least one dog with D. repens infection. A veterinarian working in the Baltic countries had 12.2 times higher odds to have seen a canine babesiosis case and 9.3 times higher odds to have seen a dog with D. repens infection than a veterinarian working in the Nordic countries did. While 48% of the veterinarians knew that canine babesiosis is not considered a zoonosis, 26% knew that D. immitis is zoonotic and 34% knew that D. repens is zoonotic. The results suggested that autochthonous cases of the three vector-borne parasitic infections were seen by veterinarians in the Baltic countries, whereas most cases seen by veterinarians in the Nordic countries appeared to be imported. A substantial proportion of the veterinarians did not know whether the parasites are zoonotic. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Infective endocarditis in intensive cardiac care unit - clinical and biochemical differences of blood-culture negative infective endocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaziród-Wolski, Karol; Sielski, Janusz; Ciuraszkiewicz, Katarzyna

    2017-01-23

    Diagnosis and treatment of infective endocarditis (IE) is still a challenge for physicians. Group of patients with the worst prognosis is treated in Intensive Cardiac Care Unit (ICCU). Etiologic agent can not be identified in a substantial number of patients. The aim of study is to find differences between patients with blood culture negative infective endocarditis (BCNIE) and blood culture positive infective endocarditis (BCPIE) treated in ICCU by comparing their clinical course and laboratory parameters. Retrospective analysis of 30 patients with IE hospitalized in ICCU Swietokrzyskie Cardiac Centre between 2010 and 2016. This group consist of 26 men (86,67%) and 4 women (13,3%). Mean age was 58 years ±13. Most of the cases were new disease, recurrence of the disease was observed in 2 cases (6,7%). 8 patients (26,7%) required artificial ventilation, 11 (36,7%) received inotropes and 6 (20%) vasopresors. In 14 (46,7%) cases blood cultures was negative (BCNIE), the rest of patients (16, 53,3%) was blood cultures - positive infective endocarditis (BCIE). Both of the groups were clinically similar. There were no statistically significant differences in incidence of cardiac implants, localization of bacterial vegetations, administered catecholamines, antibiotic therapy, artificial ventilation, surgical treatment, complication and in-hospital mortality. Incidence of cardiac complications in all of BCNIE cases and in 81,3% cases of BCPIE draws attention, but it is not statistically significant difference (p=0,08). There was statistically significant difference in mean BNP blood concentration (3005,17 ng/ml ±2045,2 vs 1013,42 ng/ml ±1087,6; p=0,01), but there were no statistically significant differences in rest of laboratory parameters. BCNIE group has got higher mean BNP blood concentration than BCPIE group. There were no statistically significant differences between these groups in others laboratory parameters, clinical course and administered antibiotic therapy

  12. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii Infection among healthy blood donors in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Yi Chiang

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic, zoonotic pathogen with a worldwide distribution. There are large variations in the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in different regions of the world. Although toxoplasmosis became a notifiable communicable disease in Taiwan in 2007, little is known about its epidemiology among the general population. This cross-sectional study aimed to survey the seroprevalence of T. gondii infection and its risk factors among healthy blood donors in Taiwan. Through collaborating with the Taiwan Blood Services Foundation, a total of 1,783 healthy blood donors from all six-branch blood service centers participated in this study. The blood samples were tested for the presence of T. gondii antibodies and DNA using enzyme immunoassays and real-time PCR, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to gather information on risk factors for T. gondii infection. Of the 1,783 participants, 166 (9.3% tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgG, while 5 (0.28% tested positive for anti-Toxoplasma IgM. The five IgM positive donors had high avidity antibodies suggestive of past infection. No active parasitemia was detected by real-time PCR assays. Multivariate logistic regression showed that undercooked pork meat consumption (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 2.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-6.5, raw mussels consumption (adjusted OR = 5.3; 95% CI: 1.5-19.1, having a cat in the household (adjusted OR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.2-3.2, a lower education level (adjusted OR = 1.6; 95% CI: 1.1-2.3, and donation place in eastern Taiwan (adjusted OR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6-3.9 were independent risk factors for Toxoplasma seropositivity. These findings provide information on the seroprevalence and epidemiology of T. gondii infection among healthy blood donors in Taiwan.

  13. OCCULT HEPATITIS B VIRUS INFECTION AMONG BLOOD DONORS WITH ANTIBODIES TO HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jafarzadeh

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of hepatitis B is routinely based on of serological assay of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg. Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is generally defined as the detection of HBV -DNA in the serum or tissues of subjects who have negative test for HBsAg. Transmission of HBV infection has been documented from HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive blood and organ donors. The aim of this study was to determine the rate of occult HBV infection among HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive blood donors of Rafsanjan blood transfusion center. ‎ Sera from 270 healthy blood donors who were negative for both HBsAg and anti-HCV, were tested for anti-HBc antibodies by use of ELISA technique. The samples that were negative for HBsAg but positive for anti-HBc markers also examined for the presence of HBV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. ‎ Out of 270 HBsAg negative blood samples, 14 samples (5.18% were positive for anti-HBc antibodies. HBV-DNA was detected in 4/14 (28.57% of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive samples. Moreover, anti-HBs antibody was detected in 2/4 (50% of HBV-DNA positive samples. ‎ These results indicated that HBV-DNA found in the majority of HBsAg negative and anti-HBc-positive donors. In addition, the present study recommend the incorporation of routine anti-HBc screening of blood as a surrogate marker of occult HBV infection to prevent some transfusion-transmitted HBV infections.

  14. Development of real-time PCR array for simultaneous detection of eight human blood-borne viral pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pripuzova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Real-time PCR array for rapid detection of multiple viral pathogens should be highly useful in cases where the sample volume and the time of testing are limited, i.e. in the eligibility testing of tissue and organ donors. FINDINGS: We developed a real-time PCR array capable of simultaneously detecting eight human viral pathogens: human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and -2, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, human T-cell leukemia virus-1 and -2 (HTLV-1 and -2, vaccinia virus (VACV and West Nile virus (WNV. One hundred twenty (120 primers were designed using a combination of bioinformatics approaches, and, after experimental testing, 24 primer sets targeting eight viral pathogens were selected to set up the array with SYBR Green chemistry. The specificity and sensitivity of the virus-specific primer sets selected for the array were evaluated using analytical panels with known amounts of viruses spiked into human plasma. The array detected: 10 genome equivalents (geq/ml of HIV-2 and HCV, 50 geq of HIV-1 (subtype B, HBV (genotype A and WNV. It detected 100-1,000 geq/ml of plasma of HIV-1 subtypes (A - G, group N and CRF (AE and AG isolates. Further evaluation with a panel consisting of 28 HIV-1 and HIV-2 clinical isolates revealed no cross-reactivity of HIV-1 or HIV-2 specific primers with another type of HIV. All 28 viral isolates were identified with specific primer sets targeting the most conserved genome areas. The PCR array correctly identified viral infections in a panel of 17 previously quantified clinical plasma samples positive for HIV-1, HCV or HBV at as low as several geq per PCR reaction. CONCLUSIONS: The viral array described here demonstrated adequate performance in the testing of donors' clinical samples. Further improvement in its sensitivity for the broad spectrum of HIV-1 subtypes is under development.

  15. [Prospects for reducing the incidence of military air-borne infections which are not controllable by means of vaccination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, A B; Ogarkov, P I

    2011-05-01

    Examines the state of immunization by means of uncontrolled disease vaccine (influenza, SARS, pneumonia, streptococcal and meningococcal infections). They cause disease in both children and adolescents, as well as in organized collectives of adults, especially among conscripts. Calendars vaccination of the population and soldiers regulate immunization risk of epidemic indications against influenza, and partly against meningococcal infection; gradually introduced to the troops Immunoprophylaxis of pneumococcal pneumonia. Not solved the problem of immunization of adenovirus and streptococcal infections in military personnel. Discussed ways to improve your calendar vaccination of military personnel on extended epidemic indications against the mentioned diseases.

  16. Patterns of Midichloria infection in avian-borne African ticks and their trans-Saharan migratory hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Di Lecce, Irene; Bazzocchi, Chiara; Cecere, Jacopo G.; Epis, Sara; Sassera, Davide; Villani, Barbara M.; Bazzi, Gaia; Negri, Agata; Saino, Nicola; Spina, Fernando; Bandi, Claudio; Rubolini, Diego

    2018-01-01

    Background Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of vertebrates and frequently parasitize avian species that can carry them across continents during their long-distance migrations. Ticks may have detrimental effects on the health state of their avian hosts, which can be either directly caused by blood-draining or mediated by microbial pathogens transmitted during the blood meal. Indeed, ticks host complex microbial communities, including bacterial pathogens and symbionts. Midichlori...

  17. STUDY OF CENTRAL VENOUS CATHETER RELATED BLOOD STREAM INFECTIONS IN PATIENTS ON HAEMODIALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal Pankaj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Temporary and permanent central venous catheters are used in majority of patients of CKD when initiated on hemodialysis and mostly these catheters act as bridge before permanent AV fistula assess could be obtained. Blood stream infections related to these central venous catheters are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Appropriate antiseptic precautions while inserting central venous catheter and early identification of catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSI are of utmost importance for reducing hospital stay, cost of therapy and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 50 patients of CKD were included in the study who had central venous catheter in situ (internal jugular or subclavian and developed symptoms related to blood stream infections. Blood cultures were obtained from the catheter lumen and a separate venous site 1 hour apart. All the culture sensitivity reports were obtained from department of microbiology of our institute. Inclusion Criteria- Known case of CKD patients aged more than 18yrs on hemodialysis with symptoms and signs of catheter related blood stream infections were included in the study. Exclusion Criteria- Patients with other associated comorbid infections like Koch’s, urinary tract infection or others mimicking symptoms of CRBSI. RESULTS The cultures were found positive in 38 patients (76% while in rest 24% cases positive cultures could not be obtained. Out of culture positive patients 52.63% cases were found to have gram positive infections while 44.74% had gram negative infections. In 2.63% patients, fungus was isolated to be the causative organism. Among the gram positive organisms 50% had CoNS, 30% had MSSA and 20% had MRSA infections. Among the gram negative group, 47.06% had klebsiella, 23.53% had acinetobacter, 17.65% had E.coli and 11.76% had pseudomonas as the causative organisms. Mortality was observed in 14% patients out of which 28.57% were culture

  18. Challenges facing effective implementation of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public health facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamuhabwa AAR

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Appolinary AR Kamuhabwa,1 Vicky Manyanga21Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar es Salaam, TanzaniaBackground: If children born to HIV-infected mothers are not identified early, approximately 30% of them will die within the first year of life due to opportunistic infections. In order to prevent morbidity and mortality due to opportunistic infections in children, the World Health Organization recommends the use of prophylaxis using co-trimoxazole. However, the challenges affecting effective implementation of this policy in Tanzania have not been documented.Aim: In this study, we assessed the challenges facing the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis among children born to HIV-infected mothers in the public hospitals of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Methodology: Four hundred and ninety-eight infants' PMTCT (Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV register books for the past 2 years were reviewed to obtain information regarding the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis. One hundred and twenty-six health care workers were interviewed to identify success stories and challenges in the provision of co-trimoxazole prophylaxis in children. In addition, 321 parents and guardians of children born to HIV-infected mothers were interviewed in the health facilities.Results: Approximately 80% of children were initiated with co-trimoxazole prophylaxis within 2 months after birth. Two hundred and ninety-one (58.4% children started using co-trimoxazole within 4 weeks after birth. Majority (n=458, 91.8% of the children were prescribed 120 mg of co-trimoxazole per day, whereas 39 (7.8% received 240 mg per day. Only a small proportion (n=1, 0.2% of children received 480 mg/day. Dose determination was based on the child's age rather than body weight. Parents and guardians reported that 42 (13.1% children had missed one or more doses of co

  19. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  20. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Di Sabatino, Daria; Martini, Vanessa; Santucci, Vincenzo Ugo; Declich, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND) is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response. PMID:25874224

  1. Change in spectrum of Brownian fluctuations of optically trapped red blood cells due to malarial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraogi, Vishal; Padmapriya, P.; Paul, Apurba; Tatu, Utpal S.; Natarajan, Vasant

    2010-05-01

    We study the properties of single red blood cells (RBCs) held in an optical-tweezers trap. We observe a change in the spectrum of Brownian fluctuations between RBCs from normal and malaria-infected samples. The change, caused by infection-induced structural changes in the cell, appears as a statistical increase in the mean (by 25%) and standard deviation (by 200%) of the corner frequency measured over ~100 cells. The increase is observed even though the ensemble of cells being measured consists mostly of cells that do not actually host the parasite, but are from an infected pool. This bystander effect appears to vindicate other observations that infected cells can affect the biomechanical properties of uninfected cells. The change is also observed to be independent of the stage of infection and its duration, highlighting its potential for disease detection.

  2. CMV infection in a cohort of HIV-exposed infants born to mothers receiving antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirillo, Maria Franca; Liotta, Giuseppe; Andreotti, Mauro; Jere, Haswel; Sagno, Jean-Baptiste; Scarcella, Paola; Mancinelli, Sandro; Buonomo, Ersilia; Amici, Roberta; Marazzi, Maria Cristina; Vella, Stefano; Palombi, Leonardo; Giuliano, Marina

    2017-02-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has been shown to reduce rates of congenital CMV infection. Little information is available on the possible impact of antiretroviral therapy on postnatal breastfeeding-associated CMV infection acquisition. A cohort of 89 HIV-infected mothers and their children was studied. Women received antiretroviral therapy from week 25 of gestation until 6 months postpartum or indefinitely if meeting the criteria for treatment. All women were evaluated for CMV IgG presence and CMV DNA in breast milk. Children were tested for CMV infection by either the presence of IgM or the presence of CMV DNA in plasma at 1, 6 and 12 months and by the presence of IgG at 24 months. All mothers had high titers of CMV DNA in breast milk (5.7 log at Month 1 and 5.1 log at Month 6). Cumulative CMV infection rates were 60.3 % at Month 6, 69 % at Month 12 and 96.4 % at Month 24. There was a significant negative correlation between the duration of antiretroviral treatment during pregnancy and levels of CMV DNA in breast milk at Month 1 (P = 0.033). There was a trend for a correlation between high titers of CMV DNA in breast milk at 6 months and CMV infection at 6 months (P = 0.069). In this cohort, more than 95 % of the children had acquired CMV infection by 2 years of age. Besides breastfeeding, which played a major role, also horizontal transmission between 1 and 2 years was certainly relevant in determining CMV infection acquisition.

  3. Equine infectious anemia virus replication is upregulated during differentiation of blood monocytes from acutely infected horses.

    OpenAIRE

    Sellon, D C; Walker, K M; Russell, K E; Perry, S T; Covington, P; Fuller, F J

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus that replicates in mature tissue macrophages of horses. Ponies were infected with equine infectious anemia virus. During febrile episodes, proviral DNA was detectable, but viral mRNA was not detectable. As cultured blood monocytes from these ponies differentiated into macrophages, viral expression was upregulated. In situ hybridization confirmed that viral transcription occurred in mature macrophages.

  4. Arterial blood pressure changes in acute T. brucei infection of dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to find out the usefulness of serial arterial blood pressure measurements in predicting severity and outcome of acute Trypanosoma brucei infection in dogs. Twenty adult dogs of mixed sexes and aged between 2 and 5 years were used for this study. The dogs were of good cardiac health and were ...

  5. Susceptibility and Response of Human Blood Monocyte Subsets to Primary Dengue Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kok Loon; Chen, Weiqiang; Balakrishnan, Thavamalar; Toh, Ying Xiu

    2012-01-01

    Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16− and CD16+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16− and CD16+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus in vitro. We found that both monocyte subsets were equally susceptible to dengue virus (DENV2 NGC), and capable of supporting the initial production of new infective virus particles. Both monocyte subsets produced anti-viral factors, including IFN-α, CXCL10 and TRAIL. However, CD16+ monocytes were the major producers of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to dengue virus, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, 3 and 4. The susceptibility of both monocyte subsets to infection was increased after IL-4 treatment, but this increase was more profound for the CD16+ monocyte subset, particularly at early time points after virus exposure. These findings reveal the differential role that monocyte subsets might play during dengue disease. PMID:22574162

  6. Susceptibility and response of human blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Loon Wong

    Full Text Available Human blood monocytes play a central role in dengue infections and form the majority of virus infected cells in the blood. Human blood monocytes are heterogeneous and divided into CD16(- and CD16(+ subsets. Monocyte subsets play distinct roles during disease, but it is not currently known if monocyte subsets differentially contribute to dengue protection and pathogenesis. Here, we compared the susceptibility and response of the human CD16(- and CD16(+ blood monocyte subsets to primary dengue virus in vitro. We found that both monocyte subsets were equally susceptible to dengue virus (DENV2 NGC, and capable of supporting the initial production of new infective virus particles. Both monocyte subsets produced anti-viral factors, including IFN-α, CXCL10 and TRAIL. However, CD16(+ monocytes were the major producers of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in response to dengue virus, including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, CCL2, 3 and 4. The susceptibility of both monocyte subsets to infection was increased after IL-4 treatment, but this increase was more profound for the CD16(+ monocyte subset, particularly at early time points after virus exposure. These findings reveal the differential role that monocyte subsets might play during dengue disease.

  7. Extracellular histones identified in crocodile blood inhibit in-vitro HIV-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlowski, Hannah N; Lai, Eric T L; Havugimana, Pierre C; White, Carl; Emili, Andrew; Sakac, Darinka; Binnington, Beth; Neschadim, Anton; McCarthy, Stephen D S; Branch, Donald R

    2016-08-24

    It has been reported that crocodile blood contains potent antibacterial and antiviral properties. However, its effects on HIV-1 infection remain unknown. We obtained blood from saltwater crocodiles to examine whether serum or plasma could inhibit HIV-1 infection. We purified plasma fractions then used liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to identify the inhibitory protein factor(s). We then analyzed the ability of recombinant proteins to recapitulate HIV-1 inhibition and determine their mechanism of action. Crocodylus porosus plasma was tested for inhibition of Jurkat T-cell HIV-1 infection. Inhibitor(s) were purified by reverse-phase chromatography then identified by protein liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-HIV-1 activity of purified plasma or recombinant proteins were measured by p24 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and luciferase readouts, and mechanism of action was determined by measuring HIV-1 RNA, cDNA and transcription (using 1G5 cells). Crocodile plasma contains potent inhibitors of HIV-1IIIB infection, which were identified as histones. Recombinant human histones H1 and H2A significantly reduced HIV-1JR-FL infection (IC50 of 0.79 and 0.45 μmol/l, respectively), whereas H4 enhanced JR-FL luciferase activity. The inhibitory effects of crocodile plasma, recombinant H1 or recombinant H2A on HIV-1 infection were during or post-viral transcription. Circulating histones in crocodile blood, possibly released by neutrophil extracellular traps, are significant inhibitors of HIV-1 infection in-vitro. Extracellular recombinant histones have different effects on HIV-1 transcription and protein expression and are downregulated in HIV-1 patients. Circulating histones may be a novel resistance factor during HIV-1 infection, and peptide versions should be explored as future HIV-1 therapeutics that modulate viral transcription.

  8. Avian blood parasite infection during the non-breeding season: an overlooked issue in declining populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Pathogens and parasites can have major impacts on host population dynamics, both through direct mortality and via indirect effects. Both types of effect may be stronger in species whose populations are already under pressure. We investigated the potential for blood parasites to impact upon their hosts at the immunological, physiological and population level during the non-breeding season using a declining population of yellowhammers Emberiza citrinella as a model. Results Yellowhammers infected by Haemoproteus spp. showed both a reduced heterophil to lymphocyte (H:L) ratio, and an elevated standardised white blood cell (WBC) count compared to uninfected birds, indicating an immunological response to infection. Infected birds had shorter wings during the first winter of sampling but not during the second, colder, winter; survival analysis of 321 birds sampled across four winters indicated that increased wing length conferred a survival advantage. Conclusions We suggest that the potential impacts of blood parasite infections on over-wintering birds may have been underestimated. Further research should consider the potential impacts of sub-clinical parasite infections on the dynamics of vulnerable populations, and we suggest using declining populations as model systems within which to investigate these relationships as well as examining interactions between sub-clinical disease and other environmental stressors. JEL Code Q5 PMID:24011390

  9. Bovine papillomavirus DNA in milk, blood, urine, semen, and spermatozoa of bovine papillomavirus-infected animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, C L; Almeida, M E; Vicari, C F; Carvalho, C; Yaguiu, A; Freitas, A C; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2009-01-01

    Papillomavirus infection in bovines is associated with cutaneous papillomatosis on the hide, udders and other epithelial tissues, as well as in oral respiratory, alimentary and urinary tract mucosa. Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is also considered the etiological agent of esophageal tumors and the malignant bladder tumors that characterize the clinical condition associated with chronic enzootic hematuria. After infective viral DNA was found in cattle blood and BPV1, 2 and 4 DNA in cattle reproductive and embryonic tissues, we looked for and found BPV DNA in blood, milk, urine, seminal fluid, and spermatozoa of BPV-infected animals. Peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures from BPV-infected animals had high rates of chromosome aberrations, including radial rearrangements that signal oncogenic potential and viral interaction with telomeric regions. The finding of BPV DNA in body fluids and tissues other than the epithelium demonstrates co-infection of other tissues or cell types by papillomavirus and shows the potential role of lymphocytes, seminal fluid and spermatozoa in BPV transmission. Our findings reinforce a peremptory need for prophylactic and therapeutic instruments to curtail this disease in bovine livestock.

  10. Blood-borne interleukin-1β acts on the subfornical organ to upregulate the sympathoexcitatory milieu of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shun-Guang; Yu, Yang; Felder, Robert B

    2018-03-01

    We previously reported that microinjection of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) into the subfornical organ (SFO) elicits a pressor response accompanied by increases in inflammation and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in the SFO and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The present study sought to determine whether blood-borne IL-1β induces similar neurochemical changes in the SFO and PVN and, if so, whether increased inflammation and RAS activity at the SFO level orchestrate the sympathoexcitatory response to circulating IL-1β. In urethane-anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats, intravenous injection of IL-1β (500 ng) increased blood pressure, heart rate, renal sympathetic nerve activity, and mRNA for angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II type 1a receptor, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-α, and IL-1β, as well as the tumor necrosis factor-α p55 receptor and the IL-1 receptor, in the SFO and PVN. Pretreatment with SFO microinjections of the angiotensin II type 1a receptor blocker losartan (1 µg), the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor captopril (1 µg), or the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor NS-398 (2 µg) attenuated expression of these excitatory mediators in the SFO and downstream in the PVN and the IL-1β-induced pressor responses. An SFO lesion minimized the IL-1β-induced expression of inflammatory and RAS components as well as c-Fos, an indicator of neuronal excitation, in the PVN. These studies demonstrate that circulating IL-1β, which increases in cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension and heart failure, acts on the SFO to increase inflammation and RAS activity in the SFO and PVN and that intervening in these neurochemical processes in the SFO can significantly reduce the sympathetic response.

  11. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharbi M.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation.

