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Sample records for blocks phagosome maturation

  1. Helicobacter pylori phagosome maturation in primary human macrophages

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    Borlace Glenn N

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is a micro-aerophilic, spiral-shaped, motile bacterium that is the principal cause of gastric and duodenal ulcers in humans and is a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Despite provoking a strong innate and adaptive immune response in the host, H. pylori persists in the gastric mucosa, avoiding eradication by macrophages and other phagocytic cells, which are recruited to the site of infection. Here we have characterised the critical degradative process of phagosome maturation in primary human macrophages for five genotypically and phenotypically distinct clinical strains of H. pylori. Results All of the H. pylori strains examined showed some disruption to the phagosome maturation process, when compared to control E. coli. The early endosome marker EEA1 and late endosome marker Rab7 were retained on H. pylori phagosomes, while the late endosome-lysosome markers CD63, LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 were acquired in an apparently normal manner. Acquisition of EEA1 by H. pylori phagosomes appeared to occur by two distinct, strain specific modes. H. pylori strains that were negative for the cancer associated virulence factor CagA were detected in phagosomes that recruited large amounts of EEA1 relative to Rab5, compared to CagA positive strains. There were also strain specific differences in the timing of Rab7 acquisition which correlated with differences in the rate of intracellular trafficking of phagosomes and the timing of megasome formation. Megasomes were observed for all of the H. pylori strains examined. Conclusions H. pylori appeared to disrupt the normal process of phagosome maturation in primary human macrophages, appearing to block endosome fission. This resulted in the formation of a hybrid phagosome-endosome-lysosome compartment, which we propose has reduced degradative capacity. Reduced killing by phagocytes is consistent with the persistence of H. pylori in the host, and would

  2. DMPD: Linking inflammasome activation and phagosome maturation. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 18407061 Linking inflammasome activation and phagosome maturation. Lazarevic V, Mar...tinon F. Cell Host Microbe. 2008 Apr 17;3(4):199-200. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Linking inflammasome activa...tion and phagosome maturation. PubmedID 18407061 Title Linking inflammasome activation and phagosome

  3. Rab20 regulates phagosome maturation in RAW264 macrophages during Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis.

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    Youhei Egami

    Full Text Available Rab20, a member of the Rab GTPase family, is known to be involved in membrane trafficking, however its implication in FcγR-mediated phagocytosis is unclear. We examined the spatiotemporal localization of Rab20 during phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized erythrocytes (IgG-Es in RAW264 macrophages. By the live-cell imaging of fluorescent protein-fused Rab20, it was shown that Rab20 was transiently associated with the phagosomal membranes. During the early stage of phagosome formation, Rab20 was not localized on the membranes of phagocytic cups, but was gradually recruited to the newly formed phagosomes. Although Rab20 was colocalized with Rab5 to some extent, the association of Rab20 with the phagosomes persisted even after the loss of Rab5 from the phagosomal membranes. Then, Rab20 was colocalized with Rab7 and Lamp1, late endosomal/lysosomal markers, on the internalized phagosomes. Moreover, our analysis of Rab20 mutant expression revealed that the maturation of phagosomes was significantly delayed in cells expressing the GDP-bound mutant Rab20-T19N. These data suggest that Rab20 is an important component of phagosome and regulates the phagosome maturation during FcγR-mediated phagocytosis.

  4. Class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p110α regulates phagosome maturation.

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    Emily P Thi

    Full Text Available Of the various phosphatidylinositol 3- kinases (PI3Ks, only the class III enzyme Vps34 has been shown to regulate phagosome maturation. During studies of phagosome maturation in THP-1 cells deficient in class IA PI3K p110α, we discovered that this PI3K isoform is required for vacuole maturation to progress beyond acquisition of Rab7 leading to delivery of lysosomal markers. Bead phagosomes from THP-1 cells acquired p110α and contained PI3P and PI(3,4,5P3; however, p110α and PI(3,4,5P3 levels in phagosomes from p110α knockdown cells were decreased. Phagosomes from p110α knock down cells showed normal acquisition of both Rab5 and EEA-1, but were markedly deficient in the lysosomal markers LAMP-1 and LAMP-2, and the lysosomal hydrolase, β-galactosidase. Phagosomes from p110α deficient cells also displayed impaired fusion with Texas Red dextran-loaded lysosomes. Despite lacking lysosomal components, phagosomes from p110α deficient cells recruited normal levels of Rab7, Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP and homotypic vacuole fusion and protein sorting (HOPs components Vps41 and Vps16. The latter observations demonstrated that phagosomal Rab7 was active and capable of recruiting effectors involved in membrane fusion. Nevertheless, active Rab7 was not sufficient to bring about the delivery of lysosomal proteins to the maturing vacuole, which is shown for the first time to be dependent on a class I PI3K.

  5. High-Resolution Dissection of Phagosome Maturation Reveals Distinct Membrane Trafficking Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Gotthardt, Daniel; Warnatz, Hans Jörg; Henschel, Oliver; Brückert, Franz; Schleicher, Michael; Soldati, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of endocytosis in the genetically and biochemically tractable professional phagocyte Dictyostelium discoideum reveal a striking degree of similarity to higher eukaryotic cells. Pulse-chase feeding with latex beads allowed purification of phagosomes at different stages of maturation. Gentle ATP stripping of an actin meshwork entrapping contaminating organelles resulted in a 10-fold increase in yield and purity, as confirmed by electron microscopy. Temporal profiling of sig...

  6. High-resolution dissection of phagosome maturation reveals distinct membrane trafficking phases

    OpenAIRE

    Gotthardt, Daniel; Warnatz, Hans Jörg; Henschel, Oliver; Brückert, Franz; Schleicher, Michael; Soldati, Thierry

    2002-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of endocytosis in the genetically and biochemically tractable professional phagocyte Dictyostelium discoideum reveal a striking degree of similarity to higher eukaryotic cells. Pulse-chase feeding with latex beads allowed purification of phagosomes at different stages of maturation. Gentle ATP stripping of an actin meshwork entrapping contaminating organelles resulted in a 10-fold increase in yield and purity, as confirmed by electron microscopy. Temporal profiling of sig...

  7. Phagosome maturation in unicellular eukaryote Paramecium: the presence of RILP, Rab7 and LAMP-2 homologues

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    E Wyroba

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Phagosome maturation is a complex process enabling degradation of internalised particles. Our data obtained at the gene, protein and cellular level indicate that the set of components involved in this process and known up to now in mammalian cells is functioning in unicellular eukaryote. Rab7-interacting partners: homologues of its effector RILP (Rab-interacting lysosomal protein and LAMP-2 (lysosomal membrane protein 2 as well as a7 subunit of the 26S proteasome were revealed in Paramecium phagolysosomal compartment. We identified the gene/transcript fragments encoding RILP-related proteins (RILP1 and RILP2 in Paramecium by PCR/RT-PCR and sequencing. The deduced amino acid sequences of RILP1 and RILP2 show 60.5% and 58.3% similarity, respectively, to the region involved in regulating of lysosomal morphology and dynein-dynactin recruitment of human RILP. RILP colocalised with Rab7 in Paramecium lysosomes and at phagolysosomal membrane during phagocytosis of both the latex beads and bacteria. In the same compartment LAMP-2 was present and its expression during latex internalisation was 2.5-fold higher than in the control when P2 protein fractions (100 000 x g of equal load were quantified by immunoblotting. LAMP-2 crossreacting polypeptide of ~106 kDa was glycosylated as shown by fluorescent and Western analysis of the same blot preceded by PNGase F treatment. The a7 subunit of 26S proteasome was detected close to the phagosomal membrane in the small vesicles, in some of which it colocalised with Rab7. Immunoblotting confirmed presence of RILPrelated polypeptide and a7 subunit of 26S proteasome in Paramecium protein fractions. These results suggest that Rab7, RILP and LAMP-2 may be involved in phagosome maturation in Paramecium.

  8. Phagosome maturation in unicellular eukaryote Paramecium: the presence of RILP, Rab7 and LAMP-2 homologues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyroba, E; Surmacz, L; Osinska, M; Wiejak, J

    2007-01-01

    Phagosome maturation is a complex process enabling degradation of internalised particles. Our data obtained at the gene, protein and cellular level indicate that the set of components involved in this process and known up to now in mammalian cells is functioning in unicellular eukaryote. Rab7-interacting partners: homologues of its effector RILP (Rab-interacting lysosomal protein) and LAMP-2 (lysosomal membrane protein 2) as well as alpha7 subunit of the 26S proteasome were revealed in Paramecium phagolysosomal compartment. We identified the gene/transcript fragments encoding RILP-related proteins (RILP1 and RILP2) in Paramecium by PCR/RT-PCR and sequencing. The deduced amino acid sequences of RILP1 and RILP2 show 60.5% and 58.3% similarity, respectively, to the region involved in regulating of lysosomal morphology and dynein-dynactin recruitment of human RILP. RILP colocalised with Rab7 in Paramecium lysosomes and at phagolysosomal membrane during phagocytosis of both the latex beads and bacteria. In the same compartment LAMP-2 was present and its expression during latex internalisation was 2.5-fold higher than in the control when P2 protein fractions (100,000 x g) of equal load were quantified by immunoblotting. LAMP-2 cross-reacting polypeptide of approximately106 kDa was glycosylated as shown by fluorescent and Western analysis of the same blot preceded by PNGase F treatment. The alpha7 subunit of 26S proteasome was detected close to the phagosomal membrane in the small vesicles, in some of which it colocalised with Rab7. Immunoblotting confirmed presence of RILP-related polypeptide and a7 subunit of 26S proteasome in Paramecium protein fractions. These results suggest that Rab7, RILP and LAMP-2 may be involved in phagosome maturation in Paramecium.

  9. Attenuated Leishmania induce pro-inflammatory mediators and influence leishmanicidal activity by p38 MAPK dependent phagosome maturation in Leishmania donovani co-infected macrophages.

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    Banerjee, Somenath; Bose, Dipayan; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Das, Tanya; Saha, Krishna Das

    2016-01-01

    Promastigote form of Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, delays phagosome maturation and resides inside macrophages. But till date limited study has been done to manipulate the phagosomal machinery of macrophages to restrict Leishmania growth. Attenuated Leishmania strain exposed RAW 264.7 cells showed a respiratory burst and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The augmentation of pro-inflammatory activity is mostly attributed to p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. In our study, these activated macrophages are found to induce phagosome maturation when infected with pathogenic Leishmania donovani. Increased co-localization of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester labeled pathogenic L. donovani with Lysosome was found. Moreover, increased co-localization was observed between pathogenic L. donovani and late phagosomal markers viz. Rab7, Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1, Cathepsin D, Rab9, and V-ATPase which indicate phagosome maturation. It was also observed that inhibition of V-type ATPase caused significant hindrance in attenuated Leishmania induced phagosome maturation. Finally, it was confirmed that p38 MAPK is the key player in acidification and maturation of phagosome in attenuated Leishmania strain pre-exposed macrophages. To our knowledge, this study for the first time reported an approach to induce phagosome maturation in L. donovani infected macrophages which could potentiate short-term prophylactic response in future. PMID:26928472

  10. Attenuated Leishmania induce pro-inflammatory mediators and influence leishmanicidal activity by p38 MAPK dependent phagosome maturation in Leishmania donovani co-infected macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Somenath Banerjee; Dipayan Bose; Nabanita Chatterjee; Subhadip Das; Sreeparna Chakraborty; Tanya Das; Krishna Das Saha

    2016-01-01

    Promastigote form of Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, delays phagosome maturation and resides inside macrophages. But till date limited study has been done to manipulate the phagosomal machinery of macrophages to restrict Leishmania growth. Attenuated Leishmania strain exposed RAW 264.7 cells showed a respiratory burst and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The augmentation of pro-inflammatory activity is mostly attributed to p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. In our study, these...

  11. Evidence for the involvement of ActA in maturation of the Listeria monocytogenes phagosome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mathilde A Poussin; Howard Goldfine

    2010-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Listeria monocytogenes (Lm), a Gram-positive facultative bacterium, is the causative agent of listeriosis, a food-borne disease affecting humans [1]. During infections, Lm enters phagosomes from which it escapes into the cytoplasm. Listeriolysin O (LLO) is essential, and two phospholipases play a role in this process [1]. Actin polymerization provides the propulsive force that moves the bacteria through the cytoplasm and into adjacent cells. It is initiated by the interaction of the N-terminal domain of ActA, a 639 amino acid membrane protein, with the host Arp2/3 complex.

  12. Insufficient Generation of Mycobactericidal Mediators and Inadequate Level of Phagosomal Maturation Are Related with Susceptibility to Virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Mouse Macrophages.

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    Lee, Hyo-Ji; Ko, Hyun-Jeong; Jung, Yu-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and it remains major life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Although, M. tuberculosis has infected one-third of the present human population, only 5-10% of immunocompetent individuals are genetically susceptible to tuberculosis. All inbred strains of mice are susceptible to tuberculosis; however, some mouse strains are much more susceptible than others. In a previous report, we showed that Th1-mediated immunity was not responsible for the differential susceptibility between mouse models. To examine whether these susceptibility differences between inbred mouse strains are due to the insufficient production of effector molecules in the early stage of innate immunity, we investigated mycobacteriostatic function of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) in resistant (BALB/c and C57BL/6) and susceptible strains (DBA/2) that were infected with virulent M. tuberculosis (H37Rv) or attenuated M. tuberculosis (H37Ra). The growth rate of virulent M. tuberculosis in infected cells was significantly higher in DBA/2 BMDMs, whereas the growth of the attenuated strain was similar in the three inbred mouse BMDM strains. In addition, the death rate of M. tuberculosis-infected cells increased with the infectious dose when DBA/2 BMDMs were infected with H37Rv. The intracellular reactive oxygen species level was lower in DBA/2 BMDMs that were infected with virulent M. tuberculosis at an early post-infection time point. The expression levels of phagosomal maturation markers, including early endosomal antigen-1 (EEA1) and lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1), were significantly decreased in DBA/2 BMDM that were infected with virulent M. tuberculosis, whereas IFNγ-treatment restored the phagosomal maturation activity. The nitric oxide (NO) production levels were also significantly lower in DBA/2 BMDMs that were infected with virulent H37Rv at late post-infection points; however, this was not observed

  13. Insufficient generation of mycobactericidal mediators and inadequate level of phagosomal maturation are related with susceptibility to virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in mouse macrophages

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    Hyo-Ji eLee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis, Mtb infection, and it remains major life-threatening infectious diseases worldwide. Although Mtb has infected one-third of the present human population, only 5-10% of immunocompetent individuals are genetically susceptible to tuberculosis. All inbred strains of mice are susceptible to tuberculosis; however, some mouse strains are much more susceptible than others. In a previous report, we showed that Th1-mediated immunity was not responsible for the differential susceptibility between mouse models. To examine whether these susceptibility differences between inbred mouse strains are due to the insufficient production of effector molecules in the early stage of innate immunity, we investigated mycobacteriostatic function of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs in resistant (BALB/c and C57BL/6 and susceptible strains (DBA/2 that were infected with virulent Mtb (H37Rv or attenuated Mtb (H37Ra. The growth rate of virulent Mtb in infected cells was significantly higher in DBA/2 BMDMs, whereas the growth of the attenuated strain was similar in the three inbred mouse BMDM strains. In addition, the death rate of Mtb-infected cells increased with the infectious dose when DBA/2 BMDMs were infected with H37Rv. The intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS level was lower in DBA/2 BMDMs that were infected with virulent Mtb at an early post-infection time point. The expression levels of phagosomal maturation markers, including early endosomal antigen-1 (EEA1 and lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1, were significantly decreased in DBA/2 BMDM that were infected with virulent Mtb, whereas IFNγ-treatment restored the phagosomal maturation activity. The nitric oxide (NO production levels were also significantly lower in DBA/2 BMDMs that were infected with virulent H37Rv at late post infection points; however, this was not observed with the attenuated H37Ra strain. Furthermore

  14. Tropheryma whipplei, the agent of Whipple's disease, affects the early to late phagosome transition and survives in a Rab5- and Rab7-positive compartment.

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    Giovanna Mottola

    Full Text Available Tropheryma whipplei, the agent of Whipple's disease, inhibits phago-lysosome biogenesis to create a suitable niche for its survival and replication in macrophages. To understand the mechanism by which it subverts phagosome maturation, we used biochemical and cell biological approaches to purify and characterise the intracellular compartment where Tropheryma whipplei resides using mouse bone-marrow-derived macrophages. We showed that in addition to Lamp-1, the Tropheryma whipplei phagosome is positive for Rab5 and Rab7, two GTPases required for the early to late phagosome transition. Unlike other pathogens, inhibition of PI(3P production was not the mechanism for Rab5 stabilisation at the phagosome. Overexpression of the inactive, GDP-bound form of Rab5 bypassed the pathogen-induced blockade of phago-lysosome biogenesis. This suggests that Tropheryma whipplei blocks the switch from Rab5 to Rab7 by acting on the Rab5 GTPase cycle. A bio-informatic analysis of the Tropheryma whipplei genome revealed a glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH homologous with the GAPDH of Listeria monocytogenes, and this may be the bacterial protein responsible for blocking Rab5 activity. To our knowledge, Tropheryma whipplei is the first pathogen described to induce a "chimeric" phagosome stably expressing both Rab5 and Rab7, suggesting a novel and specific mechanism for subverting phagosome maturation.

  15. Membrane proteomics of phagosomes suggests a connection to autophagy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shui, Wenqing; Sheu, Leslie; Liu, Jun; Smart, Brian; Petzold, Christopher J.; Hsieh, Tsung-yen; Pitcher, Austin; Keasling*, Jay D.; Bertozzi*, Carolyn R.

    2008-11-25

    Phagocytosis is the central process by which macrophage cellsinternalize and eliminate infectious microbes as well as apoptoticcells. During maturation, phagosomes containing engulfed particlesfuse with various endosomal compartments through theaction of regulatory molecules on the phagosomal membrane. Inthis study, we performed a proteomic analysis of the membranefraction from latex bead-containing (LBC) phagosomes isolatedfrom macrophages. The profile, which comprised 546 proteins,suggests diverse functions of the phagosome and potential connectionsto secretory processes, toll-like receptor signaling, andautophagy. Many identified proteins were not previously knownto reside in the phagosome. We characterized several proteins inLBC phagosomes that change in abundance on induction of autophagy,a process that has been previously implicated in the hostdefense against microbial pathogens. These observations suggestcrosstalk between autophagy and phagocytosis that may be relevantto the innate immune response of macrophages.

  16. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis phagosome is a HLA-I processing competent organelle.

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    Jeff E Grotzke

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb resides in a long-lived phagosomal compartment that resists maturation. The manner by which Mtb antigens are processed and presented on MHC Class I molecules is poorly understood. Using human dendritic cells and IFN-gamma release by CD8(+ T cell clones, we examined the processing and presentation pathway for two Mtb-derived antigens, each presented by a distinct HLA-I allele (HLA-Ia versus HLA-Ib. Presentation of both antigens is blocked by the retrotranslocation inhibitor exotoxin A. Inhibitor studies demonstrate that, after reaching the cytosol, both antigens require proteasomal degradation and TAP transport, but differ in the requirement for ER-golgi egress and new protein synthesis. Specifically, presentation by HLA-B8 but not HLA-E requires newly synthesized HLA-I and transport through the ER-golgi. Phenotypic analysis of the Mtb phagosome by flow organellometry revealed the presence of Class I and loading accessory molecules, including TAP and PDI. Furthermore, loaded HLA-I:peptide complexes are present within the Mtb phagosome, with a pronounced bias towards HLA-E:peptide complexes. In addition, protein analysis also reveals that HLA-E is enriched within the Mtb phagosome compared to HLA-A2. Together, these data suggest that the phagosome, through acquisition of ER-localized machinery and as a site of HLA-I loading, plays a vital role in the presentation of Mtb-derived antigens, similar to that described for presentation of latex bead-associated antigens. This is, to our knowledge, the first description of this presentation pathway for an intracellular pathogen. Moreover, these data suggest that HLA-E may play a unique role in the presentation of phagosomal antigens.

  17. LAMP proteins are required for fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes.

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    Huynh, Kassidy K; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Scott, Cameron C; Malevanets, Anatoly; Saftig, Paul; Grinstein, Sergio

    2007-01-24

    Lysosome-associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) are delivered to phagosomes during the maturation process. We used cells from LAMP-deficient mice to analyze the role of these proteins in phagosome maturation. Macrophages from LAMP-1- or LAMP-2-deficient mice displayed normal fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes. Because ablation of both the lamp-1 and lamp-2 genes yields an embryonic-lethal phenotype, we were unable to study macrophages from double knockouts. Instead, we reconstituted phagocytosis in murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) by transfection of FcgammaIIA receptors. Phagosomes formed by FcgammaIIA-transfected MEFs obtained from LAMP-1- or LAMP-2- deficient mice acquired lysosomal markers. Remarkably, although FcgammaIIA-transfected MEFs from double-deficient mice ingested particles normally, phagosomal maturation was arrested. LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 double-deficient phagosomes acquired Rab5 and accumulated phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate, but failed to recruit Rab7 and did not fuse with lysosomes. We attribute the deficiency to impaired organellar motility along microtubules. Time-lapse cinematography revealed that late endosomes/lysosomes as well as phagosomes lacking LAMP-1 and LAMP-2 had reduced ability to move toward the microtubule-organizing center, likely precluding their interaction with each other. PMID:17245426

  18. Neisseria gonorrhoeae phagosomes delay fusion with primary granules to enhance bacterial survival inside human neutrophils.

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    Johnson, M Brittany; Criss, Alison K

    2013-08-01

    Symptomatic infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) promotes inflammation driven by polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs, neutrophils), yet some Gc survive PMN exposure during infection. Here we report a novel mechanism of gonococcal resistance to PMNs: Gc phagosomes avoid maturation into phagolysosomes by delayed fusion with primary (azurophilic) granules, which contain antimicrobial components including serine proteases. Reduced phagosome-primary granule fusion was observed in gonorrheal exudates and human PMNs infected ex vivo. Delayed phagosome-granule fusion could be overcome by opsonizing Gc with immunoglobulin. Using bacterial viability dyes along with antibodies to primary granules revealed that Gc survival in PMNs correlated with early residence in primary granule-negative phagosomes. However, when Gc was killed prior to PMN exposure, dead bacteria were also found in primary granule-negative phagosomes. These results suggest that Gc surface characteristics, rather than active bacterial processes, influence phagosome maturation and that Gc death inside PMNs occurs after phagosome-granule fusion. Ectopically increasing primary granule-phagosome fusion, by immunoglobulin opsonization or PMN treatment with lysophosphatidylcholine, reduced intracellular Gc viability, which was attributed in part to serine protease activity. We conclude that one method for Gc to avoid PMN clearance in acute gonorrhoea is by delaying primary granule-phagosome fusion, thus preventing formation of a degradative phagolysosome. PMID:23374609

  19. Hyaluronan blocks oligodendrocyte progenitor maturation and remyelination through TLR2

    OpenAIRE

    Sloane, J. A.; Batt, C.; Ma, Y.; Harris, Z. M.; Trapp, B; Vartanian, T.

    2010-01-01

    Failure of remyelination is largely responsible for sustained neurologic symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS). MS lesions contain hyaluronan deposits that inhibit oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) maturation. However, the mechanism behind this inhibition is unclear. We report here that Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) is expressed by oligodendrocytes and is up-regulated in MS lesions. Pathogen-derived TLR2 agonists, but not agonists for other TLRs, inhibit OPC maturation in vitro. Hyaluronan-med...

  20. Phagosomes Fuse with Late Endosomes and/or Lysosomes by Extension of Membrane Protrusions along Microtubules: Role of Rab7 and RILP

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Rene E.; Bucci, Cecilia; Vieira, Otilia V.; Schroer, Trina A.; Grinstein, Sergio

    2003-01-01

    Nascent phagosomes must undergo a series of fusion and fission reactions to acquire the microbicidal properties required for the innate immune response. Here we demonstrate that this maturation process involves the GTPase Rab7. Rab7 recruitment to phagosomes was found to precede and to be essential for their fusion with late endosomes and/or lysosomes. Active Rab7 on the phagosomal membrane associates with the effector protein RILP (Rab7-interacting lysosomal protein), which in turn bridges p...

  1. The Leishmania donovani lipophosphoglycan excludes the vesicular proton-ATPase from phagosomes by impairing the recruitment of synaptotagmin V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinet, Adrien F; Fukuda, Mitsunori; Turco, Salvatore J; Descoteaux, Albert

    2009-10-01

    We recently showed that the exocytosis regulator Synaptotagmin (Syt) V is recruited to the nascent phagosome and remains associated throughout the maturation process. In this study, we investigated the possibility that Syt V plays a role in regulating interactions between the phagosome and the endocytic organelles. Silencing of Syt V by RNA interference revealed that Syt V contributes to phagolysosome biogenesis by regulating the acquisition of cathepsin D and the vesicular proton-ATPase. In contrast, recruitment of cathepsin B, the early endosomal marker EEA1 and the lysosomal marker LAMP1 to phagosomes was normal in the absence of Syt V. As Leishmania donovani promastigotes inhibit phagosome maturation, we investigated their potential impact on the phagosomal association of Syt V. This inhibition of phagolysosome biogenesis is mediated by the virulence glycolipid lipophosphoglycan, a polymer of the repeating Galbeta1,4Manalpha1-PO(4) units attached to the promastigote surface via an unusual glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Our results showed that insertion of lipophosphoglycan into ganglioside GM1-containing microdomains excluded or caused dissociation of Syt V from phagosome membranes. As a consequence, L. donovani promatigotes established infection in a phagosome from which the vesicular proton-ATPase was excluded and which failed to acidify. Collectively, these results reveal a novel function for Syt V in phagolysosome biogenesis and provide novel insight into the mechanism of vesicular proton-ATPase recruitment to maturing phagosomes. We also provide novel findings into the mechanism of Leishmania pathogenesis, whereby targeting of Syt V is part of the strategy used by L. donovani promastigotes to prevent phagosome acidification. PMID:19834555

  2. The Leishmania donovani lipophosphoglycan excludes the vesicular proton-ATPase from phagosomes by impairing the recruitment of synaptotagmin V.

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    Adrien F Vinet

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We recently showed that the exocytosis regulator Synaptotagmin (Syt V is recruited to the nascent phagosome and remains associated throughout the maturation process. In this study, we investigated the possibility that Syt V plays a role in regulating interactions between the phagosome and the endocytic organelles. Silencing of Syt V by RNA interference revealed that Syt V contributes to phagolysosome biogenesis by regulating the acquisition of cathepsin D and the vesicular proton-ATPase. In contrast, recruitment of cathepsin B, the early endosomal marker EEA1 and the lysosomal marker LAMP1 to phagosomes was normal in the absence of Syt V. As Leishmania donovani promastigotes inhibit phagosome maturation, we investigated their potential impact on the phagosomal association of Syt V. This inhibition of phagolysosome biogenesis is mediated by the virulence glycolipid lipophosphoglycan, a polymer of the repeating Galbeta1,4Manalpha1-PO(4 units attached to the promastigote surface via an unusual glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Our results showed that insertion of lipophosphoglycan into ganglioside GM1-containing microdomains excluded or caused dissociation of Syt V from phagosome membranes. As a consequence, L. donovani promatigotes established infection in a phagosome from which the vesicular proton-ATPase was excluded and which failed to acidify. Collectively, these results reveal a novel function for Syt V in phagolysosome biogenesis and provide novel insight into the mechanism of vesicular proton-ATPase recruitment to maturing phagosomes. We also provide novel findings into the mechanism of Leishmania pathogenesis, whereby targeting of Syt V is part of the strategy used by L. donovani promastigotes to prevent phagosome acidification.

  3. Assessment of the Maturity of eGoverment Building Blocks for Public Administrations in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a maturity assessment of a set of generic building blocks for public administrations in the EU. In the European e-SENS project, various generic building blocks are developed, such as eID, eSignature, eDelivery and eDocument building blocks. They should be used by

  4. Rhodococcus equi Virulence-Associated Protein A Is Required for Diversion of Phagosome Biogenesis but Not for Cytotoxicity▿

    OpenAIRE

    von Bargen, Kristine; Polidori, Marco; Becken, Ulrike; Huth, Gitta; Prescott, John F.; Haas, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen that can cause severe bronchopneumonia in foals and AIDS patients. Virulence is plasmid regulated and is accompanied by phagosome maturation arrest and host cell necrosis. A replacement mutant in the gene for VapA (virulence-associated protein A), a major virulence factor of R. equi, was tested for its activities during macrophage infection. Early in infection, phagosomes containing the vapA mutant did not fuse with lysoso...

  5. The Leishmania donovani lipophosphoglycan excludes the vesicular proton-ATPase from phagosomes by impairing the recruitment of synaptotagmin V.

    OpenAIRE

    Vinet, Adrien F.; Mitsunori Fukuda; Turco, Salvatore J.; Albert Descoteaux

    2009-01-01

    We recently showed that the exocytosis regulator Synaptotagmin (Syt) V is recruited to the nascent phagosome and remains associated throughout the maturation process. In this study, we investigated the possibility that Syt V plays a role in regulating interactions between the phagosome and the endocytic organelles. Silencing of Syt V by RNA interference revealed that Syt V contributes to phagolysosome biogenesis by regulating the acquisition of cathepsin D and the vesicular proton-ATPase. In ...

  6. Mycobacterial mutants with defective control of phagosomal acidification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of mycobacterial infection is associated with an ability to interfere with maturation of the phagosomal compartment after ingestion by macrophages. Identification of the mycobacterial components that contribute to this phenomenon will allow rational design of novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of tuberculosis. Microarray-based screening of a transposon library was used to identify mutations that influence the fate of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG following uptake by macrophages. A screen based on bacterial survival during a 3-d infection highlighted genes previously implicated in growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in macrophages and in mice, together with a number of other virulence genes including a locus encoding virulence-associated membrane proteins and a series of transporter molecules. A second screen based on separation of acidified and non-acidified phagosomes by flow cytometry identified genes involved in mycobacterial control of early acidification. This included the KefB potassium/proton antiport. Mutants unable to control early acidification were significantly attenuated for growth during 6-d infections of macrophages. Early acidification of the phagosome is associated with reduced survival of BCG in macrophages. A strong correlation exists between genes required for intracellular survival of BCG and those required for growth of M. tuberculosis in mice. In contrast, very little correlation exists between genes required for intracellular survival of BCG and those that are up-regulated during intracellular adaptation of M. tuberculosis. This study has identified targets for interventions to promote immune clearance of tuberculosis infection. The screening technologies demonstrated in this study will be useful to the study of pathogenesis in many other intracellular microorganisms.

  7. Adenosine Modulates the Oocyte Developmental Competence by Exposing Stages and Synthetic Blocking during In Vitro Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Yong-Pil

    2016-06-01

    Purine metabolism is known factor for nuclear maturation of oocytes through both follicle cells and oocyte itself. However, it is largely unknown the roles of purine metabolism in the oocyte competence for fertilization and early development. In this study, the effects of adenosine in oocyte competence for development were examined using adenosine and its synthetic inhibitors. Adenosine treatment from GV intact stage for 18 hr (fGV) caused of decrease the fertilization rate but of increase the cleavage rate compared from the other stage treatment groups. Hadacidin did not effect on fertilization rate but increased cleavage rate without stage specificity. Adenosine did not block the effects of hadacidin with the exception of fGV group. By the inhibition of purine synthetic pathways the fertilization rate was decreased in the fGV and fGVB groups but increased in the fMII group. Exogenous adenosine caused of decrease fertilization rate in the fGVB group but increase in the fMII group. Cleavage rate was dramatically increased in the adenosine treatment with synthetic inhibitors. It means that the metabolism of purine has stage specific effects on fertilization and cleavage. Exogenous adenosine had only can improve oocyte developmental competence when it treated at GV intact stage. On the other hand, endogenous synthesis in all maturation stage caused of increase the cleavage rate without effects on fertilization. These data suggest that adenosine at GV stage as a paracrine fashion and inhibitions of endogenous adenosine in all stage improve oocyte developmental competence.. PMID:27660830

  8. Decoupling internalization, acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion during phagocytosis of InlA coated beads in epithelial cells.

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    Craig D Blanchette

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phagocytosis has been extensively examined in 'professional' phagocytic cells using pH sensitive dyes. However, in many of the previous studies, a separation between the end of internalization, beginning of acidification and completion of phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion was not clearly established. In addition, very little work has been done to systematically examine phagosomal maturation in 'non-professional' phagocytic cells. Therefore, in this study, we developed a simple method to measure and decouple particle internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK and Caco-2 epithelial cells. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our method was developed using a pathogen mimetic system consisting of polystyrene beads coated with Internalin A (InlA, a membrane surface protein from Listeria monocytogenes known to trigger receptor-mediated phagocytosis. We were able to independently measure the rates of internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion in epithelial cells by combining the InlA-coated beads (InlA-beads with antibody quenching, a pH sensitive dye and an endosomal/lysosomal dye. By performing these independent measurements under identical experimental conditions, we were able to decouple the three processes and establish time scales for each. In a separate set of experiments, we exploited the phagosomal acidification process to demonstrate an additional, real-time method for tracking bead binding, internalization and phagosomal acidification. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using this method, we found that the time scales for internalization, phagosomal acidification and phagosomal-endosomal/lysosomal fusion ranged from 23-32 min, 3-4 min and 74-120 min, respectively, for MDCK and Caco-2 epithelial cells. Both the static and real-time methods developed here are expected to be readily and broadly applicable, as they simply

  9. Inhibition of macrophage phagosome-lysosome fusion by Salmonella typhimurium.

    OpenAIRE

    Buchmeier, N A; Heffron, F

    1991-01-01

    Salmonella typhimurium-infected macrophages were examined by electron microscopy to determine whether intracellular survival of S. typhimurium is associated with failure of bacteria containing phagosomes to fuse with secondary lysosomes. S. typhimurium 14028 actively inhibited phagosome-lysosome fusion and appeared to preferentially divide within unfused phagocytic vesicles. In comparison with Escherichia coli, S. typhimurium inhibited phagosome-lysosome fusion in peritoneal macrophages, J774...

  10. Activity of clinically relevant antimalarial drugs on Plasmodium falciparum mature gametocytes in an ATP bioluminescence "transmission blocking" assay.

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    Joël Lelièvre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current anti-malarial drugs have been selected on the basis of their activity against the symptom-causing asexual blood stage of the parasite. Which of these drugs also target gametocytes, in the sexual stage responsible for disease transmission, remains unknown. Blocking transmission is one of the main strategies in the eradication agenda and requires the identification of new molecules that are active against gametocytes. However, to date, the main limitation for measuring the effect of molecules against mature gametocytes on a large scale is the lack of a standardized and reliable method. Here we provide an efficient method to produce and purify mature gametocytes in vitro. Based on this new procedure, we developed a robust, affordable, and sensitive ATP bioluminescence-based assay. We then assessed the activity of 17 gold-standard anti-malarial drugs on Plasmodium late stage gametocytes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Difficulties in producing large amounts of gametocytes have limited progress in the development of malaria transmission blocking assays. We improved the method established by Ifediba and Vanderberg to obtain viable, mature gametocytes en masse, whatever the strain used. We designed an assay to determine the activity of antimalarial drugs based on the intracellular ATP content of purified stage IV-V gametocytes after 48 h of drug exposure in 96/384-well microplates. Measurements of drug activity on asexual stages and cytotoxicity on HepG2 cells were also obtained to estimate the specificity of the active drugs. CONCLUSIONS: The work described here represents another significant step towards determination of the activity of new molecules on mature gametocytes of any strain with an automated assay suitable for medium/high-throughput screening. Considering that the biology of the forms involved in the sexual and asexual stages is very different, a screen of our 2 million-compound library may allow us to discover novel anti

  11. Non-catalytic site HIV-1 integrase inhibitors disrupt core maturation and induce a reverse transcription block in target cells.

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    Mini Balakrishnan

    Full Text Available HIV-1 integrase (IN is the target for two classes of antiretrovirals: i the integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs and ii the non-catalytic site integrase inhibitors (NCINIs. NCINIs bind at the IN dimer interface and are thought to interfere primarily with viral DNA (vDNA integration in the target cell by blocking IN-vDNA assembly as well as the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction. Herein we show that treatment of virus-producing cells, but not of mature virions or target cells, drives NCINI antiviral potency. NCINIs target an essential late-stage event in HIV replication that is insensitive to LEDGF levels in the producer cells. Virus particles produced in the presence of NCINIs displayed normal Gag-Pol processing and endogenous reverse transcriptase activity, but were defective at initiating vDNA synthesis following entry into the target cell. NCINI-resistant virus carrying a T174I mutation in the IN dimer interface was less sensitive to the compound-induced late-stage effects, including the reverse transcription block. Wild-type, but not T174I virus, produced in the presence of NCINIs exhibited striking defects in core morphology and an increased level of IN oligomers that was not observed upon treatment of mature cell-free particles. Collectively, these results reveal that NCINIs act through a novel mechanism that is unrelated to the previously observed inhibition of IN activity or IN-LEDGF interaction, and instead involves the disruption of an IN function during HIV-1 core maturation and assembly.

  12. Non-catalytic site HIV-1 integrase inhibitors disrupt core maturation and induce a reverse transcription block in target cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Mini; Yant, Stephen R; Tsai, Luong; O'Sullivan, Christopher; Bam, Rujuta A; Tsai, Angela; Niedziela-Majka, Anita; Stray, Kirsten M; Sakowicz, Roman; Cihlar, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase (IN) is the target for two classes of antiretrovirals: i) the integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) and ii) the non-catalytic site integrase inhibitors (NCINIs). NCINIs bind at the IN dimer interface and are thought to interfere primarily with viral DNA (vDNA) integration in the target cell by blocking IN-vDNA assembly as well as the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction. Herein we show that treatment of virus-producing cells, but not of mature virions or target cells, drives NCINI antiviral potency. NCINIs target an essential late-stage event in HIV replication that is insensitive to LEDGF levels in the producer cells. Virus particles produced in the presence of NCINIs displayed normal Gag-Pol processing and endogenous reverse transcriptase activity, but were defective at initiating vDNA synthesis following entry into the target cell. NCINI-resistant virus carrying a T174I mutation in the IN dimer interface was less sensitive to the compound-induced late-stage effects, including the reverse transcription block. Wild-type, but not T174I virus, produced in the presence of NCINIs exhibited striking defects in core morphology and an increased level of IN oligomers that was not observed upon treatment of mature cell-free particles. Collectively, these results reveal that NCINIs act through a novel mechanism that is unrelated to the previously observed inhibition of IN activity or IN-LEDGF interaction, and instead involves the disruption of an IN function during HIV-1 core maturation and assembly. PMID:24040198

  13. Nelfinavir Impairs Glycosylation of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Envelope Proteins and Blocks Virus Maturation

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    Soren Gantt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nelfinavir (NFV is an HIV-1 aspartyl protease inhibitor that has numerous effects on human cells, which impart attractive antitumor properties. NFV has also been shown to have in vitro inhibitory activity against human herpesviruses (HHVs. Given the apparent absence of an aspartyl protease encoded by HHVs, we investigated the mechanism of action of NFV herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in cultured cells. Selection of HSV-1 resistance to NFV was not achieved despite multiple passages under drug pressure. NFV did not significantly affect the level of expression of late HSV-1 gene products. Normal numbers of viral particles appeared to be produced in NFV-treated cells by electron microscopy but remain within the cytoplasm more often than controls. NFV did not inhibit the activity of the HSV-1 serine protease nor could its antiviral activity be attributed to inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. NFV was found to decrease glycosylation of viral glycoproteins B and C and resulted in aberrant subcellular localization, consistent with induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and the unfolded protein response by NFV. These results demonstrate that NFV causes alterations in HSV-1 glycoprotein maturation and egress and likely acts on one or more host cell functions that are important for HHV replication.

