Kit Fai Wong
Full Text Available Virtual blood bank is the computer-controlled, electronically linked information management system that allows online ordering and real-time, remote delivery of blood for transfusion. It connects the site of testing to the point of care at a remote site in a real-time fashion with networked computers thus maintaining the integrity of immunohematology test results. It has taken the advantages of information and communication technologies to ensure the accuracy of patient, specimen and blood component identification and to enhance personnel traceability and system security. The built-in logics and process constraints in the design of the virtual blood bank can guide the selection of appropriate blood and minimize transfusion risk. The quality of blood inventory is ascertained and monitored, and an audit trail for critical procedures in the transfusion process is provided by the paperless system. Thus, the virtual blood bank can help ensure that the right patient receives the right amount of the right blood component at the right time.
Sardana, V N
India's health care sector has made impressive strides toward providing health for all by the year 2000. That progress, however, has not been supported by a modern transfusion services network which continues to improve itself. In India, blood collection, storage, and delivery occur mainly in blood banks attached to hospitals, most of which are under central and state government controls. A significant portion of blood banking activity is also done by voluntary agencies and private sector blood banks. A study found the blood transfusion services infrastructure to be highly decentralized and lacking of many critical resources; an overall shortage of blood, especially from volunteer donors; limited and erratic testing facilities; an extremely limited blood component production/availability/use; and a shortage of health care professionals in the field of transfusion services. Infrastructural modernization and the technical upgrading of skills in the blood banks would, however, provide India with a dynamic transfusion services network. The safety of blood transfusion, the national blood safety program, HIV testing facilities, modernization of blood banks, the rational use of blood, program management, manpower development, the legal framework, voluntary blood donation, and a 1996 Supreme Court judgement on the need to focus greater attention upon the blood program are discussed.
Armson, B Anthony; Allan, David S; Casper, Robert F
bone marrow or peripheral stem cell transplantation to treat malignant and non-malignant conditions in children and adults. There is minimal harm to the mother or newborn provided that priority is given to maternal/newborn safety during childbirth management. Recipients of umbilical cord stem cells may experience graft-versus-host disease, transfer of infection or genetic abnormalities, or therapeutic failure. The financial burden on the health system for public cord blood banking and on families for private cord blood banking is considerable. Recommendations 1. Health care professionals should be well-informed about cord blood collection and storage and about factors that influence the volume, quality, and ability to collect a cord blood unit. (III-A) 2. Health care professionals caring for women and families who choose private umbilical cord blood banking must disclose any financial interests or potential conflicts of interest. (III-A) 3. Pregnant women should be provided with unbiased information about umbilical cord blood banking options, including the benefits and limitations of public and private banks. (III-A) 4. Health care professionals should obtain consent from mothers for the collection of umbilical cord blood prior to the onset of active labour, ideally during the third trimester, with ample time to address any questions. (III-A) 5. Health care professionals must be trained in standardized procedures (ex utero and in utero techniques) for cord blood collection to ensure the sterility and quality of the collected unit. (II-2A) 6. Umbilical cord blood should be collected with the goal of maximizing the content of hematopoietic progenitors through the volume collected. The decision to bank the unit will depend upon specific measures of graft potency. (II-2A) 7. Umbilical cord blood collection must not adversely affect the health of the mother or newborn. Cord blood collection should not interfere with delayed cord clamping. (III-E) 8. Health care
Rafii, Hanadi; Bernaudin, Françoise; Rouard, Helene; Vanneaux, Valérie; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Cavazzana, Marina; Gauthereau, Valerie; Stanislas, Aurélie; Benkerrou, Malika; De Montalembert, Mariane; Ferry, Christele; Girot, Robert; Arnaud, Cecile; Kamdem, Annie; Gour, Joelle; Touboul, Claudine; Cras, Audrey; Kuentz, Mathieu; Rieux, Claire; Volt, Fernanda; Cappelli, Barbara; Maio, Karina T; Paviglianiti, Annalisa; Kenzey, Chantal; Larghero, Jerome; Gluckman, Eliane
Efforts to implement family cord blood banking have been developed in the past decades for siblings requiring stem cell transplantation for conditions such as sickle cell disease. However, public banks are faced with challenging decisions about the units to be stored, discarded, or used for other endeavors. We report here 20 years of experience in family cord blood banking for sickle cell disease in two dedicated public banks. Participants were pregnant women who had a previous child diagnosed with homozygous sickle cell disease. Participation was voluntary and free of charge. All mothers underwent mandatory serological screening. Cord blood units were collected in different hospitals, but processed and stored in two public banks. A total of 338 units were stored for 302 families. Median recipient age was six years (11 months-15 years). Median collected volume and total nucleated cell count were 91 mL (range 23-230) and 8.6×10 8 (range 0.7-75×10 8 ), respectively. Microbial contamination was observed in 3.5% (n=12), positive hepatitis B serology in 25% (n=84), and homozygous sickle cell disease in 11% (n=37) of the collections. Forty-four units were HLA-identical to the intended recipient, and 28 units were released for transplantation either alone (n=23) or in combination with the bone marrow from the same donor (n=5), reflecting a utilization rate of 8%. Engraftment rate was 96% with 100% survival. Family cord blood banking yields good quality units for sibling transplantation. More comprehensive banking based on close collaboration among banks, clinical and transplant teams is recommended to optimize the use of these units. Copyright© Ferrata Storti Foundation.
Shearer, William T; Lubin, Bertram H; Cairo, Mitchell S; Notarangelo, Luigi D
This policy statement is intended to provide information to guide pediatricians, obstetricians, and other medical specialists and health care providers in responding to parents' questions about cord blood donation and banking as well as the types (public versus private) and quality of cord blood banks. Cord blood is an excellent source of stem cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with some fatal diseases. Cord blood transplantation offers another method of definitive therapy for infants, children, and adults with certain hematologic malignancies, hemoglobinopathies, severe forms of T-lymphocyte and other immunodeficiencies, and metabolic diseases. The development of universal screening for severe immunodeficiency assay in a growing number of states is likely to increase the number of cord blood transplants. Both public and private cord blood banks worldwide hold hundreds of thousands of cord blood units designated for the treatment of fatal or debilitating illnesses. The procurement, characterization, and cryopreservation of cord blood is free for families who choose public banking. However, the family cost for private banking is significant and not covered by insurance, and the unit may never be used. Quality-assessment reviews by several national and international accrediting bodies show private cord blood banks to be underused for treatment, less regulated for quality control, and more expensive for the family than public cord blood banks. There is an unquestionable need to study the use of cord blood banking to make new and important alternative means of reconstituting the hematopoietic blood system in patients with malignancies and blood disorders and possibly regenerating tissue systems in the future. Recommendations regarding appropriate ethical and operational standards (including informed consent policies, financial disclosures, and conflict-of-interest policies) are provided for physicians, institutions, and organizations that
de Angelis, V; de Matteis, M C; Orazi, B M; Santarossa, L; Della Toffola, L; Raineri, A; Vettore, L
We studied proteolytic alterations of membrane proteins in ghosts derived from human red blood cells, preserved up to 35 days in the liquid state either as whole blood or with additive solution. The study was carried out by performing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of stromal proteins from erythrocytes, either previously treated with proteinase inhibitors or previously incubated in conditions promoting proteolysis. To differentiate the effect of erythrocyte from granulocyte proteinases, the investigation was also carried out in leukocyte-free red cell preparations. The results show: (1) the effects of endogenous proteinases on membrane proteins derived from red cells stored under blood bank conditions; (2) a decrease of proteolytic effects in ghosts derived from red cells which have been submitted to a longer storage; (3) a relevant influence of the red cell resuspending medium before lysis on the time-dependent onset and exhaustion of proteolysis in ghosts. The presence of increased proteolysis in ghosts could be regarded as a marker of molecular lesions induced in red cells by storage under blood bank conditions.
Kaimal, Anjali J; Smith, Catherine C; Laros, Russell K; Caughey, Aaron B; Cheng, Yvonne W
To investigate the cost-effectiveness of private umbilical cord blood banking. A decision-analytic model was designed comparing private umbilical cord blood banking with no umbilical cord blood banking. Baseline assumptions included a cost of $3,620 for umbilical cord blood banking and storage for 20 years, a 0.04% chance of requiring an autologous stem cell transplant, a 0.07% chance of a sibling requiring an allogenic stem cell transplant, and a 50% reduction in risk of graft-versus-host disease if a sibling uses banked umbilical cord blood. Private cord blood banking is not cost-effective because it cost an additional $1,374,246 per life-year gained. In sensitivity analysis, if the cost of umbilical cord blood banking is less than $262 or the likelihood of a child needing a stem cell transplant is greater than 1 in 110, private umbilical cord blood banking becomes cost-effective. Currently, private umbilical cord blood banking is cost-effective only for children with a very high likelihood of needing a stem cell transplant. Patients considering private blood banking should be informed of the remote likelihood that a unit will be used for a child or another family member. III.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank supplies. 864.9050 Section 864.9050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... and Blood Products § 864.9050 Blood bank supplies. (a) Identification. Blood bank supplies are general...
Fox, Nathan S; Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B
Pregnant patients have the option at delivery of having their cord blood collected and stored for future use. At many hospitals, they have the option of donating their cord blood to the public banking system for future use by anyone who is an appropriate match (public banking). Patients also have the option of having their cord blood stored for a fee with a commercial/private company for future use within their family (private banking). Currently, private banking is not recommended by major obstetric and pediatric professional organizations. We applied current evidence of the risks and benefits of private and public cord blood banking and accepted ethical principles to answer the following two related questions: 1) Do obstetricians have an ethical obligation to comply with a request for private banking? and 2) Do obstetricians have an ethical obligation to routinely offer private banking to women who do not request it? The only situation where there is a known benefit to private banking is when public banking is not available and the patient currently has an affected family member who may benefit from cord blood therapy. We conclude that when presented with a request for private banking, obstetricians have an ethical obligation to explain the lack of proven benefit of this procedure. If the patient still requests private banking, it would be appropriate to comply, because there is minimal or no risk to the procedure. However, obstetricians are not ethically obligated to offer private banking, even when public banking is not available, except in the limited circumstance when the patient currently has an affected family member who may benefit from cord blood therapy.
Sullivan, Michael J
Umbilical cord blood gifted to non-profit public cord blood banks is now routinely used as an alternative source of haematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation for children and adults with cancer, bone marrow failure syndromes, haemoglobinopathies and many genetic metabolic disorders. Because of the success and outcomes of public cord banking, many companies now provide private cord banking services. However, in the absence of any published transplant evidence to support autologous and non-directed family banking, commercial cord banks currently offer a superfluous service.
Gluckman, Eliane; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Rocha, Vanderson; Baudoux, Etienne; Boo, Michael; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Welte, Kathy; Navarrete, Cristina; van Walraven, Suzanna M
Umbilical cord blood transplantation from HLA-identical siblings provides good results in children. These results support targeted efforts to bank family cord blood units that can be used for a sibling diagnosed with a disease which can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or for research that investigates the use of allogeneic or autologous cord blood cells. Over 500 patients transplanted with related cord blood units have been reported to the Eurocord registry with a 4-year overall survival of 91% for patients with non-malignant diseases and 56% for patients with malignant diseases. Main hematologic indications in children are leukemia, hemoglobinopathies or inherited hematologic, immunological or metabolic disorders. However, family-directed cord blood banking is not widely promoted; many cord blood units used in sibling transplantation have been obtained from private banks that do not meet the necessary criteria required to store these units. Marketing by private banks who predominantly store autologous cord blood units has created public confusion. There are very few current validated indications for autologous storage but some new indications might appear in the future. Little effort is devoted to provide unbiased information and to educate the public as to the distinction between the different types of banking, economic models and standards involved in such programs. In order to provide a better service for families in need, directed-family cord blood banking activities should be encouraged and closely monitored with common standards, and better information on current and future indications should be made available.
Mugishima, Hideo; Takahashi, Tuneo; Nagamura, Tokiko; Asano, Sigetaka; Saito, Hidehiko
Cord blood offers many advantages including a high concentration of hematopoietic stem cells, a large number of potential donors, and ease of harvest. Furthermore, since there is no risk for either the mother or baby, few people refuse to donate. There is thought to be a low risk for virus contamination and also probably a low incidence and severity of GVHD. Cord blood can be obtained quickly without the assistance of a coordinator and one or 2 locus-mismatched HLA is usually acceptable. In Japan, there are 10 cord blood banks supported by the government. Between 1996 and June 2002, 9,500 units were registered with the Japan cord blood bank network (JCBBN). 630 units were delivered and most of these were transplanted. The status of registered cord blood units worldwide is shown. 59,081 units have been registered by NETCORD. The Japan cord blood bank network accounts for 13% of these units. I will discuss the Tokyo cord blood tank (TCBB). The bank at Tokyo, to which we belong, is one of the largest banks in Japan. We helped to establish Asia CORD in 2000 and have held annual conferences and meetings in Tokyo to exchange information. So far, China, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Viet Nam and Japan have participated. We accepted three trainees from the Ho Chi Minh City Blood Transfusion and Hematology Center for training in cord blood transplantation in May 2001. In January 2002, a patient with ALL received cord blood and was successfully engrafted at Ho Chi Minh City Blood Transfusion and Hematology Center. We present here the clinical outcome of these patients through Tokyo cord blood bank and Japan cord blood bank network. First, the number of CB units stored and registered at JCBBN and TCBB has increased rapidly over the past two years. Second, the survival rate of acute leukemia patients in release was significantly lower than that in patients in CR. Third, the engraftment rate in patients with metabolic disease (50%) was lower than that in patients with leukemia
Sanmukh R Joshi
Full Text Available Background: Cold agglutinins (CA are benign naturally occurring low titer autoantibodies present in most individuals. Those with moderate strength are found in infections, malignancies or autoimmune conditions with diagnostic importance. Aim: Present report deals with CA that brought spontaneous hemagglutination in blood units stored at 2-6°C. Study design: Over 32 months period between July 1993 and December 1995, blood units were inspected for spontaneous cold auto-hemagglutination (SpCA phenomenon. The plasma from these units was separated and investigated for serological specificity using in house red cell panel and standard serological methods. Results: Among 51,671 blood units, 112 units showed SpCA phenomenon. A rising trend seen in first half of study period significantly fell in remaining half. Specificities of the antibodies detected include anti-I (27, anti-i (53, anti-Pr (21 with remaining few being undetermined specificity. Absorption of serum using enzyme-treated red cells revealed a presence of anti-Pr among the cases, the two of which with new specificities that reacted preferentially with red cells from either new-born or adults and were tentatively named as anti-Pr Fetal and anti-Pr adult , respectively. While 9 cases showed optimum reaction at neutral pH of 7, 68 (62% cases reacted at pH 5.8 through 8.0, 28 (26% cases preferred an acidic pH 5.8 and 4 cases opted an alkaline pH 8. Of 28 cases with antibodies preferentially reacting in acidic medium, 17 (60% cases were anti-i and 7 (25% cases were anti-Pr. Conclusion: Unique SpCA phenomenon observed in blood units stored under blood bank conditions seems to be due to CA developed in response to vector-borne infectious agents. Majority of the cases displayed their specificities, otherwise are rare to be encountered.
Yoder, Mervin C
A review of articles published since January 2012 on the topic of cord blood banking and cord blood stem cell transplantation was conducted for this the 25th anniversary year of the first cord blood transplant performed in a human. Cord blood banking is performed throughout the world. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation is recognized as an acceptable alternative stem cell source for paediatric and adults requiring a haematopoietic transplant, particularly for patients of racial and ethnic minorities. To further advance the use of UCB, methods to enhance UCB stem cell expansion, engraftment and maintenance may be required. Controversy on the most effective and economically sustainable model for banking and storing an optimal UCB product continues to persist. Cord blood banking and transplantation of cord blood stem cells has advanced rapidly over the initial 25 years, as more than 30 ,000 patients have benefited from the therapy. New concepts on the use of methods to expand UCB stem cells for transplantation and use for nonhaematopoietic indications may increase demand for UCB over the next few decades.
Jordens, Christopher F C; O'Connor, Michelle A C; Kerridge, Ian H; Stewart, Cameron; Cameron, Andrew; Keown, Damien; Lawrence, Rabbi Jeremy; McGarrity, Andrew; Sachedina, Abdulaziz; Tobin, Bernadette
Umbilical cord blood is a valuable source of haematopoietic stem cells. There is little information about whether religious affiliations have any bearing on attitudes to and decisions about its collection, donation and storage. The authors provided information about umbilical cord blood banking to expert commentators from six major world religions (Catholicism, Anglicanism, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism) and asked them to address a specific set of questions in a commentary. The commentaries suggest there is considerable support for umbilical cord blood banking in these religions. Four commentaries provide moral grounds for favouring public donation over private storage. None attach any particular religious significance to the umbilical cord or to the blood within it, nor place restrictions on the ethnicity or religion of donors and recipients. Views on ownership of umbilical cord blood vary. The authors offer a series of general points for those who seek a better understanding of religious perspectives on umbilical cord blood banking.
Alvis, Nelson José; Díaz, Diana Patricia; Castillo, Liliana; Alvis, Nelson Rafael; Bermúdez, María Isabel; Berrío, Olga Maritza; Beltrán, Mauricio; Castañeda-Orjuela, Carlos Andrés
Transfusion is a mechanism of transmission of Chagas' disease. There are no studies on the costs of the screening test in Colombian blood banks. To estimate the costs of the screening test for Chagas' disease among blood donors in two Colombian blood banks, 2015. We conducted a micro-costing study from the perspective of the health care provider to estimate the cost of Chagas' disease testing in two blood banks, Banco de Sangre de la Cruz Roja, Seccional Bolívar, and Banco de Sangre del Hospital de Yopal, Casanare, taking into account four cost categories: 1) Administrative costs: public services and insurance costs were calculated based on the blood bank area in square meters; 2) capital costs: building and equipment costs that were annualized using a 3% discount rate and a lifespan of 20 years for building and five for equipment; 3) costs of Chagas' disease test materials and reagents adjusted by blood bank production level, and 4) costs of staff in charge of Chagas' disease test processing. The costs of transfusion bagsand immunohematology tests are also reported. The cost of Chagas' disease test in the blood bank of Seccional Bolívar was COP$ 37,804 (USD$ 12), and the blood bag and immunohematology test costs were COP$ 25,941 (USD$ 8.2) and COP$ 6,800 (USD$ 2.2), respectively. In the blood bank of Yopal, Casanare, the costs were COP$ 77,384 (USD$ 24.6), COP$ 30,141 (USD$ 9.6) and COP$ 12,627 (USD$ 4), respectively. Personnel cost accounted for the highest percentage of the total cost for both blood banks (47.5% in Seccional Bolívar, and 55.7% in Yopal, Casanare). Our results are an important input for the planning of services and cost-effectiveness studies for screening tests for Chagas' disease in Colombian blood banks.
Neelam Hans; Sandeep Kaur
Background: Menstrual blood banking enables women to store their menstrual blood under required conditions and preserve it for future. Stem cells present in the menstrual blood have the remarkable potential to develop into many different cell types in the body. The objective of the study was to assess the effectiveness of structured teaching programme on knowledge regarding menstrual blood stem cells banking among nursing students studying in selected nursing college of Amritsar, Punjab. M...
Isasi, Rosario; Dalpe, Gratien; Knoppers, Bartha M
In June 2013, Canadian Blood Services (CBS) established the National Public Cord Blood Bank (NPCBB) accessible to Canadian and international patients and researchers. The NPCBB promotes efforts that contribute to research and improved clinical care by making units not suitable for banking or transplantation available for research. In the context of the NPCBB of the CBS, this article will focus on the practical tools (e.g., consent protocols) developed to optimize umbilical cord blood (UCB) banking and research while enabling ethical provenance of UCB stem cells. The Canadian approach represents an ideal model for comparison as it is a country in which the national public bank (and other regional/provincial public banks) coexists with private companies.
Barriga, Francisco; Wietstruck, Angélica; Rojas, Nicolás; Bertin, Pablo; Pizarro, Isabel; Carmona, Amanda; Guilof, Alejandro; Rojas, Iván; Oyarzún, Enrique
Public cord blood banks are a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients with hematological diseases who lack a family donor and need allogeneic transplantation. In June 2007 we started a cord blood bank with units donated in three maternity wards in Santiago, Chile. We report the first three transplants done with cord blood units form this bank. Cord blood units were obtained by intrauterine collection at delivery. They were depleted of plasma and red cells and frozen in liquid nitrogen. Tests for total nucleated cells, CD34 cell content, viral serology, bacterial cultures and HLA A, B and DRB1 were done. Six hundred cord blood units were stored by March 2012. Three patients received allogeneic transplant with cord blood from our bank, two with high risk lymphoblastic leukemia and one with severe congenital anemia. They received conditioning regimens according to their disease and usual supportive care for unrelated donor transplantation until full hematopoietic and immune reconstitution was achieved. The three patients had early engraftment of neutrophils and platelets. The child corrected his anemia and the leukemia patients remain in complete remission. The post-transplant course was complicated with Epstein Barr virus, cytomegalovirus and BK virus infection. Two patients are fully functional 24 and 33 months after transplant, the third is still receiving immunosuppression.
The New Jersey Superior Court has ruled that the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the nation's largest blood bank trade group, was negligent during the early 1980s when it recommended that blood banks not screen and test donors to reduce the chance of HIV contamination of the nation's blood supply. [Name removed], who received HIV-contaminated blood in 1984 as a result of a transfusion at St. Joseph's Hospital in Paterson, sued and reached out-of-court settlements with his doctors and the Bergen Community Blood Center, which provided the blood. Only the AABB suit proceeded to trial, with the jury finding that one-third of the damages were attributable to the AABB's actions. In 1983, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) suggested that blood banks might reduce the risk of AIDS entering the blood supply by using the surrogate hepatitis B test. The AABB, the American Red Cross, and the Council of Community Blood Centers recommended against testing, saying that evidence of transmission by blood was inconclusive and unproven. In March 1985, the AABB adopted the ELISA test. This is the first time the AABB has been held responsible; the AABB said it may appeal the decision. The court disagreed with AABB's claim that it was immune from liability because it was a charity, saying it also performs a critical governance function in respect of the operation of blood banks. The decision puts considerable liability for the U.S. cases of HIV contracted through tainted blood transfusions on the AABB.
Two types of banks have emerged for the collection and storage of umbilical cord blood--public banks and private banks. Public banks promote allogenic (related or unrelated) donation, analogous to the current collection of whole blood units in the United States. Private banks were initially developed to store stem cells from umbilical cord blood for autologous use (taken from an individual for subsequent use by the same individual) by a child if the child develops disease later in life. If a patient requests information on umbilical cord blood banking, balanced and accurate information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of public versus private banking should be provided. The remote chance of an autologous unit of umbilical cord blood being used for a child or a family member (approximately 1 in 2,700 individuals) should be disclosed. The collection should not alter routine practice for the timing of umbilical cord clamping. Physicians or other professionals who recruit pregnant women and their families for for-profit umbilical cord blood banking should disclose any financial interests or other potential conflicts of interest.
Magalon, Jeremy; Maiers, Martin; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Navarrete, Cristina; Rubinstein, Pablo; Brown, Colin; Schramm, Catherine; Larghero, Jérome; Katsahian, Sandrine; Chabannon, Christian; Picard, Christophe; Platz, Alexander; Schmidt, Alexander; Katz, Gregory
Cord blood is an important source of stem cells. However, nearly 90% of public cord blood banks have declared that they are struggling to maintain their financial sustainability and avoid bankruptcy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how characteristics of cord blood units influence their utilization, then use this information to model the economic viability and therapeutic value of different banking strategies. Retrospective analysis of cord blood data registered between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2011 in Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide. Data were collected from four public banks in France, Germany and the USA. Samples were eligible for inclusion in the analysis if data on cord blood and maternal HLA typing and biological characteristics after processing were available (total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts). 9,396 banked cord blood units were analyzed, of which 5,815 were Caucasian in origin. A multivariate logistic regression model assessed the influence of three parameters on the CBU utilization rate: ethnic background, total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts. From this model, we elaborated a Utilization Score reflecting the probability of transplantation for each cord blood unit. We stratified three Utilization Score thresholds representing four different banking strategies, from the least selective (scenario A) to the most selective (scenario D). We measured the cost-effectiveness ratio for each strategy by comparing performance in terms of number of transplanted cord blood units and level of financial deficit. When comparing inputs and outputs over three years, Scenario A represented the most extreme case as it delivered the highest therapeutic value for patients (284 CBUs transplanted) along with the highest financial deficit (USD 5.89 million). We found that scenario C resulted in 219 CBUs transplanted with a limited deficit (USD 0.98 million) that charities and public health could realistically finance over the long term. We also found that
Magalon, Jeremy; Maiers, Martin; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Navarrete, Cristina; Rubinstein, Pablo; Brown, Colin; Schramm, Catherine; Larghero, Jérome; Katsahian, Sandrine; Chabannon, Christian; Picard, Christophe; Platz, Alexander; Schmidt, Alexander; Katz, Gregory
Background Cord blood is an important source of stem cells. However, nearly 90% of public cord blood banks have declared that they are struggling to maintain their financial sustainability and avoid bankruptcy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how characteristics of cord blood units influence their utilization, then use this information to model the economic viability and therapeutic value of different banking strategies. Methods Retrospective analysis of cord blood data registered between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2011 in Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide. Data were collected from four public banks in France, Germany and the USA. Samples were eligible for inclusion in the analysis if data on cord blood and maternal HLA typing and biological characteristics after processing were available (total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts). 9,396 banked cord blood units were analyzed, of which 5,815 were Caucasian in origin. A multivariate logistic regression model assessed the influence of three parameters on the CBU utilization rate: ethnic background, total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts. From this model, we elaborated a Utilization Score reflecting the probability of transplantation for each cord blood unit. We stratified three Utilization Score thresholds representing four different banking strategies, from the least selective (scenario A) to the most selective (scenario D). We measured the cost-effectiveness ratio for each strategy by comparing performance in terms of number of transplanted cord blood units and level of financial deficit. Results When comparing inputs and outputs over three years, Scenario A represented the most extreme case as it delivered the highest therapeutic value for patients (284 CBUs transplanted) along with the highest financial deficit (USD 5.89 million). We found that scenario C resulted in 219 CBUs transplanted with a limited deficit (USD 0.98 million) that charities and public health could realistically finance over the long
Full Text Available Cord blood is an important source of stem cells. However, nearly 90% of public cord blood banks have declared that they are struggling to maintain their financial sustainability and avoid bankruptcy. The objective of this study is to evaluate how characteristics of cord blood units influence their utilization, then use this information to model the economic viability and therapeutic value of different banking strategies.Retrospective analysis of cord blood data registered between January 1st, 2009 and December 31st, 2011 in Bone Marrow Donor Worldwide. Data were collected from four public banks in France, Germany and the USA. Samples were eligible for inclusion in the analysis if data on cord blood and maternal HLA typing and biological characteristics after processing were available (total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts. 9,396 banked cord blood units were analyzed, of which 5,815 were Caucasian in origin. A multivariate logistic regression model assessed the influence of three parameters on the CBU utilization rate: ethnic background, total nucleated and CD34+ cell counts. From this model, we elaborated a Utilization Score reflecting the probability of transplantation for each cord blood unit. We stratified three Utilization Score thresholds representing four different banking strategies, from the least selective (scenario A to the most selective (scenario D. We measured the cost-effectiveness ratio for each strategy by comparing performance in terms of number of transplanted cord blood units and level of financial deficit.When comparing inputs and outputs over three years, Scenario A represented the most extreme case as it delivered the highest therapeutic value for patients (284 CBUs transplanted along with the highest financial deficit (USD 5.89 million. We found that scenario C resulted in 219 CBUs transplanted with a limited deficit (USD 0.98 million that charities and public health could realistically finance over the long term. We also
Sachin A Badge
Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: The incidence of ABO and rhesus (Rh groups varies markedly in different races, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic groups in different parts of the world. The frequencies of ABO and Rh blood groups vary from one population to another and time to time in the same region. The present study was carried out to find the distribution of blood group in rural and tribal populations of Bastar district of Chhattisgarh. Materials and Methods: The present retrospective study was carried out at late Shri Baliram Kashyap Memorial Government Medical College and Maharani Hospital blood bank, Jagdalpur, Bastar district, Chhattisgarh, India, during the 2-year period from January 2014 to December 2015. The blood collections were taken from the voluntary donors at outdoor blood donation camp and in-house blood bank as well as from replacement donors at blood bank. Totally 12,852 donors were considered medically fit and accepted for blood donation during the study period. Results: Out of the total 12,852 donors, most of the donors, i.e., 3996 (31.09% were with blood Group O followed by B (30.44%, A (24.95%, and AB (13.52%. Out of the 12,852 blood donors, majority, i.e., 12,779 (99.43% were male and 73 (0.57% were female. Maximum blood donors, i.e., 12,777 (99.42% were Rh positive while only 75 (0.58% were Rh negative. Conclusion: The knowledge of distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups at local and regional levels is helpful in effective management of blood banks and safe blood transfusion services.
Sundell, Inger Birgitta; Setzer, Teddi J
In this study, a self-administered questionnaire was used to assess opinions about stem cell research and cord blood banking. Three attitudes were examined: willingness to accept cord blood banking, willingness to accept embryonic stem cell research, and religious belief system. A total of 90 Wayne State University students enrolled in the study in response to an invitation posted on a web page for the university. Sex distribution among study participants was 79 females and eight males; three declined to state their sex. Support for cord blood banking was high (> 70%) among students. Students over the age of 25 years of age were more (85%) positive than students 18 to 24 years old (57%). They prefered a public cord blood bank over a private cord blood bank. Atheist/agnostic or spiritual/not religious students (> 90%), Catholic students (78%) and Christian students (58%) support cord blood banking. Age, sex and religion seems influence the student's attitude towards stem cell research and cord blood banking.
Narayanan, Dhanya Lakshmi; Phadke, Shubha R
Stem cell transplantation and cord blood banking have received much popularity among general public and medical professionals in the recent past. But information about the scientific aspects, its utility and limitations is incomplete amongst laypersons as well as many medical practitioners. Stem cells differ from all other types of cells in the human body because of their ability to multiply in order to self perpetuate and differentiate into specialized cells. Stems cells could be totipotent, multipotent, pluripotent, oligopotent or unipotent depending on the type of cells that can arise or differentiate from them. Umbilical cord blood serves as a potent source of hematopoeitic stem cells and is being used to treat various disorders like blood cancers, hemoglobinopathies and immunodeficiency disorders for which hematological stem cell transplantation is the standard of care. Cord blood can be collected at ease, without any major complications and has a lower incidence of graft vs. host reaction compared to bone marrow cells or peripheral blood cells. Both public and private banks have been established for collection and storage of umbilical cord blood. However, false claims and misleading commercial advertisements about the use of umbilical cord blood stem cells for the treatment of a variety of conditions ranging from neuromuscular disorders to cosmetic benefits are widespread and create unrealistic expectations in laypersons and clinicians. Many clinicians and laypersons are unaware of the limitations of cord blood banking, as in treating a genetic disorder by autologous cord blood transplant. Knowledge and awareness about the scientific indications of cord blood stem cell transplantation and realistic expectations about the utility of cord blood among medical practitioners are essential for providing accurate information to laypersons before they decide to preserve umbilical cord blood in private banks and thus prevent malpractice.
Thornley, Ian; Eapen, Mary; Sung, Lillian; Lee, Stephanie J.; Davies, Stella M.; Joffe, Steven
Objective Private cord blood banks are for-profit companies that facilitate storage of umbilical cord blood for personal or family use. Pediatric hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) physicians are currently best situated to use cord blood therapeutically. We sought to describe the experiences and views of these physicians regarding private cord blood banking. Participants and Methods Emailed cross-sectional survey of pediatric HCT physicians in the United States and Canada. 93/152 potentially eligible physicians (93/130 confirmed survey recipients) from 57 centers responded. Questions addressed the number of transplants performed using privately banked cord blood, willingness to use banked autologous cord blood in specific clinical settings, and recommendations to parents regarding private cord blood banking. Results Respondents reported having performed 9 autologous and 41 allogeneic transplants using privately banked cord blood. In 36/40 allogeneic cases for which data were available, the cord blood had been collected because of a known indication in the recipient. Few respondents would choose autologous cord blood over alternative stem cell sources for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in second remission. In contrast, 55% would choose autologous cord blood to treat high-risk neuroblastoma, or to treat severe aplastic anemia in the absence of an available sibling donor. No respondent would recommend private cord blood banking for a newborn with one healthy sibling when both parents were of Northern European descent; 11% would recommend banking when parents were of different minority ethnicities. Conclusions Few transplants have been performed using cord blood stored in the absence of a known indication in the recipient. Willingness to use banked autologous cord blood varies depending on disease and availability of alternative stem cell sources. Few pediatric HCT physicians endorse private cord blood banking in the absence of an identified recipient
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quality control kit for blood banking reagents... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9650 Quality control kit for blood banking reagents. (a...
Lam, H C; Kominski, G F; Petz, L D; Sofaer, S
A variety of financing mechanisms and managerial innovations have been developed in the past decade to control hospital costs. Some evidence suggests that those changes have not produced substantial improvements in labor efficiency among employees in the hospital's technical level, such as in the blood bank laboratories. This study measured labor efficiency in 40 hospital-based blood bank laboratories in Southern California during the year from July 1989 to June 1990 and explored the impact of financial, managerial, and operational factors on labor efficiency. With standardized output measures used in all blood bank laboratories, a wide variation of labor efficiency was found. Multivariate analyses indicate that the labor efficiency of blood bank employees was not influenced by organizational financial incentives, but was affected by the managerial styles of blood bank managers. Interpretation of the findings suggests that labor efficiency is affected by operational designs intended to improve responses to variable workloads and reduce slack time.
Sugarman, Jeremy; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Box, Tamara L; Horner, Ronnie D
The purpose of this project was to evaluate the informed consent process for donation to a public umbilical cord blood bank. Telephone interviews were conducted with 170 women who had given consent to donate their newborn infants' umbilical cord blood. Of the 170 women who were contacted, 96.8% of the women reported that all their questions had been answered. Nevertheless, approximately one third of the respondents did not consider themselves to be in research, and almost one quarter of the respondents did not know how to contact the umbilical cord blood bank if they or their infant became seriously ill. Further, a substantial proportion of the respondents did not understand the full range of alternatives to donation and incorrectly endorsed potential benefits. Informed consent could be optimized by (1) having those personnel who obtain consent emphasize that banking involves research and to explain the true benefits of donation, (2) ensuring that parents know how and when to contact the umbilical cord blood bank after donation, and (3) using phone surveys to continue assessments and to monitor changes in the process.
Broder, Sherri M; Ponsaran, Roselle S; Goldenberg, Aaron J
Cord blood has moved rapidly from an experimental stem cell source to an accepted and important source of hematopoietic stem cells. There has been no comprehensive assessment of US public cord blood banking practices since the Institute of Medicine study in 2005. Of 34 US public cord blood banks identified, 16 participated in our qualitative survey of public cord blood banking practices. Participants took part in in-depth telephone interviews in which they were asked structured and open-ended questions regarding recruitment, donation, and the informed consent process at these banks. Thirteen of 16 participants reported a variably high percentage of women who consented to public cord blood donation. Fifteen banks offered donor registration at the time of hospital admission for labor and delivery. Seven obtained full informed consent and medical history during early labor and eight conducted some form of phased consent and/or phased medical screening and history. Nine participants identified initial selection of the collection site location as the chief mode by which they recruited minority donors. Since 2005, more public banks offer cord blood donor registration at the time of admission for labor and delivery. That and the targeted location of cord blood collection sites are the main methods used to increase access to donation and HLA diversity of banked units. Currently, the ability to collect and process donations, rather than donor willingness, is the major barrier to public cord blood banking. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
Farmer, James J.
A computerized Blood Bank Management system is described. Features include product oriented data input, inventory control reports, product utilization reports, rapid retrieval of individual patient reports. Relative benefits of the system are discussed.
Olusanya, Micheal O.; Arasomwan, Martins A.; Adewumi, Aderemi O.
This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients' blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP) introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment. PMID:25815046
Olusanya, Micheal O; Arasomwan, Martins A; Adewumi, Aderemi O
This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients' blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP) introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment.
Poomalar G. K.; Jayasree M.
Background: Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are multipotent stem cells, derived from bone marrow, peripheral blood and umbilical cord. These HSC are accepted method of treatment for various disorders. Cord blood can be stored either in private or public bank. Awareness about cord blood banking among semi urban and rural population is less compared to urban population. The aim of our study is to evaluate the awareness of cord blood banking among pregnant women in semi urban area and to evaluat...
Broder, Sherri; Ponsaran, Roselle; Goldenberg, Aaron
BACKGROUND Cord blood has moved rapidly from an experimental stem cell source to an accepted and important source of hematopoietic stem cells. There has been no comprehensive assessment of US public cord blood banking practices since the Institute of Medicine study in 2005. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Of 34 US public cord blood banks identified, 16 participated in our qualitative survey of public cord blood banking practices. Participants took part in in-depth telephone interviews in which they were asked structured and open-ended questions regarding recruitment, donation, and the informed consent process at these banks. RESULTS 13 of 16 participants reported a variably high percentage of women who consented to public cord blood donation. 15 banks offered donor registration at the time of hospital admission for labor and delivery. 7 obtained full informed consent and medical history during early labor and 8 conducted some form of phased consent and/or phased medical screening and history. 9 participants identified initial selection of the collection site location as the chief mode by which they recruited minority donors. CONCLUSION Since 2005, more public banks offer cord blood donor registration at the time of admission for labor and delivery. That, and the targeted location of cord blood collection sites, are the main methods used to increase access to donation and HLA diversity of banked units. Currently, the ability to collect and process donations, rather than donor willingness, is the major barrier to public cord blood banking. PMID:22803637
Full Text Available Objectives : The aims of this study were to develop reportable event codes that are applicable to the national hemovigilance systems for hospital blood banks, and to present expansion strategies for the blood banks. Materials and Methods : The data were obtained from a literature review and expert consultation, followed by adding to and revising the established hemovigilance code system and guidelines to develop reportable event codes for hospital blood banks. The Medical Error Reporting System-Transfusion Medicine developed in the US and other codes of reportable events were added to the Korean version of the Biologic Products Deviation Report (BPDR developed by the Korean Red Cross Blood Safety Administration, then using these codes, mapping work was conducted. We deduced outcomes suitable for practice, referred to the results of the advisory councils, and conducted a survey with experts and blood banks practitioners. Results : We developed reportable event codes that were applicable to hospital blood banks and could cover blood safety - from blood product safety to blood transfusion safety - and also presented expansion strategies for hospital blood banks. Conclusion : It was necessary to add 10 major categories to the blood transfusion safety stage and 97 reportable event codes to the blood safety stage. Contextualized solutions were presented on 9 categories of expansion strategies of hemovigilance system for the hospital blood banks.
Therapeutic Apheresis Medicine Services work closely with Blood Banking and Transfusion Medicine Services (BBTMS). The BBTMS performs patient testing and provides blood components for patients undergoing therapeutic apheresis procedures. This article will provide an overview of blood component descriptions, patient testing, and blood component options and preparations for therapeutic apheresis procedures. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. 864.9275 Section 864.9275 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Manufacture Blood and Blood Products § 864.9275 Blood bank centrifuge for in vitro diagnostic use. (a...
Teofili, Luciana; Silini, Antonietta R; Bianchi, Maria; Valentini, Caterina Giovanna; Parolini, Ornella
Human term placenta is comprised of various tissues from which different cell populations can be obtained, including hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs). Areas covered: This review will discuss the possibility to incorporate placental tissue cells in cord blood banking. It will discuss general features of human placenta, with a brief review of the immune cells at the fetal-maternal interface and the different cell populations isolated from placenta, with a particular focus on MSCs. It will address the question as to why placenta-derived MSCs should be banked with their hematopoietic counterparts. It will discuss clinical trials which are studying safety and efficacy of placenta tissue-derived MSCs in selected diseases, and preclinical studies which have proven their therapeutic properties in other diseases. It will discuss banking of umbilical cord blood and raise several issues for improvement, and the applications of cord blood cells in non-malignant disorders. Expert Commentary: Umbilical cord blood banking saves lives worldwide. The concomitant banking of non-hematopoietic cells from placenta, which could be applied therapeutically in the future, alone or in combination to their hematopoietic counterparts, could exploit current banking processes while laying the foundation for clinical trials exploring placenta-derived cell therapies in regenerative medicine.
Lam, Hwai-Tai Chen
In view of the increasing costs of hospital care, it is essential to investigate methods to improve the labor efficiency and the cost-effectiveness of the hospital technical core in order to control costs while maintaining the quality of care. This study was conducted to develop indices to measure efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and the quality of blood banks; to identify factors associated with efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and quality; and to generate strategies to improve blood bank labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness. Indices developed in this study for labor efficiency and cost-effectiveness were not affected by patient case mix and illness severity. Factors that were associated with labor efficiency were identified as managerial styles, and organizational designs that balance workload and labor resources. Medical directors' managerial involvement was not associated with labor efficiency, but their continuing education and specialty in blood bank were found to reduce the performance of unnecessary tests. Surprisingly, performing unnecessary tests had no association with labor efficiency. This suggested the existence of labor slack in blood banks. Cost -effectiveness was associated with workers' benefits, wages, and the production of high-end transfusion products by hospital-based donor rooms. Quality indices used in this study included autologous transfusion rates, platelet transfusion rates, and the check points available in an error-control system. Because the autologous transfusion rate was related to patient case mix, severity of illness, and possible inappropriate transfusion, it was not recommended to be used for quality index. Platelet-pheresis transfusion rates were associated with the transfusion preferences of the blood bank medical directors. The total number of check points in an error -control system was negatively associated with government ownership and workers' experience. Recommendations for improving labor efficiency and cost
Katz, Gregory; Mills, Antonia; Garcia, Joan; Hooper, Karen; McGuckin, Colin; Platz, Alexander; Rebulla, Paolo; Salvaterra, Elena; Schmidt, Alexander H; Torrabadella, Marta
This study explores pregnant women's awareness of cord blood stem cells and their attitude regarding banking options in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK. Questionnaires were distributed in six maternities. This anonymous and self-completed questionnaire included 29 multiple-choice questions based on: 1) sociodemographic factors, 2) awareness and access to information about cord blood banking, 3) banking option preferences, and 4) donating cord blood units (CBUs) to research. A total of 79% of pregnant women had little awareness of cord blood banking (n = 1620). A total of 58% of women had heard of the therapeutic benefits of cord blood, of which 21% received information from midwives and obstetricians. A total of 89% of respondents would opt to store CBUs. Among them, 76% would choose to donate CBUs to a public bank to benefit any patient in need of a cord blood transplant. Twelve percent would choose a mixed bank, and 12%, a private bank. A total of 92% would donate their child's CBU to research when it is not suitable for transplantation. The study reveals a strong preference for public banking in all five countries, based on converging values such as solidarity. Attitudes of pregnant women are not an obstacle to the rapid expansion of allogeneic banking in these EU countries. Banking choices do not appear to be correlated with household income. The extent of commercial marketing of cord blood banks in mass media highlights the importance for obstetric providers to play a central role in raising women's awareness early during their pregnancy with evidence-based medical information about banking options. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.
Full Text Available Background. In the last decade, cord blood (CB has proven to be a valuable source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation to treat many hematological disorders. Since then, many CB banks have been established worldwide. Our aim was to estimate the level of public awareness of CB banking in Saudi Arabia. Study Design and Methods. A self-administered questionnaire of 22 multiple choices was conveniently distributed, consisting of demographics, awareness measure, attitude toward banking preference, and donation for research data. Results. A total of 1146 participants have completed the questionnaire. The majority were young female 19–25 years old (26%, who are college graduates (57% with middle class socioeconomic status (82%. The subjective assessment of the overall knowledge was inadequate (66%. For the objective assessment, 12 questions were asked about CB source, collection, storage, and usage. Only half of the subjects (52% knew that CB is a source of stem cells. More than half did not know the main use of CB. About half did not know about the method of collection nor the condition of storing. Conclusion. This study shows a high lack of knowledge about CB banking. More than half of the subjects were unaware of CB banking and its uses. However, most subjects are accepting CB storage, which anticipates great impact and efficacy on educational programs. Moreover, the data demonstrated that health professionals were not the source of knowledge. We recommend having comprehensive educational campaigns with clear information about CB banking to facilitate positive perspectives towards donation and scientific research.