  12. Evaluation of a simple Theileria annulata culture protocol from experimentally infected bovine whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, M.; Latrach, R.; Sassi, L.; Darghouth, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated a new simple technique using whole blood from experimentally infected cattle for the isolation and cultivation of Theileria annulata. The study was carried out on 20 Holstein-Frisian bovines that had been experimentally infected with a virulent lethal dose of Theileria annulata. This technique has been compared to the classical peripheral blood monocyte isolation with Ficoll carried out on 22 experimentally infected Holstein-Friesian calves. The effectiveness of the reference technique was estimated to 86.4%, whilst the effectiveness of the new technique was 100%. Moreover, this new technique leads to time and money saving estimated to € 3.06 per sample. It decreases the contamination risks by reducing the steps of sample manipulation. PMID:22910672

  13. Evolutionary history of rat-borne Bartonella: the importance of commensal rats in the dissemination of bacterial infections globally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T S; McDonald, Katherine D; Kosoy, Michael Y

    2013-09-01

    Emerging pathogens that originate from invasive species have caused numerous significant epidemics. Some bacteria of genus Bartonella are rodent-borne pathogens that can cause disease in humans and animals alike. We analyzed gltA sequences of 191 strains of rat-associated bartonellae from 29 rodent species from 17 countries to test the hypotheses that this bacterial complex evolved and diversified in Southeast Asia before being disseminated by commensal rats Rattus rattus (black rat) and Rattus norvegicus (Norway rat) to other parts of the globe. The analysis suggests that there have been numerous dispersal events within Asia and introductions from Asia to other regions, with six major clades containing Southeast Asian isolates that appear to have been dispersed globally. Phylogeographic analyses support the hypotheses that these bacteria originated in Southeast Asia and commensal rodents (R. rattus and R. norvegicus) play key roles in the evolution and dissemination of this Bartonella complex throughout the world.

  14. Disentangling the Effect of Local and Global Spatial Variation on a Mosquito-Borne Infection in a Neotropical Heterogeneous Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, María-Eugenia; Barrera, Roberto; Martínez, Juan-Eudes; Berti, Jesús; Fortin, Marie-Josée

    2010-01-01

    Mosquito-borne pathogen transmission exhibits spatial-temporal variability caused by ecological interactions acting at different scales. We used local spatial statistics and geographically weighted regression (GWR) to determine the spatial pattern of malaria incidence and persistence in northeastern Venezuela. Seven to 11 hot spots of malaria transmission were detected by using local spatial statistics, although disease persistence was explained only for four of those hot spots. The GWR models greatly improved predictions of malaria risk compared with ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models. Malaria incidence was largely explained by the proximity to and number of Anopheles aquasalis habitats nearby (1–3 km), and low-elevation terrains. Disease persistence was associated with greater human population density, lower elevations, and proximity to aquatic habitats. However, there was significant local spatial variation in the relationship between malaria and environmental variables. Spatial modeling improves the understanding of the causal factors operating at several scales in the transmission of malaria. PMID:20133991

  15. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Psychosocial Interventions to Reduce Drug and Sexual Blood Borne Virus Risk Behaviours Among People Who Inject Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Gail; Swan, Davina; Widyaratna, Kideshini; Marquez-Arrico, Julia Elena; Hughes, Elizabeth; Mdege, Noreen Dadirai; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Tirado-Munoz, Judit

    2017-07-01

    Opiate substitution treatment and needle exchanges have reduced blood borne virus (BBV) transmission among people who inject drugs (PWID). Psychosocial interventions could further prevent BBV. A systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether psychosocial interventions (e.g. CBT, skills training) compared to control interventions reduced BBV risk behaviours among PWID. 32 and 24 randomized control trials (2000-May 2015 in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration and Clinical trials, with an update in MEDLINE to December 2016) were included in the review and meta-analysis respectively. Psychosocial interventions appear to reduce: sharing of needles/syringes compared to education/information (SMD -0.52; 95% CI -1.02 to -0.03; I 2  = 10%; p = 0.04) or HIV testing/counselling (SMD -0.24; 95% CI -0.44 to -0.03; I 2  = 0%; p = 0.02); sharing of other injecting paraphernalia (SMD -0.24; 95% CI -0.42 to -0.06; I 2  = 0%; p < 0.01) and unprotected sex (SMD -0.44; 95% CI -0.86 to -0.01; I 2  = 79%; p = 0.04) compared to interventions of a lesser time/intensity, however, moderate to high heterogeneity was reported. Such interventions could be included with other harm reduction approaches to prevent BBV transmission among PWID.

  16. Human hantavirus infection elicits pronounced redistribution of mononuclear phagocytes in peripheral blood and airways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia Scholz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses infect humans via inhalation of virus-contaminated rodent excreta. Infection can cause severe disease with up to 40% mortality depending on the viral strain. The virus primarily targets the vascular endothelium without direct cytopathic effects. Instead, exaggerated immune responses may inadvertently contribute to disease development. Mononuclear phagocytes (MNPs, including monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs, orchestrate the adaptive immune responses. Since hantaviruses are transmitted via inhalation, studying immunological events in the airways is of importance to understand the processes leading to immunopathogenesis. Here, we studied 17 patients infected with Puumala virus that causes a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS. Bronchial biopsies as well as longitudinal blood draws were obtained from the patients. During the acute stage of disease, a significant influx of MNPs expressing HLA-DR, CD11c or CD123 was detected in the patients' bronchial tissue. In parallel, absolute numbers of MNPs were dramatically reduced in peripheral blood, coinciding with viremia. Expression of CCR7 on the remaining MNPs in blood suggested migration to peripheral and/or lymphoid tissues. Numbers of MNPs in blood subsequently normalized during the convalescent phase of the disease when viral RNA was no longer detectable in plasma. Finally, we exposed blood MNPs in vitro to Puumala virus, and demonstrated an induction of CCR7 expression on MNPs. In conclusion, the present study shows a marked redistribution of blood MNPs to the airways during acute hantavirus disease, a process that may underlie the local immune activation and contribute to immunopathogenesis in hantavirus-infected patients.

  17. Hepatitis C virus infection may lead to slower emergence of P. falciparum in blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areas endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV overlap in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa. HBV and HCV infections develop in the liver, where takes place the first development stage of P. falciparum before its further spread in blood. The complex mechanisms involved in the development of hepatitis may potentially influence the development of the liver stage of malaria parasites. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of these interactions could provide new pathophysiological insights for treatment strategies in Malaria. METHODOLOGY: We studied a cohort of 319 individuals living in a village where the three infections are prevalent. The patients were initially given a curative antimalarial treatment and were then monitored for the emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood, fortnightly for one year, by microscopy and polymerase chain reaction. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At inclusion, 65 (20.4% subjects had detectable malaria parasites in blood, 36 (11.3% were HBV chronic carriers, and 61 (18.9% were HCV chronic carriers. During follow-up, asexual P. falciparum forms were detected in the blood of 203 patients. The median time to P. falciparum emergence in blood was respectively 140 and 120 days in HBV- and HBV+ individuals, and 135 and 224 days in HCV- and HCV+ individuals. HCV carriage was associated with delayed emergence of asexual P. falciparum forms in blood relative to patients without HCV infection. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot study represents first tentative evidence of a potential epidemiological interaction between HBV, HCV and P. falciparum infections. Age is an important confounding factor in this setting however multivariate analysis points to an interaction between P. falciparum and HCV at the hepatic level with a slower emergence of P. falciparum in HCV chronic carriers. More in depth analysis are necessary to unravel the basis of hepatic interactions between these two pathogens

  18. Description of 13 Infants Born During October 2015-January 2016 With Congenital Zika Virus Infection Without Microcephaly at Birth - Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Linden, Vanessa; Pessoa, André; Dobyns, William; Barkovich, A James; Júnior, Hélio van der Linden; Filho, Epitacio Leite Rolim; Ribeiro, Erlane Marques; Leal, Mariana de Carvalho; Coimbra, Pablo Picasso de Araújo; Aragão, Maria de Fátima Viana Vasco; Verçosa, Islane; Ventura, Camila; Ramos, Regina Coeli; Cruz, Danielle Di Cavalcanti Sousa; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Mota, Vivian Maria Ribeiro; Dott, Mary; Hillard, Christina; Moore, Cynthia A

    2016-12-02

    Congenital Zika virus infection can cause microcephaly and severe brain abnormalities (1). Congenital Zika syndrome comprises a spectrum of clinical features (2); however, as is the case with most newly recognized teratogens, the earliest documented clinical presentation is expected to be the most severe. Initial descriptions of the effects of in utero Zika virus infection centered prominently on the finding of congenital microcephaly (3). To assess the possibility of clinical presentations that do not include congenital microcephaly, a retrospective assessment of 13 infants from the Brazilian states of Pernambuco and Ceará with normal head size at birth and laboratory evidence of congenital Zika virus infection was conducted. All infants had brain abnormalities on neuroimaging consistent with congenital Zika syndrome, including decreased brain volume, ventriculomegaly, subcortical calcifications, and cortical malformations. The earliest evaluation occurred on the second day of life. Among all infants, head growth was documented to have decelerated as early as 5 months of age, and 11 infants had microcephaly. These findings provide evidence that among infants with prenatal exposure to Zika virus, the absence of microcephaly at birth does not exclude congenital Zika virus infection or the presence of Zika-related brain and other abnormalities. These findings support the recommendation for comprehensive medical and developmental follow-up of infants exposed to Zika virus prenatally. Early neuroimaging might identify brain abnormalities related to congenital Zika infection even among infants with a normal head circumference (4).

  19. Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in central Brazil. A study of 1,211 individuals born to infected mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro O Luquetti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi during pregnancy is estimated to occur in less than 20% of infected mothers; however, the etiopathogenesis is not completely understood. The Centre for Studies on Chagas Disease provides confirmation of T. cruzi infection for individuals living in central Brazil. In this retrospective hospital-based study, all requests for diagnosis of T. cruzi infection in individuals less than 21 years old from 1994-2014 were searched. We end with 1,211 individuals and their respective infected mothers. Congenital transmission of infection was confirmed in 24 individuals (2% in central Brazil, an area where the main T. cruzi lineage circulating in humans is TcII. This low prevalence of congenital Chagas disease is discussed in relation to recent findings in the south region of Brazil, where TcV is the main lineage and congenital transmission has a higher prevalence (approximately 5%, similar to frequencies reported in Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia. This is the first report to show geographical differences in the rates of congenital transmission of T. cruzi and the relationship between the prevalence of congenital transmission and the type of Tc prevalent in each region.

  20. Climate change projections of West Nile virus infections in Europe: implications for blood safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C; Tran, Annelise; Espinosa, Laura; Sudre, Bertrand; Domanovic, Dragoslav; Paz, Shlomit

    2016-03-08

    West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted by mosquitoes in both urban as well as in rural environments and can be pathogenic in birds, horses and humans. Extrinsic factors such as temperature and land use are determinants of WNV outbreaks in Europe, along with intrinsic factors of the vector and virus. With a multivariate model for WNV transmission we computed the probability of WNV infection in 2014, with July 2014 temperature anomalies. We applied the July temperature anomalies under the balanced A1B climate change scenario (mix of all energy sources, fossil and non-fossil) for 2025 and 2050 to model and project the risk of WNV infection in the future. Since asymptomatic infections are common in humans (which can result in the contamination of the donated blood) we estimated the predictive prevalence of WNV infections in the blood donor population. External validation of the probability model with 2014 cases indicated good prediction, based on an Area Under Curve (AUC) of 0.871 (SD = 0.032), on the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curve (ROC). The climate change projections for 2025 reveal a higher probability of WNV infection particularly at the edges of the current transmission areas (for example in Eastern Croatia, Northeastern and Northwestern Turkey) and an even further expansion in 2050. The prevalence of infection in (blood donor) populations in the outbreak-affected districts is expected to expand in the future. Predictive modelling of environmental and climatic drivers of WNV can be a valuable tool for public health practice. It can help delineate districts at risk for future transmission. These areas can be subjected to integrated disease and vector surveillance, outreach to the public and health care providers, implementation of personal protective measures, screening of blood donors, and vector abatement activities.

  1. Nipah virus infects specific subsets of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Stachowiak

    Full Text Available Nipah virus (NiV, a zoonotic paramyxovirus, is highly contagious in swine, and can cause fatal infections in humans following transmission from the swine host. The main viral targets in both species are the respiratory and central nervous systems, with viremia implicated as a mode of dissemination of NiV throughout the host. The presented work focused on the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC in the viremic spread of the virus in the swine host. B lymphocytes, CD4-CD8-, as well as CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes were not permissive to NiV, and expansion of the CD4+CD8- cells early post infection was consistent with functional humoral response to NiV infection observed in swine. In contrast, significant drop in the CD4+CD8- T cell frequency was observed in piglets which succumbed to the experimental infection, supporting the hypothesis that antibody development is the critical component of the protective immune response. Productive viral replication was detected in monocytes, CD6+CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells by recovery of infectious virus in the cell supernatants. Virus replication was supported by detection of the structural N and the non-structural C proteins or by detection of genomic RNA increase in the infected cells. Infection of T cells carrying CD6 marker, a strong ligand for the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule ALCAM (CD166 highly expressed on the microvascular endothelial cell of the blood-air and the blood-brain barrier may explain NiV preferential tropism for small blood vessels of the lung and brain.

  2. Nipah virus infects specific subsets of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachowiak, Beata; Weingartl, Hana M

    2012-01-01

    Nipah virus (NiV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus, is highly contagious in swine, and can cause fatal infections in humans following transmission from the swine host. The main viral targets in both species are the respiratory and central nervous systems, with viremia implicated as a mode of dissemination of NiV throughout the host. The presented work focused on the role of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the viremic spread of the virus in the swine host. B lymphocytes, CD4-CD8-, as well as CD4+CD8- T lymphocytes were not permissive to NiV, and expansion of the CD4+CD8- cells early post infection was consistent with functional humoral response to NiV infection observed in swine. In contrast, significant drop in the CD4+CD8- T cell frequency was observed in piglets which succumbed to the experimental infection, supporting the hypothesis that antibody development is the critical component of the protective immune response. Productive viral replication was detected in monocytes, CD6+CD8+ T lymphocytes and NK cells by recovery of infectious virus in the cell supernatants. Virus replication was supported by detection of the structural N and the non-structural C proteins or by detection of genomic RNA increase in the infected cells. Infection of T cells carrying CD6 marker, a strong ligand for the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule ALCAM (CD166) highly expressed on the microvascular endothelial cell of the blood-air and the blood-brain barrier may explain NiV preferential tropism for small blood vessels of the lung and brain.

  3. Source, pattern and antibiotic resistance of blood stream infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Mahallawy, H.; Samir, I.; Kadry, D.; Abdel Fattah, R.; El-Kholy, A.

    2014-01-01

    Mucositis developing as a result of myelo-ablative high dose therapy administered prior to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with the risk of bacteremia. The aim of the present study was to detect the pattern of bacteremia coinciding with the present practice of HSCT, to study the contribution of health-care associated infection (HAI) to the pattern of infection, in the context of the problem of antibiotic resistance in HSCT recipients. Patients and methods: This is a retrospective, single center study including patients who developed febrile neutropenia (FN) among HSCT recipients in one year duration. Results: Ninety FN episodes were recorded in 50 patients. Out of 39 positive blood cultures, Gram negative rods (GNR) were the predominant pathogens, constituting 67% (n =26) of isolated organisms, while 33% of infections were caused by gram positive cocci (GPC) (n= 13). Bacteremia was significantly associated with central venous line (CVL) infections and gastroenteritis (diarrhea and vomiting) with a p-value 0.024, 0.20 and 0.0001, respectively. Multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) were identified in 27 (69%) of the 39 positive blood cultures. Conclusion: In one year duration, gram negative pathogens were the predominant causes of infection in HSCT recipients with high rates of MDROs in our institution. Gastroenteritis and central venous line infections are the main sources of bacteremia

  4. Serological survey of Leishmania infection in blood donors in Salvador, Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutani, Kiyoshi F; Figueiredo, Virgínia; Celes, Fabiana S; Cristal, Juqueline R; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2014-07-30

    Visceral Leishmaniasis is endemic to Brazil, where it is caused by Leishmania infantum (syn. Leishmania chagasi). Following parasite inoculation, individuals may experience asymptomatic infection, raising the possibility of parasite transmission through the transfusion of contaminated blood products. In the present work, we evaluated the prevalence of asymptomatic Leishmania infection among blood donors in Salvador, northeastern Brazil. Peripheral blood was collected from 700 blood donors attending the Blood Bank of Bahia (HEMOBA/SESAB), from January to September 2010. We evaluated anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA, employing Soluble Leishmania Antigen (sensitivity 90% and specificity 95%). The presence of parasite DNA was determined by qPCR, targeting a single copy gene (G6PD), and by end-point PCR, targeting multiple targets, namely a segment located in the Leishmania rRNA locus (ITS) and the conserved region of kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) minicircles. The blood-donor population was comprised of 74.5% of males with a mean age of 34 years. Anti-Leishmania serology by ELISA was positive in 5.4% (38/700) individuals. One individual was also positive for Chagas' disease and another tested positive for Syphilis. Employing qPCR, parasite DNA was not found in any of 38 seropositive samples. However, by ITS PCR, 8/38 (21%) samples were positive and this positivity increased to 26/38 (68%) when we targeted kDNA amplification. Agreement between both techniques (ITS and kDNA PCR) was fair (kappa = 0.219). These results indicate that asymptomatic infection is present among the blood donor population of Salvador, a finding that warrants a broader discussion regarding the need to implement specific screening strategies.

  5. Histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for infection by Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão de Mattos, Cinara Cássia; de Mattos, Luiz Carlos

    2017-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infect millions of people around the world. It occupies a niche in the human gastrointestinal tract characterized by high expression of a repertoire of carbohydrates. ABO and Lewis histo-blood group systems are controlled by genes coding for functional glycosyltransferases which synthesize great diversity of related fucosylated carbohydrate in different tissues, including gastrointestinal mucosa, and exocrine secretions. The structural diversity of histo-blood group carbohydrates is highly complex and depends on epistatic interactions among gene-encoding glycosyltransferases. The histo-blood group glycosyltransferases act in the glycosylation of proteins and lipids in the human gastrointestinal tract allowing the expression of a variety of potential receptors in which H. pylori can adhere. These oligosaccharide molecules are part of the gastrointestinal repertoire of carbohydrates which act as potential receptors for microorganisms, including H. pylori. This Gram-negative bacillus is one of the main causes of the gastrointestinal diseases such as chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, and cancer of stomach. Previous reports showed that some H. pylori strains use carbohydrates as receptors to adhere to the gastric and duodenal mucosa. Since some histo-blood group carbohydrates are highly expressed in one but not in others histo-blood group phenotypes it has pointed out that quantitative differences among them influence the susceptibility to diseases caused by H. pylori. Additionally, some experiments using animal model are helping us to understand how this bacillus explore histo-blood group carbohydrates as potential receptors, offering possibility to explore new strategies of management of infection, disease treatment, and prevention. This text highlights the importance of structural diversity of ABO and Lewis histo-blood group carbohydrates as facilitators for H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hepatitis B and C viral infections among blood donors from rural Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, B; Owusu, M; Frempong, H O; Averu, P

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Hepatitis B and C infections and co-infections among blood donors in a rural community of Ghana. A retrospective study. Samples of blood donated between January 2007 and December 2008 were screen for Hepatitis B and C viruses at the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The prevalence of Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection was highest in females 21.4% (95% CI: 11.6-34.4) in 2006 than males in the same year 13.2% (95% CI: 10.8-15.9). Hepatitis C viral (HCV) infection was highest among males at 11.6% (95% CI: 9.5-13.8) in 2007. HBV and HCV co-infection was higher in males 2.6% (95% CI: 1.6-3.8) than females 1.3% (95% CI: 0-7.0) in 2007. The overall prevalence of HBV and HCV was 13.8% (95% CI: 11.4-16.4) and 9.4% (95% CI: 7.4-11.6) respectively in 2006. The rate of co-infection of HBV and HCV however increased from 1.6% (95% CI: 0.8-2.7) in 2006 to 2.2% (95% CI: 1.3-3.2) in 2008 in males and from 0% (95% CI: 0-6.4) in 2006 to 1.2% (95% CI: 0-6.5) in 2008 in females. The single infections of HBV and HCV reduced but co-infection of these transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) increased. Measures such as more sensitive techniques and education must be employed in these areas.

  7. Felis Catus Gammaherpesvirus 1 DNAemia in Whole Blood from Therapeutically Immunosuppressed or Retrovirus-Infected Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLuckie, Alicia J; Barrs, Vanessa R; Wilson, Bethany; Westman, Mark E; Beatty, Julia A

    2017-03-14

    Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1) pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently harbor higher FcaGHV1 loads than FIV-uninfected cats. Whether immune deficiencies unrelated to FIV are associated with similar risks is unknown. Using whole blood FcaGHV1 qPCR, we found no difference in the frequency of DNAemia or DNA load in therapeutically immunosuppressed (P1, n = 18) or feline leukemia virus (FeLV)-infected (P2, n = 57) patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls (C1, n = 58; C2, n = 57). In contrast, FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3, n = 5) were at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia compared to retrovirus uninfected controls (C3, n = 39; p = 0.0068), and had a higher median FcaGHV1 DNA load, although the latter was not significant. FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3) had a similar frequency of FcaGHV1 DNAemia reported compared to FIV-infected controls (C4). In conclusion, we found no evidence that cats with therapeutic immunosuppression or FeLV infection were at greater risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia or had higher FcaGHV1 DNA load in whole blood. The risk of DNAemia in FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats was similar to that documented previously in cats infected with FIV alone.

  8. Felis Catus Gammaherpesvirus 1 DNAemia in Whole Blood from Therapeutically Immunosuppressed or Retrovirus-Infected Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia J. McLuckie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Gammaherpesviruses are major co-pathogens of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, making the interactions between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and Felis catus gammaherpesvirus 1 (FcaGHV1 pertinent to both human and veterinary medical research. FIV-infected cats are at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia and consistently harbor higher FcaGHV1 loads than FIV-uninfected cats. Whether immune deficiencies unrelated to FIV are associated with similar risks is unknown. Using whole blood FcaGHV1 qPCR, we found no difference in the frequency of DNAemia or DNA load in therapeutically immunosuppressed (P1, n = 18 or feline leukemia virus (FeLV-infected (P2, n = 57 patients compared with age- and sex-matched controls (C1, n = 58; C2, n = 57. In contrast, FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3, n = 5 were at increased risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia compared to retrovirus uninfected controls (C3, n = 39; p = 0.0068, and had a higher median FcaGHV1 DNA load, although the latter was not significant. FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats (P3 had a similar frequency of FcaGHV1 DNAemia reported compared to FIV-infected controls (C4. In conclusion, we found no evidence that cats with therapeutic immunosuppression or FeLV infection were at greater risk of FcaGHV1 DNAemia or had higher FcaGHV1 DNA load in whole blood. The risk of DNAemia in FIV/FeLV-co-infected cats was similar to that documented previously in cats infected with FIV alone.

  9. Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prauße, Maria T E; Lehnert, Teresa; Timme, Sandra; Hünniger, Kerstin; Leonhardt, Ines; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2018-01-01

    Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata . However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be observed for the

  10. Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. E. Prauße

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata. However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be

  11. Pretreatment blood concentrations of chloroquine in patients with malaria infection: relation to response to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quashie, Neils Ben; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Goka, Bamenla Q

    2005-01-01

    , respectively. Seventy-five per cent of the patients without any detectable pretreatment blood chloroquine had parasites that were sensitive to chloroquine whilst 89.8 per cent, 98 per cent, and 100 per cent with pretreatment blood chloroquine concentration ranges of 0.5--100.5 ng/ml, 100.5--200 ng/ml, and >200...... ng/ml, respectively, had chloroquine-sensitive parasites. An inverse relationship was thus observed between pretreatment blood chloroquine concentration and the degree of resistance in this study. We conclude that pre-hospital treatment ingested chloroquine contributes significantly to the resolution...... with malaria infection in Ghana, we hypothesized that the 'added effect' of the pretreatment ingested drug to the full dose given at the hospital may be responsible for the low proportion of RIII type of resistance observed. To ascertain this, pretreatment blood levels of chloroquine were correlated...