  14. Retroviral induction of GSK-3β expression blocks the stimulatory action of physical exercise on the maturation of newborn neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens-Martín, María; Teixeira, Catia M; Jurado-Arjona, Jerónimo; Rakwal, Randeep; Shibato, Junko; Soya, Hideaki; Ávila, Jesús

    2016-09-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is a key process for certain types of hippocampal-dependent learning. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is accompanied by memory deficits related to alterations in AHN. Given that the increased activity of GSK-3β has been related to alterations in the population of hippocampal granule neurons in AD patients, we designed a novel methodology by which to induce selective GSK-3β overexpression exclusively in newborn granule neurons. To this end, we injected an rtTA-IRES-EGFP-expressing retrovirus into the hippocampus of tTO-GSK-3β mice. Using this novel retroviral strategy, we found that GSK-3β caused a cell-autonomous impairment of the morphological and synaptic maturation of newborn neurons. In addition, we examined whether GSK-3β overexpression in newborn neurons limits the effects of physical activity. While physical exercise increased the number of dendritic spines, the percentage of mushroom spines, and the head diameter of the same in tet-OFF cells, these effects were not triggered in tet-ON cells. This observation suggests that GSK-3β blocks the stimulatory actions of exercise. Given that the activity of GSK-3β is increased in the brains of individuals with AD, these data may be relevant for non-pharmacological therapies for AD. PMID:27010990

  15. Bacillus anthracis Factors for Phagosomal Escape

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    Irene Zornetta

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of phagosome escape by intracellular pathogens is an important step in the infectious cycle. During the establishment of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis undergoes a transient intracellular phase in which spores are engulfed by local phagocytes. Spores germinate inside phagosomes and grow to vegetative bacilli, which emerge from their resident intracellular compartments, replicate and eventually exit from the plasma membrane. During germination, B. anthracis secretes multiple factors that can help its resistance to the phagocytes. Here the possible role of B. anthracis toxins, phospholipases, antioxidant enzymes and capsules in the phagosomal escape and survival, is analyzed and compared with that of factors of other microbial pathogens involved in the same type of process.

  16. Modelling phagosomal lipid networks that regulate actin assembly

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    Schwarz Roland

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When purified phagosomes are incubated in the presence of actin under appropriate conditions, microfilaments start growing from the membrane in a process that is affected by ATP and the lipid composition of the membrane. Isolated phagosomes are metabolically active organelles that contain enzymes and metabolites necessary for lipid interconversion. Hence, addition of ATP, lipids, and actin to the system alter the steady-state composition of the phagosomal membrane at the same time that the actin nucleation is initiated. Our aim was to model all these processes in parallel. Results We compiled detailed experimental data on the effects of different lipids and ATP on actin nucleation and we investigated experimentally lipid interconversion and ATP metabolism in phagosomes by using suitable radioactive compounds. In a first step, a complex lipid network interconnected by chemical reactions catalyzed by known enzymes was modelled in COPASI (Complex Pathway Simulator. However, several lines of experimental evidence indicated that only the phosphatidylinositol branch of the network was active, an observation that dramatically reduced the number of parameters in the model. The results also indicated that a lipid network-independent ATP-consuming activity should be included in the model. When this activity was introduced, the set of differential equations satisfactorily reproduced the experimental data. On the other hand, a molecular mechanism connecting membrane lipids, ATP, and the actin nucleation process is still missing. We therefore adopted a phenomenological (black-box approach to represent the empirical observations. We proposed that lipids and ATP influence the dynamic interconversion between active and inactive actin nucleation sites. With this simple model, all the experimental data were satisfactorily fitted with a single positive parameter per lipid and ATP. Conclusion By establishing an active 'dialogue' between an

  17. miR-150, a microRNA expressed in mature B and T cells, blocks early B cell development when expressed prematurely.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Beiyan; Wang, Stephanie; Mayr, Christine; Bartel, David P; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-04-24

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of approximately 22-nt noncoding RNAs that can posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. Several miRNAs are specifically expressed in hematopoietic cells. Here we show that one such miRNA, miR-150, is mainly expressed in the lymph nodes and spleen and is highly up-regulated during the development of mature T and B cells; expression of miR-150 is sharply up-regulated at the immature B cell stage. Overexpression of miR-150 in hematopoietic stem cells, followed by bone marrow transplantation, had little effect on the formation of either mature CD8- and CD4-positive T cells or granulocytes or macrophages, but the formation of mature B cells was greatly impaired. Furthermore, premature expression of miR-150 blocked the transition from the pro-B to the pre-B stage. Our results indicate that miR-150 most likely down-regulates mRNAs that are important for pre- and pro-B cell formation or function, and its ectopic expression in these cells blocks further development of B cells.

  18. Diversion of phagosome trafficking by pathogenic Rhodococcus equi depends on mycolic acid chain length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydor, Tobias; von Bargen, Kristine; Hsu, Fong-Fu; Huth, Gitta; Holst, Otto; Wohlmann, Jens; Becken, Ulrike; Dykstra, Tobias; Söhl, Kristina; Lindner, Buko; Prescott, John F; Schaible, Ulrich E; Utermöhlen, Olaf; Haas, Albert

    2013-03-01

    Rhodococcus equi is a close relative of Mycobacterium spp. and a facultative intracellular pathogen which arrests phagosome maturation in macrophages before the late endocytic stage. We have screened a transposon mutant library of R. equi for mutants with decreased capability to prevent phagolysosome formation. This screen yielded a mutant in the gene for β-ketoacyl-(acyl carrier protein)-synthase A (KasA), a key enzyme of the long-chain mycolic acid synthesizing FAS-II system. The longest kasA mutant mycolic acid chains were 10 carbon units shorter than those of wild-type bacteria. Coating of non-pathogenic E. coli with purified wild-type trehalose dimycolate reduced phagolysosome formation substantially which was not the case with shorter kasA mutant-derived trehalose dimycolate. The mutant was moderately attenuated in macrophages and in a mouse infection model, but was fully cytotoxic.Whereas loss of KasA is lethal in mycobacteria, R. equi kasA mutant multiplication in broth was normal proving that long-chain mycolic acid compounds are not necessarily required for cellular integrity and viability of the bacteria that typically produce them. This study demonstrates a central role of mycolic acid chain length in diversion of trafficking by R. equi. PMID:23078612

  19. WASH drives early recycling from macropinosomes and phagosomes to maintain surface phagocytic receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Catherine M.; Gopaldass, Navin; Bosmani, Cristina; Johnston, Simon A.; Insall, Robert H.

    2016-01-01

    Macropinocytosis is an ancient mechanism that allows cells to harvest nutrients from extracellular media, which also allows immune cells to sample antigens from their surroundings. During macropinosome formation, bulk plasma membrane is internalized with all its integral proteins. It is vital for cells to salvage these proteins before degradation, but the mechanisms for sorting them are not known. Here we describe the evolutionarily conserved recruitment of the WASH (WASP and SCAR homolog) complex to both macropinosomes and phagosomes within a minute of internalization. Using Dictyostelium, we demonstrate that WASH drives protein sorting and recycling from macropinosomes and is thus essential to maintain surface receptor levels and sustain phagocytosis. WASH functionally interacts with the retromer complex at both early and late phases of macropinosome maturation, but mediates recycling via retromer-dependent and -independent pathways. WASH mutants consequently have decreased membrane levels of integrins and other surface proteins. This study reveals an important pathway enabling cells to sustain macropinocytosis without bulk degradation of plasma membrane components. PMID:27647881

  20. Phagosome-lysosome fusion is a calcium-independent event in macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Phagosome-lysosome membrane fusion is a highly regulated event that is essential for intracellular killing of microorganisms. Functionally, it represents a form of polarized regulated secretion, which is classically dependent on increases in intracellular ionized calcium ([Ca2+]i). Indeed, increases in [Ca2+]i are essential for phagosome- granule (lysosome) fusion in neutrophils and for lysosomal fusion events that mediate host cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes. Since several...

  1. Activation of macrophages by lymphokines: enhancement of phagosome-lysosome fusion and killing of Coccidioides immitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Beaman, L; Benjamini, E; Pappagianis, D

    1983-01-01

    Previously, it was shown that arthroconidia of Coccidioides immitis appear to inhibit phagosome-lysosome fusion and survive within normal mouse peritoneal macrophages. However, when these macrophages are exposed to antigen-stimulated T lymphocytes from immune mice, activation occurs, leading to enhanced phagosome-lysosome fusion and killing of C. immitis. Results indicate that the activation of macrophages can be effected after incubation with soluble lymphocyte product(s) (lymphokines). The ...

  2. Avirulent strains of Toxoplasma gondii infect macrophages by active invasion from the phagosome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yanlin; Marple, Andrew H.; Ferguson, David J. P.; Bzik, David J.; Yap, George S.

    2014-01-01

    The classical active penetration model for Toxoplasma invasion was established in studies of infection of nonphagocytic host cells by virulent strains of the parasite. Here, we show that avirulent Toxoplasma parasites use a noncanonical invasion pathway when infecting macrophages. Instead of active penetration at cell surface, avirulent Toxoplasma parasites are initially phagocytosed by macrophages and, subsequently, form a parasite vacuole from a phagosomal compartment. This phagosome to vac...

  3. Dectin-1–Dependent LC3 Recruitment to Phagosomes Enhances Fungicidal Activity in Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Tam, Jenny M.; Mansour, Michael K.; Khan, Nida S.; Seward, Michael; Puranam, Sravanthi; Tanne, Antoine; Sokolovska, Anna; Becker, Christine E.; Acharya, Mridu; Baird, Michelle A.; Augustine M K Choi; Davidson, Michael W.; Segal, Brahm H; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Stuart, Lynda M.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy has been postulated to play role in mammalian host defense against fungal pathogens, although the molecular details remain unclear. Here, we show that primary macrophages deficient in the autophagic factor LC3 demonstrate diminished fungicidal activity but increased cytokine production in response to Candida albicans stimulation. LC3 recruitment to fungal phagosomes requires activation of the fungal pattern receptor dectin-1. LC3 recruitment to the phagosome also requires Syk signal...

  4. Temporal changes of lysosome and phagosome pH during phagolysosome formation in macrophages: studies by fluorescence spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Intravascular pH was measured within the lysosomes and newly formed phagosomes in cultured mouse peritoneal macrophages. The kinetics of pH change in both vacuolar systems was quantitatively determined within a large cell population by fluorescence spectroscopy. Additionally, pH changes within individual phagosomes were followed semiquantitatively using indicator dyes. Two novel findings were made. Firstly, the pH in new phagosomes was transiently driven alkaline (higher than physiological) e...

  5. V-ATPase-mediated phagosomal acidification is impaired by Streptococcus pyogenes through Mga-regulated surface proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenfelt, Pontus; Grinstein, Sergio; Björck, Lars; Tapper, Hans

    2012-11-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, a significant bacterial pathogen in humans, interferes with the membrane traffic of human neutrophils and survives following phagocytosis. The mechanism(s) behind this property is not known, but in contrast to wild-type bacteria, mutant bacteria lacking virulence factors regulated by the transcriptional regulator Mga, are phagocytosed and killed. In the present work we investigated whether differences in phagosomal acidification may contribute to this difference. Phagosomal pH in neutrophil-differentiated HL-60 cells was studied by fluorescence ratio imaging, and phagosomes containing wild-type S. pyogenes bacteria of the M1 serotype exhibited little or no acidification, whereas Mga mutant bacteria were found in more acidic phagosomes. With phagosomes containing these bacteria, proton delivery was inhibited by adding folimycin, a vacuolar-type adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) inhibitor. This inhibitor had no effect on phagosomes containing wild-type bacteria, indicating either inactivation or removal of V-ATPases by the bacteria. Analysis of isolated bacteria-containing phagosomes confirmed the latter scenario and showed a more efficient delivery of V-ATPases to phagosomes containing Mga mutant bacteria. The results demonstrate that V-ATPase-mediated phagosomal proton delivery is reduced during phagocytosis of wild-type S. pyogenes, leading to impaired acidification, and that surface proteins of the mga regulon are responsible for this effect. PMID:22981599

  6. Dectin-1-dependent LC3 recruitment to phagosomes enhances fungicidal activity in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Jenny M; Mansour, Michael K; Khan, Nida S; Seward, Michael; Puranam, Sravanthi; Tanne, Antoine; Sokolovska, Anna; Becker, Christine E; Acharya, Mridu; Baird, Michelle A; Choi, Augustine M K; Davidson, Michael W; Segal, Brahm H; Lacy-Hulbert, Adam; Stuart, Lynda M; Xavier, Ramnik J; Vyas, Jatin M

    2014-12-01

    Autophagy has been postulated to play role in mammalian host defense against fungal pathogens, although the molecular details remain unclear. Here, we show that primary macrophages deficient in the autophagic factor LC3 demonstrate diminished fungicidal activity but increased cytokine production in response to Candida albicans stimulation. LC3 recruitment to fungal phagosomes requires activation of the fungal pattern receptor dectin-1. LC3 recruitment to the phagosome also requires Syk signaling but is independent of all activity by Toll-like receptors and does not require the presence of the adaptor protein Card9. We further demonstrate that reactive oxygen species generation by NADPH oxidase is required for LC3 recruitment to the fungal phagosome. These observations directly link LC3 to the inflammatory pathway against C. albicans in macrophages. PMID:24842831

  7. Cytosolic access of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: critical impact of phagosomal acidification control and demonstration of occurrence in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxane Simeone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb uses efficient strategies to evade the eradication by professional phagocytes, involving--as recently confirmed--escape from phagosomal confinement. While Mtb determinants, such as the ESX-1 type VII secretion system, that contribute to this phenomenon are known, the host cell factors governing this important biological process are yet unexplored. Using a newly developed flow-cytometric approach for Mtb, we show that macrophages expressing the phagosomal bivalent cation transporter Nramp-1, are much less susceptible to phagosomal rupture. Together with results from the use of the phagosome acidification inhibitor bafilomycin, we demonstrate that restriction of phagosomal acidification is a prerequisite for mycobacterial phagosomal rupture and cytosolic contact. Using different in vivo approaches including an enrichment and screen for tracking rare infected phagocytes carrying the CD45.1 hematopoietic allelic marker, we here provide first and unique evidence of M. tuberculosis-mediated phagosomal rupture in mouse spleen and lungs and in numerous phagocyte types. Our results, linking the ability of restriction of phagosome acidification to cytosolic access, provide an important conceptual advance for our knowledge on host processes targeted by Mtb evasion strategies.

  8. Retrieval of the vacuolar H-ATPase from phagosomes revealed by live cell imaging.

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    Margaret Clarke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The vacuolar H+-ATPase, or V-ATPase, is a highly-conserved multi-subunit enzyme that transports protons across membranes at the expense of ATP. The resulting proton gradient serves many essential functions, among them energizing transport of small molecules such as neurotransmitters, and acidifying organelles such as endosomes. The enzyme is not present in the plasma membrane from which a phagosome is formed, but is rapidly delivered by fusion with endosomes that already bear the V-ATPase in their membranes. Similarly, the enzyme is thought to be retrieved from phagosome membranes prior to exocytosis of indigestible material, although that process has not been directly visualized. METHODOLOGY: To monitor trafficking of the V-ATPase in the phagocytic pathway of Dictyostelium discoideum, we fed the cells yeast, large particles that maintain their shape during trafficking. To track pH changes, we conjugated the yeast with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Cells were labeled with VatM-GFP, a fluorescently-tagged transmembrane subunit of the V-ATPase, in parallel with stage-specific endosomal markers or in combination with mRFP-tagged cytoskeletal proteins. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We find that the V-ATPase is commonly retrieved from the phagosome membrane by vesiculation shortly before exocytosis. However, if the cells are kept in confined spaces, a bulky phagosome may be exocytosed prematurely. In this event, a large V-ATPase-rich vacuole coated with actin typically separates from the acidic phagosome shortly before exocytosis. This vacuole is propelled by an actin tail and soon acquires the properties of an early endosome, revealing an unexpected mechanism for rapid recycling of the V-ATPase. Any V-ATPase that reaches the plasma membrane is also promptly retrieved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thus, live cell microscopy has revealed both a usual route and alternative means of recycling the V-ATPase in the endocytic pathway.

  9. Lack of lysosomal fusion with phagosomes containing Ehrlichia risticii in P388D1 cells: abrogation of inhibition with oxytetracycline.

    OpenAIRE

    Wells, M Y; Rikihisa, Y

    1988-01-01

    Fusion of lysosomes with phagosomes containing Ehrlichia risticii, an obligate intracellular parasite, was evaluated in P388D1 murine macrophagelike cells. Lysosomes in cells ranging in infectivity from 30 to 70% were labeled cytochemically with acid phosphatase or via endocytosis of thorium dioxide or cationized ferritin to document phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion in untreated cells and cells treated with oxytetracycline. Regardless of the marker used, P-L fusion was generally not observed i...

  10. Avirulent strains of Toxoplasma gondii infect macrophages by active invasion from the phagosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanlin; Marple, Andrew H; Ferguson, David J P; Bzik, David J; Yap, George S

    2014-04-29

    Unlike most intracellular pathogens that gain access into host cells through endocytic pathways, Toxoplasma gondii initiates infection at the cell surface by active penetration through a moving junction and subsequent formation of a parasitophorous vacuole. Here, we describe a noncanonical pathway for T. gondii infection of macrophages, in which parasites are initially internalized through phagocytosis, and then actively invade from within a phagosomal compartment to form a parasitophorous vacuole. This phagosome to vacuole invasion (PTVI) pathway may represent an intermediary link between the endocytic and the penetrative routes for host cell entry by intracellular pathogens. The PTVI pathway is preferentially used by avirulent strains of T. gondii and confers an infectious advantage over virulent strains for macrophage tropism. PMID:24733931

  11. Salmonella pathogenicity island 2-encoded type III secretion system mediates exclusion of NADPH oxidase assembly from the phagosomal membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallois, A; Klein, J R; Allen, L A; Jones, B D; Nauseef, W M

    2001-05-01

    Salmonella typhimurium requires a type III secretion system encoded by pathogenicity island (SPI)-2 to survive and proliferate within macrophages. This survival implies that S. typhimurium avoids or withstands bactericidal events targeted to the microbe-containing vacuole, which include intraphagosomal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), phagosomal acidification, and delivery of hydrolytic enzymes to the phagosome via fusion with lysosomes. Recent evidence suggests that S. typhimurium alters ROS production by murine macrophages in an SPI-2-dependent manner. To gain insights into the mechanism by which S. typhimurium inhibits intraphagosomal ROS production, we analyzed the subcellular distribution of NADPH oxidase components during infection of human monocyte-derived macrophages by wild-type (WT) or several SPI-2 mutant strains of S. typhimurium. We found that the membrane component of the NADPH oxidase, flavocytochrome b(558), was actively excluded or rapidly removed from the phagosomal membrane of WT-infected monocyte-derived macrophages, thereby preventing assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex and intraphagosomal production of superoxide anion. In contrast, the NADPH oxidase assembled on and generated ROS in phagosomes containing SPI-2 mutant S. typhimurium. Subversion of NADPH oxidase assembly by S. typhimurium was accompanied by increased bacterial replication relative to that of SPI-2 mutant strains, suggesting that the ability of WT S. typhimurium to prevent NADPH oxidase assembly at the phagosomal membrane represents an important virulence factor influencing its intracellular survival.

  12. Phorbol myristate acetate stimulates phagosome-lysosome fusion in mouse macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the tumor promoter phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on phagosome-lysosome (P-L) fusion in mouse macrophages has been studied using a previously described (10) fluorescence assay. Treatment with 0.1--1.0 microgram PMA/ml caused a striking increase in the rate and extent of P-L fusion. Exposure of cells to phorbol, free myristate, or the monoesters of PMA did not reproduce this effect. Macrophages required from 2 to 3 h of pretreatment to express maximal P-L fusion, and this was ma...

  13. The ability of Listeria monocytogenes PI-PLC to facilitate escape from the macrophage phagosome is dependent on host PKCbeta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poussin, Mathilde A; Leitges, Michael; Goldfine, Howard

    2009-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes are facultative intracellular pathogenic bacteria that can infect macrophages as well as non-professional phagocytes. After entry in the host cell, the bacteria escape from the phagosome into the cytoplasm. In murine macrophages and in cell lines derived from these cells, escape of L. monocytogenes from the phagosome is absolutely dependent on listeriolysin O (LLO) and facilitated by a secreted phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). Work in this laboratory has previously demonstrated a LLO and PI-PLC-dependent translocation of host PKCbeta isoforms. Pharmacological inhibition of PKCbeta resulted in a significant reduction in permeabilization of the phagosome, and in the number of bacteria reaching the cytosol. These findings led to the prediction that the bacterial PI-PLC promotes escape through the production of diacylglycerol leading to the activation of host PKCbeta. To test this hypothesis, bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMf) obtained from PKCbeta knockout (PKCbetaKO) or C57Bl/6 mice were infected with L. monocytogenes. We observed that wild-type L. monocytogenes escapes from the phagosome of PKCbetaKO BMMf as well as from C57Bl/6 BMMf. However, in PKCbetaKO BMMf, L. monocytogenes uses a PI-PLC-independent, but phosphatidylcholine-preferring PLC (PC-PLC)-dependent pathway to facilitate escape. These findings strongly support the hypothesis that PI-PLC promotes escape through mobilization of host PKCbeta.

  14. A medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation via the suppression of NF-κB signaling and blocks cytoskeletal organization and survival in mature osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acids, important components of a normal diet, have been reported to play a role in bone metabolism. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that are responsible for many bone-destructive diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the impact of a medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, on the osteoclast differentiation, function, and survival induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF). Capric acid inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow-derived macrophages and suppressed RANKL-induced IκBα phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-κB transcriptional activity. Capric acid further blocked the RANKL-stimulated activation of ERK without affecting JNK or p38. The induction of NFATc1 in response to RANKL was also attenuated by capric acid. In addition, capric acid abrogated M-CSF and RANKL-mediated cytoskeleton reorganization, which is crucial for the efficient bone resorption of osteoclasts. Capric acid also increased apoptosis in mature osteoclasts through the induction of Bim expression and the suppression of ERK activation by M-CSF. Together, our results reveal that capric acid has inhibitory effects on osteoclast development. We therefore suggest that capric acid may have potential therapeutic implications for the treatment of bone resorption-associated disorders.

  15. Effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on Kupffer cell phagosomal motility, bacterial clearance, and liver function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson CY

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Christa Y Watson, Ramon M Molina, Andressa Louzada, Kimberly M Murdaugh, Thomas C Donaghey, Joseph D BrainCenter for Nanotechnology and Nanotoxicology, Molecular and Integrative Physiological Sciences Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USABackground: Zinc oxide engineered nanoparticles (ZnO ENPs have potential as nanomedicines due to their inherent properties. Studies have described their pulmonary impact, but less is known about the consequences of ZnO ENP interactions with the liver. This study was designed to describe the effects of ZnO ENPs on the liver and Kupffer cells after intravenous (IV administration.Materials and methods: First, pharmacokinetic studies were conducted to determine the tissue distribution of neutron-activated 65ZnO ENPs post-IV injection in Wistar Han rats. Then, a noninvasive in vivo method to assess Kupffer cell phagosomal motility was employed using ferromagnetic iron particles and magnetometry. We also examined whether prior IV injection of ZnO ENPs altered Kupffer cell bactericidal activity on circulating Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Serum and liver tissues were collected to assess liver-injury biomarkers and histological changes, respectively.Results: We found that the liver was the major site of initial uptake of 65ZnO ENPs. There was a time-dependent decrease in tissue levels of 65Zn in all organs examined, reflecting particle dissolution. In vivo magnetometry showed a time-dependent and transient reduction in Kupffer cell phagosomal motility. Animals challenged with P. aeruginosa 24 hours post-ZnO ENP injection showed an initial (30 minutes delay in vascular bacterial clearance. However, by 4 hours, IV-injected bacteria were cleared from the blood, liver, spleen, lungs, and kidneys. Seven days post-ZnO ENP injection, creatine phosphokinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels in serum were significantly increased. Histological evidence of

  16. Atg8 is involved in endosomal and phagosomal acidification in the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picazarri, Karina; Nakada-Tsukui, Kumiko; Tsuboi, Kumiko; Miyamoto, Eri; Watanabe, Naoko; Kawakami, Eiryo; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2015-10-01

    Autophagy is one of two major bulk protein degradation systems and is conserved throughout eukaryotes. The protozoan Entamoeba histolytica, which is a human intestinal parasite, possesses a restricted set of autophagy-related (Atg) proteins compared with other eukaryotes and thus represents a suitable model organism for studying the minimal essential components and ancestral functions of autophagy. E. histolytica possesses two conjugation systems: Atg8 and Atg5/12, although a gene encoding Atg12 is missing in the genome. Atg8 is considered to be the central and authentic marker of autophagosomes, but recent studies have demonstrated that Atg8 is not exclusively involved in autophagy per se, but other fundamental mechanisms of vesicular traffic. To investigate this question in E. histolytica, we studied on Atg8 during the proliferative stage. Atg8 was constitutively expressed in both laboratory-maintained and recently established clinical isolates and appeared to be lipid-modified in logarithmic growth phase, suggesting a role of Atg8 in non-stress and proliferative conditions. These findings are in contrast to those for Entamoeba invadens, in which autophagy is markedly induced during an early phase of differentiation from the trophozoite into the cyst. The repression of Atg8 gene expression in En. histolytica by antisense small RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing resulted in growth retardation, delayed endocytosis and reduced acidification of endosomes and phagosomes. Taken together, these results suggest that Atg8 and the Atg8 conjugation pathway have some roles in the biogenesis of endosomes and phagosomes in this primitive eukaryote.

  17. The Crohn's disease-associated adherent-invasive Escherichia coli strain LF82 replicates in mature phagolysosomes within J774 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringer, Marie-Agnès; Glasser, Anne-Lise; Tung, Ching-Hsuan; Méresse, Stéphane; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette

    2006-03-01

    Adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) bacteria isolated from Crohn's disease patients are able to extensively replicate within macrophages in large vacuoles. The mechanism by which AIEC bacteria survive within phagocytic cells is unknown. This report describes the maturation of AIEC LF82-containing phagosomes within J774 macrophages. LF82-containing phagosomes traffic through the endocytic pathway as shown by the sequential acquisition and loss of EEA1 and Rab7 and by accumulation of Lamp-1, Lamp-2 and cathepsin D. We demonstrated that AIEC LF82-containing phagosomes mature into active phagolysosomes where bacteria are exposed to low pH and to the degradative activity of cathepsin D. Finally, we showed that an acidic environment is necessary for replication of AIEC LF82 bacteria within J774 macrophages. Thus, evidence is provided that AIEC LF82 bacteria do not escape from the endocytic pathway but undergo normal interaction with host endomembrane organelles and replicate within acidic and cathepsin D-positive vacuolar phagolysosomes. PMID:16469058

  18. Cytosolic Delivery of Liposomal Vaccines by Means of the Concomitant Photosensitization of Phagosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjálmsdóttir, Ásdís; Bühler, Céline; Vonwil, Vera; Roveri, Maurizio; Håkerud, Monika; Wäckerle-Men, Ying; Gander, Bruno; Johansen, Pål

    2016-02-01

    One of the greatest pharmaceutical challenges in vaccinology is the delivery of antigens to the cytosol of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in order to allow for the stimulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-restricted CD8(+) T-cell responses, which may act on intracellular infections or cancer. Recently, we described a novel method for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) vaccination by combining antigens with a photosensitizer and light for cytosolic antigen delivery. The goal of the current project was to test this immunization method with particle-based formulations. Liposomes were prepared from dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, and the antigen ovalbumin (OVA) or the photosensitizer tetraphenyl chlorine disulfonate (TPCS2a) was separately encapsulated. C57BL/6 mice were immunized intradermally with OVA liposomes or a combination of OVA and TPCS2a liposomes, and light was applied the next day for activation of the photosensitizer resulting in cytosolic release of antigen from phagosomes. Immune responses were tested both after a prime only regime and after a prime-boost scheme with a repeat immunization 2 weeks post priming. Antigen-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses and antibody responses were analyzed ex vivo by flow cytometry and ELISA methods. The physicochemical stability of liposomes upon storage and light exposure was analyzed in vitro. Immunization with both TPCS2a- and OVA-containing liposomes greatly improved CD8(+) T-cell responses as compared to immunization without TPCS2a and as measured by proliferation in vivo and cytokine secretion ex vivo. In contrast, OVA-specific antibody responses (IgG1 and IgG2c) were reduced after immunization with TPCS2a-containing liposomes. The liposomal formulation protected the photosensitizer from light-induced inactivation during storage. In conclusion, the photosensitizer TPCS2a was successfully formulated in liposomes and enabled a shift from MHC class II to MHC class I antigen processing and

  19. Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the signal causes the heart to contract and pump blood. Heart block occurs if the electrical signal is ... degree heart block limits the heart's ability to pump blood to the rest of the body. This type ...

  20. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  1. Modulation of phagosomal pH by Candida albicans promotes hyphal morphogenesis and requires Stp2p, a regulator of amino acid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vylkova, Slavena; Lorenz, Michael C

    2014-03-01

    Candida albicans, the most important fungal pathogen of humans, has a unique interaction with macrophages in which phagocytosis induces a switch from the yeast to hyphal form, allowing it to escape by rupturing the immune cell. While a variety of factors induce this switch in vitro, including neutral pH, it is not clear what triggers morphogenesis within the macrophage where the acidic environment should inhibit this transition. In vitro, C. albicans grown in similar conditions in which amino acids are the primary carbon source generate large quantities of ammonia to raise the extracellular pH and induce the hyphal switch. We show here that C. albicans cells neutralize the macrophage phagosome and that neutral pH is a key inducer of germination in phagocytosed cells by using a mutant lacking STP2, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple amino acid permeases, that is completely deficient in alkalinization in vitro. Phagocytosed stp2Δ mutant cells showed significant reduction in hypha formation and escaped from macrophages less readily compared to wild type cells; as a result stp2Δ mutant cells were killed at a higher rate and caused less damage to RAW264.7 macrophages. Stp2p-regulated import leads to alkalinization of the phagosome, since the majority of the wild type cells fail to co-localize with acidophilic dyes, whereas the stp2Δ mutant cells were located in acidic phagosomes. Furthermore, stp2Δ mutant cells were able to form hyphae and escape from neutral phagosomes, indicating that the survival defect in these cells was pH dependent. Finally, these defects are reflected in an attenuation of virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Altogether our results suggest that C. albicans utilizes amino acids to promote neutralization of the phagosomal pH, hyphal morphogenesis, and escape from macrophages. PMID:24626429

  2. Modulation of phagosomal pH by Candida albicans promotes hyphal morphogenesis and requires Stp2p, a regulator of amino acid transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavena Vylkova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans, the most important fungal pathogen of humans, has a unique interaction with macrophages in which phagocytosis induces a switch from the yeast to hyphal form, allowing it to escape by rupturing the immune cell. While a variety of factors induce this switch in vitro, including neutral pH, it is not clear what triggers morphogenesis within the macrophage where the acidic environment should inhibit this transition. In vitro, C. albicans grown in similar conditions in which amino acids are the primary carbon source generate large quantities of ammonia to raise the extracellular pH and induce the hyphal switch. We show here that C. albicans cells neutralize the macrophage phagosome and that neutral pH is a key inducer of germination in phagocytosed cells by using a mutant lacking STP2, a transcription factor that regulates the expression of multiple amino acid permeases, that is completely deficient in alkalinization in vitro. Phagocytosed stp2Δ mutant cells showed significant reduction in hypha formation and escaped from macrophages less readily compared to wild type cells; as a result stp2Δ mutant cells were killed at a higher rate and caused less damage to RAW264.7 macrophages. Stp2p-regulated import leads to alkalinization of the phagosome, since the majority of the wild type cells fail to co-localize with acidophilic dyes, whereas the stp2Δ mutant cells were located in acidic phagosomes. Furthermore, stp2Δ mutant cells were able to form hyphae and escape from neutral phagosomes, indicating that the survival defect in these cells was pH dependent. Finally, these defects are reflected in an attenuation of virulence in a mouse model of disseminated candidiasis. Altogether our results suggest that C. albicans utilizes amino acids to promote neutralization of the phagosomal pH, hyphal morphogenesis, and escape from macrophages.

  3. Maturity and maturity models in lean construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Nesensohn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been an increasing interest in maturity models in management-related disciplines; which reflects a growing recognition that becoming more mature and having a model to guide the route to maturity can help organisations in managing major transformational change. Lean Construction (LC is an increasingly important improvement approach that organisations seek to embed. This study explores how to apply the maturity models to LC. Hence the attitudes, opinions and experiences of key industry informants with high levels of knowledge of LC were investigated. To achieve this, a review of maturity models was conducted, and data for the analysis was collected through a sequential process involving three methods. First a group interview with seven key informants. Second a follow up discussion with the same individuals to investigate some of the issues raised in more depth. Third an online discussion held via LinkedIn in which members shared their views on some of the results. Overall, we found that there is a lack of common understanding as to what maturity means in LC, though there is general agreement that the concept of maturity is a suitable one to reflect the path of evolution for LC within organisations.

  4. Zitongxi Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Zitongxi Block (Western Zitong Block), is located in Zitong County, northwest of Sichuan Province (as shown on Fig. 8 ). Geologically. it is situated in the Zitong Depression, southwest of the middle Longmenshan faulted and folded belt, covering an area of 1 830 km2. Transportation is very convenient. A crisscross network of highways run through the block and the Baocheng railway is nearby. The climate is moderate. Most area belongs to hilly land with the elevation of 500-600 m.The Tongjiang River runs across the area.

  5. Hypothalamic control of the mammalian sexual maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, D

    1977-01-01

    The attainment of sexual maturity is a complex process which requires maturation and interaction not only of gonads and reproductive tract but also of the pituitary and essentially of the neuroendocrine mechanisms which ultimately control gonadotropin secretion. One of the more attractive hypotheses of the sexual maturation presumes the existence of the sensitivity threshold of the regulating system to the negative feedback signal, which differentiates immaturity from maturity. As the subject matures this declines. In an attempt to examine further the maturational alterations of the male hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis, investigations were carried out with regard to simultaneous changes of blood LH, FSH, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels during the course of 24 hr; augmentation of pituitary and blood LH and FSH concentrations under the stimulus of LH-RH as a function of time and age; synthesis and release of LH and FSH in the testosterone-blocked animals at various stages of sexual maturation; and in vitro biotransformation of testosterone to its 5 alpha-reduced metabolites by the pituitaries as a function of age. Evidence from the experimental data could be interpreted as a decrement of the feedback set-points during sexual maturatio as reflected by the transition of the responses obtained under various experimental signals. In parallel to these observations, new evidence was presented regarding not only quantitative but qualitative changes in the pituitary gonadotropins as response to the negative and positive feedback signals. This leads to new thinking with regard to the hypothesis of differential sensitivity.

  6. Ghost Block

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Filmed on the English south coast 'Ghost Block' depicts the uncanny and eerie atmosphere at the site of a WW2 coastal defence line. The concrete cubes were used as an anti-invasion blockade against potential landing forces. This protection line now slowly decaying and becoming enmeshed into the environment still acts as a defence to repel unwanted visitors. The area is a natural reserve to nesting birds that often lay eggs directly onto the beach surface. The blocks act as a final barrier ...

  7. Epidural block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home ... It numbs or causes a loss of feeling in the lower half your body. This lessens the pain of contractions during childbirth. An epidural block may also be used to ...

  8. Audit Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Uttam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today it is crucial for organizations to pay even greater attention on quality management as the importance of this function in achieving ultimate business objectives is increasingly becoming clearer. Importance of the Quality Management (QM Function in achieving basic need by ensuring compliance with Capability Maturity Model Integrated (CMMI / International Organization for Standardization (ISO is a basic demand from business nowadays. However, QM Function and its processes need to be made much more mature to prevent delivery outages and to achieve business excellence through their review and auditing capability. Many organizations now face challenges in determining the maturity of the QM group along with the service offered by them and the right way to elevate the maturity of the same. The objective of this whitepaper is to propose a new model –the Audit Maturity Model (AMM which will provide organizations with a measure of their maturity in quality management in the perspective of auditing, along with recommendations for preventing delivery outage, and identifying risk to achieve business excellence. This will enable organizations to assess QM maturity higher than basic hygiene and will also help them to identify gaps and to take corrective actions for achieving higher maturity levels. Hence the objective is to envisage a new auditing model as a part of organisation quality management function which can be a guide for them to achieve higher level of maturity and ultimately help to achieve delivery and business excellence.

  9. Huhe Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Huhe Block is located in the mid-west part of Inner Mogolia Autonomous Region, covering an area of 15 079km2, in the range of 109°40'-112°00'E and 39°23()-40°40'N. Topographically. the Fengzhen hill is to the east, the Yinshan Mounts is to the north, the Hetao Plain and Ordos Plateau are respectively in its west and south.The Yellow River flows across this block. The elevation is 1 000 m in the flat area and in the range of 1 000-1 300m. in the plateau area, good for the development of agriculture and industry as well as husbandry. It belongs to inland plateau climate with annually averaged temperature of 8℃, the minimum being -12℃ in winter and the maximum 22℃ in summer.