AlTwijri, Sulaiman; AlSemari, Hadeel; Saade, Mayssa; Alaskar, Ahmed
Background In the last decade, cord blood (CB) has proven to be a valuable source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation to treat many hematological disorders. Since then, many CB banks have been established worldwide. Our aim was to estimate the level of public awareness of CB banking in Saudi Arabia. Study Design and Methods A self-administered questionnaire of 22 multiple choices was conveniently distributed, consisting of demographics, awareness measure, attitude toward banking preference, and donation for research data. Results A total of 1146 participants have completed the questionnaire. The majority were young female 19–25 years old (26%), who are college graduates (57%) with middle class socioeconomic status (82%). The subjective assessment of the overall knowledge was inadequate (66%). For the objective assessment, 12 questions were asked about CB source, collection, storage, and usage. Only half of the subjects (52%) knew that CB is a source of stem cells. More than half did not know the main use of CB. About half did not know about the method of collection nor the condition of storing. Conclusion This study shows a high lack of knowledge about CB banking. More than half of the subjects were unaware of CB banking and its uses. However, most subjects are accepting CB storage, which anticipates great impact and efficacy on educational programs. Moreover, the data demonstrated that health professionals were not the source of knowledge. We recommend having comprehensive educational campaigns with clear information about CB banking to facilitate positive perspectives towards donation and scientific research. PMID:29765424
Ehlers, Melissa; Labaze, Georges; Hanakova, Marcela; McCloskey, David; Wilner, George
To determine the level of carboxyhemoglobin found in banked blood in the Albany, NY region. A retrospective descriptive analysis of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in a series of packed red blood cell (PRBC) units. The blood bank of a university tertiary care hospital in Albany, NY. All PRBC units considered for possible use in pediatric cardiac surgery were first analyzed for levels of COHb. Only those units with COHb levels of <1.5% were deemed acceptable for use during pediatric cardiac surgery. A sample of blood drawn from the sample side arm of each PRBC unit was analyzed on a Chiron 855 Blood Gas Analyzer (Chiron Inc, Emeryville, CA, now Siemens/Bayer RapidLab 865) to determine the level of COHb. The average COHb level was 0.78% (standard deviation +/- 1.48%), and out of the 468 units tested, 48 (10.3%) had COHb levels of 1.5% or greater. The highest recorded COHb level was 12%. The transfusion of PRBC units may artificially elevate readings of COHb and cause confusion over possible causes. Certain high-risk populations (eg, cyanotic neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass) may be especially at risk. Although levels of COHb in the US blood supply are dropping, institutions may want to consider analyzing COHb levels in their PRBC units before transfusion in these high-risk populations.
Nicholas M Fisk
Full Text Available BACKGROUND TO THE DEBATE: Umbilical cord blood--the blood that remains in the placenta after birth--can be collected and stored frozen for years. A well-accepted use of cord blood is as an alternative to bone marrow as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation to siblings or to unrelated recipients; women can donate cord blood for unrelated recipients to public banks. However, private banks are now open that offer expectant parents the option to pay a fee for the chance to store cord blood for possible future use by that same child (autologous transplantation.
Dauer, Edward A
This volume examines regulatory and policymaking procedures in blood banking, regulatory enforcement and compliance, innovations and alternatives in regulation, congressional oversight and regulatory...
... quantities of blood but utilizing only little is tantamount to inadequate use and delays surgical intervention. Indirectly, it increases cost of surgery. There is need to rationalize our blood ordering habits without causing harm to patients. Key words: Banked Blood, Calabar – Nigeria, pediatrics, surgical procedures, utilization ...
Full Text Available Platelet transfusions are vital for the prevention of fatal hemorrhage. Therefore, a stable inventory of platelets is required for an efficient and effective delivery of services in all the hospitals and medical centers. However, over the past decades, the requirement for platelets seems to be continuously increasing, while the number of potential donors is decreasing. Moreover, due to its very short life span of just five days, a large volume of platelets expires while they are on the shelves, resulting unnecessary shortages of platelets. Furthermore, it is very costly and difficult to get platelets from another blood bank in a short notice. Hence, these unexpected shortages put the life of patients at risk. This study is focused on addressing the issues discussed, by developing an efficient blood inventory management model to reduce the platelet shortages, and wastages, while reducing the related inventory costs. Currently, the blood banks are managing platelet inventory according to their own instincts, which result to shortages and wastages. As a solution, we propose a model to manage the daily supply of platelets by forecasting the daily demand. Three different algorithms were developed using lower bound, average and upper bound values and tested to find the optimal solution that best fits to manage platelet inventory. These models were tested using data for 60 days obtained from two different levels of blood banks in Sri Lanka, namely a General Hospital blood bank and a Base Hospital blood bank. In General hospitals, the demand for blood components including platelets is very high when compared to the Base hospitals. The study was able to come up with two different inventory management models for the two different types of blood banks. The model that best fits the General Hospital blood bank where the demand is high and was able to reduce the shortages by 46.74%, wastage by 89.82% and total inventory level by 39.10% and, the model that
Background: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is an agent of Transfusion Transmissible Infection (TTI) which serves as a threat to blood safety and sufficiency of blood and blood products supply. Objectives: This study aimed at determining the distribution patterns of HCV among potential blood donors in a private Blood Bank in ...
Grijalva, M J; Chiriboga, R; Racines, J R; Escalante, L; Rowland, E C
The status of Chagas' disease in Ecuador is not clear. In response to reports suggesting the possibility of transfusion-associated transmission of Chagas' disease in the blood bank in Quito, the Ecuadorian Red Cross in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Higiene, Zona Norte and the Tropical Disease Institute of Ohio University implemented a pilot Chagas' disease screening of the donated blood in the Quito blood bank. The results of the screening showed a low incidence of seropositivity among the donors (0.01% in 1994, 0.04% in 1995, and 0.02% in 1996) to the Quito blood bank and a higher seropositivity in samples donated to smaller blood banks (0.4% in 1994, 0.28% in 1995, and 0.13% in 1996) located in areas considered endemic, as well as from at least two areas previously considered nonendemic for Chagas' disease. This report highlights the need for a comprehensive evaluation of the prevalence and distribution of Chagas' disease in Ecuador.
This study estimates the risk of acquiring malaria from a single unit of blood in North of Pakistan. A prospective study was conducted to investigate transfusion transmitted malaria in three major blood banks of Peshawar, Pakistan. A total of 1558 (1534 males and 24 females) healthy volunteer blood donors were screened for ...
Kenneth L L Sube
Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of HIV among blood donors in Juba Teaching Hospital Blood Bank, South Sudan in 2013. Method and Materials This is a retrospective study that involved the abstraction of data from registers at the blood bank. Data were collected onto data sheets and entered into a computer database. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Version 20 Software. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Out of 1095 blood donors, 1074 (98.1% were males and 21 (1.9% were females. The mean age and the range for the whole group was 29+7.16 (15-69 yrs. The prevalence of HIV was higher among males than females 85 (7.9% vs 1 (4.8% respectively but this was not statistical significant (p=0.6. The 20 to 29 year age group had the highest prevalence of 49 (57% with no statistical significance (p=0.3.The prevalence of HIV was 7.0 % (86 and there were co-infections between HIV and HBV, HCV and syphilis of 14 (50%, 5 (18%, 9 (32% with p=0.7, p=0.1, p=0.8 respectively. Blood group O positive had the highest percentage 58.1 % (n=50 and was the commonest group. Conclusion In this study, HIV prevalence is very high among blood donors at the Juba Teaching Hospital blood bank.
Cord blood (CB) is either donated to public CB banks for use by any patient worldwide for whom it is a match or stored in a private bank for potential autologous or family use. It is a unique cell product that has potential for treating life-threatening diseases. The majority of CB products used today are for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and are accessed from public banks. CB is still evolving as a hematopoietic stem cell source, developing as a source for cellular immunotherapy products, such as natural killer, dendritic, and T-cells, and fast emerging as a non-hematopoietic stem cell source in the field of regenerative medicine. This review explores the regulations, standards, and accreditation schemes that are currently available nationally and internationally for public and private CB banking. Currently, most of private banking is under regulated as compared to public banking. Regulations and standards were initially developed to address the public arena. Early responses from the medical field regarding private CB banking was that at the present time, because of insufficient scientific data to support autologous banking and given the difficulty of making an accurate estimate of the need for autologous transplantation, private storage of CB as "biological insurance" should be discouraged (1, 2, 3). To ensure success and the true realization of the full potential of CB, whether for autologous or allogeneic use, it is essential that each and every product provided for current and future treatments meets high-quality, international standards.
Matsumoto, Monica M; Dajani, Rana; Matthews, Kirstin R W
Umbilical cord blood transplants are now used to treat numerous types of immune- and blood-related disorders and genetic diseases. Cord blood (CB) banks play an important role in these transplants by processing and storing CB units. In addition to their therapeutic potential, these banks raise ethical and regulatory questions, especially in emerging markets in the Arab world. In this article, the authors review CB banking in five countries in the region, Jordan, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates, selected for their different CB banking policies and initiatives. In assessing these case studies, the authors present regional trends and issues, including religious perspectives, policies, and demographic risk factors. This research suggests strong incentives for increasing the number of CB units that are collected from and available to Arab populations. In addition, the deficit in knowledge concerning public opinion and awareness in the region should be addressed to ensure educated decision-making. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fasola, Foluke A
The existence and sustenance of the blood bank depends on blood donors. It is imperative that the donation experience is satisfactory for the donors. Therefore this study was carried out to determine the frequency of undesirable events experienced by the blood donor as part of donor haemovigilance. This was a retrospective descriptive study of the events that occurred amongst the blood donors of the blood bank of a tertiary institution. The blood donor incident book was reviewed for the period of six months. Negative undesirable events occurred in 2% of the donor populations, of which 45.8% could not complete the blood donation process while only 16.7% completed the blood donation process. Mild vasovagal attack occurred in 0.2% of the donor population. Undisclosed deferrable risk factors/ behaviours were identified by the phlebotomist in the bleeding room which made donors unfit for donation even though they had passed the donor screening criteria. This accounted for 20.8% of those with negative experience. Guidelines are required to identify donors that are not likely to complete donation to avoid wastage of time, blood, resources and reduce undesirable experiences.
Ongena, Steven; Ioannidou, Vasso
This paper studies loan conditions when firms switch banks. Recent theoretical work on bank–firm relationships motivates our matching models. The dynamic cycle of the loan rate that we uncover is as follows: a loan granted by a new (outside) bank carries a loan rate that is significantly lower than the rates on comparable new loans from the firm's current (inside) banks. The new bank initially decreases the loan rate further but eventually ratchets it up sharply. Other loan conditions follow ...
Cheng, G; Chiu, D S; Chung, A S; Wong, H F; Chan, M W; Lui, Y K; Choy, F M; Chan, J C; Chan, A H; Lam, S T; Fan, T C
A good blood bank must be able to provide compatible blood units promptly to operating room patients with minimal wastage. A "self-service" by nursing staff blood banking system that is safe, efficient, and well-accepted has been developed. Specific blood units are no longer assigned to surgical patients who have a negative pretransfusion antibody screen, irrespective of the type of surgery. A computer-generated list of the serial numbers of all group-identical blood units currently in the blood bank inventory is provided for each patient. The units themselves are not labeled with a patient's name. The group O list will be provided for group O patients, the group A list for group A patients, and so forth. Should the patient require transfusion during surgery, the operating room nurses go to the refrigerator, remove any group-identical unit, and check the serial number of the unit against the serial numbers on the patient's list. If the serial number is on that list, the blood bank will accept responsibility for compatibility. The system was implemented in 1995. Since implementation, a total of 2154 patients have undergone operations at this hospital. Thirty-two patients received more than 10 units of red cells each. There were no transfusion errors. The crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio was reduced from 1.67 to 1.12. Turnaround time for supplying additional or urgent units to patients in operating room was shortened from 33 to 2.5 minutes. There was no incidence of a blood unit's serial number not being on the list. Work by nurses and technical staff was reduced by nearly 50 percent. The "self-service" (by nursing staff) blood banking system described is safe and efficient. It saves staff time and can be easily set up.
Devauchelle , Olivier; Josserand , Christophe; Lagrée , Pierre-Yves; Zaleski , Stéphane
International audience; The present study aims to establish a simple mechanistic model for river bank erosion. Recent experiments demonstrate that small-scale laminar flumes can develop erosion structures similar to those encountered in Nature. From the Saint-Venant Equations, a classical sediment transport law and a simple avalanche model, it is shown that bank failure caused by flow erosion can be represented through simple boundary conditions. These conditions are able to deal with the wat...
Wang, Tso-Fu; Wen, Shu-Hui; Yang, Kuo-Liang; Yang, Shang-Hsien; Yang, Yun-Fan; Chang, Chu-Yu; Wu, Yi-Feng; Chen, Shu-Huey
To provide information for umbilical cord blood (UCB) banks to adopt optimal collection strategies and to make UCB banks operate efficiently, we investigated the reasons for exclusion of UCB units in a 3-year recruitment period. We analyzed records of the reasons for exclusion of the potential UCB donation from 2004 to 2006 in the Tzu-Chi Cord Blood Bank and compared the results over 3 years. We grouped these reasons for exclusion into five phases, before collection, during delivery, before processing, during processing, and after freezing according to the time sequence and analyzed the reasons at each phase. Between 2004 and 2006, there were 10,685 deliveries with the intention of UCB donation. In total, 41.2% of the UCB units were considered eligible for transplantation. The exclusion rates were 93.1, 48.4, and 54.1% in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. We excluded 612 donations from women before their child birth, 133 UCB units during delivery, 80 units before processing, 5010 units during processing, and 421 units after freezing. There were 24 UCB units with unknown reasons of ineligibility. Low UCB weight and low cell count were the first two leading causes of exclusion (48.6 and 30.9%). The prevalence of artificial errors, holiday or transportation problem, low weight, and infant problems decreased year after year. The exclusion rate was high at the beginning of our study as in previous studies. Understanding the reasons for UCB exclusion may help to improve the efficiency of UCB banking programs in the future. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Dumaswala, U.J.; Bryan, D.J.; Greenwalt, T.J.
Recent evidence has suggested that phosphoinositides play a significant role in maintaining membrane structure and function. Their importance during blood bank storage is not understood. They have performed preliminary studies of the phosphoinositide synthetic pathway enzymes of RBC during blood bank storage. At 0 and 35 days of storage leaky ghosts were prepared and incubated with [γ- 32 P]ATP for 5 minutes at 30 C. One aliquot was subjected to acidified solvent extraction and thin layer chromatography. The labeled phosphoinositide -4,5 biphosphate (PIP 2 ), phosphoinositide-4 phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidic acid (PA) spots were scraped and counted by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Another aliquot was used for SDS-PAGE and the radioactivity associated with the β-spectrin was measured. These experiments suggest a decrease in RBC phosphoinositol and PIP-Kinases and β-spectrin kinase activities during blood bank storage. Further studies are being done to evaluate significance of these observations
This report aims to clarify the position of the hospital blood bank in the light of product liability legislation contained in the Consumer Protection Act of 1987. Blood has been defined a 'product' under this Act. The potential for the blood bank to be seen in the role of 'supplier', 'keeper' or even 'producer' in the chain of product supply to the patient is explained and advice given on the resulting implications for blood bank practice. It will be necessary to define, adopt and implement standard operating procedures (SOP) for all blood bank activities. Guidance is given on the format, preparation and content of SOPs and specimen examples offered. The fundamental importance of quality assurance is emphasized.
Sultan, Sadia; Zaheer, Hasan Abbas; Waheed, Usman; Baig, Mohammad Amjad; Rehan, Asma; Irfan, Syed Mohammed
Internal quality control (IQC) is the backbone of quality assurance program. In blood banking, the quality control of blood products ensures the timely availability of a blood component of high quality with maximum efficacy and minimal risk to potential recipients. The main objective of this study is to analyze the IQC of blood products as an indicator of our blood bank performance. An observational cross-sectional study was conducted at the blood bank of Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College, from January 2014 to December 2015. A total of 100 units of each blood components were arbitrarily chosen during the study. Packed red cell units were evaluated for hematocrit (HCT); random platelet concentrates were evaluated for pH, yield, and culture; fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and cryoprecipitate (CP) were evaluated for unit volume, factor VIII, and fibrinogen concentrations. A total of 400 units were tested for IQC. The mean HCT of packed red cells was 69.5 ± 7.24, and in 98% units, it met the standard (<80% of HCT). The mean platelet yield was 8.8 ± 3.40 × 10 9 /L and pH was ≥6.2 in 98% bags; cultures were negative in 97% of units tested. Mean factor VIII and fibrinogen levels were found to be 84.24 ± 15.01 and 247.17 ± 49.69 for FFP, respectively. For CP, mean factor VIII and fibrinogen level were found to be 178.75 ± 86.30 and 420.7 ± 75.32, respectively. The IQC of blood products at our blood bank is in overall compliance and met recommended international standards. Implementation of standard operating procedures, accomplishment of standard guidelines, proper documentation with regular audit, and staff competencies can improve the quality performance of the transfusion services.
Capone, Francesca; Lombardini, Letizia; Pupella, Simonetta; Grazzini, Giuliano; Costa, Alessandro Nanni; Migliaccio, Giovanni
In Italy, the law does not permit the setting up of private banks to preserve cord blood (CB) stem cells for personal use. However, since 2007 the right to export and preserve them in private laboratories located outside Italy has existed, and an increasing number of women are requesting this collection of umbilical CB at delivery to enable storage of stem cells for autologous use. Since private banks recruit clients mainly via the Internet, we examined the content of 24 Italian-language websites that offer stem cells storage (from CB or amniotic fluid), to assess what information is available. We found that the majority of private banks give no clear information about the procedures of collection, processing, and banking of CB units and that the standards offered by private CB banks strongly differ in terms of exclusion or acceptance criteria from the public banks. These factors may well influence the overall quality of the CB units stored in private CB banks. Of note, during the period 2007 to 2009, the number collected for autologous use did not create a downward trend on the number of units stored in public CB banks for allogeneic use. CB is a valuable community resource but expectant parents should be better informed as to the quality variables necessary for its storage, both by institutions and by professionals. Currently, most of the advertising is insufficient to justify the expense and the hopes pinned on autologous use of CB stem cells. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
Full Text Available Since the success of the first umbilical cord blood (UCB transplantation in a child with Fanconi anaemia in 1989, great interests have emerged for this source of stem cells. UCB provides an unlimited source of ethnically diverse stem cells and is an alternative for bone marrow (BM and peripheral blood (PB heamatopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT. Thus, UCB and manipulated stem cells are now collected and banked according to international accreditation standards for listing on registries allowing rapid search and accessibility worldwide. This work aims to identify problems limiting the creation of a Moroccan cord blood bank and to highlight opportunities and issues of a new legislation promoting additional applications of cell therapy.
Bhandari, Rusha; Lindley, Amy; Bhatla, Deepika; Babic, Aleksandar; Mueckl, Kathy; Rao, Rakesh; Brooks, Paula; Geiler, Vicki; Gross, Gilad; Al-Hosni, Mohamad; Shenoy, Shalini
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation especially in minority populations with limited chances of finding a histocompatible volunteer donor in the registry. UCB has the advantages of early availability, successful outcomes despite some histocompatibility mismatch, and low incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Public cord blood banks that disseminate UCB products for transplant depend on voluntary donation at participating hospitals and obstetrical providers for collection. Using survey questionnaires, we evaluated attitudes toward UCB donation, the frequency of donation, and provider opinions on UCB collection in the greater St. Louis metropolitan area that caters to minority ethnicities in significant numbers. Our data suggest that nervousness and lack of information regarding the donation and utility of the product were ubiquitous reasons for not donating. Additionally, irrespective of age or level of education, women relied on healthcare providers for information regarding UCB donation. Providers reported primarily time constraints to discussing UCB donation at prenatal visits (54%). Of the interviewees, 62% donated UCB. Fallout due to refusal or preferring private banking was miniscule. These results suggest that dedicated personnel focused on disseminating information, obtaining consent, and collecting the UCB product at major hospitals can enrich cord blood banks especially with minority cords. Sustained and focused efforts could improve upon a relatively high wastage rate and ensure a robust supply of UCB products at local public banks. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dinç, H; Sahin, N H
This study was to determine pregnant women's knowledge and attitudes towards stem cells and cord blood banking in Istanbul, Turkey. Stem cell research is one of the most important and, at the same time, the most controversial topics of science and technology today. Nurses need to understand stem cell research so they can enter the debate on this issue. They can become important sources of information in order to help parents understand the issues. This exploratory descriptive study was conducted in two antenatal outpatient clinics in Istanbul. The sample consisted of 334 pregnant women during routine prenatal visits. Data were collected in interviews by using an interview form developed by the researchers according to the literature. The form included demographic characteristics of participants and 20 questions about stem cells, storing cord blood and banking and 10 independent attitude statements. The majority of the participants had a lack of knowledge about stem cells and cord blood banking and wanted more information. Before pregnancy, they received some information through the media (newspaper, Internet, television, etc.), but unintentionally. It was determined that they wanted information before becoming pregnant, more from their obstetrician but also from nurses and midwives. The majority also wanted to store their infants' cord blood and stated that they would be more likely to choose a public cord blood bank. Those giving ante- and perinatal care need to offer accurate and scientific counselling services on this subject to parents who need to be informed.
Devauchelle, Olivier; Josserand, Christophe; Lagrée, Pierre-Yves; Zaleski, Stéphane
International audience; The present study aims to establish a simple mechanistic model for river bank erosion. Recent experiments demonstrate that small-scale laminar flumes can develop erosion structures similar to those encountered in Nature. From Saint-Venant's Equations, a classical sediment transport law and a simple avalanche model, it is shown that bank failure caused by flow erosion can be represented through simple boundary conditions. These conditions are able to deal with the water...
Full Text Available Background: Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT is restricted to a few blood banks in India since 2008. This review was directed toward understanding NAT yield in different parts of the country and prevalence in the NAT of different types of virus. Materials and Methods: English literature was searched from 1990 to 2016 in PubMed, Scopus, Ind med, and Google database using properly constructed key words. Literature was collected and finally the data were synthesized. Results: NAT results from 11 publications and one personal communication showed that till date 389387 blood units have been NAT tested from various parts of the country. NAT yield varied from 1:476 to 1:4403 in various studies. Till date, 58/2550 (2% blood banks of India are doing NAT testing but all of them have not published their results. Majority of the centers have used ID-NAT (Individual NAT protocol and 21 blood banks are using minipool format of the test. One center has used in-house NAT testing system. In> 70% of the time, the NAT positivity with due to hepatitis B (Hep B. For individual infection, NAT yield from the pooled data showed HIV in 1:66,000, Hep C virus 1:5484 and Hep B in 1:1761 seronegative donors. Discussion and Conclusion: In view of the very high NAT yield (1:1361, NAT in some from needs to be universally applied in Indian blood banks. However, the high Hep B occult infection suggests stricter donor selection and immunization of adults for Hep B may be way forward toward ensuring the viral safety of blood components in India.
Summary Population aging has imposed cost-effective alternatives to blood donations. Artificial blood is still at the preliminary stages of development, and the need for viable cells seems unsurmountable. Because large numbers of viable cells must be promptly available for clinical use, stem cell technologies, expansion, and banking represent ideal tools to ensure a regular supply. Provided key donors can be identified, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology could pave the way to a new era in transfusion medicine, just as it is already doing in many other fields of medicine. The present review summarizes the current state of research on iPSC technology in the field of blood banking, highlighting hurdles, and promises. Significance The aging population in Western countries is causing a progressive reduction of blood donors and a constant increase of blood recipients. Because blood is the main therapeutic option to treat acute hemorrhage, cost-effective alternatives to blood donations are being actively investigated. The enormous replication capability of induced pluripotent stem cells and their promising results in many other fields of medicine could be an apt solution to produce the large numbers of viable cells required in transfusion and usher in a new era in transfusion medicine. The present report describes the potentiality, technological hurdles, and promises of induced pluripotent stem cells to generate red blood cells by redifferentiation. PMID:26819256
Brown, Nik; Williams, Rosalind
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has become the focus of intense efforts to collect, screen and bank haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in hundreds of repositories around the world. UCB banking has developed through a broad spectrum of overlapping banking practices, sectors and institutional forms. Superficially at least, these sectors have been widely distinguished in bioethical and policy literature between notions of the 'public' and the 'private', the commons and the market respectively. Our purpose in this paper is to reflect more critically on these distinctions and to articulate the complex practical and hybrid nature of cord blood as a 'bio-object' that straddles binary conceptions of the blood economies. The paper draws upon Roberto Esposito's reflections on biopolitics and his attempt to transcend the dualistic polarisations of immunity and community, or the private and the public. We suggest that his thoughts on immunitary hospitality resonate with many of the actual features and realpolitik of a necessarily internationalised and globally distributed UCB 'immunitary regime'.
This paper explores the perspectives of women who have agreed that their umbilical cord blood may be collected for a public 'cord blood bank', for use in transplant medicine or research. Drawing on interview data from 27 mothers who agreed to the collection and use of their umbilical cord blood, these choices and the informed consent process are explored. It is shown that the needs of sick children requiring transplants are prominent in narrative accounts of cord blood banking, together with high expectations for future applications of stem cells. Given this dynamic, a concern arises that the complex and multiple uses of tissues and related data might be oversimplified in the consent process. In conclusion, the positive finding of a commitment to mutuality in cord blood banking among these women is underlined, and its implications for the wider debate on cord blood banking are discussed.
Coustasse, Alberto; Meadows, Pamela; Hall, Robert S; Hibner, Travis; Deslich, Stacie
The importance of efficiency in the supply chain of perishable products, such as the blood products used in transfusion services, cannot be overstated. Many problems can occur, such as the outdating of products, inventory management issues, patient misidentification, and mistransfusion. The purpose of this article was to identify the benefits and barriers associated with radiofrequency identification (RFID) usage in improving the blood bank supply chain. The methodology for this study was a qualitative literature review following a systematic approach. The review was limited to sources published from 2000 to 2014 in the English language. Sixty-five sources were found, and 56 were used in this research study. According to the finding of the present study, there are numerous benefits and barriers to RFID utilization in blood bank supply chains. RFID technology offers several benefits with regard to blood bank product management, including decreased transfusion errors, reduction of product loss, and more efficient inventory management. Barriers to RFID implementation include the cost associated with system implementation and patient privacy issues. Implementation of an RFID system can be a significant investment. However, when observing the positive impact that such systems may have on transfusion safety and inventory management, the cost associated with RFID systems can easily be justified. RFID in blood bank inventory management is vital to ensuring efficient product inventory management and positive patient outcomes.
CONCLUSION: The IQC of blood products at our blood bank is in overall compliance and met recommended international standards. Implementation of standard operating procedures, accomplishment of standard guidelines, proper documentation with regular audit, and staff competencies can improve the quality performance of the transfusion services.
Armstrong, Amy E; Fonstad, Rachel; Spellman, Stephen; Tullius, Zoe; Chaudhury, Sonali
More than 35 000 umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplants have been performed worldwide, prompting the development of private and public banks to collect and store UCB cells. We hypothesized that pediatricians, who are uniquely poised to discuss UCB banking (UCBB) during prenatal or sibling visits, rarely do so. Through distribution of a 26-question electronic survey to general and subspecialty pediatric providers, we assessed baseline knowledge and conversations about UCBB. A total of 473 providers completed the survey; only 22% of physicians ever discussed UCBB with expectant parents. The majority responded that autologous UCB transplants were indicated in malignant (73%) and nonmalignant (61%) conditions; however, these are rare indications. Providers practicing >10 years were more likely to address UCBB ( P ≤ .001), whereas younger and female general pediatric providers were significantly less likely ( P < .001). Overall, pediatric providers rarely speak to families about UCBB, and we believe that they can be better informed to its current clinical utility.
Full Text Available The content of this article is the application of the economic value added model (EVA upon the conditions of a banking company. Due to the character of banking business, which is in a different structure of financial sheet, it is not possible to use the standard model EVA for this banking company. The base of this article is the outlined of basic principles of the EVA mode in a non-banking company. Basic specified banking activity dissimilarities are analysed and a directed methodology adjustment of a model such as this, so that it is possible to use it for a banking company.
Stritesky, Gretta; Wadsworth, Kimberly; Duffy, Merry; Buck, Kelly; Dehn, Jason
Umbilical cord blood units provide an important stem cell source for transplantation, particularly for patients of ethnic diversity who may not have suitably matched available, adult-unrelated donors. However, with the cost of cord blood unit acquisition from public banks significantly higher than that for adult-unrelated donors, attention is focused on decreasing cost yet still providing cord blood units to patients in need. Historical practices of banking units with low total nucleated cell counts, including units with approximately 90 × 10 7 total nucleated cells, indicates that most banked cord blood units have much lower total nucleated cell counts than are required for transplant. The objective of this study was to determine the impact on the ability to identify suitable cord blood units for transplantation if the minimum total nucleated cell count for banking were increased from 90 × 10 7 to 124 or 149 × 10 7 . We analyzed ethnically diverse patients (median age, 3 years) who underwent transplantation of a single cord blood unit in 2005 to 2016. A cord blood unit search was evaluated to identify units with equal or greater human leukocyte antigen matching and a greater total nucleated cell count than that of the transplanted cord blood unit (the replacement cord blood unit). If the minimum total nucleated cell count for banking increased to 124 or 149 × 10 7 , then from 75 to 80% of patients would still have at least 1 replacement cord blood unit in the current (2016) cord blood unit inventory. The best replacement cord blood units were often found among cords with the same ethnic background as the patient. The current data suggest that, if the minimum total nucleated cell count were increased for banking, then it would likely lead to an inventory of more desirable cord blood units while having minimal impact on the identification of suitable cord blood units for transplantation. © 2017 AABB.
Manegold, Gwendolin; Meyer-Monard, Sandrine; Tichelli, André; Granado, Christina; Hösli, Irene; Troeger, Carolyn
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stored in public inventories has become an alternative stem cell source for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The potential use of autologous UCB from private banks is a matter of debate. In the face of the limited resources of public inventories, a discussion on "hybrid" public and private UCB banking has evolved. We aimed to explore the attitudes of the donating parents toward public and private UCB banking. A standardized, anonymous questionnaire was sent to the most recent 621 public UCB donors including items regarding satisfaction with recruitment process, the need for a second consent before release of the UCB unit for stem cell transplantation, and the donors' views on public and private UCB banking. Furthermore, we asked about their views on UCB research. Of the questionnaires, 48% were returned, and 16% were lost due to mail contact. Of our donors, 95% would donate to the public bank again. As much as 35% of them were convinced that public banking was useful. Whereas 27% had never heard about private UCB banking, 34% discussed both options. Nearly 70% of donors opted for public banking due to altruism and the high costs of private banking. Of our public UCB donors, 81% stated that they did not need a re-consent before UCB release for stem cell transplantation. In case of sample rejection, 53.5% wanted to know details about the particular research project. A total of 9% would not consent. Almost all donors would choose public banking again due to altruism and the high costs of private banking. Shortly after donation, mail contact with former UCB donors was difficult. This might be a relevant issue in any sequential hybrid banking.
Vanegas, Diana; Triviño, Lady; Galindo, Cristian; Franco, Leidy; Salguero, Gustavo; Camacho, Bernardo; Perdomo-Arciniegas, Ana-María
The total nucleated cell dosage of umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important factor in determining successful allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after a minimum human leukocyte antigen donor-recipient match. The northern South American population is in need of a new-generation cord blood bank that cryopreserves only units with high total nucleated cell content, thereby increasing the likelihood of use. Colombia set up a public cord blood bank in 2014; and, as a result of its research for improving high total nucleated cell content, a new strategy for UCB collection was developed. Data from 2933 collected and 759 cryopreserved cord blood units between 2014 and 2015 were analyzed. The correlation of donor and collection variables with cellularity was evaluated. Moreover, blood volume, cell content, CD34+ count, clonogenic capacity, and microbial contamination were assessed comparing the new method, which combines in utero and ex utero techniques, with the conventional strategies. Multivariate analysis confirmed a correlation between neonatal birth weight and cell content. The new collection method increased total nucleated cell content in approximately 26% and did not alter pre-cryopreservation and post-thaw cell recovery, viability, or clonogenic ability. Furthermore, it showed a remarkably low microbial contamination rate (1.2%). The strategy for UCB collection developed at the first Colombian public cord blood bank increases total nucleated cell content and does not affect unit quality. The existence of this bank is a remarkable breakthrough for Latin-American patients in need of this kind of transplantation. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.
Fernandez, Conrad V; Gordon, Kevin; Van den Hof, Michiel; Taweel, Shaureen; Baylis, Françoise
Umbilical cord blood is used as a source of hematopoietic stem cells for bone marrow transplantation in the treatment of malignant and nonmalignant disease. We sought to examine pregnant women's knowledge and attitudes regarding cord blood banking, as their support is crucial to the success of cord blood transplant programs. A questionnaire examining sociodemographic factors and women's attitudes to cord blood banking was developed on the basis of findings from 2 focus groups and a pilot study. The questionnaire was distributed to 650 women attending antenatal clinics at a regional women's hospital between April and July 2001. A total of 443 women (68%) responded. More than half of the women (307/438 or 70% [95% confidence interval, CI, 66% to 74%]) reported poor or very poor knowledge about cord blood banking. Many of the respondents (299/441 or 68% [95% CI 63% to 72%]) thought that physicians should talk to pregnant women about the collection of cord blood, and they wanted to receive information about this topic from health care professionals (290/441 or 66% [95% CI 61% to 70%]) or prenatal classes (308/441 or 70% [95% CI 65% to 74%]). Most of the women (379/442 or 86% [95% CI 82% to 89%]) would elect to store cord blood in a public bank, many citing altruism as the reason for this choice. A much smaller proportion (63/442 or 14% [95% CI 11% to 18%]) would elect private banking, indicating that this would be a good investment or that they would feel guilty if the blood had not been stored. Additional acceptable uses for cord blood included research (mentioned by 294/436 women or 67% [95% CI 63% to 72%]) and gene therapy (mentioned by 169/437 women or 39% [95% CI 34% to 43%]). Most of the women in this study supported the donation of cord blood to public cord blood banks for potential transplantation and research.
Tang, Mariann; Fenger-Eriksen, Christian; Wierup, Per; Greisen, Jacob; Ingerslev, Jørgen; Hjortdal, Vibeke; Sørensen, Benny
Cardiac surgery may cause a serious coagulopathy leading to increased risk of bleeding and transfusion demands. Blood bank products are commonly first line haemostatic intervention, but has been associated with hazardous side effect. Coagulation factor concentrates may be a more efficient, predictable, and potentially a safer treatment, although prospective clinical trials are needed to further explore these hypotheses. This study investigated the haemostatic potential of ex vivo supplementation of coagulation factor concentrates versus blood bank products on blood samples drawn from patients undergoing cardiac surgery. 30 adults were prospectively enrolled (mean age=63.9, females=27%). Ex vivo haemostatic interventions (monotherapy or combinations) were performed in whole blood taken immediately after surgery and two hours postoperatively. Fresh-frozen plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitate, fibrinogen concentrate, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), and recombinant FVIIa (rFVIIa) were investigated. The haemostatic effect was evaluated using whole blood thromboelastometry parameters, as well as by thrombin generation. Immediately after surgery the compromised maximum clot firmness was corrected by monotherapy with fibrinogen or platelets or combination therapy with fibrinogen. At two hours postoperatively the coagulation profile was further deranged as illustrated by a prolonged clotting time, a reduced maximum velocity and further diminished maximum clot firmness. The thrombin lagtime was progressively prolonged and both peak thrombin and endogenous thrombin potential were compromised. No monotherapy effectively corrected all haemostatic abnormalities. The most effective combinations were: fibrinogen+rFVIIa or fibrinogen+PCC. Blood bank products were not as effective in the correction of the coagulopathy. Coagulation factor concentrates appear to provide a more optimal haemostasis profile following cardiac surgery compared to blood bank products. Copyright © 2017
Chang, Chih-Chun; Yeh, Chin-Chuan; Chu, Fang-Yeh
The Formosa Fun Coast explosion, occurring in a recreational water park located in the Northern Taiwan on 27 June 2015, made 499 people burn-injured. For those who had severe burn trauma, surgical intervention and fluid resuscitation were necessary, and potential blood transfusion therapy could be initiated, especially during and after broad escharotomy. Here, we reviewed the literature regarding transfusion medicine and skin grafting as well as described the practicing experience of combined tissue and blood bank in the burn disaster in Taiwan. It was reported that patients who were severely burn-injured could receive multiple blood transfusions during hospitalization. Since the use of skin graft became a mainstay alternative for wound coverage after the early debridement of burn wounds at the beginning of the 20th century, the development of tissue banking program was initiated. In Taiwan, the tissue banking program was started in 2006. And the first combined tissue and blood bank was established in Far Eastern Memorial Hospital in 2010, equipped with the non-sterile, clean and sterile zones distinctly segregated with a unidirectional movement in the sterile area. The sterile zone was a class 10000 clean room equipped with high efficiency particulate air filter (HEPAF) and positive air pressure ventilation. The combined tissue and blood bank has been able to provide the assigned blood products and tissue graft timely and accurately, with the concepts of centralized management. In the future, the training of tissue and blood bank technicians would be continued and fortified, particularly on the regulation and quality control for further bio- and hemovigilance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bolhar Tetyana M.
The article considers main methods of management of bad bank loans under modern economic conditions, conducts analysis of internal and external banking methods used by Ukrainian banks, and specifies and identifies their advantages and shortcomings. In the result of the study the article analyses in detail the use of the methods of rehabilitation and liquidation of bad loans. It considers organisation of internal and external banking methods of liquidation of bad loans, considers mechanism of ...
Keal, Donald A; Hebert, Phil
A formal sales and operations planning (S&OP) process is a decision making and communication process that balances supply and demand while integrating all business operational components with customer-focused business plans that links high level strategic plans to day-to-day operations. Furthermore, S&OP can assist in managing change across the organization as it provides the opportunity to be proactive in the face of problems and opportunities while establishing a plan for everyone to follow. Some of the key outcomes from a robust S&OP process in blood banking would include: higher customer satisfaction (donors and health care providers), balanced inventory across product lines and customers, more stable production rates and higher productivity, more cooperation across the entire operation, and timely updates to the business plan resulting in better forecasting and fewer surprises that negatively impact the bottom line. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.
Lee, Tsung Dao
Unrelated Bone marrow transplant was initiated thirty years ago. Though there are over millions of donors registered with the bone marrow registries worldwide, Asian patients rarely find a match with all these donors. Tzu Chi Marrow Donor Registry was established to meet this need. It has become the largest Asian marrow donor registry in the world. With the introduction of high technology to test the HLA of the donors and recipients, the success rate of bone marrow transplant is greatly improved among Asian countries. 50% of blood disease Asian patients who cannot find a bone marrow matched donor will be complemented by the establishment of cord blood banks in Taiwan.
José Fuentes Rivera Salcedo
Full Text Available This paper describes Peru's experiences with its National Blood Banking Program. Until the mid-1990s, the country faced a host of problems, including the lack of a legal framework to regulate blood banks, a high maternal mortality rate due to a shortage of blood, virtually no voluntary donations, a high risk of infection from transfusions, the use of only whole blood for transfusion, serious disorganization in the blood banks, deficiencies in blood bank supervision and control, no training programs, indifference on the part of health officials, frequent selling of blood, and limited community awareness. Subsequently, a strategic plan was prepared that made it possible to solve many of those problems. Legal instruments were prepared; the rate of voluntary donations rose from 0% to 19.5%; the safety of the blood was improved through compulsory screening of all donated blood units for seven markers of infectious diseases, as well as by placing a national seal of quality on all screened units. The availability of blood doubled, thus meeting 70% of the need; sales of blood decreased; and the use of blood components was improved, with 80% of the blood being fractionated. In addition, supervisory control of 100% of the blood banks in the country was achieved, a national registry was established, the cost-benefit relationship for blood units was improved through centralized screening, internal and external quality control was made mandatory, and prodonation campaigns led to commitments from civil society. While important, all these achievements represent just a first step. This is especially true given that developing the National Blood Banking Program required the participation of outside organizations, such as the Pan American Health Organization, whose support, together with the experience provided by other countries, was key. The Program is facing a number of new challenges, and the progress that has been achieved could be threatened if current
Full Text Available The study attempts to capture conditional variance of Indian banking sector’s stock market returns across the years 2005 to 2015 by employing different GARCH based symmetric and asymmetric models. The results report existence of persistency as well as leverage effects in the banking sector return volatility. On an expected note, the global financial crisis increased conditional volatility in the Indian banking sector during the years 2007 to 2009; further evidenced from Markov regime switches. The exponential GARCH (EGARCH model is found to be the best fit model capturing time-varying variance in the banking sector. The results support strong implications for the market participants at the time of devising portfolio management strategies.
Daniel Roberto Coradi Freitas
Full Text Available Objective:To evaluate blood banks in the Brazilian Amazon region with regard to structure and procedures directed toward the prevention of transfusion-transmitted malaria (TTM.Methods:This was a normative evaluation based on the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA Resolution RDC No. 153/2004. Ten blood banks were included in the study and classified as 'adequate' (≥80 points, 'partially adequate' (from 50 to 80 points, or 'inadequate' (<50 points. The following components were evaluated: 'donor education' (5 points, 'clinical screening' (40 points, 'laboratory screening' (40 points and 'hemovigilance' (15 points.Results:The overall median score was 49.8 (minimum = 16; maximum = 78. Five blood banks were classified as 'inadequate' and five as 'partially adequate'. The median clinical screening score was 26 (minimum = 16; maximum = 32. The median laboratory screening score was 20 (minimum = 0; maximum = 32. Eight blood banks performed laboratory tests for malaria; six tested all donations. Seven used thick smears, but only one performed this procedure in accordance with Ministry of Health requirements. One service had a Program of External Quality Evaluation for malaria testing. With regard to hemovigilance, two institutions reported having procedures to detect cases of transfusion-transmitted malaria.Conclusion:Malaria is neglected as a blood–borne disease in the blood banks of the Brazilian Amazon region. None of the institutions were classified as 'adequate' in the overall classification or with regard to clinical screening and laboratory screening. Blood bank professionals, the Ministry of Health and Health Surveillance service managers need to pay more attention to this matter so that the safety procedures required by law are complied with.
Full Text Available This paper examines contemporary trends in commercial banking, confronting the stages of deregulation and reregulation in this field triggered by the global mortgage crisis. Under deregulatory conditions the competitive position of banks has toughened, and they reacted to it by intensifying: marketization, i.e. globalization, concentration, securitization and conglomeration, and by turning to the profit-oriented risk management of their activity. The contraction of their interest margin was thus neutralized by the reduction of operational costs and loss provisions, and by an increase in non-interest revenues, thereby maintaining banking profitability. The recent crisis has pinpointed the necessity of firmer regulation or reregulation of the banking sector, aimed at reducing its systemic risk, the most important aspect of which being the stricter international banking capital and liquidity standards, along with the requirement to adequately treat systemically important banks. Reregulation should strengthen capitalization and liquidity; mitigate the volume, concentration, internationalization and business dispersion, hence improving the supervision of the banking sector, implying its lower, yet more stable profitability. Such an impact of the adopted section of targeted regulatory measures has been indicated by higher liquidity, lower globalization, slower concentration and securitization, and stabilization-oriented risk management activities of today's banks. Their growth and profitability have shrunk.
Sáez-Alquezar, Amadeo; Albajar-Viñas, Pedro; Guimarães, André Valpassos; Corrêa, José Abol
Quality control procedures are indispensable to ensure the reliability of the results provided by laboratories responsible for serological screening in blood banks. International recommendations on systems of quality management classify as a top component the inclusion of two types of control: (a) internal quality control (IQC) and (b) external quality control (EQC). In EQC it is essential to have, at least, a monthly frequency of laboratory assessment. On the other hand, IQC involves the daily use of low-reactivity control sera, which should be systematically added in all run, carried out in the laboratory for each parameter. Through the IQC analysis some variations in the criteria of run acceptance and rejection may be revealed, but it is of paramount importance to ensure the previous definition of these criteria and even more importantly, the adherence to them; and that corresponds to the validation of analytical runs of each test. Since 2010 this has been, for instance, the experience of the PNCQ*, developing external quality control programmes on serology for blood banks. These programmes use samples of lyophilized sera well-characterized for the reactivity related to the parameters used for the serological screening of blood donors. The programmes have used blind panels of six samples for monthly assessments. In the last 50 assessments, which involved 68 blood banks in Brazil, a significant number of instances of non-compliance were observed in all monthly assessments. These results provide strong support to the recommendation of systematic monthly assessments. (*) National Quality Control Programme (PNCQ).