  12. Cytokine responses of CD4+ T cells during a Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi (ER blood-stage infection in mice initiated by the natural route of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher Geoffrey

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of host responses to blood stages of Plasmodium spp, and the immunopathology associated with this phase of the life cycle are often performed on mice infected directly with infected red blood cells. Thus, the effects of mosquito bites and the pre-erythrocytic stages of the parasite, which would be present in natural infection, are ignored In this paper, Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi infections of mice injected directly with infected red blood cells were compared with those of mice infected by the bites of infected mosquitoes, in order to determine whether the courses of primary infection and splenic CD4 T cell responses are similar. Methods C57Bl/6 mice were injected with red blood cells infected with P. chabaudi (ER or infected via the bite of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Parasitaemia were monitored by Giemsa-stained thin blood films. Total spleen cells, CD4+ T cells, and cytokine production (IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 were analysed by flow cytometry. In some experiments, mice were subjected to bites of uninfected mosquitoes prior to infectious bites in order to determine whether mosquito bites per se could affect a subsequent P. chabaudi infection. Results P. chabaudi (ER infections initiated by mosquito bite were characterized by lower parasitaemia of shorter duration than those observed after direct blood challenge. However, splenomegaly was comparable suggesting that parasitaemia alone does not account for the increase in spleen size. Total numbers of CD4 T cells and those producing IFN-γ, IL-10 and IL-2 were reduced in comparison to direct blood challenge. By contrast, the reduction in IL-4 producing cells was less marked suggesting that there is a proportionally lower Th1-like response in mice infected via infectious mosquitoes. Strikingly, pre-exposure to bites of uninfected mosquitoes reduced the magnitude and duration of the subsequent mosquito-transmitted infection still further, but enhanced the

  13. Description of outcomes of experimental infection with feline haemoplasmas: Copy numbers, haematology, Coombs? testing and blood glucose concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Tasker, S?verine; Peters, Iain R.; Papasouliotis, Kostas; Cue, Simon M.; Willi, Barbara; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina; Gruffydd-Jones, Timothy J.; Knowles, Toby G.; Day, Michael J.; Helps, Chris R.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare blood copy, haematological and glucose values between cats experimentally infected with either M. haemofelis (Group HF: 10 cats), `Candidatus M. haemominutum? (Group HM: 3 cats) or `Candidatus M. turicensis? (Group TU: 3 cats). Blood samples were collected regularly up to 85 days post-infection (DPI) for haemoplasma real-time quantitative PCR, haematology, Coombs? testing and blood glucose measurement. Statistical analysis was performed...

  14. Development and evaluation of a prototype non-woven fabric filter for purification of malaria-infected blood

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Zhi-Yong; Xia, Hui; Cao, Jun; Gao, Qi

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Many malaria-related studies depend on infected red blood cells (iRBCs) as fundamental material; however, infected blood samples from human or animal models include leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs), especially difficult to separate from iRBCs in cases involving Plasmodium vivax. These host WBCs are a source of contamination in biology, immunology and molecular biology studies, requiring their removal. Non-woven fabric (NWF) has the ability to adsorb leukocytes and is...

  15. Molecular Detecting of fungi and Bacteria in the ‎Blood of Patients With Genital System ‎Inflammatory Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ibrahim Khalil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A PCR technique was used to detect fungi and bacteria in the blood of patients with inflammatory infection of genital system, three primer sets were used to detect E. Coli , Candida spp. and existence of other fungi  The results showed infection by both microorganisms. All patients had bacteria in the blood stream while 30 % of them had a Candida spp. and the same percentage of other fungi species in blood

  16. Dapagliflozin-lowered blood glucose reduces respiratory Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åstrand, Annika; Wingren, Cecilia; Benjamin, Audra; Tregoning, John S; Garnett, James P; Groves, Helen; Gill, Simren; Orogo-Wenn, Maria; Lundqvist, Anders J; Walters, Dafydd; Smith, David M; Taylor, John D; Baker, Emma H; Baines, Deborah L

    2017-05-01

    Hyperglycaemia increases glucose concentrations in airway surface liquid and increases the risk of pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. We determined whether reduction of blood and airway glucose concentrations by the anti-diabetic drug dapagliflozin could reduce P. aeruginosa growth/survival in the lungs of diabetic mice. The effect of dapagliflozin on blood and airway glucose concentration, the inflammatory response and infection were investigated in C57BL/6J (wild type, WT) or leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice, treated orally with dapagliflozin prior to intranasal dosing with LPS or inoculation with P. aeruginosa. Pulmonary glucose transport and fluid absorption were investigated in Wistar rats using the perfused fluid-filled lung technique. Fasting blood, airway glucose and lactate concentrations were elevated in the db/db mouse lung. LPS challenge increased inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from WT and db/db mice with and without dapagliflozin treatment. P. aeruginosa colony-forming units (CFU) were increased in db/db lungs. Pretreatment with dapagliflozin reduced blood and bronchoalveolar lavage glucose concentrations and P. aeruginosa CFU in db/db mice towards those seen in WT. Dapagliflozin had no adverse effects on the inflammatory response in the mouse or pulmonary glucose transport or fluid absorption in the rat lung. Pharmacological lowering of blood glucose with dapagliflozin effectively reduced P. aeruginosa infection in the lungs of diabetic mice and had no adverse pulmonary effects in the rat. Dapagliflozin has potential to reduce the use, or augment the effect, of antimicrobials in the prevention or treatment of pulmonary infection. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  17. Changes in blood sugar levels of rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate and diminazene aceturate

    OpenAIRE

    Nwoha Rosemary Ijeoma Ogechi; Omamegbe Joseph Omalathebu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) on blood sugar level of infected rats. Methods: The experiment was done with 42 albino rats grouped into 3 groups of 14 members each. Group A was uninfected (control group), Group B was infected with T. brucei and treated with diminazene aceturate, and Group C was infected with T. brucei and treated with imidocarb dipropionate. Blood samples were collected from the media canthus of the experimental rats on ...

  18. Early detection of Haemonchus contortus infection in sheep using three different faecal occult blood tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Rodríguez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Haemonchus contortus is a blood-sucking parasite causing the presence of faecal occult blood (FOB. The objective was to study three different FOB tests in order to have a new indicator of H. contortus infection in sheep that could be included in the genetic evaluation system as an alternative selection criterion to faecal worm egg count (FEC. A total of 29 Corriedale lambs were experimentally infected with 10.000 larvae of H. contortus. Stool samples were recorded for FEC and FOB tests (Hexagon, Hematest® and Multistix®, blood for packed cell volume (PCV, haemoglobin, white and red blood cell count (RBC, and FAMACHA© for scoring anaemia. At the end of the experiment lambs were slaughtered to worm burden count. Field infection was achieved in 309 Merino lambs under natural parasite challenge. FEC data were normalized through logarithmic transformation (LnFEC. Pearson correlation was estimated to examine the relationship between all traits. The three tests were able to detect the presence of FOB at day 11. FEC, PCV and RBC decreased to sub-normal values from day 18. FAMACHA© score 3 was considered to be indicative of anaemia. Most of the correlations were of high magnitude, with the exception of Multistix® test that was moderately correlated with haematological parameters, LnFEC and FEC. In field infection, most samples were negative to FOB tests and the correlations were lower than those calculated under experimental infection. In conclusion, FOB tests were able to detect haemonchosis earlier than FEC under high experimental parasite challenge. However, they were not able to detect FOB under natural mixed parasite challenge. FAMACHA© and PCV demonstrated to be good indicators of Haemonchosis, having moderate to high correlations with FEC.

  19. In memory of Patrick Manson, founding father of tropical medicine and the discovery of vector-borne infections

    OpenAIRE

    To, Kelvin KW; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-01-01

    Patrick Manson, a clinician-scientist serving in China (1866?1889), discovered that many tropical infectious diseases require a vector peculiar to warm climate for person to person transmission. He demonstrated the nocturnal periodicity of microfilariae in the blood of patients with elephantiasis. These microfilariae undergo metamorphosis when ingested by the mosquito acting as the vector for the completion of their life cycle. Furthermore, he demonstrated the linkage between the lung fluke a...

  20. Nucleic Acid Amplification Test For Detection Of West Nile Virus Infection In Pakistani Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niazi, Saifullah Khan; Alam, Maqbool; Yazdani, Muhammad Sajid; Ghani, Eijaz; Rathore, Muhammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18-57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples.

  1. Immunological response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in blood from type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo-García, Sara; Guerra-Laso, José Manuel; García-García, Silvia; Juan-García, Javier; López-Fidalgo, Eduardo; Diez-Tascón, Cristina; Nebreda-Mayoral, Teresa; López-Medrano, Ramiro; Rivero-Lezcano, Octavio Miguel

    2017-06-01

    The convergence of tuberculosis and diabetes represents a co-epidemic that threatens progress against tuberculosis. We have investigated type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for tuberculosis susceptibility, and have used as experimental model whole blood infected in vitro with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Blood samples from diabetic patients were found to have a higher absolute neutrophil count that non-diabetic controls, but their immune functionality seemed impaired because they displayed a lower capacity to phagocytose M. tuberculosis, a finding that had been previously reported only for monocytes. In contrast, an increased production of TNFα was detected in infected blood from diabetic patients. Despite the altered phagocytic capacity showed by cells from these patients, the antimicrobial activity measured in both whole blood and monocyte derived macrophages was similar to that of controls. This unexpected result prompts further improvements in the whole blood model to analyze the immune response of diabetes patients to tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pattern of Blood Stream Infections within Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Suez Canal University Hospital, Ismailia, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Mohammed Kishk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Blood stream infection (BSI is a common problem of newborn in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs. Monitoring neonatal infections is increasingly regarded as an important contributor to safe and high-quality healthcare. It results in high mortality rate and serious complications. So, our aim was to determine the incidence and the pattern of BSIs in the NICU of Suez Canal University Hospital, Egypt, and to determine its impact on hospitalization, mortality, and morbidity. Methods. This study was a prospective one in which all neonates admitted to the NICUs in Suez Canal University hospital between January, 2013 and June 2013 were enrolled. Blood stream infections were monitored prospectively. The health care associated infection rate, mortality rate, causative organism, and risk factors were studied. Results. A total of 317 neonates were admitted to the NICU with a mortality rate of 36.0%. During this study period, 115/317 (36.3% developed clinical signs of sepsis and were confirmed as BSIs by blood culture in only 90 neonates with 97 isolates. The total mean length of stay was significantly longer among infected than noninfected neonates (34.5 ± 18.3 and 10.8 ± 9.9 days, resp., P value < 0.001. The overall mortality rates among infected and noninfected neonates were 38.9% and 34.8%, respectively, with a significant difference. Klebsiella spp. were the most common pathogen (27.8% followed by Pseudomonas (21.6% and Staphylococcus aureus (15.4%. Conclusion. The rate of BSIs in NICU at Suez Canal University Hospital was relatively high with high mortality rate (36.0%.

  3. Changing epidemiological pattern of hospital and community borne Clostridium diffiile infections: A cause for public health concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santhanamari Thiyagarajan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The bacteria Clostridium difficile (C. difficile is one of the significant nosocomial pathogens frequently implicated with antibiotic associated diarrhea. Infection with C. difficile can result in asymptomatic colonization to spectrum of complications collectively known as C. difficile associated diseases. Since the dawn of its discovery, the C. difficile has been a subject of research with respect to its virulence characteristics and epidemiology. Once thought to be a normal flora of human, it was later identified as an enterotoxigenic bacteria. Subsequently, this bacteria emerged to be an important nosocomial agent affecting patients of old age. Recent reports indicate dramatic shift in the epidemiology of C. difficile. Some of the notable changes are increasing incidences of community acquired infections, development of resistance to wide spectrum of antibiotics, frequent recurrences, infections among young individuals without any exposure to common risk factors, etc. This paper reviews the literatures of past 25 years that enlighten the alarming raise and changing epidemiological features of this agent, so as to necessitate in-depth studies towards its prevention and control.

  4. Differential effects of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers by severity of maternal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Louise; Aldrovandi, Grace M; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Semrau, Katherine; Kasonde, Prisca; Mwiya, Mwiya; Tsai, Wei-Yann; Thea, Donald M

    2009-06-26

    We previously reported no benefit of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers in intent-to-treat analyses. Since early weaning was poorly accepted, we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate whether beneficial effects may have been hidden. 958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized to abrupt weaning at 4 months (intervention) or to continued breastfeeding (control). Children were followed to 24 months with regular HIV PCR tests and examinations to determine HIV infection or death. Detailed behavioral data were collected on when all breastfeeding ended. Most participants were recruited before antiretroviral treatment (ART) became available. We compared outcomes among mother-child pairs who weaned earlier or later than intended by study design adjusting for potential confounders. Of infants alive, uninfected and still breastfeeding at 4 months in the intervention group, 16.1% who weaned as instructed acquired HIV or died by 24 months compared to 16.0% who did not comply (p = 0.98). Children of women with less severe disease during pregnancy (not eligible for ART) had worse outcomes if their mothers weaned as instructed (RH = 2.60 95% CI: 1.06-6.36) compared to those who continued breastfeeding. Conversely, children of mothers with more severe disease (eligible for ART but did not receive it) who weaned early had better outcomes (p-value interaction = 0.002). In the control group, weaning before 15 months was associated with 3.94-fold (95% CI: 1.65-9.39) increase in HIV infection or death among infants of mothers with less severe disease. Incomplete adherence did not mask a benefit of early weaning. On the contrary, for women with less severe disease, early weaning was harmful and continued breastfeeding resulted in better outcomes. For women with more advanced disease, ART should be given during pregnancy for maternal health and to reduce transmission, including through breastfeeding. (ClinicalTrials.gov) NCT

  5. Effects of testosterone on blood leukocytes in plasmodium berghei-infected mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ibrahim, J B

    1989-01-01

    Gonadectomized male mice aged 5 weeks were given 5 mg testosterone propionate daily for 14 days. The treatment significantly decreased the number of blood leukocytes. The number of all individual types of leukocytes except basophils in vehicle-treated gonadectomized mice was increased. Testosterone-treated mice consistently had a lower number of leukocytes after being infected with Plasmodium berghei than did vehicle-treated mice. The results suggest that testosterone suppresses the production of leukocytes and that testosterone-treated mice become more susceptible to parasite infection.

  6. [INFECTION OF BLOOD-SUCKING MOSQUITOES (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE) WITH DIROFILARIAE (SPIRURIDA, ONCHOCERCIDAE) IN THE TULA REGION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacheva, A S; Ganushkina, L A; Lopatina, Yu V

    2016-01-01

    Blood-sucking mosquitoes (n = 2277) collected in Tula and its Region in 2013-2014 were examined using a PCR assay for dirofilariae. A total of 12 species from 4 genera (Culiseta, Aedes, Ochlerotatus [foreign character] Culex) out of 18 found mosquito species were infected with Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens. The proportion of the infected mosquitoes was 2.5% (D. immitis, 1.5%; D.repens, 1%). According to preliminary data, the most efficient Dirofilaria vectors, in the Tula Region may be Ae. vexans, Ae. geniculatus, Och. cantans, and Cx. pipiens.

  7. The Prison Economy of Needles and Syringes: What Opportunities Exist for Blood Borne Virus Risk Reduction When Prices Are so High?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Carla; McCredie, Luke; Lloyd, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    A formal Needle and Syringe Program (NSP) is not provided in Australian prisons. Injecting equipment circulates in prisons as part of an informal and illegal economy. This paper examined how this economy generates blood-borne virus (BBV) risk and risk mitigation opportunities for inmates. The HITS-p cohort recruited New South Wales inmates who had reported ever injecting drugs and who had a negative HCV serological test within 12 months prior to enrolment. For this study, qualitative interviews were conducted with 30 participants enrolled in HITS-p. Participants included 10 women and were incarcerated in 12 prisons. A needle/syringe was nominated as being typically priced in the 'inside' prison economy at $100-$150, with a range of $50-$350. Purchase or hire of equipment was paid for in cash (including transactions that occurred outside prison) and in exchange for drugs and other commodities. A range of other resources was required to enable successful needle/syringe economies, especially relationships with visitors and other prisoners, and violence to ensure payment of debts. Strategies to mitigate BBV risk included retaining one needle/syringe for personal use while hiring out others, keeping drug use (and ownership of equipment) "quiet", stealing used equipment from the prison health clinic, and manufacture of syringes from other items available in the prison. The provision of prison NSP would disrupt the inside economies built around contraband needles/syringes, as well as minimise BBV risk. However, any model of prison NSP should be interrogated for any unanticipated markets that could be generated as a result of its regulatory practices.

  8. Evaluation of an e-learning package to improve understanding of blood-borne viruses amongst prison staff in Wales, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen Perrett, Stephanie; Erricker, Mark; Lyons, Marion

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide education on blood-borne viruses (BBVs) to prison staff to help reduce stigma within the prisons, improve the care prisoners receive and reduce the risk of occupational transmission. An e-module was used to improve staff understanding of hepatitis B (HBV), hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV at a prison in Wales, UK. An assessment was used to gather data on prison staff understanding of BBVs prior to undertaking the e-module. In total, 530/697 (76 per cent) prison staff completed the BBV e-module. Average pre- and post-course assessment scores were 8.6/11 and 10.85/11, respectively. Most staff understood the modes of hepatitis transmission, however, gaps in understanding were highlighted. In total, 22 per cent of staff believed HBV and HCV were airborne, 9 per cent believed transmission occurred through sharing cutlery. In total, 31 per cent of staff believed prisoners with hepatitis should declare their status to the prison. Practical implications: The e-module significantly improved staff understanding of BBVs and should be incorporated into future prison training packages. Future education should include how BBVs are not transmitted with an emphasis on casual contact. Medical confidentiality in prisons should also be addressed. Improving understanding will help reduce the stigma of BBVs within prison and improve the multidisciplinary care the prisoner receives. To the authors knowledge this is the first published evaluation of a BBV learning package for custodial staff. Evaluation of this educational package demonstrates a unique and valuable insight into the general understanding of BBVs by prison staff in Wales, UK.

  9. Zika Virus Tissue and Blood Compartmentalization in Acute Infection of Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Lark L; Pesavento, Patricia A; Keesler, Rebekah I; Singapuri, Anil; Watanabe, Jennifer; Watanabe, Rie; Yee, JoAnn; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Cruzen, Christina; Christe, Kari L; Reader, J Rachel; von Morgenland, Wilhelm; Gibbons, Anne M; Allen, A Mark; Linnen, Jeff; Gao, Kui; Delwart, Eric; Simmons, Graham; Stone, Mars; Lanteri, Marion; Bakkour, Sonia; Busch, Michael; Morrison, John; Van Rompay, Koen K A

    2017-01-01

    Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV) are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed. In 1 animal, viral RNA (vRNA) could be detected longer in whole blood than in plasma. Despite no major histopathologic changes, many adult tissues contained vRNA 14 days post-infection with highest levels in hemolymphatic tissues. These observations warrant further studies to investigate ZIKV persistence and its potential clinical implications for transmission via blood products or tissue and organ transplants.

  10. Zika Virus Tissue and Blood Compartmentalization in Acute Infection of Rhesus Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L Coffey

    Full Text Available Animal models of Zika virus (ZIKV are needed to better understand tropism and pathogenesis and to test candidate vaccines and therapies to curtail the pandemic. Humans and rhesus macaques possess similar fetal development and placental biology that is not shared between humans and rodents. We inoculated 2 non-pregnant rhesus macaques with a 2015 Brazilian ZIKV strain. Consistent with most human infections, the animals experienced no clinical disease but developed short-lived plasma viremias that cleared as neutralizing antibody developed. In 1 animal, viral RNA (vRNA could be detected longer in whole blood than in plasma. Despite no major histopathologic changes, many adult tissues contained vRNA 14 days post-infection with highest levels in hemolymphatic tissues. These observations warrant further studies to investigate ZIKV persistence and its potential clinical implications for transmission via blood products or tissue and organ transplants.