  10. Moving towards maturity in business model definitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian; Lund, Morten; Bukh, Per Nikolaj

    2014-01-01

    The field of business models has, as is the case with all emerging fields of practice, slowly matured through the development of frameworks, models, concepts and ideas over the last 15 years. New concepts, theories and models typically transcend a series of maturity phases. For the concept...... of Business Models, we are at the verge of moving from phase 2 to 3, after having spent a lot of time during the 1990’s and 2000’s arguing for the importance of understanding business models properly and discussing the content and potential building blocks of them. Therefore, in terms of maturity – the time...... for focusing on the more complex and dynamic aspects of business models seems to be right - right now!...

  11. Measuring project portfolio management maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Hänninen, Kirsti

    2016-01-01

    The thesis is researching portfolio management maturity in organizations that have project type of work. The objective of the thesis is to define what factors affect portfolio management maturity, how the maturity level can be evaluated and create a method for measuring current level of maturity. The thesis also provides maturity level improvement suggestions. Why is maturity measurement useful? The organizations that have project type of work often have some standardized practices. But t...

  12. Transcriptomic analysis of the head kidney of Topmouth culter (Culter alburnus) infected with Flavobacterium columnare with an emphasis on phagosome pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Tu, Jiagang; Zhang, Yulei; Wang, Jinfu; Yang, Ling; Wang, Weimin; Wu, Zaohe; Meng, Qinglei; Lin, Li

    2016-10-01

    Flavobacterium columnare (FC) has caused worldwide fish columnaris disease with high mortality and great economic losses in cultured fish, including Topmouth culter (Culter alburnus). However, the knowledge about the host factors involved in FC infection is little known. In this study, the transcriptomic profiles of the head kidney from Topmouth culter with or without FC infection were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). Totally 79,641 unigenes with high quality were obtained. Among them, 4037 differently expressed genes, including 1217 up-regulated and 2820 down-regulated genes, were identified and enriched using databases of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The differently expressed genes were mainly associated with pathways such as immune response, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and lipid metabolism. Since phagocytosis is a central mechanism of innate immune response by host cells to defense against infectious agents, genes related to the phagosome pathway were scrutinized and 9 differently expressed phagosome-related genes were identified including 3 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated genes. Five of them were further validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). This transcriptomic analysis of host genes in response to FC infection provides data towards understanding the infection mechanisms and will shed a new light on the prevention of columnaris. PMID:27601296

  13. Transcriptomic analysis of the head kidney of Topmouth culter (Culter alburnus) infected with Flavobacterium columnare with an emphasis on phagosome pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lijuan; Tu, Jiagang; Zhang, Yulei; Wang, Jinfu; Yang, Ling; Wang, Weimin; Wu, Zaohe; Meng, Qinglei; Lin, Li

    2016-10-01

    Flavobacterium columnare (FC) has caused worldwide fish columnaris disease with high mortality and great economic losses in cultured fish, including Topmouth culter (Culter alburnus). However, the knowledge about the host factors involved in FC infection is little known. In this study, the transcriptomic profiles of the head kidney from Topmouth culter with or without FC infection were obtained using HiSeq™ 2500 (Illumina). Totally 79,641 unigenes with high quality were obtained. Among them, 4037 differently expressed genes, including 1217 up-regulated and 2820 down-regulated genes, were identified and enriched using databases of Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG). The differently expressed genes were mainly associated with pathways such as immune response, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and lipid metabolism. Since phagocytosis is a central mechanism of innate immune response by host cells to defense against infectious agents, genes related to the phagosome pathway were scrutinized and 9 differently expressed phagosome-related genes were identified including 3 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated genes. Five of them were further validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). This transcriptomic analysis of host genes in response to FC infection provides data towards understanding the infection mechanisms and will shed a new light on the prevention of columnaris.

  14. Long Maturity Forward Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    to be statistically significant. Secondly, the expectations hypothesis is analyzed for the long maturity region of the forward rate curve using "forward rate" regressions. The expectations hypothesis is numerically close to being accepted but is statistically rejected. The findings provide mixed support......The paper aims to improve the knowledge of the empirical properties of the long maturity region of the forward rate curve. Firstly, the theoretical negative correlation between the slope at the long end of the forward rate curve and the term structure variance is recovered empirically and found...

  15. A Nonlinear Multi-Scale Interaction Model for Atmospheric Blocking: The Eddy-Blocking Matching Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dehai; Cha, Jing; Zhong, Linhao; Dai, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear multi-scale interaction (NMI) model is used to propose an eddy-blocking matching (EBM) mechanism to account for how synoptic eddies reinforce or suppress a blocking flow. It is shown that the spatial structure of the eddy vorticity forcing (EVF) arising from upstream synoptic eddies determines whether an incipient block can grow into a meandering blocking flow through its interaction with the transient synoptic eddies from the west. Under certain conditions, the EVF exhibits a low-frequency oscillation on timescales of 2-3 weeks. During the EVF phase with a negative-over- positive dipole structure, a blocking event can be resonantly excited through the transport of eddy energy into the incipient block by the EVF. As the EVF changes into an opposite phase, the blocking decays. The NMI model produces life cycles of blocking events that resemble observations. Moreover, it is shown that the eddy north-south straining is a response of the eddies to a dipole- or Ω-type block. In our model, as in observations, two synoptic anticyclones (cyclones) can attract and merge with one another as the blocking intensifies, but only when the feedback of the blocking on the eddies is included. Thus, we attribute the eddy straining and associated vortex interaction to the feedback of the intensified blocking on synoptic eddies. The results illustrate the concomitant nature of the eddy deformation, whose role as a PV source for the blocking flow becomes important only during the mature stage of a block. Our EBM mechanism suggests that an incipient block flow is amplified (or suppressed) under certain conditions by the EVF coming from the upstream of the blocking region.

  16. Audit Maturity Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya Uttam; Rahut Amit Kumar; De, Sujoy

    2014-01-01

    Today it is crucial for organizations to pay even greater attention on quality management as the importance of this function in achieving ultimate business objectives is increasingly becoming clearer. Importance of the Quality Management Function in achieving basic need by ensuring compliance with Capability Maturity Model Integrated or International Organization for Standardization is a basic demand from business nowadays. However, Quality Management Function and its processes need to be mad...

  17. Mechanisms of lipase maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Doolittle, Mark H.; Péterfy, Miklós

    2010-01-01

    Lipases are acyl hydrolases that represent a diverse group of enzymes present in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to humans. This article focuses on an evolutionarily related family of extracellular lipases that include lipoprotein lipase, hepatic lipase and endothelial lipase. As newly synthesized proteins, these lipases undergo a series of co- and post-translational maturation steps occurring in the endoplasmic reticulum, including glycosylation and glycan processing, and protein folding ...

  18. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  19. Maturity effects in energy futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serletis, Apostolos (Calgary Univ., AB (CA). Dept. of Economics)

    1992-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of maturity on future price volatility and trading volume for 129 energy futures contracts recently traded in the NYMEX. The results provide support for the maturity effect hypothesis, that is, energy futures prices to become more volatile and trading volume increases as futures contracts approach maturity. (author).

  20. A Socioanalytic Model of Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Robert; Roberts, Brent W.

    2004-01-01

    K0 describes a point of view on maturity that departs from earlier treatments in two ways. First, it rejects the popular assumption from humanistic psychology that maturity is a function of self-actualization and stipulates that maturity is related to certain performance capacities--namely, the ability to form lasting relationships and to achieve…

  1. Mature Cystic Renal Teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz, Alpaslan; Ceken, Kagan; Alimoglu, Emel; Bahar AKKAYA

    2014-01-01

    Teratomas are rare germline tumors that originate from one or more embryonic germ cell layers. Teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and less than 30 cases of primary intrarenal teratomas have been published to date. We report the main radiologic features of an unusual case of mature cystic teratoma arising from the left kidney in a two-year-old boy. A left-sided abdominal mass was detected on physical examination and B-Mod Ultrasound (US) examination revealed a heterogeneous mass with ce...

  2. Creative Construction: Unit Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes the use of unit blocks with young children in early childhood education (ECE) settings to expand all areas of the curriculum. Discusses the origin of blocks in ECE programs, presents developmental stages of block play, describes children's building styles, and makes recommendations for getting started in block play for children of…

  3. Dendritic cell maturation and cross-presentation: timing matters!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloatti, Andrés; Kotsias, Fiorella; Magalhaes, Joao Gamelas; Amigorena, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    As a population, dendritic cells (DCs) appear to be the best cross-presenters of internalized antigens on major histocompatibility complex class I molecules in the mouse. To do this, DCs have developed a number of unique and dedicated means to control their endocytic and phagocytic pathways: among them, the capacity to limit acidification of their phagosomes, to prevent proteolytic degradation, to delay fusion of phagosomes to lysosomes, to recruit ER proteins to phagosomes, and to export phagocytosed antigens to the cytosol. The regulation of phagocytic functions, and thereby of antigen processing and presentation by innate signaling, represents a critical level of integration of adaptive and innate immune responses. Understanding how innate signals control antigen cross-presentation is critical to define effective vaccination strategies for CD8(+) T-cell responses.

  4. Antibody affinity maturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Mette Louise

    linker for yeast surface display of scFv and scFab fragments, we compared a series of different Gly-Ser-based linkers in display and antigen binding proficiency. We show that these formats of the model antibody can accommodate linkers of different lengths and that introduction of alanine or glutamate......-2. Based on the presented data we suggest that affinity maturation of the model antibody proceeds through multiple incremental steps of subtle improvements. We moreover conclude that the best affinity improved candidates are likely to be obtained through optimization of both the antigen...... fragments by in vivo homologous recombination large combinatorial antibody libraries can easily be generated. We have optimized ordered assembly of three CDR fragments into a gapped vector and observed increased transformation efficiency in a yeast strain carrying a deletion of the SGS1 helicase...

  5. Transcriptional Landscape of Cardiomyocyte Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Uosaki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Decades of progress in developmental cardiology has advanced our understanding of the early aspects of heart development, including cardiomyocyte (CM differentiation. However, control of the CM maturation that is subsequently required to generate adult myocytes remains elusive. Here, we analyzed over 200 microarray datasets from early embryonic to adult hearts and identified a large number of genes whose expression shifts gradually and continuously during maturation. We generated an atlas of integrated gene expression, biological pathways, transcriptional regulators, and gene regulatory networks (GRNs, which show discrete sets of key transcriptional regulators and pathways activated or suppressed during CM maturation. We developed a GRN-based program named MatStatCM that indexes CM maturation status. MatStatCM reveals that pluripotent-stem-cell-derived CMs mature early in culture but are arrested at the late embryonic stage with aberrant regulation of key transcription factors. Our study provides a foundation for understanding CM maturation.

  6. The role of phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating serotonin-induced oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qing; ZHANG Tao

    2011-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been found to stimulate meiotic maturation of oocytes in many molluscs. During maturation, several signaling pathways are involved, especially the phosphatidylinositol and cAMP pathways. In order to examine the possible role of the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway in regulating oocyte maturation in Mercenaria mercenaria, the effects of the activator/inhibitor of phospholipase (PLC) and protein kinase C (PKC) on serotonin-induced maturation were studied. Results show that high-concentrations of neomycin (inhibitor of PLC) blocked oocyte maturation, while 9, 10-dimethyl- 1, 2-benzanthracene (DMBA, activator of PLC) promoted oocyte maturation in the presence of serotonin. It was also found that in the presence of serotonin, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA,activator of PKC) inhibited oocyte maturation, while sphingosine (inhibitor of PKC) stimulated oocyte maturation. These results indicate that serotonin-induced oocyte maturation requires the activation of the phosphatidylinositol pathway. Decrease of PLC inhibited serotonin-induced oocyte maturation, whereas a decrease of PKC stimulated the maturation. Thus, our study indicates that serotonin promotes maturation of M. mercenaria oocytes through PLC stimulated increase in calcium ion concentration via inositol-1,4, 5-trisphosphate (IP3) but not PKC.

  7. Blocking and associability change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter M; Haselgrove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Blocking of learning about a conditioned stimulus (the "blocked" cue) occurs when it is trained alongside an additional stimulus (the "blocking" cue) that has been previously presented with the outcome. A number of theories (e.g., N. J. Mackintosh. 1975a. A Theory of Attention: Variations in the Associability of Stimuli With Reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 276-298; J. M. Pearce & G. Hall. 1980. A Model for Pavlovian Learning: Variation in the Effectiveness of Conditioned But Not Unconditioned Stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532-552) account for this attenuation in learning by proposing that attention paid to the blocked cue is restricted. In three experiments, we examined the associability of both blocked and blocking cues. In Experiment 1, rats were trained with a blocking protocol before being given a test discrimination composed of two components; one of these components required the use of the previously blocked cue as a discriminative stimulus, and the other component was soluble by using the blocking cue. To our surprise, the component that depended on the blocked cue was more readily solved than the component dependent on the blocking cue. The results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggest that this is due to the quantity of exposure that each stimulus received during initial training. Implications for theories of blocking, and more widely associative learning, are discussed. PMID:23668185

  8. Blocking and associability change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter M; Haselgrove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Blocking of learning about a conditioned stimulus (the "blocked" cue) occurs when it is trained alongside an additional stimulus (the "blocking" cue) that has been previously presented with the outcome. A number of theories (e.g., N. J. Mackintosh. 1975a. A Theory of Attention: Variations in the Associability of Stimuli With Reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 276-298; J. M. Pearce & G. Hall. 1980. A Model for Pavlovian Learning: Variation in the Effectiveness of Conditioned But Not Unconditioned Stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532-552) account for this attenuation in learning by proposing that attention paid to the blocked cue is restricted. In three experiments, we examined the associability of both blocked and blocking cues. In Experiment 1, rats were trained with a blocking protocol before being given a test discrimination composed of two components; one of these components required the use of the previously blocked cue as a discriminative stimulus, and the other component was soluble by using the blocking cue. To our surprise, the component that depended on the blocked cue was more readily solved than the component dependent on the blocking cue. The results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggest that this is due to the quantity of exposure that each stimulus received during initial training. Implications for theories of blocking, and more widely associative learning, are discussed.

  9. Career Maturity of Welfare Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Carol M.

    To investigate the career maturity of welfare recipients, this thesis examines six independent variables: (1) race; (2) sex; (3) age; (4) level of formal education; (5) general intelligence; and (6) locus of control. Scales taken from the Career Maturity Inventory served as the dependent variables. The sample consisted of 83 welfare recipients who…

  10. XGef Mediates Early CPEB Phosphorylation during Xenopus Oocyte Meiotic Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Susana E.; Yuan, Lei; Lacza, Charlemagne; Ransom, Heather; Mahon, Gwendolyn M.; Whitehead, Ian P.; Hake, Laura E.

    2005-01-01

    Polyadenylation-induced translation is an important regulatory mechanism during metazoan development. During Xenopus oocyte meiotic progression, polyadenylation-induced translation is regulated by CPEB, which is activated by phosphorylation. XGef, a guanine exchange factor, is a CPEB-interacting protein involved in the early steps of progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. We find that XGef influences early oocyte maturation by directly influencing CPEB function. XGef and CPEB interact during oogenesis and oocyte maturation and are present in a c-mos messenger ribonucleoprotein (mRNP). Both proteins also interact directly in vitro. XGef overexpression increases the level of CPEB phosphorylated early during oocyte maturation, and this directly correlates with increased Mos protein accumulation and acceleration of meiotic resumption. To exert this effect, XGef must retain guanine exchange activity and the interaction with CPEB. Overexpression of a guanine exchange deficient version of XGef, which interacts with CPEB, does not enhance early CPEB phosphorylation. Overexpression of a version of XGef that has significantly reduced interaction with CPEB, but retains guanine exchange activity, decreases early CPEB phosphorylation and delays oocyte maturation. Injection of XGef antibodies into oocytes blocks progesterone-induced oocyte maturation and early CPEB phosphorylation. These findings indicate that XGef is involved in early CPEB activation and implicate GTPase signaling in this process. PMID:15635100

  11. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes.......Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...

  12. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  13. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes. PMID:21318011

  14. BLOCK H-MATRICES AND SPECTRUM OF BLOCK MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄廷祝; 黎稳

    2002-01-01

    The block H-matrices are studied by the concept of G-functions, several concepts of block matrices are introduced. Equivalent characters of block H-matrices are obtained. Spectrum localizations claracterized by Gfunctions for block matrices are got.

  15. Rab3D is critical for secretory granule maturation in PC12 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Kögel

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide- and hormone-containing secretory granules (SGs are synthesized at the trans-Golgi network (TGN as immature secretory granules (ISGs and complete their maturation in the F-actin-rich cell cortex. This maturation process is characterized by acidification-dependent processing of cargo proteins, condensation of the SG matrix and removal of membrane and proteins not destined to mature secretory granules (MSGs. Here we addressed a potential role of Rab3 isoforms in these maturation steps by expressing their nucleotide-binding deficient mutants in PC12 cells. Our data show that the presence of Rab3D(N135I decreases the restriction of maturing SGs to the F-actin-rich cell cortex, blocks the removal of the endoprotease furin from SGs and impedes the processing of the luminal SG protein secretogranin II. This strongly suggests that Rab3D is implicated in the subcellular localization and maturation of ISGs.

  16. Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲

    2005-01-01

    @@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.

  17. Block Advertisement Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Nemirovsky, Danil

    2015-01-01

    Bitcoin, a decentralized cryptocurrency, has attracted a lot of attention from academia, financial service industry and enthusiasts. The trade-off between transaction confirmation throughput and centralization of hash power do not allow Bitcoin to perform at the same level as modern payment systems. Block Advertisement Protocol is proposed as a step to resolve this issue. The protocol allows block mining and block relaying to happen in parallel. The protocol dictates a miner to advertise the ...

  18. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  19. Some Aspects of School Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    SATRAPOVÁ, Jana

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor{\\crq}s thesis is focused on the maturity of pre-school children for school work. Particularly it researches the level of children{\\crq}s knowledge in the period just before and immediately after entering school. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with pre-school characteristics, various aspects of school maturity and readiness for elementary school regarding the fact that in the period just before entering school and immediately after the beginning of school attendance cer...

  20. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Chaperonin 10 Is Secreted in the Macrophage Phagosome: Is Secretion Due to Dissociation and Adoption of a Partially Helical Structure at the Membrane?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Gianluca; Izzo, Gaetano; Rizzi, Emanuele; Gancia, Emanuela; Modena, Daniela; Moras, Maria Luisa; Niccolai, Neri; Giannozzi, Elena; Spiga, Ottavia; Bono, Letizia; Marone, Piero; Leone, Eugenio; Mangili, Francesca; Harding, Stephen; Errington, Neil; Walters, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Roberts, Michael M.; Coates, Anthony R. M.; Casetta, Bruno; Mascagni, Paolo

    2003-01-01

    To confirm that Mycobacterium tuberculosis chaperonin 10 (Cpn10) is secreted outside the live bacillus, infected macrophages were examined by electron microscopy. This revealed that the mycobacterial protein accumulates both in the wall of the bacterium and in the matrix of the phagosomes in which ingested mycobacteria survive within infected macrophages. To understand the structural implications underlying this secretion, a structural study of M. tuberculosis Cpn10 was performed under conditions that are generally believed to mimic the membrane environment. It was found that in buffer-organic solvent mixtures, the mycobacterial protein forms two main species, namely, a partially helical monomer that prevails in dilute solutions at room temperature and a dimer that folds into a β-sheet-dominated structure and prevails in either concentrated protein solutions at room temperature or in dilute solutions at low temperature. A partially helical monomer was also found and was completely associated with negatively charged detergents in a micelle-bound state. Remarkably, zwitterionic lipids had no effect on the protein structure. By using N- and C-truncated forms of the protein, the C- and N-terminal sequences were identified as possessing an amphiphilic helical character and as selectively associating with acidic detergent micelles. When the study was extended to other chaperonins, it was found that human Cpn10 is also monomeric and partially helical in dilute organic solvent-buffer mixtures. In contrast, Escherichia coli Cpn10 is mostly dimeric and predominately β-sheet in both dilute and concentrated solutions. Interestingly, human Cpn10 also crosses biological membranes, whereas the E. coli homologue is strictly cytosolic. These results suggest that dissociation to partially helical monomers and interaction with acidic lipids may be two important steps in the mechanism of secretion of M. tuberculosis Cpn10 to the external environment. PMID:12837802

  1. Maturity Model of Software Product with Educational Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Manjula

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Software product line engineering is an inter-disciplinary concept. It spans the dimensions of business, architecture, process,and the organization. Similarly, Education System engineering is also an inter-disciplinary concept, which spans the dimensions of academic, infrastructure, facilities, administration etc. Some of the potential benefits of this approach includecontinuous improvements in System quality and adhering to global standards. The increasing competency in IT and Educational Sectors necessitates a process maturity evaluation methodology. Accordingly, this paper presents an organizational maturity model for Education system for evaluating the maturity of multi- dimension factors and attributes of an Education System. Assessment questionnaires and a rating methodology comprise the framework of this Educational maturity model. The objective and design of the questionnaires are to collect information about the Education system engineering process from the multi perspectives of academic, infrastructure, administration, facilities etc. Furthermore, we conducted one case study and reported the assessment results using the organizational maturity model presented in this paper.

  2. The Legionella Kinase LegK2 Targets the ARP2/3 Complex To Inhibit Actin Nucleation on Phagosomes and Allow Bacterial Evasion of the Late Endocytic Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michard, Céline; Sperandio, Daniel; Baïlo, Nathalie; Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; LeClaire, Lawrence; Chadeau-Argaud, Elise; Pombo-Grégoire, Isabel; Hervet, Eva; Vianney, Anne; Gilbert, Christophe; Faure, Mathias; Cossart, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Legionella pneumophila, the etiological agent of legionellosis, replicates within phagocytic cells. Crucial to biogenesis of the replicative vacuole is the Dot/Icm type 4 secretion system, which translocates a large number of effectors into the host cell cytosol. Among them is LegK2, a protein kinase that plays a key role in Legionella infection. Here, we identified the actin nucleator ARP2/3 complex as a target of LegK2. LegK2 phosphorylates the ARPC1B and ARP3 subunits of the ARP2/3 complex. LegK2-dependent ARP2/3 phosphorylation triggers global actin cytoskeleton remodeling in cells, and it impairs actin tail formation by Listeria monocytogenes, a well-known ARP2/3-dependent process. During infection, LegK2 is addressed to the Legionella-containing vacuole surface and inhibits actin polymerization on the phagosome, as revealed by legK2 gene inactivation. Consequently, LegK2 prevents late endosome/lysosome association with the phagosome and finally contributes to remodeling of the bacterium-containing phagosome into a replicative niche. The inhibition of actin polymerization by LegK2 and its effect on endosome trafficking are ARP2/3 dependent since it can be phenocopied by a specific chemical inhibitor of the ARP2/3 complex. Thus, LegK2-ARP2/3 interplay highlights an original mechanism of bacterial virulence with an unexpected role in local actin remodeling that allows bacteria to control vesicle trafficking in order to escape host defenses. PMID:25944859

  3. Block Scheduling Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, J. Allen

    2000-01-01

    Successful block scheduling depends on provision of initial and ongoing instructional training. Teaching strategies should vary and include cooperative learning, the case method, the socratic seminar, synectics, concept attainment, the inquiry method, and simulations. Recommendations for maximizing block scheduling are outlined. (Contains 52…

  4. Surviving Block Scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Marjorie

    A discussion of block scheduling for second language instruction looks at the advantages and disadvantages and offers some suggestions for classroom management and course organization. It is argued that block scheduling may offer a potential solution to large classes, insufficient time for labs, too little individualized instruction; few…

  5. From Crescent to Mature Virion: Vaccinia Virus Assembly and Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinia virus (VACV has achieved unprecedented success as a live viral vaccine for smallpox which mitigated eradication of the disease. Vaccinia virus has a complex virion morphology and recent advances have been made to answer some of the key outstanding questions, in particular, the origin and biogenesis of the virion membrane, the transformation from immature virion (IV to mature virus (MV, and the role of several novel genes, which were previously uncharacterized, but have now been shown to be essential for VACV virion formation. This new knowledge will undoubtedly contribute to the rational design of safe, immunogenic vaccine candidates, or effective antivirals in the future. This review endeavors to provide an update on our current knowledge of the VACV maturation processes with a specific focus on the initiation of VACV replication through to the formation of mature virions.

  6. Yield and Early Maturity Response to Four Cycles of Modified Mass Selection in Purple Waxy Corn

    OpenAIRE

    HUSSANUN, Satang; Suriharn, Bhalang; Lertrat, Kamol

    2014-01-01

    High yield and early maturity are important characters in corn breeding. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the responses to four cycles created by modified mass selection method to increase yield and early maturity of a purple waxy and to investigate the correlations between yield and among other important traits in a purple waxy corn (Zea mays L. var. ceratina) population. Four cycles was evaluated for two seasons in 2012/13. A randomized complete block design with four replicatio...

  7. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  8. Cheese maturity assessment using ultrasonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedito, J; Carcel, J; Clemente, G; Mulet, A

    2000-02-01

    The relationship between Mahon cheese maturity and ultrasonic velocity was examined. Moisture and textural properties were used as maturity indicators. The ultrasonic velocity of the cheese varied between 1630 and 1740 m/s, increasing with the curing time mainly because of loss of water, which also produced an increase of the textural properties. Because of the nature of low-intensity ultrasonics, velocity was better related to those textural parameters that involved small displacements. Ultrasonic velocity decreased with increasing temperature because of the negative temperature coefficient of the ultrasonic velocity of fat and the melting of fat. These results highlight the potential use of ultrasonic velocity measurements to rapidly and nondestructively assess cheese maturity. PMID:10714857

  9. Block copolymer battery separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  10. Structure of the Legionella Virulence Factor, SidC Reveals a Unique PI(4)P-Specific Binding Domain Essential for Its Targeting to the Bacterial Phagosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Wasilko, David J.; Liu, Yao; Sun, Jiayi; Wu, Xiaochun; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Mao, Yuxin

    2015-01-01

    The opportunistic intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease. L. pneumophila delivers nearly 300 effector proteins into host cells for the establishment of a replication-permissive compartment known as the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV). SidC and its paralog SdcA are two effectors that have been shown to anchor on the LCV via binding to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate [PI(4)P] to facilitate the recruitment of ER proteins to the LCV. We recently reported that the N-terminal SNL (SidC N-terminal E3 Ligase) domain of SidC is a ubiquitin E3 ligase, and its activity is required for the recruitment of ER proteins to the LCV. Here we report the crystal structure of SidC (1-871). The structure reveals that SidC contains four domains that are packed into an arch-like shape. The P4C domain (PI(4)P binding of SidC) comprises a four α-helix bundle and covers the ubiquitin ligase catalytic site of the SNL domain. Strikingly, a pocket with characteristic positive electrostatic potentials is formed at one end of this bundle. Liposome binding assays of the P4C domain further identified the determinants of phosphoinositide recognition and membrane interaction. Interestingly, we also found that binding with PI(4)P stimulates the E3 ligase activity, presumably due to a conformational switch induced by PI(4)P from a closed form to an open active form. Mutations of key residues involved in PI(4)P binding significantly reduced the association of SidC with the LCV and abolished its activity in the recruitment of ER proteins and ubiquitin signals, highlighting that PI(4)P-mediated targeting of SidC is critical to its function in the remodeling of the bacterial phagosome membrane. Finally, a GFP-fusion with the P4C domain was demonstrated to be specifically localized to PI(4)P-enriched compartments in mammalian cells. This domain shows the potential to be developed into a sensitive and accurate PI(4)P probe in living cells. PMID

  11. Structure of the Legionella Virulence Factor, SidC Reveals a Unique PI(4P-Specific Binding Domain Essential for Its Targeting to the Bacterial Phagosome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Luo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic intracellular pathogen Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. L. pneumophila delivers nearly 300 effector proteins into host cells for the establishment of a replication-permissive compartment known as the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV. SidC and its paralog SdcA are two effectors that have been shown to anchor on the LCV via binding to phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate [PI(4P] to facilitate the recruitment of ER proteins to the LCV. We recently reported that the N-terminal SNL (SidC N-terminal E3 Ligase domain of SidC is a ubiquitin E3 ligase, and its activity is required for the recruitment of ER proteins to the LCV. Here we report the crystal structure of SidC (1-871. The structure reveals that SidC contains four domains that are packed into an arch-like shape. The P4C domain (PI(4P binding of SidC comprises a four α-helix bundle and covers the ubiquitin ligase catalytic site of the SNL domain. Strikingly, a pocket with characteristic positive electrostatic potentials is formed at one end of this bundle. Liposome binding assays of the P4C domain further identified the determinants of phosphoinositide recognition and membrane interaction. Interestingly, we also found that binding with PI(4P stimulates the E3 ligase activity, presumably due to a conformational switch induced by PI(4P from a closed form to an open active form. Mutations of key residues involved in PI(4P binding significantly reduced the association of SidC with the LCV and abolished its activity in the recruitment of ER proteins and ubiquitin signals, highlighting that PI(4P-mediated targeting of SidC is critical to its function in the remodeling of the bacterial phagosome membrane. Finally, a GFP-fusion with the P4C domain was demonstrated to be specifically localized to PI(4P-enriched compartments in mammalian cells. This domain shows the potential to be developed into a sensitive and accurate PI(4P probe in living cells.

  12. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  13. Public Sector IS Maturity Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zinner Henriksen, Helle; Andersen, Kim Normann; Medaglia, Rony

    2011-01-01

    citizenpublic interaction, such as in public education. In this paper we use a revised version of the Public Sector Process Rebuilding (PPR) maturity model for mapping 200 websites of public primary schools in Denmark. Findings reveal a much less favorable picture of the digitization of the Danish public sector...

  14. Rhetorical Maturity: Definition and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Susan

    Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral development, when applied to theories of teaching composition, support any method or material that refers to the age and prior experience of the writer and the newness of the task the writer is attempting. Rhetorical development and maturation in the ability to write and argue persuasively are partly conceptual…

  15. Growing Up with Their Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarski, Diana L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes one teacher's use of traditional wooden blocks in fifth-grade curriculum. Notes that use of blocks can teach communication, teamwork, precision, and arithmetic concepts. Also describes four easy classroom block projects. (TM)

  16. To Mature or not to Mature: The Information Systems Conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Marnewick

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Research has been done within the South African information technology (IT industry over the last decade with regard to project management maturity (PMM and the impact it has on delivering information systems (IS projects successfully. The research was done to determine whether IS PMM per knowledge area has improved over the last decade. It investigates if there is a correlation between maturity levels and project success. Four independent surveys over the last decade focused on IS PMM and the longitudinal analysis provides a benchmark for whether IS PMM has increased or not. This article focuses on whether certain knowledge areas are more of a problem within the IT industry and to determine what the overall IS PMM is. The longitudinal analysis indicates trends and highlights areas of concern. It indicates that most IT companies are still operating at level 3 and that risk and procurement management are the knowledge areas of concern. A comparative analysis indicates that there is no difference between South African and international maturity levels. The results provide a South African perspective of IS PMM. It highlights that risk management is still a knowledge area that is neglected and that emphasis must be placed on managing risk within IT projects.

  17. Autophagy regulation revealed by SapM-induced block of autophagosome-lysosome fusion via binding RAB7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Dong, E-mail: austhudong@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wu, Jing, E-mail: wujing8008@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Wang, Wan; Mu, Min; Zhao, Runpeng; Xu, Xuewei; Chen, Zhaoquan [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China); Xiao, Jian [School of Pharmacy, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou (China); Hu, Fengyu; Yang, Yabo [Zhongshan School of Medicine, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Rongbo, E-mail: lory456@126.com [Institute of Infection and Immunology, Department of Medical Immunology, Medical School, Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2015-05-29

    The mechanism underlying autophagy alteration by mycobacterium tuberculosis remains unclear. Our previous study shows LpqH, a lipoprotein of mycobacterium tuberculosis, can cause autophagosomes accumulation in murine macrophages. It is well known that SapM, another virulence factor, plays an important role in blocking phagosome-endosome fusion. However, the mechanism that SapM interferes with autophagy remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that SapM suppresses the autophagy flux by blocking autophagosome fusion with lysosome. Exposure to SapM results in accumulations of autophagosomes and decreased co-localization of autophagosome with lysosome. Molecularly, Rab7, a small GTPase, is blocked by SapM through its CT domain and is prevented from involvement of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In conclusion, our study reveals that SapM takes Rab7 as a previously unknown target to govern a distinct molecular mechanism underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which may bring light to a new thought about developing potential drugs or vaccines against tuberculosis. - Highlights: • A mechanism for disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion induced by SapM. • Rab7 is involved in SapM-inhibited autophagy. • SapM interacts with Rab7 by CT-domain. • CT-domain is indispensable to SapM-inhibited autophagy.

  18. Autophagy regulation revealed by SapM-induced block of autophagosome-lysosome fusion via binding RAB7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanism underlying autophagy alteration by mycobacterium tuberculosis remains unclear. Our previous study shows LpqH, a lipoprotein of mycobacterium tuberculosis, can cause autophagosomes accumulation in murine macrophages. It is well known that SapM, another virulence factor, plays an important role in blocking phagosome-endosome fusion. However, the mechanism that SapM interferes with autophagy remains poorly defined. In this study, we report that SapM suppresses the autophagy flux by blocking autophagosome fusion with lysosome. Exposure to SapM results in accumulations of autophagosomes and decreased co-localization of autophagosome with lysosome. Molecularly, Rab7, a small GTPase, is blocked by SapM through its CT domain and is prevented from involvement of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. In conclusion, our study reveals that SapM takes Rab7 as a previously unknown target to govern a distinct molecular mechanism underlying autophagosome-lysosome fusion, which may bring light to a new thought about developing potential drugs or vaccines against tuberculosis. - Highlights: • A mechanism for disrupting autophagosome-lysosome fusion induced by SapM. • Rab7 is involved in SapM-inhibited autophagy. • SapM interacts with Rab7 by CT-domain. • CT-domain is indispensable to SapM-inhibited autophagy

  19. 转变观念在老区勘探中的重要性--以胜利油田东部探区青南油田的发现为例%Importance of unconventional mindsets in further fine exploration of mature blocks:a case study of Qingnan oilfield,eastern Dongying Depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张善文

    2014-01-01

    After years of intensive exploration ,blocks in eastern Dongying Depression of Shengli Oilfield Company yielded few and few new discoveries in past couple years .Explorationists of Shengli Oilfield Company wisely realized then that new mindsets and open mindness were urgently needed to guide further fine explration of these aging blocks .Then in 2013,the 75th discovery-Qingnan Oilfield-was disoveried in eastern blocks of Dongying Depression .This seccess can be attributed to the following reasons:an exploration strategy shift from structural traps on slopes to lithologic traps in sags ;a shift of understanding of sedimentary settings from deep turbidite fan to shore-shallow lacustrine;an exploration view turning from unfavorable migration zones to favorable migration zones;a change of understanding of sedimentary facies from beach-sandbodies of subsag-scale to local sand bars .These reasons all made the importance of new mindsets and open mindness to stand out in each critical step of discovering the field .However ,what behind all these are still concrete basic works and innovative technologies .%胜利油田东部探区目前已进入高勘探程度阶段。面临严峻的勘探形势,胜利油田勘探工作者本着思想再解放、认识再创新的理念,精细工作、开拓进取。2013年,在东部老区勘探程度最高的东营凹陷发现了胜利油田东部探区第75个油田---青南油田。回顾青南油田的发现历程,每次认识的创新和观念的转变都给青南地区的勘探工作带来了新的转机。具体表现为:①由斜坡带构造向洼陷带岩性的战略转移突破了青南洼陷工业油流关;②由深水浊积扇向滨浅湖滩坝的认识转变加快了青南洼陷的勘探步伐;③由运移不利区向运聚有利区的观念转变明确了青南洼陷的整体规模;④由满洼滩砂向坝砂局部发育的模式转变推动了老油区新油田的发现。青南油田发现过程中的每个

  20. Block diagonal and schur complement preconditioners for block-toeplitz systems with small size blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, WK; Ng, MK; Wen, YW

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we consider the solution of Hermitian positive definite block-Toeplitz systems with small size blocks. We propose and study block diagonal and Schur complement preconditioners for such block-Toeplitz matrices. We show that for some block-Toeplitz matrices, the spectra of the preconditioned matrices are uniformly bounded except for a fixed number of outliers where this fixed number depends only on the size of the block. Hence, conjugate gradient type methods, when applied to solv...

  1. Molecular Mechanisms of Phagosome Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumouillé, Valentin; Grinstein, Sergio

    2016-06-01

    Phagocytosis refers to the active process that allows cells to take up large particulate material upon binding to surface receptors. The discovery of phagocytosis in 1883 by Elie Metchnikoff, leading to the concept that specialized cells are implicated in the defense against microbes, was one of the starting points of the field of immunology. After more than a century of research, phagocytosis is now appreciated to be a widely used process that enables the cellular uptake of a remarkable variety of particles, including bacteria, fungi, parasites, viruses, dead cells, and assorted debris and solid materials. Uptake of foreign particles is performed almost exclusively by specialized myeloid cells, commonly termed "professional phagocytes": neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Phagocytosis of microbes not only stops or at least restricts the spread of infection but also plays an important role in regulating the innate and adaptive immune responses. Activation of the myeloid cells upon phagocytosis leads to the secretion of cytokines and chemokines that convey signals to a variety of immune cells. Moreover, foreign antigens generated by the degradation of microbes following phagocytosis are loaded onto the major histocompatibility complex for presentation to specific T lymphocytes. However, phagocytosis is not restricted to professional myeloid phagocytes; an expanding diversity of cell types appear capable of engulfing apoptotic bodies and debris, playing a critical role in tissue remodeling and in the clearance of billions of effete cells every day. PMID:27337463

  2. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  3. Bactericidal block copolymer micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyhnalkova, Renata; Eisenberg, Adi; van de Ven, Theo

    2011-05-12

    Block copolymer micelles with bactericidal properties were designed to deactivate pathogens such as E. coli bacteria. The micelles of PS-b-PAA and PS-b-P4VP block copolymers were loaded with biocides TCMTB or TCN up to 20 or 30 wt.-%, depending on the type of antibacterial agent. Bacteria were exposed to loaded micelles and bacterial deactivation was evaluated. The micelles loaded with TCN are bactericidal; bacteria are killed in less than two minutes of exposure. The most likely interpretation of the data is that the biocide is transferred to the bacteria by repeated micelle/bacteria contacts, and not via the solution. PMID:21275041

  4. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    OpenAIRE

    Arain M; Haque M; Johal L; Mathur P; Nel W; Rais A; Sandhu R; Sharma S

    2013-01-01

    Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance...