Bolhar Tetyana M.
Full Text Available The article considers main methods of management of bad bank loans under modern economic conditions, conducts analysis of internal and external banking methods used by Ukrainian banks, and specifies and identifies their advantages and shortcomings. In the result of the study the article analyses in detail the use of the methods of rehabilitation and liquidation of bad loans. It considers organisation of internal and external banking methods of liquidation of bad loans, considers mechanism of their conduct and identifies advantages and shortcomings of their application both for a bank and a borrower. Prospect of further studies in this direction is improvement of methods of assessment of bad loans, in particular, development of methodological approaches to identification of assessment of profitability of bad loans as an important element of the system of management of bad loans of a bank.
Julia Lorena Marques Gurgel
Full Text Available The management of the stocks of products derived from the blood processing collected in blood banks is a problem for health services in Brazil and the world. Quantify the stocks of these products in order to equalize the demand and supply is not a simple task. It's necessary ensure that the product is available when needed and in due time. However, there is no how overestimate these stocks given that the product is perishable and it is not easy the availability of raw material (blood for processing. There are few studies in Brazil, however, that discuss this issue. This study will focus on one Brazilian Hemocentro, which has faced the challenge of measure the demand for haemotherapic's products and establish parameters to control their stocks. Thus, it was sought to adapt a recent study realized out of the country, about sizing of stocks of a inventory for blood banks, combined with a forecast model of demand for blood derivatives subclassified by blood type. This control aims to increase the availability of the transfusion service, as it intends to reduce shortages and wastage of the blood collected.
Full Text Available Context: A total of 30 million blood components are transfused each year in India. Blood safety thus becomes a top priority, especially with a population of around 1.23 billion and a high prevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, hepatitis B virus (HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV in general population. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT in blood donor screening has been implemented in many developed countries to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted viral infections (TTIs. NAT takes care of the dynamics of window period of viruses and offers the safest blood pack for donation. Aims: The aim of this study is to show the value of NAT in blood screening. Settings and Design: Dhanavantari Blood Bank, Rajahmundry, Andhra Pradesh, India. Subjects and Methods: Over a period of 1 year from January 2012 to December 2012, a total number of 15,000 blood donor samples were subjected to tests for HIV, HBV, and HCV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and 8000 ELISA nonreactive samples were subjected for NAT using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technology. Results: Of the 15,000 donors tested, 525 were seroreactive. In 8000 ELISA negative blood samples subjected to NAT, 4 donor samples were reactive for HBV. The NAT yield was 1 in 2000. Conclusions: NAT could detect HIV, HBV, and HCV cases in blood donor samples those were undetected by serological tests. NAT could interdict 2500 infectious donations among our approximate 5 million annual blood donations.
Objective: To evaluate the necessity of Du Phenotype testing in blood bank practice in Nigeria. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Three health institutions within Port Harcourt metropolis: The University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Braithewaite Memorial Hospital, Port Harcourt and Orogbum comprehensive ...
Li, Yaojin; Xiong, Yanlian; Wang, Ruofeng; Tang, Fuzhou; Wang, Xiang
Current blood banking procedures may not fully preserve red blood cell (RBC) function during storage, contributing to the decrease of RBC oxygen release ability. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of routine cold storage on RBC oxygen release ability. RBC units were collected from healthy donors and each unit was split into two parts (whole blood and suspended RBC) to exclude possible donor variability. Oxygen dissociation measurements were performed on blood units stored at 4 °C during a 5-week period. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels and fluorescent micrographs of erythrocyte band 3 were also analysed. P50 and oxygen release capacity decreased rapidly during the first 3 weeks, and then did not change significantly. In contrast, the kinetic properties (PO2-t curve and T*50) of oxygen release changed slowly during the first 3 weeks of storage, but then decreased significantly in the last 2 weeks. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate decreased quickly during the first 3 weeks of storage to almost undetectable levels. Band 3 aggregated significantly during the last 2 weeks of storage. RBC oxygen release ability appears to be sensitive to routine cold storage. The thermodynamic characteristics of RBC oxygen release ability changed mainly in the first 3 weeks of storage, due to the decrease of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, whereas the kinetic characteristics of RBC oxygen release ability decreased significantly at the end of storage, probably affected by alterations of band 3.
Jain, Ashish; Kumari, Sonam; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram
Pre-transfusion testing includes proper requisitions, compatibility testing and pre-release checks. Proper labelling of samples and blood units and accurate patient details check helps to minimize the risk of errors in transfusion. This study was aimed to identify requisition errors before compatibility testing. The study was conducted in the blood bank of a tertiary care hospital in north India over a period of 3 months. The requisitions were screened at the reception counter and inside the pre-transfusion testing laboratory for errors. This included checking the Central Registration number (C.R. No.) and name of patient on the requisition form and the sample label; appropriateness of sample container and sample label; incomplete requisitions; blood group discrepancy. Out of the 17,148 blood requisitions, 474 (2.76 %) requisition errors were detected before the compatibility testing. There were 192 (1.11 %) requisitions where the C.R. No. on the form and the sample were not tallying and in 70 (0.40 %) requisitions patient's name on the requisition form and the sample were different. Highest number of requisitions errors were observed in those received from the Emergency and Trauma services (27.38 %) followed by Medical wards (15.82 %) and the lowest number (3.16 %) of requisition errors were observed from Hematology and Oncology wards. C.R. No. error was the most common error observed in our study. Thus a careful check of the blood requisitions at the blood bank reception counter helps in identifying the potential transfusion errors.
Meena, Monika; Jindal, Tarun
Blood donation, though safe, has a few potentially avoidable complications associated with it. They are important reasons for the failure of the donors to return for repeat donations. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and identify the possible factors associated with increased risk of blood donation related complications so that they can be minimized. A prospective study was done over a period of four months in the blood bank of an Indian tertiary care hospital to record the donation related complications. Out of 7450 blood donations, total donation associated complications were 74, of which majority were vasovagal reactions (VVRs) (n=48), followed by venous hematomas (n=24) and arterial punctures (n=2). The incidence of VVRs was more, though not statistically significant, in females, replacement/repeat donors, donors between 21-30 y of age and who had a body-mass-index (BMI) of 18.5-24.9. VVRs were more common in April (p=0.002) and in those who donated 450ml of blood (pdonated 350ml of blood, statistically significant association was seen only in repeat donors (pdonation in our country has a complication rate of nearly 1%.
Sugarman, J; Kaplan, L; Cogswell, B; Olson, J
Promising clinical results suggest that umbilical cord blood (UCB) collected after delivery of a child may have many advantages over bone marrow for transplantation. As there are an increasing number of options regarding the collection of UCB, including private and public banking, more pregnant women are likely to be asked to make decisions about UCB collection. We conducted three focus groups with pregnant women to learn about their perspectives on this emerging technology. All the women in these focus groups indicated that they would choose to have UCB collected. Reasons leading to this choice were that the UCB would otherwise be discarded and altruism. Participants indicated that possible reasons to decide not to have UCB collected include concerns about the safety of the mother and neonate, beliefs about the placenta, threats against confidentiality, rejection of UCB, and the influence of fathers. While feeling confident in making an anticipatory decision about UCB collection, women expressed a clear desire to learn much more about the collection, storage (including distinctions between public and private banking), and use of UCB. In addition, they believed that recruitment for UCB collection should occur after sufficient education about UCB and certainly not after delivery and collection. These data will be useful in guiding efforts to help women make decisions about having UCB collected and in developing an appropriate recruitment and informed consent process for donating UCB to a public bank.
Pandey, Deeksha; Kaur, Simar; Kamath, Asha
The concept of Umbilical Cord blood (UCB) stem cells is emerging as a non-invasive, efficacious alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells to treat a variety of blood and bone marrow diseases, blood cancers, metabolic disorders and immune deficiencies. Aim of the present study was to determine the level of awareness about banking UCB among pregnant women in India. We also assessed patient perception for banking of UCB and explored the patient expectations of banking UCB in future. This is the first study to assess current attitudes, in a sample population of potential donors from one of the largest potential UCB repository (India). Obtaining this information may help optimize recruitment efforts and improve patient education. Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 254 pregnant women in the final analysis. We established only 26.5% pregnant women in our study population knew what exactly is meant by UCB. A large proportion (55.1%) was undecided on whether they want to bank UCB or not. Women were more aware of the more advertised private cord blood banking compared to public banking. More than half of the pregnant women expected their obstetrician to inform them regarding UCB. One-third of the women in our population had undue expectations from banking of the UCB. Obstetricians should play a more active role in explaining the patients regarding pros and cons of UCB banking.
Full Text Available The concept of Umbilical Cord blood (UCB stem cells is emerging as a non-invasive, efficacious alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells to treat a variety of blood and bone marrow diseases, blood cancers, metabolic disorders and immune deficiencies. Aim of the present study was to determine the level of awareness about banking UCB among pregnant women in India. We also assessed patient perception for banking of UCB and explored the patient expectations of banking UCB in future. This is the first study to assess current attitudes, in a sample population of potential donors from one of the largest potential UCB repository (India. Obtaining this information may help optimize recruitment efforts and improve patient education.Present explorative questionnaire based survey included 254 pregnant women in the final analysis.We established only 26.5% pregnant women in our study population knew what exactly is meant by UCB. A large proportion (55.1% was undecided on whether they want to bank UCB or not. Women were more aware of the more advertised private cord blood banking compared to public banking. More than half of the pregnant women expected their obstetrician to inform them regarding UCB. One-third of the women in our population had undue expectations from banking of the UCB.Obstetricians should play a more active role in explaining the patients regarding pros and cons of UCB banking.
Nurasyikin, Y; Leong, C F; Fadhlullah, T M; Hafiz, W M; Nadiah, Z; Atieqah, A N; Ling, T J; Das, S
The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the temperature chain of red blood cells (RBC) returned unused blood bags using blood temperature indicator and ascertain the factors like transportation time, type, size of coolant box and number of bags per box. A total of 250 blood bags with the indicator were observed for the temperature changes with other factors like transportation time, type and size of coolant box and number of bags per box. The recordings were performed at several checkpoints located between the blood bank and the wards. Out of the 250 bags, 74 (29.6%) showed colour changes in which 64 (86.3%) were returned unused (RU) blood bags. The transportation time for these 74 bags was 818.3 ± 941.643 min, significantly higher than bags without colour changes, (p=0.02). Interestingly, 71.4% of the colour changes occurred within the ward. The 7 litre coolant box with an average of 1-5 blood bags per box had a statistically significant higher percentage of colour change with 59.2% compared to the 5 litre coolant box (p=0.05). This study showed that the temperature chain of blood bags was often not well maintained. These results could be mainly due to the non-adherence to the standard operating procedure (SOP) of blood transfusion and the usage of non-standardized coolant boxes.
Kim, Dae Un
For an industry to succeed and satisfy its customers, "QUALITY" must be a primary goal. Quality has been central to blood banking from its inception, with the evolution of a Quality Program since the opening of the first blood bank in U.S. at the Cook County Hospital in 1937. Over the ensuing decades, continuous scientific progress in blood preservation, filters, viral and blood group testing, crossmatching, automation, and computerization including bar coding, etc. has contributed to the quality and safety of the blood products and transfusion service. However, with the advent of the AIDS era, an increasingly sensitized and informed public is continuously demanding that the highest level of quality be achieved and maintained in all processes involved in providing all blood products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) introduced the concept of a "zero risk blood supply" as the industry goal. Furthermore, the cost containment and resource-constrained environment have changed the complexity of the quality practice. Both regulatory agencies such as the FDA, the Health Care Financing Administration [HCFA, which was recently renamed as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) in July, 2001], and the State Department of Health, and accrediting agencies, such as the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), the College of American Pathologists (CAP), and the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO), require blood banks and transfusion services to establish and follow a Quality Control and Quality Assurance Program for their licensing, certification and accreditation. Every laboratory has to comply with the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (CLIA '88) quality requirements being implemented by the CMS. The FDA guidelines assist facilities in compliance with Current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP). The AABB's Quality System Essentials (QSE) are based on these specifications and provide additional guidance in
Adams, Zachary; Morris, Gail; Campbell, Todd; Mostert, Karen; Dibdin, Nicholas; Fearon, Margaret; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Mercer, Dena; Young, Kimberly; Allan, David
Zika virus has emerged as a potential threat to the Canadian blood supply system. Stem cell donors within Canadian Blood Services' Cord Blood Bank (CBB) and OneMatch Stem Cell and Marrow Network (OM) now undergo screening measures designed to reduce the risk of Zika virus transmission. The impact these screening measures have on cord blood and unrelated adult stem cell donations is currently unknown. Among 146 donor workups initiated by OM between July 2016 and May 2017, 102 were completed and 44 workups were canceled. There were 17 potential donors (11.6%) with a risk of Zika virus exposure identified by the donor questionnaire (13 completed, 4 canceled workups). None of the workups involved a donor diagnosed with confirmed Zika virus within the past 6 months. Only 1 of the 44 canceled workups (and only 1 of 4 cases with a risk of Zika transmission) was canceled because of the risk of Zika transmission, and a backup donor was selected. Canadian Blood Services' CBB identified 25 of 875 cord blood units (2.9%) from women who donated their infants' cord blood and underwent screening that otherwise met the initial cell number thresholds for banking and had at least 1 risk factor for exposure to Zika virus. No women were diagnosed with Zika virus at any point of their pregnancy. All 25 units were discarded. Unrelated donors at OM have a higher incidence of a risk of exposure to Zika virus compared with cord blood donors. Only rarely did transplant centers cancel donor workups due to potential Zika virus exposure. The impact of screening for Zika virus exposure risk on cord blood banking was minor. Continued vigilance and surveillance is recommended. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
de Araújo, Fábia Michelle Rodrigues; Feliciano, Katia Virginia de Oliveira; Mendes, Marina Ferreira de Medeiros
This study evaluated the acceptance of blood donors concerning the donation stages (attendance, medical and nursing selection and collection) at the Recife public blood bank with emphasis on the attendance. A sample of 527 donors was obtained: each 19th person sequentially was invited to answer a questionnaire. Chi-square (x2) was used in the analysis. Of those interviewed, 81.4% were men, 81% were repeat donors, 50.3% were dissatisfied regarding the time spent in donation and 36.4% had difficulties in reaching the service. The firm acceptance given to the attendance was due mainly to the communication and the quality of treatment. Of statistical significance were women donors of higher educational level who asked for more information and men who had a more positive perception towards the selection process. The best evaluation was attributed to the collection sector. However, mention was made of impersonal treatment, persistence of doubts and the cursory nature of the medical interview. Attention focused on the donor requires that ongoing education should concentrate on the humanitarian formation of the professionals involved.
Bart, Thomas; Boo, Michael; Balabanova, Snejana; Fischer, Yvonne; Nicoloso, Grazia; Foeken, Lydia; Oudshoorn, Machteld; Passweg, Jakob; Tichelli, Andre; Kindler, Vincent; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Price, Thomas; Regan, Donna; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Schwabe, Rudolf
Over the last 2 decades, cord blood (CB) has become an important source of blood stem cells. Clinical experience has shown that CB is a viable source for blood stem cells in the field of unrelated hematopoietic blood stem cell transplantation. Studies of CB units (CBUs) stored and ordered from the US (National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) and Swiss (Swiss Blood Stem Cells (SBSQ)) CB registries were conducted to assess whether these CBUs met the needs of transplantation patients, as evidenced by units being selected for transplantation. These data were compared to international banking and selection data (Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide (BMDW), World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA)). Further analysis was conducted on whether current CB banking practices were economically viable given the units being selected from the registries for transplant. It should be mentioned that our analysis focused on usage, deliberately omitting any information about clinical outcomes of CB transplantation. A disproportionate number of units with high total nucleated cell (TNC) counts are selected, compared to the distribution of units by TNC available. Therefore, the decision to use a low threshold for banking purposes cannot be supported by economic analysis and may limit the economic viability of future public CB banking. We suggest significantly raising the TNC level used to determine a bankable unit. A level of 125 × 10(7) TNCs, maybe even 150 × 10(7) TNCs, might be a viable banking threshold. This would improve the return on inventory investments while meeting transplantation needs based on current selection criteria.
Karcheva Ganna T.
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the theoretical and practical aspects of using the system-synergetic approach to the development and functioning of banking systems under conditions of financial instability. It has been grounded that the theoretical foundations for the development of banking systems are based on the system approach, according to which the banking systems belong to a class of special complex dynamic, self-motivated and open systems with an integrated structure of subsystems and functions. The study of such systems should include two aspects — system-cybernetic and system-synergetic ones. It has been proved that under stationary conditions the banking system development goes on in accordance with the systemcybernetic model, which suggests the presence of a management subsystem, which functions are performed by the central bank. Under conditions of financial instability, in the pre-crisis, crisis and post-crisis periods to study the development of banking systems the system-synergetic approach taking into account the multi-variant and alternative development of the banking system at bifurcation points is used. The criteria of the banking system entering the phase of bifurcation based on assessing the volatility of the current liabilities and possibility of building an analytical trend have been determined. The methodical approaches to evaluating the synergistic effects and level of financial stability of the banking system have been suggested, experimental calculations have been made.
Girard, M; Connes, Y; Picot, P
We describe in this paper a first processing of direct connection and data management from the Autogrouper 16 C. It bas been used since November 1980 in the Centre Départemental de Tranfusion Sanguine des Hauts-de-Seine. The automation of validation procedures, updating blood donors' file and labelling blood units allows the suppression of clerical errors that are the major cause of Trannsfusion accidents. The progressive development of programming lets a good adaptation of working methods and makes the setting of the system much easier in the Blood Bank.
Full Text Available The paper uses New Empirical Industrial Organization approach, especially Panzar-Rosse model to estimates the level of competition of the banking industry in the Czech Republic during the period 2001–2009. We apply Panzar-Rosse model to estimate H statistic for a panel of 15 banks, which represent almost 90 % of the market. This paper also measures and compares the degree of banking competition in two sub-periods, 2001–2005 and 2005–2009, in order to investigate development of the competitive structure of the Czech banking industry. We found that the market was in equilibrium during most of the estimation period, which is a necessary condition for sound evaluation of the competition level. While the market can be described as perfectly competitive in 2001–2005, the intensity of competition decreased after joining the EU in 2004 and the market can be characterized as one of monopolistic competition in 2005–2009. The monopolistic competition in the Czech banking market was also revealed if the full sample 2001–2009 is considered.
Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBC ability to circulate is closely related to their surface area-to-volume ratio. A decrease in this ratio induces a decrease in RBC deformability that can lead to their retention and elimination in the spleen. We recently showed that a subpopulation of “small RBC” with reduced projected surface area accumulated upon storage in blood bank concentrates, but data on the volume of these altered RBC are lacking. So far, single cell measurement of RBC volume has remained a challenging task achieved by a few sophisticated methods some being subject to potential artifacts. We aimed to develop a reproducible and ergonomic method to assess simultaneously RBC volume and morphology at the single cell level. We adapted the fluorescence exclusion measurement of volume in nucleated cells to the measurement of RBC volume. This method requires no pre-treatment of the cell and can be performed in physiological or experimental buffer. In addition to RBC volume assessment, brightfield images enabling a precise definition of the morphology and the measurement of projected surface area can be generated simultaneously. We first verified that fluorescence exclusion is precise, reproducible and can quantify volume modifications following morphological changes induced by heating or incubation in non-physiological medium. We then used the method to characterize RBC stored for 42 days in SAG-M in blood bank conditions. Simultaneous determination of the volume, projected surface area and morphology allowed to evaluate the surface area-to-volume ratio of individual RBC upon storage. We observed a similar surface area-to-volume ratio in discocytes (D and echinocytes I (EI, which decreased in EII (7% and EIII (24%, sphero-echinocytes (SE; 41% and spherocytes (S; 47%. If RBC dimensions determine indeed the ability of RBC to cross the spleen, these modifications are expected to induce the rapid splenic entrapment of the most morphologically altered RBC
Martha Quesada Concepción
Full Text Available Because of blood transfusions are one of the ways of transmitting the immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS/HIV; it constitutes warriness from the epidemiological point of view. A descriptive research was done with the objective of determining the prevailing of sensitive blood driving AIDS/HIV in the Provincial Blood Bank from Sancti Spíritus from January 1 st , 2007 to December 31 st, 2008. The sample was conformed by 312 donants with positive diagnosis to AIDS/HIV. Some variables were used such as prevailing, age, sex, race, home town. The scores of higher prevailing to AIDS/HIV were shown by the male sex (4,42, the 26-33 year old group (1,55; it prevailing volunteer blood driving (81,0 % , and Sancti Spíritus municipality gave more cases (27,5% .Just because sensibility to tests based on antibody, that is why it is important the constant checking of all processes that guarantee blood driving to be sired.
Apt B, Werner; Heitmann G, Ingrid; Jercic L, M Isabel; Jotré M, Leonor; Muñoz C del V, Patricia; Noemí H, Isabel; San Martin V, Ana M; Sapunar P, Jorge; Torres H, Marisa; Zulantay A, Inés
In this chapter it is emphasized the importance to guarantee safety and high quality blood transfusions. Besides, the following topics are analyzed: the importance of Trypanosoma cruzi infection acquired by blood transfusions, the obligatory screening implemented in Chilean blood banks and serological diagnostic techniques used that for, the seroprevalence observed, the importance to confirm results and methods recommended in this purpose and, to notify the donor once the infection is confirmed. In addition a facsímil of a letter used to notify the positive donor is included as guidelines to make advice after, attaching a pro-forma of clinical-epidemiological registration to refer the donor to medical evaluation and treatment.
Zaslavska Olha I.
Full Text Available Aim of the article is a characterization of the risks of resource provision of the banking and factors that affect them, as well as analysis and assessment of the Ukrainian banks’ activity in conditions of economical, social and political crisis. In the article there was researched the essence of resource banking risks. A definition of «risks of resource provision of a bank» was suggested. There was presented author’s classification of the risks of resource provision of a bank and were established causal connections between them. System risks faced by the banking system of Ukraine, in the context of its resource base, were analyzed. There were analyzed and investigated the causes of the outflow of deposits from the banking sector in Ukraine during the crisis. In the article were presented the dynamics of the hryvna devaluation in 2014-2015 and there were also revealed the key factors that led to its emergence and development. There was presented financial assessment of the impact of major bank risks on the economy of Ukraine, and was calculated the cumulative effect of the impact on the overall socio-economical situation of the state.
Wynne Busby, Helen
Historically, cultural accounts and descriptions of blood banking in Britain have been associated with notions of altruism, national solidarity and imagined community. While these ideals have continued to be influential, the business of procuring and supplying blood has become increasingly complex. Drawing on interview data with donors in one blood centre in England, this article reports that these donors tend not to acknowledge the complex dynamics of production and exchange in modern blood systems. This, it is argued, is congruent with nostalgic narratives in both popular and official accounts of blood services, which tend to bracket these important changes. A shift to a more open institutional narrative about modern blood services is advocated, as blood services face current and future challenges.
Johansen, Kasper; Grove, James; Denham, Robert; Phinn, Stuart
Stream bank condition is an important physical form indicator for streams related to the environmental condition of riparian corridors. This research developed and applied an approach for mapping bank condition from airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and high-spatial resolution optical image data in a temperate forest/woodland/urban environment. Field observations of bank condition were related to LiDAR and optical image-derived variables, including bank slope, plant projective cover, bank-full width, valley confinement, bank height, bank top crenulation, and ground vegetation cover. Image-based variables, showing correlation with the field measurements of stream bank condition, were used as input to a cumulative logistic regression model to estimate and map bank condition. The highest correlation was achieved between field-assessed bank condition and image-derived average bank slope (R2=0.60, n=41), ground vegetation cover (R=0.43, n=41), bank width/height ratio (R=0.41, n=41), and valley confinement (producer's accuracy=100%, n=9). Cross-validation showed an average misclassification error of 0.95 from an ordinal scale from 0 to 4 using the developed model. This approach was developed to support the remotely sensed mapping of stream bank condition for 26,000 km of streams in Victoria, Australia, from 2010 to 2012.
... The medical history includes questions that help blood bank staff decide if a person is healthy enough to donate blood. They'll ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates U.S. blood banks. All blood ... operating. Sometimes people who donate blood notice a few minor side ...
Jaime-Perez, Jose C; Monreal-Robles, Roberto; Colunga-Pedraza, Julia; Mancías-Guerra, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Romo, Laura; Gómez-Almaguer, David
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents an alternative source of stem cells for transplantation for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and genetic disorders. There is scarce information detailing cord blood bank (CBB) collection and transplantation activities from developing countries. We documented our experience at a public university hospital in northeast Mexico. We carried out a retrospective and descriptive analysis of our CBB activity during an 8-year period from May 2002 to September 2010. Collection, processing, and cryopreservation of CB were carried out following standard operating procedures. The minimum volume and total nucleated cell (TNC) content for cryopreservation were 80 mL and 8.0 × 10(8) , respectively. A total of 1256 UCB units were collected; 428 (34%) were banked and 828 (66%) were discarded. The main reason for exclusion was biologic: low volume and/or low number of TNC accounted for 84% of the total discarded units. Cryopreserved cord blood units (CBUs) had a median volume of 113.8 mL (range, 80-213.2 mL) and 13.0 × 10(8) (range, 8 × 10(8) -36.6 × 10(8) ) TNCs. Cell viability was 99.3% (88-100%). The median CD34+ cell content was 4.0 × 10(6) (0.46 × 10(6) -19.38 × 10(6) ). Sixteen units have been released for transplantation, leading to a utilization rate of 3.7%. CBB demands considerable human and financial resources; it is then essential for centers at developing countries to share their experience, results, and databases to increase the probability of finding matching units for their patients. Efforts to create and maintain CBBs allow to offer this therapeutic option at an affordable cost. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
Estácio F. Ramos
Full Text Available Dengue is an endemic/epidemic arboviral disease with a variable symptomatic benign course, but potentially fatal. Once in an inhabited area, the disease will exist forever, with the best achievement being to keep vectors suppressed and the disease under control. Tiger mosquitoes (aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus are active breeders and urban hunters, becoming resistant to pesticides. Global warming and population growth are propelling the disease worldwide at tropical and subtropical regions, victimizing new populations. Dengue virus is very infective, and has been transmitted by needlestick, intrapartum, through blood transfusion and mucosal contact with blood. One patient got dengue while undergoing bone marrow transplantation. We address the growing dengue epidemics in Brazil, with more than half a million official cases in 2007, to estimate the risks of transfusion transmitted dengue. Calculations however were surpassed by reality: the major Blood Center in Brazil (FHSP-USP has found dengue virus in one out of each thousand blood units. In 2007, industry sold 2,6 million disposable blood bags in Brazil. Plotting data from FHSP-USP to the whole country, 2600 blood units would have been infective. Through blood components, around 5000 patients must have received dengue virus intravenously. Beatty et al. estimated to be 1:1300 the risk for dengue transmission through blood transfusion in Puerto Rico, close to what has been demonstrated in Sao Paulo. Throughout Brazil, the average risk may be lower, but the epidemics grows towards a worst scenario. Whatever the risk is, it imposes that all blood units in Brazil (and wherever dengue is endemic must be EIA tested for dengue NS1 antigen. This marker appears early after infection, and the EIA testing platform is available at all blood banks. Also, donors must report febrile states up to two weeks after donation. Morbidity from dengue virus injected in hospitalized patients is unknown, but it may lead
The development of an experimental data bank on heat transfer orisis under stationary conditions is discussed. The work is being carried out under the auspices of CMEA in compliance with the resolution of CMEA countries experts meetinq in January 1981 held in Moscow. The data bank is supposed to be formed as a sequential set of available experimental data on the regimes with heat-transfer crisis, recorded on a standard magnetic tape for ES or IBM comuter family. All operations with the bank are to be performed via the computer. Recommendations are given to what the record structure should be used and an example of a code is suggested for a user to extract data from the bank in accordance with various criteria. At the present time parameters of more than 12000 experimental regimes are prepared for the bank and some 3000 more are being processed [ru
Harvey, E; Hewison, C; Nevalainen, D E; Lloyd, H L
Regulation of transfusion or blood banking facilities has followed, rather than preceded the regulation of the pharmaceutical industry and today we find, in Europe and the United States, the basic regulations developed for the pharmaceutical industry being extended to blood transfusion centres (BTC)*. In this article we explore the role of voluntary accreditation or registration to quality systems standards such as ISO 9000 and discuss how these can be used to advantage and how these standards can provide a substantial base for meeting legislative requirements. In the UK there is also a voluntary accreditation procedure available for all clinical laboratories, known as Clinical Pathology Accreditation (CPA). Comparisons between ISO 9000, CPA and other standards are made. We also discuss how voluntary registration, particularly to ISO 9000 can provide an excellent basis for moving into more extensive and progressive Total Quality Management (TQM) programmes which in turn bring a variety of benefits, not least of which is increased staff involvement in your organisation. Experience of the route to quality through voluntary accreditation suggests that external assessment delivers new insights into the organisation that cannot easily be supplanted by internal audit. In Europe legislation relating to pharmaceuticals has steadily increased in scope and in detailed requirements from those set out in the 1965 Directive 65/65/EEC. The legislative framework has steadily increased, bringing plasma and plasma products as well as others such as radiopharmaceuticals, into the product licensing requirements. The progression of legislation seems unlikely to cease and it is debatable how long the Medicines Control Agency (MCA) and its Inspectorate will accept that BTCs can operate at a level which is different from that of the majority of pharmaceutical manufacturers. The change in emphasis in legislation particularly in Europe means that harm that is caused to a patient by a blood
Coagulation function of stored whole blood is preserved for 14 days in austere conditions: A ROTEM feasibility study during a Norwegian antipiracy mission and comparison to equal ratio reconstituted blood.
Strandenes, Geir; Austlid, Ivar; Apelseth, Torunn O; Hervig, Tor A; Sommerfelt-Pettersen, Jan; Herzig, Maryanne C; Cap, Andrew P; Pidcoke, Heather F; Kristoffersen, Einar K
2 weeks, respectively. The frequency of ROTEM tests were as follows: EXTEM (n = 88), INTEM (n = 85), FIBTEM (n = 82), and APTEM (n = 12). CWB results were grouped. Compared with Days 0 to 2, EXTEM maximum clot firmness was significantly reduced, beginning on Days 10 to 14; however, results through that date remained within reference ranges and were comparable with the EXTEM maximum clot firmness for the reconstituted whole blood samples containing Day 5 room temperature-stored platelets. A "walking blood bank" can provide a balanced transfusion product to support damage-control resuscitation/remote damage-control resuscitation aboard a frigate in the absence of conventional blood bank products. ROTEM analysis is feasible to monitor damage-control resuscitation and blood product quality. ROTEM analysis was possible in challenging operational conditions. Therapeutic study, level V.
This paper explores the perspectives of women who have agreed that their umbilical cord blood may be collected for a public ‘cord blood bank’, for use in transplant medicine or research. Drawing on interview data from 27 mothers who agreed to the collection and use of their umbilical cord blood, these choices and the informed consent process are explored. It is shown that the needs of sick children requiring transplants are prominent in narrative accounts of cord blood banking, together with ...
Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S
South Africa (SA) faces a large unmet need for bone marrow (BM) transplantation, which could be alleviated in part by establishing a public umbilical cord blood stem cell bank (UCB SCB). Umbilical cord blood is an increasingly utilised source of hematopoietic stem cells for BM transplantation in addition to BM or mobilized peripheral blood stem cells. Establishing a public UCB SCB would therefore be a positive step towards improving the quality of health care in SA by providing for an important unmet need. This study takes the form of an enquiry into the acceptability of establishing a public bank through an interview with and questionnaire completed by mothers-to-be in the antenatal clinic of a large public hospital in SA. Initial results are positive, with 85 % of the participants in favour of establishing a public UCB SCB in SA. This initial probe will serve as a model for a more comprehensive national enquiry into public support and acceptability in different clinics, hospitals and provinces in SA.
Rajashekharaiah, Vani; Koshy, Abel Abraham; Koushik, Amit Kumar; Kaur, Harsimran; Kumari, Kavita; Agrawal, Madhusudan; Priyanka; Ramya; Khatai, Smrutishree; Gowda, Vaishnavi; Kumar, Vinay
The RBCs storage lesion is most carefully viewed as the sum of all the changes in RBCs occurring during the course of storage and that limit their survival. Erythrocytes were isolated from stored blood at regular intervals. Oxidative stress markers were analyzed to determine the changes during the storage. Antioxidant enzymes--(SOD and CAT), and SH showed insignificant variation whereas hemolysis, MDA and AOPP showed significant variations. The oxidative stress has not successfully overridden the protection offered by the endogenous antioxidant system. Prolonged storage may result in the onset of erythrocyte deterioration. This clearly indicates that the erythrocytes are capable of attenuating ROS with 2 weeks of storage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M
This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Screnci, Maria; Murgi, Emilia; Pirrè, Guglielma; Valente, Elisabetta; Gesuiti, Paola; Corona, Francesca; Girelli, Gabriella
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a source of stem cells for allogeneic haematopoietic transplantation in paediatric and adult patients with haematological malignancies and other indications. Voluntary donation is the basis for the success of unrelated UCB transplantation programmes. In the last few years a growing number of private banks offer their services to expectant parents, to store UCB for future use. The debate concerning UCB donation and private preservation has been ongoing for several years. The aims of this single centre study were to explore knowledge about UCB stem cells and attitudes towards voluntary UCB donation or private UCB preservation among both blood donors and pregnant women. This study was conducted at the "Sapienza" University of Rome. Two types of anonymous questionnaires were prepared: one type was administered to 1,000 blood donors while the other type was distributed to 300 pregnant women. Most blood donors as well as the majority of pregnant women had some general knowledge about UCB (89% and 93%, respectively) and were aware of the possibility of donating it (82% and 95%). However, the level of knowledge regarding current therapeutic use resulted generally low, only 91 (10%) among informed blood donors and 69 (31%) among informed pregnant women gave a correct answer. The survey revealed a preference for voluntary donation both among blood donors (76%) and among pregnant woman (55%). Indeed, a minority of blood donors (6.5%) and of pregnant women (9%) would opt to store UCB for private use. The study raises the following considerations: (i) the large support for UCB donation expressed by blood donors and by pregnant women suggests that UCB preservation does not represent an obstacle to the expansion of UCB donation and to development of unrelated transplantation programmes; (ii) information about UCB donation and preservation should be carefully given by professionals and institutions.
George, Paul E; Vidal, Julio; Garcia, Patricia J
Peru experienced a crisis in its blood collection and supply system in the mid-2000s, as contaminated blood led to several transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI), occurring in the backdrop of extremely low voluntary donation rates and a national blood supply shortage. Thus, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) implemented a national investigation on the safety and quality of the Peruvian blood collection/transfusion network. Every Peruvian blood bank was evaluated by MINSA from 2007-2008. These evaluations consisted of an update of the national registry of blood banks and visits to each blood bank from MINSA oversight teams. Information was collected on the condition of the blood bank personnel, equipment, supplies, and practices. Further, previously-collected blood at each blood bank was randomly selected and screened for TTI-causing pathogens. Uncovered in this investigation was a fragmented, under-equipped, and poorly-staffed blood collection and transfusion network, consisting of 241 independent blood banks and resulting in suboptimal allocation of resources. Further, blood with evidence of TTI-causing pathogens (including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and syphilis) and set for transfusion was discovered at three separate blood banks as part of the random screening process. Using the successful reorganizations of national blood supply systems in other Latin American countries as examples, Peru would be well-served to form large, high-volume, regional blood collection and transfusion centers, responsible for blood collection and screening for the entire country. The small, separate blood banks would then be transformed into a network of blood transfusion centers, not responsible for blood collection. This reorganization would allow Peru to better utilize its resources, standardize the blood collection and transfusion process, and increase voluntary donation, resulting in a safer, more abundant national blood product.
Full Text Available Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency. The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the
Cord blood collection and banking from a population with highly diverse geographic origins increase HLA diversity in the registry and do not lower the proportion of validated cord blood units: experience of the Marseille Cord Blood Bank.
Bordoni, C; Magalon, J; Gilbertas, C; Gamerre, M; Le Coz, P; Berthomieu, M; Chabannon, C; Di Cristofaro, J; Picard, C
Several Cord Blood (CB) Bank studies suggested that ethnicity impaired CB unit (CBU) qualification. The Bone Marrow Donors Worldwide registries present an over-representation of unrelated donors (UD) from Northwestern European descent. This raises the question of equality of access to hematopoietic stem cells transplant, especially in the Mediterranean zone, which has taken in many waves of immigration. The aim of our study is to address whether, in the Marseille CB Bank, CBU qualification rate is impaired by geographic origin. The study compared biological characteristics of 106 CBU disqualified for total nucleated cell (TNC) count (dCBU) and 136 qualified CBU in relation to registry enrichment and haplotype origin. A high proportion (>80%) of both dCBU and CBU had at least one non-European haplotype and enrich CB and UD registries to a higher extent than those with two European haplotypes (Pdiverse Mediterranean origins do not have an impact on the CBU qualification rate. Partnership with Mediterranean birth clinics with highly trained staff is a reasonable option to increase the HLA diversity of CB Bank inventories and to improve the representation of minorities.
Kalynychenko, T O
Significant progress in the promotion of procedural technologies associated with the transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells caused a rapid increase in activity. The exchange of hematopoietic stem cells for unrelated donor transplantations is now much easier due to the relevant international professional structures and organizations established to support cooperation and standard setting, as well as rules for the functioning of both national donor registries and cord blood banks. These processes are increasing every year and are contributing to the outpacing rates of development in this area. Products within their country should be regulated by the competent government authorities. This study analyzes the work of international and national levels of support for transplantation activity in the field of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, the standardization order of technologies, as well as data that justify the need to create a network of donated umbilical cord blood banks in Ukraine as a factor in the development of allogeneic transplantation. This will promote the accessibility of international standards for the treatment of serious diseases for Ukrainian citizens.
... donate their baby’s umbilical cord blood to a public cord blood bank. We have more than 249,000 cord blood ... stored as a cord blood unit at a public cord blood bank for future use. It can then be listed ...
Full Text Available Systemic risk is a risk of collapse of the financial system that would cause the financial system is not functioning properly. Measurement of systemic risk in the financial institutions, especially banks are crucial, because banks are highly vulnerable to financial crisis. In this study, to estimate the conditional value-at-risk (CoVaR used quantile regression. Samples in this study of 9 banks have total assets of the largest in Indonesia. Testing the correlation between VaR and ΔCoVaR in this study using Spearman correlation and Kendall's Tau. There are five banks that have a significant correlation between VaR and ΔCoVaR, meanwhile four others banks in the sample did not have a significant correlation. However, the correlation coefficient is below 0.50, which indicates that there is a weak correlation between VaR and CoVaR.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v6i2.5296
Muñoz, Manuela; Carvalho, Santiago; Donado, Jorge Hernando; Barco, Gloria Eugenia; Jaramillo, Sergio
The human-T cell lymphotropic virus is a retrovirus with various types known so far. HTLV-I and HTLV-II are of clinically importance as they cause different diseases such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, tropical spastic paraparesis, and human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated myelopathy (HAM). To estimate the prevalence of presumptive and confirmatory reactivity to HTLV-I/II in blood donors of Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe Blood Bank between 2014 and 2015. The information was obtained from the Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe Blood Bank database. We analyzed age, sex, place of origin, and place of residence of donors, and the reactivity using the screening test (ELISA) as well as the confirmatory test (immunoblot). The donor population studied included 6,275 men and 8,148 women, for a total of 14,423 donors recruited between March 1, 2014, and June 30, 2015. Of all tested donors, 25 were positive for HTLV-I/II by the screening test (ELISA). After performing the confirmatory test (immunoblot), only nine patients were positive for HTLV-I/II (36%), of whom eight were reactive to HTLV-I (32%) and one to HTLV-II (4%), for a global seroprevalence of 0.06% (CI 95%: 0.10-0.25). Our findings were consistent with those found in similar studies in non-endemic areas of the country and with those from studies at international level reported in the literature.
Liu, Jinhui; He, Ji; Chen, Shu; Qin, Fei; Wang, Fang; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Faming; Lv, Hangjun; Yan, Lixing
BACKGROUND: Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has successfully used for transplantation to treat hematologic malignancies and genetic diseases. Herein, we describe the experience generated in a single public UCB bank at Zhejiang Province in China. METHODS: Good manufacturing practice and standard operating procedures were used to address donor selection as well as UCB collection, processing, and cryopreservation. Total nucleated cells (TNCs), cellular viability, CD34+ cells, and colony-forming units were determined, and infectious diseases screening test, sterility test, and HLA typing for UCB units were done. RESULTS: Only 18.51% of all collected UCB units met storage criteria, and 7,056 UCB units were cryopreserved in 10 years. The volume of UCB units was 95.0 ± 22.0 ml. The number of TNCs before and after processing was 13.32 ± 3.63 × 10(8) and 10.63 ± 2.80 × 10(8), respectively, and the recovery rate was 80.71 ± 11.26%. 0.4344 ± 0.1874% of the TNCs were CD34+ cells. The CFU-GM was 32.1 ± 28.0 colonies per 1 × 10(5) nucleated cells. Based mainly on HLA and nucleated cell content, 26 UCB units were released for transplantation. CONCLUSIONS: A public UCB bank was successfully established in China; collection and processing of UCB units should be optimized in order to gain maximum volume and cell count.
Mojgan Ahmari Nejad
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Today, the role of word of mouth (WOM in making decision particularly in service sector became important. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of word of mouth on pregnant woman decision-making behavior to join the Royan Cord Blood Bank. Materials and Methods: The research is operational and has a causal nature. The population of study was 790 pregnant women enrolled in Royan Cord Blood Bank in Arak city that 294 subjects were selected by available non-random sampling method. To collect data, questionnaire instrument was used. Data were analyzed according to Structural Equations Modeling (SEM by LISREL (version 8.54 software. Results: The results of the study revealed that the effect of communication medium on personal information source and word of mouth was significant and positive. In addition, opinion leaders had a significant and positive influence on personal information source and word of mouth and also, the significant and negative effect of opinion leaders on perceived risk was seen. Personal information source had a significant and positive effect on decision-making. However, social structure didn't have any effect on word of mouth. Likewise, word of mouth didn't influence decision-making. Conclusion: According to the findings of the research, it seems that paying attention to the prerequisites and conditions making a suitable bed for creating effective word of mouth and expanding it to making decision for joining the Royan Cord Blood Bank is very necessary.
Kajja, I; Bimenya, G; Smit Sibinga, C
The interface between preparation and use of blood impacts directly on the outcome of hemotherapy. The present study explores the knowledge and opinions of key players at, practical realities at, and quality improvement strategies of this interface. We surveyed clinicians (n = 81) and blood bank staff (n = 25) to assess their knowledge on key issues in their counterparts' working domains, the turnaround time on effecting a blood order from a hospital transfusion laboratory and strategies to improve communication of blood needs to blood banks. Out of 81 clinicians, 20 knew the four available blood products while only 17 knew the three uses of these products. Twenty-three blood bank staff reported the patient's condition as the main factor on which blood orders are based. Forty-four (54.3%) clinicians reported reception of a blood product within an hour of placing the order. Addressing infrastructure and human resource were some of the strategies suggested to improve this step of the transfusion chain. The knowledge of staff at the extreme ends of the clinical interface in their counterparts' working domain is far from adequate. However, they have well formed opinions on strategies to improve this interface.
Arwa Z. Al-Riyami
Full Text Available Sickle cell disease and homozygous β-thalassaemia are common haemoglobinopathies in Oman, with many implications for local healthcare services. The transfusions of such patients take place in many hospitals throughout the country. Indications for blood transfusions require local recommendations and guidelines to ensure standardised levels of care. This article summarises existing transfusion guidelines for this group of patients and provides recommendations for blood banks and transfusion services in Oman. This information is especially pertinent to medical professionals and policy-makers developing required services for the standardised transfusion support of these patients.
Kavitskaya Irina, L.
Full Text Available The paper presents the monetary policy analysis of the European Central Bank (ECB under the present crisis conditions. The paper systematizes the ECB monetary policy in today's crisis and researches it at different stages of the crisis. A detailed analysis showed that the ECB's monetary policy is significantly different from the actions of other central banks during the current crisis (for example, the Federal Reserve. Thus, the ECB unconventional monetary policy combined with traditional measures, but does not replace them. Often ECB use credit easing instead of quantitative easing. The ECB's monetary policy used not only to combat the financial crisis, such as the Fed, but also to deal with the debt crisis. These features of the ECB’s monetary policy were due to both the institutional characteristics of the European Union, as well as special conditions of flow of the financial crisis in the euro zone.