  11. Prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in blood banks of seven departments of Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana Carrasco

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma cruzi infection was studied in 1,298 sera samples of blood banks from 7 capital departments of Bolivia, using the immunofluorescence test (IFI and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Elisa. The percentages of positivity in these 7 departments have an average of 28% and are distributed as follows: Sta. Cruz 51%, Tarija 45%, Cochabamba 28%, Sucre 39%, La Paz 4.9%, Oruro 6% and Potosi 24%. The prevalence is related with the altitude levels of the different departments. However in Potosi (3,945 m we found a 24% of prevalence, probably due to the proximity of endemic valleys to the city. The authors suggest a strict control in blood donors since there exists a great risk of infection

  12. A virtual infection model quantifies innate effector mechanisms and Candida albicans immune escape in human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Hünniger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost [Formula: see text] of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment

  13. Equine infectious anemia virus replication is upregulated during differentiation of blood monocytes from acutely infected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellon, D C; Walker, K M; Russell, K E; Perry, S T; Covington, P; Fuller, F J

    1996-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus is a lentivirus that replicates in mature tissue macrophages of horses. Ponies were infected with equine infectious anemia virus. During febrile episodes, proviral DNA was detectable, but viral mRNA was not detectable. As cultured blood monocytes from these ponies differentiated into macrophages, viral expression was upregulated. In situ hybridization confirmed that viral transcription occurred in mature macrophages. PMID:8523576

  14. A Virtual Infection Model Quantifies Innate Effector Mechanisms and Candida albicans Immune Escape in Human Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieber, Kristin; Martin, Ronny; Figge, Marc Thilo; Kurzai, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans bloodstream infection is increasingly frequent and can result in disseminated candidiasis associated with high mortality rates. To analyze the innate immune response against C. albicans, fungal cells were added to human whole-blood samples. After inoculation, C. albicans started to filament and predominantly associate with neutrophils, whereas only a minority of fungal cells became attached to monocytes. While many parameters of host-pathogen interaction were accessible to direct experimental quantification in the whole-blood infection assay, others were not. To overcome these limitations, we generated a virtual infection model that allowed detailed and quantitative predictions on the dynamics of host-pathogen interaction. Experimental time-resolved data were simulated using a state-based modeling approach combined with the Monte Carlo method of simulated annealing to obtain quantitative predictions on a priori unknown transition rates and to identify the main axis of antifungal immunity. Results clearly demonstrated a predominant role of neutrophils, mediated by phagocytosis and intracellular killing as well as the release of antifungal effector molecules upon activation, resulting in extracellular fungicidal activity. Both mechanisms together account for almost of C. albicans killing, clearly proving that beside being present in larger numbers than other leukocytes, neutrophils functionally dominate the immune response against C. albicans in human blood. A fraction of C. albicans cells escaped phagocytosis and remained extracellular and viable for up to four hours. This immune escape was independent of filamentation and fungal activity and not linked to exhaustion or inactivation of innate immune cells. The occurrence of C. albicans cells being resistant against phagocytosis may account for the high proportion of dissemination in C. albicans bloodstream infection. Taken together, iterative experiment–model–experiment cycles allowed

  15. Improved sensitivity for molecular detection of bacterial and Candida infections in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacconi, Andrea; Richmond, Gregory S; Baroldi, Michelle A; Laffler, Thomas G; Blyn, Lawrence B; Carolan, Heather E; Frinder, Mark R; Toleno, Donna M; Metzgar, David; Gutierrez, Jose R; Massire, Christian; Rounds, Megan; Kennel, Natalie J; Rothman, Richard E; Peterson, Stephen; Carroll, Karen C; Wakefield, Teresa; Ecker, David J; Sampath, Rangarajan

    2014-09-01

    The rapid identification of bacteria and fungi directly from the blood of patients with suspected bloodstream infections aids in diagnosis and guides treatment decisions. The development of an automated, rapid, and sensitive molecular technology capable of detecting the diverse agents of such infections at low titers has been challenging, due in part to the high background of genomic DNA in blood. PCR followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (PCR/ESI-MS) allows for the rapid and accurate identification of microorganisms but with a sensitivity of about 50% compared to that of culture when using 1-ml whole-blood specimens. Here, we describe a new integrated specimen preparation technology that substantially improves the sensitivity of PCR/ESI-MS analysis. An efficient lysis method and automated DNA purification system were designed for processing 5 ml of whole blood. In addition, PCR amplification formulations were optimized to tolerate high levels of human DNA. An analysis of 331 specimens collected from patients with suspected bloodstream infections resulted in 35 PCR/ESI-MS-positive specimens (10.6%) compared to 18 positive by culture (5.4%). PCR/ESI-MS was 83% sensitive and 94% specific compared to culture. Replicate PCR/ESI-MS testing from a second aliquot of the PCR/ESI-MS-positive/culture-negative specimens corroborated the initial findings in most cases, resulting in increased sensitivity (91%) and specificity (99%) when confirmed detections were considered true positives. The integrated solution described here has the potential to provide rapid detection and identification of organisms responsible for bloodstream infections. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Estimating Vector-borne Viral Infections in the Urban Setting of the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, Japan, Using Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Hiroyuki

    2017-12-20

    The first domestic outbreak of dengue fever in Japan since 1945 was reported in Tokyo in 2014. Meanwhile, daily mean summer temperatures are expected to continue to rise world-wide. Such conditions are expected to increase the risk of an arbovirus outbreak at the 2020 Tokyo Olympic Games. To address this possibility, the present study compared estimates of the risk of infection by dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses in urban areas. To compare the risk of infection by arboviruses transmitted by Ae. albopictus mosquitoes, the reproduction number for each of three arboviruses was estimated under the environmental conditions associated with the 2014 dengue outbreak in Tokyo, and additionally under conditions assuming a daily mean temperature elevation of 2° C. For dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, the estimated distributions of R 0 were independently fitted to gamma distributions yielding median R 0 values of 1.00, 0.46, and 0.36, respectively. If the daily mean temperature were to rise from 28° C to 30° C, our model predicts increases of the median R 0 of 18% for dengue, 4.3% for chikungunya, and 11.1% for Zika. Strengthening of the public health responsivity for these emerging arboviral diseases will be needed in preparation for the 2020 Olympic Games in Tokyo.

  17. Trend and prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors in rural teaching institute, south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS Leena

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The magnitude of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI varies from country to country depending on TTI’s load in that particular population. The aim of the study was to study the trend and prevalence of sero-markers among blood donors in one of the tertiary health center in south India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed from 2004 to 2010 in a blood bank of teaching hospital in South India. All blood donors who presented to blood bank during the study period were included. Data regarding demography and serological tests were collected on predesigned proforma. Results: There were a total of 6939 blood donors during study period. Out of these, 94(1.35% were positive for sero-markers for TTIs. The number of blood donors as well as sero-positivity increased from year 2004 to 2010. Conclusions: Trend and sero-prevalence of TTIs increased over period of time. Sero-positivity for TTIs decreased from year 2004 to 2010. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jpn.v2i3.6022 JPN 2012; 2(3: 203-206

  18. ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori cagA infection: evidence of an association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DE Mattos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases resulting from Helicobacter pylori infection appear to be dependent on a host of genetic traits and virulence factors possessed by this microorganism. This paper aimed to investigate the association between the ABO histo-blood groups and H. pylori cagA infections. Genomic DNA samples (n = 110 of gastric biopsies obtained from patients with endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcers (n = 25 and chronic active gastritis (n = 85 were analyzed by PCR using specific primers for the cagA gene. Of the samples, 66.4% (n = 73 tested positive and 33.6% (n = 37 negative for the gene. The cagA strain was predominant in peptic ulcers (n = 21; 84.0% compared with chronic active gastritis (n = 52; 61.2% (p = 0.05; OR 3.332; 95% CI: 1.050-10.576. Additionally, the cagA strain was prevalent in the type O blood (48/63; 76.2% compared with other ABO phenotypes (25/47; 53.2% (p = 0.01; OR 2.816; 95% CI: 1.246-6.364. These results suggest that H. pylori cagA infection is associated with the O blood group in Brazilian patients suffering from chronic active gastritis and peptic ulcers.

  19. Drug resistance mutation of HIV-1 in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-li LU

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the characteristic of HIV-1 gene mutation in HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion, and analyze the resistance to anti-HIV drugs. Methods  Plasma samples were collected from 37 HIV/AIDS patients infected by blood transfusion for extraction of HIV-1 RNA. The gene fragments of HIV pol domain were amplified by RT-PCR and nested-PCR , and the electrophoresis positive products were sequenced. The sequencing result was landed to the website http:// HIV-1db.stanford.edu to analyze the drug resistance mutations. Results  Drug resistance mutations were found in 20 patients, including 19 cases of virological or immunological failure. Mutation of gene locus V32AV of protease inhibitors (PIs occurred in 3 patients during the treatment, but it did not cause the drug resistance of PIs. Mutation of the coding regions of reverse transcriptase was found in 23 patients, including M184V, TAMs, Q151M complexus, K103N, Y181C and so on. Of the 23 patients mentioned above, the HIV-1 gene mutation induced the resistance to reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTIs in 20 patients, and the mutation rate of RTIs was 54.05% (20/37. Conclusion  The drug resistance rate of HIV-1 in patients infected by blood transfusion may be high for antiviral therapy, so the drug resistance of HIV-1 should be monitored and treatment plan should be adjusted timely.

  20. An evaluation of asymptomatic Dengue infections among blood donors during the 2014 Dengue outbreak in Guangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Qiao; Shan, Zhengang; Wang, Min; Huang, Jieting; Xu, Ru; Huang, Ke; Tang, Xi; Zhang, Weiyun; Nelson, Kenrad; Li, Chengyao; Fu, Yongshui; Rong, Xia

    2017-11-01

    In 2014, an outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) infection led to 45 171 clinical cases diagnosed in Guangdong province, Southern China. However, the potential risk of blood donors asymptomatically infected with DENV has not been evaluated . In the current study we detected anti-DENV IgG antibody and RNA in volunteer Chinese blood donors. We found that anti-DENV IgG antibody was positively detected in 3.4% (51/1500) and two donors were detected as being DENV RNA positive out of 3000 blood samples. We concluded that the presence of potential DENV in blood donors might be potential risk for blood safety. Therefore, screening for DENV infection should be considered in blood donations during a period of dengue outbreak in high epidemic area of China. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evaluation of efficacy of prion reduction filters using blood from an endogenously infected 263K scrapie hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Neil P; Nugent, Philip; Dixon, Douglas; Dennis, Mike; Cornwall, Mark; Mallinson, Gary; Watkins, Nicholas; Thomas, Stephen; Sutton, J Mark

    2015-10-01

    The P-Capt prion reduction filter (MacoPharma) removes prion infectivity in model systems. This independent evaluation assesses prion removal from endogenously infected animal blood, using CE-marked P-Capt filters, and replicates the proposed use of the filter within the UK Blood Services. Two units of blood, generated from 263K scrapie-infected hamsters, were processed using leukoreduction filters (LXT-quadruple, MacoPharma). Approximately 100 mL of the removed plasma was added back to the red blood cells (RBCs) and the blood was filtered through a P-Capt filter. Samples of unfiltered whole blood, the prion filter input (RBCs plus plasma and SAGM [RBCPS]), and prion-filtered leukoreduced blood (PFB) were injected intracranially into hamsters. Clinical symptoms were monitored for 500 ± 1 day, and brains were assessed for spongiosis and prion protein deposit. In Filtration Run 1, none of the 50 challenged animals were diagnosed with scrapie after inoculation with the RBCPS fraction, while two of 190 hamsters injected with PFB were infected. In Filtration Run 2, one of 49 animals injected with RBCPS and two of 193 hamsters injected with PFB were infected. Run 1 reduced the infectious dose (ID) by 1.467 log (>1.187 log and <0.280 log for leukoreduction and prion filtration, respectively). Run 2 reduced prion infectivity by 1.424 log (1.127 and 0.297 log, respectively). Residual infectivity was estimated at 0.212 ± 0.149 IDs/mL (Run 1) and 0.208 ± 0.147 IDs/mL (Run 2). Leukoreduction removed the majority of infectivity from 263K scrapie hamster blood. The P-Capt filter removed a proportion of the remaining infectivity, but residual infectivity was observed in two independent processes. © 2015 AABB.

  2. Peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in Fasciola hepatica infected and immunised goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafra, R; Pérez, J; Buffoni, L; Martínez-Moreno, F J; Acosta, I; Mozos, E; Martínez-Moreno, A

    2013-09-01

    The proportions of CD4(+), CD8(+) and WC1+ T lymphocytes from peripheral blood using flow cytometry were investigated in goats infected with Fasciola hepatica and previously immunised with recombinant Cathepsin-L1 (rCL1) and Glutathione-S-transferase sigma class (GST). The immunisation trial did not induce protective responses, and no significant differences were recorded between immunised and non-immunised groups. However, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in the infected groups both at 5 weeks post-infection (wpi), coinciding with the migratory stage of the infection, and at 12 wpi in the biliary stage of the infection. The proportional decrease in this circulating population may be related to the recruitment of CD4(+) T cells in liver and hepatic lymph nodes and also to the immunomodulatory effect of the parasite through the interaction of F. hepatica excretory-secretory products (FhESP) with this cell population. To date, this is the first report about the effect of F. hepatica infection in peripheral lymphocyte subsets in goats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Are red blood cell transfusions associated with nosocomial infections in critically ill children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveda Romero, Omar E; Naveda Meléndez, Andrea F

    2016-08-01

    Although the transfusionofblood products is common practice, its effects on the immune system have not been adequately studied. A prospective cohort study was conducted in critically ill children followed up until their death, transfer or discharge to establish an association between red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs) and nosocomial infections. A nosocomial infection was considered to be post-transfusional if it occurred within 14 days after RBCT. A total of 162 children were included in the study, 35 (21.6%) had a nosocomial infection, and 49 (30.2%) received a RBCT. Among those with a nosocomial infection, a RBCT was more common (48.5% versus 14.9%, OR: 5.4, 95% CI: 2.412.6, p 〈 0.0001) and mortality rate was higher (45.7% versus 10.2%, OR: 7.4, 95% CI: 3.1-18.2, p 〈 0.0001). The binary logistic regression showed that RBCT was independently associated with nosocomial infections (OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 2.1-20.2, p = 0.049). RBCT was associated with increased risk for nosocomial infections. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  4. Blood Levels of Oxidant/Antioxidant Parameters in Rats Infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Bahrami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is a common parasitic infection in the world. Since increased free radicals and oxidative stress are reported in many parasitic diseases the purpose of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress in acute and chronic toxoplasmosis. RH strains of Toxoplasma tachyzoites were used in the present study. Twenty-five female rats were infected with the parasite while 25 other rats were as the control group that received normal saline. Zero-, 5-, 7-, 10-, and 45-day postinfection (DPI blood samples were taken. Some parameters related to oxidant and antioxidants such as antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde, and total antioxidant capacity were measured. On day 7 after infection, GPX activity and GSH level were significantly increased and in the mentioned day the amount of total antioxidant capacity was significantly reduced. In other cases, there were no significant differences between the groups in different days. Overall, based on the results it seems that, on day 7 after infection, in infected rats responses to oxidative stress were triggered and led to decrease of total antioxidant capacity. Furthermore, glutathione was increased to cope with stress. It seems that probably antioxidant defense system entered the infection to the chronic phase and changed the parasites stage.

  5. How to optimize the use of blood cultures for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections? A state-of-the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte eLamy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infection (BSI is a major cause of death in developed countries and the detection of microorganisms is essential in managing patients. Despite major progress has been made to improve identification of microorganisms, blood culture remains the gold standard and the first line tool for detecting BSIs. Consensus guidelines are available to ensure optimal BSI procedures, but blood culture practices often deviate from the recommendations. This review provides an update on clinical and technical issues related to blood collection and to blood culture performance, with a special focus on the blood sample strategy to optimize the sensitivity and specificity of blood cultures.

  6. Plasmodium pyruvate dehydrogenase activity is only essential for the parasite's progression from liver infection to blood infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ying; Tarun, Alice S; Vaughan, Ashley M; Herman, Rob W; Soliman, Joanne M B; Erickson-Wayman, Alyssa; Kappe, Stefan H I

    2010-02-01

    Plasmodium parasites possess a single pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) enzyme complex that is localized to the plastid-like organelle known as the apicoplast. Unlike most eukaryotes, Plasmodium parasites lack a mitochondrial PDH. The PDH complex catalyses the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA, an important precursor for the tricarboxylic acid cycle and type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS II). In this study, using a rodent malaria model, we show that the PDH E1 alpha and E3 subunits colocalize with the FAS II enzyme FabI in the apicoplast of liver stages but are not significantly expressed in blood stages. Deletion of the E1 alpha or E3 subunit genes of Plasmodium yoelii PDH caused no defect in blood stage development, mosquito stage development or early liver stage development. However, the gene deletions completely blocked the ability of the e1 alpha(-) and e3(-) parasites to form exo-erythrocytic merozoites during late liver stage development, thus preventing the initiation of a blood stage infection. This phenotype is similar to that observed for deletions of genes involved in FAS II elongation. The data strongly support the hypothesis that the sole role of PDH is to provide acetyl-CoA for FAS II.

  7. Rarity of mcr-1-positive Bacteria in Patients with Blood Infection is not a Reason to Ignore its Significance in Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the plasmid-borne mcr-1 gene, which confers colistin resistance, the dissemination of strains harboring this gene has been widely reported. Colistin resistance is a significant challenge for clinical application of last-line antibiotics, polymyxins, against severe Gram-negative bacterial infections, especially those caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Many reports have focused on investigation of mcr-1-encoding plasmids in bacterial isolates from animals. Its presence in bacterial isolates from clinical patients has not been systematically surveyed, although some investigations have revealed that bacteria containing the plasmid-borne mcr-1 gene exist among human gut microbiota. Recently, Dr. Yunsong Yu organized a multicenter longitudinal study to investigate the prevalence of mcr-1-positive Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia isolated from patients with blood infection. Among E. coli isolates from patients treated at 28 hospitals in China, only 1.3% (20/1,495 were found to be mcr-1-positive; among K. pneumoniae isolates, <0.2% (1/571 were positive. The authors also found coexistence of MCR-1 and NDM-5 in one E. coli strain. The good news is that mcr-1-positive isolates remain sensitive to one or several antibiotics other than colistin. Additionally, the presence of mcr-1-positive isolates remains rare in clinical patients with blood infection and mcr-1 transmission to multidrug-resistant strains has not yet been reported. Nevertheless, these results caution us to strengthen surveillance of mcr-1-positive strains in clinical patients, especially when we select polymyxins for patients with severe Gram-negative bacterial infections. Rare prevalence does not indicate a decreased possibility of outbreak in a hospital after uncontrolled polymyxin use, which can select for mcr-1-positive clones. Soil is recognized as a reservoir of antibiotic-resistant genes because soil-dwelling bacteria can produce various

  8. A Kap Study Of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection Among Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis B virus infection which is the world's most common blood borne viral infection is highly endemic in Nigeria. Health care workers including medical students are at risk of acquiring the infection while at work. Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of HBV infection among medical ...

  9. Prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Lindsay A; Newton, Kassie; Brunker, Jill; Crowdis, Kelly; Edourad, Emile Jean Pierre; Meneus, Pedro; Little, Susan E

    2016-07-15

    Canine vector-borne pathogens are common on some Caribbean islands, but survey data in Haiti are lacking. To determine the prevalence of selected vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti, we tested blood samples collected from 210 owned dogs, 28 (13.3%) of which were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks at the time of blood collection. No other tick species were identified on these dogs. A commercially available ELISA identified antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in 69 (32.9%), antibodies to Anaplasma spp. in 37 (17.6%), and antigen of Dirofilaria immitis in 55 (26.2%); antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi were not detected in any sample. Molecular assays of whole blood from 207 of the dogs confirmed infection with Ehrlichia canis (15; 7.2%), Anaplasma platys (13; 6.3%), D. immitis (46; 22.2%), Wolbachia spp. (45; 21.7%), Babesia vogeli (16; 7.7%), and Hepatozoon canis (40; 19.3%), but Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis, Babesia rossi, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Hepatozoon americanum were not detected. Co-infection with two or more vector-borne pathogens was detected by serology in 42 (20.0%) dogs and by molecular assays in 22 (10.6%) dogs; one dog was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis as detected by PCR with D. immitis detected by serology (antigen). Overall, evidence of past or current infection with at least one vector-borne pathogen was identified in 142/210 (67.6%) dogs in this study, underscoring the common nature of these pathogens, some of which are zoonotic, in Haiti. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tick-borne infections in dogs and horses in the state of Espírito Santo, Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Fernanda de Toledo; Acosta, Igor Cunha Lima; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Filho, Jonas Moraes; Krawczak, Felipe da Silva; Barbieri, Amália Regina Mar; Egert, Leandro; Fernandes, Danieli Rankel; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Dietze, Reynaldo

    2018-01-15

    This work aims to identify and quantify the percentage of Rickettsia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. positive pet dogs, and to identify ticks collected on these animals in the state of Espírito Santo, in the Southeast region of Brazil. The study included 378 dogs, 226 females and 152 males, of various breeds and ages (mean age of 4.1 years). All animals were examined for ticks, and whole blood was collected and processed by conventional PCR protocols for Babesia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Hepatozoon spp. and by real-time PCR for Ehrlichia canis. Of the 378 dogs examined, 157 (41.53%) had ticks at the time of the study, which were identified as R. sanguineus s.l. in 154 animals (98.10%), Amblyomma ovale in one animal (0.63%), and Amblyomma sculptum in 2 animals (1.27%). In the PCR for Babesia spp., 5 animals (1.32%) were positive, producing DNA sequences 100% identical to Babesia vogeli. For Anaplasmataceae, 34 animals (9%) were positive, 10 of which generated DNA sequences 100% similar to Ehrlichia canis. The other 24 samples generated fragments 100% identical to Anaplasma platys. In the PCR for Hepatozoon spp, 39 animals (10.31%) were positive, producing sequences 100% identical to Hepatozoon canis. Finally, in the real-time PCR specific for E. canis, 28 animals (7.40%) were positive. Coinfection with 2 or 3 agents was observed in 20 animals (5.29%). Of the 378 dogs sampled, 312 were analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for E. canis and five species of Rickettsia (R. rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommatis, R. rhipicephali and R. bellii). Among them, 71 dogs (22.75%) had a positive reaction for E. canis and 16 dogs (5.13%) had antibody titers higher than 64 to at least one Rickettsia species, 5 of them (1.60%) to R. rickettsii. Samples of blood were collected from 10 equines in the regions where dogs were found with positive serology for any one of the Rickettsia sp. tested. In the municipality of Vila Velha, two equines were

  11. Divergent Response Profile in Activated Cord Blood T cells from First-born Child Implies Birth-order-associated in Utero Immune Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Marie; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Thysen, Anna Hammerich

    2016-01-01

    Background: First-born children are at higher risk for development of a range of immune-mediated diseases. The underlying mechanism of ‘birth-order-effects’ on disease risk is largely unknown, but in utero programming of the child's immune system may play a role. Objective: We studied...... programing may contribute to later development of immune-mediated diseases by increasing overall immune reactivity in first-born children as compared to younger siblings....

  12. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p 1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR = 0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ≤1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs

  13. Study Effect of Infection With Treponema Palladum at the Level of Antibodies and Some Blood Parameters and its Relationship With Blood Factions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysoon k. A. Al-Hadraawy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on 30   patients and 20 healthy people to determine the influences of infected with Treponema pallidum on levels of IgM , IgA, IgG  ,Complement4 ,complement 3 and some Blood parameters in infected with T. Pallidum also relation disease with blood factions  in compared with healthy group who have visited Al-Sadder Medical City and Al-Hakeem Hospital in Al- Najaf governorate during the period from August 2014 till February 2015 in Al-Sadder Medical City Laboratories .The results showed significant increase (P<0.001 in IgM , IgG  ,Complement4 in T. pallidum infected patients in compared to control group. Furthermore the results showed C3 was significant decreased (P< 0.05 in Treponema Pallidum   infected patients in compared to control group also the results showed significant increase in  WBCs, RBCs ,MPV and HCT level and  significant decrease in MCV in patients compared with control group . The study also showed that the people of blood type A are more prone to infection, followed by blood type B and O, while there  are no injuries to the blood type AB.

  14. Blood neutrophil counts in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: association with sputum mycobacterial load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew D Kerkhoff

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that neutrophils play a role in the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We determined whether neutrophil counts in peripheral blood are associated with tuberculosis (TB and with mycobacterial load in sputum in HIV-infected patients.Adults enrolling in an antiretroviral treatment (ART clinic in a Cape Town township were screened for TB regardless of symptoms. Paired sputum samples were examined using liquid culture, fluorescence microscopy, and the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Absolute neutrophil counts (ANC were measured in blood samples. Of 602 HIV-infected patients screened, 523 produced one or more sputum samples and had complete results available for analysis. Among these 523 patients, the median CD4 count was 169×10(9/L (IQR, 96-232 and median ANC was 2.6×10(9/L (IQR, 1.9-3.6. Culture-positive pulmonary tuberculosis was diagnosed in 89 patients. Patients with TB had a median ANC of 3.4×10(9/L (IQR, 2.4-5.1 compared to 2.5×10(9/L (IQR, 1.8-3.4 among those who were culture negative (p7.5×10(9/L; p = 0.0005. Patients were then classified into four mutually exclusive groups with increasing sputum mycobacterial load as defined by the results of culture, Xpert MTB/RIF and sputum smear microscopy. Multivariable analyses demonstrated that increasing sputum mycobacterial load was positively associated with blood ANC ≥2.6×10(9/L and with neutrophilia.Increased blood neutrophil counts were independently associated with pulmonary TB and sputum mycobacterial burden in this HIV-infected patient group. This observation supports the growing body of literature regarding the potential role for neutrophils in the host response to TB.