  5. Maturation of the adolescent brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arain M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Arain, Maliha Haque, Lina Johal, Puja Mathur, Wynand Nel, Afsha Rais, Ranbir Sandhu, Sushil Sharma Saint James School of Medicine, Kralendijk, Bonaire, The Netherlands Abstract: Adolescence is the developmental epoch during which children become adults – intellectually, physically, hormonally, and socially. Adolescence is a tumultuous time, full of changes and transformations. The pubertal transition to adulthood involves both gonadal and behavioral maturation. Magnetic resonance imaging studies have discovered that myelinogenesis, required for proper insulation and efficient neurocybernetics, continues from childhood and the brain's region-specific neurocircuitry remains structurally and functionally vulnerable to impulsive sex, food, and sleep habits. The maturation of the adolescent brain is also influenced by heredity, environment, and sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone, which play a crucial role in myelination. Furthermore, glutamatergic neurotransmission predominates, whereas gamma-aminobutyric acid neurotransmission remains under construction, and this might be responsible for immature and impulsive behavior and neurobehavioral excitement during adolescent life. The adolescent population is highly vulnerable to driving under the influence of alcohol and social maladjustments due to an immature limbic system and prefrontal cortex. Synaptic plasticity and the release of neurotransmitters may also be influenced by environmental neurotoxins and drugs of abuse including cigarettes, caffeine, and alcohol during adolescence. Adolescents may become involved with offensive crimes, irresponsible behavior, unprotected sex, juvenile courts, or even prison. According to a report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the major cause of death among the teenage population is due to injury and violence related to sex and substance abuse. Prenatal neglect, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption may also

  6. Maturity model for enterprise interoperability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guédria, Wided; Naudet, Yannick; Chen, David

    2015-01-01

    Historically, progress occurs when entities communicate, share information and together create something that no one individually could do alone. Moving beyond people to machines and systems, interoperability is becoming a key factor of success in all domains. In particular, interoperability has become a challenge for enterprises, to exploit market opportunities, to meet their own objectives of cooperation or simply to survive in a growing competitive world where the networked enterprise is becoming a standard. Within this context, many research works have been conducted over the past few years and enterprise interoperability has become an important area of research, ensuring the competitiveness and growth of European enterprises. Among others, enterprises have to control their interoperability strategy and enhance their ability to interoperate. This is the purpose of the interoperability assessment. Assessing interoperability maturity allows a company to know its strengths and weaknesses in terms of interoperability with its current and potential partners, and to prioritise actions for improvement. The objective of this paper is to define a maturity model for enterprise interoperability that takes into account existing maturity models while extending the coverage of the interoperability domain. The assessment methodology is also presented. Both are demonstrated with a real case study.

  7. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  8. A Place for Block Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Gary T.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the importance of block play--including its contributions to perceptual, fine motor, and cognitive development--and components of a good preschool block play area. Recommends unit blocks complemented by stacking blocks, toys, beads, cubes, and Brio wooden toys. Makes recommendations for space, size, locations and connections to other…

  9. Effects of Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Veal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  10. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  11. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  12. Cryopreservation of human failed-matured oocytes followed by in vitro maturation: vitrification is superior to the slow freezing method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang ZhiGuo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte cryopreservation is an important method used in a number of human fertility circumstances. Here, we compared the survival, in vitro maturation, fertilization, and early embryonic development rates of frozen-thawed human immature oocytes using two different cryopreservation methods. Methods A total of 454 failed-matured oocytes [germinal vesicle (GV and metaphase I (MI stages] were collected from 135 patients (mean age 33.84 +/- 5.0 y who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI cycles between February 2009 and December 2009 and randomly divided into a slow freezing group [1.5 mol/L-1, 2-propanediol (PROH + 0.2 mol/l sucrose] and vitrification group [20% PROH + 20% ethylene glycol (EG + 0.5 mol/l sucrose]. Results The vitrification protocol yielded a better survival rate than the slow freezing protocol at each maturation stage assessed. Regardless of the maturation stage (GV + MI, the slow freezing protocol had a significantly lower survival rate than the vitrification protocol (p in vitro maturation (21.2 vs. 54.0%, respectively; p 0.05. For the GV-matured oocytes, no fertilized eggs were obtained in the slow-freezing group, while a 19.0% (4/21 fertilization rate was observed in the vitrification group. For the MI-matured oocytes, fertilization rates for the slow freezing and vitrified groups were 36% and 61.1%, respectively, but no significant difference was found between the two groups (PIn the Methods section in the MS, all procedures were compliant with ethical guidelines, i.e. approved by the Ethical Committee of our university and Informed Consent signed by each patient. > 0.05. In the GV vitrification group, no embryo formed; however, in the MI slow freezing group, 12 oocytes were fertilized, but only two achieved cleavage and were subsequently blocked at the 2-cell stage. In the MI vitrification group, a total of 22 embryos were obtained, five of which developed to the blastocyst stage. Conclusions

  13. Diagnostics of school maturity and school readiness

    OpenAIRE

    SÝKOROVÁ, Štěpánka

    2011-01-01

    In my bachelor´s work I have focused on problems of school readiness and maturity. My objective was to asses the optimal school maturity in pre-school class. In the theoretical part I described the pre-school session, school maturity and readiness and its characteristics. I compared the different definitions of school readiness and maturity, as indicated in the literature. On the basis of the research and consultation I approached appropriate diagnostic materials for detecting the level of sc...

  14. Edit Distance with Block Deletions

    OpenAIRE

    Dana Shapira; Storer, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Several variants of the edit distance problem with block deletions are considered. Polynomial time optimal algorithms are presented for the edit distance with block deletions allowing character insertions and character moves, but without block moves. We show that the edit distance with block moves and block deletions is NP-complete (Nondeterministic Polynomial time problems in which any given solution to such problem can be verified in polynomial time, and any NP problem can be converted into...

  15. Fermion-Scalar Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Iliesiu, Luca; Poland, David; Pufu, Silviu S; Simmons-Duffin, David; Yacoby, Ran

    2015-01-01

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called `seed blocks' in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  16. 7 CFR 51.1904 - Maturity classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity classification. 51.1904 Section 51.1904... STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Size and Maturity Classification § 51.1904 Maturity classification. Tomatoes which are characteristically red when ripe, but are not overripe or...

  17. NCCN Evidence Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert W; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-05-01

    NCCN has developed a series of Evidence Blocks: graphics that provide ratings for each recommended treatment regimen in terms of efficacy, toxicity, quality and consistency of the supporting data, and affordability. The NCCN Evidence Blocks are currently available in 10 tumor types within the NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines). At a glance, patients and providers can understand how a given treatment was assessed by the NCCN Guidelines Panel and get a sense of how a given treatment may match individual needs and preferences. Robert W. Carlson, MD, CEO of NCCN, described the reasoning behind this new feature and how the tool is used, and Eric Jonasch, MD, Professor of Genitourinary Medical Oncology at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Vice Chair of the NCCN Kidney Cancer Panel, described its applicability in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. PMID:27226499

  18. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  19. Managing access block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Peter; Scown, Paul; Campbell, Donald

    2002-01-01

    There is pessimism regarding the ability of the Acute Health Sector to manage access block for emergency and elective patients. Melbourne Health suffered an acute bed crisis in 2001 resulting in record ambulance diversions and emergency department (ED) delays. We conducted an observational study to reduce access block for emergency patients whilst maintaining elective throughput at Melbourne Health. This involved a clinician-led taskforce using previously proven principles for organisational change to implement 51 actions to improve patient access over a three-month period. The primary outcome measures were ambulance diversion, emergency patients waiting more than 12 hours for an inpatient bed, elective throughput and theatre cancellations. Despite a reduction in multi-day bed numbers all primary objectives were met, ambulance diversion decreased to minimal levels, 12-hour waits decreased by 40% and elective throughput was maintained. Theatre cancellations were also minimised. We conclude that access block can be improved by clinician-led implementation of proven process improvements over a short time frame. The ability to sustain change over the longer term requires further study.

  20. An atomic model of HIV-1 capsid-SP1 reveals structures regulating assembly and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schur, Florian K M; Obr, Martin; Hagen, Wim J H; Wan, William; Jakobi, Arjen J; Kirkpatrick, Joanna M; Sachse, Carsten; Kräusslich, Hans-Georg; Briggs, John A G

    2016-07-29

    Immature HIV-1 assembles at and buds from the plasma membrane before proteolytic cleavage of the viral Gag polyprotein induces structural maturation. Maturation can be blocked by maturation inhibitors (MIs), thereby abolishing infectivity. The CA (capsid) and SP1 (spacer peptide 1) region of Gag is the key regulator of assembly and maturation and is the target of MIs. We applied optimized cryo-electron tomography and subtomogram averaging to resolve this region within assembled immature HIV-1 particles at 3.9 angstrom resolution and built an atomic model. The structure reveals a network of intra- and intermolecular interactions mediating immature HIV-1 assembly. The proteolytic cleavage site between CA and SP1 is inaccessible to protease. We suggest that MIs prevent CA-SP1 cleavage by stabilizing the structure, and MI resistance develops by destabilizing CA-SP1. PMID:27417497

  1. Maturity Models Development in IS Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasrado, Lester Allan; Vatrapu, Ravi; Andersen, Kim Normann

    2015-01-01

    Maturity models are widespread in IS research and in particular, IT practitioner communities. However, theoretically sound, methodologically rigorous and empirically validated maturity models are quite rare. This literature review paper focuses on the challenges faced during the development...... literature reveals that researchers have primarily focused on developing new maturity models pertaining to domain-specific problems and/or new enterprise technologies. We find rampant re-use of the design structure of widely adopted models such as Nolan’s Stage of Growth Model, Crosby’s Grid, and Capability...... of maturity models. Specifically, it explores maturity models literature in IS and standard guidelines, if any to develop maturity models, challenges identified and solutions proposed. Our systematic literature review of IS publications revealed over hundred and fifty articles on maturity models. Extant...

  2. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  3. Sexual maturation in kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, S.D.; Scarnecchia, D.L.; Congleton, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    We used observational and experimental approaches to obtain information on factors affecting the timing of maturation of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka, a semelparous, landlocked salmon. Gonadal staging criteria were developed and applied to three kokanee populations in Idaho lakes and reservoirs. Testes were classified into three stages: immature (stage one, S1), maturing (S2), and mature (S3). Ovaries were classified into eight stages: immature (S1-S3), transitional (stage S4), maturing (S5-S7), and mature (S8). Males entered the maturing stage (S2) in February through April of the spawning year. Females entered maturing stage (S5) as early as July of the year before the spawning year, and as late as March of the spawning year. Three hatchery experiments demonstrated that attainment of a larger body size 10 to 16 months before spawning increased the likelihood of initiation of maturation in both sexes. No gonads in a state of regression were observed. A gonadosomatic index above 0.1 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing male, and a gonadosomatic index above 1.0 by early July was a good indicator of a maturing female. Instantaneous growth rates were not good predictors of maturation, but attaining a size threshold of 18 to 19 cm in the fall was a good predictor of maturation the following year. This improved knowledge of kokanee maturation will permit more effectively management of the species for age, growth and size at maturity as well as for contributions to fisheries. ?? 2008 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  4. The Influence of Ouabain on Human Dendritic Cells Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Nascimento

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although known as a Na,K-ATPase inhibitor, several other cellular and systemic actions have been ascribed to the steroid Ouabain (Oua. Particularly in the immune system, our group showed that Ouabain acts on decreasing lymphocyte proliferation, synergizing with glucocorticoids in spontaneous thymocyte apoptosis, and also lessening CD14 expression and blocking CD16 upregulation on human monocytes. However, Ouabain effects on dendritic cells (DCs were not explored so far. Considering the peculiar plasticity and the importance of DCs in immune responses, the aim of our study was to investigate DC maturation under Ouabain influence. To generate immature DCs, human monocytes were cultured with IL-4 and GM-CSF (5 days. To investigate Ouabain role on DC activation, DCs were stimulated with TNF-α for 48 h in the presence or absence of Ouabain. TNF-induced CD83 expression and IL-12 production were abolished in DCs incubated with 100 nM Ouabain, though DC functional capacity concerning lymphocyte activation remained unaltered. Nevertheless, TNF-α-induced antigen capture downregulation, another maturation marker, occurred even in the presence of Ouabain. Besides, Ouabain increased HLA-DR and CD86 expression, whereas CD80 expression was maintained. Collectively, our results suggest that DCs respond to Ouabain maturating into a distinct category, possibly contributing to the balance between immunity and tolerance.

  5. Block Transfer Handbook: Constructing and Negotiating Block Transfer Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Finola

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide resources for institutions or articulation committees who are engaged in the task of investigating the feasibility of block transfer agreements. Block transfer is the process whereby a block of credits is granted to students who have successfully completed a certificate, diploma, or cluster of courses…

  6. Report on the socio-economic impact of Natural Rubber cultivation under the block planting scheme in Tripura

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, Joby; George K., Tharian; S.K, Dey

    2010-01-01

    The study is a pioneering attempt to assess the socio-economic impact of the Block Planting Scheme (BPS) from the angle of the beneficiaries,implementing agencies and the policymakers.The report is based on the primary information gathered from 480 households drawn from Block Planting Units with mature (Mature BPUs)and immature (Immature BPUs) area under Natural Rubber (NR) as well as households attached to Group Processing Scheme (GPUs) with mature area under NR during the year 2008.The trip...

  7. Demographic Data - MDC_Block

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade Census 2000 Blocks. Census blocks are areas bounded on all sides by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared...

  8. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold

    2016-08-09

    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  9. CORE SATURATION BLOCKING OSCILLATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinrad, R.J.

    1961-10-17

    A blocking oscillator which relies on core saturation regulation to control the output pulse width is described. In this arrangement an external magnetic loop is provided in which a saturable portion forms the core of a feedback transformer used with the thermionic or semi-conductor active element. A first stationary magnetic loop establishes a level of flux through the saturation portion of the loop. A second adjustable magnet moves the flux level to select a saturation point giving the desired output pulse width. (AEC)

  10. Down-regulation of Myc is essential for terminal erythroid maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayapal, Senthil Raja; Lee, Kian Leong; Ji, Peng; Kaldis, Philipp; Lim, Bing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2010-12-17

    Terminal differentiation of mammalian erythroid progenitors involves 4-5 cell divisions and induction of many erythroid important genes followed by chromatin and nuclear condensation and enucleation. The protein levels of c-Myc (Myc) are reduced dramatically during late stage erythroid maturation, coinciding with cell cycle arrest in G(1) phase and enucleation, suggesting possible roles for c-Myc in either or both of these processes. Here we demonstrate that ectopic Myc expression affects terminal erythroid maturation in a dose-dependent manner. Expression of Myc at physiological levels did not affect erythroid differentiation or cell cycle shutdown but specifically blocked erythroid nuclear condensation and enucleation. Continued Myc expression prevented deacetylation of several lysine residues in histones H3 and H4 that are normally deacetylated during erythroid maturation. The histone acetyltransferase Gcn5 was up-regulated by Myc, and ectopic Gcn5 expression partially blocked enucleation and inhibited the late stage erythroid nuclear condensation and histone deacetylation. When overexpressed at levels higher than the physiological range, Myc blocked erythroid differentiation, and the cells continued to proliferate in cytokine-free, serum-containing culture medium with an early erythroblast morphology. Gene expression analysis demonstrated the dysregulation of erythropoietin signaling pathway and the up-regulation of several positive regulators of G(1)-S cell cycle checkpoint by supraphysiological levels of Myc. These results reveal an important dose-dependent function of Myc in regulating terminal maturation in mammalian erythroid cells.

  11. Does obturator nerve block always occur in 3-1 block?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Tekdemir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the femoral “3-in-1 block”, obturator nerve block is routinely unsuccessful. Anatomical studies are not available to explain why blockade of obturator nerve or lumbar plexus does not occur. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of femoral “3-in-1 block” obturator nerve block on a cadaver model.Materials and methods: Totally, 12 mature adult human cadavers were selected. Methylene blue dye (30 ml was injected under the fascia iliaca in eight cadavers and into the femoral nerve sheath in four cadavers. Careful bilateral dissections were performed following dye injections.Results: It was seen that the dye did not spread to the medial part of the psoas major muscle and the obturator nerve was not stained with the dye in eight cadavers in whom dye was injected laterally into the femoral sheat. In four cadavers in whom dye was injected into the femoral nerve sheat, metylene blue spread through fascial layers in the plane under the psoas muscle and stained the obturator nerve just before emerging medially from the fascia psoas. At this point, the obturator nerve pierced the psoas fascia and extended extrafascially in the medial and deep borders of the psoas muscle. In this area, the upper section of the obturator nerve was found also to be stained with the dye.Conclusion: We concluded that the cause of an unsuccessful obturator nerve block might be the fascial anatomy of this region. The lateral cutaneous femoral nerve and the femoral nerve easily can be blocked in the fascia iliaca compartment, but the obturator nerve block fails because of its being extrafascial in this region. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(2:149-51

  12. One-Block CYRCA: an automated procedure for identifying multiple-block alignments from single block queries

    OpenAIRE

    Frenkel-Morgenstern, Milana; Singer, Alice; Bronfeld, Hagit; Pietrokovski, Shmuel

    2005-01-01

    One-Block CYRCA is an automated procedure for identifying multiple-block alignments from single block queries (). It is based on the LAMA and CYRCA block-to-block alignment methods. The procedure identifies whether the query blocks can form new multiple-block alignments (block sets) with blocks from a database or join pre-existing database block sets. Using pre-computed LAMA block alignments and CYRCA sets from the Blocks database reduces the computation time. LAMA and CYRCA are highly sensit...

  13. Development and maturation of norovirus antibodies in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazevic, Vesna; Malm, Maria; Honkanen, Hanna; Knip, Mikael; Hyöty, Heikki; Vesikari, Timo

    2016-04-01

    The burden of norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis is substantial in young children. Maternal antibodies are thought to protect a child from NoV infection in early infancy but subsequent development of NoV-specific protective immunity in children is still largely unexplored. We have determined NoV-specific antibody seroconversion to GII.4 virus-like particles as an indicator of NoV infection in two children prospectively followed from birth to eight years of age. Blocking activity and affinity maturation of maternal and serum IgG antibodies were evaluated. Our results show that multiple infections occur in children up to eight years of age. The titer, blocking activity and avidity of maternal antibodies determined susceptibility of an infant to NoV infection. NoV GII.4-specific antibodies with high blocking potential and avidity were developed at two to three years of age and were retained throughout the follow-up. Subsequent NoV infections may have contributed to the duration of protective NoV-specific immune responses that lasted for several years. This study adds to current understanding of the duration of passive protection by maternal antibodies and the duration and quality of acquired immunity following primary and subsequent NoV infections in infants and young children, who are the main target group for NoV vaccine development. PMID:26724451

  14. Seeking process maturity with DSDM atern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasys Peldžius

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available It is important for an organization to know what capability/maturity of the process a chosen methodology could ensure. This paper is focused on DSDM Atern process maturity by CMMI. The goal is to assess DSDM Atern by CMMI-DEV version 1.3 and propose the improvements to reach CMMI maturity level 3. A capability profile ensured by DSDM Atern has been obtained. The appraisal results showed that DSDM Atern ensures CMMI maturity level 2. Constraints and problematic areas of DSDM Atern methodology were discovered. In order to reach CMMI level 3 some recommendations for DSDM Atern additions were developed.

  15. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample...

  16. Block Voter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Sampaio, C I N

    2011-01-01

    We introduce and study the block voter model with noise on two-dimensional square lattices using Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling techniques. The model is defined by an outflow dynamics where a central set of $N_{PCS}$ spins, here denoted by persuasive cluster spins (PCS), tries to influence the opinion of their neighbouring counterparts. We consider the collective behaviour of the entire system with varying PCS size. When $N_{PCS}>2$, the system exhibits an order-disorder phase transition at a critical noise parameter $q_{c}$ which is a monotonically increasing function of the size of the persuasive cluster. We conclude that how large the PCS is more power of persuasion it has. It also seems that the resulting critical behaviour is Ising-like independent of the range of the interactions.

  17. Spintronics: Conceptual Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    The purpose of this introduction to spintronics is to provide some elementary description of its conceptual building blocks. Thus, it is intended for a newcomer to the field. After recalling rudimentary descriptions of spin precession and spin relaxation, spin-dependent transport is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. This suffices to introduce key notions such as the spin asymmetry of the conductivities in the two-current model, the spin diffusion length, and spin accumulation. Two basic mechanisms of spin relaxation are then presented, one arising from spin-orbit scattering and the other from electron-magnon collisions. Finally, the action of a spin-polarized current on magnetization is presented in a thermodynamics framework. This introduces the notion of spin torque and the characteristic length scale over which the transverse spin polarization of conduction electron decays as it is injected into a magnet.

  18. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...... efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...

  19. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  20. Motivational maturity and helping behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymes, M; Green, L

    1977-12-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the independent influences of conative development (the Maslow needs hierarchy) upon behavioral aspects of prosocial orientations. It provides a behavioral demonstration of conative effects in a helping paradigm, among college-age men. A comparison of the conative data across the ages of 15-22 provided a cross-sectional view of conative development itself. Conative maturity was found to be predictive of greater helping among college-age men. Situational demands were demonstrated which tended to mask, but not override, these predispositional influences on helping. The cross-sectional data on conative development point to probable movement to early esteem concerns among high school men who have reached the conative level of love and belonging. On the other hand, the stability across the years of 15-22 of proportion of safety concerns suggests fixation of such concerns in those exhibiting them in high school. Results are discussed in terms of conative growth for development of prosocial orientations.

  1. The Block-block Bootstrap: Improved Asymptotic Refinements

    OpenAIRE

    Donald W.K. Andrews

    2002-01-01

    The asymptotic refinements attributable to the block bootstrap for time series are not as large as those of the nonparametric iid bootstrap or the parametric bootstrap. One reason is that the independence between the blocks in the block bootstrap sample does not mimic the dependence structure of the original sample. This is the join-point problem. In this paper, we propose a method of solving this problem. The idea is not to alter the block bootstrap. Instead, we alter the original sample sta...

  2. Convergence rates of empirical block length selectors for block bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Nordman, Daniel J.; Lahiri, Soumendra N.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the accuracy of two general non-parametric methods for estimating optimal block lengths for block bootstraps with time series – the first proposed in the seminal paper of Hall, Horowitz and Jing (Biometrika 82 (1995) 561–574) and the second from Lahiri et al. (Stat. Methodol. 4 (2007) 292–321). The relative performances of these general methods have been unknown and, to provide a comparison, we focus on rates of convergence for these block length selectors for the moving block ...

  3. 7 CFR 51.1865 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Fresh Tomatoes 1 Definitions § 51.1865 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of development which will insure a proper completion of the ripening process, and that...

  4. 7 CFR 51.1907 - Mature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Fresh Tomatoes Definitions § 51.1907 Mature. Mature means that the tomato has reached the stage of development which will insure a proper completion of the ripening process....

  5. Decision-Making Style and Vocational Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Susan D.; Strohmer, Douglas C.

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relationship between decision-making style, scholastic achievement, and vocational maturity for college students (N=64). Results did not support the hypothesized relationship between rationality and attitudinal and cognitive maturity. Scholastic achievement and lack of dependent decision style were found to be moderately predictive of…

  6. The FMI: Dimensions of Follower Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Loren I.

    1976-01-01

    The Follower Maturity Index (FMI) is an instrument derived from leadership theory and based on observations of verbal and nonverbal behavior of followers in task groups. Dimensions of follower maturity--achievement, responsibility, experience, activity, dependence, variety, interests, perspective, position, and awareness--are discussed. For…

  7. Motivation and Maturity Patterns in Marital Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, David C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Married couples rated their marital satisfaction and played interpersonal competitive games which revealed the success with which they interacted. Younger husbands who scored more maturely on the Stewart measure of psychosocial maturity belonged to more successful marriages, as did college-educated wives who showed less immaturity and more phallic…

  8. Large Block Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W

    2001-12-01

    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  9. Maturity grids as tools for change management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maier, Anja; Moultrie, James; Clarkson, P John

    2011-01-01

    A maturity grid is a change management tool. Levels of maturity are assigned against aspects of an area under study, thus creating a grid. Text descriptions at the resulting intersections describe the typical behaviour exhibited by a firm for each area under study and from the basis...... for the assessment scale. It is a flexible assessment technique that is used by practitioners in industry, consultants and researchers in academia for diagnostic, reflective and improvement purposes. A large number of maturity grids have been proposed to assess a range of capabilities including quality management......: the Design Audit to assess product development capabilities and the Communication Grid Method to assess communication in product development. As maturity grid assessments are not just performance measures but also mechanisms for change, in developing and applying maturity grid assessments, the consultants...

  10. Covariant Approaches to Superconformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Khandker, Zuhair U; Li, Daliang; Poland, David; Simmons-Duffin, David

    2014-01-01

    We develop techniques for computing superconformal blocks in 4d superconformal field theories. First we study the super-Casimir differential equation, deriving simple new expressions for superconformal blocks for 4-point functions containing chiral operators in theories with N-extended supersymmetry. We also reproduce these results by extending the "shadow formalism" of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi to supersymmetric theories, where superconformal blocks can be represented as superspace integrals of three-point functions multiplied by shadow three-point functions.

  11. Dimensional Reduction for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hogervorst, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO(d+1,1) up into multiplets of SO(d,1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d-1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2F1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  12. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne;

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  13. pH-Induced Stability Switching of the Bacteriophage HK97 Maturation Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    May, Eric R.; Arora, Karunesh; Brooks, Charles L.

    2014-01-01

    Many viruses undergo large-scale conformational changes during their life cycles. Blocking the transition from one stage of the life cycle to the next is an attractive strategy for the development of antiviral compounds. In this work, we have constructed an icosahedrally symmetric, low-energy pathway for the maturation transition of bacteriophage HK97. By conducting constant-pH molecular dynamics simulations on this pathway, we identify which residues are contributing most significantly to sh...

  14. pH-induced stability switching of the bacteriophage HK97 maturation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Eric R; Arora, Karunesh; Brooks, Charles L

    2014-02-26

    Many viruses undergo large-scale conformational changes during their life cycles. Blocking the transition from one stage of the life cycle to the next is an attractive strategy for the development of antiviral compounds. In this work, we have constructed an icosahedrally symmetric, low-energy pathway for the maturation transition of bacteriophage HK97. By conducting constant-pH molecular dynamics simulations on this pathway, we identify which residues are contributing most significantly to shifting the stability between the states along the pathway under differing pH conditions. We further analyze these data to establish the connection between critical residues and important structural motifs which undergo reorganization during maturation. We go on to show how DNA packaging can induce spontaneous reorganization of the capsid during maturation. PMID:24495192

  15. Scale Analysis of Blocking Events from 2002 to 2004: A Case Study of an Unusually Persistent Blocking Event Leading to a Heat Wave in the Gulf of Alaska during August 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Athar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The climatology of northern hemisphere blocking events is presented assessing the relative contributions of the planetary and synoptic scales to 500 hPa heights in order to determine the proportion of blocks dominated by a single-scale. The heights were averaged over a region encompassing the block, and then compared with corresponding monthly mean values. If planetary-scale or synoptic-scale heights are greater than the monthly mean, the block is called single-scale dominant. In the study, 79% of blocks were single-scale dominant, whereas the remaining 21% of events were alternating-scale prominent. This proportion varied by season with winter (summer events being synoptic (planetary scale dominant. The stability of blocks is also examined to determine if two stability indicators were useful in the assessment of the character of planetary and synoptic-scale flows. These quantities are area integrated enstrophy, and the maximum value of stream function gradients within the block region. The analysis of a prolonged block occurring in the Gulf of Alaska during August 2004 shows the planetary-scale is unstable during block onset and then stabilizes during the mature stage. The synoptic-scale played a dominant role in destabilizing the planetary-scale during the mature stage of the block initiating decay.

  16. Multi-block and path modelling procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    The author has developed a unified theory of path and multi-block modelling of data. The data blocks are arranged in a directional path. Each data block can lead to one or more data blocks. It is assumed that there is given a collection of input data blocks. Each of them is supposed to describe one...... or more intermediate data blocks. The output data blocks are those that are at the ends of the paths and have no succeeding data blocks. The optimisation procedure finds weights for the input data blocks so that the size of the total loadings for the output data blocks are maximised. When the optimal...... weight vectors have been determined, the score and loading vectors for the data blocks in the path are determined. Appropriate adjustment of the data blocks is carried out at each step. Regression coefficients are computed for each data block that show how the data block is estimated by data blocks...

  17. Service Quality and Process Maturity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serek Radomir

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with service quality and the methods for its measurement and improvements to reach the so called service excellence. Besides older methods such as SERVQUAL and SERPERF, there are also shortly described capability maturity models based on which the own methodology is developed and used for process maturity assessment in organizations providing technical services. This method is equally described and accompanied by examples on pictures. The verification of method functionality is explored on finding a correlation between service employee satisfaction and average process maturity in a service organization. The results seem to be quite promising and open an arena for further studies.

  18. Constitutional and Anatomical Characteristics of Mature Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vladimir NNikolenko; DmitryBNikityuk; SvetlanaVKlochkova; AnastasiaABahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify the constitutional and anatomical peculiarities of constitution of women of mature age.Methods There was completed comprehensive anthropometric and bio-electrical survey of 651 mature women ( relative norm) living in the Moscow region .Results The quantitative distribution of women by somatotypological affiliation was revealed;anthropometric and body component composition in representatives of different somatotypes were defined .Conclusion Thus, the performed study revealed and quantiely character-ised the distribution of women according to their constitutional types in the studied population of mature age women living in Moscow region under the relative norm conditions .

  19. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  20. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  1. Classical Virasoro irregular conformal block

    CERN Document Server

    Rim, Chaiho

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro irregular conformal block with arbitrary rank is obtained for the classical limit or equivalently Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit using the beta-deformed irregular matrix model (Penner-type matrix model for the irregular conformal block). The same result is derived using the generalized Mathieu equation which is equivalent to the loop equation of the irregular matrix model.

  2. The Shamrock lumbar plexus block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauter, Axel R; Ullensvang, Kyrre; Niemi, Geir;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Shamrock technique is a new method for ultrasound-guided lumbar plexus blockade. Data on the optimal local anaesthetic dose are not available. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to estimate the effective dose of ropivacaine 0.5% for a Shamrock lumbar plexus block. DESIGN: A...... prospective dose-finding study using Dixon's up-and-down sequential method. SETTING: University Hospital Orthopaedic Anaesthesia Unit. INTERVENTION: Shamrock lumbar plexus block performance and block assessment were scheduled preoperatively. Ropivacaine 0.5% was titrated with the Dixon and Massey up......-and-down method using a stepwise change of 5 ml in each consecutive patient. Combined blocks of the femoral, the lateral femoral cutaneous and the obturator nerve were prerequisite for a successful lumbar plexus block. PATIENTS: Thirty patients scheduled for lower limb orthopaedic surgery completed the study...

  3. Pristipomoides filamentosus Size at Maturity Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains information used to help determine median size at 50% maturity for the bottomfish species, Pristipomoides filamentosus in the Main Hawaiian...

  4. The Moral Maturity of Repeater Delinquents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronio, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Differences in moral development (as conceived by Kohlberg) were examined in a sample of delinquent teenagers. The repeater group was not found, as had been hypothesized, to be lower on moral maturity than those who engaged in less delinquency. (GC)

  5. Bighead carp - its maturation and ovulation

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The paper investigates the effects of intraperitoneal injections of LHRH-a and domperidone (DOM), given singly or in combination at two injections, on oocyte maturation and spawning in bighead carp, Aristichthys nobilis.

  6. Generalized thermal maturity map of Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset consists of a polygon coverage and associated attribute data derived from the onshore portion of the 1996 "Generalized Thermal Maturity Map of Alaska"...

  7. Obesity accelerates secondary sexual maturity in girls

    OpenAIRE

    Meiriani Sari; Endy Paryanto Prawirohartono; Madarina Julia

    2012-01-01

    Background Worldwide incidence of obesity in children is increasing. Obesity may have many health effects including advancement of sexual maturity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the timing of secondary sexual maturation in obese vs. non-obese girls. Methods Subjects were 105 obese and 105 non-obese girls, aged 7 to 8 years who had not entered puberty. Breast and pubic hair growth, secondary sexual characteristics, were assessed at baseline and every 4 months for two ye...

  8. General smile asymptotics with bounded maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caravenna; Jacopo Corbetta

    2014-01-01

    We provide explicit conditions on the distribution of risk-neutral log-returns which yield sharp asymptotic estimates on the implied volatility smile. We allow for a variety of asymptotic regimes, including both small maturity (with arbitrary strike) and extreme strike (with arbitrary bounded maturity), extending previous work of Benaim and Friz [Math. Finance 19 (2009), 1-12]. We present applications to popular models, including Carr-Wu finite moment logstable model, Merton's jump diffusion ...

  9. Block Curricula: A Guide to Teaching with Unit Blocks and Hollow Blocks in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Phyllis; Tiedemann, Nancy

    This curriculum guide for preschool teachers was designed for use with wooden unit and hollow blocks to foster a variety of math, science, language, and social skills. Following an introduction to the curriculum and a discussion of cooperative learning and stages of block building, the guide is divided into three parts. Part 1 of the guide, "Unit…

  10. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Student Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This student guide together with an instructor guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The student guide contains self-contained instructional material that students can study at their own pace most of the time. Six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units, with some units…

  11. Criminal Justice Systems. Block I: Law Enforcement. Block II: The Courts. Block III: Corrections. Block IV: Community Relations. Block V: Proficiency Skills. Block VI: Criminalistics. Instructor Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education.

    This instructor guide together with a student guide comprise a set of curriculum materials on the criminal justice system. The instructor guide is a resource for planning and managing individualized, competency-based instruction in six major subject areas or blocks, which are further broken down into several units with some units having several…

  12. Mature students' perspectives of studying radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study set out to explore the experiences of all final year mature students on a diagnostic radiography course, in one United Kingdom University. The aims were to identify any difficulties they may have had and to make recommendations to improve mature students' learning experiences with the hope of lowering attrition rates in this group. A qualitative study involving one-to-one audio recorded interviews was utilised. Analysis of the transcripts of interviews suggested that the group believed that their maturity and previous experiences helped them in the clinical environment and put them in a good position, when asked, to counsel younger students. However for some of the mature students these experiential skills did not extend fully into seeking appropriate support for themselves. The mature students were found to be highly motivated but there was a conflict between balancing clinical and academic aspects of studying as well as balancing studying with home life. The group was found to be unprepared for the volume of academic work and its detrimental effect on family life as they sacrificed other aspects of their lives in order to complete the course. It is recommended that forewarning and forearming prospective mature students be considered by radiography education providers. Setting up and utilising an on-line forum providing a 24/7 peer support environment would aid in coping with academic, clinical or personal problems

  13. Block copolymer patterns and templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingqi Li

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the chemical and physical aspects of patternable block copolymers and their use for nanostructure fabrication. The patternability of block copolymers results from their ability to self-assemble into microdomains and the manipulation of these patterns by a variety of physical and chemical means. Procedures for achieving long-range lateral order, as well as orientation order of microdomain patterns, are discussed. The level of control that these strategies afford has enabled block copolymers to be used as templates for fabricating a variety of nanostructures.

  14. Comparison of maturity based on steroid and vanadyl porphyrin parameters: A new vanadyl porphyrin maturity parameter for higher maturities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararaman, Padmanabhan; Moldowan, J. Michael

    1993-03-01

    Correlations are demonstrated between steroid maturity parameters and the porphyrin maturity parameter (PMP) which is based on the ratio of specific vanadyl porphyrins C 28E /(C 28E + C 32D) measured by HPLC. Measurements from a global selection of > 100 rock extracts and oils show that PMP parallels changes in the C 29-sterane 20S/(20S + 20R) and tri/(tri + mono) aromatic steroid ratios, and that all three parameters appear to attain their maximum values at similar maturity levels. The triaromatic steroid side chain cracking parameter, TA I/(I + II), reaches approximately 20% of its maximum value when PMP has reached 100%. These results suggest that PMP is effective in the early to peak portion of the oil window. A new parameter, PMP-2, based on changes in the relative concentrations of two peaks in the HPLC fingerprint (vanadyl "etio" porphyrins), appears effective in assessing the maturity of source rocks beyond peak oil generation. In combination with PMP this parameter extends the effective range of vanadyl porphyrins parameters to higher maturities as demonstrated by a suite of oils from the Oriente Basin, Ecuador, South America.

  15. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni;

    2002-01-01

    The mature flavor of Salame Milano, an Italian dried sausage, was increased in two ways: by increasing maturation time or with a strain of Staphylococcus carnosus. The sensory and volatile profiles of the sausages were determined and the data analyzed by analysis of variance and chemometrics....... Sausages with S. carnosus 833 matured more than 2 wk faster than control sausages. Maturity correlated significantly with higher amounts of branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols and both branched- and straight-chain methyl ketones-compounds arising from the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine...

  16. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  17. MarineMineralsProgramBlocks

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines and delineated polygons in ESRI ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Gulf of Mexico Region that contain sediment...

  18. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  19. A Novel Tetrathiafulvalene Building Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jan Oskar; Takimiya, Kazuo; Thorup, Niels;

    1999-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported.......Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported....

  20. Statistical cryptanalysis of block ciphers

    OpenAIRE

    Junod, Pascal; Vaudenay, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Since the development of cryptology in the industrial and academic worlds in the seventies, public knowledge and expertise have grown in a tremendous way, notably because of the increasing, nowadays almost ubiquitous, presence of electronic communication means in our lives. Block ciphers are inevitable building blocks of the security of various electronic systems. Recently, many advances have been published in the field of public-key cryptography, being in the understanding of involved securi...

  1. NANOSTRUCTURES OF FUNCTIONAL BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guojun Liu

    2000-01-01

    Nanostructure fabrication from block copolymers in my group normally involves polymer design, synthesis, selfassembly, selective domain crosslinking, and sometimes selective domain removal. Preparation of thin films with nanochannels was used to illustrate the strategy we took. In this particular case, a linear triblock copolymer polyisopreneblock-poly(2-cinnamoylethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(t-butyl acrylate), PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA, was used. Films, 25 to50μm thick, were prepared from casting on glass slides a toluene solution of PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA and PtBA homopolymer,hPtBA, where hPtBA is shorter than the PtBA block. At the hPtBA mass fraction of 20% relative to the triblock or the total PtBA (hPtBA and PtBA block) volume fraction of 0.44, hPtBA and PtBA formed a seemingly continuous phase in the matrix of PCEMA and PI. Such a block segregation pattern was locked in by photocrosslinking the PCEMA domain. Nanochannels were formed by extracting out hPtBA with solvent. Alternatively, larger channels were obtained from extracting out hPtBA and hydrolyzing the t-butyl groups of the PtBA block. Such membranes were not liquid permeable but had gas permeability constants ~6 orders of magnitude higher than that of low-density polyethylene films.