Valente, Maria do Socorro da Silva; Lopes, Cláudia S; Pastor-Valero, Maria; Menezes, Paulo Rossi
Changes in the modern economy have affected the financial sector. Time pressures, excessive work demands, and job stress are frequent concerns among bank employees, which might predispose them to burnout symptoms. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association between burnout symptoms and exposure to psychosocial work conditions in bank employees. A cross-sectional study of 1046 bank employees was carried out in Pará and Amapá, northern Brazil. We applied a self-administered questionnaire evaluating socio-demographic characteristics, burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory), and two job stress models (Demand-Control-Support and Effort-Reward Imbalance). Two levels of burnout symptoms were analysed: moderate level of burnout (MLB) and high level of burnout (HLB). Logistic regression models were used to estimate associations between the two levels of burnout and the two stress models, controlling for relevant covariates. The overall prevalence of burnout was 71.8% (31.1% for HLB; 40.7% for MLB), regardless of gender. Exposure to adverse psychosocial conditions in the workplace, such as high strain, low social support at work, high effort/low reward, and over commitment showed strong association with HLB and MLB, and these associations were independent of age, gender, and other occupational characteristics. We found that psychosocial conditions in the financial sector involving high strain, low social support at work, high effort/low reward, and over commitment represent possible risk factors for moderate and HLB symptoms in bank employees. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.
Shaddel, M; Mirzaii Dizgah, I; Sharif, F
The prevalence of toxoplasma gondii (T.g) infection in blood donors has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in blood products. A total of 223 blood products (101 fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 122 packed cells (PC)) in Imam Reza hospital blood bank, Tehran, Iran were tested for specific T.g antibodies (IgG and IgM) by ELISA method. Positive IgG anti-T.g samples were further tested for IgM anti-T.g. A positive IgG test with the negative and positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic and acute toxoplasmosis respectively. Of 223 samples 38.6% and 0.45% were positive for IgG anti-T.g and IgM anti-T.g levels respectively. Therefore, one and 85 samples were involved acute and chronic toxoplasmosis respectively. Twenty-six of fresh frozen plasma samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g and one of them was positive for IgM anti-T.g. Sixty packed cell samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g. Our study showed that there were chronic and acute toxoplasmosis in blood products and the prevalence of toxoplasmosis especially chronic form was high. Therefore screening of blood for T.g antibodies may be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Motivated by the debate on the concentration-stability nexus, this paper studies the impact of bank concentration on the likelihood of a country suffering systemic bank fragility. For this reason, we followed a new approach using on-site bank balance sheet information to construct our proxy that represents each bank stability condition and uses a variety of internal and external factors to estimate a balance panel dynamic two-step General Method of Moments (GMM approach for the period 2008 - 2015. First, results provide supportive evidence consistent with the concentration-fragility view. Second, macroeconomic variables seem to have a significant effect on bank stability, which is not found for the sovereignty primary risk. By contrast, the bank-specific variables have also a significant effect on bank stability conditions. Finally, non-systemic banks are found to be more sensitive to macroeconomic condition and market concentration, while the better capitalised banks are less sensitive to fragility at the expense of lower operation efficiency.
Parco, Sergio; Vascotto, Fulvia; Visconti, Patrizia
VDRL (75.0%) tests (P public system does not include human T-cell lymphotropic virus testing; this is reserved for the population from endemic zones. In northeastern Italy current legislation prevents the establishment of private fee-based banks for storage of CB-SC. The cryopreservation, for future autologous personal or family use, is possible only by sending to foreign private banks, with a further fee of €300. These regulations confirm that Italian legislation tries to increase the anonymous allogenic donations and the number of CB-CS bags stored in the free-cost public system, that are available to anyone with therapeutic needs. Private banking is used almost exclusively by the wealthier local population. In the public system, many physicians continue to use older Italian laws regarding syphilis diagnosis, and NRBC interference on WBC count may have an impact on cord blood harvesting. Our findings suggest that in the EU there is no consensus policy on donor management. The value of storage for potential use within the family is useful only with collaboration between the public and the private systems.
The first successful cord cell transplant to a sibling with Fanconi's anaemia took place 15 years ago. This proven utility of cord blood led to the establishment of cord blood banks both private and public and there are now nearly 100 cord blood banks worldwide. It is estimated that over 200,000 cord blood units (CBU) are held by the private sector and over 160,000 CBU are registered with the largest public cord blood registry. There is a tension between private cord blood banks, which store CBU for autologous or family use, and public banks, which store CBU for unrelated use and the ethics of private cord blood storage has been questioned. But more general ethical questions also arise regarding ownership, consent, confidentiality, costs and quality standards and patenting. In looking at these ethical issues one also needs to look at potential future use of cord blood stem cells. Up until now cord cells have principally been used in the treatment of paediatric blood and immune disorders. Improvements in cell expansion technology will make CBU more appropriate also for treating adults with such disorders. However, it has also been demonstrated that cord blood stem cells have the capacity to differentiate into other types of cells, neuronal, bone, epithelial and muscle which would have a future role to play in cell therapy and regenerative medicine
Full Text Available In the wake of European financial market integration, resulting from the elimination of controls on capital movements and the free access given to banks to other domestic markets within the EU, the Italian financial system has undergone a considerable transformation. In the aftermath of these new changes, however, has there been an increase in competition resulting in significant gains for consumers? Or rather, is unification alone, due to imperfections in financial markets, not enough to bring about stronger competition? Utilizing the Rosse-Panzar test, the author analyzes a sample of Italian banks from 1988-96 to evaluate the degree of competition in the industry. The findings suggest that the Italian banking industry operates under conditions of monopolistic competition and that European integration has yet to have a significant impact on industry conduct. However, the Author notes that due to the relative novelty of liberalization its long-term effect can not yet be known. Although the banking industry was far from equilibrium in the years examined, after the initiation of European integration there was a move towards it, however, it has yet to be attained.
Full Text Available the article is devoted to the research of directions of client-oriented approach application during bank products promotion in Russian banks. Attention is paid to the development of electronic banking, social networks through which consumers receive the necessary information about beneficial offers and special conditions for providing banking services.
Nikita V. Gurin
Full Text Available The article says about the specific regulation of banking groups in Russia and applicability of the category in corporate structuring M&A practices. Relevancy and importance of the research are based on increasing attention of the regulatory authorities to the disclosure of grounds and means of establishing a control over groups of entities and, controlling of expenses of funding from the budget of the State Corporation "Deposit Insurance Agency", the Central Bank of the Russian Federation. The article discusses the definitions banking group", "banking holding", "group of entities", "group of entities connected to a credit institution", consolidated "banking group" and applicability of the definitions to filing of the group statements, the use of the banks' (banking group indicators, the applicability of these data to the efficient allocation of resources and the rehabilitation of the Russian banking system. This paper analyzes the current regulations, the author refers to the indicator maximum risk associated with the credit institution a person (a group associated with the credit institution officials, as well as a new version of the indicator maximum amount of loans, bank guarantees and sureties issued by a credit institution (banking group to its members (shareholders and the procedure for calculating them, which come into force from January 1,2016. At the end of the article the author suggests possible options to improve current regulations. The urgency of the problems mentioned is confirmed by cases from practice, which point to the problems identified. The novelty of the work lies in the complex economic and legal approach to risk management to ensure information transparency of banks in the performance of the duty of notification (approval of transactions with the Central Bank of the Russian Federation and the disclosure and reporting its performance. This approach acknowledges the practical importance of the conclusions. Based on the
Full Text Available Through investigating factors that influence consumers to make a transition from online to mobile banking, this empirical study shows that relative attitude and relative subjective norm positively motivated respondents to switch from Internet to mobile banking while relative perceived behavior control deterred respondents from transitioning. Empirical results also demonstrated that Internet banking is superior to mobile banking in terms of consumer relative compatibility, self-efficacy, resource facilitating conditions, and technology facilitating conditions. Meanwhile, mobile banking emerged as superior to Internet banking for other constructs. By adding a comparative concept into an extended decomposed theory of planned behavior (DTPB model, this study may expand the applicable domain of current social psychology theories from the adoption of single products or services to the choice between competing products or services that achieve similar purposes and functions.
determination method. We found that the chemiluminescence method was more specific (97.0% than the TPHA (83.0% and nontreponemal rapid plasma reagin VDRL (75.0% tests (P < 0.05, χ2 test. The specificity link between the two automatic methods versus microscopes for WBC dosing and NRBC interference was r2 = 0.08 (ADVIA 120 and r2 = 0.94 (XE-2100. The public system does not include human T-cell lymphotropic virus testing; this is reserved for the population from endemic zones. Conclusion: In northeastern Italy current legislation prevents the establishment of private fee-based banks for storage of CB-SC. The cryopreservation, for future autologous personal or family use, is possible only by sending to foreign private banks, with a further fee of €300. These regulations confirm that Italian legislation tries to increase the anonymous allogenic donations and the number of CB-CS bags stored in the free-cost public system, that are available to anyone with therapeutic needs. Private banking is used almost exclusively by the wealthier local population. In the public system, many physicians continue to use older Italian laws regarding syphilis diagnosis, and NRBC interference on WBC count may have an impact on cord blood harvesting. Our findings suggest that in the EU there is no consensus policy on donor management. The value of storage for potential use within the family is useful only with collaboration between the public and the private systems. Keywords: cord blood collection, public system, private system, pregnant women's choice
Full Text Available This paper analyses the inter-temporal competition – stability nexus after the global financial crises. For this reason, the empirical estimation approach follows a five – step procedure. First, we utilise quarterly macroeconomic and balance sheet and income statement data for 16 banks operating in the Albanian banking sector over the period 2008 – 2015. Second, we calculate a new composite index as a measure of bank stability conditions, which includes a wide set of information rather than focusing only on one aspect of risk. Then, we construct a proxy for bank competition such as the Boone indicator. Empirical estimations are based on the General Method of Moments approach. A set of robustness checks include also the use of other alternative proxy of competition such as the Lerner index and the efficientadjusted Lerner index, profit elasticity and the Herfindahl index. Empirical results strongly support the “competition – stability” view after the global financial crises - that higher degree of competition boosts further bank stability conditions. Results further indicate that greater concentration has also a negative impact on bank stability. Results imply also that bank stability is positively linked with macroeconomic conditions and capital ratio and inverse with operational efficiency. Finally, we do not find a non-linear relationship between competition and stability.
Samuel, G N; Kerridge, I H; Vowels, M; Trickett, A; Chapman, J; Dobbins, T
Over the past decade umbilical cord blood (UCB) has been increasingly used as a source of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for patients who require a HSC transplant but do not have an HLA-matched donor. It was anticipated that using UCB as an alternative source of HSCs would increase the chance of finding a donor, particularly for the otherwise underrepresented ethnic minority groups. To evaluate the effectiveness of the Australian public UCB banks to increase the ethnic diversity of available HSC donations, this paper analyses the ethnic diversity of the Sydney Cord Blood Bank (SCBB), comparing this diversity to that of the Australian Bone Marrow Donor Registry (ABMDR). It also examines the ethnic diversity of those patients who, after requesting a haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the 2-year period between 2003 and 2005, managed to find a suitably matched bone marrow or UCB donor. We show that the ethnic mix of donors to the SCBB has remained generally broad in source, is comparative to the Australian population, and is more diverse than the ABMDR. This, however, may still not be sufficient to substantially increase the likelihood of finding a donor for some ethnic minority groups.
Zameer, M.; Shahzad, F.; Khan, F.S.; Farooq, M.; Ali, H.; Saeed, U.
Objective: To determine the frequency of HIV, HBV, HCV, syphilis and malaria in blood donors at Children Hospital and Institute of Child Health (ICH), Lahore and compare with other local and international published data. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: This was conducted at the blood bank of Children's Hospital and ICH, Lahore from October 2015 to February 2016. Patient and Methods: All adult male blood donors who had donated blood during above mentioned period, between 18 to 55 years of age were included in this study. Each and every donor was subjected to a predetermined, prepared questionnaire to find out their eligibility for donation. All blood donors' serum samples were screened for HBsAg, Anti-HCV, syphilis, HIV and malaria by immuno chromatography technique according to manufacturer instruction. Results: Statistical analysis showed that out of 10,048 blood donors, 7.94 percent (n=798) were infected with any one of the above mentioned diseases and 92.05 percent (n=9,250) had no infection. The overall frequency of HBsAg, HCV, HIV, syphilis and malaria were found to be 1.59 percent, 3.75 percent, 0.11 percent, 2.08 percent and 0.39 percent respectively. The co-infections of HCV + Syphilis, HBsAg + HCV, HBsAg + Syphilis, HCV + malarial parasite (M.P) and HBsAg + HIV + syphilis was 0.12 percent, 0.11 percent, 0.01 percent and 0.0099 percent respectively. Conclusion: There is a decreasing trend of HBsAg, HCV infections but increasing trend of HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors that is an alarming situation. (author)
Ekaterina Vladimirovna Mazikova
Full Text Available The implementation of modern banking activities involves the realization of investments. Investment is a complex discussion economic category, characterized by a number of features. The types and forms of investment are manifold and can be transformed with account of the state of the economy and the level of development of industrial relations. The faster growth of the financial sector in the economy has stipulated the development of financial investment. Banks as financial and lending institutions actively make financial investments in securities. Banks’ investment in securities pursues a number of purposes which determine the selection of securities for investment and their quality. The article identified the targets of bank investments in securities and their development trends under current conditions on the basis of the analysis of the actual data for 2010–2014. Negative revaluation and the actual decrease in the value of corporate securities of Russian issuers reduce their commercial appeal. Banks refuse to speculate on the stock market in favor of the securities that ensure liquidity. Banks’ investments aim to purchasing securities from the Lombard List of the Bank of Russia in order to obtain loans and participate in the repo transactions. Thus, during the analyzed period, banks’ investments in securities transformed from systemically important assets that generate substantial profit into the mechanism that provides liquidity. It should be noted that a significant part of investment resources of Russian banks services the debt obligations of Russia’s Government. The article also identified a trend of banks’ increasing investment in the participation portfolios of subsidiaries and associated joint stock companies. The official data of the Central Bank of the Russian Federation (Bank of Russia , and the Federal State Statistics Service  were used as the information base for the study
Caroline Nogueira Maia
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at analyzing the rate of self-exclusion at the Regional Blood Bank in Montes Claros. METHODS: Data of self-excluding donors from August 2008 to August 2010 were analyzed. The following variables were considered: age, marital status, gender, ethnical background, blood group, Rh factor, number of donations, type of donation and serologic results. RESULTS: During the analyzed period, 34,778 individuals donated blood, 215 (0.62% of which were self-excluded; 12% of donors did not answer, 6.3% ballots were spoilt and 13.6% of the responses were considered non-compliant. The profile of the donors was: male (81.9%, single (50.7%, aged between 19 and 29 years old (52.1%, Mulatto (48.3%, blood group O (32.1% and positive Rh (32.1%. Most individuals were donating for the 2nd to 5th time (43.7% and had negative serology (94.4%. CONCLUSIONS: It was not evident that self-excluding donors had higher rates of seropositivity.
Thaís Brilhante Pontes
Full Text Available Millions of blood products are transfused each year, and many lives are directly affected by transfusion. Platelet concentrate (PC is one of the main products derived from blood. Even under good storage conditions, PC is likely to suffer cell damage. The shape of platelets changes after 5 to 7 days of storage at 22°C. Taking into consideration that some platelet proteins undergo changes in their shape and functionality during PC storage. Sixteen PC bags were collected and each PC bag tube was cut into six equal pieces to perform experiments with platelets from six different days of storage. Thus, on the first day of storage, 1/6 of the tube was used for miRNA extraction, and the remaining 5/6 was stored under the same conditions until extraction of miRNAs on each the following five days. Samples were sequenced on an Illumina Platform to demonstrate the most highly expressed miRNAs. Three miRNAs, mir127, mir191 and mir320a were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR in 100 PC bags tubes. Our method suggests, the use of the miRNAs mir127 and mir320a as biomarkers to assess the "validity period" of PC bags stored in blood banks for long periods. Thus, bags can be tested on the 5th day of storage for the relative expression levels of mir127 and mir320a. Thus, we highlight candidate miRNAs as biomarkers of storage damage that can be used as tools to evaluate the quality of stored PC. The use of miRNAs as biomarkers of damage is unprecedented and will contribute to improved quality of blood products for transfusions.
..., from an individual or a blood bank, a replacement offer that meets the criteria specified in paragraph... replacement of blood. A blood replacement offer made by a beneficiary, or an individual or a blood bank on... red cells if the replacement blood meets the applicable criteria specified in Food and Drug...
Kajja, I.; Kyeyune, D.; Bimenya, G. S.; Sibinga, C. T. S.
Aim: To identify where and why delays occur in Uganda blood banks. Background: The timely provision and supply of safe and efficacious blood components to hospitals depends on sound systems in the processing blood banks. Poorly managed systems lead to apparent blood shortages in hospitals and
Chen, Shu-Huey; Zheng, Ya-Jun; Yang, Shang-Hsien; Yang, Kuo-Liang; Shyr, Ming-Hwang; Ho, Yu-Huai
In total, 4502 units of cord blood (CB) were collected during a 2-year period from 2005 to 2006 by the Buddhist Tzu-Chi Stem Cells Center. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence of microbial contamination and type of organism present in the cord blood. The clinical impact of microbial contamination on hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) grafts used for HPC transplantation is also discussed. First and second specimens were obtained for microbial assessment. These were collected in laboratory after cord blood collection and after cord blood unit manipulation, respectively. The samples were cultured and the results reviewed. The overall incidence of microbiological contamination was 1.8% (82/4502). Three CB units were contaminated with two different organisms. Infectious organisms comprised 9.4% (8/85) of total isolated microbes. These infectious microorganisms were beta-Streptococci group B, Candida tropicalis and Staphylococcus aureus which were isolated in 6, 1 and 1 of CB units respectively. Escherichia coli, Bacteroides fragilis, Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus, beta-Streptococcus Group B, Bacteroides valgatus, Corynebacterium spp., Klebsiella pneumonia and Peptococcus spp. were the most frequently encountered microorganisms. A higher contamination rate of the CB units was noted after vaginal delivery (2.16%) compared to caesarian section (0.85%) (p bank, we use a closed system but an in utero method. Similar to other studies, most of microorganisms reported here as contaminants are non-pathogenic.
Delobel, Julien; Rubin, Olivier; Prudent, Michel; Crettaz, David; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels
Millions of blood products are transfused every year; many lives are thus directly concerned by transfusion. The three main labile blood products used in transfusion are erythrocyte concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. Each of these products has to be stored according to its particular components. However, during storage, modifications or degradation of those components may occur, and are known as storage lesions. Thus, biomarker discovery of in vivo blood aging as well as in vitro labile blood products storage lesions is of high interest for the transfusion medicine community. Pre-analytical issues are of major importance in analyzing the various blood products during storage conditions as well as according to various protocols that are currently used in blood banks for their preparations. This paper will review key elements that have to be taken into account in the context of proteomic-based biomarker discovery applied to blood banking. PMID:21151459
... cord blood mainly because of the promise that stem cell research holds for the future. Most of us would have little use for stem cells now, but research into using them to treat diseases is ongoing — ...
Mikhail Vitalyevich Leonov
Full Text Available Despite the lack of a uniform definition of «a regional bank», problems of their activities are widely discussed in the context of increasing regulation of the banking sector and creation of conditions for accelerated development of certain regions. The author analyses the Russian-language scientific literature in order to define «a regional bank» and systematize its key differences from other commercial banks. The researcher shows that the allocation of regional banks in a separate group should be related to specific features of the environment and not by endogenous factors associated with the selection of activities and balance sheet structure. The low level of financial market development and concentration of specific undiversified risks are the principal qualifiers differentiating between regional banks and other credit institutions in Russia. As classification criteria the author uses following: spatial representation (the bank does not have structural subdivisions in Moscow and the ownership structure (among the bank’s owners there are no national and international financial groups that have a direct impact on the operations of the bank
Full Text Available Legal issues play a vital role in providing a framework for the Indian blood transfusion service (BTS, while ethical issues pave the way for quality. Despite licensing of all blood banks, failure to revamp the Drugs and Cosmetic Act (D and C Act is impeding quality. Newer techniques like chemiluminescence or nucleic acid testing (NAT find no mention in the D and C Act. Specialised products like pooled platelet concentrates or modified whole blood, therapeutic procedures like erythropheresis, plasma exchange, stem cell collection and processing technologies like leukoreduction and irradiation are not a part of the D and C Act. A highly fragmented BTS comprising of over 2500 blood banks, coupled with a slow and tedious process of dual licensing (state and centre is a hindrance to smooth functioning of blood banks. Small size of blood banks compromises blood safety. New blood banks are opened in India by hospitals to meet requirements of insurance providers or by medical colleges as this a Medical Council of India (MCI requirement. Hospital based blood banks opt for replacement donation as they are barred by law from holding camps. Demand for fresh blood, lack of components, and lack of guidelines for safe transfusion leads to continued abuse of blood. Differential pricing of blood components is difficult to explain scientifically or ethically. Accreditation of blood banks along with establishment of regional testing centres could pave the way to blood safety. National Aids Control Organisation (NACO and National Blood Transfusion Council (NBTC deserve a more proactive role in the licensing process. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA needs to clarify that procedures or tests meant for enhancement of blood safety are not illegal.
Ireland, Lynette; McKelvie, Helen
The legal structure for the regulation of tissue banking has existed for many years. In Australia, the donation of human tissue is regulated by legislation in each of the eight States and Territories. These substantially uniform Acts were passed in the late 1970's and early 1980's, based on model legislation and underpinned by the concept of consensual giving. However, it was not until the early 1990's that tissue banking came under the notice of regulatory authorities. Since then the Australian Government has moved quickly to oversee the tissue banking sector in Australia. Banked human tissue has been deemed to be a therapeutic good under the Therapeutic Goods Act 1989, and tissue banks are required to be licensed by the Therapeutic Goods Administration and are audited for compliance with the Code of Good Manufacturing Practice- Human Blood and Tissues. In addition, tissue banks must comply with a myriad of other standards, guidelines and recommendations.
Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Georg
The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... mechanism deployable at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach--and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least...... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States' disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...
Full Text Available Intensification of financial development during last decade causes transformation of banking sector functioning. In particular, among the most significant changes over this period should be noted the next ones: convergence of financial market segments and appearance of cross-sector financial products, an increase of prevailing of financial sector in comparison with real economy and level of their interdependent, an intensification of crisis processes in financial and especially banking sector and a significant increase of the scale of the crisis consequences etc. thus, in such vulnerable conditions it is become very urgent to identify the relevant factors that can influence on the stability of banking sector, because its maintenance seems to be one of the most important preconditions of the stability of the national economy as a whole. Purpose of the article is to analyze key performance indicators of the Ukrainian banking system, clarify its main problems, identify relevant factors of the stability of the Ukrainian banking system and the character of their influence on the dependent variable. Realization of the mentioned above tasks was ensured by regression analysis (OLS regression. Analysis of key indicators that characterize current situation in the Ukrainian banking system found out the existence of numerous endogenous and exogenous problems, which, in turn, cause worsening most of analyzed indicators during 2013-2015. Unfavorable situation in Ukrainian banking system determined the necessity of identification of relevant factors of banking system stability to avoid transmission of financial shocks. According to the results of regression analysis on the stability of banking sector positively influence such factors as increase of interest margin to gross income ratio, reserves to assets ratio, number of branches, ratio of non-performing loans to total loans. Meanwhile, negative impact on stability of banking system has an increase of liquid
Full Text Available Blood transfusion is an essential component of emergency obstetric care and appropriate blood transfusion significantly reduces maternal mortality. Obstetric haemorrhage, especially postpartum haemorrhage, remains one of the major causes of massive haemorrhage and a prime cause of maternal mortality. Blood loss and assessment of its correct requirement are difficult in pregnancy due to physiological changes and comorbid conditions. Many guidelines have been used to assess the requirement and transfusion of blood and its components. Infrastructural, economic, social and religious constraints in blood banking and donation are key issues to formulate practice guidelines. Available current guidelines for transfusion are mostly from the developed world; however, they can be used by developing countries keeping available resources in perspective.
Rabe, Fran; Kadidlo, Diane; Van Orsow, Lisa; McKenna, David
Qualification of a cord blood bank (CBB) is a complex process that includes evaluation of multiple aspects of donor screening and testing, processing, accreditation and approval by professional cell therapy groups, and results of received cord blood units. The University of Minnesota Medical Center Cell Therapy Laboratory has established a CBB vendor qualification process to ensure the CBB meets established regulatory and quality requirements. The deployed qualification of CBBs is based on retrospective and prospective review of the CBB. Forty-one CBBs were evaluated retrospectively: seven CBBs were disqualified based on failed quality control (QC) results. Eight CBBs did not meet the criteria for retrospective qualification because fewer than 3 cord blood units were received and the CBB was not accredited. As of March 2012, three US and one non-US CBBs have been qualified prospectively. One CBB withdrew from the qualification process after successful completion of the comprehensive survey and subsequent failure of the provided QC unit to pass the minimum criteria. One CBB failed the prospective qualification process based on processing methods that were revealed during the paper portion of the evaluation. A CBB qualification process is necessary for a transplant center to manage the qualification of the large number of CBBs needed to support a umbilical cord blood transplantation program. A transplant center that has utilized cord blood for a number of years before implementation of a qualification process should use a retrospective qualification process along with a prospective process. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Rahmatina A. Kasri
Full Text Available Bank run is an important economic phenomenon which increasingly occurred in in modern banking system and potentially threatened banking stability as it could trigger a banking crisis. However, most studies related to bank run focus on the occurrence of bank run in conventional banking system. Very few of them discuss the bank run phenomenon under Islamic banking system or dual banking system where Islamic banks jointly operating with conventional banks. Therefore, this study attempts to analyze the determinants of bank run in the Indonesian Islamic banking industry by employing primary data from 256 customers of Indonesia Islamic banks in 2015 and by utilizing factor analysis and descriptive statistics. In theory, Islamic banks tend to be more resilient towards any macroeconomic or financial shocks as compared to conventional banks due to the nature of its asset-based and risk-sharing arrangement. However, the result exhibits that both psychological and fundamental factors (i.e. macroeconomics and bank fundamentals strongly influence the behaviors of Islamic banking depositors to withdraw their funds, which might trigger the occurrence of bank runs in the country. Insider information, macroeconomic condition and bank fundamental factors are also shown to have the highest impacts among all variables. Hence, in the context of banking stability, the finding implies that Islamic banks are not completely immune to the impacts of macroeconomic shocks or financial crisis. As a country with a dual banking system, Indonesia had experienced several bank runs since 1990s. Therefore, the findings of the study should provide the policy makers important insight into research based-policy in order to attain financial stability as one of the main economic goals of the country. Keywords: Bank run, Islamic bank, Factor analysis, Indonesia JEL Classification: C83, G21, G28
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Gordon, Jeffrey N.; Ringe, Wolf-Georg
The project of creating a Banking Union is designed to overcome the fatal link between sovereigns and their banks in the Eurozone. As part of this project, political agreement for a common supervision framework and a common resolution scheme has been reached with difficulty. However, the resolution...... at the discretion of the resolution authority must be available to supply liquidity to a reorganizing bank. On these conditions, a viable and realistic Banking Union would be within reach — and the resolution of global financial institutions would be greatly facilitated, not least in a transatlantic perspective....... framework is weak, underfunded and exhibits some serious flaws. Further, Member States’ disagreements appear to rule out a federalized deposit insurance scheme, commonly regarded as the necessary third pillar of a successful Banking Union. This paper argues for an organizational and capital structure...
Galina S. Panova
Full Text Available The article provides an analysis of the present condition and prospects of development of banks and the banking business in the face of international sanctions. It identifies current trends, problems and the risks of banks and banking in Russia and in the world. Special attention is paid to the analysis of sectoral international sanctions against the Russian banks and the need to minimize negative impact of sanctions on the banking business, both nationally and internationally. Great value in these conditions has the state monetary policy. Anti-crisis policy pursued by the Bank of Russia, in a context of stagnating economy, leads to a reduction in the Russian share in the world economy and increases in the standard of living gap with the developed countries. The article argues that Russia's economic growth opportunities in 2016 are limited by restriction level of bank interest, the high volatility of the exchange rate of the national currency, insufficient development of credit relations, tough, high-budget (at the level of developed Europe tax burden, increasing administrative costs, dramatically increasing the concentration of risks of subjective decisions at the present stage of the electoral cycle. In a situation of uncertainty of predictions regarding the scope and duration of the application of sanctions, the Russian Government and the Central Bank of the Russian Federation had rightly seek to use a combination of anti-sanctions measures of austerity measures on introduction of contra-sanctions to create more comfortable conditions for doing business in Russia and her allies from member countries of Eurasian Economic Union, SCO, BRICS. The article examines the strategic aspects of development banks and banking business in Russia under the new circumstances. Given the practical recommendations on improvement of the development strategy of banks in Russia. The necessity to improve the theoretical, conceptual, methodological, her reasoning
Full Text Available Today there is an urgent need for reform in education. In particular those educational fields are need to reform that train specialists to build an effective economic system of the country, including the banking system. Thus, there is a need to study the effectiveness of implementation of pedagogical conditions of formation of professional qualities of future specialists of Banking and identify the priority areas of development of relevant education field. Considering on the specificity of training banking specialists, the focus of research is to determine the role of ICT both in future work and in preparing students for future professional activity. Thus, on the efficiency of formation of professional qualities of future banking specialists in the course of their professional training will have a positive impact such educational facilities as updating interdisciplinary integration of professional disciplines, activation of interactive learning tools for students and simulation of special learning situations aimed to awareness of the importance of competencies to carry out the professional activities. The implementation of pedagogical conditions of formation of professional qualities of future banking specialists will provide the stable positive dynamics of formation of professional qualities of future banking.
O'Donnell, Jessica; Fryirs, Kirstie A; Leishman, Michelle R
Anthropogenic disturbance has contributed to widespread geomorphic adjustment and the degradation of many rivers. This research compares for river reaches of varying condition, the potential for seed banks to support geomorphic river recovery through vegetation regeneration. Seven river reaches in the lower Hunter catchment of south-eastern Australia were assessed as being in poor, moderate, or good condition, based on geomorphic and ecological indicators. Seed bank composition within the channel and floodplain (determined in a seedling emergence study) was compared to standing vegetation. Seed bank potential for supporting geomorphic recovery was assessed by measuring native species richness, and the abundance of different plant growth forms, with consideration of the roles played by different growth forms in geomorphic adjustment. The exotic seed bank was considered a limiting factor for achieving ecological restoration goals, and similarly analysed. Seed bank native species richness was comparable between the reaches, and regardless of condition, early successional and pioneer herbs, sedges, grasses and rushes dominated the seed bank. The capacity for these growth forms to colonise and stabilise non-cohesive sediments and initiate biogeomorphic succession, indicates high potential for the seed banks of even highly degraded reaches to contribute to geomorphic river recovery. However, exotic propagules increasingly dominated the seed banks of moderate and poor condition reaches and reflected increasing encroachment by terrestrial exotic vegetation associated with riparian degradation. As the degree of riparian degradation increases, the resources required to control the regeneration of exotic species will similarly increase, if seed bank-based regeneration is to contribute to both geomorphic and ecological restoration goals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Zavala-Jaspe, Reinaldo; Díaz-Villalobos, María; Mauriello, Luciano; Maekelt, Alberto; de Noya, Belkisyolé Alarcón
To establish the confirmatory diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, at least two immunoserological tests (ELISA, Indirect hamaglutination, IH, Complement Fixation Test, CFT) were carried out in 254 donors, from public and private blood banks of Venezuela, during 48 months between 1997-1998 and 2003-2004, referred to the Immunology Section of the Tropical Medicine Institute in Caracas. Antibodies anti-T. cruzi were detected in 129/254 (50,79%) by ELISA-IgG or IH and CFT. The "artificial xenodiagnosis" was positive in 10/118 persons with positive confirmed serology. Of 129 donors found positive by the serological tests, 68 were living in the capital region and 61 in the interior of the country. Likewise 113 were born in the interior of the country, 8 in Caracas and 8 in Colombia. Of them, 12 individuals serologically confirmed declared to have donated blood in a minimum of 4 occasions before diagnosis. The present study emphasizes the importance of detection of antibodies against T. cruzi in the integral evaluation of blood donors, since many of them with antibodies anti-T. cruzi, have donated blood several times previous to diagnosis.
Baseline extracellular potassium level as an indicator of the rate of increase of the same on further storage in CPDA-1 whole blood units: a potential approach to complement FIFO system for prioritisation of blood bags for release from blood-banks.
Baliarsingh, S; Jaiswal, M
Potassium levels in stored blood bags increases as they age. Hyperkalemia in transfused blood has undesirable cardiac effects. Within a 19-month period, baseline and weekly samples from 15 CPDA-1 whole blood bags were collected till 28 days of storage and analysed for potassium, sodium, uric acid, albumin and whole blood haemoglobin. One unit increase in baseline (0 day) potassium in extracellular fluid of blood units was associated with the following increases in potassium levels on later days of storage: around two unit increase at 1 week (r2 = 0·50, P values. For CPDA-1 blood bags (i) low baseline potassium blood bags might be preferred for transfusion in cases demanding a low potassium load and (ii) coordinating the ‘first-in-first-out’ (FIFO) policy with ‘early release of blood-bags with high initial potassium’ might be helpful in improving the release of suitable blood units from blood-banks.
Sun, Changbin; Yue, Jianhui; He, Na; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Yong
Stem cells are highly promising resources for application in cell therapy, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, toxicology and developmental biology research. Stem cell banks have been increasingly established all over the world in order to preserve their cellular characteristics, prevent contamination and deterioration, and facilitate their effective use in basic and translational research, as well as current and future clinical application. Standardization and quality control during banking procedures are essential to allow researchers from different labs to compare their results and to develop safe and effective new therapies. Furthermore, many stem cells come from once-in-a-life time tissues. Cord blood for example, thrown away in the past, can be used to treat many diseases such as blood cancers nowadays. Meanwhile, these cells stored and often banked for long periods can be immediately available for treatment when needed and early treatment can minimize disease progression. This paper provides an overview of the fundamental principles of stem cell banking, including: (i) a general introduction of the construction and architecture commonly used for stem cell banks; (ii) a detailed section on current quality management practices; (iii) a summary of questions we should consider for long-term storage, such as how long stem cells can be stored stably, how to prevent contamination during long term storage, etc.; (iv) the prospects for stem cell banking.
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Danzer, Enrico; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Troeger, Carolyn; Kostka, Ulrike; Steimann, Sabine; Bitzer, Johanes; Gratwohl, Alois; Tichelli, André; Seelmann, Kurt; Surbek, Daniel V
During the past decade, the use of umbilical cord blood (CB) as a source of transplantable hematopoietic stem cells has been increasing. Little is known about the psychosocial consequences that later affect parents after unrelated CB donation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attitudes of mothers toward unrelated donation of umbilical CB for transplantation 6 months after giving birth. A prospective study was performed with a standardized, anonymous questionnaire distributed to 131 women 6 months after CB donation. The questionnaire included topics concerning views about the ethical accuracy of having donated CB, emotional responses after donation, concerns about genetic testing and research with CB samples, attitude toward anonymity between her child and possible unrelated CB recipient, and willingness to repeatedly donate umbilical CB in a next pregnancy. The vast majority (96.1%) stated that they would donate umbilical CB again, and all respondents were certain that their decision to have donated umbilical CB was ethical. With regard to the potential risks of genetic testing and "experimentation" of umbilical CB, a significant correlation (p = 0.01) was found between negative attitudes and the decision not to donate umbilical CB again. Additionally, it was observed that women who had a negative experience concerning the donation of CB would not donate again (p = 0.004). This study shows a high degree of satisfaction of unrelated umbilical CB donation for banking in women 6 months after delivery. Despite a well-performed and detailed informed consent procedure, one of the ongoing issues for the donators in CB banking involves the concern regarding of improper use of the cells, such as genetic testing or experimentation. Accurate and detailed counseling of pregnant women and their partners therefore maximizes the likelihood that they will donate CB for unrelated banking. These data provide a basis for the improvement of donor selection procedures
Lawicki, Shaun; Coberly, Emily A; Lee, Laura A; Johnson, Mary; Eichbaum, Quentin
The Kidd-null phenotype, Jk(a-b-), occurs in individuals who do not express the JK glycoprotein. Jk(a-b-) individuals can make an antibody against the Jk3 antigen, a high-incidence antigen present in more than 99.9% of most populations. This presents many challenges to the blood bank including identification of the antibody, masking of other antibodies, and how to provide transfusion support given the rarity of Jk3-negative blood products. Kidd antibodies may cause acute and delayed hemolytic reactions as well as hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). In this article, we present a series of four practical cases of pregnant women with the anti-Jk3 alloantibody that demonstrate a range of clinical presentations of Kidd-related HDFN. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical and blood bank records for four patients and their newborns encountered at institutions in Tennessee, Missouri, Hawaii, and Guam with an anti-Jk3 identified during pregnancy. Two cases showed no significant evidence for HDFN, while two cases were of mild-to-moderate severity requiring early delivery due to elevated middle cerebral artery (MCA) flow velocities but requiring only phototherapy for hyperbilirubinemia. No intrauterine or neonatal transfusions were necessary. Anti-Jk3 alloantibody titers ranged from 2 to 128. Clinical manifestations of anti-Jk3 HDFN are generally mild to moderate. Anti-Jk3 titers were not found to correlate directly with HDFN severity. We suggest a titer of 16 to 32 as a cutoff for implementing enhanced monitoring of fetal MCA flow velocities, as such titers may be indicative of elevated HDFN risk. © 2018 AABB.
Sil Kar, Sudeshna; Maity, Santi P
Extraction of blood vessels on retinal images plays a significant role for screening of different opthalmologic diseases. However, accurate extraction of the entire and individual type of vessel silhouette from the noisy images with poorly illuminated background is a complicated task. To this aim, an integrated system design platform is suggested in this work for vessel extraction using a sequential bandpass filter followed by fuzzy conditional entropy maximization on matched filter response. At first noise is eliminated from the image under consideration through curvelet based denoising. To include the fine details and the relatively less thick vessel structures, the image is passed through a bank of sequential bandpass filter structure optimized for contrast enhancement. Fuzzy conditional entropy on matched filter response is then maximized to find the set of multiple optimal thresholds to extract the different types of vessel silhouettes from the background. Differential Evolution algorithm is used to determine the optimal gain in bandpass filter and the combination of the fuzzy parameters. Using the multiple thresholds, retinal image is classified as the thick, the medium and the thin vessels including neovascularization. Performance evaluated on different publicly available retinal image databases shows that the proposed method is very efficient in identifying the diverse types of vessels. Proposed method is also efficient in extracting the abnormal and the thin blood vessels in pathological retinal images. The average values of true positive rate, false positive rate and accuracy offered by the method is 76.32%, 1.99% and 96.28%, respectively for the DRIVE database and 72.82%, 2.6% and 96.16%, respectively for the STARE database. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the existing methods in detecting the various types of vessels and the neovascularization structures. The combination of curvelet transform and tunable bandpass
Full Text Available The principle of not allowing interest practices (riba has saved the Syariah Bank and their customers from the effects of monetary crisis. In view of Islamic Principles, interest is forbidden. Therefore, all transactions of syariah banking are based on sale-purchase pattern. Besides, all good banking aspects as applied in conventional banking such as, 5 Cs (capital, collateral, capacity, character, and condition are also applied properly in the line of ukhrawi aspects in managing fund of syariah banking. The practice of “mark-up” in project funded by syariah bank seems to be very difficult.
Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU; Vasile ILIE
The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences ca...
Objectives: To determine the status of blood donor haematology in two regional sites in Kenya and to assess the potential role of automated haematology in National blood bank process control. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: Two regional blood banks - Nairobi and its environs (Blood Transfusion ...
Full Text Available The European banking industry is currently facing the effects arising from the increasing integration of national financial markets. In adapting to this new scenario, the Italian banking system has undergone a considerable transformation. The degree of competition in the Italian banking system is evaluated using a sample of banks during the period 1988-96.
Campos, Fernanda Magalhães Freire; Repoles, Laura Cotta; de Araújo, Fernanda Fortes; Peruhype-Magalhães, Vanessa; Xavier, Marcelo Antônio Pascoal; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; de Freitas Carneiro Proietti, Anna Bárbara; Andrade, Mariléia Chaves; Teixeira-Carvalho, Andréa; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira
A relevant issue in Chagas disease serological diagnosis regards the requirement of using several confirmatory methods to elucidate the status of non-negative results from blood bank screening. The development of a single reliable method may potentially contribute to distinguish true and false positive results. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of the multiplexed flow-cytometry anti-T. cruzi/Leishmania IgG1 serology/(FC-TRIPLEX Chagas/Leish IgG1) with three conventional confirmatory criteria (ELISA-EIA, Immunofluorescence assay-IIF and EIA/IIF consensus criterion) to define the final status of samples with actual/previous non-negative results during anti-T. cruzi ELISA-screening in blood banks. Apart from inconclusive results, the FC-TRIPLEX presented a weak agreement index with EIA, while a strong agreement was observed when either IIF or EIA/IIF consensus criteria were applied. Discriminant analysis and Spearman's correlation further corroborates the agreement scores. ROC curve analysis showed that FC-TRIPLEX performance indexes were higher when IIF and EIA/IIF consensus were used as a confirmatory criterion. Logistic regression analysis further demonstrated that the probability of FC-TRIPLEX to yield positive results was higher for inconclusive results from IIF and EIA/IIF consensus. Machine learning tools illustrated the high level of categorical agreement between FC-TRIPLEX versus IIF or EIA/IIF consensus. Together, these findings demonstrated the usefulness of FC-TRIPLEX as a tool to elucidate the status of non-negative results in blood bank screening of Chagas disease. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Payne, Mark; Dickey-Collas, Mark; Nash, Richard D.M.
In the paper "Does the fall phytoplankton bloom control recruitment of Georges Bank haddock, Melanogrammus aeglefinus, through parental condition?", Friedland et al. (Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 65(6): 1076-1086, 2008) examine a sizable number of hypotheses aiming to explain the recruitment patterns...... observed in Georges Bank haddock. The authors focus on a correlation between the size of the autumnal phytoplankton bloom and the survivor ratio (recruitment), concluding this to be the main factor determining recruitment, via the mechanism of adult condition at the time of spawning. Here we examine......, and that in performing the analysis in the chosen manner, Friedland et al. have overlooked alternative hypotheses....
Oliveira, Claudia Di Lorenzo; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Liu, Emily Jing; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; Leão, Silvana Carneiro; Loureiro, Paula; Wright, David; Custer, Brian; Gonçalez, Thelma Therezinha; Capuani, Ligia; Busch, Michael; Proietti, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro
Seasonal distribution of blood donation hinders efforts to provide a safe and adequate blood supply leading to chronic and persistent shortages. This study examined whether holidays, geographical area and donation type (community versus replacement) has any impact on the fluctuation of donations. The numbers of blood donations from 2007 through 2010 in three Brazilian Retrovirus Epidemiological Donor Study II (REDS-II) participating centers were analyzed according to the week of donation. The weeks were classified as holiday or non-holiday. To compare donations performed during holiday versus non-holiday weeks, tabulations and descriptive statistics for weekly donations by blood center were examined and time series analysis was conducted. The average weekly number of donations varied according to the blood center and type of week. The average number of donations decreased significantly during Carnival and Christmas and increased during the Brazilian National Donor Week. The fluctuation was more pronounced in Recife and Belo Horizonte when compared to São Paulo and higher among community donors. National bank holidays affect the blood supply by reducing available blood donations. Blood banks should take into account these oscillations in order to plan local campaigns, aiming at maintaining the blood supply at acceptable levels.
Many poor people in Indian cities sell their blood to commercial blood banks for up to US$2.50. In fact, so many have done so that there once was a Professional Blood Donors Association. It dissolved though after some members died of AIDS. Health workers believe at least 25% of blood donors in Bombay are HIV positive. Yet a recent study of 70 professional blood donors in Bombay shows only 7 who did not test positive for HIV. Still the government of India does not require blood banks to test for HIV, hepatitis, or other blood borne diseases. In fact, the blood supply is monitored in only 5 cities in India. In India as well as in other Asian countries, physicians advise patients to donate their own blood and have it stored until needed for surgery or to ask for safer blood substitutes, e.g., plasma expanders. In fact, in Singapore, the Autologous Blood Bank charges US$21/year to store units of blood for future use. In Japan, most of the 2008 HIV infected people had received blood plasma from mainly the US before Japan required new sterilization regulations on blood imports. The greatest risk from blood donors comes from those who are paid for their blood because they tend to be poor, to practice unsafe sex, and not to be mindful of their health. Most Asian nations such as Japan and Singapore do screen the blood supply. Further, for almost 20 years, Thailand has checked its blood supply for hepatitis B and syphilis. In 1987, it began testing for AIDS. It does not pay for donated blood. In the Philippines, however, even paying blood donors does not meet the needed blood supply and much of the blood comes from commercial blood banks. Yet the Philippine Red Cross has screened for other diseases since 1960 and for AIDS since 1988.
Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation
ABSTRACT. The strong development economy requires a bank as a financial institution that is safe for undertaking various financial activities.The positive impact of developments on financial services is the use of e-bankingis also known as internet banking is the bank services that enable customers to obtain information, communicate and conduct banking transactions through the internet, quickly, can be done anywhere and anytime. Internet banking transactions can also pose some risk, Article 1, paragraph (2 of Bank Indonesia Regulation No. 5/8/PBI/2003 on the Application of Risk Management for Commercial Bank said that the risk is the potential for the occurrence of an event that can cause harm. Risks experienced by customers of PT. BNIS and PT. BCA. According to the Bank Indonesia Regulation Number 10/10/PBI/2008 on the Settlement of customer complaints,customers who suffered the financial losses can lodge a complaint by means of submitting a complaint to the bank. The protection from a legal perspective rule has no detail rules yet about internet banking so bank makes initiave on internet banking terms and condition.The agreement prioritize customer client obligations rather than rights.
Freire Martinez, D.Y.
Comparative evaluation of two methods, Immunoradiometric Assay (IRMA) and Enzyme Immunoassay (ELISA), for detecting HBsAg and Anti HBc was made for determining which is the most advantageous and reliable. The study was made on 300 donors of the Hospital San Juan de Dios Blood Bank. In comparison with the reference method (IRMA), ELISA shows 91.67% of sensitivity. The Anti HBc detection by IRMA is more reliable than the HBsAg detection by IRMA and ELISA for determining the carrier state
Taking into consideration the complexity and dynamics of economic and social life, in general, and especially actual environment which the economic entities and, particularly, the financial and economic crisis facing humanity, the role and the importance of marketing in the financial-banking activities is growing. This role is referring at: actual economic and social dynamism, providing financial and banking liquidity, managing financial and banking risk and customer operations. Responsible f...
de Carvalho, Ricardo Vilas Freire; Brener, Stela; Ferreira, Angela Melgaço; do Valle, Marcele Cunha Ribeiro; Moraes-Souza, Helio
This study aimed to verify the performance of blood transfusion committees in transfusion services linked to the public blood bank network of the state of Minas Gerais. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted between 2007 and 2008 using questionnaires and proficiency tests to evaluate the reporting and investigation of transfusion reactions comparing transfusion services with and without transfusion committees in the public transfusion services of the state of Minas Gerais. Nineteen of Hemominas own transfusion services and 207 that contracted the services of the foundation located in 178 municipalities were visited between 2007 and 2008. Established transfusion committees were present in 63.4% of the services visited. Transfusion incidents were reported by 53 (36.8%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and by eight (9.6%) without transfusion committees (p < 0.001) with 543 (97.5%) and 14 (2.5%) notifications, respectively. Of the reported transfusion incidents, 40 (75.5%) transfusion services with transfusion committees and only two (25%) of those without transfusion committees investigated the causes. The incidence of notification and investigation of the causes of transfusion reactions was higher in transfusion services where a transfusion committee was present. Despite these results, the performance of these committees was found to be incipient and a better organization and more effective operation are required.
Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian
) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old....... CONCLUSIONS: Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from...
Jason D Thorpe
Full Text Available Evaluating diagnostic and early detection biomarkers requires comparing serum protein concentrations among biosamples ascertained from subjects with and without cancer. Efforts are generally made to standardize blood processing and storage conditions for cases and controls, but blood sample collection conditions cannot be completely controlled. For example, blood samples from cases are often obtained from persons aware of their diagnoses, and collected after fasting or in surgery, whereas blood samples from some controls may be obtained in different conditions, such as a clinic visit. By measuring the effects of differences in collection conditions on three different markers, we investigated the potential of these effects to bias validation studies.We analyzed serum concentrations of three previously studied putative ovarian cancer serum biomarkers-CA 125, Prolactin and MIF-in healthy women, women with ovarian cancer undergoing gynecologic surgery, women undergoing surgery for benign ovary pathology, and women undergoing surgery with pathologically normal ovaries. For women undergoing surgery, a blood sample was collected either in the clinic 1 to 39 days prior to surgery, or on the day of surgery after anesthesia was administered but prior to the surgical procedure, or both. We found that one marker, prolactin, was dramatically affected by collection conditions, while CA 125 and MIF were unaffected. Prolactin levels were not different between case and control groups after accounting for the conditions of sample collection, suggesting that sample ascertainment could explain some or all of the previously reported results about its potential as a biomarker for ovarian cancer.Biomarker validation studies should use standardized collection conditions, use multiple control groups, and/or collect samples from cases prior to influence of diagnosis whenever feasible to detect and correct for potential biases associated with sample collection.
O'Hare, Esther Marie; Wood, Angela; Fiske, Elizabeth
Forms of human milk banking and donation have been present for more than a century worldwide, but, since 1985, the Human Milk Banking Association of North America (HM BANA) has established guidelines to make the use of donor's breast milk safe and the second best form of feeding to maternal breast milk for a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) infant. The Indiana Mother's Human Milk Bank provides an extensive and meticulous process of selecting breast milk donors. The process begins with a phone interview with a potential donor and includes the review of the donor's medical records, blood laboratory screening, medication and dietary intake, as well as consent from the donor's pediatrician. The milk bank follows steps of collecting, storing, and receiving the breast milk in accordance with the guidelines of the HM BANA. Pasteurization is the method used to ensure the proper heating and cooling of breast milk. Despite the rigorous pasteurization method, the donor's breast milk will not lose most of the important beneficial components needed for sick or ill NICU infants. Every batch of pasteurized breast milk will be cultured for any possible contamination and shipped to NICUs after it has been cleared by laboratory testing.
Boedeltje, G; ter Heerdt, GNJ; Bakker, JP
Seed bank studies focused on submerged aquatic plants are generally performed under submerged conditions, using the seedling-emergence method. However, if a study targets at both submerged species and helophytes, submerged conditions are generally not suitable. We tested the emergence of seedlings
Li Yu; Min Rui; Cai Jianming
Objective: To built a simple and easy biologic sample bank from irradiated people in nuclear accident, for the long time research of biological effect of low dose ionization radiation on people. Methods: The blood sample is fixed on a piece of filter paper rand sealed up in plastic bottle for keeping, blood sample scribble on glass lice, fixed and dyed as routine clinic examination, and still, reserve a slice of hair of the examined people. Results: Having built a biologic sample bank which from 1162 human body. The samples are come from 958 liquidators of Chernobyl nuclear accident, 46 people in other nuclear accident and 158 people as control groups. It is also having much information details. Conclusions: If the biologic sample bank is combined with the modern bimolecular technique, maybe have much meaningful for the theory and practice of radiobiology. (authors)
V. B. Pogosyan
Full Text Available Main strategic management problems characteristic for the majority of Russian bank are: absence of systems making it possible to adapt bank activity elements to changing outer and inner business conditions; obsolete client service system; traditional liquidity and risk managementmechanisms; absence of systems of coordinating bank strategic management process participants’ interests with the banks aims. Ways of overcoming basic difficulties in bank activity strategic management are defined.
... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hepatitis B vaccine and blood clotting factors... Other Health Services § 410.63 Hepatitis B vaccine and blood clotting factors: Conditions... under § 410.10, subject to the specified conditions: (a) Hepatitis B vaccine: Conditions. Effective...
Haddad, Antoine; Bou Assi, Tarek; Garraud, Olivier
Lebanon has adopted a liberal economic system that also applies to healthcare procurement. There is no national Lebanese blood transfusion service and the blood supply is divided between a large number of licensed (45 per cent) and unlicensed (55 per cent) blood banks, many of them issuing a very limited number of blood components. All blood banks are hospital based and operate the entire transfusion chain, from collection to the release of blood units. Blood donation is voluntary and non-remunerated in 20-25 per cent of donations; it relies principally on replacement donations. Recently, Lebanon has faced political instability and war, and now welcomes an enormous number of refugees from neighboring countries at war. This has had an important impact on heath care and on the transfusion supply. We discuss the impact of the blood donation organization on the transfusion safety and ethics, to set the foundation for a more developed and safer transfusion programs.
Renante A. Egcas
Full Text Available Continual improvement and customer satisfaction are not simply mantras but become a culture of an organization that had its quality management system certified. Hence, this study aimed to assess the operation of the new accounts section of the select provincial branches of an ISO certified bank in the Philippines. A survey instrument using the CCC (characteristics-condition-challenges framework was employed. The respondents were the new accounts clerks (NACs, supervisors and clients of the branches. The result revealed that the most essential and helpful characteristics of the NAC to achieve maximum clients’ satisfaction are being accommodating, accurate, compliant, fast, facilitative, and pleasing. The result further revealed that the condition of the New Account Section (NAS as to the level of compliance and satisfaction in triangulated assessment was ‘very highly compliant/satisfactory’ in the different areas of operation, hence, conforming processes were evident. Furthermore, the result revealed that the challenges or the issues and problems encountered by the NACs are bulk of works, complaining clients, impatient clients, long processes, and overwhelming clients. Generally, the stakeholders of the bank, particularly the clients desired to be wellaccommodated and well-facilitated by a pleasing and efficient employee in a shortest possible time because for them this is ‘good service’. For continual improvement and business excellence, more procedural and service innovations on some aspects of operations are wanting.
Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina
Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries.
Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Kosan, Erdogan
In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In this study for detection of Leishmania infection in donor blood samples, 343 samples from the Capa Red Crescent Blood Center were obtained and primarily analyzed by microscopic and serological methods. Subsequently, the traditional culture (NNN), Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 21 samples which of them were found positive with at least one method. Buffy coat (BC) samples from 343 blood donors were analyzed: 15 (4.3%) were positive by a microculture method (MCM); and 4 (1.1%) by smear. The sera of these 343 samples included 9 (2.6%) determined positive by ELISA and 7 (2%) positive by IFAT. Thus, 21 of (6.1%) the 343 subjects studied by smear, MCM, IFAT and ELISA techniques were identified as positive for leishmaniasis at least one of the techniques and the sensitivity assessed. According to our data, the sensitivity of the methods are identified as MCM (71%), smear (19%), IFAT (33%), ELISA (42%), NNN (4%), PCR (14%) and ICT (4%). Thus, with this study for the first time, the sensitivity of a MCM was examined in blood donors by comparing MCM with the methods used in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. As a result, MCM was found the most sensitive method for detection of Leishmania parasites in samples obtained from a blood bank. In addition, the presence of Leishmania parasites was detected in donor bloods in Istanbul, a non-endemic region of Turkey, and these results is a vital importance for the health of blood recipients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The objective of this work is to audit blood utilization by different specialties in the hospital using the Cross-match ratio as a guide to achieving effective transfusion practices. This was a prospective study. The blood bank of University Teaching Hospital in Benin City, Nigeria was used for the study. We analysed all blood ...
Full Text Available Performance or performance of bank is the image of reached achievement in banking operational in all aspect, covering monetary management of bank and ability of bank’s assets had to yield profit efficiently, so bank can stay and compete in the middle of inflation distortion and policy of Bank Indonesia, hence the bank had to have up to standard performance or performance - condition health of bank determined by Bank Indonesia. This research aim to analyse and prove the difference flattens which isn't it in monetary performance Private National Bank and State Bank pursuant to ratioes of CAMEL. Sampel the used to amount to 12 banks, consist of 9 Private National Bank and 3 taken State Bank pursuant to Purposive Sampling with criterion enlist in Indonesia Stock Exchange (BEI, routine deliver financial statement, period of year 2005-2007.
McQuilten, Zoe K; Schembri, Nikita; Polizzotto, Mark N; Akers, Christine; Wills, Melissa; Cole-Sinclair, Merrole F; Whitehead, Susan; Wood, Erica M; Phillips, Louise E
Hospital transfusion laboratories collect information regarding blood transfusion and some registries gather clinical outcomes data without transfusion information, providing an opportunity to integrate these two sources to explore effects of transfusion on clinical outcomes. However, the use of laboratory information system (LIS) data for this purpose has not been validated previously. Validation of LIS data against individual patient records was undertaken at two major centers. Data regarding all transfusion episodes were analyzed over seven 24-hour periods. Data regarding 596 units were captured including 399 red blood cell (RBC), 95 platelet (PLT), 72 plasma, and 30 cryoprecipitate units. They were issued to: inpatient 221 (37.1%), intensive care 109 (18.3%), outpatient 95 (15.9%), operating theater 45 (7.6%), emergency department 27 (4.5%), and unrecorded 99 (16.6%). All products recorded by LIS as issued were documented as transfused to intended patients. Median time from issue to transfusion initiation could be calculated for 535 (89.8%) components: RBCs 16 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI], 15-18 min; interquartile range [IQR], 7-30 min), PLTs 20 minutes (95% CI, 15-22 min; IQR, 10-37 min), fresh-frozen plasma 33 minutes (95% CI, 14-83 min; IQR, 11-134 min), and cryoprecipitate 3 minutes (95% CI, -10 to 42 min; IQR, -15 to 116 min). Across a range of blood component types and destinations comparison of LIS data with clinical records demonstrated concordance. The difference between LIS timing data and patient clinical records reflects expected time to transport, check, and prepare transfusion but does not affect the validity of linkage for most research purposes. Linkage of clinical registries with LIS data can therefore provide robust information regarding individual patient transfusion. This enables analysis of joint data sets to determine the impact of transfusion on clinical outcomes. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.
collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for...to arrive from the blood bank . In the military setting, where fresh whole blood may be available as a “walking blood bank ,” appropriate donors need
Haijema, R.; van Dijk, N. M.; van der Wal, J.; Boucherie, Richard J.; van Dijk, Nico M.
This paper illustrates how MDP or Stochastic Dynamic Programming (SDP) can be used in practice for blood management at blood banks; both to set regular production quantities for perishable blood products (platelets) and how to do so in irregular periods (as holidays). The state space is too large to
Wen, Shu-Hui; Lai, Meng-Jiun; Yang, Kuo-Liang
Cord blood (CB) is considered an alternative resource to bone marrow and peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. In this study, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, and -DRB1 high-resolution allele types were analyzed from a total of 710 CB units in the Tzu Chi Taiwan Cord Blood Bank. We observed 21 HLA-A alleles, 59 HLA-B alleles, and 28 HLA-DRB1 alleles, whereas 19 unique alleles were present in the CB units of 2,023 individuals selected for confirmatory testing in the Tzu Chi Taiwan Marrow Donor Registry (TCTMDR). The allelic associations between the HLA-A and -B locus were stronger than that of either the HLA-B and -DRB1 loci or the HLA-A and -DRB1 loci. The most common haplotype of CB units in the general Taiwanese population was A*3303-B*5801-DRB1*0301 (6.59%), followed by A*0207-B*4601-DRB1*0901 (3.47%) and then A*1101-B*4001-DRB1*0901 (2.11%). Moreover, two haplotypes, A*2402-B*5201-DRB1*1502 and A*0201-B*1301-DRB1*1202, existed uniquely in the CB units but were not observed in the data of TCTMDR. Although the number of CB units studied for high-resolution of HLA typing in the current study is small, we believe our data should provide useful information to increase the chances of obtaining acceptable HLA-A-, -B-, and -DRB1-matched CB units for patients.
Full Text Available The number of banks which face problems (besides the three banks that have become bankrupt has increased making the clients to worry about their money held in banks. The main is that not all the banking sector is facing instability; some banks register good results and have a competitive and stable position on the market. With all these, due to the bad rumours, people lost credibility and loyalty. The created bad reputation of the banking sector should be broken by implementing new and more suitable policies, new strategies oriented towards clients’ satisfaction and realization. The banks’ main mission is to make people to believe in them as usually.
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Hartmann, B T; Pang, W W; Keil, A D; Hartmann, P E; Simmer, K
Until the establishment of the PREM Bank (Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank) donor human milk banking had not occurred in Australia for the past 20 years. In re-establishing donor human milk banking in Australia, the focus of the PREM Bank has been to develop a formal and consistent approach to safety and quality in processing during the operation of the human milk bank. There is currently no existing legislation in Australia that specifically regulates the operation of donor human milk banks. For this reason the PREM Bank has utilised existing and internationally recognised management practices for managing hazards during food production. These tools (specifically HACCP) have been used to guide the development of Standard Operating Procedures and Good Manufacturing Practice for the screening of donors and processing of donor human milk. Donor screening procedures are consistent with those recommended by other human milk banks operating internationally, and also consistent with the requirements for blood and tissue donation in Australia. Controlled documentation and record keep requirements have also been developed that allow complete traceability from individual donation to individual feed dispensed to recipient and maintain a record of all processing and storage conditions. These operational requirements have been developed to reduce any risk associated with feeding pasteurised donor human milk to hospitalised preterm or ill infants to acceptable levels.
Doble, Rebecca; Brunner, Philip; McCallum, James; Cook, Peter G
Recognizing the underlying mechanisms of bank storage and return flow is important for understanding streamflow hydrographs. Analytical models have been widely used to estimate the impacts of bank storage, but are often based on assumptions of conditions that are rarely found in the field, such as vertical river banks and saturated flow. Numerical simulations of bank storage and return flow in river-aquifer cross sections with vertical and sloping banks were undertaken using a fully-coupled, surface-subsurface flow model. Sloping river banks were found to increase the bank infiltration rates by 98% and storage volume by 40% for a bank slope of 3.4° from horizontal, and for a slope of 8.5°, delay bank return flow by more than four times compared with vertical river banks and saturated flow. The results suggested that conventional analytical approximations cannot adequately be used to quantify bank storage when bank slope is less than 60° from horizontal. Additionally, in the unconfined aquifers modeled, the analytical solutions did not accurately model bank storage and return flow even in rivers with vertical banks due to a violation of the dupuit assumption. Bank storage and return flow were also modeled for more realistic cross sections and river hydrograph from the Fitzroy River, Western Australia, to indicate the importance of accurately modeling sloping river banks at a field scale. Following a single wet season flood event of 12 m, results showed that it may take over 3.5 years for 50% of the bank storage volume to return to the river. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.
Full Text Available Islamic banking in Indonesia is present in a dual banking system. Islamic banking is expected to contribute more in the process of economic development and improving people’s welfare. The main objective of this study is to analyze the role of financing Islamic banking and conventional banking credit to the improvement of people’s welfare as measured by reductions in poverty. The study was conducted using the explanatory method, applying the panel regression estimation techniques simultaneously with the Two Stage Least Square method (TSLS using data from the period 1992-2012. Results of the study reveals that the increased of financing Islamic banking and conventional banking credit assign roles to poverty reduction in Indonesia. The role of Islamic banking financing is lower than conventional bank credit role in reducing poverty. In addition to improve financing and credit, changes should be applied in the value of the instruments of monetary policy, economic growth, unequal distribution of income and the depreciation of the local currency that contribute towards poverty conditions.
Lavinia Mihaela GUȚU
Full Text Available The need for prudential supervision imposed to banks by law arises from the action that banking market’s basic factors have. Therefore, it is about banks’ role in economy. The normal functioning of banks in all their important duties maintains the stability of banking system. Further, the stability of the entire economy depends on the stability of the banking system. Under conditions of imbalance regarding treasury or liquidity, banks are faced with unmanageable crisis and the consequences can be fatal. To ensure long-term stability of the banking system, supervisory regulations were constituted in order to prevent banks focusing on achieving rapidly high profits and protect the interests of depositors. Starting from this point, this paper will carry out a study on existing models of supervision in the European Union’s Member States. A comparison between them will support identifying the advantages and disadvantages of each of them.
Full Text Available Banking risk management has become more important during the last 20 years in response to a worldwide increase in the number of bank failures. Turkey has experienced a series of economic and financial crisis since the declaration of Republic and banking system has the most affected sector from the results of these crises. This paper examines some bank failure prediction models using financial ratios. Survival, ordinary and conditional logistic regression models are employed in order to develop these prediction models. The empirical results indicate that the bank is more likely to go bankrupt if it is unprofitable, small, highly leveraged, and has liquidity problems and less financial flexibility to invest itself.
Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to analyse the influence of information about economic and financial problems of strategic shareholders upon the market value of commercial banks operating in the Polish banking sector. The analysis included fourteen such cases from the years 2007-2014. The results clearly indicate that investors consider the foundations of the operation of commercial banks in Poland to be very solid. Problems of strategic shareholders led to only slight depreciation of the banks’ securities quoted at the Warsaw Stock Exchange in the period directly after publication of the information. Investors decided that problems of parent companies were unlikely to threaten the stability of banks operating in the Polish banking sector.
Schrage, N; Reinhard, T; Seitz, B; Hermel, M; Böhringer, D; Reinshagen, H
In Germany, human tissue for corneal and amniotic transplantation is supplied by 27 cornea banks. The Section for Tissue Transplantation and Biotechnology of the German Ophthalmological Society records the cornea banks' activities by means of an annual questionnaire. In 2009, a total of 4,818 corneal grafts were processed by 21 responding cornea banks, and 57% were deemed suitable for transplantation. This ratio is slightly higher than the European average. In addition, German cornea banks released 1,257 amniotic grafts in 2009. German cornea banks are currently facing new regulatory issues due to updated legislation regarding tissue transplantation. Recent updates in European law have limited the cutoff time for postmortem blood sampling to 24 h, and this regulation may lead to a significant reduction in potential donors.
Carsten Mann; James D. Absher
This paper examines the political construction of a policy instrument for matching particular institutional, biophysical and cultural context conditions in a socialâecological system, using the case of conservation banking in California as an example. The guiding research question is: How is policy design negotiated between various actors on its way from early...
Full Text Available Electronic banking services such as internet banking offer bank clients substantial benefits over traditional banking channels. Although internet banking has been around for many years, increasing the use of the service by bank clients remains a priority for many managers of internet banking services. To address this managerial concern, the study investigates the factors that contribute to the enhanced use of internet banking by bank clients. Based on a literature review, internet-banking factors that could influence bank clients’ actual use of internet banking were identified. Data were collected from 1 156 users of internet banking. The results of the study showed that two factors influence internet banking usage, namely internet banking facilitating conditions and internet banking risk beliefs. The more favourable internet banking facilitating conditions are perceived to be, the more likely bank clients are to increase their use of internet banking. On the other hand, the greater the perceived risks associated with internet banking, the less the chances are that clients will do their banking through the internet. On the basis of these results, recommendations are provided to enhance the use of internet banking.
Veerman, D. P.; Imholz, B. P.; Wieling, W.; Karemaker, J. M.; van Montfrans, G. A.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging on beat-to-beat blood pressure and pulse interval variability in resting conditions and to determine the effect of aging on the sympathetic and vagal influence on the cardiovascular system by power spectral analysis of blood pressure
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Blood donation from glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD-deficient and sickle cell trait (SCT donors might alter the quality of the donated blood during processing, storage or in the recipient′s circulatory system. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of G6PD deficiency and SCT among blood donors coming to King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH in Riyadh. It was also reviewed the benefits and risks of transfusing blood from these blood donors. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1150 blood samples obtained from blood donors that presented to KKUH blood bank during the period April 2006 to May 2006. All samples were tested for Hb-S by solubility test, alkaline gel electrophoresis; and for G6PD deficiency, by fluorescent spot test. Results: Out of the 1150 donors, 23 (2% were diagnosed for SCT, 9 (0.78% for G6PD deficiency and 4 (0.35% for both conditions. Our prevalence of SCT and G6PD deficiency is higher than that of the general population of Riyadh. Conclusion: We recommend to screen all units for G6PD deficiency and sickle cell trait and to defer donations from donors with either of these conditions, unless if needed for special blood group compatibility, platelet apheresis or if these are likely to affect the blood bank inventory. If such blood is to be used, special precautions need to be undertaken to avoid complications in high-risk recipients.
Anita A Tendulkar
Full Text Available The threat of hepatitis E is being felt in blood banks in recent times. The disease is usually self-limiting, but may progress to a fulminant fatal form. We report a unique case of a hepatitis E virus (HEV-positive asymptomatic blood donor who later developed jaundice and informed the blood bank. A blood donor passed all eligibility criteria tests and donated blood. After 20 days, the blood bank was informed by the donor that he had developed vomiting and jaundice 1 day postdonation. He was investigated by a local laboratory 1 day postdonation for liver profile, which was high. There had been a major outbreak in his community of similar symptoms during the same period. HEV IgM antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was positive. Silent infections may be lurking in apparently healthy donors. Donors need to be encouraged to revert in case of any significant developments after donation and maintain open channels of communication.
Song, Jae Seung; Cho, Byung Oh; Zee, Sung Quun
In the pressurized water reactor, control banks are operated by 40% effective core height overlap to avoid decrease of differential rod worth. This overlap does not effect on the core depletion history because the pressurized water reactor core operated at all rod out condition for the most of the operation time. For the boron free reactor SMART, however, one or more control banks are always inserted in the core to maintain critical condition, and the control bank overlap effects on the core depletion history. Since the cycle length of SMART is limited by three-dimensional core peaking factor at EOC, at which the control bank located at the core center is withdrawn, the cycle length of SMART is affected by the control bank overlap. In this report, the effect of control bank overlap on the core depletion history was evaluated. It is concluded that 60 cm control bank overlap corresponding to 30% effective core height was selected not to increase maximum peaking factor at EOC so that the control bank overlap does not affect the cycle length of the core. (author). 8 refs., 2 tabs., 19 figs
Haldiman, Lindsey; Zia, Hamid; Singh, Gurmukh
To evaluate the effectiveness of prospective review of orders for fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and platelets in reducing blood-product use, and of the effectiveness of preparing pathology residents to serve as clinical consultants. At our 572-bed tertiary-care hospital, we developed guidelines for the use of blood products in collaboration with a variety of departments. For patients whose condition(s) met generally accepted criteria, we identified trigger points to allow for quick release by blood bank staff of blood products. For patients whose condition(s) did not meet the applicable criteria, the on-call pathology resident reviewed the medical record of that patient to determine whether there were any extenuating circumstances; consulted with the ordering physician and attending pathologist, as needed; and advised the house staff on appropriate use of blood products. We evaluated the change in use of blood products between the years 2009 and 2012 to assess the effectiveness of the program. We observed a decrease of 38.8% and 31.4% in the use of FFP and platelets, respectively (29.7% and 21.1%, respectively, when normalized for the number of discharges). If projected to the national level, this improvement would translate to an annual cost reduction of approximately $130 million. Prospective review of orders for blood products can significantly improve use of these products, thereby reducing risk to patients and avoiding unnecessary healthcare costs. The involvement of pathology residents in the prospective review process provides an excellent opportunity for their training as laboratory consultants. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).
Full Text Available The background of this research was mbanking users in Indonesia is still low despite the mobile phone users in developed and developing countries in the world has increased rapidly since 21st century. Some bank companies in Indonesia has been offering mbanking service but the use of mbanking for financial transaction is still low and limited. The objectives of this research was to analyze the antecedents of attitude towards mbanking and its impact on behavioral intention to adopt mbanking. The design of this research applies hypothesis testing. 200 samples selected from prospective user of 3 government bank. The sampling technique was purposive sampling with crosssectional study. Data analysis used in this research was collected by questionnaire technique with item of statements for each variable. In order to obtain valid and reliable instrument tool, validity and reliability test has been done. The result of this research conclude that there is positive effect perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, perceived competence, perceived communication, perceived privacy and security, society influence, and facilitating condition on attitude towards mbanking. This study supports that there is positive influence on attitude towards mbanking on behavioral intention to adopt mbanking.
Red blood cell viability in stored blood determines successful transfusion. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity has been shown to maintain red blood cell membrane integrity. This study was, therefore, aimed at estimating the G6PD activity in stored blood bags at the blood bank of the University of Nigeria ...
It has been 21 years since the first successful use of umbilical cord blood as a source of donor cells for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Over those years, cord blood transplantation (CBT) has shown marked success as an effective modality in the treatment of children and adults with hematologic malignancies, marrow failure, immunodeficiency, hemoglobinopathy, and inherited metabolic diseases. Furthermore, transplantation without full human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching is possible and, despite a lower incidence of graft-versus-host disease, graft-versus-leukemia effect is preserved. More than 20,000 cbts have been performed worldwide. Ontario is the most populated province in Canada, and its cbt numbers have increased dramatically in recent years, but most of the umbilical cord blood units are purchased from unrelated international registries. There is no public cord bank in Ontario, but there is a private cord banking option, and notably, Ontario has the largest number of live births in Canada [approximately 40% of all Canadian live births per year occur in Ontario (Statistics Canada, 2007)]. In this brief review, the pros and cons of private and public cord banking and the feasibility of starting an Ontario public cord bank are discussed.
Daniel Daugaard; Tom Valentine
This paper considers the influence of economic conditions and financial markets on Australian bank share prices and profitability. It uses time series analysis to obtain an indication of the effectiveness of banks in managing their exposure to interest rates and exchange rates. The results give rise to some comments on the extent to which banks actively manage their exposure to financial and economic variables. The discussion of risk management activities necessarily raises the question of ho...
Hasmiene Diocolano Ibrahim
Full Text Available The inspiration to delve into the contemporary status of Islamic banking and finance in the Philippines has led this study to analyze the financial condition of Amanah Islamic Bank (AIB and recommend improvements in its financial performance. This secondary databased study utilizes library research and content analysis, particularly using the capital, asset, management, earnings, and liquidity parameters. AIB is the rebranded version of Al-Amanah Islamic Investment Bank of the Philippines. At present, AIB has nine branches and is the only authorized bank in the Philippines to offer Islamic banking products and services. Presidential Decree No. 542, which was signed in 1974, directed the AIB to implement an Islamic model of banking and financing, particularly following the “no interest principle” and partnership mechanisms. However, this order was not completely implemented because “conventional banking” dominated the AIB’s operation. This study contributes to the continuing effort to convert AIB into a full-fledged Islamic bank and simultaneously contend with the emerging growth of the banking industry.
... GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y... management, and the bank or banks to be acquired: (1) Financial condition. Their financial condition and future prospects, including whether current and projected capital positions and levels of indebtedness...
Ballen, K K; Verter, F; Kurtzberg, J
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is a graft source for patients with malignant or genetic diseases who can be cured by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), but who do not have an appropriately HLA-matched family or volunteer unrelated adult donor. Starting in the 1990s, unrelated UCB banks were established, accepting donations from term deliveries and storing UCB units for public use. An estimated 730 000 UCB units have been donated and stored to date and ~35 000 UCB transplants have been performed worldwide. Over the past 20 years, private and family banks have grown rapidly, storing ~4 million UCB units for a particular patient or family, usually charging an up-front and yearly storage fee; therefore, these banks are able to be financially sustainable without releasing UCB units. Private banks are not obligated to fulfill the same regulatory requirements of the public banks. The public banks have released ~30 times more UCB units for therapy. Some countries have transitioned to an integrated banking model, a hybrid of public and family banking. Today, pregnant women, their families, obstetrical providers and pediatricians are faced with multiple choices about the disposition of their newborn's cord blood. In this commentary, we review the progress of UCB banking technology; we also analyze the current data on pediatric and adult unrelated UCB, including the recent expansion of interest in transplantation for hemoglobinopathies, and discuss emerging studies on the use of autologous UCB for neurologic diseases and regenerative medicine. We will review worldwide approaches to UCB banking, ethical considerations, criteria for public and family banking, integrated banking ideas and future strategies for UCB banking.
Bar-Lev, S.K.; Boxma, O.J.; Kleiner, I.; Perry, D.; Stadje, W.
The operation of blood banks aims at the cost-efficient supply of uncontaminated human blood. Each unit of donated blood goes through multiple testing for the presence of various pathogens which are able to cause transfusion-transmitted diseases. The blood screening process is comprised of two
Morales-Borges, Raúl H
Puerto Rico has eight hospital blood banks and three community blood banks for a population around four million. The Red Cross has been in existence in Puerto Rico since 1893 under the Spanish Governance but it was not until 1907 which became the American Red Cross (ARC). Since then it has been serving Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands. About 171.222 blood components, which 45% are of the ARC, are used. There are a number of variations in utilization and a number of factors that are influencing us at the national and local level and that is why collaboration is required in the management plan of blood components at each hospital and implementation of maximum units required for each case of surgery.
Full Text Available The changes occurred in the banking marketing in our country have their origin, firstly, in the changes of the organisational culture which has evolved in the last ten years from the bureaucratic behaviour, categorised excessively, to a specific behaviour for the market economy, based on the knowledge of the clients, on the competition and on the promotion of the mentality of a winner. The organisational culture can be changed in time, as long as the employees are aware of the objectives followed, as long as they are selected and promoted in conformity with these objectives and as long as the feeling of belonging to the organisation has formed which depends essentially on the satisfaction that the employee feels towards the activity he/she enrols. Due to the stimulation of the own personnel, the banks, through superior wages as for the best paid sectors of the national economy, have managed to attract the interest of the existing professionals, as well as of the young specialists willing to dedicate to a banking carrier. The training programs organised through the means of the Romanian Banking Institute or through distinct programs organised by the baking companies in our country have contributed to the motivation of the personnel, as well as to the consolidation of the new organisational culture.
Chang, Yu-Hsun; Yang, Shang-Hsien; Wang, Tso-Fu; Lin, Teng-Yi; Yang, Kuo-Liang; Chen, Shu-Huey
Cord blood banking has become more popular in recent years. Checking cord blood complete blood count (CBC) and white blood cell (WBC) differential counts (DCs) is essential before cryopreserving the cord blood units. Therefore, establishing the normal reference values of cord blood CBC and WBC DC is important in clinical practice and research. To obtain a large-scale population-based normal CBC and WBC DC reference values of healthy neonates' cord blood from a public cord blood bank and to investigate the influence of the gender and delivery route. From September 2001 to November 2006, the cord blood of healthy Taiwanese neonates with gestational age 36 weeks and more were collected by Tzu Chi Cord Blood Bank with written informed consents. All cord blood samples were analyzed by Sysmex XE2100 automated hematology analyzer (Sysmex Corporation, Kobe, Japan) to obtain the CBC. The WBC DC was calculated by manual method. We used Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test for investigating the influences of gender and delivery route on the CBC and WBC DC reference values. The results were presented by mean±standard deviation or 2.5-97.5th percentiles. In the study period, totally 5602 cord blood samples were collected eligibly for analysis. The cord blood CBC and WBC DC normal reference values were calculated. The female neonates had significantly higher mean corpuscular volume, platelet count, and WBC count, but lower red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit, and mean corpuscular Hb concentration values (pTaiwan. Gender and delivery routes were important confounding factors that influenced the cord blood CBC and WBC DC values. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Miranda Petronella VLAD
Full Text Available E-banking website, majority offers the banks. At first it was electronic-banking, Internet-banking followed, followed by mobile-banking service. These services offer the same facilities, Customer Bank just that varies the channel used for communication with the Bank. The services offered by banks through E-banking, approves: compilation of orders; scheduled payments; orders for payment of wages; internal transfers; pay rates on internal or external; currency exchanges; view balances of accounts at any time; information about foreign exchange rates; view and print account statements; the definition of beneficiaries of direct payments by the client.
Ebrahimkhani, Saeideh; Farjadian, Shirin; Ebrahimi, Marzieh
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cells allow the transplantation of partially human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched grafts and are a valuable resource for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and heritable hematologic, immunologic and metabolic diseases, especially when a compatible bone marrow donor is unavailable. The aim of this study was to determine how many ethnic groups in Iran are covered by the available UCB units based on HLA diversity. From 2009 until mid-2013, 4,981 (30.3%) of the 16,437 UCB samples collected met the storage criteria and were cryopreserved at a public cord blood bank (CBB) in Tehran, Iran. HLA-A, -B and -DRB1 were typed in 1,793 samples. The mean volume of the cryopreserved samples was 81.25 ± 20.3 ml. The range of total nucleated cells per unit was 51 × 10(7)-107 × 10(7). The most common HLA alleles were HLA-A*2 (17%) and HLA-A*24 (15.6%), HLA-B*35 (16.8%) and HLA-B*51 (13.9%), and HLA-DRB1*11 (20%) and HLA-DRB1*15 (14%). The predominant haplotypes were HLA-A*24-B*35-DRB1*11 (2%), HLA-A*02-B*50-DR*07 (1.8%), and HLA-A*02-B*51-DRB1*11 (1.5%). Based on the HLA-DRB1 profiles, the UCB units available at the Royan public UCB bank are a potentially adequate resource for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for Iranian recipients belonging to particular ethnic groups. Regular educational programs to improve the public knowledge of UCB for transplantation can enhance the public CBB stocks for all Iranian ethnic groups in the future.
In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspect...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Farm Credit bank(s). 619.9140 Section 619.9140 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM DEFINITIONS § 619.9140 Farm Credit bank(s). Except as otherwise defined, the term Farm Credit bank(s) includes Farm Credit Banks...
Full Text Available In the world of banking, the development of IT has a huge effect on development of more flexible payments methods and more user-friendly banking services. Recently, modern electronic banking services, internet and mobile banking, have rejuvenated banking transactions. Electronic banking over the Internet is one of the newest e-banking services with several benefits both for banks and for customers. The paper aims to provide an overview of online banking services highlighting various aspects globally as well as in the Romanian banking system. Even if there already are several studies on web banking, this topic still remains a resourceful area for academic research in the next decade.
Verma, Anupam; Sachan, Deepti; Elhence, Priti; Pandey, Hem; Dubey, Anju
Good blood banking practice requires that every effort should be made to detect any deviation or defect in blood bank products and to identify any potential risk to blood donor or recipient(s). We report the findings of an exercise that provide an insight into why feedback from the user side is crucial. Various events involving blood bags and plateletpheresis kits and the corresponding appropriate actions instituted for remedial measures were recorded. These scattered events were recorded for 6 months following the use of a new batch of improved blood bags with add-on features. Several events related to plateletpheresis kits from three different manufacturers were also recorded for 1 year. The affected blood bags were utilized with no untoward incident. The complaint was closed following satisfactory response from the blood bag manufacturing company that acted in a timely manner in addressing the root causes of the problems. However, corrective and preventive actions (CAPA) could not be implemented for plateletpheresis kits. The rate of undesirable events was higher with plateletpheresis kits as compared with whole blood bags (1.75% vs. 0.06%). As defects or deviations that trigger the need for CAPA can stem from numerous sources, it is important to clearly identify and document the problems and level of risk so that appropriate investigations can be instituted and remedial actions can be taken in a timely manner. This study demonstrates the usefulness of a quality initiative to collate and analyze blood product faults in conjunction with blood product manufacturers. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
Iulia Andreea Bucur
Full Text Available This paper aims to explore the interactions between macroeconomic conditions, such as: real GDP growth rate, inflation rate, market interest rate, broad money supply, foreign exchange rate fluctuation and unemployment rate, and credit risk in Romanian banking sector during 2008-2013. The interrelations of indicators’ complexity imply a multidimensional statistical analysis in order to find a relation between the macroeconomic conditions and the credit risk. Our regression analysis findings confirm the hypothesis according to which the money supply growth rate and the market foreign exchange rate are negatively related with credit risk and the unemployment rate is positively related with it. Furthermore, our findings revealed that the credit risk is significantly and negatively affected by the exchange rate fluctuation and significantly and positively affected by the unemployment rate. The results do not indicate a significant relationship between credit risk and real GDP growth rate.
Full Text Available An analysis was made of the location of the nine blood banks in the Eastern Province Blood Transfusion Service. The banks were considered as the vertices of an undirected graph. The cost of collecting and distributing blood was assumed to be proportional to the distances between vertices, and to the population of each district. The 9-median of the graph was calculated and the corresponding cost compared with the cost of the actual configuration, which turned out to be about 3% higher.
van Esterik-Plasmeijer, P.; van Raaij, W.F.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to test a model of banking system trust as an antecedent of bank trust and bank loyalty. Six determinants of trust and loyalty are included: competence, stability, integrity, customer orientation, transparency, and value congruence. The study provides insights
Silva Buston, C.F.
Abstract: This paper analyzes the net impact of two opposing effects of active risk management at banks on their stability: higher risk-taking incentives and better isolation of credit supply from varying economic conditions. We present a model where banks actively manage their portfolio risk by
As Labor bank is seemed as business partner of labor union, it contributes each community activities. For example, Labor bank helps retired employee, laborer and inhabitants. In addition, after the amendment of Money Lending Business Act of 2010, labor bank became clearly community based bank by consulting for heavily-indebted people and their education. This paper analyzes the new role of labor bank such as community contribution and enhancing financing service by collecting of the opinion o...
Doroshenko Hanna O.
Full Text Available The article analyses the modern state of the banking sector of Ukraine, its sources and prospects. It identifies that the main obstacle for stable development is dissociation of banking segments, absence of functional unity and orientation at formation of optimal conditions for satisfaction of financial requirements of the domestic economy. In order to create the efficient banking system it is necessary to introduce new banking supervision standards oriented at specialisation of the banking activity. The banking market should be segmented and both major banks that form the nucleus of the segment and minor ones operating in their niches should co-operate within each segment. Universal banks that have a developed branch network should unite specialised segments. Moreover, it is necessary to introduce changes into the mechanism of application of some instruments of money and loan regulation with respect to specialised banks and introduce some restrictions upon spheres of activity of the foreign capital.
This study aims to measure the performance of the technical efficiency of the conventional commercial banks during the period 2008-2009 by using non-parametric method of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Test results showed that the total of all conventional commercial banks during the period 2008-2009 has not shown that optimal performance in which the level of technical efficiency is still below 100 percent. Appalling conditions, the efficiency of national banks experienced a decline of 73.5...
Ms. Tamara Ye. Kononenko
Full Text Available The paper clarifies the concepts of «risk», «financial risk» in banking business, and considers the main problems of financial risk management in trade banks while financing borrowers. The authors single out the most relevant problems, and conduct the analysis of overdue payment in case of OJSC “Sberbank of Russia”. The authors also offer a number of measures to minimize financial risks in trade bank activities in modern conditions.
Full Text Available This study analyzes the responses of performances of BankMandiri, Bank Danamon, and Bank Permata to merger strategy.This paper harnesses the quantitative approach with structuralbreak analysis method and impulse response function. Theplausible findings indicate that the merger of Bank Permataproduces a better performance response in comparison to theconsolidation of Bank Mandiri and the merger of Bank Danamon.The merger of Bank Permata does not result in performanceshocks, and the structural break does not prevail either. On theother hand, the consolidation of Bank Mandiri and the mergerof Bank Danamon result in structural breaks, particularly in thespread performance. In order to return to the stable position, themergers of Bank Mandiri and Bank Danamon require a longertime than does the merger of Bank Permata. This researchindicates that for large banks, the mergers and acquisitions(retaining one existing bank will deliver a better performanceresponse than will the consolidations (no existing bank. Keywords: impulse response function; merger; structural break
Balogun,, Anthony G.
Full Text Available This study examined the extent to which job conditions (job demands and job control, psychological climate, and affective commitment predict turnover intention among Tellers and Interpersonal Relation Officers in some Nigerian Banks and whether affective commitment mediate the relationship between psychological climate and turnover intention. Five hundred and nineteen(tellers = 321, IRO = 198bank employees (266 males and 253 females whose ages ranged from 19 to 65 years with a mean of 34.02 years and SD of 9.54, from 11 commercial banks in Lagos, Nigeria participated in the study. Validated scales were used for data collections. The study hypotheses were tested using hierarchical multiple regression, Baron and Kenny’s (1986 mediation analysis, and t-independent sample analyses. The results revealed significant joint and independent influence of job demands, job control, psychological climate, and affective commitment on turnover intention of bank employees. Furthermore, affective commitment directly and fully mediated the relationship between psychological climate and intention to quit. The results also revealed that interpersonal relation officers (IRO showed higher tendency to quit their jobs than tellers. The researchers therefore suggested the need for bank management to modify or re-design the aspect of the job taxing their employees and invest and create positive climate that would improve their employees’ well-being.
Full Text Available There are new trends in development banking sector especially concerning branches. The e-banking has diminished impact the old fashion branches as main tool finance activity. Now we have units (departments localised at supermarkets and in other strange places. Due to some researches mortgages and insurance polices ought to be sold in traditional branches according to clients preferences. Lafferty Agency researched quality of banking service condition in the UK. Base on this methodology similar case studies were done in Poland.