  15. Virological and epidemiological features of hepatitis delta infection among blood donors in Nouakchott, Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Wael; Bollahi, Mohamed-Abdellahi; Hamed, Cheikh-Tijani; Brichler, Ségolène; Le Gal, Frédéric; Ducancelle, Alexandra; Lô, Baidy; Gordien, Emmanuel; Rosenheim, Michel; Lunel, Françoise

    2012-09-01

    In Mauritania, some authors have described a possible high prevalence of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection in the 1990s in studies of small-size samples. The aims of our study were to assess the prevalence of HDV in HBsAg positive blood donors in Mauritania, to identify the main risk factors for HDV transmission and to analyze genetic diversity of HDV strains. From October 2008 to December 2009, 11,100 consecutive blood donors were considered in this study. Among them, 1700 (15.3%) were HBsAg positive and 455 accepted to participate in this study. Demographic, epidemiological, ethnical, clinical and biological data were recorded. HDV screening, i.e., antibodies (HDVAb) and RNA (HDV-RNA) detection, was performed for all of them as well as HDV and HBV genotyping. Ninety/455 (19.78%) donors were HDVAb positive and HDV-RNA was detectable in 56 (62.2%) of them. HDV infection was significantly associated with older age, number of marriages, military profession, residence in the desert and a history of hospitalization. The HDV genotypes of the circulating strains were HDV-1 (89.3%) and HDV-5 (10.7%). HDV is highly endemic in Mauritanian blood donors indicating that a high number of them will develop chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. Associated risk factors support nosocomial transmission of HDV. These data underline the need to reinforce HBV vaccination in newborns and in blood donors without HBV markers, together with screening for HDV in HBV-infected individuals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiling in Preclinical and Clinical Cattle Infected with Atypical Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Xerxa

    Full Text Available Prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSE, are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and a wide variety of mammals. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD, a prion disease in humans, has been linked to exposure to BSE prions. This classical BSE (cBSE is now rapidly disappearing as a result of appropriate measures to control animal feeding. Besides cBSE, two atypical forms (named H- and L-type BSE have recently been described in Europe, Japan, and North America. Here we describe the first wide-spectrum microarray analysis in whole blood of atypical BSE-infected cattle. Transcriptome changes in infected animals were analyzed prior to and after the onset of clinical signs. The microarray analysis revealed gene expression changes in blood prior to the appearance of the clinical signs and during the progression of the disease. A set of 32 differentially expressed genes was found to be in common between clinical and preclinical stages and showed a very similar expression pattern in the two phases. A 22-gene signature showed an oscillating pattern of expression, being differentially expressed in the preclinical stage and then going back to control levels in the symptomatic phase. One gene, SEL1L3, was downregulated during the progression of the disease. Most of the studies performed up to date utilized various tissues, which are not suitable for a rapid analysis of infected animals and patients. Our findings suggest the intriguing possibility to take advantage of whole blood RNA transcriptional profiling for the preclinical identification of prion infection. Further, this study highlighted several pathways, such as immune response and metabolism that may play an important role in peripheral prion pathogenesis. Finally, the gene expression changes identified in the present study may be further investigated as a fingerprint for monitoring the progression of disease and for developing targeted therapeutic

  17. Increased mortality associated with HTLV-II infection in blood donors: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith James W

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I is associated with adult T-cell leukemia, and both HTLV-I and -II are associated with HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Several published reports suggest that HTLV-I may lead to decreased survival, but HTLV-II has not previously been associated with mortality. Results We examined deaths among 138 HTLV-I, 358 HTLV-II, and 759 uninfected controls enrolled in a prospective cohort study of U.S. blood donors followed biannually since 1992. Proportional hazards models yielded hazard ratios (HRs for the association between mortality and HTLV infection, controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, age, income, educational level, blood center, smoking, injection drug use history, alcohol intake, hepatitis C status and autologous donation. After a median follow-up of 8.6 years, there were 45 confirmed subject deaths. HTLV-I infection did not convey a statistically significant excess risk of mortality (unadjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.4; adjusted HR 1.9, 95%CI 0.8–4.6. HTLV-II was associated with death in both the unadjusted model (HR 2.8, 95%CI 1.5–5.5 and in the adjusted model (HR 2.3, 95%CI 1.1–4.9. No single cause of death appeared responsible for the HTLV-II effect. Conclusions After adjusting for known and potential confounders, HTLV-II infection is associated with increased mortality among healthy blood donors. If replicated in other cohorts, this finding has implications for both HTLV pathogenesis and counseling of infected persons.

  18. Assessing the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections in the Philippine blood supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hilton Y; Belizario, Vicente Y; Juban, Noel R; Alejandria, Marissa M; Castillo-Carandang, Nina; Arcellana-Nuqui, Elizabeth; Mirasol, Ma Angelina; Cordero, Cynthia P; Sison, Olivia T; Rivera, Adovich S

    2014-09-01

    Due to a USAID-funded study on blood banks, a national policy was instituted in 1994 that set standards for Philippine blood services, promoted voluntary donation, and led to a ban on commercial blood banks. In this follow-up study, we assess the safety of the supply by determining the residual risk for transfusion-transmitted infections (syphilis, hepatitis B and C, HIV). We also identified unsafe facility practices and generated policy recommendations. A 1992 study found that transfusion-ready blood was not safe using the LQAS method (P > 0.05). We found that the 2012 residual risk became 0 to 0.9 percent attributable to the national policy. We noted poor to fair adherence to this policy. We identified unsafe practices such as use of rapid tests and lack of random blood retesting. Training and use of regional networks may improve safety. Despite improvement in safety, facilities complain of funding and logistical issues regarding compliance with the policy.

  19. CYTOKINE LEVELS IN MATERNAL BLOOD AND UMBICAL CORD SERA FROM WOMEN WITH SYMPTOMS OF INTRAUTERINE INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Botvin’eva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We had investigated serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα in peripheral blood of pregnant women at the terms of 38 to 40 weeks with polyhydramnios and serum IgG antibodies specific for Chlamydia trachomatis (titers of 1:20 to 1:40. Same parameters were tested in umbilical cord blood sera, obtained at delivery. We had found high levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 in sera from umbilical cord blood, and increased levels of TNFα in maternal sera before delivery in a group of women with high Apgar scores of their children (≥ 8 points, in comparison with control group. High levels of TNFα, IL-6, IL-10 in sera from umbical cord and increased serum concentrations of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNFα before delivery were evaluated in group of women with circulating antibodies against C. trachomatis during pregnancy and with low degrees of newborn children (< 7 by Apgar score. We suggest that high cytokine levels in maternal blood and in sera of umbilical cord blood from women with polyhydramnios and circulating antibodies against C. trachomatis sufficiently correlate with high clinical risk of intrauterine infection in newborns. However, high inter-individual variability of the cytokine parameters does not permit their usage as independent diagnostic criteria.

  20. Co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chandra Shrestha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission. Objective: The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors. Methods: The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis. Results: Eight co-infections were observed in 139 HCV seropositives with total co-infection rate of 5.75% (95% CI = 2.52-11.03. Conclusion: Co-infection of HIV, HBV and Syphilis with HCV is prevalent in the healthy looking blood donors of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  1. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, human immunodeficiency virus, Treponema pallidum, and co-infections among blood donors in Kyrgyzstan: a retrospective analysis (2013-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabaev, Bakyt B; Beisheeva, Nurgul J; Satybaldieva, Aiganysh B; Ismailova, Aikul D; Pessler, Frank; Akmatov, Manas K

    2017-02-21

    Post-Soviet Kyrgyzstan has experienced a major surge in blood-borne infections, but data from adequately powered, up-to-date studies are lacking. We thus examined a) the seroprevalences of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg), HIV-1 p24 antigen and antibodies against hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), human immunodeficiency viruses (anti-HIV-1/2, HIV-1 group O), and Treponema pallidum among blood donors in Kyrgyzstan and assess their distribution according to sex, age, and provinces of residence; b) trends in the respective seroprevalences; and c) co-infection rates among the pathogens studied. Serological screening was performed on 37 165 blood donors at the Republican Blood Centre in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, between January 2013 and December 2015. We applied poststratification weights to control for sampling bias and used logistic regression analyses to examine the association of seropositivity and co-infections with sex, age, provinces of residence, and year of blood donation. Twenty nine thousand and one hundred forty-five (78%) donors were males and 8 020 (22%) were females. The median age was 27 years (range: 18 - 64). The prevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, HIV (p24 Ag and anti-HIV), and anti-T. pallidum were 3.6% (95%CI: 3.4 - 3.8%), 3.1% (3.0 - 3.3%), 0.78% (0.69 - 0.87%), and 3.3% (3.1 - 3.5%), respectively. Males were more likely to be seropositive for HBsAg than females (OR: 1.63; 95%CI: 1.40 - 1.90), but less likely to be seropositive for anti-HCV (0.85; 0.74 - 0.98) and HIV (0.65; 0.49 - 0.85). Prevalences were lower in the capital than in the other provinces. There was a decreasing trend in the seroprevalences of HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-T. pallidum from 2012 to 2015 (P-value for trend, P = 0.01, P pallidum and HBsAg (6.0%), followed by anti-HCV and anti-T. pallidum (5.2%), and HIV and anti-HCV (4.9%). The data suggest that Kyrgyzstan can be reclassified from high to lower-intermediate HBsAg endemicity, whereas the high HIV prevalence with a rising

  2. Nucleic acid amplification test for detection of west nile virus infection in pakistani blood donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, S.K.; Alam, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). Methods: The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved. NAT was again performed on retrieved plasma bag (RPB) sample to confirm the reactive donations. The donors were also recalled and interviewed about history of illness related to recent WNV infection. Results: After serological screening of 1929 donors during the study period, 1860 donors were selected for NAT test for WNV detection. The mean age of the donors was 28±8.77 (range: 18–57 years). 1847 (99.3%) donors were male and 13 (0.7%) were female. NAT for WNV identified six initially reactive pools (0.32%). On follow-up testing with RPB samples, 4 donors (0.21%) were found confirmed reactive for WNV RNA (NAT yield of 1 in 465 blood donors). Conclusion: WNV is a threat to safety of blood products in Pakistan. A screening strategy can be implemented after a large-scale study and financial considerations. One of the reduced cost screening strategies is seasonal screening of blood donors for WNV, with pooling of samples. (author)

  3. FIV establishes a latent infection in feline peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo during the asymptomatic phase of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Brian

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV is a lentivirus of cats that establishes a lifelong persistent infection with immunologic impairment. Results In an approximately 2 year-long experimental infection study, cats infected with a biological isolate of FIV clade C demonstrated undetectable plasma viral loads from 10 months post-infection onward. Viral DNA was detected in CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells isolated from infected cats whereas viral RNA was not detected at multiple time points during the early chronic phase of infection. Viral transcription could be reactivated in latently infected CD4+ T cells ex vivo as demonstrated by detectable FIV gag RNA and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR circle junctions. Viral LTR and gag sequences amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells during early and chronic stages of infection demonstrated minimal to no viral sequence variation. Conclusions Collectively, these findings are consistent with FIV latency in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells isolated from chronically infected cats. The ability to isolate latently FIV-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes from FIV-infected cats provides a platform for the study of in vivo mechanisms of lentiviral latency.

  4. FIV establishes a latent infection in feline peripheral blood CD4+ T lymphocytes in vivo during the asymptomatic phase of infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) is a lentivirus of cats that establishes a lifelong persistent infection with immunologic impairment. Results In an approximately 2 year-long experimental infection study, cats infected with a biological isolate of FIV clade C demonstrated undetectable plasma viral loads from 10 months post-infection onward. Viral DNA was detected in CD4+CD25+ and CD4+CD25- T cells isolated from infected cats whereas viral RNA was not detected at multiple time points during the early chronic phase of infection. Viral transcription could be reactivated in latently infected CD4+ T cells ex vivo as demonstrated by detectable FIV gag RNA and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR) circle junctions. Viral LTR and gag sequences amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells during early and chronic stages of infection demonstrated minimal to no viral sequence variation. Conclusions Collectively, these findings are consistent with FIV latency in peripheral blood CD4+ T cells isolated from chronically infected cats. The ability to isolate latently FIV-infected CD4+ T lymphocytes from FIV-infected cats provides a platform for the study of in vivo mechanisms of lentiviral latency. PMID:22314004

  5. Potentiating day-old blood samples for detection of interferon-gamma responses following infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    time interval from blood sampling to culture. The objective of the study was to assess options for use of day-old blood samples for early-stage diagnosis of MAP infections. Bovine interleukin 12 (IL-12) can induce, and IL-10 reduce, IFN-γ production. Therefore, addition of IL-12 and anti-IL-10 could...... result in production of IFN-γ in samples previously exposed to MAP antigens. Whole blood samples were collected from heifers in a Danish dairy herd known to be infected with MAP. The samples were collected on three sample dates, and on each date the blood samples were stimulated with PPDj and recombinant......The interferon gamma (IFN-γ) test measuring specific cell-mediated immune responses in whole blood can be used for diagnosis at an early stage of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. A major obstacle for the practical use of IFN-γ testing is the recommended maximum 8 hour...

  6. RNA-seq transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood leukocytes from cattle infected with Mycobacterium bovis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E McLoughlin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (BTB, caused by infection with Mycobacterium bovis, is a major endemic disease affecting cattle populations worldwide, despite the implementation of stringent surveillance and control programs in many countries. The development of high-throughput functional genomics technologies, including gene expression microarrays and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq, has enabled detailed analysis of the host transcriptome to M. bovis infection, particularly at the macrophage and peripheral blood level. In the present study, we have analyzed the peripheral blood leukocyte (PBL transcriptome of eight natural M. bovis-infected and eight age- and sex-matched non-infected control Holstein-Friesian animals using RNA-seq. In addition, we compared gene expression profiles generated using RNA-seq with those previously generated using the high-density Affymetrix® GeneChip® Bovine Genome Array platform from the same PBL-extracted RNA. A total of 3,250 differentially expressed (DE annotated genes were detected in the M. bovis-infected samples relative to the controls (adjusted P-value ≤ 0.05, with the number of genes displaying decreased relative expression (1,671 exceeding those with increased relative expression (1,579. Ingenuity® Systems Pathway Analysis (IPA of all DE genes revealed enrichment for genes with immune function. Notably, transcriptional suppression was observed among several of the top ranking canonical pathways including Leukocyte Extravasation Signaling. Comparative platform analysis demonstrated that RNA-seq detected a larger number of annotated DE genes (3,250 relative to the microarray (1,398, of which 917 genes were common to both technologies and displayed the same direction of expression. Finally, we show that RNA-seq had an increased dynamic range compared to the microarray for estimating differential gene expression.

  7. Differential effects of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers by severity of maternal disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Kuhn

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported no benefit of early weaning for HIV-free survival of children born to HIV-infected mothers in intent-to-treat analyses. Since early weaning was poorly accepted, we conducted a secondary analysis to investigate whether beneficial effects may have been hidden.958 HIV-infected women in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized to abrupt weaning at 4 months (intervention or to continued breastfeeding (control. Children were followed to 24 months with regular HIV PCR tests and examinations to determine HIV infection or death. Detailed behavioral data were collected on when all breastfeeding ended. Most participants were recruited before antiretroviral treatment (ART became available. We compared outcomes among mother-child pairs who weaned earlier or later than intended by study design adjusting for potential confounders.Of infants alive, uninfected and still breastfeeding at 4 months in the intervention group, 16.1% who weaned as instructed acquired HIV or died by 24 months compared to 16.0% who did not comply (p = 0.98. Children of women with less severe disease during pregnancy (not eligible for ART had worse outcomes if their mothers weaned as instructed (RH = 2.60 95% CI: 1.06-6.36 compared to those who continued breastfeeding. Conversely, children of mothers with more severe disease (eligible for ART but did not receive it who weaned early had better outcomes (p-value interaction = 0.002. In the control group, weaning before 15 months was associated with 3.94-fold (95% CI: 1.65-9.39 increase in HIV infection or death among infants of mothers with less severe disease.Incomplete adherence did not mask a benefit of early weaning. On the contrary, for women with less severe disease, early weaning was harmful and continued breastfeeding resulted in better outcomes. For women with more advanced disease, ART should be given during pregnancy for maternal health and to reduce transmission, including through breastfeeding

  8. Blood count and number of somatic cells in milk of cows infected with Coxiella burnetii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radinović Miodrag

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to examine the intensity of the local immune response of the mammary gland and the changes in the differential blood count of chronically infected cows. An experiment was performed on a group of cows with Q fever serologically proven using the ELISA test (IDEXX. Based on the ELISA test results, an experimental group of ten infected cows was formed. Blood was sampled from the experimental cows, and cumulative milk samples were taken. The number of erythrocytes was determined spectrophotometrically, and the number of leucocytes using the method according to Bürker - Türk. The blood analysis established an increased number of erythrocytes, while the number of leucocytes was within the limits of physiological values. The milk samples were used for the determination of the number of somatic cells using flow cytometric measurements. The processing of the milk samples established an average number of somatic cells of 853.000 /mL milk.

  9. Relation between ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaff MS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih Jaff Pathology Department, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University (formerly Salahuddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq Abstract: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated higher frequencies of the O blood group and the nonsecretor phenotype of ABH antigens among patients suffering from peptic ulcers. Since Helicobacter pylori has been established as the main etiological factor in this disease, controversies about the associations of the ABO and Lewis blood group phenotypes and secretor and nonsecretor phenotypes in relation to susceptibility towards infection by this bacillus have been presented. The aim of this study was to verify the frequencies of ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups in H. pylori seropositive symptomatic patients. The study included (n = 1108 patients with dyspepsia symptoms referred from an outpatient clinic in Erbil city for investigation. Age, sex, and residency were recorded as a routine laboratory framework. Patients underwent SD Bioline (Standard Diagnostics Inc, Kyonggi-do, South Korea and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serologic tests for H. pylori. ABO blood group phenotypes were determined by a standard hemagglutination test. Results showed that 64.8% of patients (n = 718/1108 were seropositive for H. pylori infection, and (35.2% (n = 390/1108 were seronegative. Of the seropositive patients, 40.8% (n = 293/718 were male and 59.2% (n = 425/718 were female; while of the seronegative patients, 46.7% (n = 182/390 were male and 53.3% (n = 208/390 were female. The mean age for seropositives and seronegatives was (38.0 ± 14.6 years and (37.6 ± 15.7 years respectively. The frequency of the ABO and Rh-positive (Rh+ blood groups among seropositive patients was (A = 32.0%, B = 19.5%, AB = 6.7%, O = 41.8%, and Rh+ = 92.5% and was (A = 32.3%, B = 28.2%, AB = 8.0%, O = 31.5%, and Rh+ = 92.5% in seronegatives. The results of this study suggest that ABO blood groups, age, and gender influence

  10. Cellular changes in blood indicate severe respiratory disease during influenza infections in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonie Dengler

    Full Text Available Influenza A infection is a serious threat to human and animal health. Many of the biological mechanisms of the host-pathogen-interactions are still not well understood and reliable biomarkers indicating the course of the disease are missing. The mouse is a valuable model system enabling us to study the local inflammatory host response and the influence on blood parameters under controlled circumstances. Here, we compared the lung and peripheral changes after PR8 (H1N1 influenza A virus infection in C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice using virus variants of different pathogenicity resulting in non-lethal and lethal disease. We monitored hematological and immunological parameters revealing that the granulocyte to lymphocyte ratio in the blood represents an early indicator of severe disease progression already two days after influenza A infection in mice. These findings might be relevant to optimize early diagnostic options of severe influenza disease and to monitor successful therapeutic treatment in humans.

  11. Neonatal blood stream infections in tertiary referral hospitals in Kurdistan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhoo, Bahram; Lahurpur, Fariba; Delpisheh, Ali; Rasouli, Mohammad Aziz; Afkhamzadeh, Abdorrahim

    2015-06-09

    Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the most common causes of nosocomial infection in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). The aim of the present study was to determine bacterial agents and their susceptibility patterns to antibiotics and to investigate the risk factors associated with BSI. This was a nested case-control study carried out from September 2009 to June 2010 in the NICU wards in Sanandaj hospitals western Iran. Cases were patients with BSI and controls were other patients who had negative blood culture. Bacteriologic diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was performed based on the Edward & Ewings and the National Committee of Clinical Laboratory (NCCL) Standards. Of 472 patients who hospitalized in NICU, 6.4% had BSI (n = 30) including 17girls (56.7%) and 13 boys (43.3%). Enterobacter SPP was the predominant isolated bacteria from blood culture (36.7%). The maximum antibiotic resistance and sensitivity were observed by Tetracycline and Ciprofloxacin respectively. Risk factors associated with BSI were age ≤ 7 days (p = 0.001), previous antibiotic consumption (p = 0.013), and low birth weight (LBW), (p = 0.001). Gram negative bacteria and Entrobacter in particular are the most common pathogens. Improving prenatal health care, standards of infection control and choosing accurate antibiotics are recommended to avoid BSI in neonatal intensive care units.

  12. White blood cell scintigraphy with monoclonal antibodies in the study of the infected endoprosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciuk, J.; Puskas, C.; Schober, O. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin); Greitemann, B. (Muenster Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Allgemeine Orthopaedie)

    1992-07-01

    Forty-three patients with suspected infection of a hip or a knee prosthesis were studied with white blood cell scintigraphy (WBC), using technetium-99m (n=37) or iodine-123 (n=6) labelled monoclonal mouse antibody (MOA). Previously, all patients had undergone skeletal scintigraphy, which was performed as a three-phase study in 33 cases. The final diagnosis was established by open surgery, histology and culture in 37 cases, by puncture and cultere in 3 cases, and by clinical follow-up of at least 6 months in 3 cases. Eighteen prostheses were infected, 25 uninfected. The delayed phase of skeletal scintigraphy had a sensitivity of 92%, a specificity of 24% and an accuracy of 48% in the detection of infection. The perfusion and blood pool activity of the three-phase bone scan had a sensitivity of 67%, a specificity of 71% and an accuracy of 70%. The diagnostic value of WBC was sensitivty 89%, specificity 84% and accuracy 86%. WBC with {sup 99m}-Tc-MOA is easy to perform and always available. Its diagnostic accuracy is similar to conventional WBC scintigraphy with either indium-111 or {sup 99m}-Tc. (orig.).

  13. Transplantation of Ex Vivo Expanded Umbilical Cord Blood (NiCord) Decreases Early Infection and Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Sarah; Thomas, Samantha; Hyslop, Terry; Adcock, Janet; Corbet, Kelly; Gasparetto, Cristina; Lopez, Richard; Long, Gwynn D; Morris, Ashley K; Rizzieri, David A; Sullivan, Keith M; Sung, Anthony D; Sarantopoulos, Stefanie; Chao, Nelson J; Horwitz, Mitchell E

    2017-07-01

    Delayed hematopoietic recovery contributes to increased infection risk following umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation. In a Phase 1 study, adult recipients of UCB stem cells cultured ex vivo for 3 weeks with nicotinamide (NiCord) had earlier median neutrophil recovery compared with historical controls. To evaluate the impact of faster neutrophil recovery on clinically relevant early outcomes, we reviewed infection episodes and hospitalization during the first 100 days in an enlarged cohort of 18 NiCord recipients compared with 86 standard UCB recipients at our institution. The median time to neutrophil engraftment was shorter in NiCord recipients compared with standard UCB recipients (12.5 days versus 26 days; P analysis; this effect persisted after adjustment for age, disease stage, and grade II-IV acute GVHD. NiCord recipients also had significantly more time out of the hospital in the first 100 days post-transplantation after adjustment for age and Karnofsky Performance Status (69.9 days versus 49.7 days; P = .005). Overall, transplantation of NiCord was associated with faster neutrophil engraftment, fewer total and bacterial infections, and shorter hospitalization in the first 100 days compared with standard UCB transplantation. In conclusion, rapid hematopoietic recovery from an ex vivo expanded UCB transplantation approach is associated with early clinical benefit. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Seroprevalence of HTLV -I/II amongst Blood Donors in Osogbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: HTLV type I/II is a blood borne infection that can be transmitted via blood transfusion. Objective: To determine the seroprevalence of human T – lymphotropic virus among blood donors in Osogbo, Nigeria. Methods: Diagnosis of Human T. Lymphotropic virus antigen was carried out on 372 serum samples ...