  2. Skin delivery by block copolymer nanoparticles (block copolymer micelles).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laredj-Bourezg, Faiza; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Valour, Jean-Pierre; Rovère, Marie-Rose; Smatti, Batoule; Chevalier, Yves

    2015-12-30

    Block copolymer nanoparticles often referred to as "block copolymer micelles" have been assessed as carriers for skin delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Such carriers are based on organic biocompatible and biodegradable materials loaded with hydrophobic drugs: poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PLA-b-PEG) nanoparticles that have a solid hydrophobic core made of glassy poly(d,l-lactide), and poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PCL-b-PEG) nanoparticles having a liquid core of polycaprolactone. In vitro skin absorption of all-trans retinol showed a large accumulation of retinol in stratum corneum from both block copolymer nanoparticles, higher by a factor 20 than Polysorbate 80 surfactant micelles and by a factor 80 than oil solution. Additionally, skin absorption from PLA-b-PEG nanoparticles was higher by one order of magnitude than PCL-b-PEG, although their sizes (65nm) and external surface (water-swollen PEG layer) were identical as revealed by detailed structural characterizations. Fluorescence microscopy of histological skin sections provided a non-destructive picture of the storage of Nile Red inside stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis. Though particle cores had a different physical states (solid or liquid as measured by (1)H NMR), the ability of nanoparticles for solubilization of the drug assessed from their Hildebrand solubility parameters appeared the parameter of best relevance regarding skin absorption.

  3. Protease-Mediated Maturation of HIV: Inhibitors of Protease and the Maturation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Adamson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease-mediated maturation of HIV-1 virus particles is essential for virus infectivity. Maturation occurs concomitant with immature virus particle release and is mediated by the viral protease (PR, which sequentially cleaves the Gag and Gag-Pol polyproteins into mature protein domains. Maturation triggers a second assembly event that generates a condensed conical capsid core. The capsid core organizes the viral RNA genome and viral proteins to facilitate viral replication in the next round of infection. The fundamental role of proteolytic maturation in the generation of mature infectious particles has made it an attractive target for therapeutic intervention. Development of small molecules that target the PR active site has been highly successful and nine protease inhibitors (PIs have been approved for clinical use. This paper provides an overview of their development and clinical use together with a discussion of problems associated with drug resistance. The second-half of the paper discusses a novel class of antiretroviral drug termed maturation inhibitors, which target cleavage sites in Gag not PR itself. The paper focuses on bevirimat (BVM the first-in-class maturation inhibitor: its mechanism of action and the implications of naturally occurring polymorphisms that confer reduced susceptibility to BVM in phase II clinical trials.

  4. IT Governance Maturity: Developing a Maturity Model Using the Delphi Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, Daniel; Hillegersberg, van Jos

    2015-01-01

    To advance in maturity, organizations should pay attention to both the hard and soft sides of IT governance (ITG). The hard side is related to processes and structure, the soft side to social aspects like behavior and organizational culture. This paper describes a study to develop an ITG maturity mo

  5. Stacking the odds for Golgi cisternal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Somya; Thattai, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    What is the minimal set of cell-biological ingredients needed to generate a Golgi apparatus? The compositions of eukaryotic organelles arise through a process of molecular exchange via vesicle traffic. Here we statistically sample tens of thousands of homeostatic vesicle traffic networks generated by realistic molecular rules governing vesicle budding and fusion. Remarkably, the plurality of these networks contain chains of compartments that undergo creation, compositional maturation, and dissipation, coupled by molecular recycling along retrograde vesicles. This motif precisely matches the cisternal maturation model of the Golgi, which was developed to explain many observed aspects of the eukaryotic secretory pathway. In our analysis cisternal maturation is a robust consequence of vesicle traffic homeostasis, independent of the underlying details of molecular interactions or spatial stacking. This architecture may have been exapted rather than selected for its role in the secretion of large cargo. PMID:27542195

  6. Stacking the odds for Golgi cisternal maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Somya; Thattai, Mukund

    2016-01-01

    What is the minimal set of cell-biological ingredients needed to generate a Golgi apparatus? The compositions of eukaryotic organelles arise through a process of molecular exchange via vesicle traffic. Here we statistically sample tens of thousands of homeostatic vesicle traffic networks generated by realistic molecular rules governing vesicle budding and fusion. Remarkably, the plurality of these networks contain chains of compartments that undergo creation, compositional maturation, and dissipation, coupled by molecular recycling along retrograde vesicles. This motif precisely matches the cisternal maturation model of the Golgi, which was developed to explain many observed aspects of the eukaryotic secretory pathway. In our analysis cisternal maturation is a robust consequence of vesicle traffic homeostasis, independent of the underlying details of molecular interactions or spatial stacking. This architecture may have been exapted rather than selected for its role in the secretion of large cargo.

  7. [Relationship between sexual maturation and subcutaneous fat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Llop, L A; Ramada Benedito, A; Rodríguez-Estecha, P

    1990-10-01

    Due to the great variability at the beginnings and the period of the puberty, authors have studied the modifications of the subcutaneous-fat and their relation with the sexual maturating. They have measured the skinfold thickness of biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac in 358 boys from 10 to 15 years old and 424 girls from 8 to 14 years old inrelation to sexual maturating through the stages described by Tanner. It has been found more subcutaneous fat in girls than in boys (p less than 0.05). The boys increase their subcutaneous fat until the stage 3 (except the skinfold triceps) and decrease later (except the skinfold subscapular). In boys, the analysis of varianza, show that the variations are related with the sexual maturating and not with chronologic age. PMID:2278437

  8. Obesity accelerates secondary sexual maturity in girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiriani Sari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Worldwide incidence of obesity in children is increasing. Obesity may have many health effects including advancement of sexual maturity. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the timing of secondary sexual maturation in obese vs. non-obese girls. Methods Subjects were 105 obese and 105 non-obese girls, aged 7 to 8 years who had not entered puberty. Breast and pubic hair growth, secondary sexual characteristics, were assessed at baseline and every 4 months for two years. Onset of puberty was defined as Tanner stage for secondary sexual maturation of ≥ breast Tanner stage II (B2 and/or ≥ pubic hair Tanner stage II (P2. Survival analyses were used to estimate time to puberty in both groups. Cox regressions were used to analyze possible factors affecting secondary sexual maturation. Results Mean onset of breast budding (B2 was 7.8 (95% CI 7.7 to 7.8 years in obese girls vs. 8.6 (95% CI 8.5 to 8.6 years in non-obese girls (P<0.001. Mean onset of pubarche (P2 was 8.7 (95% CI 8.6 to 8.8 years in obese girls vs. 9.0 (95% CI 8.9 to 9.0 years in non-obese girls (P<0.001. Hazard ratios of obese girls to experience an earlier secondary sexual maturation at maturity level B2, B3 and P2 were 1.34 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.52, 6.91 (95% CI 3.90 to 12.24 and 3.78 (95% CI 2.42 to 5.89, respectively. Conclusions Obesity was associated with earlier onset of puberty in girls. Obese girls entered puberty approximately 3 to 9 months earlier than their non-obese peers.

  9. How outsourcing affects ICT-Service Maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Bergholm, Tor

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to explore how outsourcing affects IT Service Maturity. The thesis provides the answer by analysing the results of a series of IT Services Maturity Re-views performed at a large corporation during the first half year of 2014. The focus of the study is to show in detail the answers of what scenarios was taken into account while building the assessment survey. The author of the thesis works for Microsoft Finland as an IT Service Management and Program Managem...

  10. The Maturely, Immature Orientale Impact Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, J. T.; Lawrence, D. J.; Stickle, A. M.; Delen, O.; Patterson, G.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2015-12-01

    Lunar surface maturity is consistently examined using the NIR optical maturity parameter (OMAT) [1]. However, the NIR only provides a perspective of the upper microns of the lunar surface. Recent studies of Lunar Prospector (LP) and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter data sets are now demonstrating additional measures of maturity with sensitivities to greater depths (~2 m) in the regolith. These include thermal infrared, S-band radar, and epithermal neutron data sets [2-4]. Interestingly, each of these parameters is directly comparable to OMAT despite each measuring slightly different aspects of the regolith. This is demonstrated by Lawrence et al. [3] where LP-measured non-polar highlands epithermal neutrons trend well with albedo, OMAT, and the Christensen Feature (CF). Lawrence et al. [3] used these data to derive and map highlands hydrogen (H) which is dominantly a function of H-implantation. With this in mind, areas of enriched-H are mature, while areas of depleted H are immature. Surface roughness as measured by S-band radar [4], also provides a measure of maturity. In this case, the circular polarization ratio (CPR) is high when rough and immature, and low when smooth and mature. Knowing this, one can recognize areas in the non-polar lunar highlands that show contradictory measures of maturity. For example, while many lunar localities show consistently immature albedo, OMAT, CF, CPR, and H concentrations (e.g., Tycho), others do not. Orientale basin is the most prominent example, shown to have immature CPR, CF, and H concentrations despite a relatively mature albedo and OMAT values as well as an old age determination (~3.8 Ga). To better understand how the lunar regolith is weathering in the upper 1-2 m of regolith with time we examine the Orientale basin relative to other highlands regions. [1] Lucey et al. (2000) JGR, 105, 20377; [2] Lucey et al. (2013) LPSC, 44, 2890; [3] Lawrence et al. (2015) Icarus, j.icarus.2015.01.005; [4] Neish et al. (2013) JGR, 118

  11. Obesity and secondary sexual maturity in boys

    OpenAIRE

    Modella Rahmani Femina; Madarina Julia; Soeroyo Machfudz

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity induces earlier secondary sexual maturity in girls. However, results of studies in boys have been inconclusive. Objective To assess for an association between obesity and sexual maturity in boys. Methods This was a prospective cohort study on 133 obese and 133 matched-for-age, non-obese, prepubertal boys, aged 9 to 10 years. They were observed every 4 months for a two year period. Obesity was defined as the BMI ≥the 95th percentile, according to the Centers for Dise...

  12. Management and Breeding Soundness of Mature Bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Colin W

    2016-07-01

    Mature bulls must be fed a balanced ration, vaccinated appropriately, and undergo a breeding soundness evaluation to ensure they meet what is required of a short, but intense breeding season. To be classified as a satisfactory potential breeder, minimum standards for physical soundness, scrotal circumference, sperm motility, and sperm morphology must be achieved using an accepted bull-breeding soundness evaluation format. Sperm production requires approximately 70 days. Heat and stress are the most common insults to spermatogenesis, causing an increase in morphologic abnormalities with obesity-associated scrotal fat accumulation being the most frequent cause of elevated testicular temperature in mature bulls.

  13. Compost maturity. Method book; Kompostin kypsyystestit. Menetelmaeohjeet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaevaara, M.; Vikman, M.; Kapanen, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland); Venelampi, O.; Vuorinen, A. [Evira Finnish Food Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-08-15

    The compost maturity method guidebook is intended for testing laboratories and composting plants that need to evaluate the maturity of compost samples, as well as for the self-management of composting plants. The guidebook provides detailed information, guidance and a theoretical background for performing the maturity tests. The tests are simple and easy to perform, but knowledge of composting processing is required when evaluating the tests results. Composting is a bioprocess which produces a good quality end product when properly managed. If improperly processed, however, the end product will be of poor quality and phytotoxic, therefore preventing its use for plant cultivation, and only be suitable for use in landfill constructions. Compost quality cannot be determined by using a single test; several tests have to be used in order to analyze the degradation phase of the compost, e.g. the stability level. In addition, the phytotoxicity of the compost also has to be analyzed. However, a distinction has to be drawn between phytotoxicity and persistant toxicity because the phytotoxic compounds, which are intermediates of the bioprocess, can be further degraded as composting proceeds. The guidebook describes how to combine test results in compost maturity assessment. In addition, troubleshooting hints are also given to avoid erroneous conclusions. The tests described in the guidebook are based on research performed at VTT over a period of several years. The book also includes information about basic compost analysis, as well as about several methods for estimating maturity, stability and toxicity. The limit values proposed in the book are not official limit values, but are based on research performed in projects by the VTT's research team. In reform of fertilizer product legislation by Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, decree on compost products will set limit values for maturity and demand for determination of maturity. We have also included methods that are

  14. Posttesticular sperm maturation, infertility, and hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Whitfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a key molecule in the mammalian physiology of especial particular importance for the reproductive system as it is the common precursor for steroid hormone synthesis. Cholesterol is also a recognized modulator of sperm functions, not only at the level of gametogenesis. Cholesterol homeostasis regulation is crucial for posttesticular sperm maturation, and imbalanced cholesterol levels may particularly affect these posttesticular events. Metabolic lipid disorders (dyslipidemia affect male fertility but are most of the time studied from the angle of endocrine/testicular consequences. This review will focus on the deleterious effects of a particular dyslipidemia, i.e., hypercholesterolemia, on posttesticular maturation of mammalian spermatozoa.

  15. Asset Stripping in a Mature Market Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov Jeppesen, Kim; Møller, Ulrik Gorm

    2011-01-01

    indicates that asset stripping may take place in mature market economies to the extent that perpetrators are able to circumvent the corporate governance system by giving lawyers, public accountants and banks incentives to act less critically towards dubious business transactions. Research limitations...... is to analyse why the asset-stripping schemes occurred in a mature market economy with a strong corporate governance system and a low level of corruption. Design/methodology/approach – The research is conducted as a longitudinal single case study based on documentary research. Findings – The Danish case...

  16. Block Matching for Object Tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyaourova, A; Kamath, C; Cheung, S

    2003-10-13

    Models which describe road traffic patterns can be helpful in detection and/or prevention of uncommon and dangerous situations. Such models can be built by the use of motion detection algorithms applied to video data. Block matching is a standard technique for encoding motion in video compression algorithms. We explored the capabilities of the block matching algorithm when applied for object tracking. The goal of our experiments is two-fold: (1) to explore the abilities of the block matching algorithm on low resolution and low frame rate video and (2) to improve the motion detection performance by the use of different search techniques during the process of block matching. Our experiments showed that the block matching algorithm yields good object tracking results and can be used with high success on low resolution and low frame rate video data. We observed that different searching methods have small effect on the final results. In addition, we proposed a technique based on frame history, which successfully overcame false motion caused by small camera movements.

  17. RNase J participates in a pentatricopeptide repeat protein-mediated 5′ end maturation of chloroplast mRNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Luro, Scott; Germain, Arnaud; Sharwood, Robert E.; Stern, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Nucleus-encoded ribonucleases and RNA-binding proteins influence chloroplast gene expression through their roles in RNA maturation and stability. One mechanism for mRNA 5′ end maturation posits that sequence-specific pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) proteins define termini by blocking the 5′→3′ exonucleolytic activity of ribonuclease J (RNase J). To test this hypothesis in vivo, virus-induced gene silencing was used to reduce the expression of three PPR proteins and RNase J, both individually a...

  18. Climatological features of blocking anticyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several climatological studies have been previously performed using large observational data sets (i.e., 10 years or longer) in order to determine the predominant characteristics of blocking anticyclones, including favored development regions, duration, preferred seasonal occurrence, and frequency of occurrence. These studies have shown that blocking anticyclones occur most frequently from October to April over the eastern Atlantic and Pacific oceans downstream from both the North American and Asian continental regions and the storm track regions to the east of these continents. Some studies have also revealed the presence of a third region block formation in western Russia near 40 degrees E which is associated with another storm track region over the Mediterranean and western Asia

  19. Projectors, Shadows, and Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Simmons-Duffin, David

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a method for computing conformal blocks of operators in arbitrary Lorentz representations in any spacetime dimension, making it possible to apply bootstrap techniques to operators with spin. The key idea is to implement the "shadow formalism" of Ferrara, Gatto, Grillo, and Parisi in a setting where conformal invariance is manifest. Conformal blocks in d-dimensions can be expressed as integrals over the projective null-cone in the "embedding space" R^{d+1,1}. Taking care with their analytic structure, these integrals can be evaluated in great generality, reducing the computation of conformal blocks to a bookkeeping exercise. To facilitate calculations in four-dimensional CFTs, we introduce techniques for writing down conformally-invariant correlators using auxiliary twistor variables, and demonstrate their use in some simple examples.

  20. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  1. Analyzing Project Management Maturity Level in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot Simangunsong

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Project management has been generally known and increasingly used by many organizations to gain competitive advantage. In this context, many studies have proposed maturity models to evaluate how project management knowledge has been deployed effectively and efficiently in or- ganization. As a developing country, Indonesia needs many development projects managed by government and private companies in different industries. Here, a study to assess project manage- ment maturity level in Indonesian businesses may bring insight about current business practices, which is important to speed up country development and business sustainability. Adapting the Project Management Maturity Model (ProMMM, a survey instrument has been developed and ap- plied to professionals from Jakarta and surrounding area. The result of analysis shows that con- struction and primary industry have a higher maturity level compare to manufacturing and servic- es. It is to be noted, however, that the level of project management understanding is low across in- dustries. This indicates that more quality project management training or certification is required to improve overall project management knowledge in Indonesia.

  2. Teaching Copywriting Students about the Mature Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniany, Bonnie

    Advertising educators have a responsibility to make students aware of the importance of the mature market (older people) and to teach them methods to reach this group. An assignment in a copywriting class asked students to write and design ads to promote blue jeans to adults over 50. The assignment accomplished three things: (1) helped students…

  3. Depressive Symptomatology among Very Early Maturing Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rierdan, Jill; Koff, Elissa

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between very early menarche and depression was studied in a sample of 488 girls (336 sixth graders and 152 seventh graders), less than 10 percent of whom were very early maturers. Very early menarche was associated with higher levels of depression than was more normative development. (SLD)

  4. A Maturity Model for Higher Education Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Duarte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of business process improvement strategies is currently a concern of most organizations. The quest for the benefits of this improvement on resource optimization and the responsiveness of the organizations has raised several proposals for process improvement methodologies. These approaches differ both in the principles that support them, and in the specific area to which they are intended. However, proposals and results of scientific research on process improvement in higher education institutions, extremely complex and unique organizations, are still scarce. This research project intends to propose the extension of a process improvement model for this particular type of organization. We propose to undertake a review of process areas, goals and practices used in reference maturity models, such as Capability Maturity Model Integration or Business Process Maturity Model, to determine which ones apply to academic organizations and which should be included, adapted or deleted. The resulting maturity model will be further validated in a Portuguese higher education institution. This study is being developed under the University of Algarve Informatics Engineering Doctorate program.

  5. Spotlight on Shanxi very mature vinegar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Fang; Wang Lixia; Li Wende

    2005-01-01

    @@ There are four kinds of the most famous vinegars in China. Qingxu Very Mature Vinegar of Shanxi Province is number one. Three others are Zhenjiang Savory Vinegar of Jiangsu Province, Baoning Bran Vinegar of Sichuan Province and Yongchun Vinegar of Fujian Province.

  6. Evaluating Hass Avocado Maturity Using Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The maturity of avocado fruit is usually assessed by measuring its dry matter content(DM), which is a destructive and time consuming process. The aim of this study is tointroduce a non-destructive and quick technique that can estimate the DM content of an avocado fruit. 'Hass' avocado fruits at diff...

  7. Relative dental maturity and associated skeletal maturity in prehistoric native Americans of the Ohio valley area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciulli, Paul W

    2007-04-01

    Estimation of age-at-death of subadults in prehistoric skeletal samples based on modern reference standards rests on a number of assumptions of which many are untestable. If these assumptions are not met error of unknown magnitude and direction will be introduced to the subadult age estimates. This situation suggests that an independent estimate or estimates of age-related features, free of most of the assumptions made when using modern reference standards may be useful supplements in evaluating the age of subadults in prehistoric samples. The present study provides an internally consistent, population-specific measure of maturity for prehistoric Ohio valley Native Americans based on the seriation of dental development that may be used as a supplement to age-estimation. The developing dentition of 581 subadults from eight Ohio valley prehistoric-protohistoric groups was seriated within and among individuals resulting in a sequence of tooth development and a sequence of individuals from least to most mature. Dental maturity stages or sorting categories were then defined based on exclusive, easily observable, and highly repeatable tooth-formation stages. Tooth eruption (into occlusion), bone lengths, and fusion of skeletal elements are summarized by dental maturity stage. This procedure provides maturity estimates for skeletal features ordered by dental maturity stages derived from the same sample thus making explicit the relationship between dental and skeletal maturity.

  8. OPAL 96 Blocks Lead Glass

    CERN Multimedia

    This array of 96 lead glass bricks formed part of the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. One half of the complete calorimeter is shown in the picture above. There were 9440 lead glass counters in the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. These are made of Schott type SF57 glass and each block weighs about 25 kg and consists of 76% PbO by weight. Each block has a Hamamatsu R2238 photomultiplier glued on to it. The complete detector was in the form of a cylinder 7m long and 6m in diameter. It was used to measure the energy of electrons and photons produced in LEP interactions.

  9. Planning Block Play Experiences for Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Betty Ruth

    Playing with blocks can facilitate the creative, social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development of young children. This article presents information and activities concerning block play and its role in young children's experience. Topics covered include: (1) types of blocks; (2) selection of blocks and accessories; (3) planning of the…

  10. Apoptotic effects on maturation of mouse oocytes, fertilization and fetal development by puerarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Jen; Chan, Wen-Hsiung

    2016-10-01

    Previously we identified puerarin, an isoflavone compound, as a risk factor for normal embryonic development that triggers apoptotic processes in the inner cell mass of mouse blastocysts, leading to retardation of embryonic development and cell viability. In the current study, we investigated whether puerarin exerts deleterious effects on mouse oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and subsequent pre- and post-implantation development, both in vitro and in vivo. Notably, puerarin caused significant impairment of these processes in vitro. Pre-incubation of oocytes with puerarin during in vitro maturation led to increased post-implantation embryo resorption and decreased mouse fetal weight. In an in vivo animal model, intravenous injection with or without puerarin (1, 3 and 5 mg/kg body weight/day) for 4 days caused a decrease in oocyte maturation and IVF, and led to deleterious effects on early embryonic development. Importantly, pre-incubation of oocytes with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor effectively blocked puerarin-triggered deleterious effects, clearly implying that embryonic injury induced by puerarin is mediated by a caspase-dependent apoptotic mechanism. These results clearly demonstrate that puerarin has deleterious effects on mouse oocyte maturation, fertilization and subsequent embryonic development in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26712108

  11. Use of computer technologies in physical education of women of the first mature age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Tomilina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the improvement of process of physical education of women of the first mature age by means of Pilates with use of information technologies. Material & Methods: the experience of development and deployment of computer technologies in the process of physical education of women of mature age was systematized by means of the analysis of scientific and methodical and special literature and the best pedagogical and coach's practices, which is presented in mass media. The ways of application of computer programs were revealed, and the computer program ‘’Pilates’’ was developed by means of programming in the system Visual Basic. Results: the computer program ‘’Pilates’’, which consists of directory, settlement and recreational blocks, is offered for the purpose of improvement of the process of physical education of women of the first mature age by means of Pilates and increase in their motivation to classes by physical exercises. Conclusions: it is revealed that application of the computer programs has the positive effect in practice of physical education of women of the first mature age. The computer program ‘’Pilates’’ is submitted.

  12. First Degree Pacemaker Exit Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually atrial and ventricular depolarizations follow soon after the pacemaker stimulus (spike on the ECG. But there can be an exit block due to fibrosis at the electrode - tissue interface at the lead tip. This can increase the delay between the spike and atrial or ventricular depolarization.

  13. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  14. Scattering matrices with block symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Życzkowski, Karol

    1997-01-01

    Scattering matrices with block symmetry, which corresponds to scattering process on cavities with geometrical symmetry, are analyzed. The distribution of transmission coefficient is computed for different number of channels in the case of a system with or without the time reversal invariance. An interpolating formula for the case of gradual time reversal symmetry breaking is proposed.

  15. Building block filtering and mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, C.H.M. van

    1998-01-01

    A three-stage evolutionary method, the BBF-GA is introduced. BBF-GA is an acronym for building block filtering genetic algorithm. During the first stage, an ensemble of fast evolutionary algorithms is used to explore the search space. The best individual found by each of these evolutionary algorithm

  16. Preschoolers' Thinking during Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, Diana L.; Test, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Children build foundations for mathematical thinking in early play and exploration. During the preschool years, children enjoy exploring mathematical concepts--such as patterns, shape, spatial relationships, and measurement--leading them to spontaneously engage in mathematical thinking during play. Block play is one common example that engages…

  17. Recognition of the mycobacterial cord factor by Mincle: relevance for granuloma formation and resistance to tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Roland eLang

    2013-01-01

    The world’s most successful intracellular bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), survives inside macrophages by blocking phagosome maturation and establishes chronic infection characterized by the formation of granulomas. Trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM), the mycobacterial cord factor, is the most abundant cell wall lipid of virulent mycobacteria, is sufficient to cause granuloma formation, and has long been known to be a major virulence factor of MTB. Recently, TDM has been show...

  18. Recognition of the mycobacterial cord factor by Mincle: relevance for granuloma formation and resistance to tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Roland

    2013-01-01

    The world's most successful intracellular bacterial pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), survives inside macrophages by blocking phagosome maturation and establishes chronic infection characterized by the formation of granulomas. Trehalose-6,6-dimycolate (TDM), the mycobacterial cord factor, is the most abundant cell wall lipid of virulent mycobacteria, is sufficient to cause granuloma formation, and has long been known to be a major virulence factor of MTB. Recently, TDM has been show...

  19. Pourfour Du Petit syndrome after interscalene block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mysore Chandramouli Basappji Santhosh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interscalene block is commonly associated with reversible ipsilateral phrenic nerve block, recurrent laryngeal nerve block, and cervical sympathetic plexus block, presenting as Horner′s syndrome. We report a very rare Pourfour Du Petit syndrome which has a clinical presentation opposite to that of Horner′s syndrome in a 24-year-old male who was given interscalene block for open reduction and internal fixation of fracture upper third shaft of left humerus.

  20. Innovative masonry blocks for partition walls

    OpenAIRE

    Vasconcelos, Graça; Poletti, Elisa; Medeiros, Pedro; Mendonça, Paulo; Carvalho, Pedro; Cunha, Sandra Raquel Leite; Camões, Aires; Lourenço, Paulo B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper intends to propose a non structural system of partition walls with monolithic blocks based on a composite material resulting from an admixture of cork and textile fibers combined with a non cement binder, gypsum. These blocks consist of two half blocks which have to be connected during laying process. The developed blocks were first tested under compressive and flexural loading in order to derive their mechanical behaviour. Different curing conditions were applied to the blocks dur...

  1. Block Algorithms for Quark Propagator Calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Pickles, S M

    1998-01-01

    Computing quark propagators in lattice QCD is equivalent to solving large, sparse linear systems with multiple right-hand sides. Block algorithms attempt to accelerate the convergence of iterative Krylov-subspace methods by solving the multiple systems simultaneously. This paper compares a block generalisation of the quasi-minimal residual method (QMR), Block Conjugate Gradient on the normal equation, Block Lanczos and ($\\gamma_5$-symmetric) Block BiConjugate Gradient.

  2. Endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for pain relief

    OpenAIRE

    Murty, P. S. N.; Prasanna, Atma

    1998-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of the sphenopalatine (SPG) block has been well utilized for intranasal topical anaesthesia but the analgesic efficacy of (SPG) block, though well documented in literature, has not been put into practice. The methods available for SPG block till date were blind as they do not visualize the foramen. Nasal endoscopies have been used to visualize the foramen for an effective block. The authors present their experience with the endoscopic sphenopalatine ganglion block for p...

  3. Block Algorithms for Quark Propagator Calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Pickles, Stephen M.; Collaboration, UKQCD

    1997-01-01

    Computing quark propagators in lattice QCD is equivalent to solving large, sparse linear systems with multiple right-hand sides. Block algorithms attempt to accelerate the convergence of iterative Krylov-subspace methods by solving the multiple systems simultaneously. This paper compares a block generalisation of the quasi-minimal residual method (QMR), Block Conjugate Gradient on the normal equation, Block Lanczos and ($\\gamma_5$-symmetric) Block BiConjugate Gradient.

  4. Transcriptional programs controlling perinatal lung maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    Full Text Available The timing of lung maturation is controlled precisely by complex genetic and cellular programs. Lung immaturity following preterm birth frequently results in Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS and Broncho-Pulmonary Dysplasia (BPD, which are leading causes of mortality and morbidity in preterm infants. Mechanisms synchronizing gestational length and lung maturation remain to be elucidated. In this study, we designed a genome-wide mRNA expression time-course study from E15.5 to Postnatal Day 0 (PN0 using lung RNAs from C57BL/6J (B6 and A/J mice that differ in gestational length by ∼30 hr (B6maturation. We identified both temporal and strain dependent gene expression patterns during lung maturation. For time dependent changes, cell adhesion, vasculature development, and lipid metabolism/transport were major bioprocesses induced during the saccular stage of lung development at E16.5-E17.5. CEBPA, PPARG, VEGFA, CAV1 and CDH1 were found to be key signaling and transcriptional regulators of these processes. Innate defense/immune responses were induced at later gestational ages (E18.5-20.5, STAT1, AP1, and EGFR being important regulators of these responses. Expression of RNAs associated with the cell cycle and chromatin assembly was repressed during prenatal lung maturation and was regulated by FOXM1, PLK1, chromobox, and high mobility group families of transcription factors. Strain dependent lung mRNA expression differences peaked at E18.5. At this time, mRNAs regulating surfactant and innate immunity were more abundantly expressed in lungs of B6 (short gestation than in A/J (long gestation mice, while expression of genes involved in chromatin assembly and histone modification were expressed at lower levels in B6 than in A/J mice. The present study systemically mapped key regulators

  5. Limiting Spectral Distribution of Block Matrices with Toeplitz Block Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Riddhipratim; Ganguly, Shirshendu; Hazra, Rajat Subhra

    2011-01-01

    We study two specific symmetric random block Toeplitz (of dimension $k \\times k$) matrices: where the blocks (of size $n \\times n$) are (i) matrices with i.i.d. entries, and (ii) asymmetric Toeplitz matrices. Under suitable assumptions on the entries, their limiting spectral distributions (LSDs) exist (after scaling by $\\sqrt{nk}$) when (a) $k$ is fixed and $n \\to\\infty$ (b) $n$ is fixed and $k\\rightarrow \\infty$ (c) $n$ and $k$ go to $\\infty$ simultaneously. Further the LSD's obtained in (a) and (b) coincide with those in (c) when $n$ or respectively $k$ tends to infinity. This limit in (c) is the semicircle law in case (i). In Case (ii) the limit is related to the limit of the random symmetric Toepiltz matrix as obtained by Bryc et al.(2006) and Hammond and Miller(2005).

  6. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. METHODS: Sixteen...... healthy volunteers were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block with 20 mL 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine and placebo on the contralateral side. Measurements were performed at baseline and 90 minutes after performing the block. Cutaneous sensory block area was mapped and separated into a...... medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block and...

  7. Farnesyl transferase inhibitors induce extended remissions in transgenic mice with mature B cell lymphomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refaeli Yosef

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have used a mouse model based on overexpression of c-Myc in B cells genetically engineered to be self-reactive to test the hypothesis that farnesyl transferase inhibitors (FTIs can effectively treat mature B cell lymphomas. FTIs are undergoing clinical trials to treat both lymphoid and non-lymphoid malignancies and we wished to obtain evidence to support the inclusion of B cell lymphomas in future trials. Results We report that two FTIs, L-744,832 and SCH66336, blocked the growth of mature B cell lymphoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The FTI treatment affected the proliferation and survival of the transformed B cells to a greater extent than naïve B cells stimulated with antigen. In syngeneic mice transplanted with the transgenic lymphoma cells, L-744,832 treatment prevented the growth of the tumor cells and the morbidity associated with the resulting lymphoma progression. Tumors that arose from transplantation of the lymphoma cells regressed with as little as three days of treatment with L-744,832 or SCH66336. Treatment of these established lymphomas with L-744,832 for seven days led to long-term remission of the disease in approximately 25% of animals. Conclusion FTI treatment can block the proliferation and survival of self-reactive transformed B cells that overexpress Myc. In mice transplanted with mature B cell lymphomas, we found that FTI treatment led to regression of disease. FTIs warrant further consideration as therapeutic agents for mature B cell lymphomas and other lymphoid tumors.

  8. 31 CFR 575.203 - Holding of certain types of blocked property in interest-bearing accounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirement shall apply to currency, bank deposits, accounts, and any other financial assets, and any proceeds resulting from the sale of tangible or intangible property. If interest is credited to an account separate... instruments the maturity of which exceeds 90 days. (c) This section does not apply to blocked...

  9. Biomarker tests for fetal lung maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung-Pineda, Van; Gronowski, Ann M

    2010-12-01

    The production of surfactant is a key step in fetal lung development. Surfactant decreases alveolar surface tension, thereby preventing alveolar collapse and allowing efficient gas exchange. The lack of adequate amounts of lung surfactant results in respiratory distress syndrome. Tests that assess surfactant concentrations in amniotic fluid are good predictors of infants that will not develop respiratory distress syndrome. The most frequently used test to assess fetal lung maturity (TDx FLM II) will not be available after December 2011. Therefore, we review the currently available tests for fetal lung maturity including lecithin:sphingomyelin ratio, phosphatidyl glycerol, surfactant:albumin ratio and lamellar body counts. Herein, we discuss their clinical utility and consider a suitable replacement for the future. PMID:21133706

  10. Methane emissions, feed intake, and performance of finishing beef cattle offered maize silages harvested at 4 different stages of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Foley, P A; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-04-01

    This experiment aimed to quantify the methane emissions and intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered maize (Zea mays) silages harvested at 1 of 4 sequential stages of maturity and to relate these values to those obtained from animals offered an ad libitum concentrate-based diet. Sixty continental crossbred steers with a mean initial BW of 531 kg (SD 23.8) were blocked (n = 12 blocks) according to BW and allocated from within block to 1 of 5 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design: maize silage harvested on September 13 (DM = 277 g/kg), maize silage harvested on September 28 (DM = 315 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 9 (DM = 339 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 23 (DM = 333 g/kg), and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). Diets based on maize silage were supplemented with 2.57 kg of concentrate DM daily, and ALC diets were supplemented with 1.27 kg of grass silage DM daily. Silage and total DMI were greater (P = 0.004) with maize silage harvested on September 28 than with any other treatment, which in turn did not differ. Advancing maize maturity at harvest did not affect BW or carcass gain, with the ALC diet exhibiting greater (P = 0.036) rates of carcass gain than any of the maize silage-based treatments. Apparent in vivo digestibility, determined using the AIA indigestible marker technique, was not affected by harvest maturity, with no linear or quadratic trends being identified. Digestibility of DM from the ALC diet was greater (P Methane emissions, (g/d) measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, were not affected by maize silage maturity. Methane emissions relative to DMI tended (P = 0.05) to decline with advancing maize silage maturity, with a similar decline observed when methane was expressed per kilogram of carcass gain. Advancing maize maturity did not result in significant linear or quadratic responses in methane output proportional to GE intake. The ALC diet

  11. Maturation of Fetal Responses to Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisilevsky, B. S.; Hains, S. M. J.; Jacquet, A.-Y.; Granier-Deferre, C.; Lecanuet, J. P.

    2004-01-01

    Maturation of fetal response to music was characterized over the last trimester of pregnancy using a 5-minute piano recording of Brahms' Lullaby, played at an average of 95, 100, 105 or 110 dB (A). Within 30 seconds of the onset of the music, the youngest fetuses (28-32 weeks GA) showed a heart rate increase limited to the two highest dB levels;…

  12. Modeling Non-maturing Savings Volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Paraschiv, Florentina

    2012-01-01

    In Basel II the regulators stress the importance of finding realistic volumes models for non-maturing accounts (NMAs), given their cash-flow uncer- tainty due to optionality. Focusing on Swiss savings accounts, we identify their seasonal pattern and we derive their sensitivity to market rates and to relevant macroeconomic factors. We derive a realistic volumes model, that allows for cash-flow forecasting, which is essential for liquidity management in banks.

  13. Okazaki fragment maturation: nucleases take centre stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Binghui Shen

    2011-01-01

    Completion of lagging strand DNA synthesis requires processing of up to 50 million Okazaki fragments per cell cycle in mammalian cells. Even in yeast, the Okazaki fragment maturation happens approximately a million times during a singte round of DNA replication. Therefore, efficient processing of Okazaki fragments is vital for DNA replication and cell proliferation. During this process,primase-synthesized RNA/DNA primers are removed, and Okazaki fragments are joined into an intact lagging strand DNA. The processing of RNA/DNA primers requires a group of structure-specific nucleases typified by flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1). Here, we summarize the distinct roles of these nucleases in different pathways for removal of RNA/DNA primers. Recent findings reveal that Okazaki fragment maturation is highly coordinated. The dynamic interactions of polymerase δ, FEN1 and DNA ligase I with proliferating cell nuclear antigen allow these enzymes to act sequentially during Okazaki fragment maturation. Such protein-protein interactions may be regulated by post-translational modifications. We also discuss studies using mutant mouse models that suggest two distinct cancer etiological mechanisms arising from defects in different steps of Okazaki fragment maturation.Mutations that affect the efficiency of RNA primer removal may result in accumulation of unligated nicks and DNA double-strand breaks. These DNA strand breaks can cause varying forms of chromosome aberrations, contributing to development of cancer that associates with aneuploidy and gross chromosomal rearrangement. On the other hand, mutations that impair editing out of polymerase o incorporation errors result in cancer displaying a strong mutator phenotype.

  14. Sardinia between Product Maturity and International Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Renoldi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes the analyses of medium-long term dynamics experienced by the accommodation system of Sardinia in the light of growing maturity signals for regional tourist product. Potentials referring to a progressive diversification of incoming markets have been assessed in the light of domestic and international outgoing flows, as well as of megatrends crossing international tourism market. Results underline an only apparent inconsistency with respect to the positive evolution of macroeconomic variables relating to regional hospitality sector.