Li Ma; Junxun Dai; Xian Huang
Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the financial supervision authority utilizes the restrictions of capital constraints imposing on commercial banks the need to develop the macro economy.Design/methodology/approach-This paper uses multilateral game to deduce the loan characteristics of banks,vector and void coordinates to analyze the behavior choices of banks under capital supervision,sets up an index to describe the risk preference of banks,and analyzes the process with Chinese data empirically.Findings-This paper finds big banks have a loan preference for big enterprises and small banks have a preference for establishing a bank syndicate to pursue large projects.Further,the paper notes the conditions by which the heterology banks choose loans across the border and proves that changes of capital requirements would force the credit structure of the commercial banks to adjust along an efficient frontier broken line or an efficient frontier plane under the conditions of interest rate regulation or interest rate marketization,respectively.Research limitations/implications-It is very complex to describe the choices of risk behavior of banks and the simple supervision method needs to be adjusted.Practical implications-This paper finds that banks show risk preferences of credit structure,and capital constraints would affect it greatly;regulators should guard against capital constraint softening.Originality/value-It is the first time that the conditions of banks beyond the loan border have been studied and the behavior adjustment of banks using the vector and void coordinate analyzed.
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to work out and characterize bank business models that are formed in Ukraine. Methodology. Our research we will spend among banks that are functioning on the Ukrainian financial market and are not on the stage of liquidation, so the sample under study in our work is comprised of 131 banks which are different in their ownership structure and size. The core of the methodology is a statistical clustering algorithm that allows identifying the groups of banks (clusters with similar business models as banks with similar business model strategies have made similar choices regarding the composition of their assets and liabilities. The cluster analyses were taken on the base of seven chosen indicators: bank loans, bank liabilities, enterprise loans, enterprise liabilities, household loans, household liabilities and trading assets. Results. The traditional business model of bank is worked out. The bank business models that are functioning in Ukraine are identified on the base of cluster analyses using balance sheet characteristics of 131 Ukrainian banks. We find that in Ukraine were formed three types of bank business models: “Focused retail”, “Diversified retail” and “Corporative retail”. The description of each model is given. Practical implications. More detailed research of distinguished models allows not only to find out the main advantages and disadvantages of each bank model, but also the main problems that follow the development of Ukrainian banking sector. Identifying of bank models and their studying simplifies searching and elaboration of regulatory instruments as there is a two-way causation between regulation and bank business models. This implies a symbiotic relationship between regulation and bank business models: business models respond to regulation which in turn responds to the evolution of new business models. Value/originality. Such survey is conducted at the first time among Ukrainian banks. The
Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Peña-González, Barbra S
A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, used to address life- and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. Packed red blood cells are most often used for blood transfusion. Sometimes blood is transfused after prolonged storage but there is continuing debate as to whether transfusion of 'older' blood is as beneficial as transfusion of 'fresher' blood. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of prolonged storage of packed red blood cells, in comparison with fresh, on recipients of blood transfusion. We ran the search on 1st May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and two other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened reference lists of the retrieved publications and reviews. We updated this search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised clinical trials including participants assessed as requiring red blood cell transfusion were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged storage was defined as red blood cells stored for ≥ 21 days in a blood bank. We did not apply limits regarding the duration of follow-up, or country where the study took place. We excluded trials where patients received a combination of short- and long-stored blood products, and also trials without a clear definition of prolonged storage. We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction by at least two review authors. The major outcomes were death from any cause, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and adverse events. We estimated relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. We identified three randomised clinical trials, involving a total of 120 participants, comparing packed red blood cells with ≥ 21 days storage
C Aneke John; U Ezeh Theodora; A Nwosu Gloria; E Anumba Chika
Background: The occurrence of adverse reactions to blood donation significantly hampers donor retention and negatively impacts on the universal availability of adequate numbers of blood donor units. Objective: To analyze the spectrum and prevalence of adverse reactions in blood donors in a tertiary hospital-based blood bank in Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: The details of 3520 blood donors who presented for donation over a 12 months period were retrieved from the departmental archives for ana...
Harris, G E; Cloud, S; Myhre, B A
Blood should not be allowed to exceed 10 C while being stored or transported. However, one cannot test the internal temperature of a unit of blood without contaminating it. Most blood banks have established an arbitrary time limit beyond which a blood unit cannot be kept out of the refrigerator. This method is ineffective if blood is stored in a satellite refrigerator, since the blood may be moved in and out of the refrigerator and the blood bank personnel will be unaware of it. An elapsed time indicator is described which employs a small condenser (E-Cell-Plessey Electronics) charged with a known amount of electricity. If the device is removed from the refrigerator, it begins to discharge at a known rate. The amount of time subsequently can be determined by the loss of charge. The prototype of this instrument has been found to be quite accurate and small (2 inches X 2 inches X 1 inch). It would be rather inexpensive if made in considerable numbers.
Full Text Available Background: Sultanate of Oman is geographically situated in south-west of Asia, having common borders on western side by the land with United Arab Emirates, Saudi Arabia and Yemen and with the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the east and the north respectively. The country enjoys one of the best health care facilities including blood transfusion services in the region. Study design: Information was collected through informal personal interviews, digging out the past records, and the report presentations at various forums. Results: A modest start by providing blood units through import, the country is now self-reliant on procuring blood units from voluntary non-remunerate blood donors within the sultanate. A steady growth of blood banks is witnessed in every aspect of blood banking including blood collection, blood processing and supply. Various modalities are adapted in promoting voluntary blood donation programme. Conclusion: Sultanate of Oman has created one of the best blood transfusion services in the region in providing safe blood for transfusion through voluntary donation, a use of blood components and irradiating blood products.
PAKSOY, H. Mustafa; ABAROSS, Nour
This study deals with the nature of Islamic banks and their features, and requirements of these features in terms of control tools and methods appropriate with the particularity of their business and their relation with the traditional central bank. At the same time aims to view the relationship between Islamic bank and central bank. To explain this relation the researcher started to explain what is the central bank, objectives of central bank, and characteristics, what is Islamic bank and ob...
Full Text Available The paper estimates the competitive conditions and concentration in the Turkish banking industry during the period 2002-2010. The period starts after implementation of the comprehensive reform in the banking sector and lasts until culmination of the global financial crisis. The concentration ratio and the Herfindahl-Hirschman index are applied to measure level of concentration. We found the banking sector to be almost non-concentrated with exemption of deposit market where we revealed a slight concentration. However, there is a clear trend of increasing concentration at all segments of the Turkish banking sector over the analysed period. The Panzar-Rosse model is used for estimation of competitive conditions in the banking market. Specifically, we use a panel with data for most of the Turkish banks to estimate the H statistics. We concluded that the Turkish banking sector can be characterized as an industry with monopolistic competition that closely approaches monopoly. The results imply that banks in Turkey do not operate in a competitive environment and enjoy monopoly rents. Moreover, we revealed decreasing level of competition during the entire period of estimation. Such a market structure can pose a threat for efficient intermediation of funds through the banking sector and promoting of economic growth.
Full Text Available This article examines the existing Bank Lending Survey (BLS approaches to the assessment of the non-price lending conditions' impact on the credit market balance. BLS responses provided domestic central banks an early and reliable signal about the deterioration of financing conditions and the financial access. The monitoring pattern stipulate by using the core indicators: net percentage, diffusion index, Bank Lending Tightness (BLT. The priority tasks for National Bank of Ukraine for Bank Lending Survey were put forward by author. Senior Loan Officer Opinion Survey (SLOOS on Bank Lending Practices address changes in the supply of, and demand for, bank loans to businesses and households over the past months.
Blood sample was spun on a bench centrifuge at 3,000rpm for 10 minutes to obtain serum. Serum or plasma was separated immediately. Data Collection and Laboratory Methods. A survey of the blood sample of the prospective donors at the Blood Bank, University College. Hospital (UCH) Ibadan was conducted between.
Full Text Available In the article arguments are analysed in relation to determination of expedience of introduction of Tobin’s tax at the financial and credit market in the conditions of crisis of trust to the banking system of Eurozone and growth of volumes of deficit of state finances, and prognoses are done for adaptation of the Ukrainian banking system to the new operating conditions.
Otani Marcia M.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: In 1998, the Brazilian Ministry of Health made it mandatory for all blood banks in the country to screen donated blood for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV concomitantly using two different enzyme immunoassay (EIA tests. Concerned with the best use of available resources, our objective with this study was to evaluate the usefulness of conducting two EIA screening tests instead of just one. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1999 through 2001 obtained by testing 698 191 units of donated blood using two EIA HIV screening tests concomitantly at the Pro-Blood Foundation/Blood Center of São Paulo (Fundação Pró-Sangue/Hemocentro de São Paulo, which is a major blood center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. All samples reactive in at least one of the two EIA tests were submitted for confirmation by a Western blot (WB test, and the persons who had donated those samples were also asked to return and provide a follow-up sample. RESULTS: Out of the 698 191 blood units that were donated, 2 718 of them (0.4% had to be discarded because they were reactive to at least one of the EIA tests. There were two WB-positive donation samples that were reactive in only one HIV EIA screening test. On their follow-up samples, both donors tested WB-negative. These cases were considered false positive results at screening. Of the 2 718 donors who were asked to return and provide a follow-up sample, 1 576 of them (58% did so. From these 1 576 persons, we found that there were two individuals who had been reactive to only one of the two EIA screening tests and who had also been negative on the WB at screening but who were fully seroconverted on the follow-up sample. We thus estimated that, in comparison to the use of a single EIA screening test, the use of two EIA screening tests would detect only one extra sample out of 410 700 units of blood. CONCLUSIONS: Our data do not support the use of two different, concomitant EIA screening tests for HIV. The great
Export financing of a nuclear power plant to be exported from Germany, is, in principle, provided by German commercial banks and KfW (Kreditanstalt fuer Wiederaufbau). As a rule, 50 per cent of the financing of maturities falling due under the export portion of the loan will be taken over by a banking syndicate of approximately 25 member banks, and the remaining 50 per cent would be provided by KfW. KfW and the commercial banks must grant their loans at the respective money market conditions. The banks' and KfW's loans will normally be disbursed pro rata delivery. (HP) [de
Full Text Available Las primeras investigaciones realizadas a nivel de bancos de sangre, durante la década 50, indican que la seroprevalencia por infecciones a T. cruzi entre hemodadores fue de 12%. Un estudio posterior, entre 1963-64, efectuado en varios bancos de sangre, así como otros centros, registró una seroprevalencia global de 6.0% (1.1-10.1%. La donación de sangre en Venezuela es gratuita. El control de los bancos de sangre recae en el Departamento de Transfusiones y Bancos de Sangre del Ministerio de Sanidad y Asistencia Social. A partir de 1988, se emplea uniformemente la técnica de ELISA para el diagnóstico de infecciones a T. cruzi en los Bancos de Sangre. La seropositividad promedio interanual, entre 1984-1992, fue de 1.20% (1.09-1.94%. Existen variaciones geográficas entre las localidades de varias entidades federales. Los estados con mayor prevalencia se ubican en las regiones del occidente y centro del país, a saber: Portuguesa, Barinas, Lara, Trujillo, Cojedes y Carabobo. Por las dificultades en obtener tasas de incidencia para el Mal de Chagas, resulta adecuado emplear tasas de prevalencia para uso en salud pública, en función de su mayor estabilidad; y en el caso de Venezuela, dada la severidad menor y una sobrevivencia mayor por esta patologia hoy día. La especificidad, como parámetro de las pruebas serológicas, debería considerarse en función de la baja seroprevalencia detectada a nivel nacional. Convendría emplear varias pruebas diagnósticas en paralelo para buscar un equilibrio entre sensibilidad y especificidad.Primary investigations carried out in blood banks in Venezuela during the 1950s, indicated that overall seroprevalence for Trypanosoma cruzi infection was 12% amongst blood donors. In Venezuela, blood donation is free. All public and private blood banks are controlled by the Ministry of Health. As from 1988 the ELISA technique was uniformly used in blood banks for the detection of T. cruzi infections. Annual median
Bryan J. Noeth; Rajdeep Sengupta
To those who don't know, the term "shadow banking" probably has a negative connotation. This primer draws parallels between what has been termed the shadow banking sector and the traditional banking sector—showing that they are similar in many ways.
The recent discovery that umbilical cord blood has a high concentration of haematopoeitic stem cells has led to cord blood being used to treat a variety of disorders. Collection of cord blood is easy, non-invasive and generally does not interfere with the delivery process. However, there are various ethical and logistical ...
Forum on Blood Safety and Blood Availability; Dauer, Edward A
... on Blood Safety and Blood Availability Division of Health Sciences Policy INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE Edward A. Dauer, Editor NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996 i Copyrightoriginal retained, the be not from cannot book, paper original however, for version formatting, authoritative the typesetting-specific created from the as publication files other X...
Česká národní banka
This publication analyzes the individual years of banking supervision since 1990, when the two-tier banking system, which created the conditions for the rapid development of commercial banking and expansion of banking services and products.
Supramaniam, Mahadevan; Shanmugam, Bala
The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation flow and development of retail bank management simulation based training system which could provide a comprehensive knowledge about the operations and management of banks for the banking students. The prototype of a Retail banking simulation based training system was developed based on…
Reiche Edna Maria Vissoci
Full Text Available This study evaluated the usefulness of the anti-HBc, hepatitis C virus antibodies (anti-HCV, human T cell lymphotropic virus I and II antibodies (anti-HTLV I/II, serologic tests for syphilis, and surface antigen of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg as surrogate markers for the risk for HIV infection in 80,284 serum samples from blood donors from the Blood Bank of "Hospital Universitário Regional Norte do Paraná", Londrina, Paraná State, Brazil, analyzed from July 1994 to April 2001. Among 39 blood donors with positive serology for HIV, 12 (30.8% were anti-HBc positive, 10 (25.6% for anti-HCV, 1 (2.6% for anti-HTLV I/I, 1 (2.6% was positive for syphilis, and 1 (2.6% for HBsAg. Among the donors with negative serology for HIV, these markers were detected in 8,407 (10.5%, 441 (0.5%, 189 (0.2%, 464 (0.6%, and 473 (0.6% samples, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001 for anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Although the predictive positive value for these surrogate markers were low for HIV infection, the results confirmed the anti-HBc and anti-HCV as useful surrogate markers for HIV infection thus reinforcing the maintenance of them in the screening for blood donors contributing to the prevention of the small number of cases in which HIV is still transmitted by transfusion.
Full Text Available We investigate the relationship of Indonesian bank diversification towards its long term performance and risk profile with Indonesian bank data from 2009 to 2013. Non-interest income to total operating income of the bank measures its bank diversification level. Bank value is measured by the adjusted Tobin's Q and risk profile which is broken down into total risk, idiosyncratic risk, and systematic risk. The result shows that bank non-interest income diversification has a positive influence on its franchise value. There is, however, no strong evidence that diversification can lower a bank's risk profile.
This paper examines the impact of restricting foreign bank entry on bank net interest margins while controlling for (a) impediments to domestic bank entry, (b) the degree of foreign bank ownership of the domestic banking industry, (c) an array of bank-specific characteristics, (c) banking sectorconcentration, and (d) various country traits. Using data on almost 1200 banks across 47 countries, the results suggest that restricting foreign bank entry boosts bank net interest margins. Also, restr...
MIRANDA PETRONELLA VLAD
Full Text Available E-banking is the first of those banking services that really economize time, because it allows to the user to accomplish from behind the computer many operations in the bank account, represents the computational solution that allows to the holder to have
Full Text Available In modern conditions of market globalization and strong competition, it is necessary to improve a holistic approach to marketing in banks. This paper is based on the research conducted in the banks in Montenegro. The goal of this study was to determine whether the Montenegrin banks have clearly redefined the concept of marketing, recognized the specific nature of marketing in banking and adopted a holistic marketing concept in modern banking. The main purpose of marketing in banking is to attract, retain and develop long-term relationships with customers and other stakeholders. Also, the marketing concept in banking includes the achievement of full cooperation with customers through relationship marketing, customer relationship management (CRM, alternative distribution channels in modern banking and, in general, a holistic approach to marketing. Holistic marketing analysis will help identify the strengths and weaknesses in marketing in the banking sector of Montenegro and give platform for strategic planning for its further development.
Constantin Marian MATEI
Full Text Available Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture. SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system. For the Internet Banking applications, SOA proved to be the optimal architectural solution, for a smoth integration between banking services from the front-end to the back-end.This paper intend to offer an insite analyse of the Internet Banking applications architecture integrated with other banking systems. A SOA oriented analyse will establish the scope of the integration architecture.
Fitzpatrick, J.A.; Donaldson, I.S.; McKnight, W.
The results for mean and fluctuating pressure distributions around tubes in an in-line tube bank are presented for both non-resonant and self-excited acoustic standing wave resonant flow regimes. It is readily deduced that the nature of the flow in the bank is dramatically altered with the onset of acoustic resonance. The velocity gradients which appear across the bank with the onset of resonance would suggest regions of flow recirculation in the bank although no evidence of this was found. The spectra of fluctuating pressure on the duct roof in the bank and on tubes deep in the bank exhibited coherent peaks only during resonance. (author)
Poder, T G; Pruneau, D; Dorval, J; Thibault, L; Fisette, J-F; Bédard, S K; Jacques, A; Beauregard, P
Fluid warmers are routinely used to reduce the risk of hypothermia and cardiac complications associated with the infusion of cold blood products. However, warming blood products could generate haemolysis. This study was undertaken to compare the impact of temperature of blood warmers on the per cent haemolysis of packed red blood cells (RBCs) heated at different flow rates as well as non-flow conditions. Infusion warmers used were calibrated at 41·5°C ± 0·5°C and 37·5°C ± 0·5°C. Cold RBC units stored at 4°C in AS-3 (n = 30), aged 30-39 days old, were divided into half units before being allocated under two different scenarios (i.e. infusion pump or syringe). Blood warmers were effective to warm cold RBCs to 37·5°C or 41·5°C when used in conjunction with an infusion pump at flow rate up to 600 ml/h. However, when the warmed blood was held in a syringe for various periods of time, such as may occur in neonatal transfusions, the final temperature was below the expected requirements with measurement as low as 33·1°C. Increasing the flow with an infusion pump increased haemolysis in RBCs from 0·2% to up to 2·1% at a flow rate of 600 ml/h regardless of the warming device used (P < 0·05). No relevant increase of haemolysis was observed using a syringe. The use of a blood warmer adjusted to 41·5°C is probably the best choice for reducing the risk of hypothermia for the patient without generating haemolysis. However, we should be cautious with the use of an infusion pump for RBC transfusion, particularly at high flow rates. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Interest Free Banking in Nigeria - Welcome Islamic Banking; Welcome Christian Banking. ... banks pay interest on deposits, and charge interest on loans and advances, ... However, the literature on interest rates, in relation to Commercial Bank ...
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions for acceptance. 412.7 Section 412.7 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES ACCEPTANCE OF PAYMENT FROM A NON-FEDERAL SOURCE FOR TRAVEL EXPENSES § 412.7 Conditions for acceptance. (a) Eximbank may accept payment for...
Smit Sibinga, C.; Dijk, van N.M.; Haijema, R.; Wal, van der J.
The production and inventory management of blood platelets at blood establishments and hospital blood banks is a service problem of general human interest. Shortages or inadequate supplies may pur lives at risk and thus have to be managed and kept to a minimum. However, platelets have a limited
Crompton, Kylie E; Elwood, Ngaire; Kirkland, Mark; Clark, Pamela; Novak, Iona; Reddihough, Dinah
Umbilical cord blood may have therapeutic benefit in children with cerebral palsy (CP), but further studies are required. On first appearance it seems that Australia is well placed for such a trial because we have excellence in CP research backed by extensive CP registers, and both public and private cord blood banks. We aimed to examine the possibilities of conducting a trial of autologous umbilical cord blood cells (UCBCs) as a treatment for children with CP in Australia. Data linkages between CP registers and cord blood banks were used to estimate potential participant numbers for a trial of autologous UCBCs for children with CP. As of early 2013, one Victorian child with CP had cord blood stored in the public bank, and between 1 and 3 children had their cord blood stored at Cell Care Australia (private cord blood bank). In New South Wales, we counted two children on the CP register who had their stored cord blood available in early 2013. We estimate that there are between 10 and 24 children with CP of any type who have autologous cord blood available across Australia. In nations with small populations like Australia, combined with Australia's relatively low per capita cord blood storage to date, it is not currently feasible to conduct trials of autologous UCBCs for children with CP. Other options must be explored, such as allogeneic UCBCs or prospective trials for neonates at risk of CP. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2014 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is inextricably linked with economic and development policies. This raises the question, to what extent do the commitments to reduce carbon dioxide emissions under the Climate Change Convention affect the practices and policies of the World Bank? After briefly describing the interaction between climate change and economic development, as well as the respective instruments of the Climate Change Treaty and the World Bank, this paper identifies several windows through which the obligations set out by the Climate Change treaty affect the World Bank. These include the Global Environmentally Facility, the Operational Policies adopted by the Executive Directors of the World Bank, specific loan structures and conditions as well as the recent Prototype Carbon Fund. (Author)
Small, Ch.J.; McCarthy, B.C.
Seed bank composition was sampled in 192-2.5 m 2 quadrats, established in six regenerating clearcut (∼7 years) and six second-growth ((∼125 years) mixed-oak forest stands in southeastern Ohio. Seed bank and aboveground composition diverged markedly (Sorensen's coefficient <10%), emphasizing the importance of fast-growing, early-successional germinants to early ecosystem recovery. Seed richness was significantly (ρ<.01) higher in clearcut stands, suggesting declining richness with stand age. Richness estimations 28%-60% higher than observed values demonstrated high seed bank heterogeneity, emphasizing the need for intensive sampling to assess temperate forest seed bank variation. Site quality (topographic aspect) strongly influenced seed bank composition, with greater importance of early-successional trees, thicket-forming shrubs, and nonnative species on mesic sites. Thus, forest seed banks are likely to play an important, site-dependent role in shaping competitive environments for commercially important timber species after harvesting and soil disturbance and have the potential for marked influence on post harvest forest development.
Haiden, Nadja; Ziegler, Ekhard E
Human milk banks play an essential role by providing human milk to infants who would otherwise not be able to receive human milk. The largest group of recipients are premature infants who derive very substantial benefits from it. Human milk protects premature infants from necrotizing enterocolitis and from sepsis, two devastating medical conditions. Milk banks collect, screen, store, process, and distribute human milk. Donating women usually nurse their own infants and have a milk supply that exceeds their own infants' needs. Donor women are carefully selected and are screened for HIV-1, HIV-2, human T-cell leukemia virus 1 and 2, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and syphilis. In the milk bank, handling, storing, processing, pooling, and bacterial screening follow standardized algorithms. Heat treatment of human milk diminishes anti-infective properties, cellular components, growth factors, and nutrients. However, the beneficial effects of donor milk remain significant and donor milk is still highly preferable in comparison to formula. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Malentacchi, Francesca; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Wyrich, Ralf; Verderio, Paolo; Ciniselli, Chiara; Pazzagli, Mario; Gelmini, Stefania
Inappropriate handling of blood samples might induce or repress gene expression and/or lead to RNA degradation affecting downstream analysis. In particular, sample transport is a critical step for biobanking or multicenter studies because of uncontrolled variables (i.e., unstable temperature). We report the results of a pilot study implemented within the EC funded SPIDIA project, aimed to investigate the role of transport and storage of blood samples containing and not containing an RNA stabilizer. Blood was collected from a single donor both in EDTA and in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. Half of the samples were sent to a second laboratory both at room temperature and at 4°C, whereas the remaining samples were stored at room temperature and at 4°C. Gene expression of selected genes (c-FOS, IL-1β, IL-8, and GAPDH) known to be induced or repressed by ex vivo blood handling and of blood-mRNA quality biomarkers identified and validated within the SPIDIA project, which allow for monitoring changes in unstabilized blood samples after collection and during transport and storage, were analyzed by RT-qPCR. If the shipment of blood in tubes not containing RNA stabilizer is not performed under a stable condition, gene profile studies can be affected by the effects of transport. Moreover, also controlled temperature shipment (4°C) can influence the expression of specific genes if blood is collected in tubes not containing a stabilizer. The use of dedicated biomarkers or time course experiments should be performed in order to verify potential bias on gene expression analysis due to sample shipment and storage conditions. Alternatively, the use of RNA stabilizer containing tubes can represent a reliable option to avoid ex vivo RNA changes.
Vyas, Shilpan Dineshkumar
Internet banking is changing the banking industry, having the major effects on banking relationships. Banking is now no longer confined to the branches were one has to approach the branch in person, to withdraw cash or deposit a cheque or request a statement of accounts. In true Internet banking, any inquiry or transaction is processed online without any reference to the branch (anywhere banking) at any time. Providing Internet banking is increasingly becoming a "need to have" than a "nice to...
Full Text Available The research aim was to assess the influence of the service quality of mobile banking (m-banking against customer satisfaction at the greatest banks in Indonesia. Elements of the quality of mobile banking services (m-banking were speed, security, accuracy, and trust. The population of this study was bank customers from eight of the greatest bank in Indonesia -- Bank Mandiri, Bank BRI, Bank BCA, Bank BNI, Bank CIMB Niaga, Bank Danamon, Bank Permata, and Bank Panin -- who used mobile banking which totaled 19.9 million customers with the size of the sample being 400 respondents. The sampling method used nonprobability sampling by incidental sampling. The results by using a structural equation modeling (SEM found significant influences between service quality of mobile banking (m-banking partially and simultaneously to customer satisfaction.
Cambi, G.; Righini, R.; Sola, P.G.; Zappellini, G.
ENEA, the Italian Committee for Research and Development of Nuclear Energy, has created a data bank expressly concerning FBRs. The structure of the bank is similar to previous CEDB for LWR, but has been fitted to the new requirements typical of FBRs and to the different conditions of the industry. (DG)
R P Narayan
Full Text Available The history of tissue banking is as old as the use of skin grafting for resurfacing of burn wounds. Beneficial effects of tissue grafts led to wide spread use of auto and allograft for management of varied clinical conditions like skin wounds, bone defects following trauma or tumor ablation. Availability of adequate amount of tissues at the time of requirement was the biggest challenge that forced clinicians to find out techniques to preserve the living tissue for prolonged period of time for later use and thus the foundation of tissue banking was started in early twentieth century. Harvesting, processing, storage and transportation of human tissues for clinical use is the major activity of tissue banks. Low temperature storage of processed tissue is the best preservation technique at present. Tissue banking organization is a very complex system and needs high technical expertise and skilled personnel for proper functioning in a dedicated facility. A small lapse/deviation from the established protocol leads to loss of precious tissues and or harm to recipients as well as the risk of transmission of deadly diseases and tumors. Strict tissue transplant acts and stringent regulations help to streamline the whole process of tissue banking safe for recipients and to community as whole.
[Ethical aspects of human embryonic stem cell use and commercial umbilical cord blood stem cell banking. Ethical reflections on the occasion of the regulation of the European Council and Parliament on advanced therapy medicinal products].
The regulation of the European Council and Parliament on advanced therapy medicinal products also includes therapies with human embryonic stem cells. The use of these stem cells is controversially and heavily discussed. Contrary to the use of adult stem cells, medical and ethical problems concerning the use of human embryonic stem cells persists, because this use is based on the destruction of human life at the very beginning. The regulation foresees, therefore, subsidiarity within the European Member States. Although there are no ethical problems in principle with the use of stem cells from the umbilical cord blood, there are social ethical doubts with the banking of these stem cells for autologous use without any currently foreseeable medical advantage by commercial blood banks. Also in this case subsidiarity is valid.
Full Text Available ... educational meetings and webinars ASH Image Bank Educational Web-based library of hematologic imagery In This Section: ... Blood Publishing Office . Patient Groups A list of Web links to patient groups and other organizations that ...
....4357 Section 614.4357 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LOAN POLICIES AND... endorsement or unconditional guarantee by the borrower; (b) The bank determines the financial condition, repayment capacity, and other credit factors of the loan to the original maker reasonably justify the credit...
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is one of the most common transfusion transmissible infections hence the introduction of routine screening for its antibodies in blood donors in most blood banks. Methods: This was a retrospective study in which the blood donor screening register for all intending donors were reviewed ...
Full Text Available In this paper we aim to explore how the type of bank ownership - local private banks, government-owned banks (public banks and foreign banks - can affect relationship lending to small and medium enterprises (SMEs by using a unique data set from Bangladeshi banking sector. We found that private banks differ from government-owned and foreign banks in terms of relationship lending and credit facilities to SMEs. More specifically, our results suggest that unlike government and foreign banks, private banks do consider soft information from relationship lending while setting up the loan spread to SMEs. We can also confirm that exclusive banking relationship or repeated banking with private banks can soften credit conditions (loan maturity and covenants. Moreover, we found empirical evidence that banking relationship is important for private banks in terms of SME credit risk evaluation. Finally, as according to our expectation, the results confirm that regardless of prior relationship, private banks are more depended on collateral-based lending to SMEs than government-owned or foreign banks.
Full Text Available The integration of different states in a already existing union or in a new one represents a long-lasting process involving harmonisations on various fields – political, economic, legislative, social, cultural, technological, informational, etc. Besides the integration of the states and of the different authorities in a common mechanist, the business organizations also have to comply with certain standards and to align to certain procedures. The banking system is not an exception being probably one of the pillars of the economic and financial integration of a state in a union. Banking integration may be considered the process leading to a convergence towards a single market for all products, processes, procedures, standards, transactions from the banking field. All sets of standards, mechanisms and procedures should be observed both by banks, regulation and control bodies, but also by customers. Only in this way one can create the premises for the most favourable banking transactions. The integration of the banking system in a union is determined, conditioned and influenced by a series of factors. Based on the data published by the Bank for International Settlements, the authors carry out a close and pertinent empirical analysis of the banking assets flows between the Eurozone countries in the period 2000-2014. The paper also deals with the commitments that the recent economic-financial crisis created on the banking assets flows. The authors resort to regression equations in order to demonstrate the connection between the effects of banking integration and various factors involved (the relative dimension of the country, the significance of the banks in the financial system, the Herfindhal index, the degree of concentration or dispersion of the property on banks, the degree of independence, the tradition of law. In order to measure the level of banking integration of the national bank systems, the indices we used are the degree of openness
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to define and demonstrate the role of deposit policy for banking institutions, summarize and highlight the problems and its solutions in deposit policy of Ukraine that provides economic downturn and recovery. Appropriate selection and implementation of the deposit policy objectives, its operational structure and tools determines the degree of development of financial inclusion, which generate developed financial market, ensures public confidence to the deposit services, and increases the level of savings that positively affects the banking system financial stability and economy in the country in whole. It is because of availability and security deposit services, commercial banks of Ukraine have the opportunity to increase its resource base due to savings of the population. Methodology. The paper is based on a synthesis of data to explore the bank deposit policy situation. The paper considers the scientific and theoretical approaches for the developing the deposit policy management. It contains the analysis of the dynamics and current situation and conditions of the resource potential of banking institutions in Ukraine. Results of the article shows direct dependency between savings, consumption and deposit policy, therefore every banking institution includes the mechanism of banking management of the development and implementation of deposit policy. Also, this management defines the deposit policy directions according to the conditions of bank resources mobilization and its applying in active operations. The obtained results confirm that the term “deposit policy” is too complex, but it is investigated in interaction with banking activity. It is explained how deposit policy influences banking system and has impact on economic growth in general. Practical implications. The research creates methodological approaches to the measurement of effectiveness of deposit policy. Also, it studies the existing ones. It provides
Full Text Available Dynamic development of financial industry in some last ten years that, considering the kind of financial agents, remained bank-oriented represents a suficient reason to investigate the causes that brought to the present structure of banking system. After having presented theoretical bases of the integration forms and banks connection, the paper analyzes the influence of foreign banks on the development of Croatian bank system. Thus, beside the knowledge of quantitative changes in the banking system, the paper researched the motivations of the banks regarding integration that, among other things, brought to creating the effects of scale and scope economies. However, the concentrations among banks can lead to creation of negative externalities that later become potential dangers for the banking. Pre-cognitions on development of banking system are used to create projection of future banking development while the data basis of the countries from the region enabled the comparative analysis of banks integration in these countries. The conclusion is that the foreign banks have been the largest promoters of bank integration in the Republic of Croatia contributing also to qualitative development of banking market and to deepening of financial market spectrum.
This research aims to understand and analyse the influence of working environment conditions and career development towards the improvement of employees’ working motivation. This research is conducted at the Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Ltd. Tulungagung Jawa Timur Office Branch. The sample amount counted by census technique and acquired 91 responses. The sampling method used was census technique. The data collection instrument is a questionnaire which is analysed by path analysis. Findings...
Full Text Available Determining the status and problems of modern investment in agricultural enterprises, as well as ways to improve their financial security. The article deals with the essence of investments and their varieties. The dynamics of the securities portfolio of domestic banks and investments in agriculture. According to a study submitted proposals to increase investment banking businesses in the agricultural sector, which is necessary to create such conditions are not included in the calculation of the volume of investment regulations investment banking provided by agribusiness companies; availability of specialized banks, which will focus its resources on the development of agricultural enterprises; give banks the opportunity to issue special investment certificates, which received funds will be channeled exclusively on investing in the development of agricultural enterprises; for the above to create an appropriate legal framework.
Nuryati; Gendis Gumilar, Amethysa
This study analyzes and compares the financial risk of the two types of commercial banks, namely conventional commercial bank and Islamic commercial bank. Analysis tools used in this study is to use financial ratios and dicriminant values (Z values). Analysis showed that the ratio of liquidity and solvability ratios higher islamic commercial bank than conventional commercial bank. Z values higher islamic commercial bank than conventional commercial bank. The commercial banks are in a state of...
Christine J. Small
Full Text Available Seed bank composition was sampled in 192–2.5 m2 quadrats, established in six regenerating clearcut (∼7 years and six second-growth (∼125 years mixed-oak forest stands in southeastern Ohio. Seed bank and aboveground composition diverged markedly (Sørensen's coefficient <10%, emphasizing the importance of fast-growing, early-successional germinants to early ecosystem recovery. Seed richness was significantly (P<.01 higher in clearcut stands, suggesting declining richness with stand age. Richness estimations 28%–60% higher than observed values demonstrated high seed bank heterogeneity, emphasizing the need for intensive sampling to assess temperate forest seed bank variation. Site quality (topographic aspect strongly influenced seed bank composition, with greater importance of early-successional trees, thicket-forming shrubs, and nonnative species on mesic sites. Thus, forest seed banks are likely to play an important, site-dependent role in shaping competitive environments for commercially important timber species after harvesting and soil disturbance and have the potential for marked influence on postharvest forest development.
Joe Peek; Eric S. Rosengren; Geoffrey M. B. Tootell
Whether central banks should play an active role in bank supervision and regulation is being debated both in the United States and abroad. While the Bank of England has recently been stripped of its supervisory responsibilities and several proposals in the United States have advocated removing bank supervision from the Federal Reserve System, other countries are considering enhancing central bank involvement in this area. Many of the arguments for and against these proposals hinge on the effe...
Dos Santos, Antonio Alceu; Baumgratz, Jose Francisco; Vila, Jose Henrique Andrade; Castro, Rodrigo Moreira; Bezerra, Rodrigo Freire
Blood transfusions have still been used as a standard therapy to treat severe anemia. Current evidences point to both excessive allogeneic blood consumption and decreased donations, which result in reduced stocks in blood banks. Several studies have increasingly suggested a more restrictive transfusion practice for blood products. Currently, a number of autologous blood conservation protocols in surgeries have been noted. We report a case of severe anemia with 2.9 g/dL hemoglobin, which was successfully handled without using the standard therapy to treat anemia with hemotransfusions. Such a case of severe anemia condition resulted after the patient was submitted to ascending aortic aneurism repair, valvar aortic replacement, reimplantation of right coronary ostium, followed by a coronary artery bypass grafting and several postoperative complications. The main clinical and surgical strategies used in this case to avoid blood transfusions were acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperative blood cell salvage, and meticulous hemostasis, beyond epsilon-aminocaproic acid, desmopressin, prothrombin complex concentrate, human fibrinogen concentrate, factor VIIa recombinant, erythropoietin and hyperoxic ventilation.
Full Text Available Low interest rates and sluggish economic growth are not exactly ideal conditions for the financial services industry. Almost daily we are confronted with reports of inadequate capital bases, declining earnings, and layoffs at banks. But while many traditional retail banks are struggling with a business downturn, the direct bank market is enjoying steady and respectable growth despite a challenging environment. Dr. Schmidberger, Fully Authorized Representative at ING-DiBa Germany, offers us a glimpse behind the curtains of this direct bank. We will learn how data technology is used so that bank customers are (more satisfied.
Locey, Kenneth J; Fisk, Melany C; Lennon, J T
Microbial dormancy leads to the emergence of seed banks in environmental, engineered, and host-associated ecosystems. These seed banks act as reservoirs of diversity that allow microbes to persist under adverse conditions, including extreme limitation of resources. While microbial seed banks may be influenced by macroscale factors, such as the supply of resources, the importance of microscale encounters between organisms and resource particles is often overlooked. We hypothesized that dimensions of spatial, trophic, and resource complexity determine rates of encounter, which in turn, drive the abundance, productivity, and size of seed banks. We tested this using >10,000 stochastic individual based models (IBMs) that simulated energetic, physiological, and ecological processes across combinations of resource, spatial, and trophic complexity. These IBMs allowed realistic dynamics and the emergence of seed banks from ecological selection on random variation in species traits. Macroscale factors like the supply and concentration of resources had little effect on resource encounter rates. In contrast, encounter rates were strongly influenced by interactions between dispersal mode and spatial structure, and also by the recalcitrance of resources. In turn, encounter rates drove abundance, productivity, and seed bank dynamics. Time series revealed that energetically costly traits can lead to large seed banks and that recalcitrant resources can lead to greater stability through the formation of seed banks and the slow consumption of resources. Our findings suggest that microbial seed banks emerge from microscale dimensions of ecological complexity and their influence on resource limitation and energetic costs.
The article examines the factors of supply and demand of bank reserves, the positions of liquidity of the banking system in the conditions of a different currency exchange rate mode and monetary politics operation system and states that both central banks who execute the politics of the flexible currency exchange rate and those retaining the fixed exchange rate, in order to avoid any misinterpretations of the signals of the monetary politics, must tune the supply of the bank reserves with the...
Full Text Available Using bank level data this paper examines how bank’s specific characteristics and macroeconomic indicators affect the profitability in the Tunisian banking industry over the period 1990–2008. The results indicate that the more profitable banks are those higher amount of capital and lower operating costs. Furthermore, it appears that private banks tend to perform better than state owned ones. Despite the great importance given to the board of directors, it doesn't have a dominant role in the Tunisian commercial banks. Finally, turning to macroeconomic conditions and its impact on banks’ profitability, we find that the real interest rate has a positive effect on bank profitability.
Zeiler, T; Kretschmer, V
Remuneration for blood donors, in the way as presently handled by governmental and communal blood transfusion services in Germany, is not generally accepted. It is feared that donors are recruited with increased risk to transmit infectious diseases, especially AIDS. Alternative incentives are discussed. After the so-called AIDS scandal in Germany, a change in the donor motivation was to be expected, associated with an increased willingness to renounce remuneration. Therefore, we performed the present survey, in which we evaluated the donor's willingness to renounce remuneration, possibilities of cashless remuneration and other alternative incentives. During March and April 1994, a total of 1,157 blood donors of the University Blood Bank Marburg were questioned anonymously by a questionnaire in the framework of whole-blood donations. Beside the above-mentioned aspects demoscopic data were included (age, sex, profession, journey). Cutting of remuneration without any other compensation was refused by 86.1% of the donors, 77% would not want to further donate blood in this case. Transfer of money to a bank account instead of cash payment was accepted by 78.6%, the use of non-negotiable cheques by 68.7%. Alternative compensation by tickets for theater, concert, cinema or coupons for restaurants met with the approval of only 27.3%; under these circumstances, 36.9% would be willing to continue blood donation. With increasing age and number of donations, but largely independent of social status, donors attached greater importance to retention of remuneration. Cutting of remuneration would result in a considerable reduction of the willingness to donate blood within the population of donors of the governmental and communal blood transfusion services. However, an increase of virus safety of the blood products would not be reached in this way, since especially the long-term donors would be driven away. Considerable bottlenecks, particularly in the specific blood supply of
Full Text Available In the late 1990s and early 2000s, banking has undergone and is still undergoing some considerable changes, adjusting itself to the new circumstances and challenges in its environment. Modern information technologies have granted an opportunity to banks to expand their operations and adjust their offer of products and services, placing them through the new communication channels. The increasing reliance on mobile devices, especially the so-called smart phones, has facilitated the development of a new form of banking, known as mobile banking. Mobile banking is a specific channel of electronic banking, enabling clients to communicate with the bank via mobile devices. The bank's products and services are, thus, available to the clients at any time and at any place, and the banking sector is expected to perfectly understand the needs of today's clients, before implementing mobile banking. The research in this paper focuses on mobile banking, as a segment of electronic banking, which has developed under the influence of modern information technologies. The paper elaborates on the main characteristics of mobile banking, its advantages, but also its drawbacks that the banks and their clients are facing in the process of its utilization (or its implementation in practice. Moreover, the paper presents the trends of using mobile banking in the world and in Serbia, along with the tendencies for developing new services.
Understanding the reasons of the present financial problems lies In understanding the substance of fractional reserve banking. The substance of fractional banking is in lending more money than the bankers have. Banking of partial reserves is an alternative form which links deposit banking and credit banking. Fractional banking is causing many unfavorable economic impacts in the worldwide system, specifically an inflation.
Mitran Paula Cornelia
Full Text Available Financial-banking marketing will have to radically reform. The specialists in this field will needto give up the classic and aggressive tactics totally not transparent. They will sit in front of the clients withnon sophisticated products dressed up in strident colours. The change of the marketing tactics inside avisionary, unitary strategy will be the key to launch again the loaning on a healthy market. The bankingsystem will have to keep up with Europe, not only for the services offered to clients, but also for themarketing and promotion strategies afferent to the banking segment found in a continuous change during thelast decade. The social marketing will have to leave for always the theory sphere and all the adoptedstrategies must go through social responsibility: precise developing objectives with tangible results over time.
Yeh, Ellen; Pinsky, Benjamin A; Banaei, Niaz; Baron, Ellen Jo
Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost-prohibitive commercial sheep blood, offers the opportunity to
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. CONCLUSIONS: The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost
Xu, Li; Wu, Lin; Liu, Tingting; Xing, Wenrong; Cao, Xinsheng; Zhang, Shu; Su, Zongyi
[Purpose] The aim of our study was to explore the changes in the blood of servicemen in sub-health conditions during a 21-day balneotherapy program. [Subjects and Methods] For this study, 129 servicemen in sub-health condition were recruited. The subjects were randomly divided into either the balneotherapy group (70) or the control group (59). Subjects in the balneotherapy group received whole-body immersion bath therapy in thermomineral water (30 min daily) for 21 days. Their blood samples were examined 1 day before and after balneotherapy. The parameters studied included mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), white blood cell (WBC), lactic acid (LAC), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), glucose (GLU), and triglycerides (TG) levels. [Results] After 21 days of balneotherapy, MCH levels and MCHC increased significantly and WBC counts increased significantly. LAC levels decreased significantly. ALT, GLU, and TG levels decreased signiﬁcantly. In the control group, there were no statistical differences before and after tap water baths following the same procedure. [Conclusion] A 21-day balneotherapy program signiﬁcantly improved blood cell counts and blood biochemical indexes and reduced ponogen levels in servicemen in sub-health condition.
Huang, Qiubin; de Haan, Jakob; Scholtens, Bert
We examine systemic risk in the Chinese banking system by estimating the conditional value at risk (CoVaR), the marginal expected shortfall (MES), the systemic impact index (SII) and the vulnerability index (VI) for 16 listed banks in China. Although these measures show different patterns, our
Objective: This study was embarked on to investigate the pattern of blood collection and transfusion in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos between 2000 and 2005 in the face of the present human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Methodology: Blood bank records of blood donors and transfusions were ...
Objectives: To determine the Seroprevalence of Treponema pallidum in Donor blood at University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City. Materials and Method: This is a descriptive hospital based study. Donor blood supplied to the hospital blood bank was screened for syphilis. The study was conducted between February ...
DeFalco, L.A.; Esque, T.C.; Kane, J.M.; Nicklas, M.B.