  15. Transfusion transmissible infections among healthy blood donors at blood bank from children's hospital and institute of child health lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zameer, M.; Shahzad, F.; Khan, F.S.; Farooq, M.; Ali, H.; Saeed, U.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis and malaria in blood donors at Children Hospital and Institute of Child Health (ICH), Lahore and compare with other local and international published data. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This was conducted at the blood bank of Children's Hospital and ICH, Lahore from October 2015 to February 2016. Patient and Methods: All adult male blood donors who had donated blood during above mentioned period, between 18 to 55 years of age were included in this study. Each and every donor was subjected to a predetermined, prepared questionnaire to find out their eligibility for donation. All blood donors' serum samples were screened for HBsAg, Anti-HCV, syphilis, HIV and malaria by immuno chromatography technique according to manufacturer instruction. Results: Statistical analysis showed that out of 10,048 blood donors, 7.94 percent (n=798) were infected with any one of the above mentioned diseases and 92.05 percent (n=9,250) had no infection. The overall frequency of HBsAg, HCV, HIV, syphilis and malaria were found to be 1.59 percent, 3.75 percent, 0.11 percent, 2.08 percent and 0.39 percent respectively. The co-infections of HCV + Syphilis, HBsAg + HCV, HBsAg + Syphilis, HCV + malarial parasite (M.P) and HBsAg + HIV + syphilis was 0.12 percent, 0.11 percent, 0.01 percent and 0.0099 percent respectively. Conclusion: There is a decreasing trend of HBsAg, HCV infections but increasing trend of HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors that is an alarming situation. (author)

  16. Absence of XMRV in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of ARV-Treatment Naïve HIV-1 Infected and HIV-1/HCV Coinfected Individuals and Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigil, Karen J.; Vey, Elana; Arduino, Roberto C.; Kimata, Jason T.

    2012-01-01

    Background Xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) has been found in the prostatic tissue of prostate cancer patients and in the blood of chronic fatigue syndrome patients. However, numerous studies have found little to no trace of XMRV in different human cohorts. Based on evidence suggesting common transmission routes between XMRV and HIV-1, HIV-1 infected individuals may represent a high-risk group for XMRV infection and spread. Methodology/Principal Findings DNA was isolated from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 179 HIV-1 infected treatment naïve patients, 86 of which were coinfected with HCV, and 54 healthy blood donors. DNA was screened for XMRV provirus with two sensitive, published PCR assays targeting XMRV gag and env and one sensitive, published nested PCR assay targeting env. Detection of XMRV was confirmed by DNA sequencing. One of the 179 HIV-1 infected patients tested positive for gag by non-nested PCR whereas the two other assays did not detect XMRV in any specimen. All healthy blood donors were negative for XMRV proviral sequences. Sera from 23 HIV-1 infected patients (15 HCV+) and 12 healthy donors were screened for the presence of XMRV-reactive antibodies by Western blot. Thirteen sera (57%) from HIV-1+ patients and 6 sera (50%) from healthy donors showed reactivity to XMRV-infected cell lysate. Conclusions/Significance The virtual absence of XMRV in PBMCs suggests that XMRV is not associated with HIV-1 infected or HIV-1/HCV coinfected patients, or blood donors. Although we noted isolated incidents of serum reactivity to XMRV, we are unable to verify the antibodies as XMRV specific. PMID:22348082

  17. Are there simple measures to reduce the risk of HIV infection through blood transfusion in a Zambian district hospital?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoogstraten, M. J.; Consten, E. C.; Henny, C. P.; Heij, H. A.; van Lanschot, J. J.

    2000-01-01

    To quantify the potential impact of simple measures to reduce the risk of iatrogenic HIV infection through blood transfusion in a Zambian district hospital. Three studies were conducted at St. Francis' Hospital, Katete, Zambia: (1) From 1991 to 1995 HIV seroprevalence among all listed blood donors

  18. Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: A birth cohort study (COCOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OHD concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort. Methods: The levels of 25(OHD in cord blood obtained from 525 Korean newborns in the prospective COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases were examined. The primary outcome variable of interest was the prevalence of RTI at 6-month follow-up, as diagnosed by pediatricians and pediatric allergy and pulmonology specialists. RTI included acute nasopharyngitis, rhinosinusitis, otitis media, croup, tracheobronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. Results: The median concentration of 25(OHD in cord blood was 32.0 nmol/L (interquartile range, 21.4 to 53.2. One hundred and eighty neonates (34.3% showed 25(OHD concentrations less than 25.0 nmol/L, 292 (55.6% showed 25(OHD concentrations of 25.0&#8211;74.9 nmol/L, and 53 (10.1% showed concentrations of ?#247;5.0 nmol/L. Adjusting for the season of birth, multivitamin intake during pregnancy, and exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy, 25(OHD concentrations showed an inverse association with the risk of acquiring acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age (P for trend= 0.0004. Conclusion: The results show that 89.9% of healthy newborns in Korea are born with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (55.6% and 34.3%, respectively. Cord blood vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in healthy neonates is associated with an increased risk of acute nasopharyngitis by 6 months of age. More time spent outdoors and more intensified vitamin D supplementation for pregnant women may be needed to prevent the onset of acute nasopharyngitis in infants.

  19. Procalcitonin level as a surrogate for catheter-related blood stream infection among hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada Imam, Mahmoud; Gamal, Eman

    2017-11-17

    Catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) is a frequent complication among hemodialysis patients who usually are presented with nonspecific signs such as fever, rigors, and hypotension. Blood culture will take up to 5 days and antimicrobials will be started. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a valid marker in sepsis. Our goal in this study is to evaluate its usefulness as a diagnostic marker in detecting CRBSI among hemodialysis patients who present with suspected CRBSI. Thirty-one hemodialysis patients with suspected CRBSI were enrolled in this study. PCT level was measured at the time of presentation. Patients were divided into two groups according to blood culture results: positive and negative groups. PCT level and other markers for inflammation: white blood cell count (WBC), C-reactive protein (CRP), and ferritin were compared between the two groups. Statistical analysis of variables was performed using the t-test or Mann-Whitney test together with Spearman correlation test. Thirty-one patients had median age 44.7 ± 2.1 years. They comprised 16 males (52%) and 15 females (48%). Sixteen patients had a positive blood culture result while in 15 it was negative. PCT level was significantly higher in the positive blood culture group (40.0 ± -21.9) (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.4-51.8) while its level was 1.1 ± 1 (95% CI 0.54-1.8) in the negative blood culture group [t(15) = -7, p<0.001). In the positive culture group, there was a correlation between CRP and ferritin (r = -0.58, p = 0.01, n = 16), while no correlation between PCT and other markers of inflammation. PCT is a useful marker for diagnosis of CRBSI among hemodialysis patients.

  20. Survivability and Infectivity of Viscerotropic Leishmania Tropica from Operation Desert Storm Participants in Human Blood Products Maintained Under Blood Bank Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    associated acute Chagas ’ Publication No. 86-23. disease acquired in the Unite States. Ann Intern 12. Anthony RL. Grogl M. Sact.. JB. Rallou RW. 1987... disease to healthy experimental animals by blood transfusion from infected animal donors. Three of three BALB/C mice showed metastasis to the lower... Asia suggests that transfusion-associated leishmaniasis can occur. 14. SUE•*CT TERMS 1S. NUMBER OF PAG•S Blood products Leishmania 1. PRICE CODE 17

  1. Improved Diagnosis of Prosthetic Joint Infection by Culturing Periprosthetic Tissue Specimens in Blood Culture Bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trisha N. Peel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite known low sensitivity, culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens on agars and in broths is routine. Culture of periprosthetic tissue samples in blood culture bottles (BCBs is potentially more convenient, but it has been evaluated in a limited way and has not been widely adopted. The aim of this study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of inoculation of periprosthetic tissue specimens into blood culture bottles with standard agar and thioglycolate broth culture, applying Bayesian latent class modeling (LCM in addition to applying the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection. This prospective cohort study was conducted over a 9-month period (August 2013 to April 2014 at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, and included all consecutive patients undergoing revision arthroplasty. Overall, 369 subjects were studied; 117 (32% met IDSA criteria for prosthetic joint infection, and 82% had late chronic infection. Applying LCM, inoculation of tissues into BCBs was associated with a 47% improvement in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of conventional agar and broth cultures (92.1 versus 62.6%, respectively; this magnitude of change was similar when IDSA criteria were applied (60.7 versus 44.4%, respectively; P = 0.003. The time to microorganism detection was shorter with BCBs than with standard media (P < 0.0001, with aerobic and anaerobic BCBs yielding positive results within a median of 21 and 23 h, respectively. Results of our study demonstrate that the semiautomated method of periprosthetic tissue culture in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than and as specific as agar and thioglycolate broth cultures and yields results faster.

  2. Effective and cheap removal of leukocytes and platelets from Plasmodium vivax infected blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snounou Georges

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigations of Plasmodium vivax are restricted to samples collected from infected persons or primates, because this parasite cannot be maintained in in vitro cultures. Contamination of P. vivax isolates with host leukocytes and platelets is detrimental to a range of ex vivo and molecular investigations. Easy-to-produce CF11 cellulose filters have recently provided us with an inexpensive method for the removal of leukocytes and platelets. This contrasted with previous reports of unacceptably high levels of infected red blood cell (IRBC retention by CF11. The aims of this study were to compare the ability of CF11 cellulose filters and the commercial filter Plasmodipur at removing leukocyte and platelet, and to investigate the retention of P. vivax IRBCs by CF11 cellulose filtration. Methods and Results Side-by-side comparison of six leukocyte removal methods using blood samples from five healthy donor showed that CF11 filtration reduced the mean initial leukocyte counts from 9.4 × 103 per μl [95%CI 5.2–13.5] to 0.01 × 103 [95%CI 0.01–0.03]. The CF11 was particularly effective at removing neutrophils. CF11 treatment also reduced initial platelet counts from 211.6 × 103 per μl [95%CI 107.5–315.7] to 0.8 × 103 per μl [95%CI -0.7–2.2]. Analysis of 30 P. vivax blood samples before and after CF11 filtration showed only a minor loss in parasitaemia (≤ 7.1% of initial counts. Stage specific retention of P. vivax IRBCs was not observed. Conclusion CF11 filtration is the most cost and time efficient method for the production of leukocyte- and platelet-free P. vivax-infected erythrocytes from field isolates.

  3. Proliferation and telomere length in acutely mobilized blood mononuclear cells in HIV infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, S R; Essen, M V; Schjerling, P

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the mobilization of T cells in response to a stressful challenge (adrenalin stimulation), and to access T cells resided in the peripheral lymphoid organs in HIV infected patients. Seventeen patients and eight HIV seronegative controls received an adrenalin...... infusion for 1 h. Blood was sampled before, during and 1 h after adrenalin infusion. Proliferation and mean telomere restriction fragment length (telomeres) of blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) and purified CD8+ and CD4+ cells were investigated at all time points. In patients, the proliferation to pokeweed...... mitogens (PWM) was lower and decreased more during adrenalin infusion. After adrenalin infusion the proliferation to PWM was restored only in the controls. In all subjects telomeres in CD4+ cells declined during adrenalin infusion. Additionally, the patients had shortened telomeres in their CD8+ cells...

  4. Leukocytes in a Plasmodium falciparum-infected blood meal reduce transmission of malaria to Anopheles mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensen, A H; Bolmer-Van de Vegte, M; van Gemert, G J; Eling, W M; Sauerwein, R W

    1997-01-01

    Mosquitoes are infected with Plasmodium falciparum by taking a blood meal from a gametocyte carrier. Since a mosquito takes a volume of 1 to 2 microl, a blood meal may contain 1 x 10(4) to 3 x 10(4) leukocytes (WBC). The majority of WBC are composed of neutrophils which may phagocytose and kill developing gametes inside the mosquito midgut. Phagocytosis was measured in vitro by a luminol-dependent chemiluminescence (CL) assay. In the presence of P. falciparum gametes, sera from areas of endemicity had an increased CL response compared to controls. In mosquito membrane feeding experiments some such sera showed a transmission reduction which was related to the presence of viable WBC. The results of this study suggest that phagocytosis of opsonized gametes inside the mosquito midgut occurs and can contribute to a reduction in the transmission of P. falciparum parasites. PMID:9284160

  5. Deferral for low hemoglobin is not associated with increased risk of infection in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, Sebastian R; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low hemoglobin (Hb) is associated with poor general health and adverse outcomes in a wide range of diseases. However, a link between Hb levels and the risk of infection among healthy individuals has yet to be investigated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using data from the Scandinavian...... Donations and Transfusions database, 497,390 donors were followed after 5,458,499 donations in health registers. With 1,339,362 person-years of follow-up, Andersen-Gill Cox regression was used to study the association of Hb levels below deferral thresholds, very low Hb levels (in the lowest 0.1 percentile......% CI, 0.88-0.94). CONCLUSIONS: Neither Hb levels below deferral thresholds nor very low or declining Hb levels were associated with an increased risk of infection. This is reassuring, because blood donation can lead to lower Hb levels....

  6. Can procalcitonin be a diagnostic marker for catheter-related blood stream infection in children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Ozsurekci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The potential role of procalcitonin (PCT in the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSIs is still unclear and requires further research. The diagnostic value of serum PCT for the diagnosis of CRBSI in children is evaluated here. Method This study was conducted between October 2013 and November 2014, and included patients with suspected CRBSI from 1 month to 18 years of age who were febrile, with no focus of infection, and had a central venous catheter. Levels of PCT and other serum markers were measured, and their utility as CRBSI markers was assessed. Additionally, the clinical performance of a new, automated, rapid, and quantitative assay for the detection of PCT was tested. Results Among the 49 patients, 24 were diagnosed with CRBSI. The PCT-Kryptor and PCT-RTA values were significantly higher in proven CRBSI compared to those in unproven CRBSI (p = 0.03 and p = 0.03, respectively. There were no differences in white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP levels between proven CRBSI and unproven CRBSI. Among the 24 patients with CRBSI, CRP was significantly higher among those with Gram-negative bacterial infection than in those with Gram-positive bacterial infections. PCT-Kryptor was also significantly higher among patients with Gram-negative bacterial infection than in those with Gram-positive bacterial infections (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively. Conclusions The authors suggest that PCT could be a helpful rapid diagnostic marker in children with suspected CRBSIs.

  7. Can procalcitonin be a diagnostic marker for catheter-related blood stream infection in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Oktay Arıkan, Kamile; Bayhan, Cihangül; Karadağ-Öncel, Eda; Emre Aycan, Ahmet; Gürbüz, Venhar; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Ceyhan, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The potential role of procalcitonin (PCT) in the diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSIs) is still unclear and requires further research. The diagnostic value of serum PCT for the diagnosis of CRBSI in children is evaluated here. This study was conducted between October 2013 and November 2014, and included patients with suspected CRBSI from 1 month to 18 years of age who were febrile, with no focus of infection, and had a central venous catheter. Levels of PCT and other serum markers were measured, and their utility as CRBSI markers was assessed. Additionally, the clinical performance of a new, automated, rapid, and quantitative assay for the detection of PCT was tested. Among the 49 patients, 24 were diagnosed with CRBSI. The PCT-Kryptor and PCT-RTA values were significantly higher in proven CRBSI compared to those in unproven CRBSI (p=0.03 and p=0.03, respectively). There were no differences in white blood cell count and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels between proven CRBSI and unproven CRBSI. Among the 24 patients with CRBSI, CRP was significantly higher among those with Gram-negative bacterial infection than in those with Gram-positive bacterial infections. PCT-Kryptor was also significantly higher among patients with Gram-negative bacterial infection than in those with Gram-positive bacterial infections (p=0.01 and p=0.02, respectively). The authors suggest that PCT could be a helpful rapid diagnostic marker in children with suspected CRBSIs. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Bloodstream-To-Eye Infections Are Facilitated by Outer Blood-Retinal Barrier Dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip S Coburn

    Full Text Available The blood-retinal barrier (BRB functions to maintain the immune privilege of the eye, which is necessary for normal vision. The outer BRB is formed by tightly-associated retinal pigment epithelial (RPE cells which limit transport within the retinal environment, maintaining retinal function and viability. Retinal microvascular complications and RPE dysfunction resulting from diabetes and diabetic retinopathy cause permeability changes in the BRB that compromise barrier function. Diabetes is the major predisposing condition underlying endogenous bacterial endophthalmitis (EBE, a blinding intraocular infection resulting from bacterial invasion of the eye from the bloodstream. However, significant numbers of EBE cases occur in non-diabetics. In this work, we hypothesized that dysfunction of the outer BRB may be associated with EBE development. To disrupt the RPE component of the outer BRB in vivo, sodium iodate (NaIO3 was administered to C57BL/6J mice. NaIO3-treated and untreated mice were intravenously injected with 108 colony forming units (cfu of Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae. At 4 and 6 days postinfection, EBE was observed in NaIO3-treated mice after infection with K. pneumoniae and S. aureus, although the incidence was higher following S. aureus infection. Invasion of the eye was observed in control mice following S. aureus infection, but not in control mice following K. pneumoniae infection. Immunohistochemistry and FITC-dextran conjugate transmigration assays of human RPE barriers after infection with an exoprotein-deficient agr/sar mutant of S. aureus suggested that S. aureus exoproteins may be required for the loss of the tight junction protein, ZO-1, and for permeability of this in vitro barrier. Our results support the clinical findings that for both pathogens, complications which result in BRB permeability increase the likelihood of bacterial transmigration from the bloodstream into the eye. For S. aureus, however, BRB

  9. First Report on Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Study in Blood Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobić, Branko; Milosavić, Milanka; Guzijan, Gordana; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica

    2016-12-01

    To provide the first data on the prevalence and basic demographic risk factors for human Toxoplasma gondii infection in the Banja Luka region, Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Analysis of serological and epidemiological data in a series of 320 blood donors (aged 18-55 years) from the Banja Luka region tested for Toxoplasma infection in February 2015. The overall prevalence of infection was 30.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 25.5-35.6). The risk factors included male gender (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69; 95% CI = 1.02-2.79), increasing age (OR = 1.37; 95% CI = 1.09-1.72), and living in rural area (OR = 1.83; 95% CI = 1.10-3.05). The prevalence of infection significantly increased with age and was higher in males and in residents of rural areas. Among women, the risk factor was the residence area (OR = 2.39; 95% CI = 1.08-5.30), whereas among men, it was age (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 1.07-1.95). In the subgroup of women of childbearing age (aged 18-45 years), the prevalence was 22.3% (95% CI = 14.9-29.7). This study provided the first data on the prevalence of Toxoplasma infection in B&H, as well as insight into the demographic risk factors as a basis for a future prevention program for Toxoplasma infection.

  10. Pathogens Causing Blood Stream Infections and their Drug Susceptibility Profile in Immunocompromised Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayyaz, M.; Mirza, I.A.; Ikram, A.; Hussain, A.; Ghafoor, T.; Shujat, U.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the types of pathogens causing blood stream infections and their drug susceptibility profile in immunocompromised patients. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to September 2012. Methodology: Blood culture bottles received from immunocompromised patients were dealt by two methods, brain heart infusion (BHI) broth based manual method and automated BACTEC system. The samples yielding positive growth from either of two methods were further analyzed. The identification of isolates was done with the help of biochemical reactions and rapid tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates was carried out as per recommendations of Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: Out of the 938 blood culture specimens received from immunocompromised patients, 188 (20%) yielded positive growth. Out of these, 89 (47.3%) isolates were Gram positive and Gram negative each, while 10 (5.3%) isolates were fungi (Candida spp.). In case of Gram positive isolates, 75 (84.3%) were Staphylococcus spp. and 51 (67%) were Methicillin resistant. Amongst Gram negative group 49 (55.1%) isolates were of enterobacteriaceae family, while 40 (44.9%) were non-lactose fermenters (NLF). In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococci revealed 100% susceptibility to vancomycin and linezolid. The enterobacteriaceae isolates had better susceptibility against amikacin 85.7% compared to tigecycline 61.2% and imipenem 59.2%. For NLF, the in vitro efficacy of aminoglycosides was 72.5%. Conclusion: The frequency of Gram positive and Gram negative organisms causing blood stream infections in immunocompromised patients was equal. Vancomycin in case of Gram positive and amikacin for Gram negative organisms revealed better in vitro efficacy as compared to other antibiotics. (author)

  11. Obtaining blood cultures by venipuncture versus from central lines: impact on blood culture contamination rates and potential effect on central line-associated bloodstream infection reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, John M; Nadeau, Jacqueline; Dumigan, Diane; Miller, Debra; Dubowsky, Cindy; Reilly, Lenore; Hannon, Carla V

    2013-10-01

    Reduce the frequency of contaminated blood cultures that meet National Healthcare Safety Network definitions for a central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI). An observational study. A 500-bed university-affiliated hospital. A new blood culture policy discouraged drawing blood samples from central lines. Phlebotomists were reeducated regarding aseptic technique when obtaining blood samples by venipuncture. The intravenous therapy team was taught how to draw blood samples by venipuncture and served as a backup when phlebotomists were unable to obtain blood samples. A 2-nurse protocol and a special supply kit for obtaining blood samples from catheters were developed. Rates of blood culture contamination were monitored by the microbiology laboratory. The proportion of blood samples obtained for culture from central lines decreased from 10.9% during January-June 2010 to 0.4% during July-December 2012 (P < .001). The proportion of blood cultures that were contaminated decreased from 84 (1.6%) of 5,274 during January-June 2010 to 21 (0.5%) of 4,245 during January-June 2012 (P < .001). Based on estimated excess hospital costs of $3,000 per contaminated blood culture, the reduction in blood culture contaminants yielded an estimated annualized savings of $378,000 in 2012 when compared to 2010. In mid-2010, 3 (30%) of 10 reported CLABSIs were suspected to represent blood culture contamination compared with none of 6 CLABSIs reported from mid-November 2010 through June 2012 (P = 0.25). Multiple interventions resulted in a reduction in blood culture contamination rates and substantial cost savings to the hospital, and they may have reduced the number of reportable CLABSIs.