  15. Maturity of strategic management in organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Witek-Crabb

    2015-01-01

    There is some ambivalence with regards to how to improve strategic management of organizations. On the one hand the example of big companies emphasizes the need for formalization and good organization of strategic management process. On the other hand the example of small companies draws attention to such qualities as entrepreneurship, flexibility and adaptability. The concept of strategic management maturity embraces both of these priorities. In this paper a framework for strategic managemen...

  16. Configuration Management Maturity in Scientific Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Niknam; Pierre Bonnal; Jivka Ovtcharova

    2013-01-01

    Since the effectiveness of the development and operation of scientific facilities (especially those presenting specific hazards, such as ionizing radiations) relies heavily on state of the art practices, such as systems engineering and product lifecycle management, configuration management (CM) is becoming a key management process. However, while some maturity models exist to assess the degree of the implementation and effectiveness of many management processes, such as project management or ...

  17. RB975952 – Early maturing sugarcane cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa Sampaio Carneiro

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available RB975952 is an early maturing sugarcane cultivar released for the South-Central region of Brazil. It should be harvested between April and May, and it is recommended for planting in environments with medium to high production potential. RB975952 has high resistance levels to the main diseases of the crop, it also has a good shoot development after mechanical harvesting, and high sucrose yields.

  18. Optimal time-consistent government debt maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Debortoli, Davide; Nunes, Ricardo; Yared, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a model of optimal government debt maturity in which the government cannot issue state-contingent bonds and cannot commit to fiscal policy. If the government can perfectly commit, it fully insulates the economy against government spending shocks by purchasing short-term assets and issuing long-term debt. These positions are quantitatively very large relative to GDP and do not need to be actively managed by the government. Our main result is that these conclu...

  19. On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  20. Technology Maturation of Integrated System Health Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feather, Martin S.; Uckun, Serdar; Hicks, Kenneth A.

    2008-01-01

    Despite two decades of significant investments in R&D of Integrated System Health Management (ISHM), mission-critical applications of it in aerospace are few and far between. ISHM is subject to the general difficulty of transitioning technologies out of R&D labs and into practical applications. New and unproven methods such as ISHM introduce multiple mission risks (technology, schedule, cost), and may require a transition to unconventional and as-yet-unproven operations concepts in order to be effective. Laboratory and flight demonstrations are necessary but insufficient to adequately reduce those risks. What is needed is a solid business case before a new technology can be considered for fleetwide deployment. To address these problems, we recently applied a technology maturation assessment process developed at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory to study the challenges of ISHM technology maturation. This application resulted in identification of the technologies (and technology maturation activities) that would result in the greatest risk reduction per investment dollar. Our approach and its results are described herein.

  1. The AGU Data Management Maturity Model Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    In September 2014, the AGU Board of Directors approved two initiatives to help the Earth and space sciences community address the growing challenges accompanying the increasing size and complexity of data. These initiatives are: 1) Data Science Credentialing: development of a continuing education and professional certification program to help scientists in their careers and to meet growing responsibilities and requirements around data science; and 2) Data Management Maturity (DMM) Model: development and implementation of a data management maturity model to assess process maturity against best practices, and to identify opportunities in organizational data management processes. Each of these has been organized within AGU as an Editorial Board and both Boards have held kick off meetings. The DMM model Editorial Board will recommend strategies for adapting and deploying a DMM model to the Earth and space sciences create guidance documents to assist in its implementation, and provide input on a pilot appraisal process. This presentation will provide an overview of progress to date in the DMM model Editorial Board and plans for work to be done over the upcoming year.

  2. Towards an energy management maturity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy management is becoming a priority as organizations strive to reduce energy costs, conform to regulatory requirements, and improve their corporate image. Despite the upsurge of interest in energy management standards, a gap persists between energy management literature and current implementation practices. This gap can be traced to the lack of an incremental improvement roadmap. In this paper we propose an Energy Management Maturity Model that can be used to guide organizations in their energy management implementation efforts to incrementally achieve compliance with energy management standards such as ISO 50001. The proposed maturity model is inspired on the Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle approach for continual improvement, and covers well-understood fundamental energy management activities common across energy management texts. The completeness of our proposal is then evaluated by establishing an ontology mapping against ISO 50001. - Highlights: • Real-world energy management activities are not aligned with the literature. • An Energy Management Maturity Model is proposed to overcome this alignment gap. • The completeness and relevance of proposed model are validated

  3. The IL-2/IL-2-Receptor Complex in the Maturation of Rat T-Cell Progenitors

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Varas; Teresa Romo; Eva Jiménez; Luis Alonso; Angeles Vicente; Agustín G. Zapata

    1998-01-01

    On the basis of both the interleukin-2-receptor (IL-2R) α-chain expression on 16-day-old fetal rat thymocytes and the occurrence of interleukin-2 (IL-2) mRNA-containing cells early during rat thymus ontogeny, we have investigated the possible role of IL-2/IL-2R complex in rat T-cell maturation. For this purpose, we analyzed the effects of the addition of either recombinant rat IL- 2 or anti-CD25 (OX-39)-blocking monoclonal antibodies to fetal thymus organ cultures (FTOC), established from 16-...

  4. The extravascular compartment of the bone marrow: a niche for Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte maturation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farfour Eric

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum immature gametocytes accumulate in the bone marrow, but their exact location in this tissue remains unclear. Methods The stage and deposition pattern of gametocytes was analysed on histological sections of a bone marrow sample collected in a patient with subacute P. falciparum malaria. Results A majority (89% of immature stages II to IV gametocytes and a minority (29% of mature stage V gametocytes were observed in extravascular spaces. Discussion and conclusion These observations represent a valuable step towards understanding sequestration patterns of P. falciparum gametocytes and may ultimately lead to novel transmission-blocking interventions.

  5. Nutritional and antioxidant profiles of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo Linn.) immature and mature fruits as influenced by NPK fertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oloyede, F M; Agbaje, G O; Obuotor, E M; Obisesan, I O

    2012-11-15

    This study evaluated the influence of NPK fertilizer on protein, fibre, ash, fat, carbohydrate, antioxidant activities and antioxidant phenolic compounds in immature and mature fruits of pumpkin. The treatment consisted of six NPK levels (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 kg/ha), and was replicated six times in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Proximate analysis and antioxidant assays were done using standard analytical methods. At control and lower NPK rates, the proximate compositions and antioxidant profile of pumpkin fruits decreased with increasing NPK fertilizer. Between the control and the highest fertilizer rate, proximate compositions decreased by 7-62% while the antioxidant profile decreased by 13-79% for both immature and mature fruits. Across all the measured parameters, mature fruit had higher proximate contents and higher antioxidant concentrations. For the high health value of pumpkin fruits to be maintained, little or no NPK fertilizer should be applied. PMID:22868114

  6. New insights on the maturity distribution and shale gas potential of the Lower Saxony Basin, NW-Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, B.; Littke, R. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Energy and Mineral Resources Group (EMR); Di Primio, R. [Deutsches GeoForchungsZentrum (GFZ), Potsdam (Germany). Sektion 4.3 - Organische Geochemie; Berner, U. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe (BGR), Hannover (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Due to its economic relevance the Lower Saxony Basin has been intensively investigated. Consequently it can be regarded as a well-known example of a sedimentary basin that experienced strong inversion. Oil and gas source rocks of economical importance comprise Upper Carboniferous coals as well as Jurassic (Toarcian/Posidonia Shale) and Cretaceous (Berriasian/Wealden) marls. Many basin modeling projects have addressed this area but until now the tectonic and maturation history as well as the petroleum system evolution has not been evaluated in a high-resolution 3D model. Therefore, a fully integrated 3D high-resolution numerical petroleum system model was developed incorporating the Lower Saxony Basin and major parts of the Pompeckj Block, and Muensterland Basin. The burial and maturation history has been reconstructed calibrated by large amounts of vitrinite reflectance and downhole temperature data enabling the output of erosion and maturity distribution maps of superior quality. (orig.)

  7. Cryptanalysis of Selected Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.

    , pseudorandom number generators, and authenticated encryption designs. For this reason a multitude of initiatives over the years has been established to provide a secure and sound designs for block ciphers as in the calls for Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), lightweight...... ciphers initiatives, and the Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness (CAESAR). In this thesis, we first present cryptanalytic results on different ciphers. We propose attack named the Invariant Subspace Attack. It is utilized to break the full block cipher...... as truncated differentials. In addition to that, we also investigate the security of SIMON against different linear cryptanalysis methods, i.e., classic linear,and linear hull attacks. we present a connection between linear characteristic and differential characteristic, multiple linear and differential...

  8. Toy Blocks and Rotational Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Varieschi, G U; Varieschi, Gabriele U.; Jully, Isabel R.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the theory of the "falling chimney," which deals with the breaking of tall structures in mid-air, when they fall to the ground. We describe how to reproduce these effects using small-scale models built with toy blocks. We also present an improved and more effective way to perform and analyze these interesting experiments, by using video capture software together with a digital video camera.

  9. Compact planar microwave blocking filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-Yen, Kongpop (Inventor); Wollack, Edward J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A compact planar microwave blocking filter includes a dielectric substrate and a plurality of filter unit elements disposed on the substrate. The filter unit elements are interconnected in a symmetrical series cascade with filter unit elements being organized in the series based on physical size. In the filter, a first filter unit element of the plurality of filter unit elements includes a low impedance open-ended line configured to reduce the shunt capacitance of the filter.

  10. Endosome-mediated endocytic mechanism replenishes the majority of synaptic vesicles at mature CNS synapses in an activity-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohyun; Cho, Oh Yeon; Kim, Jung Ah; Chang, Sunghoe

    2016-01-01

    Whether synaptic vesicles (SVs) are recovered via endosome-mediated pathways is a matter of debate; however, recent evidence suggests that clathrin-independent bulk endocytosis (CIE) via endosomes is functional and preferentially replenishes SV pools during strong stimulation. Here, using brefeldin-A (BFA) to block CIE, we found that CIE retrieved a minority of SVs at developing CNS synapses during strong stimulation, but its contribution increased up to 61% at mature CNS synapses. Contrary to previous views, BFA not only blocked SV formation from the endosome but also blocked the endosome formation at the plasma membrane. Adaptor protein 1 and 3 (AP-1/3) have key roles in SV reformation from endosomes during CIE, and AP-1 also affects bulk endosome formation from the plasma membrane. Finally, temporary blocking of chronic or acute neuronal activity with tetrodotoxin in mature neurons redirected most SV retrieval to endosome-independent pathways. These results show that during high neuronal activity, CIE becomes the major endocytic pathway at mature CNS synapses. Moreover, mature neurons use clathrin-mediated endocytosis and the CIE pathway to different extents depending on their previous activity; this may result in activity-dependent alterations of the SV composition which ultimately influence transmitter release and contribute to synaptic plasticity. PMID:27534442

  11. A conformal block Farey tail

    CERN Document Server

    Maloney, Alexander; Ng, Gim Seng

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the constraints of crossing symmetry on CFT correlation functions. Four point conformal blocks are naturally viewed as functions on the upper-half plane, on which crossing symmetry acts by PSL(2,Z) modular transformations. This allows us to construct a unique, crossing symmetric function out of a given conformal block by averaging over PSL(2,Z). In some two dimensional CFTs the correlation functions are precisely equal to the modular average of the contributions of a finite number of light states. For example, in the two dimensional Ising and tri-critical Ising model CFTs, the correlation functions of identical operators are equal to the PSL(2,Z) average of the Virasoro vacuum block; this determines the 3 point function coefficients uniquely in terms of the central charge. The sum over PSL(2,Z) in CFT2 has a natural AdS3 interpretation as a sum over semi-classical saddle points, which describe particles propagating along rational tangles in the bulk. We demonstrate this explicitly for the corre...

  12. Morphology of preovulatory bovine follicles as related to oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Loos, F A; Bevers, M M; Dieleman, S J; Kruip, T A

    1991-03-01

    Thirty-three preovulatory bovine oocytes and their follicles were collected during the period of final maturation in normally cyclic cows. Cell density of the membrana granulosa, mitotic index of the membrana granulosa, and the occurrence of eosinophilic granulocytes around the basal membrane as well as the maturational stage of the oocyte were determined. Cell density decreased during the period of final maturation. Mitotic indices also decreased after an initial high level in the first hours of the final maturation. Eosinophilic granulocytes were only seen during the last hours of final maturation. The maturational stages of the oocytes were related to distinct maturational stages of the follicular wall as determined by morphological characteristics. We propose a scoring system for the maturity of the follicular wall based on cell density, presence of mitotic figures and the presence of eosinophilic granulocytes outside the vascular compartment. PMID:16726922

  13. PKCδ and θ possibly mediate FSH-induced mouse oocyte maturation via NOX-ROS-TACE cascade signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Chen

    Full Text Available In mammals, gonadotropins stimulate oocyte maturation via the epidermal growth factor (EGF network, and the protein kinase C (PKC signaling pathway mediates this process. Tumor necrosis factor-α converting enzyme (TACE is an important protein responding to PKC activation. However, the detailed signaling cascade between PKC and TACE in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH-induced oocyte maturation in vitro remains unclear. In this study, we found that rottlerin (mallotoxin, MTX, the inhibitor of PKC δ and θ, blocked FSH-induced maturation of mouse cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs in vitro. We further clarified the relationship between two molecules downstream of PKC δ and θ and TACE in COCs: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase (NOX and its products, reactive oxygen species (ROS. We proved that the respective inhibitors of NOX, ROS and TACE could block FSH-stimulated oocyte maturation dose-dependently, but these inhibitory effects could be reversed partially by amphiregulin (Areg, an EGF family member. Notably, inhibition of PKC δ and θ prevented FSH-induced translocation of two cytosolic components of NOX, p47phox and p67phox, to the plasma membrane in cumulus cells. Moreover, FSH-induced TACE activity in cumulus cells was decreased markedly by inhibition of NOX and ROS. In conclusion, PKC δ and θ possibly mediate FSH-induced meiotic resumption in mouse COCs via NOX-ROS-TACE signaling pathway.

  14. Some new construction methods of variance balanced block designs with repeated blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Ceranka, Bronisław; Graczyk, Małgorzata

    2014-01-01

    Some new construction methods of the variance balanced block designs with repeated blocks are given. They are based on the specialized product of incidence matrices of the balanced incomplete block designs.

  15. A requirement for fatty acid oxidation in the hormone-induced meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsangkar, Deepa; Downs, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    We have previously shown that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is required for AMP-activated protein kinase (PRKA)-induced maturation in vitro. In the present study, we have further investigated the role of this metabolic pathway in hormone-induced meiotic maturation. Incorporating an assay with (3)H-palmitic acid as the substrate, we first examined the effect of PRKA activators on FAO levels. There was a significant stimulation of FAO in cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes (CEO) treated with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide (AICAR) and RSVA405. In denuded oocytes (DO), AICAR stimulated FAO only in the presence of carnitine, the molecule that facilitates fatty acyl CoA entry into the mitochondria. The carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 activator C75 successfully stimulated FAO in CEO. All three of these activators trigger germinal vesicle breakdown. Meiotic resumption induced by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or amphiregulin was completely inhibited by the FAO inhibitors etomoxir, mercaptoacetate, and malonyl CoA. Importantly, FAO was increased in CEO stimulated by FSH and epidermal growth factor, and this increase was blocked by FAO inhibitors. Moreover, compound C, a PRKA inhibitor, prevented the FSH-induced increase in FAO. Both carnitine and palmitic acid augmented hormonal induction of maturation. In a more physiological setting, etomoxir eliminated human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced maturation in follicle-enclosed oocytes. In addition, CEO and DO from hCG-treated mice displayed an etomoxir-sensitive increase in FAO, indicating that this pathway was stimulated during in vivo meiotic resumption. Taken together, our data indicate that hormone-induced maturation in mice requires a PRKA-dependent increase in FAO. PMID:23863407

  16. Grain yield of coffee conilon different maturity groups by REML / BLUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Machado de Oliveira Moulin Carias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate genetic parameters and evaluate the grain yield clones coffee Conilon three maturity groups by REML / BLUP. We studied 20 clones of coffee Conilon early ripening, maturation 20 intermediate and 20 late maturing for the characteristic grain yield. For each group, represented by different times of ripening of fruits installed an experiment was conducted in a randomized block design with four replications, plots with five plants spaced 3.0 m X 1.2 m with 2777 plantas/ha-1e evaluations were made in the years 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009, during harvest, conducted and ceded by the Institute Capixaba Research, Technical Assistance and Rural Extension (Incaper. The average heritability (0.28, 0.38 and the value of accuracy (0.68, 0.69 of clone selection were higher for the group of early and intermediate maturity, respectively. In the late group, the experimental accuracy was not satisfactory and therefore, a low accuracy in inference about the mean genotypic, reflecting the difficulty of selection. Clones 14 and 17 of the early group and 20, 14 and 17 of the intermediate group occupied the first places in the middle of the feature and productivity were also allocated in the same positions for MHVG (Genetic Stability of Values, PRVG (Adaptability of Genetic Values and MHPRVG (Stability and Adaptability of Genetic Values, indicating a high yield, stability and adaptability to variations in four crops for these genotypes. The interaction clones x crops was significant for the three maturity groups, characterizing a complex type of interaction, which is problematic for the breeder due to inconsistency of the superiority of clones against variations of crops. The combined results showed superiority of the group over the intermediate early and late.

  17. A Bootstrap Approach of Benchmarking Organizational Maturity Model of Software Product With Educational Maturity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Manjula

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This Software product line engineering is an inter-disciplinary concept. It spans the dimensions of business, architecture, process, and the organization. Similarly, Education System engineering is also an inter-disciplinary concept, which spans the dimensions of academic, infrastructure, facilities, administration etc. Some of the potential benefits of this approach include continuous improvements in System quality and adhering to global standards. The increasing competency in IT and Educational Sectors necessitates a process maturity evaluation methodology. Accordingly, this paper presents an organizational maturity model for Education system for evaluating the maturity of multi- dimension factors and attributes of an Education System. Assessment questionnaires and a rating methodology comprise the framework of this Educational maturity model. The objective and design of the questionnaires are to collect information about the Education system engineering process from the multi perspectives of academic, infrastructure, administration, facilities etc. Furthermore, we conducted one case study and reported the assessment results using the organizational maturity model presented in this paper.

  18. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  19. Induction and inhibition of oocyte maturation by EDCs in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokumoto Mika

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oocyte maturation in lower vertebrates is triggered by maturation-inducing hormone (MIH, which acts on unidentified receptors on the oocyte surface and induces the activation of maturation-promoting factor (MPF in the oocyte cytoplasm. We previously described the induction of oocyte maturation in fish by an endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC, diethylstilbestrol (DES, a nonsteroidal estrogen. Methods In this study, stimulatory and inhibitory effects of EDCs and natural steroids on oocyte maturation were examined in zebrafish. For effective agents, some details about the mechanism in induction or inhibition of maturation were examined. Possible groups of DES interacting with the MIH receptor are discussed based on relative potency of steroids to induce maturation. Results Among agents tested, tamoxifen (TAM and its metabolite 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT showed stimulatory activity similar to DES. The time courses of the change in germinal vesicle breakdown and an intracellular molecular event (the synthesis of cyclin B induced by TAM were indistinguishable from those induced by MIH. In contrast, pentachlorophenol (PCP had a potent inhibitory effect on MIH-induced oocyte maturation. PCP inhibited not only MIH-induced maturation but also DES- and TAM-induced maturation. Methoxychlor also inhibited maturation when oocytes were pre-treated with this agent. Conclusion These results suggest that EDCs act as agonists or antagonists in the induction of oocyte maturation in fish.

  20. MD3M: The Master Data Management Maturity Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruit, Marco; Pietzka, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to assess the master data maturity of an organization. It is based on thorough literature study to derive the main concepts and best practices in master data maturity assessment. A maturity matrix relating 13 focus areas and 65 capabilities was designed and validated. Furthermore,

  1. On maturation in the eggs of Limnaea stagnalis L

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raven, Chr.P.

    1949-01-01

    1. The maturation divisions of the egg of Limnaea stagnalis L. have been studied. 2. The haploid number of chromosomes is 18. 3. At the telophase of the first maturation division, the central group of dyads reaches the surface of the inner central body of the first maturation amphiaster. 4. This cen

  2. Rapidly growing mature teratoma in the anterior mediastinum: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Kyung Hwa; Jung, Gyoo Sik; Kim, Sang Heum; Huh, Jin Do; Cho, Young Duk; Chun, Bong Kwon [Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    Mature teratoma is a benign tumor composed of a number of different types of well-differentiated tissues. Mature teratomas of the mediastinum usually grow slowly and are commonly asymptomatic. We report a case of mediastinal mature teratoma with rapid growth resulting in rupture.

  3. Demographic Data - MDC_BlockGroup

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade County Census 2000 Block Groups. A census Block Group is a statistical subdivision of a census Tract consisting of a cluster...

  4. Product Maturation Guide - A Digital Simulation Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boorla, Srinivasa Murthy; Howard, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    . Tolerance analysis tools, those optimizing the individual part tolerances at the time of design can generate a product maturation guide that eliminates many problem solving procedures and saves time on root cause analysis. Assume a first product built on a new assembly line was found to need improvements...... range, it has to consider one fixed value measured from initial parts. By adding information about process characteristics, like speed, cost, etc. to all the dimensions, the system can directly guide the manufacturing team, on which parameter to modify, which direction and how much. At the same time...

  5. Obesity and secondary sexual maturity in boys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modella Rahmani Femina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Obesity induces earlier secondary sexual maturity in girls. However, results of studies in boys have been inconclusive. Objective To assess for an association between obesity and sexual maturity in boys. Methods This was a prospective cohort study on 133 obese and 133 matched-for-age, non-obese, prepubertal boys, aged 9 to 10 years. They were observed every 4 months for a two year period. Obesity was defined as the BMI ≥the 95th percentile, according to the Centers for Disease Control 2000 growth charts. Secondary sexual maturity was defined as testicular volume of ≥4 mL and Tanner staging of pubic hair of ≥P2. Two trained nurses and a pediatric resident collected the data. Results By the end of the study period, 106 (79.7% obese boys had attained a testicular volume of 4 mL or more, vs. 85 (63.9% non-obese boys (RR 1.78; 95%CI 1.19 to 2.67; P=0.004. Furthermore, 81 (60.9% obese boys attained pubic hair states of Tanner stage P2 vs. 37 (27.8% non-obese boys (RR 1.85 95%CI 1.46 to 2.34; P<0.001. The mean durations for achieving testicular volume of ≥4 mL were 21.25 (95%CI 20.75 to 21.74 months in obese boys and 22.26 (95%CI 21.80 to 22.72 months in non-obese boys (P=0.007. The mean durations for achieving Tanner stage P2 were 17.04 (95%CI 16.44 to 17.63 months in obese boys and 20.87 (95%CI 20.05 to 21.68 months in non-obese boys. Conclusion Obesity is associated with earlier onset of sexual maturity in boys. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:283-6.].

  6. Does a Mature AIDS Epidemic Threaten Growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Cuesta, José

    2008-01-01

    This paper models the impact on economic growth of HIV/AIDS when the epidemic is in a mature phase, in contrast with previous studies focused on periods of expansion, as in African countries. Simulations for Honduras, the epicenter of the epidemic in Central America, show that AIDS is not likely to threaten economic growth through either labor or capital accumulation channels; impacts are estimated between 0. 007 and 0. 27 percent points of GDP growth annually for the period 2001-10. Likewise...

  7. Multigrid Methods for General Block Toeplitz Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Huckle; Jochen Staudacher

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we discuss multigrid methods for symmetric positive definite Block Toeplitz matrices. Our Block Toeplitz systems are general in the sense that the individual blocks are not necessarily Toeplitz. We investigate how transfer operators for prolongation and restriction have to be chosen such that our multigrid algorithms converge quickly. We will point out why these transfer operators can be understood as block matrices as well. We explain how our new algorithms can also be combined...

  8. A PACS maturity model: a systematic meta-analytic review on maturation and evolvability of PACS in the hospital enterprise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, R. van de; Batenburg, R.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: With PACS and medical imaging technology maturing, the importance of organizational maturity and effective deployment of PACS in the hospital enterprise are becoming significant. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is twofold. Firstly, PACS literature on maturity and evolvability in

  9. Maturation Rate of Ovine Oocytes from Different Reproductive Status and Maturation Medium

    OpenAIRE

    ARIEF BOEDIONO; YULNAWATI; MOHAMAD AGUS SETIADI

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the number of follicles, oocyte quality and maturation rate of oocytes from pairs of ovary with different reproductive status in two maturation medium, TCM-199 as control and CR1aa as treatment. The pairs of ovary were classified into four groups: (i) ovaries with corpus luteum (CL) and dominant follicle (DF), (ii) ovaries with CL, without DF, (iii) ovaries with DF, without CL, (iv) ovaries without both CL and DF. Results of the experiment reveale...

  10. New Considerations of Turbo Block Codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUEDianwu; EdSHWEDYK

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that (1) a general linear systematic block code can be expressed as a turbo block code and therefore can be decoded using any turbo decoding algorithm; (2) a turbo block code can be also encoded and decoded without any interleaver with the same performance as when an interleaver is present.

  11. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  12. Block Play: Practical Suggestions for Common Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunks, Karyn Wellhousen

    2009-01-01

    Learning materials and teaching methods used in early childhood classrooms have fluctuated greatly over the past century. However, one learning tool has stood the test of time: Wood building blocks, often called unit blocks, continue to be a source of pleasure and learning for young children at play. Wood blocks have the unique capacity to engage…

  13. Roles of trifluoperazine and verapamil in the oocyte maturation and cumulus expansion of bovine cumulus—oocyte complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SunQingyuan; FengHuailiang; 等

    1994-01-01

    Bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes were cultured in the maturation medium containing 4 different concentrations of verapamil and trifluoperazine to testify the necessity of extracellular Ca2+ and Ca2+-calmodulin complex for the resumption and completion of meiosis as well as cumulus expansion.Ultrastructure of the treated oocytes was also observed to investigate the cytoplasm maturation.The results showed that verapamil didn't influence the cumulus expansion,meiosis resumption and completion and cytoplasm maturation significantly.TFP inhibited cumulus expansion in a dose-dependent manner.25um trifluoperazine significantly inhibited the GVBD and maturation (P<0.01),wherease 1um TFP had no effect,Both oocytes and cumulus cells treated with 25um TFP severely degenerated.Our observtions suggest that the resumption and completion of meiosis and cumulus expansion are Ca2+-CaM dependent and blocking membrane Ca2+ channel does not influence oocyte germinal vesicle breakdown,nuclear and cytoplasm maturation significantly in cattle.

  14. Validation of the Psychological Work Maturity Scale in Chinese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Psychological work maturity is an important concept in situational leadership theory. The present research revised the Psychological Work Maturity Scale for use in Chinese organizations. Three samples of full-time employees (Ns = 205, 266, and 283) from different companies and industries participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a single-factor structure fit the data. The scale had acceptable reliabilities, convergent and criterion-related validities, and was shown to be an appropriate measure of psychological work maturity in Chinese employees. Maturity differences in several demographic variables were not found, but employees with longer tenure in Sample 2 scored higher on maturity, which shows that psychological work maturity may be dependent on personal development in the interaction with the varying situational factors, especially in the work domain. Implications for research and practice on psychological work maturity in China are discussed.

  15. Validation of the Psychological Work Maturity Scale in Chinese employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jiajin; Wang, Lei

    2010-12-01

    Psychological work maturity is an important concept in situational leadership theory. The present research revised the Psychological Work Maturity Scale for use in Chinese organizations. Three samples of full-time employees (Ns = 205, 266, and 283) from different companies and industries participated in the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a single-factor structure fit the data. The scale had acceptable reliabilities, convergent and criterion-related validities, and was shown to be an appropriate measure of psychological work maturity in Chinese employees. Maturity differences in several demographic variables were not found, but employees with longer tenure in Sample 2 scored higher on maturity, which shows that psychological work maturity may be dependent on personal development in the interaction with the varying situational factors, especially in the work domain. Implications for research and practice on psychological work maturity in China are discussed. PMID:21323139

  16. Low skilled, mature workers and lifelong learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil

    There is some evidence that mature industrial workers have specific profiles, views and values, when it comes to learning and participation in educational processes and programs. It seems as if the kind of education they are motivated for should be: mimetic, minimalistic and instrumental. This is......There is some evidence that mature industrial workers have specific profiles, views and values, when it comes to learning and participation in educational processes and programs. It seems as if the kind of education they are motivated for should be: mimetic, minimalistic and instrumental....... (in school – not in practical work!). In a Danish context you will also very often see dyslexia and various forms of functional illiteracy etc. The group’s attitude towards lifelong learning is also influenced by a socio-cultural heritage: they are typically trained (brought up, socialized) through...... generations to develop a ’reactive’ attitude (‘the most important competence is to learn to do what you are told’). In contrast to this ‘post-industrialism’ requires a ’pro-active’ attitude (‘everybody should develop will and capacity to tell (oneself and others) what to do’). How to deal...

  17. New alignment marks for improved measurement maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidenmueller, U.; Alves, H.; Schnabel, B.; Icard, B.; Pain, L.; Le Denmat, J.-C.; Manakli, S.; Pradelles, J.

    2008-04-01

    With shrinking dimensions in the semiconductor industry the lithographic demands are exceeding the parameters of the standard optical lithography. Electron beam direct write (EBDW) presents a good solution to overcome these limits and to successfully use this technology in R&D as well as in prototyping and some niche applications. For the industrial application of EBDW an alignment strategy adapted to the industrial standards is required to be compatible with optical lithography. In this context the crucial factor is the overlay performance, i.e. the maturity of the alignment strategy under different process conditions. New alignment marks improve the alignment repeatability and increase the window of the signal-to-noise ratio towards smaller or noisier signals. Particularly the latter has proved to be a major contribution to a higher maturity of the alignment. A comparison between the double cross and the new Barker mark type is presented in this paper. Furthermore, the mark reading repeatability and the final overlay results achieved are discussed.

  18. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  19. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  20. Ganglion block. When and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing understanding of the anatomy and physiology of neural structures has led to the development of surgical and percutaneous neurodestructive methods in order to target and destroy various components of afferent nociceptive pathways. The dorsal root ganglia and in particular the ganglia of the autonomous nervous system are targets for radiological interventions. The autonomous nervous system is responsible for the regulation of organ functions, sweating, visceral and blood vessel-associated pain. Ganglia of the sympathetic chain and non-myelinized autonomous nerves can be irreversibly destroyed by chemical and thermal ablation. Computed tomography (CT)-guided sympathetic nerve blocks are well established interventional radiological procedures which lead to vasodilatation, reduction of sweating and reduction of pain associated with the autonomous nervous system. Sympathetic blocks are applied for the treatment of various vascular diseases including critical limb ischemia. Other indications for thoracic and lumbar sympathectomy include complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), chronic tumor associated pain and hyperhidrosis. Neurolysis of the celiac plexus is an effective palliative pain treatment particularly in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Percutaneous dorsal root ganglion rhizotomy can be performed in selected patients with radicular pain that is resistant to conventional pharmacological and interventional treatment. (orig.)

  1. Seismicity of the Jalisco Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz, M.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Trejo-Gomez, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2002-12-01

    In April 2002 began to transmit the stations of the first phase of Jalisco Telemetric Network located at the northwest of Jalisco Block and at the area of Volcan de Fuego (Colima Volcano), in June were deployed four additional MarsLite portable stations in the Bahia de Banderas area, and by the end of August one more portable station at Ceboruco Volcano. The data of these stations jointly with the data from RESCO (Colima Telemetric Network) give us the minimum seismic stations coverage to initiate in a systematic and permanent way the study of the seismicity in this very complex tectonic region. A preliminary analysis of seismicity based on the events registered by the networks using a shutter algorithm, confirms several important features proposed by microseismicity studies carried out between 1996 and 1998. A high level of seismicity inside and below of Rivera plate is observed, this fact suggest a very complex stress pattern acting on this plate. Shallow seismicity at south and east of Bahia de Banderas also suggest a complex stress pattern in this region of the Jalisco Block, events at more than 30 km depth are located under the mouth of the bay and in face of it, a feature denominated Banderas Boundary mark the change of the seismic regime at north of this latitude (20.75°N), however some shallow events were located at the region of Nayarit.

  2. A genome-wide RNAi screen to dissect centriole duplication and centrosome maturation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Dobbelaere

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Centrosomes comprise a pair of centrioles surrounded by an amorphous pericentriolar material (PCM. Here, we have performed a microscopy-based genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi screen in Drosophila cells to identify proteins required for centriole duplication and mitotic PCM recruitment. We analysed 92% of the Drosophila genome (13,059 genes and identified 32 genes involved in centrosome function. An extensive series of secondary screens classified these genes into four categories: (1 nine are required for centriole duplication, (2 11 are required for centrosome maturation, (3 nine are required for both functions, and (4 three genes regulate centrosome separation. These 32 hits include several new centrosomal components, some of which have human homologs. In addition, we find that the individual depletion of only two proteins, Polo and Centrosomin (Cnn can completely block centrosome maturation. Cnn is phosphorylated during mitosis in a Polo-dependent manner, suggesting that the Polo-dependent phosphorylation of Cnn initiates centrosome maturation in flies.

  3. Septins promote macropinosome maturation and traffic to the lysosome by facilitating membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolat, Lee; Spiliotis, Elias T

    2016-08-29

    Macropinocytosis, the internalization of extracellular fluid and material by plasma membrane ruffles, is critical for antigen presentation, cell metabolism, and signaling. Macropinosomes mature through homotypic and heterotypic fusion with endosomes and ultimately merge with lysosomes. The molecular underpinnings of this clathrin-independent endocytic pathway are largely unknown. Here, we show that the filamentous septin GTPases associate preferentially with maturing macropinosomes in a phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate-dependent manner and localize to their contact/fusion sites with macropinosomes/endosomes. Septin knockdown results in large clusters of docked macropinosomes, which persist longer and exhibit fewer fusion events. Septin depletion and overexpression down-regulates and enhances, respectively, the delivery of fluid-phase cargo to lysosomes, without affecting Rab5 and Rab7 recruitment to macropinosomes/endosomes. In vitro reconstitution assays show that fusion of macropinosomes/endosomes is abrogated by septin immunodepletion and function-blocking antibodies and is induced by recombinant septins in the absence of cytosol and polymerized actin. Thus, septins regulate fluid-phase cargo traffic to lysosomes by promoting macropinosome maturation and fusion with endosomes/lysosomes. PMID:27551056

  4. Maturation Rate of Ovine Oocytes from Different Reproductive Status and Maturation Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARIEF BOEDIONO

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the number of follicles, oocyte quality and maturation rate of oocytes from pairs of ovary with different reproductive status in two maturation medium, TCM-199 as control and CR1aa as treatment. The pairs of ovary were classified into four groups: (i ovaries with corpus luteum (CL and dominant follicle (DF, (ii ovaries with CL, without DF, (iii ovaries with DF, without CL, (iv ovaries without both CL and DF. Results of the experiment revealed that the greatest number of follicles was observed from ovary with CL without DF (15.88 + 10.68, although not significantly different (P > 0.05 with other status of ovaries. The lowest number (P < 0.05 of A grade oocytes was found from ovary with DF without CL (1.20 + 1.10. The percentage of Metaphase II was highest in TCM-199 (75.51% with oocytes from ovaries with CL and DF, and the lowest with oocytes from ovaries with DF without CL in TCM-199 and CR1aa (42.86 and 30.95%. The study suggested that the number of oocytes with A grade were influenced by the reproductive status of ovaries. The maturation rate of A grade oocytes was influenced by the quality of oocytes and the composition of maturation medium.

  5. Low-mature gases and typical low-mature gas fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU YongChang; WANG ZhiYong; WANG XiaoFeng; ZHENG JianJing; DU HongYu

    2008-01-01

    No natural gas pool of industrial importance could be formed at the low-evolution stage of organic matter. In the 1980s, on the basis of the development in exploration practice, the hypotheses of bio-thermo-catalytic transitional zone gases and early thermogenic gases were proposed. The lower-limit Ro values for the formation and accumulation of natural gases of industrial importance have been expanded to 0.3%-0.4%. In the light of the two-stage model established on the basis of carbon isotope fractionation in coal-type natural gases, the upper-limit Ro values have been set at 0.8%-1.0%.In terms of the geological practice in the low-mature gas zones and China's main coal-type gas fields, it is feasible and proper to set the upper-limit Ro value of low-mature gases at 0.8%. Supper-large gas fields such as the Urengoy gas field in western Siberian Basin should belong to low-mature gas fields,of which the natural gas reserves account for more than 20% of the global proven reserves, providing strong evidence for the significance of such a type of resources. The proven natural gas reserves in the Turpan-Hami Basin of China have almost reached 1000 X 108 m3. The main source rocks in this area are the Jurassic Xishanyao Formation, which occurs as a suite of coal series strata. The corresponding designated to coal-type low-mature gases. The light hydrocarbon evolution indices of natural gases also fall within the area of low evolution while the precursor type of light hydrocarbons also shows the characteristics of the coal-type. The geological background, carbon isotopic composition and light hydrocarbon index all provide strong evidence suggesting that the proven natural gases in the Turpan-Hami Basin are low-mature gases. In China a gas field with the gas reserves reaching 300 X108 m3 can be defined as a large gas field, and thus the proven low-mature gases in the Turpan-Hami Basin are equivalent to the reserves of three large gas fields. Its existence is of great

  6. The importance of social dimension and maturation stage for the probabilistic maturation reaction norm in Poecilia reticulata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Pauli, B; Pauli, B D; Heino, M

    2013-10-01

    Maturation is an important event in an organism's life history, with important implications on dynamics of both wild and captive populations. The probabilistic maturation reaction norm (PMRN) has emerged as an important method to describe variation in maturation in wild fish. Because most PMRNs are based on age and size only, it is important to understand limitations of these variables in explaining maturation. We experimentally assessed (i) the sensitivity of age- and size-based PMRNs to unaccounted sources of plasticity, (ii) the role of social environment on maturation and (iii) the significance of estimating PMRNs early and late in the maturation process (initiation and completion of maturation, respectively). We reared male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) under laboratory conditions, subjected to two food levels and three different social cues. We found that growth and social environment affected the maturation in a way that could not be accounted for by their effect on age and size. PMRNs estimated for the initiation stage were less plastic (growth differences and social cues influenced the PMRN shape only little) than those for completion. The initiation of maturation is probably closer to the maturation 'decision' and allows determining factors influencing maturation decision most accurately.