We compared seed banks between two contrasting anthropogenic surface disturbances (compacted, trenched) and adjacent undisturbed controls to determine whether site condition influences viable seed densities of perennial and annual Mojave Desert species. Viable seeds of perennials were rare in undisturbed areas (3-4 seeds/m2) and declined to importance of litter as an indicator of site degradation and recovery potential in arid lands.
de Freitas, Daniel Roberto Coradi; Gomes, Luciano Teixeira; Fontes, Cor Jesus F; Tauil, Pedro Luiz; Pang, Lorrin W; Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen
Transfusion-transmitted malaria is a severe disease with high fatality rate. Most Brazilian blood banks in the Amazon region perform malaria screening using microscopic examination (thick smears). Since low parasite concentrations are expected in asymptomatic blood donors a high sensitivity test should be used for donor screening. This study determined the sensitivity of a nested-PCR for plasmodium detection in pooled samples. We performed a one-stage criterion validation study with 21 positive samples pooled with samples from ten negative volunteer until three different concentrations were reached (0.33; 0.25; 0.20 parasites/μL - p/μL). Nested PCR was performed as described by Snounou et al. (1993). Sensitivities (and confidence intervals) were determined by stratum of final parasite concentration on the pooled samples. All samples with parasitemia values of 0.33 and 0.25 p/μL had 100% sensitivity (95%CI=86.3-100). One negative result was obtained from a sample with 0.20 p/μL sensitivity=95.2% (95%CI=76.2-99.9). Compared to parasitemia detectable under ideal conditions of thick smear, this nested-PCR in pooled sample was able to detect 40 times more parasites per microliter. Nested-PCR in pooled samples should be considered as a high sensitive alternative to thick smear for donor screening in blood banks at endemic regions. Local authorities need to assess cost:benefit advantages of this method compared to alternatives. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gjunsburgs, B.; Bulankina, V.
The equilibrium stage of scour at the head of straight guide banks with a uniform and stratified bed conditions have been studied. The contraction of the river by bridge crossing with straight guide banks considerably alters the flow pattern. The streamlines become curve and the concentration of streamlines, longitudinal and transverse slopes of the water surface, a local increase in velocity, vortex and eddy structures, and the origin of a flow separation zone between the extreme streamlines and the guide bank are observed and local scour is developing at the head of the straight guide banks. New formulae for calculation of equilibrium depth of scour at straight guide banks at uniform and stratified river bed is elaborated and confirmed by tests and computer modelling results.
Thompson, Sean D A
Most biomedical basic research in the United States takes place at universities and research institutes and is funded by federal grants. Basic research is awarded billions of federal dollars every year, enabling new discoveries and greater understanding of the fundamental science that makes new innovations and therapies possible. However, when basic research yields an invention of practical use and the research evolves from basic to applied, the playing field changes. Pre-technology licensing federal dollars all but disappear, and innovations rely predominantly on private funding to support the full path from bench to bedside. It is along this path that the scientific advance faces two Valleys of Death. These sometimes insurmountable development stages are the product of the innovation's inherent financial, business and investment risks. Well-planned and executed in vivo studies using quality biological materials demonstrating proof-of-concept is often the key to bridging these gaps, and blood and tissue banks offer unique services and resources to enable this process.
Full Text Available The paper studied the determinants of Moldovan banking system fragility. It underlines the existing researches into the empirical determinants of banking fragility. The analysis revealed that there are numerous channels through which weaknesses within the macroeconomic conditions and structural characteristics might increase banking system fragility. The main macroeconomic determinants which may have an impact on Moldovan banking system fragility are: excessive domestic liquidity, pro-cyclical character of the banking system, dependence on remittances, financial dollarization. There are also several banking characteristics which play a role for Moldovan banking system fragility: the undermined intermediation function, high level of bad loans, uncertainties in the ownership structure, low presence of foreign strategic investors. The paper employed a quantitative, a qualitative and a comparative analysis using the financial soundness and structural indicators of the Moldovan banking system in order to assess the impact of various determinants on Moldovan banking system fragility. The results reveal a high degree of capitalization and liquidity of Moldovan banking system, factors which contribute and maintain the general stability of the entire financial system.
Angelica Cucşa (Stratulat
Full Text Available The inseparability of risk and banking activity is one demonstrated ever since banking systems, the importance of the topic being presend in current life and future equally in the development of banking sector. Banking sector development is done in the context of the constraints of nature and number of existing risks and those that may arise, and serves as limiting the risk of banking activity. We intend to develop approaches to analyse risk through mathematical models by also developing a model for the Romanian capital market 10 active trading picks that will test investor reaction in controlled and uncontrolled conditions of risk aggregated with harmonised factors.
Rafat Mohebbi Far
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and causes of wastage of blood and blood products (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate in Qazvin hospitals. METHODS: The study was conducted in all hospitals in Qazvin, including 5 teaching hospitals, 2 social welfare hospitals, 3 private hospitals, 1 charity hospital, and 1 military hospital. This descriptive study was based on available data from hospital blood banks in the province of Qazvin. The research instrument was a 2-part questionnaire. The first part was related to demographic characteristics of hospitals and the second part elicited information about blood and blood component wastage. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive statistic methods and SPSS 11.5. RESULTS: Blood wastage may occur for a number of reasons, including time expiry, wasted imports, blood medically or surgically ordered but not used, stock time expired, hemolysis, or miscellaneous reasons. Data indicated that approximately 77.9% of wasted pack cell units were wasted for the reason of time expiry. Pack cell wastage in hospitals is reported to range from 1.93% to 30.7%. Wastage at all hospitals averaged 9.8% among 30.913 issued blood products. Overall blood and blood product (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate wastage was 3048 units and average total wastage per participant hospital for all blood groups was 254 units per year. CONCLUSION: Blood transfusion is an essential part of patient care. The blood transfusion system has made significant advancements in areas such as donor management, storage of blood, cross-matching, rational use of blood, and distribution. In order to improve the standards of blood banks and the blood transfusion services in Iran, comprehensive standards have been formulated to ensure better quality control in collection, storage, testing, and distribution of blood and its components for the identified major factors
Background: Although blood transfusion is one of the known therapeutic interventions that cuts across a number of clinical disciplines. It is necessary to test all intending blood donors for HIV infection before donation. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HIV among blood donors at Dessie Blood Bank, ...
Angel, Christania Graciella
Bank performance appraisal is based on bank financial report itself. The financial report can be form balance report which give information about the financial position to the outside of bank that can be used of eksternal to assess the level of risk exist in a bank. Based on ownership consist of national bank, mixture bank and foreign bank. These banks has tight compete to show a good performance to the public. This research aimed to analyze the financial performance difference of national ba...
Natal’ya A Prodanova
Full Text Available The article discusses the features of banking activities, objectives and functions of banks, they are fundamentally different from the activity of the company any other independent of the economic sphere, the role of credit institutions in society and the need for their existence in order to maintain the country’s economy as a whole. The author stresses that banks should not only be multi-functional and operational, but also to meet all the requirements of reliability and stability. The article provides a method for analyzing the nancial condition of banks.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Safety in Transfusion Medicine is subject to regulations and government legislation within a total quality framework. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of seroprevalence and indeterminate results on lost units and cost per donation. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was performed in the Blood Bank and Transfusion Therapy Department of the Hospital Central de la Policia Nacional del Perú in Lima, Peru. All completed donations (replacement/voluntary without complications were included in this study. Every donation met the institutional requirements and quality criteria of Programa Nacional de Hemoterapia y Bancos de Sangre (PRONAHEBAS. Data analysis was achieved using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Results: A total of 7723 donations were evaluated during 2014 and 2015 with 493 being seropositive (overall prevalence 5.25% and 502 having indeterminate results (overall prevalence 5.35%. Thus total loss was 995 units, 437.8 L of blood and 49,750 US dollars. The most common seropositive infectious markers were the core antibody of hepatitis B virus (2.82% and syphilis (1.02%, and the most common indeterminate results were Chagas disease (1.27% and the core antibody of hepatitis B virus (1.26%. There was no significant change in the prevalence of seropositivity (p-value = 0.243 or indeterminate results (p-value = 0.227 over the two-year period of the study. A statistical correlation was found between the cost per lost donation and the most prevalent markers (rho = 0.848; p-value = <0.001. Conclusion: Seroprevalence was lower than the regional mean, but the prevalence of indeterminate results was elevated causing a great impact on blood supply and economic losses to this institution.
Moya-Salazar, Jeel; Ubidia-Incio, Roberto; Incio-Grande, Maritza; Blejer, Jorgelina L; Gonzalez, Carlos A
Safety in Transfusion Medicine is subject to regulations and government legislation within a total quality framework. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of seroprevalence and indeterminate results on lost units and cost per donation. A prospective cross-sectional study was performed in the Blood Bank and Transfusion Therapy Department of the Hospital Central de la Policia Nacional del Perú in Lima, Peru. All completed donations (replacement/voluntary) without complications were included in this study. Every donation met the institutional requirements and quality criteria of Programa Nacional de Hemoterapia y Bancos de Sangre (PRONAHEBAS). Data analysis was achieved using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. A total of 7723 donations were evaluated during 2014 and 2015 with 493 being seropositive (overall prevalence 5.25%) and 502 having indeterminate results (overall prevalence 5.35%). Thus total loss was 995units, 437.8L of blood and 49,750 US dollars. The most common seropositive infectious markers were the core antibody of hepatitis B virus (2.82%) and syphilis (1.02%), and the most common indeterminate results were Chagas disease (1.27%) and the core antibody of hepatitis B virus (1.26%). There was no significant change in the prevalence of seropositivity (p-value=0.243) or indeterminate results (p-value=0.227) over the two-year period of the study. A statistical correlation was found between the cost per lost donation and the most prevalent markers (rho=0.848; p-value=<0.001). Seroprevalence was lower than the regional mean, but the prevalence of indeterminate results was elevated causing a great impact on blood supply and economic losses to this institution. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Hematologia, Hemoterapia e Terapia Celular. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Inder Pal Singh S/o Roop singh*, Dr. Payal Bassi
E- Banking is about using the infrastructure for digital age to create opportunities, both local & global. IT enables the dramatic lowering of transaction cost and the creation of new types of banking opportunities that address the barriers of time and distance. Banking opportunities are local, global and immediate in e-banking. Internet banking has many advantages over other traditional banking delivery methods. Internet banking provides banks with an increased customer base, cost savings, m...
Mar 1, 2013 ... deploying information Technology in banks therefore can ... profitability indices and other control of financial ..... impact of e-banking on bank profitability .....  Nikolai L. and Bazlay J.D (1997) Intermediate Accounting, South-.
Khan, M.N.; Ahmed, Z.; Khan, T.A.
Discrepancies in blood typing is one of the major reasons in eliciting a transfusion reaction. These discrepancies can be avoided through detailed analysis for the blood typing. Here, we report a subgroup of blood group type-B in the ABO system. Donor's blood was analyzed by employing commercial antisera for blood grouping. The results of forward (known antisera) and reverse (known antigen) reaction were not complimentary. A detailed analysis using the standard protocols by American Association of Blood Banking revealed the blood type as a variant of blood group-B instead of blood group-O. This is suggestive of the fact that blood group typing should be performed with extreme care and any divergence, if identified, should be properly resolved to avoid transfusion reactions. Moreover, a major study to determine the blood group variants in Pakistani population is needed. (author)
Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian; Nilsson, Martin; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus Henrik
Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. 60 donors (≥50 years old), self-reported medically healthy. Bacterial growth was observed on plates inoculated with plasma or RBCs from 62% of the blood donations. Growth was evident in 21 (35%) of 60 RBC-fractions and in 32 (53%) of 60 plasma-fractions versus 8 of 60 negative controls (p = 0.005 and p = 2.6x10-6, respectively). Propionibacterium acnes was found in 23% of the donations, and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 38%. The majority of bacteria identified in the present study were either facultative anaerobic (59.5%) or anaerobic (27.8%) species, which are not likely to be detected during current routine screening. Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing of RBC-fractions for adherent bacteria should be recommended.
Holley, A; Marks, D C; Johnson, L; Reade, M C; Badloe, J F; Noorman, F
The development of effective cryopreservation techniques for both red blood cells and platelets, which maintain ex vivo biological activity, in combination with frozen plasma, provides for a unique blood banking strategy. This technology greatly enhances the storage life of these products. The rationale and potential advantages of using cryopreservation techniques for the provision of blood products to remote and military environments have been effectively demonstrated in several conflicts over the last decade. Current haemostatic resuscitation doctrine for the exsanguinating patient supports the use of red blood cells, platelets and frozen plasma early in the resuscitation. We believe an integrated fresh-frozen blood bank inventory could facilitate provision of blood products, not only in the military setting but also in regional Australia, by overcoming many logistic and geographical challenges. The processes involved in production and point of care thawing are sufficiently well developed and achievable to make this technology a viable option. The potential limitations of cryopreservation and subsequent product thawing need to be considered if such a strategy is to be developed. A substantial body of international experience using cryopreserved products in remote settings has already been accrued. This experience provides a template for the possible creation of an Australian integrated fresh-frozen blood bank inventory that could conceivably enhance the care of patients in both regional Australia and in the military setting.
... Carolina, Seneca National Bank, Seneca, South Carolina, and The Peoples National Bank, Easley, South... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...
This study investigated the profitability performance of Nigerian banks following the full adoption of electronic banking system. The study became necessary as a result of increased penetration of electronic banking which has redefined the banking operations in Nigeria and around the world. Judgmental sampling method ...
This paper studies the consequences of having either an interventionist or a non-interventionist central bank in the foreign exchange market, in a market microstructure framework. Although a simple one-period model is used, it allows the characterization of the effect of the central bank intervention on the behaviour of dealers. The model also identifies the conditions for the dealer that acts as the counterpart of the central bank to be better or worse than the other dealers. The price is ex...
... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking...
... Peoples Bank and Trust Company, both of North Carrollton, Mississippi. B. Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...
Fadeyi, Emmanuel A; Emery, Wanda; Simmons, Julie H; Jones, Mary Rose; Pomper, Gregory J
The objective was to report a successful implementation of a blood cooler insert and tracking technology with educational initiatives and its effect on reducing red blood cell (RBC) wastage. The blood bank database was used to quantify and categorize total RBC units issued in blood coolers from January 2010 to December 2015 with and without the new inserts throughout the hospital. Radiofrequency identification tags were used with special software to monitor blood cooler tracking. An educational policy on how to handle the coolers was initiated. Data were gathered from the software that provided a real-time location monitoring of the blood coolers with inserts throughout the institution. The implementation of the blood cooler with inserts and tracking device reduced mean yearly RBC wastage by fourfold from 0.64% to 0.17% between 2010 and 2015. The conserved RBCs corresponded to a total cost savings of $167,844 during the 3-year postimplementation period. The implementation of new blood cooler inserts, tracking system, and educational initiatives substantially reduced the mean annual total RBC wastage. The cost to implement this initiative may be small if there is an existing institutional infrastructure to monitor and track hospital equipment into which the blood bank intervention can be adapted when compared to the cost of blood wastage. © 2017 AABB.
IMOLA DRIGĂ; DORINA NIŢĂ; IOAN CUCU
The paper examines the features of private banking business focusing on the substantial growth in private banking over the last decade as commercial banks have targeted upmarket high net worth individuals. The accumulation of wealth has prompted the development of private banking services for high net worth individuals, offering special relationships and investment services. Private banking is about much more than traditional banking services of deposits and loans. It's about providing a one-...
Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...
Full Text Available Abstract. The"Competition-fragility" view and The "Competition-stability" view has a contrary logical flow in predicting the relationship between bank stability and competition among banks. According to Berger et al (2009, these two views differ on credit risk aspect of loan portfolio, but on the risks faced by the bank as a whole, these two views have the same prediction. In the credit market which is dominated by few banks with substantial market power, the risk of bank credit portfolio increases as predicted by the view "competition-fragility", but the bank's overall risk does not always go up with the jump in credit portfolio risk. The paper shows that empirical test of the Indonesian banking system support this hypothesis, except in foreign bank group that has its own business model. The relationship of competition and the credit risk of banks in Indonesia also have a U -shape pattern that increasing competition in the early stages can reduce credit risk, which is due to increasing income diversification and diversification of bank credit type, but at a certain point the increasing competition has worsened the quality of bank credit portfolio. Key word: banking competition, risk, stability, fragility, diversification
Full Text Available The challenge is to redirect central bank money into the real economy and to the needs of society. If new money is issued to expand the productive capacity, there is no reason for inflation. Long-term financing could become available at an affordable price. Central bank money must not replace a sound tax system and the distribution of income and wealth, but complement them. The remaining task, apart from the financing of real needs, is the prevention of speculative asset price inflation. For this, central banks and regulators should install debt brakes for the financial sector. Furthermore, independent monetary policy calls for capital account management. It enables national central banks to find space for the conduct of their own policies in an interdependent global economy. Coordination between central banks and governments might increase as policies combine monetary, fiscal and regulatory facets. The future role of central banks should particularly lie in their insights regarding capital flows and leverage cycles and in their ability to create and withdraw money, depending on economic conditions.
Baĭtimirova, E A; Mamina, V P; Zhigal'skiĭ, O A
Estimates of abundance, morpho-functional state of ovaries, potential and actual fecundity of European bank vole, Myodes glareolus, inhabiting the territories of natural geochemical anomalies that are situated over ultra-basic rock and have an excess content of chrome, nickel, and cobaltare obtained. The population adaptive response to extreme geochemical conditions that facilitates the species survival under unfavorable environmental conditions and is manifested through an increase in potential and actual fecundity, decline of pre-implantation mortality, and decrease in proportion of females with pre-implantation losses is revealed. It is shown that in anomalous areas the intensity of folliculogenesis in mature voles is independent of the population cycle phase. As for immature animals residing within geochemical anomalies, an increase in size and numbers of follicles in ovaries is observed which is indicative of maturation fastening. An increase in potential and actual fecundity, as well as changes in morpho-functional state of ovaries, can be interpreted as means of birth rate accelerating which is supposed to compensate high postnatal mortality and maintain population abundance.
Ashfaq, A.; Ejaz, A.; Abbas, G.
To determine serum neopterin levels in blood donors of local population and its association with transfusion ransmitted infections. Study Design: A cross-sectional observational study. Place and Duration of Study:Department of Physiology, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College (LNHMC) in collaboration with Basic Medical Sciences Institute (BMSI) and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre (JPMC), Blood Bank, Karachi, Pakistan, from January to June 2015. Methodology: During this period, a total of 174 blood donors were selected through random sampling technique. All participants fulfilling the inclusion criteria involving apparently healthy blood donors of either gender within the age bracket of 18 - 60 years and consenting to participate were selected. The participants were screened for transfusion transmitted infections as per WHO recommendations through the standard procedures used for screening at the JPMC blood bank. The demographic profile, anthropometric measurements and vitals were recorded for every participant. Serum neopterin was measured using ELISA kits. Data was analysed on SPSS version 21. ANOVA and chi-square tests were applied as tests of significance at a p-value of <0.05. Results: The neopterin content in the sera of disease negative blood donors was 6.23 +-2.19 nmol/l as compared to disease positive blood donors, in whom the neopterin level was increased to 15.10 +-4.93 nmol/l (p =0.001). Conclusion: The neopterin assay has the potential to detect a number of transfusion transmissible viral diseases; which may, or may not be revealed by the usually employed battery of routine tests. We conclude that the risk of transfusion transmitted pathogens in our population can be reduced significantly, using neopterin assay as a routine in blood banks. (author)
Askari, Sabeen; Miller, John; Chrysler, Gayl; McCullough, Jeffrey
Optimizing product quality is a current focus in cord blood banking. This study evaluates the role of selected donor- and collection-related variables. Retrospective review was performed of cord blood units (CBUs) collected ex utero between February 1, 2000, and February 28, 2002. Preprocessing volume and total nucleated cell (TNC) counts and postprocessing CD34 cell counts were used as product quality indicators. Of 2084 CBUs, volume determinations and TNC counts were performed on 1628 and CD34+ counts on 1124 CBUs. Mean volume and TNC and CD34+ counts were 85.2 mL, 118.9 x 10(7), and 5.2 x 10(6), respectively. In univariate analysis, placental weight of greater than 500 g and meconium in amniotic fluid correlated with better volume and TNC and CD34+ counts. Greater than 40 weeks' gestation predicted enhanced volume and TNC count. Cesarean section, two- versus one-person collection, and not greater than 5 minutes between placental delivery and collection produced superior volume. Increased TNC count was also seen in Caucasian women, primigravidae, female newborns, and collection duration of more than 5 minutes. A time between delivery of newborn and placenta of not greater than 10 minutes predicted better volume and CD34+ count. By regression analysis, collection within not greater than 5 minutes of placental delivery produced superior volume and TNC count. Donor selection and collection technique modifications may improve product quality. TNC count appears to be more affected by different variables than CD34+ count.
Full Text Available Results of investigation of face detection algorithms efficiency in the banking client visual verification system are presented. The video recordings were made in real conditions met in three bank operating outlets employing a miniature industrial USB camera. The aim of the experiments was to check the practical usability of the face detection method in the biometric bank client verification system. The main assumption was to provide a simplified as much as possible user interaction with the application. Applied algorithms for face detection are described and achieved results of face detection in the real bank environment conditions are presented. Practical limitations of the application based on encountered problems are discussed.
Constantin Marian MATEI; Catalin Ionut SILVESTRU; Dragos Stefan SILVESTRU
Internet Banking developed due to increasing demand of online banking transactions. The biggest advantages of Internet Banking consist of complex banking solutions, 24 hours availability, quick and secure access to the back-end application through Internet. These advantages are due to the use of SOA (service-oriented architecture). SOA appeared as a necessity of companies to integrate big and independent portions of applications, in order to obtain an homogeneous functionality of the system....
Edgren, Gustaf; Tran, Trung Nam; Hjalgrim, Henrik
BACKGROUND: Transfusion safety rests heavily on the health of blood donors. Although they are perceived as being healthier than average, little is known about their long-term disease patterns and to which extent the blood banks' continuous efforts to optimize donor selection has resulted...... in improvements. Mortality and cancer incidence among blood donors in Sweden and Denmark was investigated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All computerized blood bank databases were compiled into one database, which was linked to national population and health data registers. With a retrospective cohort study design, 1......,110,329 blood donors were followed for up to 35 years from first computer-registered blood donation to death, emigration, or December 31, 2002. Standardized mortality and incidence ratios expressed relative risk of death and cancer comparing blood donors to the general population. RESULTS: Blood donors had...
Collins, Stephen M; McHugh, Kevin; Croitoru, Ken; Howorth, Michael
The Crohn's and Colitis Foundation of Canada (CCFC) has established a national bank for tissue, serum and blood from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Investigators from across the country submit material to the bank together with clinical data. Investigators may access their own patient information from the bank for their own study purposes, but the distribution of tissue is restricted to specific CCFC-funded projects. Currently, tissues are being collected from newly diagnosed, untreated IBD patients to support a recent initiative aimed at characterizing microbes in colonic and ileal biopsies from such patients. In the future, criteria for the submission of tissue will be tailored to specific research questions. This bank is believed to be the first national bank of its kind dedicated to research in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. [thinsp]225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. [thinsp]225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. [thinsp]225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire a bank or bank...
Thomas F. Cargill
This Economic Letter addresses central bank capital and financial strength in the context of Bank of Japan policy (Cargill 2005). Specifically, it reviews general considerations about central bank capital and financial strength, discusses recent Bank of Japan policy in the context of capital structure, evaluates the Bank of Japan's concern in the context of the broader issue of central bank independence, and draws some lessons from recent Bank of Japan policy.
David T. Harris
Full Text Available Regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and gene therapy offer the opportunity to treat and cure many of today’s intractable afflictions. These approaches to personalized medicine often utilize stem cells to accomplish these goals. However, stem cells can be negatively affected by donor variables such as age and health status at the time of collection, compromising their efficacy. Stem cell banking offers the opportunity to cryogenically preserve stem cells at their most potent state for later use in these applications. Practical stem cell sources include bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and tissue, and adipose tissue. Each of these sources contains stem cells that can be obtained from most individuals, without too much difficulty and in an economical fashion. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each stem cell source, factors to be considered when contemplating banking each stem cell source, the methodology required to bank each stem cell source, and finally, current and future clinical uses of each stem cell source.
Harris, David T.
Regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and gene therapy offer the opportunity to treat and cure many of today’s intractable afflictions. These approaches to personalized medicine often utilize stem cells to accomplish these goals. However, stem cells can be negatively affected by donor variables such as age and health status at the time of collection, compromising their efficacy. Stem cell banking offers the opportunity to cryogenically preserve stem cells at their most potent state for later use in these applications. Practical stem cell sources include bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and tissue, and adipose tissue. Each of these sources contains stem cells that can be obtained from most individuals, without too much difficulty and in an economical fashion. This review will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each stem cell source, factors to be considered when contemplating banking each stem cell source, the methodology required to bank each stem cell source, and finally, current and future clinical uses of each stem cell source. PMID:28548060
Full Text Available Background. Determination of the various ABO/Rh blood group distributions and their association with malaria infection has paramount importance in the context of transfusion medicine and malaria control. Methods. Facility based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to June, 2015, to assess ABO/Rh blood groups distribution and their association with asymptomatic malaria. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood grouping was done using monoclonal antibodies. Thin and thick blood films were examined for Plasmodium parasites. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. Results. A total of 416 blood donors participated with median age of 22±0.29 (median ± standard error of the mean. Distribution of ABO phenotypes, in decreasing order, was O (175, 42.1%, A (136, 32.7%, B (87, 20.9%, and AB (18, 4.3%. Most of them were Rh+ (386, 92.8%. The overall malaria prevalence was 4.1% (17/416. ABO blood group is significantly associated with malaria infection (P=0.022. High rate of parasitemia was seen in blood group O donors (6.899, P=0.003 compared to those with other ABO blood groups. Conclusion. Blood groups O and AB phenotypes are the most and the least ABO blood groups, respectively. There is significant association between ABO blood group and asymptomatic malaria parasitemia.
The thesis is focused on introduction of Islamic banking system. Morover part of the work is devoted to a detailed description of the history of Islamic banking, on explanation of the principles on which the banking system is based. Also are analyzed in detail the basic Islamic banking products. And at the end are presented the advantages and disadvantages of the Islamic banking system.
Gogas, Periklis; Papadimitriou, Theophilos; Matthaiou, Maria-Artemis
An optimized, healthy and stable banking system resilient to financial crises is a prerequisite for sustainable growth. Minimization of (a) the associated systemic risk and (b) the propagation of contagion in the case of a banking crisis are necessary conditions to achieve this goal. Central Banks are in charge of this significant undertaking via a close and detailed monitoring of the banking network. In this paper, we propose the use of an auxiliary supervision/monitoring system that is both efficient with respect to the required resources and can promptly identify a set of banks that are in distress so that immediate and appropriate action can be taken by the supervising authority. We use the network defined by the interrelations between banking institutions employing tools from Complex Networks theory for an efficient management of the entire banking network. In doing so, we introduce the Threshold Minimum Dominating Set (T-MDS). The T-MDS is used to identify the smallest and most efficient subset of banks that can be used as (a) sensors of distress of a manifesting banking crisis and (b) provide a path of possible contagion. We propose the use of this method as a supplementary monitoring tool in the arsenal of a Central Bank. Our dataset includes the 122 largest American banks in terms of their interbank loans. The empirical results show that when the T-MDS methodology is applied, we can have an efficient supervision of the whole banking network, by monitoring just a subset of 47 banks.
Full Text Available Banks play an important role in a country’s economy through investments, deposits and withdrawals. Many banking products are sold to clients to meet their financial needs and obligations. Their performances are therefore very critical in supporting socio economic development. Financial institutions still facing challenges linked to the lack of financial previsions through the use of financial tool that allows preventing financial distress. Banks are not always well-managed because managers lack capacity and the sound knowledge in dealing effectively with the analysis of risk and return and decision-making. The current study highlights and gives orientations on key performance indicators that bank can use to manage their financial conditions in advance in a sustainable manner. The major objective of this research is to critically assess the South African banks performance using Financial Ratio Analysis (FRAand descriptive statistics through comparative financial statement analysis form 2010 to 2013 between“ the big four” South African banks. In using correlational analysis, the study aim to establish the link between exogenous and endogenous variables of bank performance. The results showed that FirstRand bank was the best achiever with a higher level of performance following by Standard bank, then Absa and Nedbank. Furthermore, it appears that there is a strong relationship between bank performance and bank size because the volume of assets represents the bigger source of bank incomes. This study opens door to further study including both large and small banks and a comparative analysis between two research methods. The paper is divided into five major sections.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze monetary policy reaction functions of inflation targeting emerging market economies. Heterogeneity across central bank behavior is modelled using dynamic common correlated effects estimator in a panel data framework of 15 countries. The empirical method allows us to obtain country specific coefficients and shows differences across central bank reaction functions. Model results imply that central banks behave according to an extended Taylor rule and respond to deviation of inflation from the target, output gap, real exchange rate and external financial conditions. The study finds that emerging market central banks consider not only price stability, but also financial stability in setting of interest rates.
... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conditions on use of funds. 411.100 Section 411.100 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES NEW RESTRICTIONS ON LOBBYING General § 411.100 Conditions on use of funds. (a) No appropriated funds may be expended by the recipient of a...
Full Text Available In this paper we present the relevancy and importance of knowing the reasons on clients’migration to competitive banking institutions. The main reason of being the client of several banks isdue to the fierce competition between credit institutions,thusthe banking market has changed. Basedon a case study within the Raiffeisen Bank we researched and presented the reasons fordiscontinuation of banking tiesand the migration of clients to other banks. The used researchmethodology consisted of the application of analysis point of contact by sending a questionnairethrough which there could have been identified 105 migrating clients, out of which 89 were formerclients of Raiffeisen Bank. Since both in the specialized literatureand in practice there is very littleinformation about migration behavior of banking clients-especially in the category of small andmedium enterprises-the present research was not limited to the Raiffeisen Bank clients, but to all 105respondents whodiscontinued totally or partially their connection with the bank. It can be concludedthat the attitude of the bank clients has a considerable influence on the migration behavior. The most“infidel” banking clients are considered in the category of “clients oriented towards the conditions.”
Bassiouny, M R; El-Chennawi, F; Mansour, A K; Yahia, S; Darwish, A
Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains stem cells and can be used as an alternative to bone marrow transplantation. Engraftment is dependent on the total nucleated cell (TNC) and CD34+ cell counts of the cord blood units. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the method of collection of the UCB on the yield of the cord blood units. Informed consent was obtained from 100 eligible mothers for donation of cord blood. Both in utero and ex utero methods were used for collection. The cord blood volume was measured. The TNC and the CD34+ cell counts were enumerated. We have found that in utero collection gave significantly larger volumes of cord blood and higher TNC counts than ex utero collection. There was no significant difference between both methods regarding the CD34+ cell counts. This study revealed a significant correlation between the volume of the collected cord blood and both TNC and CD34+ cell counts. It is better to collect cord blood in utero before placental delivery to optimize the quality of the cord blood unit. © 2015 AABB.
... control of Bank of Odessa, both in Odessa, Missouri, Commercial Bank of Oak Grove, Oak Grove, Missouri... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...
Full Text Available Islamic banks in many countries have emerged as important component of financial system that contributes to the growth and development of the country’s economy. They have proven to be a viable and competitive component of the overall financial system. In the dual banking system, Islamic banks have to be competitive to survive. One of the key to competitiveness is efficiency. This study will measure and compare the efficiency of Islamic and conventional banks in Indonesia using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA methodology. DEA is a non-parametric, deterministic methodology for determining the relative efficiency and managerial performance, based on the empirical data on chosen inputs and outputs of a number of decision making units. DEA allows us to compare the relative efficiency of banks by determining the efficient banks as benchmarks and by measuring the inefficiencies in input combinations (slack variables in other banks relative to the benchmark. Intermediation approach will be applied. This study will identify the sources and level of inefficiency for each of the inputs and outputs of Islamic banks and conventional banks in Indonesia. The result shows that in overall, Islamic banking is relatively more efficient than conventional banking. This means that Islamic banks are competitive enough to compete with conventional banks. Islamic banking is technically more efficient, but less scale efficient than conventional banking. Internal inefficiency is the main source of disintermediation of conventional banking in Indonesia. Furthermore, accelerated expansion, organically and inorganically, is needed to improve scale and overall efficiencies of Islamic banking in Indonesia.Keywords: Banking, Islamic Banking, Efficiency, Data Envelopment Analysis
Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aims to compare the financial performance of Islamic banks with conventional banks in Indonesia using financial ratios: CAR, NPL / NPF, ROA, ROE, LDR / FDR, REO / BOPO. The data used are the financial statements published by Bank Indonesia (BI, the annual reports released by banking companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX, the annual reports issued by companies of Islamic banking that are not listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX, and the Indonesian banking supervision reports contained in Bank Indonesia (BI for the years 2005-2012. The analytical method used to compare the financial performance of Islamic banks with conventional banks is statistical test independent t-test. The fact shows that for each financial ratio of Islamic banks and conventional banks in Indonesia: CAR, ROA, ROE, LDR / FDR, and BOPO there are significant differences, while NPL / NPF there is not significant difference. Keywords: Financial performance, Islamic banks, conventional banks
Moscatello, Salvatore; Belmonte, Genuario
The cyst banks of 6 coastal hypersaline lakes of South-East Europe have been investigated. The study concerned the bottom sediments of Khersonesskoe and Koyashskoe lakes in the Crimea (Ukraine), Nartë saltworks (Albania), Vecchia Salina at Torre Colimena (Apulia, Italy), Pantano Grande and Pantano Roveto at Vendicari (Sicily, Italy). A total of 19 cyst types were recognised. The cyst banks of lakes were found to be well separated in the representation derived from a statistical multivariate data analysis. For all the lakes examined a comparison was possible between the resting community in sediments (cyst bank) and the active one in the water. The cyst banks contained more species than those recorded over a multi-year sampling effort in the water column. The study of cyst hatching, performed on 5 cyst types under lab conditions, demonstrated that cysts do not hatch under the same conditions. Furthermore, each cyst type shows a wide range of preferential hatching conditions, which allow us to confirm the ecological generalism of salt lake species. PMID:19292906
... voting shares of Chino Commercial Bank, N.A., both of Chino, California. Board of Governors of the... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisition of Shares of Bank or Bank Holding Companies The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...
Full Text Available The financial crisis that emerged in the US quickly spread across Europe, causing a severe banking and sovereign debt crisis. That revealed the importance of short-term financing for traditional banks, which increased their exposure to the financial conditions on the interbank market. Financial innovations, especially the securitization process led to the growing importance of different institutions within the shadow banking system - which undergo a credit, liquidity and maturity transformation, without accessing the central bank liquidity or other forms of guarantees. The European banks had an active role in the US securitization process, but also securitized the products from the European market. The authors used the available data from the ECB statistics on shadow bank entities, broadly and narrowly defined, in order to analyze the various measures of interconnectedness between the shadow and traditional banking systems. The analysis showed that non-regulated financial institutions pose severe systemic risks, not just because of their size, but also due to the strong web of interconnectedness with the regulated banking sector.
Lauren Auer Lopes
Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. Method: this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1 verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2 definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r and R(r. Results: while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. Conclusion: the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality.
Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Rapp, Barbara A.; Wheeler, David L.
The GenBank sequence database incorporates publicly available DNA sequences of more than 105 000 different organisms, primarily through direct submission of sequence data from individual laboratories and large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the BankIt (web) or Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Data exchange with the EMBL Data Library and the DNA Data Bank of Japan helps ensure comprehensive worldwide coverage. GenBank...
Moreno-de Las Heras, Mariano; Turnbull, Laura; Wainwright, John
Large areas of desert grasslands in the southwestern United States have shifted to sparse shrublands dominated by drought-tolerant woody species over the last 150 yr, accompanied by accelerated soil erosion. An important step toward the understanding of patterns in species dominance and vegetation change at desert grassland-shrubland transitions is the study of environmental limitations imposed by the shrub-encroachment phenomenon on plant establishment. Here, we analyze the structure of soil seed banks, environmental limitations for seed germination (i.e., soil-water availability and temperature), and simulated seedling emergence and early establishment of dominant species (black grama, Bouteloua eriopoda, and creosotebush, Larrea tridentata) across a Chihuahuan grassland-shrubland ecotone (Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA). Average viable seed density in soils across the ecotone is generally low (200-400 seeds/m 2 ), although is largely concentrated in densely vegetated areas (with peaks up to 800-1,200 seeds/m 2 in vegetated patches). Species composition in the seed bank is strongly affected by shrub encroachment, with seed densities of grass species sharply decreasing in shrub-dominated sites. Environmental conditions for seed germination and seedling emergence are synchronized with the summer monsoon. Soil-moisture conditions for seedling establishment of B. eriopoda take place with a recurrence interval ranging between 5 and 8 yr for grassland and shrubland sites, respectively, and are favored by strong monsoonal precipitation. Limited L. tridentata seed dispersal and a narrow range of rainfall conditions for early seedling establishment (50-100 mm for five to six consecutive weeks) constrain shrub-recruitment pulses to localized and episodic decadal events (9-25 yr recurrence intervals) generally associated with late-summer rainfall. Re-establishment of B. eriopoda in areas now dominated by L. tridentata is strongly limited by the
Stephen M Collins
Full Text Available The Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of Canada (CCFC has established a national bank for tissue, serum and blood from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Investigators from across the country submit material to the bank together with clinical data. Investigators may access their own patient information from the bank for their own study purposes, but the distribution of tissue is restricted to specific CCFC-funded projects. Currently, tissues are being collected from newly diagnosed, untreated IBD patients to support a recent initiative aimed at characterizing microbes in colonic and ileal biopsies from such patients. In the future, criteria for the submission of tissue will be tailored to specific research questions. This bank is believed to be the first national bank of its kind dedicated to research in Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or bank...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loans and chartered territory-Farm Credit Banks..., provided such loans are authorized by the policies of the bank and/or association involved, do not constitute a significant shift in loan volume away from the bank or association's assigned territory, and are...
Full Text Available Purpose: Despite extensive research in services marketing, much is still unknown to specific service providers on the influence of their employees on their services. This paper attempts to address this limitation and investigates the influence of employees on the customer relationship management (CRM of banks. The primary objective of this paper is to investigate the influence of selected independent variables, namely attitude and knowledgeability, on the CRM of banks. Design/Methodology/Approach: An empirical investigation was conducted with a structured questionnaire with items that related to banks' CRM in terms of attitude and knowledgeability. The sample consisted of 290 banking clients in the Nelson Mandela Metropolitan area and the response rate was 91.03%. Findings: Significant positive relationships exist between both the knowledgeability, and attitude of bank employees and a bank's CRM. These relationships imply that more extensive knowledgeability and more positive attitudes of bank employees lead to improved, maintained relationships between a bank and its clients. Employees play an important role in banks client relationships. Implications: Banks should focus on increasing their employees' knowledgeability and improving their attitude to ensure higher levels of CRM. This paper provides strategies for banks and could create greater awareness among South African banks of the advantages of CRM, how their employees influence their CRM, and ways to adapt to these influences. Originality/Value: No study has focused exclusively on CRM within banks in South Africa. Prior research focused on customer service and service quality; both possible results of superior CRM. However, this research differs, as it identifies the variables influencing CRM in banks in South Africa. It is proposed that this paper will be beneficial for South African banks, as the recommendations may be used to ensure higher levels of CRM in banks.
Full Text Available Commercial banks and co-operative banks are credit institutions, but there are some differences between the main operations proceeded by each of them. Based on these specific characteristics, we want to identify the manner in which financial crisis affected their activity. As we all know, the financial crisis had a major impact in the United States, the “natal” country of the crisis, because great banks such as Lehman Brothers or Merrill Lynch have bankrupted. Even if the Romanian banking system was not affected by such catastrophic situations, surely the financial crisis had a significant impact on it. This topic is worth to be analysed, because we would be able to identify the risk differences between these two types of business: commercial banks versus co-operative banks.
Spanilá, Tamara; Kudrna, Z.; John, V.; Hartvich, Filip; Chour, V.
Roč. 3, č. 4 (2006), s. 67-76 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3046305 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : flooding of residual mining pits * dangerous geodynamic phenomena * stability of banks and slopes Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy
The newly overhauled American Red Cross, led by President Elizabeth Dole (left), has launched an ambitious campaign to increase its piece of the more than $2 billion business of supplying blood to hospitals. Its quest for market share has sparked what some call a "blood war" with its main competitors: independent, community-governed blood banks affiliated with America's Blood Centers.
Haijema, R.; Dijk, van N.M.; Wal, van der J.; Smit Sibinga, C.
The production and inventory management of blood products at blood banks and hospitals is a problem of general human interest. As a shortage may put lives at risk, shortages are to be kept to a minimum. As the supply is voluntary and costly, any spill of unused blood (products) is also to be
Haijema, Rene; van Dijk, Nico; van der Wal, Jan; Smit Sibinga, Cees
The production and inventory management of blood products at blood banks and hospitals is it problem of general human interest. As a shortage may put lives at risk, shortages are to be kept to a minimum. As the supply is voluntary and costly, any spill of unused blood (products) is also to be
Haijema, R.; van Dijk, N.; van der Wal, J.; Smit Sibinga, C.
The production and inventory management of blood products at blood banks and hospitals is a problem of general human interest. As a shortage may put lives at risk, shortages are to be kept to a minimum. As the supply is voluntary and costly, any spill of unused blood (products) is also to be
Haijema, R.; Dijk, van N.M.; Wal, van der J.; Smit Sibinga, C.
The production and inventory management of blood products at blood banks and hospitals is a problem of general human interest. As a shortage may put lives at risk, shortages are to be kept to a minimum. As the supply is voluntary and costly, any spill of unused blood (products) is also to be
Purpose: This study aimed to determine the frequency rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and syphilis among blood donors. Methods: Physically fit persons aged 18 – 48 years who came for blood donation at the blood bank unit of the military hospital in Hodeidah, ...
Pieslak, Raymond F.
The student manual for high school level special needs students was prepared to provide deaf students with the basic fundamentals of banking. Five units are presented covering the topics of banks and banking services, checking accounts, other services of banks, savings accounts, and other investments. Each lesson was carefully written for easy…
Full Text Available SAD_BaSe is a blood bank data analysis software, created to assist in the management of blood donations and the blood production chain in blood establishments. In particular, the system keeps track of several collection and production indicators, enables the definition of collection and production strategies, and the measurement of quality indicators required by the Quality Management System regulating the general operation of blood establishments.
Zeisberger, Steffen M.; Zoller, Stefan; Riegel, Mariluce; Chen, Shuhua; Krenning, Guido; Harmsen, Martin C.; Sachinidis, Agapios; Zisch, Andreas H.
Establishment of fetal bovine serum (FBS)-free cell culture conditions is essential for transplantation therapies. Blood-derived endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) are potential candidates for regenerative medicine applications. ECFCs were isolated from term umbilical cord blood units and
Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas
for pre-determined bank insolvency procedures that could enable banks to expand cross-border in branches. In the empirical part we show that credibility of non-insurance is maximized with a partial deposit insurance scheme, and that the coverage can be decreased if effective rule-based distress resolution......Predetermined, operational procedures for dealing with banks in distress are conspicuously absent across the world with very few exceptions. Instead governments and regulatory authorities intervene when banks approach failure. Bail-outs of important creditors, sometimes including shareholders......, and blanket guarantees for creditors become the norm. We argue that efficient incentives of banks' creditors, as well as of shareholders and managers, require predetermined rules for dealing with banks in distress, and a group of creditors that are credibly non-insured. Cross-border banking increases the need...
Rosiak, Joanna; Kubić-Filiks, Beata; Szymańska, Jolanta
The incidence of high blood pressure in adults is estimated at ca. 30-40% of the general population. Both hypertension disease and hypertensive drugs affect the condition of the patients' oral cavity. A review of the current literature shows that disorders most frequently found in the masticatory organ of patients with hypertension include: xerostomia, changes in salivary glands, gum hypertrophy, lichenoid lesions, taste disorders, and paraesthesias. The authors emphasize that patients with high blood pressure, along with the treatment of the underlying disease, should receive prophylactic and therapeutic dental care. This would enable reduction and/or elimination of unpleasant complaints, and also help prevent the emergence of secondary disorders in the patients' oral cavity as a result of hypertension pharmacotherapy. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
N. Viswa Nadham
Full Text Available The study attempts to ascertain the determinants of nonperforming loans in National Bank of Commerce. Data was collected from 152 respondents. Tables, percentages, mean and standard deviation were used to analyze data. Data collection methods adopted for the study were interview, questionnaire and documentary evidence. Interest rate, GDP, concentration of lending activities, bank’s loan supervision capacity and economic condition were investigated, and the results suggest that interest rate, GDP, bank’s loan supervision capacity and economic condition influence the level of NPLs. However, the results did not suggest that concentration of lending activities increase the level of NPLs. The study suggests that banks should put in place a vibrant credit process that ensures proper customer selection and risk identification, robust credit analysis, proactive monitoring and clear recovery strategies for bad loans, formulate clear policy framework that addresses issues of ethical standards and check and balance credit process, organizational capacity enhancement of banks, deliberate effort to develop credit culture for managing loans ,and ensure prudent policies that govern bank loans. Since the results for this study were encouraging, the researcher encourages replicating the study for other lending institutions. In order to extend the literature on non-performing loans, the researcher suggested incorporating models of Golem effect, Social loafing, Inverted pyramid effect, Pollyanna effect and High default culture effect. Also, basing on the merits of the study, the researcher suggests determining relationship between non-performing loans and loan size, collateral, credit culture, and credit management information system.