  12. Development and evaluation of a prototype non-woven fabric filter for purification of malaria-infected blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Many malaria-related studies depend on infected red blood cells (iRBCs) as fundamental material; however, infected blood samples from human or animal models include leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs), especially difficult to separate from iRBCs in cases involving Plasmodium vivax. These host WBCs are a source of contamination in biology, immunology and molecular biology studies, requiring their removal. Non-woven fabric (NWF) has the ability to adsorb leukocytes and is already used as filtration material to deplete WBCs for blood transfusion and surgery. The present study describes the development and evaluation of a prototype NWF filter designed for purifying iRBCs from malaria-infected blood. Methods Blood samples of P. vivax patients were processed separately by NWF filter and CF11 column methods. WBCs and RBCs were counted, parasite density, morphology and developing stage was checked by microscopy, and compared before and after treatment. The viability of filtrated P. vivax parasites was examined by in vitro short-term cultivation. Results A total of 15 P. vivax-infected blood samples were treated by both NWF filter and CF11 methods. The WBC removal rate of the NWF filter method was 99.03%, significantly higher than the CF11 methods (98.41%, P filter method was 95.48%, also significantly higher than the CF11 method (87.05%, P filter treatment, P. vivax parasite could develop as normal as CF11 method, and no obvious density, developing stage difference were fund between two methods. Conclusions NWF filter filtration removed most leukocytes from malaria-infected blood, and the recovery rate of RBCs was higher than with CF11 column method. Filtrated P. vivax parasites were morphologically normal, viable, and suitable for short-term in vitro culture. NWF filter filtration is simple, fast and robust, and is ideal for purification of malaria-infected blood. PMID:21867550

  13. Development and evaluation of a prototype non-woven fabric filter for purification of malaria-infected blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhi-Yong

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many malaria-related studies depend on infected red blood cells (iRBCs as fundamental material; however, infected blood samples from human or animal models include leukocytes (white blood cells or WBCs, especially difficult to separate from iRBCs in cases involving Plasmodium vivax. These host WBCs are a source of contamination in biology, immunology and molecular biology studies, requiring their removal. Non-woven fabric (NWF has the ability to adsorb leukocytes and is already used as filtration material to deplete WBCs for blood transfusion and surgery. The present study describes the development and evaluation of a prototype NWF filter designed for purifying iRBCs from malaria-infected blood. Methods Blood samples of P. vivax patients were processed separately by NWF filter and CF11 column methods. WBCs and RBCs were counted, parasite density, morphology and developing stage was checked by microscopy, and compared before and after treatment. The viability of filtrated P. vivax parasites was examined by in vitro short-term cultivation. Results A total of 15 P. vivax-infected blood samples were treated by both NWF filter and CF11 methods. The WBC removal rate of the NWF filter method was 99.03%, significantly higher than the CF11 methods (98.41%, P P in vitro short-term culture results showed that after filter treatment, P. vivax parasite could develop as normal as CF11 method, and no obvious density, developing stage difference were fund between two methods. Conclusions NWF filter filtration removed most leukocytes from malaria-infected blood, and the recovery rate of RBCs was higher than with CF11 column method. Filtrated P. vivax parasites were morphologically normal, viable, and suitable for short-term in vitro culture. NWF filter filtration is simple, fast and robust, and is ideal for purification of malaria-infected blood.

  14. Transgenic malaria-resistant mosquitoes have a fitness advantage when feeding on Plasmodium-infected blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrelli, Mauro T; Li, Chaoyang; Rasgon, Jason L; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo

    2007-03-27

    The introduction of genes that impair Plasmodium development into mosquito populations is a strategy being considered for malaria control. The effect of the transgene on mosquito fitness is a crucial parameter influencing the success of this approach. We have previously shown that anopheline mosquitoes expressing the SM1 peptide in the midgut lumen are impaired for transmission of Plasmodium berghei. Moreover, the transgenic mosquitoes had no noticeable fitness load compared with nontransgenic mosquitoes when fed on noninfected mice. Here we show that when fed on mice infected with P. berghei, these transgenic mosquitoes are more fit (higher fecundity and lower mortality) than sibling nontransgenic mosquitoes. In cage experiments, transgenic mosquitoes gradually replaced nontransgenics when mosquitoes were maintained on mice infected with gametocyte-producing parasites (strain ANKA 2.34) but not when maintained on mice infected with gametocyte-deficient parasites (strain ANKA 2.33). These findings suggest that when feeding on Plasmodium-infected blood, transgenic malaria-resistant mosquitoes have a selective advantage over nontransgenic mosquitoes. This fitness advantage has important implications for devising malaria control strategies by means of genetic modification of mosquitoes.

  15. Probing the cytoadherence of malaria infected red blood cells under flow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Xu

    Full Text Available Malaria is one of the most widespread and deadly human parasitic diseases caused by the Plasmodium (P. species with the P. falciparum being the most deadly. The parasites are capable of invading red blood cells (RBCs during infection. At the late stage of parasites' development, the parasites export proteins to the infected RBCs (iRBC membrane and bind to receptors of surface proteins on the endothelial cells that line microvasculature walls. Resulting adhesion of iRBCs to microvasculature is one of the main sources of most complications during malaria infection. Therefore, it is important to develop a versatile and simple experimental method to quantitatively investigate iRBCs cytoadhesion and binding kinetics. Here, we developed an advanced flow based adhesion assay to demonstrate that iRBC's adhesion to endothelial CD36 receptor protein coated channels is a bistable process possessing a hysteresis loop. This finding confirms a recently developed model of cell adhesion which we used to fit our experimental data. We measured the contact area of iRBC under shear flow at different stages of infection using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF, and also adhesion receptor and ligand binding kinetics using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. With these parameters, we reproduced in our model the experimentally observed changes in adhesion properties of iRBCs accompanying parasite maturation and investigated the main mechanisms responsible for these changes, which are the contact area during the shear flow as well as the rupture area size.

  16. Occult Hepatitis B virus infection in previously screened, blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria: implications for blood transfusion and stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olotu, Amadin A; Oyelese, Adesola O; Salawu, Lateef; Audu, Rosemary A; Okwuraiwe, Azuka P; Aboderin, Aaron O

    2016-05-05

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission through blood transfusion is reduced by screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). However this method cannot detect the presence of occult hepatitis B virus infection. This study sought to determine the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. For the first time in Nigeria we employed an automated real-time PCR- method to investigate the prevalence of occult HBV in blood donors. Blood donors screened with HBsAg immunochromatographic rapid test kits at the blood transfusion units of two hospitals and found to be negative were recruited into the study. Questionnaires to elicit risk factors for HBV infection were administered and then 10 ml of blood was collected from each donor. Plasma samples obtained from these HBsAg negative blood donors were screened again for HBsAg using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method, and those found negative were screened for the presence of total antibody to the HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) using ELISA method. Those positive to anti-HBc were then tested for HBV DNA, using an automated real-time PCR method. Five hundred and seven blood donors found HBsAg negative by immunochromatographic rapid test kits at both blood transfusion units, were tested for HBsAg using ELISA and 5 (1 %) were HBsAg positive. The 502 found negative were tested for anti-HBc and 354 (70.5 %) were found positive implying previous exposure to HBV and 19 (5.4 %) of the 354 anti-HBc positive had HBV DNA signifying occult HBV infection. No risk factors were found to be associated with the presence of HBV DNA among those who tested positive. Occult HBV infection exists in blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria and the use of HBsAg alone for screening prospective donors will not eliminate the risk of HBV transmission in blood transfusion or stem cell transplantation.

  17. No association between histo-blood group antigens and susceptibility to clinical infections with genogroup II norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, Tamar; Vennema, Harry; Koopmans, Marion; Kahila Bar-Gal, Gila; Kayouf, Raid; Sela, Tamar; Ambar, Ruhama; Klement, Eyal

    2008-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are a leading cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans. In the present study, the association between NoV susceptibility and the ABO histo-blood group was studied during 2 outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis in military units in Israel caused by genogroup II (GII) NoVs. The findings demonstrate that, unlike for genogroup I of NoV, there is no association between the ABO histo-blood group and clinical infection with GII NoVs. This is the largest study to test the association between NoVs, proven clinical infection with GII, and the ABO histo-blood group.

  18. High rates of infection by blood parasites during the nestling phase in UK Columbids with notes on ecological associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Jenny C; Stockdale, Jennifer E; Bradford, Emma L; McCubbin, Alexandra; Morris, Antony J; Grice, Philip V; Goodman, Simon J; Hamer, Keith C

    2017-04-01

    Studies of blood parasite infection in nestling birds rarely find a high prevalence of infection. This is likely due to a combination of short nestling periods (limiting the age at which nestlings can be sampled) and long parasite prepatent periods before gametocytes can be detected in peripheral blood. Here we examine rates of blood parasite infection in nestlings from three Columbid species in the UK. We use this system to address two key hypotheses in the epidemiology of avian haemoparasites: first, that nestlings in open nests have a higher prevalence of infection; and second, that nestlings sampled at 14 days old have a higher apparent infection rate than those sampled at 7 days old. Open-nesting individuals had a 54% infection rate compared with 25% for box-nesters, probably due to an increased exposure of open-nesting species to dipteran vectors. Nestlings sampled at 14 days had a 68% infection rate compared with 32% in nestlings sampled at 7 days, suggesting that rates of infection in the nest are high. Further work should examine nestlings post-fledging to identify rates of successful parasite infection (as opposed to abortive development within a dead-end host) as well as impacts on host post-fledging survival and behaviour.

  19. Parasite load in the blood and skin of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum is correlated with their capacity to infect sand fly vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Lairton Souza; Sousa, Orlando Marcos Farias de; Solcà, Manuela da Silva; Bastos, Leila Andrade; Bordoni, Marcelo; Magalhães, Jairo Torres; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Fraga, Deborah Bittencourt Mothé; Veras, Patrícia Sampaio Tavares

    2016-10-15

    The sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis is primarily responsible for the transmission of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the New World, and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of this disease. In order to improve the efficacy of control measures, it is essential to assess the transmission capacity of Leishmania infantum to the sand fly vector by naturally infected dogs. The present study investigated the existence of correlations between canine clinical presentation and the intensity of parasite load in the blood, skin and spleen of naturally infected dogs. In addition, we also attempted to establish correlations between the intensity of parasite load in canine tissue and the parasite load detected in sandflies five days after feeding on naturally infected dogs. A total of 23 dogs were examined and classified according to clinical manifestation of canine VL. Blood samples, splenic aspirate and skin biopsies were collected and parasite DNA was quantified by qPCR. Canine capacity to infect Lu. longipalpis with parasites was evaluated by xenodiagnosis and parasite loads were measured five days after feeding. No significant differences were observed with respect to canine clinical manifestation and the parasite loads detected in the blood, skin and spleen samples obtained from naturally infected dogs. Regardless of clinical canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) presentation and the degree of parasite burden, almost half of the dogs successfully infected sandflies with parasites, albeit to a low number of sandflies with correspondingly low parasite loads. Parasite loads in both canine blood and skin were shown to be positively correlated with the canine infectiousness to the sand fly vector, and positive correlations were also observed with respect to these tissues and the sand fly infection rate, as well as the parasite load detected in sandflies following xenodiagnosis. In conclusion, this indicates that parasite loads in both blood and skin can function as

  20. Umbilical cord CD71+ erythroid cells are reduced in neonates born to women in spontaneous preterm labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Romero, Roberto; Xu, Yi; Miller, Derek; Unkel, Ronald; C MacKenzie, Tippi; Frascoli, Michela; Hassan, Sonia S

    2016-10-01

    Preterm neonates are highly susceptible to infection. Neonatal host defense against infection seems to be maintained by the temporal presence of immunosuppressive CD71+ erythroid cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether umbilical cord CD71+ erythroid cells are reduced in neonates born to women who undergo spontaneous preterm labor/birth. Umbilical cord blood samples (n=155) were collected from neonates born to women who delivered preterm with (n=39) and without (n=12) spontaneous labor or at term with (n=82) and without (n=22) spontaneous labor. Time-matched maternal peripheral blood samples were also included (n=111). Mononuclear cells were isolated from these samples, and CD71+ erythroid cells were identified and quantified as CD3-CD235a+CD71+ cells by flow cytometry. (i) The proportion of CD71+ erythroid cells was 50-fold higher in cord blood than in maternal blood; (ii) a reduced number and frequency of umbilical cord CD71+ erythroid cells were found in neonates born to women who underwent spontaneous preterm labor compared to those born to women who delivered preterm without labor; (iii) umbilical cord CD71+ erythroid cells were fewer in neonates born to term pregnancies, regardless of the process of labor, than in those born to women who delivered preterm without labor; and (iv) no differences were seen in umbilical cord CD71+ erythroid cells between neonates born to women who underwent spontaneous preterm labor and those born to women who delivered at term with labor. Umbilical cord CD71+ erythroid cells are reduced in neonates born to women who had undergone spontaneous preterm labor. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  1. Discovery of a Novel Human Pegivirus in Blood Associated with Hepatitis C Virus Co-Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G Berg

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV and human pegivirus (HPgV, formerly GBV-C, are the only known human viruses in the Hepacivirus and Pegivirus genera, respectively, of the family Flaviviridae. We present the discovery of a second pegivirus, provisionally designated human pegivirus 2 (HPgV-2, by next-generation sequencing of plasma from an HCV-infected patient with multiple bloodborne exposures who died from sepsis of unknown etiology. HPgV-2 is highly divergent, situated on a deep phylogenetic branch in a clade that includes rodent and bat pegiviruses, with which it shares <32% amino acid identity. Molecular and serological tools were developed and validated for high-throughput screening of plasma samples, and a panel of 3 independent serological markers strongly correlated antibody responses with viral RNA positivity (99.9% negative predictive value. Discovery of 11 additional RNA-positive samples from a total of 2440 screened (0.45% revealed 93-94% nucleotide identity between HPgV-2 strains. All 12 HPgV-2 RNA-positive cases were identified in individuals also testing positive for HCV RNA (12 of 983; 1.22%, including 2 samples co-infected with HIV, but HPgV-2 RNA was not detected in non-HCV-infected individuals (p<0.0001, including those singly infected by HIV (p = 0.0075 or HBV (p = 0.0077, nor in volunteer blood donors (p = 0.0082. Nine of the 12 (75% HPgV-2 RNA positive samples were reactive for antibodies to viral serologic markers, whereas only 28 of 2,429 (1.15% HPgV-2 RNA negative samples were seropositive. Longitudinal sampling in two individuals revealed that active HPgV-2 infection can persist in blood for at least 7 weeks, despite the presence of virus-specific antibodies. One individual harboring both HPgV-2 and HCV RNA was found to be seronegative for both viruses, suggesting a high likelihood of simultaneous acquisition of HCV and HPgV-2 infection from an acute co-transmission event. Taken together, our results indicate that HPgV-2 is a

  2. Wolbachia infection in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes alters blood meal excretion and delays oviposition without affecting trypsin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenta de Oliveira, Sofia; Dantas de Oliveira, Caroline; Viana Sant'Anna, Mauricio Roberto; Carneiro Dutra, Heverton Leandro; Caragata, Eric Pearce; Moreira, Luciano Andrade

    2017-08-01

    Blood feeding in Aedes aegypti is essential for reproduction, but also permits the mosquito to act as a vector for key human pathogens such as the Zika and dengue viruses. Wolbachia pipientis is an endosymbiotic bacterium that can manipulate the biology of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes, making them less competent hosts for many pathogens. Yet while Wolbachia affects other aspects of host physiology, it is unclear whether it influences physiological processes associated with blood meal digestion. To that end, we examined the effects of wMel Wolbachia infection in Ae. aegypti, on survival post-blood feeding, blood meal excretion, rate of oviposition, expression levels of key genes involved in oogenesis, and activity levels of trypsin blood digestion enzymes. We observed that wMel infection altered the rate and duration of blood meal excretion, delayed the onset of oviposition and was associated with a greater number of eggs being laid later. wMel-infected Ae. aegypti also had lower levels of key yolk protein precursor genes necessary for oogenesis. However, all of these effects occurred without a change in trypsin activity. These results suggest that Wolbachia infection may disrupt normal metabolic processes associated with blood feeding and reproduction in Ae. aegypti. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cord Blood-Derived Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells: Current Challenges in Engraftment, Infection, and Ex Vivo Expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuhiro Kita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood has served as an alternative to bone marrow for hematopoietic transplantation since the late 1980s. Numerous clinical studies have proven the efficacy of umbilical cord blood. Moreover, the possible immaturity of cells in umbilical cord blood gives more options to recipients with HLA mismatch and allows for the use of umbilical cord blood from unrelated donors. However, morbidity and mortality rates associated with hematopoietic malignancies still remain relatively high, even after cord blood transplantation. Infections and relapse are the major causes of death after cord blood transplantation in patients with hematopoietic diseases. Recently, new strategies have been introduced to improve these major problems. Establishing better protocols for simple isolation of primitive cells and ex vivo expansion will also be very important. In this short review, we discuss several recent promising findings related to the technical improvement of cord blood transplantation.

  4. High Mortality from Blood Stream Infection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Is Due to Antimicrobial Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teshale Seboxa

    Full Text Available Managing blood stream infection in Africa is hampered by lack of bacteriological support needed for antimicrobial stewardship, and background data needed for empirical treatment. A combined pro- and retrospective approach was used to overcome thresholds in clinical research in Africa.Outcome and characteristics including age, HIV infection, pancytopenia and bacteriological results were studied in 292 adult patients with two or more SIRS criteria using univariate and confirming multivariate logistic regression models. Expected randomly distributed resistance covariation was compared with observed co-resistance among gram-negative enteric bacteria in 92 paediatric blood culture isolates that had been harvested in the same hospital during the same period of time.Mortality was fivefold increased among patients with positive blood culture results [50.0% vs. 9.8%; OR 11.24 (4.38-25.88, p < 0.0001], and for this group of patients mortality was significantly associated with antimicrobial resistance [OR 23.28 (3.3-164.4, p = 0.002]. All 11 patients with Enterobacteriaceae resistant to 3rd. generation cephalosporins died. Eighty-nine patients had pancytopenia grade 3-4. Among patients with negative blood culture results, mortality was significantly associated with pancytopenia [OR 3.12 (1.32-7.39, p = 0.01]. HIV positivity was not associated with increased mortality. Antimicrobial resistance that concerned gram-negative enteric bacteria, regardless of species, was characterized by co-resistance between third generation cephalosporins, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and co-trimoxazole.Mortality was strongly associated with growth of bacteria resistant to empirical treatment, and these patients were dead or dying when bacteriological reports arrived. Because of co-resistance, alternative efficient antibiotics would not have been available in Ethiopia for 8/11 Enterobacteriaceae-infected patients with isolates resistant to third generation cephalosporins

  5. A Broad-Spectrum Infection Diagnostic that Detects Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) in Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartwright, Mark; Rottman, Martin; Shapiro, Nathan I; Seiler, Benjamin; Lombardo, Patrick; Gamini, Nazita; Tomolonis, Julie; Watters, Alexander L; Waterhouse, Anna; Leslie, Dan; Bolgen, Dana; Graveline, Amanda; Kang, Joo H; Didar, Tohid; Dimitrakakis, Nikolaos; Cartwright, David; Super, Michael; Ingber, Donald E

    2016-07-01

    Blood cultures, and molecular diagnostic tests that directly detect pathogen DNA in blood, fail to detect bloodstream infections in most infected patients. Thus, there is a need for a rapid test that can diagnose the presence of infection to triage patients, guide therapy, and decrease the incidence of sepsis. An Enzyme-Linked Lectin-Sorbent Assay (ELLecSA) that uses magnetic microbeads coated with an engineered version of the human opsonin, Mannose Binding Lectin, containing the Fc immunoglobulin domain linked to its carbohydrate recognition domain (FcMBL) was developed to quantify pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) in whole blood. This assay was tested in rats and pigs to explore whether it can detect infections and monitor disease progression, and in prospectively enrolled, emergency room patients with suspected sepsis. These results were also compared with data obtained from non-infected patients with or without traumatic injuries. The FcMBL ELLecSA was able to detect PAMPS present on, or released by, 85% of clinical isolates representing 47 of 55 different pathogen species, including the most common causes of sepsis. The PAMP assay rapidly (blood cultures were negative and bacteriocidal antibiotics were administered. In patients with suspected sepsis, the FcMBL ELLecSA detected infection in 55 of 67 patients with high sensitivity (>81%), specificity (>89%), and diagnostic accuracy of 0·87. It also distinguished infection from trauma-related inflammation in the same patient cohorts with a higher specificity than the clinical sepsis biomarker, C-reactive Protein. The FcMBL ELLecSA-based PAMP assay offers a rapid, simple, sensitive and specific method for diagnosing infections, even when blood cultures are negative and antibiotic therapy has been initiated. It may help to triage patients with suspected systemic infections, and serve as a companion diagnostic to guide administration of emerging dialysis-like sepsis therapies. Copyright © 2016 The

  6. Quantification of facial contamination with blood during orthopaedic procedures.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, D

    2012-02-03

    Operative surgery exposes the surgeon to possible blood-borne infections. Risks include pen-etrating injuries and conjunctival contact with infected blood. Visor masks worn during orthopaedic trauma procedures were assessed for blood contamination using computer analysis. This was found to be present on 86% of masks, of which only 15% was recognized by the surgeon intraoperatively. Of the blood splashes 80% were less than 0.6mm in diameter. We conclude that power instrumentation produces a blood particulate mist causing considerable microscopic, facial contamination which is a significant risk to the surgeon.

  7. Trends in Transfusion Transmitted Infections Among Replacement Blood Donors in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohammad Irfan

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C and Human Immunodeficiency infections in replacement blood donors. METHODS: From January 2004 to December 2011, 108,598 apparently healthy donors donated blood at our Blood Bank. Screening was done by Microparticle Enzyme Immuno Assay (MEIA method on Axsym System (Abbott Diagnostic, USA and in year 2011 by Chemiluminescent Immunoassay (CIA method on Architect i2000 (Abbott Diagnostic, USA. From 2010 onward, HIV reactive donors were advised for confirmatory tests and reported back with the results. RESULTS: Of the 108,598 total donors, 108,393 (99.8% were replacement donors with a mean age of 28.92 (17-55 years. Of this, only 164 (0.15% were females. Among the replacement donors, 4,906 (4.5% were found to be reactive for Hepatitis-B, C and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. All the reactive patients, except one, were males. HbsAg was positive in 2,068 (1.90% and anti-HCV in 2832 (2.61% donors, while 111 (0.10% were positive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. Co-infectivity was observed in 103 (0.09% cases. The prevalence appeared to be higher in younger age group (17-30 yrs. Only 16.6% cases should be patients returned with results of the confirmatory tests for HIV and were found positive. CONCLUSION: Hepatitis-B and C sero-prevalence in our series of replacement donors appears high compared to most studies from neighboring countries and relatively low in comparison to earlier studies from Pakistan. Prevalence of HIV, however, appears low and turn out of HIV positive cases for confirmatory tests is low.

  8. The impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection on obstetric hemorrhage and blood transfusion in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Evan M; Crookes, Robert L; Hull, Jennifer; Fawcus, Sue; Gangaram, Rajesh; Anthony, John; Ingram, Charlotte; Ngcobo, Solomuzi; Croxford, Julie; Creel, Darryl V; Murphy, Edward L

    2015-07-01

    Globally, as in South Africa, obstetric hemorrhage (OH) remains a leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity. Although blood transfusion is critical to OH management, the incidence and predictors of transfusion as well as their relation to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are poorly described. A cross-sectional study was conducted of all peripartum patients at four major hospitals in South Africa (April to July 2012). Comprehensive clinical data were collected on patients who sustained OH and/or were transfused. Logistic regression was used to model risk factors for OH and transfusion. A total of 15,725 peripartum women were evaluated, of whom 3969 (25.2%) were HIV positive. Overall, 387 (2.5%) women sustained OH and 438 (2.8%) received transfusions, including 213 (1.4%) women with both OH and transfusion. There was no significant difference in OH incidence between HIV-positive (2.8%) and HIV-negative (2.3%) patients (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72-1.25). In contrast, the incidence of blood transfusion was significantly higher in HIV-positive (3.7%) than in HIV-negative (2.4%) patients (adjusted OR, 1.52; 95% CI, 1.14-2.03). Other risk factors for transfusion included OH, low prenatal hemoglobin, the treating hospital, lack of prenatal care, and gestational age of not more than 34 weeks. In the South African obstetric setting, the incidence of peripartum blood transfusion is significantly higher than in the United States and other high-income countries while OH incidence is similar. While OH and prenatal anemia are major predictors of transfusion, HIV infection is a common and independent contributing factor. © 2015 AABB.