  7. Identification of maturation and protein synthesis related proteins from porcine oocytes during in vitro maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Kang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro maturation (IVM of mammalian oocytes is divided into the GV (germinal vesicle stage, MI (metaphase I stage and MII (metaphase II stage stages, and only fully mature oocytes have acquired the ability to be fertilized and initiate zygotic development. These observations have been mostly based on morphological evaluations, but the molecular events governing these processes are not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to better understand the processes involved in the molecular regulation of IVM using 2-DE analysis followed by mass spectrometry to identify proteins that are differentially expressed during oocyte IVM. Result A total of 16 up-regulated and 12 down-regulated proteins were identified. To investigate the IVM process, we specifically focused on the proteins that were up-regulated during the MII stage when compared with the GV stage, which included PRDX 2, GST, SPSY, myomegalin, PED4D, PRKAB 1, and DTNA. These up-regulated proteins were functionally involved in redox regulation and the cAMP-dependent pathway, which are essential for the intracellular signaling involved in oocyte maturation. Interestingly, the PDE4D and its partner, myomegalin, during the MII stage was consistently confirmed up-regulation by western blot analyses. Conclusion These results could be used to better understand some aspects of the molecular mechanisms underlying porcine oocyte maturation. This study identified some regulatory proteins that may have important roles in the molecular events involved in porcine oocyte maturation, particularly with respect to the regulation of oocyte meiotic resumption, MII arrest and oocyte activation. In addition, this study may have beneficial applications not only to basic science with respect to the improvement of oocyte culture conditions but also to mammalian reproductive biotechnology with potential implications.

  8. General Floorplans with L/T-Shaped Blocks Using Corner Block List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Chun Ma; Xian-Long Hong; She-Qin Dong; C.K.Cheng; Jun Gu

    2006-01-01

    With the recent advent of deep submicron technology and new packing schemes, the components in the integrated circuit are often not rectangular. On the basis of the representation of Corner Block List (CBL), we propose a new method of handling rectilinear blocks. In this paper, the handling of the rectilinear blocks is simplified by transforming the L/T-shaped block problem into the align-abutment constraint problem. We devise the block rejoining process and block alignment operation for forming the L/T-shaped blocks into their original configurations. The shape flexibility of the soft blocks, and the rotation and reflection of L/T-shaped blocks are exploited to obtain a tight packing. The empty rooms are introduced to the process of block rejoining. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the experimental results on a set of some benchmark examples.

  9. Aerial multi-camera systems: Accuracy and block triangulation issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupnik, Ewelina; Nex, Francesco; Toschi, Isabella; Remondino, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Oblique photography has reached its maturity and has now been adopted for several applications. The number and variety of multi-camera oblique platforms available on the market is continuously growing. So far, few attempts have been made to study the influence of the additional cameras on the behaviour of the image block and comprehensive revisions to existing flight patterns are yet to be formulated. This paper looks into the precision and accuracy of 3D points triangulated from diverse multi-camera oblique platforms. Its coverage is divided into simulated and real case studies. Within the simulations, different imaging platform parameters and flight patterns are varied, reflecting both current market offerings and common flight practices. Attention is paid to the aspect of completeness in terms of dense matching algorithms and 3D city modelling - the most promising application of such systems. The experimental part demonstrates the behaviour of two oblique imaging platforms in real-world conditions. A number of Ground Control Point (GCP) configurations are adopted in order to point out the sensitivity of tested imaging networks and arising block deformations. To stress the contribution of slanted views, all scenarios are compared against a scenario in which exclusively nadir images are used for evaluation.

  10. Computing eigenvectors of block tridiagonal matrices based on twisted block factorizations

    OpenAIRE

    König, Gerhard; Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N.

    2012-01-01

    New methods for computing eigenvectors of symmetric block tridiagonal matrices based on twisted block factorizations are explored. The relation of the block where two twisted factorizations meet to an eigenvector of the block tridiagonal matrix is reviewed. Based on this, several new algorithmic strategies for computing the eigenvector efficiently are motivated and designed. The underlying idea is to determine a good starting vector for an inverse iteration process from the twisted block fact...

  11. A comparison between caudal block versus splash block for postoperative analgesia following inguinal herniorrhaphy in children

    OpenAIRE

    Cheon, Jun Kong; Park, Cheon Hee; Hwang, Kan Taeck; Choi, Bo Yoon

    2011-01-01

    Background We wanted to determine the postoperative analgesic efficacy of preincisional caudal epidural block versus instillation (splash block) following inguinal herniorrhaphy in children. Methods Thirty children (age range: 1-7 years) who were scheduled to undergo inguinal herniorrhaphy were divided into 2 groups: the caudal block group and the splash block group with 15 children in each group. Tracheal intubation was performed. Fifteen children received caudal block with 1.0 ml/kg of 0.25...

  12. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola;

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs data from a large-scale survey (InnoS&T) of inventors in Europe, the USA, and Japan who were listed in patent applications filed at the European Patent Office with priority years between 2003 and 2005. We provide evidence regarding the reasons for patenting and the ways in which...... patents are being utilized. A substantial share of patents is neither used internally nor for market transactions, which confirms the importance of strategic patenting and inefficiency in the management of intellectual property. We investigate different types of unused patents—unused blocking patents...... and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  13. Kinking mechanisms in block copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polis, Daniel L.; Winey, Karen I.

    1998-03-01

    Two of the primary models proposed for kink formation are fixed hinge rotation and boundary migration. Our results regarding steady shear induced kink bands in an aligned lamellar poly(styrene-b-ethylene propylene) diblock copolymer are consistent with a fixed hinge rotation mechanism. When the shear strain is above a critical strain, a range of kink widths and kink angles are produced at each shear rate studied. Moreover, the kink widths are independent of rate and strain, having a characteristic size similar to that of remaining defects in the initially aligned block copolymer. Rounded folds, similar in size, shape, and orientation to kink bands, are produced at these residual defects at shear strains below the critical stain. These rounded folds may sharpen into angular folds or kink bands with additional strain.

  14. Low skilled, mature workers and lifelong learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Emil

    decision processes). Finally, stakeholders should realise a balance between the complexity of the challenge and the resources needed. This goes for adult educators, employers, politicians, community organizations, families etc. lear output and result, i.e. for instance a (better) job (situation) •They......There is some evidence that mature industrial workers have specific profiles, views and values, when it comes to learning and participation in educational processes and programs. It seems as if the kind of education they are motivated for should be: mimetic, minimalistic and instrumental....... This is supposed to mean that in its total set up it should resemble the workplace and the workers’ daily lives; it should not interfere too much with family and leisure time; and it should have a clear output and result, i.e. for instance a (better) job (situation). The (potential) learners in question here...

  15. Intracranial hemorrhage of the mature newborn infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concerning four mature newborn infants with intracranial hemorrhage diagnosed by CT, the labour course, treatment, and prognoses were discussed. Of intracranial hemorrhage, 70.7% was small hemorrhage along the cerebellar tentorium and the falx cerebri, 12.2% subdural hemorrhage in the posterior cranial fossa, and 9.8% subdural hemorrhage in the fornex. Intraventricular or extradural hemorrhage was rarely found. The prognosis is determined by severeness of neurotic symptoms due to cerebral hypoxia. Subdural hemorrhage of the posterior cranial fossa resulted in cerebral palsy in one fifth of the cases, and in slight enlargement of the ventricle in three fifths. Subdural hematoma left porencephaly in one fourth of the patients, but the remaining recovered to normal. (Ueda, J.)

  16. Thermal Maturation of Gas Shale Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Sylvain; Horsfield, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Shale gas systems serve as sources, reservoirs, and seals for unconventional natural gas accumulations. These reservoirs bring numerous challenges to geologists and petroleum engineers in reservoir characterization, most notably because of their heterogeneous character due to depositional and diagenetic processes but also because of their constituent rocks' fine-grained nature and small pore size -- much smaller than in conventional sandstone and carbonate reservoirs. Significant advances have recently been achieved in unraveling the gaseous hydrocarbon generation and retention processes that occur within these complex systems. In addition, cutting-edge characterization technologies have allowed precise documentation of the spatial variability in chemistry and structure of thermally mature organic-rich shales at the submicrometer scale, revealing the presence of geochemical heterogeneities within overmature gas shale samples and, notably, the presence of nanoporous pyrobitumen. Such research advances will undoubtedly lead to improved performance, producibility, and modeling of such strategic resources at the reservoir scale.

  17. Maturation curves of sweet sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Silva e Souza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench] stands out as a complementary crop to sugarcane Saccharum spp. for the production of ethanol, since it has juicy stems with directly fermentable sugars. Due to this fact, there is a need for the analysis of sweet sorghum properties in order to meet the agro-industry demand. This work aimed to develop and study the maturation curves of seven sweet sorghum cultivars in ten harvest dates. The results showed a significant difference between cultivars and harvest dates for all parameters analysed (p≤0.01. Regarding the sugar content, the cultivars BRS508, XBWS80147 and CMSX629 showed the highest means for the total reducing sugars (TRS and recoverable sugar (RS. In the production of ethanol per tonne of biomass (EP, the cultivars BRS508 and CMSX629 presented the best results.

  18. Updating the QR decomposition of block tridiagonal and block Hessenberg matrices generated by block Krylov space methods

    OpenAIRE

    Gutknecht, Martin; Schmelzer, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    For MINRES and SYMMLQ it is essential to compute the QR decompositions of tridiagonal coefficient matrices gained in the Lanczos process. Likewise, for GMRES one has to find those of Hessenberg matrices. These QR decompositions are computed by an update scheme where in every step a single Givens rotation is constructed. Generalizing this approach we introduce a block-wise update scheme for the QR decomposition of the block tridiagonal and block Hessenberg matrices that come up in generalizati...

  19. PROJECT MANAGEMENT MATURITY: AN ASSESSMENT OF MATURITY FOR DEVELOPING PILOT PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K. Mittermaier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Despite the current economic climate, the South African mining and engineering industry is experiencing a very promising future, with a large number of capital projects in the offing. It is inevitable that pilot plant development will form part of this future as a risk mitigation technique. This study found that, even though the terms ‘pilot plant’ and ‘project management maturity’ are familiar within the industry, no link between these two could be found in the literature. A number of maturity models exist; and one developed by PMSolutions was selected to perform an assessment of the current level of project management maturity within the South African mining and engineering industry pertaining to the development of pilot plants. The Delphi technique was used to determine the views of experts in the South African mining, mineral processing, petrochemical, nuclear, and mechanical sectors regarding this maturity. A significant difference was observed between the current level of maturity and the required level of maturity in all but one of the nine knowledge areas defined by the Project Management Institute. The two knowledge areas of project time and risk management showed significant differences between current and required maturity levels, and were identified as key areas for improvement.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Ten spyte van die huidige ekonomiese klimaat ondervind die Suid-Afrikaanse mynbou- en ingenieursbedryf ’n baie bemoedigende toekoms, met ’n groot aantal kapitaalprojekte in die vooruitsig. Ten einde risiko’s te verlaag, sal die ontwikkeling van loodsaanlegte noodwendig deel van hierdie toekoms uitmaak. Daar is gevind dat, alhoewel die terme ‘loodsaanleg’ en ‘projekbestuur volwassenheid’ in die nywerheid bekend is, geen skakeling van hierdie twee terme in die literatuur opgespoor kon word nie. ’n Aantal volwassenheid modelle bestaan; en een wat deur PMSolutions ontwikkel is, is gekies om

  20. Strawberry Maturity Neural Network Detectng System Based on Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liming

    The quick and non-detective detection of agriculture product is one of the measures to increase the precision and productivity of harvesting and grading. Having analyzed H frequency of different maturities in different light intensities, the results show that H frequency for the same maturity has little influence in different light intensities; Under the same light intensity, three strawberry maturities are changing in order. After having confirmed the H frequency section to distinguish the different strawberry maturity, the triplelayer feed-forward neural network system to detect strawberry maturity was designed by using genetic algorithm. The test results show that the detecting precision ratio is 91.7%, it takes 160ms to distinguish one strawberry. Therefore, the online non-detective detecting the strawberry maturity could be realized.

  1. Healthcare quality maturity assessment model based on quality drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Nadia; Arafeh, Mazen

    2016-04-18

    Purpose - Healthcare providers differ in their readiness and maturity levels regarding quality and quality management systems applications. The purpose of this paper is to serve as a useful quantitative quality maturity-level assessment tool for healthcare organizations. Design/methodology/approach - The model proposes five quality maturity levels (chaotic, primitive, structured, mature and proficient) based on six quality drivers: top management, people, operations, culture, quality focus and accreditation. Findings - Healthcare managers can apply the model to identify the status quo, quality shortcomings and evaluating ongoing progress. Practical implications - The model has been incorporated in an interactive Excel worksheet that visually displays the quality maturity-level risk meter. The tool has been applied successfully to local hospitals. Originality/value - The proposed six quality driver scales appear to measure healthcare provider maturity levels on a single quality meter. PMID:27120510

  2. EFFECT OF PORTLAND-POZZOLAN CEMENTS ON CONCRETE MATURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arın YILMAZ

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The maturity concept expressed by the combined effect of time and temperature on the concrete is a useful technique for prediction of the strength gain of concrete. According to maturity concept, samples of the same concrete at same maturity whatever combination of temperature and time, have approximately the same strength. Many maturity functions have been proposed for the last 50 years. The validity of these functions are only for ordinary portland cements. In this study, the suitable of traditional maturity functions for different types of Portland-pozzolan cements were investigated and a new maturity-strength relationship was tried to be established. For this purpose, four different pozzolans and one Portland cement was selected. Portland-pozzolan cements were prepared by using three different replacement amounts of % 5, % 20 and 40 % by weight of cement.

  3. Potential targets of transforming growth factor-beta1 during inhibition of oocyte maturation in zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clelland Eric

    2005-09-01

    follicles. On the other hand, TGF-beta1 had no effect on mPR-alpha mRNA expression and increased FSHR mRNA levels. Furthermore, hCG upregulated 20beta-HSD, LHR and mPR-beta mRNA levels, but this stimulatory effect was blocked by TGF-beta1. Conclusion These findings suggest that TGF-beta1 acts at multiple sites, including LHR, 20beta-HSD and mPR-beta, to inhibit zebrafish oocyte maturation.

  4. Formation of personality psychological maturity and adulthood crises

    OpenAIRE

    MANUKYAN VICTORIA R.; GOLOVEY LARISA A.; STRIZHITSKAYA OLGA YU.

    2015-01-01

    Based on theoretical analysis, in the present paper, we defined the structure of the characteristics of personality psychological maturity, which is considered an adult development criterion. The objective of this paper was to identify the mechanisms that contribute to the formation of psychological maturity in adulthood development. We first assumed that one of the possible mechanisms is the normative crisis of development. In turn, previously formed psychological maturity traits can relieve...

  5. Emma’s Growth from Innocence to Maturity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周道凤

    2013-01-01

    Emma is one of the most successful novels by Jane Austen. This thesis analyzed the background of its heroine Emma ’s growth background, her growth from conceit, snobbery, domination to maturity, and the causes of her character transformation. Her psychological growth process from innocence to maturity demonstrates women ’s growth and progress in the early 19th cen-tury, and inspires modern women to gradually improve in personality and better present their charms of maturity.

  6. A JOINT MATURITY MODEL OF BI-DRIVEN SUPPLY CHAINS

    OpenAIRE

    Iris Hausladen; Alexander Haas

    2014-01-01

    Information technology (IT) and performance measurement are of rising value in globally connected supply chains. This results in the increasing implementation of business intelligence (BI) applications to enhance information exploitation as strategic and operational competitive advantages. To estimate the degree of maturity in supply chains as well as for BI solutions, maturity models are used. There exist numerous specific maturity models for supply chains, also in strong interrelationship w...

  7. Role of arachidonic acid cascade in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Maria Eugenia; Arias-Torres, Ana Josefina; Zelarayán, Liliana Isabel

    2015-08-01

    There are no studies that document the production of prostaglandins (PGs) or their role in Rhinella arenarum oocyte maturation. In this study, we analysed the effect of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandins (PGs) on maturation, activation and pronuclear formation in R. arenarum oocytes. Our results demonstrated that AA was capable of inducing maturation in time-dependent and dose-dependent manner. Arachidonic acid-induced maturation was inhibited by indomethacin. PGs from AA hydrolysis, such as prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) and, to a lesser extent, PGE2, induced meiosis resumption. Oocyte maturation in response to PGF2α was similar to that produced by progesterone (P4). Oocyte response to PGE1 was scarce. Rhinella arenarum oocyte PGF2α-induced maturation showed seasonal variation. From February to June, oocytes presented low sensitivity to PGF2α. In following periods, this response increased until a maximum was reached during October to January, a close temporal correlation with oocyte response to P4 being observed. The effect of PGF2α on maturation was verified by analysing the capacity of oocytes to activate and form pronuclei after being injected with homologous sperm. The cytological analysis of activated oocytes demonstrated the absence of cortical granules in oocytes, suggesting that PGF2α induces germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and meiosis resumption up to metaphase II. In turn, oocytes matured by the action of PGF2α were able to form pronuclei after fertilization in a similar way to oocyte maturated by P4. In microinjection of mature cytoplasm experiments, the transformation of pre-maturation promoting factor (pre-MPF) to MPF was observed when oocytes were treated with PGF2α. In summary, our results illustrated the participation of the AA cascade and its metabolites in maturation, activation and pronuclei formation in R. arenarum. PMID:24964276

  8. Prolonged maturation of auditory perception and learning in gerbils

    OpenAIRE

    Sarro, Emma C.; Sanes, Dan H.

    2010-01-01

    In humans, auditory perception reaches maturity over a broad age range, extending through adolescence. Despite this slow maturation, children are considered to be outstanding learners, suggesting that immature perceptual skills might actually be advantageous to improvement on an acoustic task as a result of training (perceptual learning). Previous non-human studies have not employed an identical task when comparing perceptual performance of young and mature subjects, making it difficult to as...

  9. Progesterone influences cytoplasmic maturation in porcine oocytes developing in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bao; Liang, Shuang; Jin, Yong-Xun; Kwon, Jeong-Woo; Zhang, Jia-Bao; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Progesterone (P4), an ovarian steroid hormone, is an important regulator of female reproduction. In this study, we explored the influence of progesterone on porcine oocyte nuclear maturation and cytoplasmic maturation and development in vitro. We found that the presence of P4 during oocyte maturation did not inhibit polar body extrusions but significantly increased glutathione and decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels relative to that in control groups. The incidence of parthenogenetically activated oocytes that could develop to the blastocyst stage was higher (p data show that P4 influences the cytoplasmic maturation of porcine oocytes, at least partially, by decreasing their polyadenylation, thereby altering maternal gene expression. PMID:27672508

  10. Quantitative evaluation of midpalatal suture maturation via fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Yong-Deok

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether the results of fractal analysis can be used as criteria for midpalatal suture maturation evaluation. Methods The study included 131 subjects aged over 18 years of age (range 18.1–53.4 years) who underwent cone-beam computed tomography. Skeletonized images of the midpalatal suture were obtained via image processing software and used to calculate fractal dimensions. Correlations between maturation stage and fractal dimensions were calculated using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Optimal fractal dimension cut-off values were determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Results The distribution of maturation stages of the midpalatal suture according to the cervical vertebrae maturation index was highly variable, and there was a strong negative correlation between maturation stage and fractal dimension (−0.623, p Fractal dimension was a statistically significant indicator of dichotomous results with regard to maturation stage (area under curve = 0.794, p fractal dimension was used to predict the resulting variable that splits maturation stages into ABC and D or E yielded an optimal fractal dimension cut-off value of 1.0235. Conclusions There was a strong negative correlation between fractal dimension and midpalatal suture maturation. Fractal analysis is an objective quantitative method, and therefore we suggest that it may be useful for the evaluation of midpalatal suture maturation. PMID:27668195

  11. Maturity In The Petrochemical Industry Features, Motives And Combating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrochemicals give the highest value from crude oil and natural gas but suffers from maturity like any other business. Petrochemicals companies are promoting their business in the direction from oil and gas commodities. Specialities and life science. Reasons of maturity are expired patents, low demand, over capacity, intense competition. Actions to combat maturity are to restructure capacity achieving mega sizes, do downstream, and restructuring business practices. Strategies followed by some companies to combat maturity include exit, focus on core business and exploit a competitive advantage

  12. Quantitative evaluation of midpalatal suture maturation via fractal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyoung Ho; Kim, Yong-Il; Kim, Yong-Deok

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to determine whether the results of fractal analysis can be used as criteria for midpalatal suture maturation evaluation. Methods The study included 131 subjects aged over 18 years of age (range 18.1–53.4 years) who underwent cone-beam computed tomography. Skeletonized images of the midpalatal suture were obtained via image processing software and used to calculate fractal dimensions. Correlations between maturation stage and fractal dimensions were calculated using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Optimal fractal dimension cut-off values were determined using a receiver operating characteristic curve. Results The distribution of maturation stages of the midpalatal suture according to the cervical vertebrae maturation index was highly variable, and there was a strong negative correlation between maturation stage and fractal dimension (−0.623, p < 0.001). Fractal dimension was a statistically significant indicator of dichotomous results with regard to maturation stage (area under curve = 0.794, p < 0.001). A test in which fractal dimension was used to predict the resulting variable that splits maturation stages into ABC and D or E yielded an optimal fractal dimension cut-off value of 1.0235. Conclusions There was a strong negative correlation between fractal dimension and midpalatal suture maturation. Fractal analysis is an objective quantitative method, and therefore we suggest that it may be useful for the evaluation of midpalatal suture maturation.

  13. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Fengxiao

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential applications as, e.g., membranes for separation and purification, templates for nanostructured materials, sensors, substrates for catalysis, low dielectric constant materials, photonic materials, and...

  14. Block methods for linear Hamiltonian systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Hongjiong; Chen, Bailin

    2014-01-01

    For the numerical treatment of Hamiltonian differential equations,symplectic integrators are regarded as the most suitable choice.In this paper we are concerned with the applicability of block methods for the discrete approximate solution of linear Hamiltonian systems.The k-dimensional block methods are convergent of order at least k+1 for ordinary differential equations.We provide conditions on the coefficients of the equivalent block methods in order to maintain two important properties of...

  15. Advanced heart block in acute rheumatic fever

    OpenAIRE

    Hubail, Zakariya; Ebrahim, Ishaq M.

    2015-01-01

    First degree heart block is considered a minor criterion for the diagnosis of this condition. The cases presented here demonstrate that higher degrees of heart block do occur in rheumatic fever. Children presenting with acquired heart block should be worked-up for rheumatic fever. Likewise, it is imperative to serially follow the electrocardiogram in patients already diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever, as the conduction abnormalities can change during the course of the disease.

  16. MRI quantitative assessment of brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants using total maturation score

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To quantitatively assess brain maturation and prognosis in premature infants on conventional MRI using total maturation score (TMS). Methods: Nineteen cases of sequelae of white matter damage (WMD group )and 21 cases of matched controls (control group) in premature infants confirmed by MRI examinations were included in the study. All cases underwent conventional MR imaging approximately during the perinatal period after birth. Brain development was quantitatively assessed using Childs AM's validated scoring system of TMS by two sophisticated radiology physicians. Interobserver agreement and reliability was evaluated by using intraclass correlation (ICC). Linear regression analysis between TMS and postmenstrual age (PMA) was made(Y: TMS, X: PMA). Independent-sample t test of the two groups' TMS was made. Results: Sixteen of 19 cases revealed MRI abnormalities. Lesions showing T1 and T2 shortening tended to occur in clusters or a linear pattern in the deep white matter of the centrum semiovale, periventricular white matter. Diffusion-weighted MR image (DWI) showed 3 cases with greater lesions and 4 cases with new lesions in corpus callosum. There was no abnormality in control group on MRI and DWI. The average numbers of TMS between the two observers were 7.13±2.27, 7.13±2.21. Interobservcer agreement was found to be high (ICC=0.990, P2=0.6401,0.5156 respectively, P0.05). Conclusion: Conventional MRI is able to quantify the brain maturation and prognosis of premature infants using TMS. (authors)

  17. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund;

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag.......We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  18. Recent developments in paediatric neuraxial blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrushali Chandrashekhar Ponde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric anaesthesia and paediatric regional anaesthesia are intertwined. Almost all surgeries unless contradicted could be and should be supplemented with a regional block. The main objective of this review is to elaborate on the recent advances of the central neuraxial blocks, such as application of ultrasound guidance and electrical stimulation in the pursuit of safety and an objective end point. This review also takes account of the traditional technique and understand the benefits as well the risk of each as compared with the recent technique. The recent trends in choosing the most appropriate peripheral block for a given surgery thereby sparing the central neuroaxis is considered. A penile block for circumcision or a sciatic block for unilateral foot surgery, rather than caudal epidural would have a better risk benefit equation. Readers will find a special mention on the recent thoughts on continuous epidural analgesia in paediatrics, especially its rise and fall, yet its unique importance. Lastly, the issue of block placements under sedation or general anaesthesia with its implication in this special population is dealt with. We conducted searches in MEDLINE (PubMed and assessed the relevance of the abstracts of citations identified from literature searches. The search was carried out in English, for last 10 years, with the following key words: Recent advances in paediatric regional anaesthesia; ultrasound guidance for central neuraxial blocks in children; role of electrical stimulation in neuraxial blocks in children; complications in neuraxial block. Full-text articles of potentially relevant abstracts were retrieved for further review.

  19. A New Relationship between Block Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shramchenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a procedure of constructing new block designs starting from a given one by looking at the intersections of its blocks with various sets and grouping those sets according to the structure of the intersections. We introduce a symmetric relationship of friendship between block designs built on a set V and consider families of block designs where all designs are friends of each other, the so-called friendly families. We show that a friendly family admits a partial ordering. Furthermore, we exhibit a map from the power set of V, partially ordered by inclusion, to a friendly family of a particular type which preserves the partial order.

  20. Physical fitness for the mature woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idiculla, A A; Goldberg, G

    1987-01-01

    postmenopausal phase of life. Every mature woman ought to carefully consider choosing to pursue an appropriate goal: active participation in a specific exercise program under medical supervision. The health care system should be fully responsive to the special needs of the mature woman, and the importance of providing programs of physical activity designed to address these needs should be recognized. For the postmenopausal woman, the advantages of achieving a state of physical fitness are many.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3543540

  1. PACS photometer calibration block analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Moór, A; Kiss, Cs; Balog, Z; Billot, N; Marton, G

    2013-01-01

    The absolute stability of the PACS bolometer response over the entire mission lifetime without applying any corrections is about 0.5% (standard deviation) or about 8% peak-to-peak. This fantastic stability allows us to calibrate all scientific measurements by a fixed and time-independent response file, without using any information from the PACS internal calibration sources. However, the analysis of calibration block observations revealed clear correlations of the internal source signals with the evaporator temperature and a signal drift during the first half hour after the cooler recycling. These effects are small, but can be seen in repeated measurements of standard stars. From our analysis we established corrections for both effects which push the stability of the PACS bolometer response to about 0.2% (stdev) or 2% in the blue, 3% in the green and 5% in the red channel (peak-to-peak). After both corrections we still see a correlation of the signals with PACS FPU temperatures, possibly caused by parasitic h...

  2. Low-mature gases and typical low-mature gas fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    No natural gas pool of industrial importance could be formed at the low-evolution stage of organic matter. In the 1980s, on the basis of the development in exploration practice, the hypotheses of bio-thermo-catalytic transitional zone gases and early thermogenic gases were proposed. The lower-limit Ro values for the formation and accumulation of natural gases of industrial importance have been expanded to 0.3%―0.4%. In the light of the two-stage model established on the basis of carbon isotope fractionation in coal-type natural gases, the upper-limit Ro values have been set at 0.8%―1.0%. In terms of the geological practice in the low-mature gas zones and China’s main coal-type gas fields, it is feasible and proper to set the upper-limit Ro value of low-mature gases at 0.8%. Supper-large gas fields such as the Urengoy gas field in western Siberian Basin should belong to low-mature gas fields, of which the natural gas reserves account for more than 20% of the global proven reserves, providing strong evidence for the significance of such a type of resources. The proven natural gas reserves in the Turpan-Hami Basin of China have almost reached 1000 × 108 m3. The main source rocks in this area are the Jurassic Xishanyao Formation, which occurs as a suite of coal series strata. The corresponding thermal evolution indices (Ro ) are mainly within the range of about 0.4%―0.8%, the δ 13C1 values of methane vary between-44‰ and-39‰ (correspondingly Ro =0.6%―0.8%), and those of ethane are within the range of-29‰―-26‰, indicating that natural gases in the Turpan-Hami Basin should be designated to coal-type low-mature gases. The light hydrocarbon evolution indices of natural gases also fall within the area of low evolution while the precursor type of light hydrocarbons also shows the characteristics of the coal-type. The geological background, carbon isotopic composition and light hydrocarbon index all provide strong evidence suggesting that the proven

  3. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jixiang; Wang, Yingnan; Qi, Mingming; Li, Xiaoyu; Yang, Chunxue; Wang, Yongcui; Mu, Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT) and accelerated ageing test (AAT). Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest. PMID:27170257

  4. Reticulocyte maturity indices in iron deficiency anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Wollmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the reticulocyte maturity indices (low, medium, and high fluorescence ratios in iron deficient 1- to 6-year-old children, and identify the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia in this population. Methods: The present study included 39 subjects, divided into two groups: control subjects (n = 33, and subjects with iron deficiency anemia (n = 6. The results were analyzed by Student's t-test for comparison of means. Differences were considered significant when two-tailed p-value < 0.05. Results: Subjects with iron deficiency anemia presented increases in the proportion of mean (10.3 ± 4.7% vs. 6.0 ± 3.4%; p-value = 0.003, and high fluorescence reticulocytes (2.3 ± 0.87% vs. 0.9 ± 0.9%; p-value = 0.03 compared to the control group. The prevalence of anemia in this population was 15% (n = 6. Conclusion: The indices related to immaturity of reticulocytes are higher in the presence of iron deficiency, thus demonstrating a deficiency in the raw material to form hemoglobin and are, therefore, possible early markers of iron deficiency and anemia. We emphasize the need to standardize these indices for use in clinical practice and lab test results.

  5. Arnold Gesell and the maturation controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Thomas C

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the work of Arnold Lucius Gesell and argues that he not only paved the way for contemporary research in motor development, but that he and colleagues anticipated fundamental issues about growth that must be addressed by psychologists and neuroscientists who are committed to the advancement of developmental science. Arnold Lucius Gesell was a pioneer in developmental psychology when the field was in its infancy. He worked diligently for the rights of physically and mentally handicapped children to receive special education that would enable them to find gainful employment. Gesell's writings in books and popular magazines increased public awareness of and support for preschool education and better foster care for orphans. Despite these achievements, many of his successors have questioned his views about infant development. Developmental psychologists have criticized Gesell for proposing a stage theory of infant growth that has fallen into disfavor among contemporary researchers. His conception of development as a maturational process has been challenged for allegedly reducing complex behavioral, perceptual, and learning processes to genetic factors. The author rejects this overly simplistic interpretation and contends that Gesell's work continues to stand the test of time.

  6. SPERM MATURATIONAL DEFECT AFTER CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Kashmiri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available During normal spermatogenesis, most of the round spermatid’s cytoplasm was phagocytosed as ‘residual bodies’ by the Sertoli cell at spermiogenesis, and only a small cytoplasmic residue i.e. ‘cytoplasmic droplet’ remains applied to the elongated spermatid after release from the germinal epithelium. A characteristic morphological change on spermatozoa during epididymal transit was the caudal migration of the cytoplasmic droplet away from the neck via the principal piece, however, while studying the Cyclophosphamide (CPA induced sperm morphological changes from the cauda epididymis in male Wistar rat, Rattus norvegicus using phase contrast microscope it was noticed that the sub-chronic and acute doses of CPA caused retention of cytoplasmic droplet on the mid-piece. Thus from the foregoing it was concluded that beside CPA being an inhibitor of spermatogenesis, it also interferes with the maturation of spermatozoa by the retention of cytoplasmic droplet perhaps due to alteration in epididymal secretory and absorptive functions thus leading to infertility.

  7. Optimizing development projects in mature basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.A.; Sawyer, M.J.

    1995-08-01

    In October 1994 Ninian became the third UK Field to attain true Giant status by producing its one billionth barrel of oil. Despite its maturity, significant potential still remains. Recent years have seen a change in operating practice to include more high-angle and horizontal drilling, often at the expense of {open_quotes}high risk{close_quotes} and costly workovers. However, although rewards are high, potential infill targets are typically{open_quote} tight{close_quote} and well placement becomes critical in maximizing reserves recovery. To aid in the final drilling program, Chevron and its Partners gave the go-ahead to acquire a new high resolution 3D seismic survey in 1995. The survey was acquired during April/June, and will be processed and available for interpretation by year-end. The primary business justification for the 3D acquisition was to allow future redrills to be located in their optimum positions, since the majority are in either structurally complex areas or close to faults where fault definition has a major impact on the wells success. Additionally, amplitude analysis on recent 3D surveys shot over similar Northern North Sea Fields has demonstrated success in distinguishing variations in water saturation, and therefore has highlighted the potential to observe by-passed oil. The first drilling targets to be based on the new 3D seismic interpretation are to be drilled during the 2nd and 3rd quarters of 1996.

  8. Smart Grid Interoperability Maturity Model Beta Version

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Drummond, R.; Giroti, Tony; Houseman, Doug; Knight, Mark; Levinson, Alex; longcore, Wayne; Lowe, Randy; Mater, J.; Oliver, Terry V.; Slack, Phil; Tolk, Andreas; Montgomery, Austin

    2011-12-02

    The GridWise Architecture Council was formed by the U.S. Department of Energy to promote and enable interoperability among the many entities that interact with the electric power system. This balanced team of industry representatives proposes principles for the development of interoperability concepts and standards. The Council provides industry guidance and tools that make it an available resource for smart grid implementations. In the spirit of advancing interoperability of an ecosystem of smart grid devices and systems, this document presents a model for evaluating the maturity of the artifacts and processes that specify the agreement of parties to collaborate across an information exchange interface. You are expected to have a solid understanding of large, complex system integration concepts and experience in dealing with software component interoperation. Those without this technical background should read the Executive Summary for a description of the purpose and contents of the document. Other documents, such as checklists, guides, and whitepapers, exist for targeted purposes and audiences. Please see the www.gridwiseac.org website for more products of the Council that may be of interest to you.

  9. Optimum harvest maturity for Leymus chinensis seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Timely harvest is critical to achieve maximum seed viability and vigour in agricultural production. However, little information exists concerning how to reap the best quality seeds of Leymus chinensis, which is the dominant and most promising grass species in the Songnen Grassland of Northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate possible quality indices of the seeds at different days after peak anthesis. Seed quality at different development stages was assessed by the colours of the seed and lemmas, seed weight, moisture content, electrical conductivity of seed leachate and germination indices. Two consecutive years of experimental results showed that the maximum seed quality was recorded at 39 days after peak anthesis. At this date, the colours of the seed and lemmas reached heavy brown and yellow, respectively. The seed weight was highest and the moisture content and the electrical conductivity of seed leachate were lowest. In addition, the seed also reached its maximum germination percentage and energy at this stage, determined using a standard germination test (SGT and accelerated ageing test (AAT. Thus, Leymus chinensis can be harvested at 39 days after peak anthesis based on the changes in parameters. Colour identification can be used as an additional indicator to provide a more rapid and reliable measure of optimum seed maturity; approximately 10 days after the colour of the lemmas reached yellow and the colour of the seed reached heavy brown, the seed of this species was suitable for harvest.

  10. New routes to the synthesis of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Müller, Axel H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Hybrid block copolymers amylose-block-polystyrene were synthesized by covalent attachment of maltoheptaose derivatives to end-functionalized polystyrene and subsequent enzymatic grafting from polymerization. The maltoheptaose derivatives were attached by reductive amination or hydrosilation to amino

  11. Block-based image hashing with restricted blocking strategy for rotational robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Shijun; Yang, Jianquan

    2012-12-01

    Image hashing is a potential solution for image content authentication (a desired image hashing algorithm should be robust to common image processing operations and various geometric distortions). In the literature, researchers pay more attention to block-based image hashing algorithms due to their robustness to common image processing operations (such as lossy compression, low-pass filtering, and additive noise). However, the block-based hashing strategies are sensitive to rotation processing operations. This indicates that the robustness of the block-based hashing methods against rotation operations is an important issue. Towards this direction, in this article we propose a restricted blocking strategy by investigating effect of two rotation operations on an image and its blocks in both theoretical and experimental ways. Furthermore, we apply the proposed blocking strategy for the recently reported non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) hashing. Experimental results have demonstrated the validity of the block-based hashing algorithms with restricted blocking strategy for rotation operations.

  12. Micellar aggregates of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers in water and THF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Böker, Alexander; Zettl, Heiko; Zhang, Mingfu; Krausch, Georg; Müller, Axel H.E.; Boker, A.; Zhang, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Amylose-block-polystyrenes with various block copolymer compositions were investigated in water and in THF solution. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, dynamic light, scattering (DLS), and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation with multiangle light scattering detection indicate the presence o

  13. Erosion patterns on dissolving blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrech du Pont, Sylvain; Cohen, Caroline; Derr, Julien; Berhanu, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Patterns in nature are shaped under water flows and wind action, and the understanding of their morphodynamics goes through the identification of the physical mechanisms at play. When a dissoluble body is exposed to a water flow, typical patterns with scallop-like shapes may appear [1,2]. These shapes are observed on the walls of underground rivers or icebergs. We experimentally study the erosion of dissolving bodies made of salt, caramel or ice into water solutions without external flow. The dissolving mixture, which is created at the solid/liquid interface, undergoes a buoyancy-driven instability comparable to a Rayleigh-Bénard instability so that the dissolving front destabilizes into filaments. This mechanism yields to spatial variations of solute concentration and to differential dissolution of the dissolving block. We first observe longitudinal stripes with a well defined wavelength, which evolve towards chevrons and scallops that interact and move again the dissolving current. Thanks to a careful analysis of the competing physical mechanisms, we propose scaling laws, which account for the characteristic lengths and times of the early regime in experiments. The long-term evolution of patterns is understood qualitatively. A close related mechanism has been proposed to explain structures observed on the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes [3] and we suggest that our experiments are analogous and explain the scallop-like patterns on iceberg walls. [1] P. Meakin and B. Jamtveit, Geological pattern formation by growth and dissolution in aqueous systems, Proc. R. Soc. A 466, 659-694 (2010). [2] P.N. Blumberg and R.L. Curl, Experimental and theoretical studies of dissolution roughness, J. Fluid Mech. 65, 735-751 (1974). [3] L. Solari and G. Parker, Morphodynamic modelling of the basal boundary of ice cover on brakish lakes, J.G.R. 118, 1432-1442 (2013).