Aji Damanuri Abstract: Shari>’ah banking, for the last ten years, has increased in prosperity not only at the quantity of conventional banks but also at the count of assets and customers. This economical opportunity drives amount of conventional banks both to convert their institutions to be shari>’ah banks and to open officially shari>’ah platform units with their own assets. This system takes a significant question, is the conversion effected by both banker ideological factor and capitalists or pure economical rational calculation? Is a religious consideration linked to economical rationality? This paper is to elaborate the conversion using not only ‘choice theory’ (teori pilihan but also ‘rational action’ (tindakan rasional to seek religious action possibility in a reasonable way of shari>’ah banking. Keywords: shari>’ah bank, conversion, rational action, religiosity.
This paper provides an empirical analysis of the factors that determine the profitability of Indonesian banks between the years 2006-2012. In particular, it investigates whether there are any significant differences in terms of profitability between Islamic banks and commercial banks. The results, obtained by applying the system-GMM estimator to the panel of 54 banks, indicate that the high bank profitability during these years were determined mainly by the size of the banks, the market share...
Sajwani, F H
A cross-match to transfused unit ratio of less than 2.0 is frequently used to assess performance in many hospital blood banks. This brief report was initiated to evaluate the practice at a local hospital and to emphasize the importance of regular educational sessions to improve blood transfusion practice. Retrospective data on cross-match : transfused (C : T) ratio of all departments was collected and educational sessions were given to improve practice. Thereafter, a new set of data was collected and change in practice was assessed. Initial data showed total (C : T) ratio of 1.95. After medical staff education, analysis showed clinically significant improvement in blood utilization practice with a (C : T) ratio of 1.60. This brief report indicates the importance of regular physician education, the potential role of blood transfusion committee, and the need to implement clear guidelines for blood transfusion. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
Román, S Vázquez; Díaz, C Alonso; López, C Medina; Lozano, G Bustos; Hidalgo, M V Martínez; Alonso, C R Pallás
Breast milk is the best choice to feed premature and ill babies, but when there is not enough mother milk available donor breast milk is the best alternative. Nowadays, Milk Banks are present worldwide. In December 2007 the second Spanish Milk Bank opened within the Department of Neonatology of the Hospital 12 Octubre, Madrid (BLHDO). There are no international recommendations for processing breast milk, therefore other Milk Banks guidelines are the only standards to follow. BLHDO uses the Brazilian model as they focus on milk quality, in addition to safety issues. Lack of legislation for human milk processing in Spain has led to BLHDO complying with Spanish Law on blood and tissues donation with its strict regulations on safety issues and record keeping. This article summarises the first year of operating the BLHDO and its future projects and developments.
Full Text Available Abstract Global financial crisis in 2008 has driven special attention to systemic banking sector risk that cause byindividual bank default. Though, banking crisis significantly affect economic growth and national macroeco-nomic condition. Individual bank default non only affect banking industry but also has serious injured theeconomy. Bank default risk not only affect systemic risk but also systematic risk.ASEAN financial integrationplan raise a need to understand characteristics of ASEAN banking industry. Close relationship and intercon-nection between ASEAN economies will make individual bank default a serious issue that its effect will spreadto all ASEAN economy. This research aimed to investigate the effect of bank default risk on systemic andsystematic risk in 5 ASEAN countries. We find that bank default risk significantlyraised systemic risk, esspeciallyin country with high concentration in its banking industry structure. Big banks tend to more serious effect onsystemic risk. Systematic risk tend to be affected by macroeconomy condition, rather than default risk ofindividual bank.
..., North Dakota, as trustees/administrators, to retain voting shares of the Commercial Bank of Mott Employee Stock Ownership Plan, and thereby indirectly retain voting shares of Commercial Bank of Mott, both... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank...
Pousttchi, Key; Schurig, Martin
Mobile banking is a subset of electronic banking which underlies not only the determinants of the banking business but also the special conditions of mobile commerce. This paper analyzes customer needs and expectations from the mobile applications’ view and from the banking view in order to derive a defined set of requirements. Based on these results, existing mobile banking applications are assessed. Their major shortcomings are explained, opportunities for their improvement are shown and th...
Masami Imai; Peter Hull
We investigate the economic impacts of bank levies on bank-dependent borrowers, exploiting the surprise announcement of a bank tax by the Tokyo metropolitan government on February 7th, 2000. We find that the tax announcement had negative effects on the abnormal return of firms which depended on soon-to-be taxed banks for external funds. Moreover, the adverse economic effects of the bank tax were larger for smaller and more financially distressed firms, suggesting that bank levies are likely t...
Dilyara F. Zakirova
Full Text Available Objective to study the impact of economic sanctions on the key indicators of the liquidity and financial condition of the sanctioned banks of the Russian Federation by comparing them to the indicators of nonsanctioned credit institutions. Methods logical method method of comparative analysis statistical methods method of graphic images. Results the article examines the impact of economic sanctions on the Russian banking system. The sanctions affecting the Russian banking system are presented in chronological order. It is stated that the negative impact of the Western sanctions on the banking system is not denied. The authors analyze scientific works devoted to the effect of sanctions on Russian banks. The analysis revealed the absence of comprehensive studies of the effect of sanctions on the liquidity and financial condition of the sanctioned banks. For this assessment the authors analyzed the performance indicators of six sanctioned and six nonsanctioned Russian banks with the largest assets. It is proved that economic sanctions led to deterioration of the financial results of the sanctioned banks increased their dependence on the domestic interbank market and the funds from Bank of Russia. Other changes were mainly due to the overall economic situation internal policies of banks and the policy of the Bank of Russia not the sanctions. nbsp Scientific novelty the article for the first time basing on the comparative analysis of the main performance indicators of the sanctioned and nonsanctioned banks proved the impact of economic sanctions on the Russian banking system. However despite the banking sector adaptation to the existing conditions through their reorientation to the domestic market it should be noted that a certain tension ensuring the longterm liquidity is still preserved. The cost of the available longterm resources to be attracted remains relatively high which influences the financial results of the banking sector. Therefore without
Full Text Available The development of river banks is conditioned by a few factors: fluvial erosion, mass movements and subaerial processes. Many researchers believe that the subaerial phenomena are more preparatory processes to actual erosion than the erosion itself. Among the subaerial phenomena, freezing and thawing play a key role. Multigelation affects the stability and sustainability of river banks, not only in the northern reaches of Eurasia andNorth Americabut also in temperate latitudes. Susceptibility to change in bank morphology, however, is extremely selective. Within the same layer, at a distance of 1 metre the intensity of frost erosion can be very different. This is the result of many factors determining the rate of bank retreat. These include: the height of the bank, its structure and texture, physical and chemical properties of the material from which it is built, environmental conditions, soil moisture, water pressure in the pore spaces, porosity and density of the soil, organic matter content in the soil, temperature, vegetation, as well as thickness and duriation of snow cover. An important objective is therefore to show the differences in the rate of retreat of the river banks, and above all characterized by varying degrees of density and grain size of the material it is build of.
Budi Prasetyo Samadikun
about 70 km from Palabuhanratu Village. The existing waste bank’s performance is still very poor, because one waste bank can only serve one RW and can not serve the entire village. In addition, the processing of organic waste to be compost has not been done simultaneously by the whole community, due to the lack of people's knowledge. The purpose of this research is to know the existing condition of waste management and to formulate the revitalization of existing waste bank. The research used survey research method by using questionaire, in depth interview, and observation. Analytical technique using quantitative and qualitative analysis. The findings shows that the residents of Palabuhanratu Village who often do waste sorting from the source only from the residents of RT 01 RW 33. In addition, the number of existing temporary disposal site (TDS in Palabuhanratu Village is still lacking, so it requires addition up to 5 units that integrated with waste bank in this village. Keywords: revitalization; waste bank, Palabuhanratu
... Bancshares, Inc., and thereby acquire control of First Commercial Bank, both of Edmond, Oklahoma. Board of... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...
... shares of Anchor Commercial Bank, Juno Beach, Florida. Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C...
[The bioethics law revision: comparative analysis of contributions from different public and professional offices. Assisted Reproductive Technology, embryo and stem cells research, umbilical cord blood bank].
Merviel, P; Cabry, R; Lourdel, E; Brasseur, F; Devaux, A; Copin, H
The revision of the bioethics law of 2004 must occur in a five year's time. For this revision, the authorities decided to organize general states of bioethics and requested the production of contributions by the companies, institutions or associations. These texts tackle various subjects, like the Assisted Reproductive Technologies, research on the embryo and the stem cells and the banks of umbilical cord blood. Certain opinions converge, others differ, but all take part in the great debate which will take place at the time of the general conference.
Full Text Available Liquidity risk is the banks, the difficulty in acquiring the necessary resources to meet its own commitments at a time. Analysis of bank liquidity management is required not only to consider the liquidity situation continuously, but also to examine how funding requirements may evolve in different situations, including adverse conditions.
Signell, P.; Freiheit, F.
This is a guide to the design of the on-line data records in this bank, covering all energies and particle combinations up to about 1200 MeV. The design of the bank's management system satisfies almost all of the conditions set forth in the proposed Design Principles for Physics Data Banks
MIRELA CĂTĂLINA TÜRKEȘ
Full Text Available The paper analysed the total assets in 2016 achieved by the strongest 96 banks from 4 continents: Europe, America, Asia and Africa. It aims to evaluate the level of total assets provided by banks in 2016 and continental banking markets degree of differentiation to determine the overall conditions of the banks. Methodologies used in this study are based on cluster and descriptives analysis. Data set was built based on informations reported by banks on total assets. The results indicate that most of total banking assets are found in Asia and the fewest in Africa. At the end of 2016, the top 16 global banks owned total assets of $ 30.19 trillion according to the data set contains cluster 1 and the centroid was (2.25, 2.11, 3.06, 0.01.
Shah, S.M.A.; Ali, A.
After the introduction of blood banks and better storage techniques blood is more widely used in patients for various indications. In Pakistan more than 1.5 million pints of blood are collected each year. Hepatitis B and C virus infections are known to occur in the general population and due to their mode of transmission through blood and blood products, it has made safe blood transfusion difficult and screening of blood absolutely necessary. Objectives of this study were to estimate frequency of Hepatitis B and C in blood donors of local area and recommend measures for safe blood transfusion. Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conduced at the Blood Bank, Department of Pathology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar from January 01, 2007 to December 31, 2008. It was carried out on 32,042 voluntary, non-remunerated healthy blood donors. They were screened for Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and anti-hepatitis C antibodies (anti-HCV antibodies) by ELISA. The patients' age ranged from 18-52 years. They were all males. Results: Out of 32,042 donors, 632 (1.97%) patients were positive for HBsAg, and 502 (1.57%).were positive for anti-HCV antibodies. Conclusion: Incidence of Hepatitis B and C is varying in different areas. It is recommended that properly screened blood only, using a reliable method like ELISA, be transfused to the patients. (author)
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank or...
... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Change in Bank Control Notices; Acquisitions of Shares of a Bank or Bank Holding Company The notificants listed below have applied under the Change in Bank Control Act (12 U.S.C. 1817(j)) and Sec. 225.41 of the Board's Regulation Y (12 CFR 225.41) to acquire shares of a bank [[Page...
Full Text Available Banking industry worldwide has been transformed due to globalization, financial liberalization, technological developments, government policies, deregulation of financial services, financial crises and increase in mergers and acquisitions since 1980. With these changes, there is a trend towards decrease in the number of banks and increase in banking concentration. Increase in banking concentration might affect competition conditions in banking industry. The decrease in the number of banks and the increase in banking concentration dominate the Turkish banking industry after the banking crises in 2000 and 2001. This paper examines the relationship between concentration and competition in Turkish banking industry. I measure the size of banking concentration by concentration ratios and Herfindahl-Hirschman index with the data of commercial deposit banks in Turkey from 2000 to 2012. Competition degree is measured by using Panzar Rosse model. The results of the study suggest that there is no permanent relation between banking concentration and competition in Turkish banks.
The banking systems of some countries export intermediation services to the rest of the world, while many other countries are net exporters of deposits to banks abroad and net importers of loans from banks abroad. Banking center countries typically have lower inflation, deeper financial systems, earn less government revenue from seigniorage, and have lower reserve money relative to bank assets than nonbanking-center countries. This paper develops a stylized model of regulated bank intermediat...
Rudy Haryanto Rudy Haryanto
Full Text Available Abstract: To save money in terms of investation is one of bank’s functions. Interest and production sharing are kinds of investation in banking system. Interest is a marketable entry in conventional banking, however production sharing is known in syari’ah banking system. Some people argue that interest cannot be seperated from the banking activity, in fact Islam recommends the followers to avoid it; hence it could be substituted with term of production sharing. It matches the priciple of musyarakah and mudharabah as being taught by Rasûlullâh SAW. Bank interest is considered ribâ (excessive interest and it is forbidden in Islam. Moreover, production sharing is more useful and beneficial for people. Unfortunately, the value of production sharing (syarî’ah banking product is lower than the value of banking interest (conventional banking product due to the fact that the ralationship established by syari’ah banking and its customer is based on the principle of gotong royong (mutual coorporation and production sharing partnership. Key Words: ribâ, musyarakah, mudharabah, dan bagi-hasil
Cohn, Alain; Fehr, Ernst; Maréchal, Michel André
Trust in others' honesty is a key component of the long-term performance of firms, industries, and even whole countries. However, in recent years, numerous scandals involving fraud have undermined confidence in the financial industry. Contemporary commentators have attributed these scandals to the financial sector's business culture, but no scientific evidence supports this claim. Here we show that employees of a large, international bank behave, on average, honestly in a control condition. However, when their professional identity as bank employees is rendered salient, a significant proportion of them become dishonest. This effect is specific to bank employees because control experiments with employees from other industries and with students show that they do not become more dishonest when their professional identity or bank-related items are rendered salient. Our results thus suggest that the prevailing business culture in the banking industry weakens and undermines the honesty norm, implying that measures to re-establish an honest culture are very important.
Full Text Available In this study, durability of the Banking Sector against the possible risks that it could face during economic crisis has been evaluated. Banking sector has been divided into 4 main branches as Public, Local Private, Foreign and Participation Banking. Fiscal data and ratios of the year 2014 have been made use of. The analys is made up of 3 stages, biddability ratios, liquidity ratios and the changes in the foreign exchange net general position/ regulatory capital ratio, have been analysed.As the basic criteria, the legal boundaries determined by the Banking Regulatory and Superviso have been taken into consideration. In the analysis, Public Banks have become the strongest banking group, while Participation Banks have been the weakest one in under the economic crisis conditions. In terms of liquidity coverage, Foreign Banks have got the best position, while Participation Banks have ranked as the weakest. In terms of Foreign Exchange Net General Position / Regulatory Capital Ratio, Foreign Banks have been the most susceptible bank to problems, while Public Banks have been the strongest banking groups with the strong capital and position.
Full Text Available In the article there were analyzed theoretical backgrounds for defining the concept «banking service» by scientists from different countries: considered its main characteristics and classification, determined the key peculiarities of the world market functioning of banking services and its structure, found out the present-day developments of the world market of banking services under conditions of post-crisis period.
Full Text Available The impact of the financial crisis has demonstrated the fragility of the banking sector and the need to implement new technologies that would allow not only insurance against the most important credit risk - credit risk, but development of lending segment. In such conditions, transfer of credit risk is an efficient and actual way to diversify the banks exposure for credit risk by the presence of those who are willing to take on some of this risk. Taking of credit risk can be achieved through credit derivatives, securitization and sale of loans, being selected the most advantageous technique for the bank. The current situation of the national banking sector requires solving the problem of bad loans, which, unfortunately, are increasing, by implementing new techniques for credit risk management according with EU directives.
Jith Jayaratne; Donald Morgan
Following the investment-cash flow literature, we test whether bank lending is constrained by the availability of insured deposits--a necessary condition for the existence of bank lending channel of monetary policy. We treat insured deposits as a type of "internal fund," similar to cash flows. We use a simple model to sort out the possible identification issues in interpreting a lending-deposit correlation, including reverse causality and omitted variable bias. To minimize the latter, we spli...
Full Text Available Money market operations (open market operations constitute the most important instrument of the monetary policy of the NATIONAL BANK of ROMANIA. They shall be carried out on the initiative of the Central Bank, having the following functions: guiding interest rates, managing the liquidity conditions of the monetary market and signaling the orientation of the monetary policy. In this context, a systematic and a market organization is essential able to adapt to the new conditions imposed by the relaxation of credit operations. Implementation and operational systematization of such types of transaction can help banking entities in adjusting the liquidity crisis and the support on the way to economic growth.
Khoury, Sarkis Joseph; Wihlborg, Clas
The literature on Currency Boards (CB) stops at the water edge in terms of dealing with the totality of the functions of a central bank. Monetary policy, and banking supervisioncan be "outsourced" in an open economy with substantial foreign direct investment (FDI)in the banking sector if political...... nationalism does not trump economic rationality. An orthodox CB renders the central banking function redundant in terms of interest rate and exchange rate determination. FDI in banking could perform the same role for the supervisory function of central banks. We use the case of Estonia to illustrate...... the feasibility of, and constraints on, outsourcing of central bank functions. A brief discussion of the Argentinian experience is used for contrast.Key words: Currency Board, Foreign Banks, Supervision, Regional Integration,outsourcing....
Full Text Available The purpose of this research tries to feed the alternatives of merger between Islamic banks which becomes a form of recommendation to optimize the merger result, so it will contribute to the development of Indonesia’s banking sector in particular. Methodolgy of this study is using comparison technique utilize result of calculation valuation based on valuation theory in general with method discounted cash flaw (DCF. Valuation data processing using data past performance sharia banks is to plan future financial performance. Results of valuation will be conducted both with individual banks that will be merged and alternative merger determined. These findings implied from various possibility alternative mergers between sharia banks, there are 5 alternatives that are feasible considering the internal aspect such as tendency shareholder and condition sharia bank to be merged related to internal interest and external aspect namely scale of assets from merger banks and probability success from merger process.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v6i1.4728
Sudha, Raju; Thiagarajan, A S; Seetharaman, A
The existing literatures highlights that the security is the primary factor which determines the adoption of Internet banking technology. The secondary information on Internet banking development in Malaysia shows a very slow growth rate. Hence, this study aims to study the banking customers perception towards security concern and Internet banking adoption through the information collected from 150 sample respondents. The data analysis reveals that the customers have much concern about security and privacy issue in adoption of Internet banking, whether the customers are adopted Internet banking or not. Hence, it infers that to popularize Internet banking system there is a need for improvement in security and privacy issue among the banking customers.
Objective: To assess the operation status of human milk banks in the mainland of China. Method: This retrospective study included a consecutive series of 14 human milk banks in the mainland of China from March 2013 to December 2016. The opened date, condition of donated breast milk, characteristics of donors and clinical application of donated breast milk were analyzed. Result: There were 14 human milk banks successively founded in mainland China from March 2013 to December 2016. The number of human milk banks, the amount of donated breast milk, the number of eligible donors and the times of donation had increased each year. Howere, the operation status among these milk banks varied greatly. Among them, one human milk bank has newly opened without relevant data, 6 banks could accept frozen breast milk, and the remaining 7 banks could only collect breast milk by the nurses in the bank. Among the 3 121 eligible donors, 1 404 (45.0%) donated less than 3 times, 2 553 (81.8%) aged 25 to 35 years, 2 828 (90.6%) had term delivery, 2 409 (77.2%) began donation one month after birth, 1 798 (57.6%) were company employees and housewives and 1 891 (60.6%) had bachelor or higher degree. The use of donor breast milk, the number of recipients and the average received amount of breast milk every person varied greatly among these banks. Conclusion: The human milk banking developed quickly in the mainland of China. Howere, the number of donors and the amount of donated breast milk which could not meet the clinical demands should be improved. And it was urgent to establish the standards or guidelines of the human milk banking as soon as possible in China.
The role the World Bank and the Inter-American Development Bank are regarding the climate change problem is, in the same way as the international negotiations, pretty weak compared to the magnitude of the problem. The contradictions within these organizations concerning project financing and policies and strategies to support their clients in a sustainable energy path constitute a clear example of the ambiguities that still surrounds the position of the different countries in respect to the human induced global warming problem. Finally, we can see how the different countries and the new market conditions determine the role these organizations can play regarding the climate change problem
Full Text Available In contemporary market conditions classical deposit-loan strategy is not enough anymore in order to ensure survival of the commercial banks on the financial market and to reach profit that is high enough. Besides the loan placements strategy, it is necessary to adopt an adequate investment strategy which will contribute to the profitability, liquidity and safety of gross asset portfolio. Commercial banks, unlike investment banks, invest smaller part of their resources into securities of diverse maturity on financial markets. However, with the harsh competition of banks and other non-banking institutions, significance of investment portfolio grows as an alternative that ensures additional sources of revenue, assures liquidity, diversification of placements and decreases risk exposure. Banks have at their disposal vast range of investment strategies that can be combined depending on their investment objectives and risk aversion, such as passive and active strategy, strategy of ladder, weights strategy etc. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present the significance of investment portfolio in commercial banks and the basic management strategies of investment portfolio that can be used by commercial banks.
Full Text Available This research aim to determine the effect of independent commissioner and institutional ownershipto financial distress banks in Indonesia. The existence of the banking crisis occurred in 1997/1998resulted the collapse of public confidence in banking industry. In 2008, the scale, pattern, anda different scope, we face the reality that seems similar to the condition of the banks in the endof 1997. Financial distress experienced is not only caused by external factors stemming fromthe bank but also can be caused by internal factors. On the other hand, the financial distress inthe banking sector can be caused by governance are not good in running the bank’s operations.This study used a quantitative approach. The unit of analysis is the banks in Indonesia with dataobtained from directory of Bank Indonesia in 2008-2009. The research sampling techniques use saturated sampling or census. Research design use multiple logistic regression with the cross section. The result from this study indicated that independent commissioners and institutionalownership cannot prevent the financial distress in 2008 and 2009.
Josep M. PUIG ROVIRA
Full Text Available The altruistic donation of blood recommended by the World Health Organisation and carried out through blood banks not only contributes to providing the health system with an indispensable therapeutic element, it is also a means of fostering social integration and educating for citizenship. Within this general context, the article begins by arguing why altruistic donation is better than buying and selling blood and why the gift theory – developed by sociology on the basis of the work by Marcel Mauss – more than justifies the possibility of meeting the demand for blood in this way. On the basis of these considerations it can be said that blood banks are social institutions that perform three basic functions: technical, civic and educational. The article continues by examining the educational project undertaken by the Blood and Tissue Bank of Catalonia, which consists in a programme based on the methodology of service learning and which invites young people to cultivate and develop a communicative approach to promoting the altruistic donation of blood in their neighbourhood. The article concludes by evaluating the consolidation, effectiveness and degree of satisfaction of the project, and suggesting that this model can be used to form the basis of ideas for educational proposals of other social institutions.
Full Text Available The growth of shadow banks changed the face of banking in Zimbabwe. Their inconsistent product nature and complexity of form has been a cause for concern to regulatory authorities. The interrelationship between their financial intermediary role and that of formal banks has made them good substitutes to formal banking. This study conducts a statistical analysis of the country’s monetary aggregates and the total formal bank loan-to-deposits balances. The findings of this analysis show that the shadow banking system has always been a critical element of the formal banking sector which resulted from market needs and it completes the banking system. The shadow banking system does not pose direct threat to the formal banking system but it was a result of failure to attract savers who found shadow banks as a good alternative.
Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I; Kinggaard Holm, D; Galea, G; Aranko, K; Korhonen, M; Nordstrom, K
A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB) and haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in order to identify different practices and to explore whether recommendations can be made for harmonization. An online questionnaire was used for data collection in 2011, and 43 replies were received covering 71 product answers from 13 countries. Estimated percentages of tissue and cell banking covered by EBA member blood banks as a proportion of all collections of each individual country varied markedly. There were also major differences in the amounts of products collected and discarded and in proportions tissues provided for grafting. However, discarding of certain collections also reflects the practice of increasing the likelihood of the very best units being used for transplantation. Harmonization of possible practices should focus on matching supply with demand and on identifying the most efficient operators. This could allow for the development of practices for minimizing unnecessary collections. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Spencer, Bryan R; Kleinman, Steven; Wright, David J; Glynn, Simone A; Rye, David B; Kiss, Joseph E; Mast, Alan E; Cable, Ritchard G
The association of blood donation-related iron deficiency with pica or restless legs syndrome (RLS) remains poorly elucidated. This study evaluated the prevalence of RLS and pica in blood donors completing the REDS-II Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) study. RISE enrolled 2425 blood donors in a prospective cohort study; 1334 donors provided blood samples to characterize iron status and answered a questionnaire inquiring into symptoms of RLS and pica at a final visit after 15 to 24 months of follow-up. Associations between both conditions and iron status were evaluated. There were 9 and 20% of donors reporting symptoms of probable or probable/possible RLS, respectively. Iron depletion and donation intensity were not predictive of RLS. Pica was reported by 65 donors (5.5%), half of whom reported daily cravings. Prevalence of pica increased with degree of iron depletion in women (2% in iron-replete females, 13% in those with ferritin high prevalence of RLS in frequent blood donors but shows no association with iron status or donation intensity. Low iron stores were associated with higher prevalence of pica, but only in females. Furthermore, the results are incompatible with RLS and pica sharing a common pathophysiology. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Full Text Available The adoption of the Internet in the banking industry on the one hand is closely related to a change in the structure of the organization and nature of operations in banking industry itself, and on the other hand, to the emergence of computer as a significant organizational tool. Banks have always been starving to introduce new technologies to reduce operational costs and expand their businesses. This study is an attempt to investigate the contribution of Internet banking on the performance of the banking system in India. Return on Assets (ROA and Return on Equity (ROE ratios are used to test this effect. The regression analysis showed that there is a significant effect of Internet banking services on the profitability of banks in terms of ROA and ROE in India.
Angkinand, Apanard; Wihlborg, Clas
Market discipline in banking requires that explicit and implicit insurance schemes for financial sector firms are limited, and that the lack of insurance of important stakeholders is credible. This credibility cannot be achieved without transparent, predictable procedures for distress resolution for banks, including explicit rules for the liquidation of insolvent banks. We find that very few European countries have explicit procedures for dealing with problem banks. The propositions tested in...
Wevers, Anne; Wigboldus, Daniël H J; van Baaren, Rick; Veldhuizen, Ingrid J T
For blood establishments it is important that blood donors return for a donation. Past research has stressed the importance of theory of planned behavior (TPB) on return behavior, but self-identity (SI) and organizational variables (OVs) might play a role as well. This study added SI and OVs to the TPB to identify the determinants for return behavior. Whole blood donors (n = 2005) completed a questionnaire assessing TPB, SI, and OVs. OVs contained "perceived satisfaction with the blood bank" and "feeling pressure from the blood bank to donate blood." Return behavior over the past 2 years was dichotomized as low return (0%-50%) versus high return (51%-100%). Logistic regression analyses assessed the effects of TPB, SI, and OVs on high return, separately for occasional donors (two to 10 lifetime donations) and multigallon donors (>10 lifetime donations). Results showed that, for all donors, affective attitude was positively associated with return behavior, whereas pressure to donate blood was negatively associated with return behavior. The point estimates of self-efficacy, SI, and perceived satisfaction are high for multigallon donors, but do not reach significance. For all donors, positive feelings about donating blood stimulate return behavior, while experiencing a pressure to donate blood emanating from the blood bank was not beneficial. Results suggest that multigallon donors are more stimulated to return when they score higher on self-efficacy, SI, and perceived satisfaction. Interventions aiming at donor retention need to be carefully formulated to avoid negative effects of feeling pressure to donate blood. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.
Mohammad Nazim Uddin
Full Text Available Green banking is an integral part of Islamic banking that makes a basis of environmental protection. This study attempts to examine the relationship between Islamic banking and green banking that contribute to sustainable development. The study has used the primary data through a structural questionnaire that includes various dimensions on green banking of Islamic banking in Bangladesh. The investigation revealed that Islamic banks had made a significant contribution to green banking that improves the environment as means of cost and energy savings, preservation of natural resources and the need to respect all living things. The study seems to carry an enormous academic value since a few studies have undertaken in this areaDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v10i1.4563
Full Text Available Introduction. In today’s globalized conditions, the question of socially responsible business and the formation of an appropriate concept and policies for managing it are more relevant. Scientists are investigating this issue in two aspects, namely, from a theoretical and practical point of view. The first aspect is the study of the essence of CSR, the conduct of entrepreneurial activity, the functioning mechanism of the market principles in this concept, the definition of the place of social orientation in modern conditions. The second aspect is the study of practical positions, the separation of this concept from the standpoint of warning and risk management, assessment of the level of social responsibility and summing up the rating, summarizing all the results, as well as the establishment of a standard that will regulate such relationships. But, in our opinion, the implementation of such socially-oriented moments is not possible without identifying a certain number of indicators, reflecting the real situation and the impact of social factors on the banking institutions. This explains the relevance of studying the assessment of socially-oriented policies of banking institutions. Purpose. The purpose of this article is to determine the approaches to the assessment of socially-oriented policies of banking institutions, as well as to determine the place of rating assessment in the current conditions of the functioning of institutions and organizations. Results. The article describes approaches of socially-oriented banking policy in Ukraine. A quantitative approach is drawn, which directly includes the assessment of the level of social investment through the conduct of socially responsible activities by banking institutions. The qualitative approach according to which social reports and social ratings are compiled is investigated. The social indicators that influence the formation of a socially oriented political management system by business
Florin Alexandru LUCA
Full Text Available The financial crisis has highlighted the importance of liquidity risk for the banking system. Therefore, this study focuses on identifing the determinants of liquidity of Romanian banks. The data cover the period from 2006 to 2013 and take into account only bank-specific factors. The empirical study was applied on 16 Romanian banks and based on previous studies and uses different liquidity ratios, encompassing different points of view on liquidity. Regarding the explanatory variables considered in this analysis, they include various items of internal character concerning: capital adequacy, asset quality, profitability, efficiency of financial intermediation and the size of the banks. The results of our regression analysis indicate that bank liquidity is positively related to capital adequacy of banks and bank profitability and negatively related to the rate of non-performing loans, net interest margin and the size of the bank.
Full Text Available This research is intended to assess and analyze the financial health of Foreign Exchange Bank and Non-Foreign Exchange Bank. Assessment is done by looking at the financial ratios from 2011 to 2015, the results of each financial ratios performed comparison and analysis. The financial statements were obtained from the Indonesian Stock Exchange website. The conclusions of the analysis were compared with the indicators of Bank Indonesia's financial performance assessment released by Indonesia Bank. There is a significant difference between foreign exchange bank and non-foreign exchange bank. The ratio of financial ratios in the analysis includes NPL, CAR, ROA, LDR, and BOPO.
Benson, Dennis A.; Karsch-Mizrachi, Ilene; Lipman, David J.; Ostell, James; Wheeler, David L.
GenBank (R) is a comprehensive database that contains publicly available nucleotide sequences for more than 240 000 named organisms, obtained primarily through submissions from individual laboratories and batch submissions from large-scale sequencing projects. Most submissions are made using the web-based BankIt or standalone Sequin programs and accession numbers are assigned by GenBank staff upon receipt. Daily data exchange with the EMBL Data Library in Europe and the DNA Data Bank of Japan...
Full Text Available Transactions carried out in the uncertain and impersonal conditions of the Internet require substantial levels of trust. Obtaining customers’ trust is therefore imperative to cultivating and nurturing long-lasting and profitable customer-firm relationships in online environments. Surprisingly however, there is currently a dearth of research on the effects of trust on customers’ acceptance of e-commerce in Africa. This paper investigates the effects of the components of institutional trust on perceptions of ease of use and usefulness, as well as attitudes towards use on customers’ intentions to use Internet banking services. An integrated research model based on the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM was built and empirically tested using data obtained from 390 retail banking customers in South Africa. The results show that the proposed model possesses high explanatory capabilities as it could explain 61 per cent of the variance in Internet banking use intentions. The study results further show that situational normality is neither a salient determinant of customers’ attitudes towards use of internet banking nor their use intention, whereas structural assurance is. By examining the effects of institutional trust on the TAM’s variables, especially in a developing African country, this study does not only provide insights for managers in their efforts to achieve rapid adoption of Internet banking, but also contributes to the literature on the topic.
Full Text Available Strategic positioning has always been a key tool for managers to analyze the position of the firm in different attributes in comparison with competitors. With regard to fierce competition in banking industry, the aim of this study is to analyze the position of Bank Melli Iran with 5 public and private rivals in 6 attributes. The sample of this study was 387 Bank Melli Iran customers. The results of this study were in 14 perceptual maps in which the positions of Bank Melli Iran attributes have been shown compared with bank’s key competitors. The results showed that Bank Melli Iran had strong position and came to the first place in attributes like price, physical equipment and location and security. Moreover, Bank Melli Iran has to improve its position in attributes with no better position.
Full Text Available The currently available data suggest that efforts towards improving the quality of red blood cell (RBC blood bank products should concentrate on: (1 preventing the removal of a considerable fraction of the transfused RBCs that takes place within the first hours after transfusion; (2 minimizing the interaction of the transfused RBCs with the patient's immune system. These issues are important in reducing the number and extent of the damaging side effects of transfusions, such as generation of alloantibodies and autoantibodies and iron accumulation, especially in transfusion-dependent patients. Thus, it becomes important for blood bank research not only to assess the classical RBC parameters for quality control during storage, but even more so to identify the parameters that predict RBC survival, function and behaviour in the patient after transfusion. These parameters are likely to result from elucidation of the mechanisms that underly physiological RBC aging in vivo, and that lead to the generation of senescent cell antigens and the accumulation of damaged molecules in vesicles. Also, study of RBC pathology-related mechanisms, such as encountered in various hemoglobinopathies and membranopathies, may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying a storage-associated increase in susceptibility to physiological stress conditions. Recent data indicate that a combination of new approaches in vitro to mimick RBC behaviour in vivo, the growing knowledge of the signaling networks that regulate RBC structure and function, and the rapidly expanding set of proteomic and metabolomic data, will be instrumental to identify the storage-associated processes that control RBC survival after transfusion.
Electronic remote blood issue: a combination of remote blood issue with a system for end-to-end electronic control of transfusion to provide a "total solution" for a safe and timely hospital blood transfusion service.
Staves, Julie; Davies, Amanda; Kay, Jonathan; Pearson, Oliver; Johnson, Tony; Murphy, Michael F
The rapid provision of red cell (RBC) units to patients needing blood urgently is an issue of major importance in transfusion medicine. The development of electronic issue (sometimes termed "electronic crossmatch") has facilitated rapid provision of RBC units by avoidance of the serologic crossmatch in eligible patients. A further development is the issue of blood under electronic control at blood refrigerator remote from the blood bank. This study evaluated a system for electronic remote blood issue (ERBI) developed as an enhancement of a system for end-to-end electronic control of hospital transfusion. Practice was evaluated before and after its introduction in cardiac surgery. Before the implementation of ERBI, the median time to deliver urgently required RBC units to the patient was 24 minutes. After its implementation, RBC units were obtained from the nearby blood refrigerator in a median time of 59 seconds (range, 30 sec to 2 min). The study also found that unused requests were reduced significantly from 42 to 20 percent, the number of RBC units issued reduced by 52 percent, the number of issued units that were transfused increased from 40 to 62 percent, and there was a significant reduction in the workload of both blood bank and clinical staff. This study evaluated a combination of remote blood issue with an end-to-end electronically controlled hospital transfusion process, ERBI. ERBI reduced the time to make blood available for surgical patients and improved the efficiency of hospital transfusion.
... Deposit Insurance Act (12 U.S.C. 1821(n)) should not apply until in the process of issuing stock pursuant... ISSUE AND CANCELLATION OF FEDERAL RESERVE BANK CAPITAL STOCK (REGULATION I) § 209.2 Banks desiring to become member banks. (a) Application for stock or deposit. Each national bank in process of organization...
Dr. S. Anthony Rahul Golden
Banking transactions that takes place in a virtual ambience on the website of a banking company or a financial institution is termed as ‘Internet Banking’. The essence of Internet banking lies in on-line access by customers of banking and financial services. This is the right time to discuss about the customer prefer whether traditional banking or online banking. What are reasons are beyond that for their preference has been analysed here. Finally, it is concluded that as people are very clos...
Yaser Taufik Syamlan
Full Text Available Objectives – this research is aimed to compare those epistemological bases to the mindset of Islamic Bank and try to drive the philosophy in practical operation whether based on the Fractional Reserve Banking Sytem (RBS or 100% RBS and analyze the challenges in deploying the 100%RBS. Methods - This research will be conducted based on an extensive literature review.Results - Based on the epistemological analysis of money and the business cycle as well as the views of Islamic scholars, 100%RBS should be the best for Islamic Bank. There are four types of 100% RBS namely Pure Commodity Money, Sovereign Money, Narrow Banking, and Limited Purpose Banking. To deploy it into the economic system, another philosophical work should be done to choose one of the types and strengthen it so that the theory of 100%RBS can be implemented for the goodness of Islamic Bank. Conclusion - In Conclusions, Based on the epistemology defined by Islamic Scholars, FractRBS has more mafsadah if we compare to the maslahah. Therefore, 100% RBS should be better for the Islamic Bank.
Full Text Available Using data for 1238 banks located in 94 developing and emerging countries, we explore whether the impact of bank regulation and supervision on banking risk (measured by the banks’ Z-scores depends on bank structure. Our findings suggest that stricter regulation and supervision increases the banks’ Z-scores. Notably capital requirements and supervisory control diminish banking risk. However, the effectiveness of other dimensions of regulation and supervision depends on the organizational structure of banks. Notably activity restrictions reduce risk of large and foreign owned banks, while liquidity restrictions have most effect on the Z-scores of unlisted and commercial banks.
Full Text Available Banking industry is one of the most influence factors in the economy growth of one country. However, during 1997-1998 Indonesia banking industry went through hard times because of economic crisis. After that years, many banks were liquidated and restructured. The interesting part is through the restructuring process, several bank acquired by foreign investor and became the foreign-domestic bank. In 2010, some of those banks were in the 10 biggest banks in Indonesia based on asset. Hence, the writer interesting to compare the bank’s financial performance before and after being acquired using two banks as samples of empirical study. Data is based on financial statements published by the companies and Central Bank of Indonesia in 1995-1996, and 2003-2004. Two sample of banks have been selected based on several criteria, they are BCA and Bank Niaga. To analyse their financial performance, several analysis tools will be using, specifically CAMELS (CAR, NPL, NIM, BOPO, LDR minus mangement and sensitivity. The result of the study observed that after being acquired, financial performance of BCA and Niaga Bank is getting better in CAR, NIM, BOPO, but NPL and LDR is less favorable for BCA and so NPL is less favorable for Niaga Bank. Moreover, in terms of profitability analysis, both banks shows better performance. While, the result of credit analysis indicates that the credit risk for both banks is in the stable range at CCC.
Muhammad Shakil AHMAD
Full Text Available This paper has covered the operational issues related to e-banking as well as customer’s perception on usage of e-banking a case study of Askari Bank, Pakistan. 40 staff members and four customers are selected as sample for this study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used to present the results. Descriptive statistics is applied to describe the demographic variables while for operational problems correlation was used. Finally cross case analysis present customers’ perception about e-banking practices. Analysis shows that customer is not ready to adopt new technology that why their satisfaction level with e-banking is low. Internet speed and government policies are not supportive for e-banking in Pakistan. Due to lack of trust on technology and low computer literacy rate, customer hesitates to adopt new technology. : In order to promote IT culture in Pakistan, government has to reduce the internet rate. to promote the benefits of e-banking on media so that more user get facilitated from e-banking services.
Samadikun, Budi Prasetyo; Handayani, Dwi Siwi; Laksana, Muhamad Permana
Palabuhanratu Village has three waste banks, one of them was established since 2010, the others built in 2016. However, waste processing from the source is still not optimal, it's only reduced waste about 5% of the total waste generated to the final waste disposal site. The performance of waste banks is still minimal, because one waste bank can not serve the entire area of the village. Furthermore, organic waste processed by some communities of Palabuhanratu Village to be compost can not be a mass movement, due to the lack of public knowledge. The purpose of this research is to know the existing condition of waste management in Palabuhanratu Village and to formulate the revitalization of existing waste bank. The research used survey research method by using questionnaire, in depth interview, and observation. Analytical technique using quantitative and qualitative analysis. The findings of the research indicate that the residents of Palabuhanratu Village who often do waste sorting from the source only from the residents of RT 01 / RW 33. The number of existing temporary waste disposal site in Palabuhanratu Village is still lacking, so it requires addition up to 5 units that integrated with waste bank in this village.
Background: Blood transfusion plays vital roles in the medical and surgical practice. To achieve optimum use of blood, transfusion has to be appropriate and judicious consuming minimal resources and manpower. Objective: To evaluate the pattern of blood transfusion requests and utilization with the aim of determining transfusion practice. Materials and Methods: Blood request forms and cross-match worksheets at the blood bank were analyzed over a 6-month period. Numbers of requisitions, b...
Full Text Available E-banking has been extensively developed in recent decades and most banks need to have such services in their daily activities. Therefore, it is necessary that banks do a better management on banks’ liquidity risks. Electronic banking and the expansion of its scale from POSs and ATMs to telephone banking, mobile banking and internet banking have increased banking transactions, significantly. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate the relationship between the development of e-banking and liquidity management using liquidity ratios. The focus of this investigation has been on the amounts of transaction of ATM machines, POSs and PIN PADs as the most important means of electronic banking. In this respect, the data obtained from 14 private and public bank representatives of banking system over the period 2007-2012 are considered. Our survey indicates that the characteristics of electronic banking significantly influence on liquidity.
Gonçalez, Thelma T; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudia; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara F; Moreno, Elizabeth C; Miranda, Carolina; Larsen, Nina; Wright, David; Leão, Silvana; Loureiro, Paula; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Lopes, Maria-Inês; Proietti, Fernando A; Custer, Brian; Sabino, Ester
Studies analyzing motivation factors that lead to blood donation have found altruism to be the primary motivation factor; however, social capital has not been analyzed in this context. Our study examines the association between motivation factors (altruism, self-interest, and response to direct appeal) and social capital (cognitive and structural) across three large blood centers in Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 7635 donor candidates from October 15 through November 20, 2009. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographics, previous blood donation, human immunodeficiency virus testing and knowledge, social capital, and donor motivations. Enrollment was determined before the donor screening process. Among participants, 43.5 and 41.7% expressed high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal, respectively, while only 26.9% expressed high levels of self-interest. More high self-interest was observed at Hemope-Recife (41.7%). Of participants, 37.4% expressed high levels of cognitive social capital while 19.2% expressed high levels of structural social capital. More high cognitive and structural social capital was observed at Hemope-Recife (47.3 and 21.3%, respectively). High cognitive social capital was associated with high levels of altruism, self-interest, and response to direct appeal. Philanthropic and high social altruism were associated with high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal. Cognitive and structural social capital and social altruism are associated with altruism and response to direct appeal, while only cognitive social capital is associated with self-interest. Designing marketing campaigns with these aspects in mind may help blood banks attract potential blood donors more efficiently. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.
Irikawa, Tomio; Kuramitsu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Keiko; Hamamoto, Takaaki
Once it shows the symptoms of post transfusion graft versus host disease, mostly all examples follow fatal progress. For this reason, generally 15-50 Gy irradiation is performed into the blood for transfusion by the ''guideline of radiation'' of the Japan society of blood transfusion as measure only in development-of-symptoms prevention. This time, the questionnaire was performed for the hospital of 100 institutions of the Chugoku and the Shikoku district, and the actual condition of management employment of blood irradiation equipment was investigated. Consequently, there was little institution in which the medical-examination radiological technologist is participating directly, and it was made clear dependent on the maker of an equipment management. (author)