  9. Risk factors of hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors in Duhok city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R Hussein, Nawfal

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a public health problem. The lack of information about the seroprevalence and risk factors is an obstacle for preventive public health plans to reduce the burden of viral hepatitis. Therefore, this study was conducted in Iraq, where no studies had been performed to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HBV infection. Blood samples were collected form 438 blood donors attending blood bank in Duhok city. Serum samples were tested for HBV core-antibodies (HBcAb) and HBV surface-antigen (HBsAg) by ELISA. Various risk factors were recorded and multivariate analysis was performed. 5/438 (1.14%) of the subjects were HBsAg positive (HBsAg and HBcAb positive) and 36/438 (8.2%) were HBcAb positive. Hence, 41 cases were exposed to HBV and data analysis was based on that. Univariate analysis showed that there were significant associations between history of illegitimate sexual contact, history of alcohol or history of dental surgeries and HBV exposure (p<0.05 for all). Then, multivariate analysis was conducted to find HBV exposure predictive factors. It was found that history of dental surgery was a predictive factor for exposure to the virus (P=0.03, OR: 2.397). This study suggested that the history of dental surgery was predictive for HBV transmission in Duhok city. Further population-based study is needed to determine HBV risk factors in the society and public health plan based on that should be considered.

  10. Blood culture procedures and diagnosis of Malassezia furfur bloodstream infections: Strength and weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iatta, Roberta; Battista, Michela; Miragliotta, Giuseppe; Boekhout, Teun; Otranto, Domenico; Cafarchia, Claudia

    2017-12-27

    The occurrence of Malassezia spp. bloodstream infections (BSIs) in neonatal intensive care unit was evaluated by using pediatric Isolator, BacT/Alert systems and central venous catheter (CVC) culture. The efficacy of BacT/Alert system in detecting Malassezia was assessed by conventional procedures, culturing 1 ml of bottle content before incubation and by studying the survival of Malassezia spp. strains in BacT/Alert bottles. Of the 492 neonates enrolled, blood was collected by pediatric Isolator (290 patients; group I) or by BacT/Alert bottles (202 patients; group II). The survival of Malassezia furfur and Malassezia pachydermatis in BacT/Alert bottles was evaluated by culturing the inoculum suspension (from 106 to 10 colony-forming units, cfu/ml) and assessing the cfu/ml for 15 days. In total, 15 Malassezia BSIs were detected, of which six (2.1%) from both blood and CVC culture in Dixon agar (DixA) in patients belong to group I (blood collected by paediatric Isolator tube) and nine (4.4%) only from CVC culture in DixA in patients of group II (blood collected by BacT/Alert bottle). Only one patient (0.5%) from group II scored positive for M. furfur also by culturing in DixA 1 ml blood content of BacT/Alert bottle before incubation in BacT/Alert system.M. furfur population size in BacT/Alert bottles decreased during the incubation time, whereas that of M. pachydermatis increased. The BacT/Alert system detected M. pachydermatis even at very low concentration (i.e., 10 cfu/ml) but not any positive blood culture for M. furfur. For a correct diagnosis of Malassezia furfur BSI, the blood should be culture in lipid-enriched fungal medium, and the BacT/Alert system implemented by adding lipid substrates to increase the method sensibility. Finally, CVC cultures on lipid-supplemented media may be proposed as a routine procedure to diagnose the Malassezia fungemia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and

  11. Avian Haemosporidian blood parasite infections at a migration hotspot in Eilat, Israel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paperna Ilan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemosporidian blood parasites are frequent amongst passerines. Though they often do not cause detectable consequences to host health, however, their presence or absence and also their prevalence across host populations may potentially carry meaningful information about the health, stress, body condition and viability of bird individuals or populations. The study of migratory birds captured in Eilat, Israel, allowed us to evaluate the prevalence of blood parasite infections in a wide range of both migrant and resident species in spring (N = 1,950 and autumn (N = 538 of 2004 and 2005. According to blood film microscopy, Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. were more prevalent in the spring than in the autumn (0.289, 0.082 vs. 0.132, 0.033, respectively, whilst Plasmodium spp. exhibited a slight opposite trend (0.034, 0.056. All other parasites (such as trypanosomes, microfilaria and haemococcidians were rare. During the spring seasons, prevalences were significantly higher in migrant than in resident species, whilst this difference was only marginally significant in the autumn. Given that Eilat is a migration hotspot for several Palearctic passerine species, the present descriptive study may hopefully serve to set the baseline values for future long-term epidemiological monitoring.

  12. Diagnosis of infection by preoperative scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wukich, D.K.; Abreu, S.H.; Callaghan, J.J.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Eggli, D.F.; Garcia, J.E.; Berrey, B.H.

    1987-01-01

    Scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells has been reported to be sensitive and specific in the diagnosis of low-grade sepsis of the musculoskeletal system. We reviewed the records of fifty patients who had suspected osteomyelitis or suspected infection about a total joint prosthesis and who underwent scintigraphy with technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate and scintigraphy with indium-111 oxine-labeled white blood cells before an open surgical procedure. Any patient who received preoperative antibiotics was not included in the study. For all of the patients, gram-stain examination of smears, evaluation of a culture of material from the operative site, and histological examination were done. The patients were divided into two groups. Group I was composed of twenty-four patients, each of whom had a prosthesis in place and complained of pain. Group II was composed of twenty-six patients for whom a diagnosis of chronic osteomyelitis had to be considered. With the indium scans alone, there was only one false-negative result (in Group II), but there were eighteen false-positive results (eight patients in Group II and ten patients in Group I). Although scintigraphy with indium-labeled white blood cells is quite sensitive, it is not specific in detecting chronic osteomyelitis; a negative scan should be considered highly suggestive that osteomyelitis is not present. Specificity can be increased by interpreting the indium scan in conjunction with the technetium scan

  13. The nutritional status affects the complete blood count of goats experimentally infected with Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cériac, S; Jayles, C; Arquet, R; Feuillet, D; Félicité, Y; Archimède, H; Bambou, J-C

    2017-11-09

    Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) remains the most important pathogenic constraint of small ruminant production worldwide. The improvement of the host immune response against GIN though breeding for improved animal resistance, vaccination and nutritional supplementation appear as very promising methods. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of four nutritional status differing in protein and energy levels (Hay: 5.1 MJ/Kg of dry matter (DM) and 7.6% of crude protein (CP), Ban: 8.3 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.5% of CP, Soy: 7.6 MJ/Kg of DM and 17.3% of CP, BS: 12.7 MJ/Kg of DM and 7.4% of CP) on the haematological disturbances due to Haemonchus contortus infection in Creole kid goats. No significant effect of the nutritional status was observed for faecal egg count (FEC) but the experimental infection induced haematological disturbances whose intensity and lengthening were dependent on the nutritional status. A transient marked regenerative macrocytic hypochromic anaemia as revealed by a decrease of packed cell volume (PCV), red blood cells (RBC) and hemoglobin and an increase of reticulocytes was observed in all infected groups except Hay. In this latter, the anaemia settled until the end of the experiment. Furthermore, H. contortus induced a thrombocytopenia significantly more pronounced in the group under the lowest nutritional status in term of protein (Hay and Ban). A principal component analysis revealed that the variables that discriminated the nutritional status were the average daily gain (ADG) and the PCV, considered as measures of the level of resilience to H. contortus infection. Moreover, the variables that discriminated infected and non-infected animals were mostly related to the biology of RBC (i.e. size and hemoglobin content) and they were correlated with FEC. The severity and the lengthening of the regenerative anaemia and the thrombocytopenia induced by H. contortus have been affected by the nutritional status. The protein enriched

  14. HIV-1 transmission and survival according to feeding options in infants born to HIV-infected women in Yaoundé, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njom Nlend, Anne Esther; Motaze, Annie Carole Nga; Sandie, Arsene; Fokam, Joseph

    2018-02-19

    Evidence of 24-months survival in the frame of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) cascade-care is scare from routine programs in sub-Saharan African (SSA) settings. Specifically, data on infant outcomes according to feeding options remain largely unknown by month-24, thus limiting its breath for public-health recommendations toward eliminating new pediatric HIV-1 infections and improving care. We sought to evaluate HIV-1 vertical transmission and infant survival rates according to feeding options. A retrospective cohort-study conducted in Yaounde from April 2008 through December 2013 among 1086 infants born to HIV-infected women and followed-up throughout the PMTCT cascade-care until 24-months. Infants with documented feeding option during their first 3 months of life (408 on Exclusive Breastfeeding [EBF], 663 Exclusive Replacement feeding [ERF], 15 mixed feeding [MF]) and known HIV-status were enrolled. HIV-1 vertical transmission, survival and feeding options were analyzed using Kaplan Meier Survival Estimate, Cox model and Schoenfeld residuals tests, at 5% statistical significance. Overall HIV-1 vertical transmission was 3.59% (39), and varied by feeding options: EBF (2.70%), ERF (3.77%), MF (20%), p = 0.002; without significance between EBF and ERF (p = 0.34). As expected, HIV-1 transmission also varied with PMTCT-interventions: 1.7% (10/566) from ART-group, 1.9% (8/411) from AZT-group, and 19.2% (21/109) from ARV-naïve group, p HIV-infected (10.25%) vs. uninfected (2.29%) infants (p = 0.016); with a survival cumulative probability of 89.3% [79.9%-99.8%] vs. 96.4% [94.8%-97.9% respectively], p = 0.024. Mortality also varied by feeding option: ERF (2.41%), EBF (2.45%), MF (13.33%), p = 0.03; with a survival cumulative probability of 96% [94%-98%] in ERF, 96.4% [94.1%-98.8%] in EBF, and 86.67% [71.06%-100%] in MF, p = 0.04. Using Schoenfeld residuals test, only HIV status was a predictor of survival at 24 months (hazard

  15. Infection Is Not a Risk Factor for Perioperative and Postoperative Blood Loss and Transfusion in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Jaiben; Sikora, Matthew; Masch, Jessica; Farias-Kovac, Mario; Klika, Alison K; Higuera, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Septic hip revisions are associated with greater complications and higher costs than aseptic revisions. It is unclear whether blood loss and transfusion requirements are different in septic and aseptic revisions. We hypothesized that the blood loss and transfusion are dependent on the complexity of the revision surgery and patient's general health rather than the presence of infection. We retrospectively reviewed 626 revision total hip arthroplasties in 547 patients between 2009 and 2013. All the procedures were classified as septic (n = 120) or aseptic (n = 506) based on the Musculoskeletal Infection Society criteria for periprosthetic joint infection. Independent risk factors for transfusion and blood loss were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis. The transfusion rate was higher in septic revisions (septic = 108/120 [90%], aseptic = 370/506 [73%]; P revision surgery (P revisions, the presence of infection alone did not increase the risk of transfusion or blood loss. Blood management strategies in revision total hip arthroplasties should be guided by the type of surgery planned and patient's preoperative health rather than the presence of infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparative expression profile of microRNAs in Anopheles anthropophagus midgut after blood-feeding and Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenquan; Hao, Zhenhua; Huang, Liyang; Chen, Lingzi; Wei, Qimei; Cai, Liya; Liang, Shaohui

    2017-02-16

    Anopheles anthropophagus is one of the major vectors of malaria in Asia. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in cell development and differentiation as well as in the cellular response to stress and infection. In a former study, we have investigated the global miRNA profiles in relation to sex in An. anthropophagus. However, the miRNAs contributing to the blood-feeding and infection with Plasmodium are still unknown. High-throughput sequencing was performed to identify miRNA profiles of An. anthropophagus midguts after blood-feeding and Plasmodium infection. The expression patterns of miRNA in different midgut libraries were compared based on transcripts per million reads (TPM), and further confirmed by Northern blots. Target prediction and pathway analysis were carried out to investigate the role of regulated miRNAs in blood-feeding and Plasmodium infection. We identified 67 known and 21 novel miRNAs in all three libraries (sugar-feeding, blood-feeding and Plasmodium infection) in An. anthropophagus midguts. Comparing with the sugar-feeding, the experssion of nine (6 known and 3 novel) and ten (9 known and 1 novel) miRNAs were significantly upregulated and downregulated respectively after blood-feeding (P anti-parasite immunity.

  17. Postpartum Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression The risk of developing blood clots ( ... Kidney Infections Breast Infection Postpartum Blood Clots Postpartum Thyroid Disorders Postpartum Depression NOTE: This is the Consumer Version. ...

  18. Prevalence and characterization of occult hepatitis B infection among blood donors in central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshayea, Areej I; Eid, Gamal E; El-Hazmi, Malak M; Alhetheel, Abdulkarim F

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B viral infections (OBIs)  among blood donors considering the clinical and epidemiological importance of identifying OBIs. A cross-sectional study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and January 2012. Blood donors (n=8501) were screened for Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibodies (HBcAb). All HBsAg-negative and HBcAb-positive samples were tested further for hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb), hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA, and HBV genotyping.   Of the 8501 serum samples tested, 56 (0.7%) were positive and 8445 (99.3%) were negative for HBsAg. Among the HBsAg-negative samples, 198 (2.3%) were positive for HBcAb and these patients were suspected to have OBIs. Among the HBcAb-positive samples, 119 (60.1%) were positive while 79 (39.9%) were negative for HBsAb. Analysis of HBV-DNA for the suspected OBIs showed that 17 out of 198 samples (8.6%) yielded positive results, and all of them were HBsAb-negative. The viral load was low (less than 20-186 IU/mL) in all OBIs. Hepatitis B virus genotyping showed that 15 out of 17 samples (88.2%) were genotype D, and the other 2 samples (11.8%) were genotype E.  The prevalence of OBIs among blood donors in Riyadh was 0.2%. Therefore, it is recommended that HBV molecular testing should be incorporated with serological assays for screening of blood donors.

  19. Determination of HIV status of infants born to HIV-infected mothers: A review of the diagnostic methods with special focus on the applicability of p24 antigen testing in developing countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessman, Maria J; Theilgaard, Zahra Persson; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2012-01-01

    children infected with HIV contract the infection in utero, during delivery, or via breast milk. This review outlines the current diagnostic methods to determine the HIV status of infants born to HIV-infected mothers. The HIV DNA and RNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests are highly accurate...... and are recommended as the first-choice diagnostic methods. However, they are expensive and require complex laboratory procedures. Consequently, a search for less costly and complicated methods has led to the testing of p24 antigen analyses as an alternative to the gold-standard PCR tests, with encouraging results......Abstract In 2009, 2.5 million children under the age of 15 y were living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS); 370,000 were diagnosed with HIV and 260,000 died due to AIDS. More than 90% of the children infected with HIV live in sub-Saharan Africa. Most...

  20. Tick-borne encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumpis, U; Crook, D; Oksi, J

    1999-04-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a zoonotic arbovirus infection endemic to Russia and Eastern and Central Europe. Despite being a common and serious life-threatening disease for which a mass vaccination program was implemented in Austria, there is only limited reference to this disease in the English-language literature. TBE is transmitted to humans usually by the bite of a tick (either Ixodes persulcatus or Ixodes ricinus); occasionally, cases occur following consumption of infected unpasteurized milk. Transmission is seasonal and occurs in spring and summer, particularly in rural areas favored by the vector. TBE is a serious cause of acute central nervous system disease, which may result in death or long-term neurological sequelae. Effective vaccines are available in a few countries. The risk for travelers of acquiring TBE is increasing with the recent rise in tourism to areas of endemicity during spring and summer.

  1. Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus forefoot and blood stream co-infection in a haemodialysis patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentiny, Christine; Dirschmid, Harald; Lhotta, Karl

    2015-05-28

    Streptococcus uberis, the most frequent cause of mastitis in lactating cows, is considered non-pathogenic for humans. Only a few case reports have described human infections with this microorganism, which is notoriously difficult to identify. We report the case of a 75-year-old male haemodialysis patient, who developed a severe foot infection with osteomyelitis and bacteraemia. Both Streptococcus uberis and Staphylococcus aureus were identified in wound secretion and blood samples using mass spectrometry. The presence of Streptococcus uberis was confirmed by superoxide dismutase A sequencing. The patient recovered after amputation of the forefoot and antibiotic treatment with ampicillin/sulbactam. He had probably acquired the infection while walking barefoot on cattle pasture land. This is the first case report of a human infection with Streptococcus uberis with identification of the microorganism using modern molecular technology. We propose that Staphylococcus aureus co-infection was a prerequisite for deep wound and bloodstream infection with Streptococcus uberis.

  2. A high risk of hepatitis C infection among Egyptian blood donors: the role of parenteral drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassily, S; Hyams, K C; Fouad, R A; Samaan, M D; Hibbs, R G

    1995-06-01

    To determine the prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among Egyptian blood donors, 188 consecutive adult blood donors from four hospitals and one temporary donor center located in Cairo, Egypt were evaluated. Sera were tested for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) using second-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test kits. Sera that were repeatedly reactive by ELISA were further verified by a second-generation recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA). Antibodies to HCV were detected by RIBA in 26.6% of the blood donors, which is higher than the 10-19% prevalence of antibody found in other studies of Egyptian blood donors. A history of selling blood (odds ratio [OR] = 12.1) and the use of illicit parenteral drugs (OR = 2.5) were significantly associated with anti-HCV seropositivity after controlling for age and gender. These data indicate that the use of illicit drugs may be one reason for high levels of reported HCV infection among Egyptian blood donors. These findings also indicate that Egyptian blood donors should be screened for anti-HCV and individuals who have a history of drug abuse should be deferred from donating blood.

  3. Development of a faecal occult blood test to determine the severity of Haemonchus contortus infections in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Ian G; Le Jambre, Leo F

    2008-05-06

    Haemonchus contortus commences feeding on host blood by day 11 of infection, which leads to the presence of blood in the host's faeces. This study examined the capacity for a faecal occult blood (FOB) test to determine the severity of H. contortus infection in sheep at pasture, and to predict a rise in worm egg count (WEC) as infection matures. Diluted faeces were assayed with Bayer Hemastix and the change in colour of the reagent patch was scored on a 9-point scale from 1 (negative) to 5 in half unit increments. Performance of the test was compared with four benchmarks for severe infection: (1) WEC>2000 on test day; (2) WEC>2000 on test day or 3 days later; (3) WEC>2000 on test day or 3 or 7 days later; and (4) WEC>2000 on test day or 3, 7 or 10 days later. For a FOB score > or = 3, the frequency of false positive results was high (31.6%) for benchmark 1 but decreased to 3.6% as the definition of severe infection was extended to include WEC>2000 on the test day or 3 or 7 days later. Sensitivity (92.0%), specificity (94.2%) and predictive value of a negative test result (87.5%) were also high for benchmark 3. By detection of blood in faeces during heavy H. contortus infections prior to the emergence of high WECs, the test provided an early indication of imminent haemonchosis. Positive FOB test results are also likely to arise from other causes of blood in faeces such as fascioliasis, coccidiosis and some bacterial enteritides. Further field studies are needed to validate the method as a diagnostic test for determining the severity of H. contortus infections under diverse environmental and sheep husbandry conditions.

  4. IMPACT OF HIV INFECTION AND TUBERCULOSIS ON THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD T-CELL DIFFERENTIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Vasileva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is the leading cause of death among HIV infected individuals. In this regard, an important task is the timely detection of tuberculosis in HIV infected patients. Previously, we have shown that the diagnostic value of in vitro test, QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube is not decreased in patients with HIV infection against the background of tuberculosis. However, it remains unclear what kind of cell populations produce IFNγ in response to specific Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens stimulation in vitro, because the immunodeficiency, caused by HIV, makes primarily for a decrease the abundance and attenuation functions of CD4 T-lymphocytes. The aim of thшы work was to compare the degree of differentiation of T-lymphocytes CD4 (Th and CD8 (Tcyt in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and healthy donors against the background of HIV infection. The study data were obtained during the examination of 28 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis without HIV infection (HIV–TB+, 23 patients with HIV infection (TB–HIV+ and 30 patients coinfected with HIV and tuberculosis (TB+HIV+. The comparison group consisted of 37 healthy individuals (TB–HIV–. Аbsolute and abundance (relative content of major subpopulations of T-lymphocytes (based on the expression of CD27 marker, CD28, CD45RA and CD62L in the peripheral blood for all patients included in the study (n = 118 were evaluated by flow cytometry approach. For patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 58 QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (Qiagen, QFT test was performed. Th/Tcyt ratio was not significantly different among the groups of TB–HIV– and TB+HIV– (1.76 [1.51; 2.30] against 1.86 [1.22; 2.79], p = 0.960. At that time, the size of both subpopulations “terminally differentiated” Tcyt (Tcyt Eff, CD27–CD28– CD62L–CD45RA– Th lymphocytes and effector memory lymphocytes (Th EM, CD27–CD28+CD62L–CD45RA–, was significantly different in all four study groups. Multidirectional changes

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of clinical and blood examination for sepsis in potentially infected neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Mulyani

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Neonatal sepsis remains a diagnostic challenge due to its nonspesific symptoms and signs. Blood culture as the gold standard is still a problem because it takes time, is expensive, and not every health facility is able to perionn. Objective To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of clinical symptoms, hematologic findings, and C-reactive protein (CRP in neonatal sepsis. Methods Samples were taken from potentially infected neonates admitted to the Matemal-Perinatal Unit of Sardjito Hospital, between December 1st, 2000 and March 31st, 2001 using at least one of the criteria: prematurity, very low birth weight infants, matemal pyrexia during delivery, premature membrane rupture, or thick, cloudy amniotic fluid. Clinical symptoms, total leukocyte, neutrophil, platelet count, CRP, and blood culture as the gold standard were examined. Results Among 99 neonates enrolled, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of clinical symptoms were 79.3%, 75.7%, 57.5%, and 89.9%, respectively; leukopenia/leukocytosis were 27.6%, 85.7%, 44.4%, and 74.1%; neutropenia! neutrophilia were 41.4%, 71.4%, 37.5%, and 74.6%; thrombocytopenia were 79.3%, 51.8%, 40.4%, and 85.7%; positive CRP were 58.6%,78.6%,53.1%, and 82.1%. Parallel tests increased the sensitivity up to 89.7%. Specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio were 44.3%, 40%, 91.2%, and 1.6, respectively. Serial tests increased the specificity up to 88.6%. Sensitivity, positive and negative predictive value, and likelihood ratio were 58.6%, 68%, 83.8%, and 5.1, respectively. Conclusion Clinical sepsis, thrombocytopenia, and CRP are sufficiently accurate as diagnostic tests for sepsis in potentially infected neonates. Parallel tests will increase the sensitivity, while serial tests increase the specificity.

  6. Dogs infected with the blood trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi display an increase expression of cytokines and chemokines plus an intense cardiac parasitism during acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Sheler Martins; Vieira, Paula Melo de Abreu; Roatt, Bruno Mendes; Reis, Levi Eduardo Soares; da Silva Fonseca, Kátia; Nogueira, Nívia Carolina; Reis, Alexandre Barbosa; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins

    2014-03-01

    The recent increase in immigration of people from areas endemic for Chagas disease (Trypanoso