  14. Pharmaceutical Options for Triggering of Final Oocyte Maturation in ART

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, Juan Carlos; Humaidan, Peter; Bernabéu, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Since the pioneering days of in vitro fertilization, hCG has been the gold standard to induce final follicular maturation. We herein reviewed different pharmaceutical options for triggering of final oocyte maturation in ART. The new upcoming agent seems to be GnRHa with its potential advantages...

  15. Chemical maturation of a bivalent aptamer by single domain variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rohrbach, Falk; Fatthalla, Maha I; Kupper, Tina;

    2012-01-01

    Two-pronged attack: We describe the maturation of a bivalent aptamer by a chemically driven two-step process. From an improved monovalent aptamer subdomain that had been modified by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at individual positions, a mature bivalent variant with superior activities to its...

  16. Career Maturity in Relation to Differences in School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sar B.; Alvi, Sabir A.

    1985-01-01

    Examined differences in career maturity among four curriculum groups: academic, business, technical, and general. In Study I, administered Crites' Career Maturity Inventory to students in grades 9-12. In Study II, administered a specially developed measure of career development to students in grade 12. Results indicated that the academic group…

  17. Reliability of the cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM) method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Predko-Engel, A.; Kaminek, M.; Langova, K.; Kowalski, P.; Fudalej, P.S.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of the cervical vertebrae maturation method (CVM). BACKGROUND: Skeletal maturity estimation can influence the manner and time of orthodontic treatment. The CVM method evaluates skeletal growth on the basis of the changes in the morphology of cervical vertebrae C2

  18. Noninvasive maturity detection of citrus with machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Yibin; Xu, Zhenggang; Fu, Xiaping; Liu, Yande

    2004-03-01

    A computer vision system was established to explore a method for citrus maturity detection. The surface color information and the ratio of total soluble solid to titratable acid (TSS/TA) were used as maturity indexes of citrus. The spectral reflectance properties with different color were measured by UV-240 ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer. The biggest discrepancy of gray levels between citrus pixels and background pixels was in blue component image by image background segmentation. Dynamic threshold method for background segmentation had best result in blue component image. Methods for citrus image color description were studied. The citrus spectral reflectance experiments showed that green surface and saffron surface of citrus were of highest spectral reflectance at the wavelength of 700nm, the difference between them reached to maximum, about 53%, and the image acquired at this wavelength was of more color information for maturity detection. A triple-layer feed forward network was established to map citrus maturity from the hue frequency sequence by the mean of artificial neural network. After training, the network mapper was used to detect the maturity of the test sample set, which was composed of 252 Weizhang citrus with different maturity. The identification accuracy of mature citrus reached 79.1%, that of immature citrus was 63.6%, and the mean identification accuracy was 77.8%. This study suggested that it is feasible to detect citrus maturity non-invasively by using the computer vision system and hue frequency sequence method.

  19. Debt-maturity structures should match risk preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapenski, L C

    1999-12-01

    Key to any debt-maturity matching strategy is financing assets with the appropriate debt structure. Financial managers need to establish an optimal capital structure and then choose the best maturity-matching structure for their debt. Two maturity-matching strategies that are available to healthcare financial managers are the accounting approach and the finance approach. The accounting approach, which defines asset maturities as current or fixed, is a riskier financing strategy than the finance approach, which defines asset maturities as permanent or temporary. The added risk occurs because of the accounting approach's heavy reliance on short-term debt. The accounting approach offers the potential for lower costs at the expense of higher risk. Healthcare financial managers who believe the financing function should support the organization's operations without adding undue risk should use the finance approach to maturity matching. Asset maturities in those organizations then should be considered permanent or temporary rather than current or fixed, and the debt-maturity structure should reflect this.

  20. On the relationship between the debt ratio and debt maturity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deHaan, J; Sikken, BJ; Hilder, A

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between government debt and the maturity of government debt is analysed for eight OECD countries. It is found that the negative relationship between debt and effective maturity as reported by Missale and Blanchard (1994) for Ireland and Italy can also be found for some other countri

  1. Mature age job seekers : The role of proactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bock, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers' proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine jo

  2. Mature ovarian teratoma with gliomatosis peritonei - A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Das C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Gliomatosis peritonei (GP, a rare condition related to ovarian teratomas, is characterized by miliary implants of mature glial tissues on the peritoneum or omentum. We report herein a case of mature teratoma of the ovary with GP with imaging features and pathological correlation

  3. Measuring chain digitisation maturity: An assessment of Dutch retail branches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.; Batenburg, R.S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this article is to develop a validated measurement model and typology for chain digitisation maturity, defined as the degree of interorganisational collaboration through ICT. Design/methodology/approach – Through a literature (meta) study, 22 existing maturity models are fou

  4. Experiences with the Capability Maturity Model in a research environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velden, van der M.J.; Vreke, J.; Wal, van der B.; Symons, A.

    1996-01-01

    The project described here was aimed at evaluating the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) in the context of a research organization. Part of the evaluation was a standard CMM assessment. It was found that CMM could be applied to a research organization, although its five maturity levels were considered

  5. Self-Esteem and Emotional Maturity in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jupian J.; Sand, Margaret C.

    1981-01-01

    Determined if self-esteem is related to emotional maturity. Scores from 200 male and female college students on Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory and on the Washburne Social-Adjustment Inventory were correlated. Students high in self-esteem were found to be more emotionally mature than students low in self-esteem. (Author)

  6. Recognition: a key retention strategy for the mature nurse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant-Hampton, Linda; Walton, Ann Marie; Carroll, Tracy; Strickler, Laura

    2010-03-01

    Recognition of staff can be one of the easiest, cost-effective strategies to retain experienced mature nursing staff. The authors discuss the Senior and Generational Excellence initiative that identifies strategies and brings attention to the unique skills and needs of mature professional nurses.

  7. In vitro maturation alters gene expression in bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adona, Paulo R; Leal, Cláudia L V; Biase, Fernando H; De Bem, Tiago H; Mesquita, Lígia G; Meirelles, Flávio V; Ferraz, André L; Furlan, Luiz R; Monzani, Paulo S; Guemra, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Gene expression profiling of in vivo- and in vitro-matured bovine oocytes can identify transcripts related to the developmental potential of oocytes. Nonetheless, the effects of in vitro culturing oocytes are yet to be fully understood. We tested the effects of in vitro maturation on the transcript profile of oocytes collected from Bos taurus indicus cows. We quantified the expression of 1488 genes in in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes. Of these, 51 genes were up-regulated, whereas 56 were down-regulated (≥2-fold) in in vivo-matured oocytes in comparison with in vitro-matured oocytes. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of nine genes confirmed the microarray results of differential expression between in vivo- and in vitro-matured oocytes (EZR, EPN1, PSEN2, FST, IGFBP3, RBBP4, STAT3, FDPS and IRS1). We interrogated the results for enrichment of Gene Ontology categories and overlap with protein-protein interactions. The results revealed that the genes altered by in vitro maturation are mostly related to the regulation of oocyte metabolism. Additionally, analysis of protein-protein interactions uncovered two regulatory networks affected by the in vitro culture system. We propose that the differentially expressed genes are candidates for biomarkers of oocyte competence. In vitro oocyte maturation can affect the abundance of specific transcripts and are likely to deplete the developmental competence.

  8. Round Gating for Low Energy Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco;

    2016-01-01

    design techniques for implementing block ciphers in a low energy fashion. We concentrate on round based implementation and we discuss how gating, applied at round level can affect and improve the energy consumption of the most common lightweight block cipher currently used in the internet of things...

  9. Block Grants: Federal Data Collection Provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This fact sheet compares statutory data collection and reporting provisions of the federal education block grant (chapter 2 of the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act of 1981) with the nine other block grant programs funded in fiscal year 1986; data on statutory administrative cost limits are also provided. Each grant's legislation was…

  10. Block Gas Sol Unit in Haderslev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark.......Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark....

  11. Improving massive experiments with threshold blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Michael J; Sävje, Fredrik; Sekhon, Jasjeet S

    2016-07-01

    Inferences from randomized experiments can be improved by blocking: assigning treatment in fixed proportions within groups of similar units. However, the use of the method is limited by the difficulty in deriving these groups. Current blocking methods are restricted to special cases or run in exponential time; are not sensitive to clustering of data points; and are often heuristic, providing an unsatisfactory solution in many common instances. We present an algorithm that implements a widely applicable class of blocking-threshold blocking-that solves these problems. Given a minimum required group size and a distance metric, we study the blocking problem of minimizing the maximum distance between any two units within the same group. We prove this is a nondeterministic polynomial-time hard problem and derive an approximation algorithm that yields a blocking where the maximum distance is guaranteed to be, at most, four times the optimal value. This algorithm runs in O(n log n) time with O(n) space complexity. This makes it, to our knowledge, the first blocking method with an ensured level of performance that works in massive experiments. Whereas many commonly used algorithms form pairs of units, our algorithm constructs the groups flexibly for any chosen minimum size. This facilitates complex experiments with several treatment arms and clustered data. A simulation study demonstrates the efficiency and efficacy of the algorithm; tens of millions of units can be blocked using a desktop computer in a few minutes. PMID:27382151

  12. Building blocks for embedded control systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broenink, Jan F.; Hilderink, Gerald H.; Bakkers, André W.P.; Veen, Jean Pierre

    2000-01-01

    Developing embedded control systems using a building-block approach at all the parts enables an efficient and fast design process. Main reasons are the real plug-and-play capabilities of the blocks. Furthermore, due the simulatability of the designs, parts of the system can already be tested before

  13. C++ application development with Code::Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Modak, Biplab Kumar

    2013-01-01

    This is a comprehensive tutorial with step-by-step instructions on how to develop applications with Code::Blocks.This book is for C++ developers who wish to use Code::Blocks to create applications with a consistent look and feel across multiple platforms. This book assumes that you are familiar with the basics of the C++ programming language.

  14. Young Children's Block Play and Mathematical Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Boyoung; Chae, Jeong-Lim; Boyd, Barbara Foulks

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated young children's mathematical engagement in play with wooden unit blocks. Two boys, ages 6 and 7, were independently observed completing the task of filling outlined regions with the various sets of blocks. Three major mathematical actions were observed: categorizing geometric shapes, composing a larger shape…

  15. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    1995-01-01

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  16. Programs for the calculi of blocks permeabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report studies the stochastic analysis of radionuclide transport. The permeability values of blocks are necessary to do a numeric model for the flux and transport problems in ground soils. The determination of block value by function on grill value is the objective of this program

  17. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  18. Transient non-autoimmune fetal heart block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breur, JMPJ; Oudijk, MA; Stoutenbeek, P; Visser, GHA; Meijboom, EJ

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: Fetal heart block is a rare and irreversible condition associated with structural heart defects or maternal autoantibodies (SS-A/Ro and SS-B/La) resulting in permanent damage of the atrioventricular (AV) node. This is the first report of 4 cases with a transient fetal heart block in stru

  19. PEO-related block copolymer surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionic block copolymer systems based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and more hydrophobic co-polymer blocks are used intensively in a variety of industrial and personal applications. A brief description on the applications is presented. The physical properties of more simple model systems...

  20. Ultrasonographic evaluation of neck hematoma and block salvage after failed neurostimulation-guided interscalene block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen M; Unger, M W Todd; Colson, James D; Serafini, Mario

    2010-11-01

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthetic techniques have shown some advantages over conventional paresthesia and neurostimulation techniques. We report the case of a neurostimulation-guided continuous interscalene block that would have ended in complication were it not for experience with ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia. Familiarity with ultrasound-guided block techniques permitted assessment of a neck hematoma during interscalene block and ultimately allowed successful peripheral nerve block.

  1. A revisit of transthecal digital block and traditional digital block for anesthesia of the finger

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Dehghani; Arsalan Mahmoodian

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Finger injuries are very common and the majority can be treated under digital block anesthesia. Traditional digital block is one of the most commonly performed blocks by care providers in several medical fields. There is another less known method, transthecal (Pulley) block, in which local anesthesia is injected into the flexor tendon sheath.
    METHODS: A randomized clinical trial was performed to compare the tran...

  2. Fermion RG blocking transformations and IR structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X

    2011-01-01

    We explore fermion RG block-spinning transformations on the lattice with the aim of studying the IR structure of gauge theories and, in particular, the existence of IR fixed points for varying fermion content. In the case of light fermions the main concern and difficulty is ensuring locality of any adopted blocking scheme. We discuss the problem of constructing a local blocked fermion action in the background of arbitrary gauge fields. We then discuss the carrying out of accompanying gauge field blocking. In the presence of the blocked fermions implementation of MCRG is not straightforward. By adopting judicious approximations we arrive at an easily implementable approximate RG recursion scheme that allows quick, inexpensive estimates of the location of conformal windows for various groups and fermion representations. We apply this scheme to locate the conformal windows in the case of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge groups. Some of the reasons for the apparent efficacy of this and similar decimation schemes are discuss...

  3. Virasoro conformal blocks in closed form

    CERN Document Server

    Perlmutter, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Virasoro conformal blocks are fixed in principle by symmetry, but a closed-form expression is unknown in the general case. In this work, we provide three closed-form expansions for the four-point Virasoro blocks on the sphere, for arbitrary operator dimensions and central charge $c$. We do so by solving known recursion relations. One representation is a sum over hypergeometric global blocks, whose coefficients we provide at arbitrary level. Another is a sum over semiclassical Virasoro blocks obtained in the limit in which two external operator dimensions scale linearly with large $c$. In both cases, the $1/c$ expansion of the Virasoro blocks is easily extracted. We discuss applications of these expansions to entanglement and thermality in conformal field theories and particle scattering in three-dimensional quantum gravity.

  4. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor...... in question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect...... of a neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  5. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadure, C; Capdevila, X

    2005-06-01

    In recent years, regional anaesthesia in children has generated increasing interest. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks have an important role in the anaesthetic arsenal, allowing effective, safe and prolonged postoperative pain management. Indications for continuous peripheral nerve blocks depend on benefits/risks analysis of each technique for each patient. The indications include surgery associated with intense postoperative pain, surgery requiring painful physical therapy, and complex regional pain syndrome. Continuous peripheral nerve blocks are usually performed under general anaesthesia or sedation, and require appropriate equipment in order to decrease the risk of nerve injury. New techniques, such as transcutaneous stimulation or ultrasound guidance, appear to facilitate nerve and plexus identification in paediatric patients. Nevertheless, continuous peripheral nerve block may mask compartment syndrome in certain surgical procedure or trauma. Finally, ropivacaine appears to be the best local anaesthetic for continuous peripheral nerve blocks in children, requiring low flow rate with low concentration of the local anaesthetic. PMID:15966500

  6. STUDY ON POLYSULFONE-POLYESTER BLOCK COPOLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Youjun; QI Daquan

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis and characterization of a series of Polysulfone (PSF)-Polyester (PEs) block copolymers were studied.The degree of randomness (B) of these block copolymers was calculated from the intensities of their proton signals in 1H NMR spectra and lies in the region of 0 < B < 1. It was shown that the degree of randomness (B) and the average sequence length (L) in block copolymers were relatively dependent on the reaction conditions, various feed ratios and structure of diols.The phenomenon was observed, when the PSF-PEs block copolymers dissolved in different solvents they had different viscosities and molecular conformations.The PSF-PEs block copolymers had better solvent resistance than homo-polysulfone.

  7. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior.

  8. Customer-Provider Strategic Alignment: A Maturity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luftman, Jerry; Brown, Carol V.; Balaji, S.

    This chapter presents a new model for assessing the maturity of a ­customer-provider relationship from a collaborative service delivery perspective: the Customer-Provider Strategic Alignment Maturity (CPSAM) Model. This model builds on recent research for effectively managing the customer-provider relationship in IT service outsourcing contexts and a validated model for assessing alignment across internal IT service units and their business customers within the same organization. After reviewing relevant literature by service science and information systems researchers, the six overarching components of the maturity model are presented: value measurements, governance, partnership, communications, human resources and skills, and scope and architecture. A key assumption of the model is that all of the components need be addressed to assess and improve customer-provider alignment. Examples of specific metrics for measuring the maturity level of each component over the five levels of maturity are also presented.

  9. Maternal age at maturation underpins contrasting behavior in offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertsen, Grethe; Stewart, David C.; McKelvey, Simon; Armstrong, John D.; Metcalfe, Neil B.

    2016-01-01

    In species where parental care occurs primarily via the provisioning of eggs, older females tend to produce larger offspring that have better fitness prospects. Remarkably however, a relationship between age of mother and fitness of offspring has also been reported independently of effects on offspring size suggesting that there may be other factors at play. Here, using experimental matings between wild Atlantic salmon that differed in their age at sexual maturation, we demonstrate distinct size-independent variation in the behavior of their offspring that was related to the maturation age of the mother (but not the father). We found that when juvenile salmon were competing for feeding territories, offspring of early-maturing mothers were more aggressive than those of late-maturing mothers, but were out-competed for food by them. This is the first demonstration of a link between natural variation in parental age at maturation and variation in offspring behavior. PMID:27656083

  10. A Parent's Guide to Imaginative Block Play: Why Blocks Are Still One of America's Favorite Toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T.C. Timber/Habermaass Corp., Skaneateles, NY.

    This brochure, developed by a manufacturer of wooden blocks and trains, offers advice on the selection and use of toy blocks with children. The guide asserts that blocks, while often thought of as the most simple of toys, have great strength as creativity builders. Topics discussed in the brochure include: "Why We Want Our Children to Play"; "Why…

  11. A note on "Block H-matrices and spectrum of block matrices"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jian-zhou; HUANG Ze-jun

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we make further discussions and improvements on the results presented in the previously published work "Block H-matrices and spectrum of block matrices". Furthermore, a new bound for eigenvalues of block matrices is given with examples to show advantages of the new result.

  12. Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wayne A.; Wilson, Scott; Collins, Josh; Wilson, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) development effort was initiated by NASA Glenn Research Center with contractor Sunpower, Inc., to develop high-efficiency thermal-to-electric power conversion technology for NASA Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs). Early successful performance demonstrations led to the expansion of the project as well as adoption of the technology by the Department of Energy (DOE) and system integration contractor Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company as part of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) flight project. The ASRG integrates a pair of ASCs to convert the heat from a pair of General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules into electrical power. The expanded NASA ASC effort included development of several generations of ASC prototypes or engineering units to help prepare the ASC technology and Sunpower for flight implementation. Sunpower later had two parallel contracts allowing the last of the NASA engineering units called ASC-E3 to serve as pathfinders for the ASC-F flight convertors being built for DOE. The ASC-E3 convertors utilized the ASC-F flight specifications and were built using the ASC-F design and process documentation. Shortly after the first ASC-F pair achieved initial operation, due to budget constraints, the DOE ASRG flight development contract was terminated. NASA continues to invest in the development of Stirling RPS technology including continued production of the ASC-E3 convertors, seven of which have been delivered with one additional unit in production. Starting in fiscal year 2015, Stirling Convertor Technology Maturation has been reorganized as an element of the RPS Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project and long-term plans for continued Stirling technology advancement are in reformulation. This paper provides a status on the ASC project, an overview of advancements made in the design and production of the ASC at Sunpower, and a summary of acceptance tests, reliability tests, and tactical

  13. Balance of sixty round of exploratory blocks licitation; Balanco da sexta rodada de licitacoes de blocos exploratorios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Edmar Luiz Fagundes de; Oliveira, Adriano Cavalcante de; Biasi, Guilherme de

    2007-07-01

    The Sixty Round presented some modifications in the auction rules. The main modifications compared with the fifty round was: requirements of guarantee insurance for the offer; the return of the Minimum Exploratory Program (PEM); the rising of the lance number allowance per operator for blocks localized in a same sector of mature basins; and at last the rising on the minimum value range for the signature. Those modifications contribute for the most success of the Sixty Round when compared with the prior licitations.

  14. A versatile building block: the structures and functions of negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus nucleocapsid proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yuna; Guo, Yu; Lou, Zhiyong

    2012-01-01

    Nucleocapsid protein (NPs) of negative-sense single-stranded RNA (-ssRNA) viruses function in different stages of viral replication, transcription, and maturation. Structural investigations show that -ssRNA viruses that encode NPs preliminarily serve as structural building blocks that encapsidate and protect the viral genomic RNA and mediate the interaction between genomic RNA and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. However, recent structural results have revealed other biological functions of -ssR...

  15. Role of arachidonic acid and protein kinase C during maturation-inducing hormone-dependent meiotic resumption and ovulation in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino, R.; Yoshizaki, G.; Bolamba, D.; Thomas, P.

    2003-01-01

    The roles of arachidonic acid (AA) and protein kinase C (PKC) during in vitro maturation-inducing hormone (MIH)-dependent meiotic resumption (maturation) and ovulation were studied in ovarian follicles of Atlantic croaker (Micropogonias undulatus). The requirement for cyclooxygenase (COX) metabolites of AA was examined using a nonspecific COX inhibitor, indomethacin (IM), as well as two COX products, prostaglandin (PG) F2?? and PGE2, whereas the role of lipoxygenase (LOX) was investigated using a specific LOX inhibitor, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA). The involvement of PKC was examined using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), a PKC activator, as well as GF109203X (GF), a specific inhibitor of PKC and 1-(5-isoquin- olinesulfonyl)-2-methylpiperazine (H7), nonspecific inhibitor of protein kinases. Genomic mechanisms were examined with the transcription-inhibitor actinomycin D (ActD) and the functionality of heterologous (oocyte-granulosa) gap junctions (GJ) with a dye transfer assay. The AA (100 ??M) and PGF2?? (5 ??M) did not induce maturation, and NDGA (10 ??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation. However, IM (100 ??M) partially inhibited MIH-dependent maturation. Conversely, AA and both PGs induced, and IM and NDGA inhibited, MIH-dependent ovulation in matured follicles. The PMA (1 ??g/ml) did not induce maturation but caused ovulation in matured follicles, whereas PKC inhibitors (GF, 5 ??M; H7, 50??M) did not affect MIH-dependent maturation but inhibited MIH- and PMA-dependent ovulation. The PMA-dependent ovulation was inhibited by IM but not by NDGA. In addition, ActD (5 ??M) blocked MIH-dependent, but not PMA-dependent, ovulation, and PGF2?? restored MIH-dependent ovulation in ActD-blocked follicles. The AA and PGs did not induce, and GF did not inhibit, MIH-dependent heterologous GJ uncoupling. In conclusion, AA and PKC mediate MIH-dependent ovulation but not meiotic resumption or heterologous GJ uncoupling in croaker follicles, but a permissive role

  16. On the Validity of the Psychosocial Maturity Inventory: An Examination of Psychosocial Maturity and Dogmatism. Report No. 203.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Lloyd; And Others

    Form D of the Psychosocial Maturity (PSM) Inventory and the Rokeach Dogmatism Scale were administered to 325 10th grade students to test a predicted correlation between the Dogmatism Scale and the Change and Tolerance subscales of the PSM battery, and to examine the pattern of covariation between psychosocial maturity and dogmatism. A substantial…

  17. Contractile activity is required for Z-disc sarcomere maturation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geach, Timothy J; Hirst, Elizabeth MA; Zimmerman, Lyle B

    2015-01-01

    Sarcomere structure underpins structural integrity, signaling, and force transmission in the muscle. In embryos of the frog Xenopus tropicalis, muscle contraction begins even while sarcomerogenesis is ongoing. To determine whether contractile activity plays a role in sarcomere formation in vivo, chemical tools were used to block acto-myosin contraction in embryos of the frog X. tropicalis, and Z-disc assembly was characterized in the paralyzed dicky ticker mutant. Confocal and ultrastructure analysis of paralyzed embryos showed delayed Z-disc formation and defects in thick filament organization. These results suggest a previously undescribed role for contractility in sarcomere maturation in vivo. genesis 53:299–307, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. Genesis Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25845369

  18. In Vitro Resistance to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Maturation Inhibitor PA-457 (Bevirimat)▿

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Catherine S.; Ablan, Sherimay D.; Boeras, Ioana; Goila-Gaur, Ritu; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Li, Feng; Salzwedel, Karl; Sakalian, Michael; Wild, Carl T.; Freed, Eric O.

    2006-01-01

    3-O-(3′,3′-dimethylsuccinyl)betulinic acid (PA-457 or bevirimat) potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) maturation by blocking a late step in the Gag processing pathway, specifically the cleavage of SP1 from the C terminus of capsid (CA). To gain insights into the mechanism(s) by which HIV-1 could evolve resistance to PA-457 and to evaluate the likelihood of such resistance arising in PA-457-treated patients, we sought to identify and characterize a broad spectrum of HI...

  19. Anatomy of virgin and mature externae of Loxothylacus texanus, parasitic on the dark blue crab Callinectes rathbunae (Crustacea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez, Fernando; Bortolini, José Luis; Høeg, Jens Thorvald

    2010-01-01

    the situation known from Sacculina carcini. The mature externa is characterized by a visceral mass that contains the ovary, paired colleteric glands, a single male receptacle, but paired receptacle ducts. The proximal attachment of the visceral mass is located at some distance from the basal stalk...... on the implantation of males and the histology of the female reproductive organs. In the virgin externae, male cyprids attach around a cuticular hood covering the mantle aperture, which is partially blocked by a plug of cuticle so only trichogon larvae, not cyprids, can access the mantle cavity. This resembles...

  20. DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR OF TYRE TREAD BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sridharan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Tyre tread pattern is the arrangement of blocks, grooves and voids, sipes and channels designed into the tread to enhance its grip on the road. Tread is the uppermost part of any tyre which contact into the road and it has its own performance towards mileage, traction, low noise and heat built up properties. It would be meaningful to conduct an extended analysis on the tyre tread blocks for its performance in static and dynamic condition to predict its behavior and wear of tread block in on-road condition. The Finite Element software Abaqus is used for the present analysis of the tread block and its behavior was studied on two different contact surfaces. The tread block is modeled in six different shapes and analyzed for is performance. The deformation stress strain characteristic of different blocks is studied which will be useful in deciding the contact behavior, friction and road grip. The regular shape/geometry has common behavior and the mixed type geometry shows a distinguished variation in the analysis. The dynamic stiffness and deformed shape was analyzed in this study and it has its own effect in tyre design. The tread block dynamics study by geometric shape would be vital in tread pattern optimization to enhance the traction, better hydroplaning and rolling resistance under all operating conditions.

  1. Circular block matching based video stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lidong; Fu, Fangwen; Lin, Xinggang

    2005-07-01

    Video sequences captured by handheld digital camera need to be stabilized to eliminate the tiresome effects caused by camera"s undesirable shake or jiggle. The key issue of video stabilization is to estimate the global motion parameters between two successive frames. In this paper, a novel circular block matching algorithm is proposed to estimate the global motion parameters. This algorithm can deal with not only translational motion but even large rotational motion. For an appointed circular block in current frame, a four-dimensional rotation invariant feature vector is firstly extracted from it and used to judge if it is an effective block. Then the rotation invariant features based circular block matching process is performed to find the best matching blocks in reference frame for those effective blocks. With the matching results of any two effective blocks, a two-dimensional motion model is constructed to produce one group of frame motion parameters. A statistical method is proposed to calculate the estimated global motion parameters with all groups of global motion parameters. Finally, using the estimated motion parameters as the initial values, an iteration algorithm is introduced to obtain the refined global motion parameters. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is excellent in stabilizing frames with even burst global translational and rotational motions.

  2. Gaussian curvature analysis allows for automatic block placement in multi-block hexahedral meshing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramme, Austin J; Shivanna, Kiran H; Magnotta, Vincent A; Grosland, Nicole M

    2011-10-01

    Musculoskeletal finite element analysis (FEA) has been essential to research in orthopaedic biomechanics. The generation of a volumetric mesh is often the most challenging step in a FEA. Hexahedral meshing tools that are based on a multi-block approach rely on the manual placement of building blocks for their mesh generation scheme. We hypothesise that Gaussian curvature analysis could be used to automatically develop a building block structure for multi-block hexahedral mesh generation. The Automated Building Block Algorithm incorporates principles from differential geometry, combinatorics, statistical analysis and computer science to automatically generate a building block structure to represent a given surface without prior information. We have applied this algorithm to 29 bones of varying geometries and successfully generated a usable mesh in all cases. This work represents a significant advancement in automating the definition of building blocks.

  3. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Denise Araújo Bacil

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders.

  4. Readiness for surgery after axillary block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koscielniak-Nielsen, Z J; Stens-Pedersen, H L; Lippert, F K

    1997-01-01

    We have assessed prospectively the time to readiness for surgery following axillary block (sum of block performance and latency times) in 80 patients. The brachial plexus was identified using a nerve stimulator, and anaesthetized with 45 mL of mepivacaine 1% with adrenaline 5 micrograms mL-1....... In group 1 (single injection) the whole volume of mepivacaine was injected after locating only one of the plexus nerves. In group 2 (multiple injections) at least three plexus nerves were located, and the volume of mepivacaine was divided between them. Sensory block was assessed by a blinded observer every...

  5. Theory of circuit block switch-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henzler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for the estimation of the minimum time for which a block deactivation is useful is derived.

  6. Superintegrability of $d$-dimensional Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Isachenkov, Mikhail

    2016-01-01

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a $d$-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled P\\"oschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension $d$, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.

  7. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...... the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account...

  8. Micellization and Dynamics of a Block Copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Triblock copolymers of the type EPE, where E and P denote ethylene oxide and propylene oxide blocks, respectively, are industrially important copolymers often called Pluronics or Poloxamers. EPE copolymers form micelles with a core of P blocks and different micellar shapes depending on block length...... copolymer mixtures, and evidence in favor of a multi-equilibria unimer-micelle model will be presented. Results obtained by liquid chromatographic methods will be shown and it will be demonstrated that commercial EPE copolymers are inhomogeneous at several levels and many of their unusual properties reflect...

  9. Mall shopping preferences and patronage of mature shoppers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G. Rousseau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Retailers often consider other market segments ahead of mature consumers because they perceive that they have limited purchasing power. This study addressed this misperception by investigating the buying behaviour of mature consumers.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the buying behaviour of mature consumers (older than 55 in Port Elizabeth shopping malls.Motivation for the study: The perception of mature shoppers as old people with limited financial resources is untrue. This study investigates the behaviours of mature shoppers.Research design, approach and method: A model guided the investigation. The authors facilitated four focus groups to gain insight into mature consumers’ buying behaviours. A field survey followed with a sample of mall shoppers (n = 680. The authors performed content analysis of the focus group material and used SPSS and AMOS programs to analyse the data quantitatively.Main findings: Focus group interviews revealed specific buying behaviours of mature shoppers. The survey showed significant relationships between various determinants that influence respondents’ buying behaviours with adequate model fit indices. These results confirmed the convergent and discriminant validity of the model that comprises mall shopping anticipation, experience and patronage.Practical/managerial implications: Mature shoppers’ expectations exceeded their experiences, suggesting dissatisfaction with some aspects of their experiences. Retailers and shopping mall managers need to redesign malls if they wish to cater for the segment of ageing shoppers and their spending power.Contribution/value-add: The study contributes to the research available in South Africa on service at shopping malls that cater for mature consumers.

  10. Absence of E protein arrests transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus maturation in the secretory pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recombinant transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (rTGEV) in which E gene was deleted (rTGEV-ΔE) has been engineered. This deletion mutant only grows in cells expressing E protein (E+ cells) indicating that E was an essential gene for TGEV replication. Electron microscopy studies of rTGEV-ΔE infected BHK-pAPN-E- cells showed that only immature intracellular virions were assembled. These virions were non-infectious and not secreted to the extracellular medium in BHK-pAPN-E- cells. RNA and protein composition analysis by RNase-gold and immunoelectron microscopy showed that rTGEV-ΔE virions contained RNA and also all the structural TGEV proteins, except the deleted E protein. Nevertheless, full virion maturation was blocked. Studies of the rTGEV-ΔE subcellular localization by confocal and immunoelectron microscopy in infected E- cells showed that in the absence of E protein virus trafficking was arrested in the intermediate compartment. Therefore, the absence of E protein in TGEV resulted in two actions, a blockade of virus trafficking in the membranes of the secretory pathway, and prevention of full virus maturation

  11. Involvement of aquaporin channels in water extrusion from biosilica during maturation of sponge siliceous spicules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohong; Müller, Werner E G

    2015-08-01

    Aquaporins are a family of small, pore-forming, integral cell membrane proteins. This ancient protein family functions as water channels and is found in all kingdoms (including archaea, eubacteria, fungi, plants, and animals). We discovered that in sponges aquaporin plays a novel role during the maturation of spicules, their skeletal elements. Spicules are synthesized enzymatically via silicatein following a polycondensation reaction. During this process, a 1:1 stoichiometric release of water per one Si-O-Si bond formed is produced. The product of silicatein, biosilica, is a fluffy, soft material that must be hardened in order to function as a solid rod. Using the model of the demosponge species Suberites domuncula Olivi, 1792, which expresses aquaporin, cDNA was cloned and the protein was heterologously expressed. The sponge aquaporin is grouped with the type 8 aquaporins. The function of the sponge aquaporin can be blocked by Mn-sulfate (MnSO4) and mercury chloride (HgCl2). Microscopic and functional studies suggest that aquaporin is involved in removal of the reaction water at the site where siliceous spicules are formed. Another molecule that is likely to be involved in biosilica maturation is the mucin/nidogen-like polypeptide. cDNA has also been cloned from S. domuncula. Experimental studies suggest that water extrusion/suctioning from biosilica after enzymatic synthesis during spicule formation involves both aquaporin-mediated water channeling and "polymerization-induced phase separation" facilitated by the mucin/nidogen-like polypeptide.

  12. Antigen changes of monoclonal antibody MSH27 in process of post-testicular maturation (in mice)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄大中; 韩之明; 宋祥芬; 齐跃敏; 段崇文; 刘辉; 陈大元

    1999-01-01

    An anti-mouse spermatozoon monoclonal antibody, MSH27, as well as its purified antigen, can block sperm-egg membrane fusion. As a candidate protein for sperm-egg membrane fusion, the sperm antigen was investigated in the process of post-testicular maturation (PTM). The molecule was produced in testes and located on the plasma membrane of the postacrosomal area of the spermatozoon. However, the epitope recognized by the MSH27 (MSH27Ep) was not exposed until the occurrence of the acrosome reaction. In the process of fertilization, spermatozoa must complete the acrosome reaction before penetrating across the zona pellucidas (ZPs) to approach the plasma membrane of eggs. The effects of the acrosome reaction and penetration of the ZP on the exposure of the MSH27Ep were also studied. It was shown that the percentage of the spermatozoa with the MSH27Ep exposed increased followed with their mature status in PTM. In fact, it bad a linear correlativity with the rate of the acrosome reaction. After spermatozoa had

  13. Disruption of the endocrine control of final oocyte maturation in teleosts by xenobiotic chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, P.

    1999-07-01

    Final oocyte maturation (FOM) in fish and other vertebrates is under precise endocrine control and involves changes in hormone secretion at all levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. Several potential sites and mechanisms of chemical disruption of the endocrine system controlling FOM by are discussed. Neurotoxic chemicals such as lead and PCBs can alter monoamine neurotransmitter function and xenoestrogens can interfere with steroid feedback mechanisms at the hypothalamus and pituitary to impair the neuroendocrine control of gonadotropin secretion. Chemicals which disrupt calcium homeostasis such as cadmium can interfere with calcium-dependent signal transduction pathway activated by reproductive hormones in the pituitary and gonads. Other xenobiotics may disrupt maturation-inducing steroid (MIS) function by impairing its synthesis or receptor binding. The problems in assessing endocrine disruption of FOM are discussed. The relatively few investigations reported in the literature on endocrine disruption of FOM in fishes by chemicals indicate that organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides at concentrations less than one ppb can impair induction of FOM in response to gonadotropin and the MIS. Moreover, evidence is presented that certain organochlorine pesticides block MIS action by binding to the MIS receptor which is localized on the oocyte plasma membrane. Steroid membrane receptor function may be particularly susceptible to interference by hydrophilic chemicals. Finally, an in vitro bioassay capable of screening many chemicals simultaneously for their ability to disrupt the endocrine control of FOM is described.

  14. Purkinje cell maturation participates in the control of oligodendrocyte differentiation: role of sonic hedgehog and vitronectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouslama-Oueghlani, Lamia; Wehrlé, Rosine; Doulazmi, Mohamed; Chen, Xiao Ru; Jaudon, Fanny; Lemaigre-Dubreuil, Yolande; Rivals, Isabelle; Sotelo, Constantino; Dusart, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte differentiation is temporally regulated during development by multiple factors. Here, we investigated whether the timing of oligodendrocyte differentiation might be controlled by neuronal differentiation in cerebellar organotypic cultures. In these cultures, the slices taken from newborn mice show very few oligodendrocytes during the first week of culture (immature slices) whereas their number increases importantly during the second week (mature slices). First, we showed that mature cerebellar slices or their conditioned media stimulated oligodendrocyte differentiation in immature slices thus demonstrating the existence of diffusible factors controlling oligodendrocyte differentiation. Using conditioned media from different models of slice culture in which the number of Purkinje cells varies drastically, we showed that the effects of these differentiating factors were proportional to the number of Purkinje cells. To identify these diffusible factors, we first performed a transcriptome analysis with an Affymetrix array for cerebellar cortex and then real-time quantitative PCR on mRNAs extracted from fluorescent flow cytometry sorted (FACS) Purkinje cells of L7-GFP transgenic mice at different ages. These analyses revealed that during postnatal maturation, Purkinje cells down-regulate Sonic Hedgehog and up-regulate vitronectin. Then, we showed that Sonic Hedgehog stimulates the proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and inhibits their differentiation. In contrast, vitronectin stimulates oligodendrocyte differentiation, whereas its inhibition with blocking antibodies abolishes the conditioned media effects. Altogether, these results suggest that Purkinje cells participate in controlling the timing of oligodendrocyte differentiation in the cerebellum through the developmentally regulated expression of diffusible molecules such as Sonic Hedgehog and vitronectin. PMID:23155445

  15. Purkinje cell maturation participates in the control of oligodendrocyte differentiation: role of sonic hedgehog and vitronectin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamia Bouslama-Oueghlani

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocyte differentiation is temporally regulated during development by multiple factors. Here, we investigated whether the timing of oligodendrocyte differentiation might be controlled by neuronal differentiation in cerebellar organotypic cultures. In these cultures, the slices taken from newborn mice show very few oligodendrocytes during the first week of culture (immature slices whereas their number increases importantly during the second week (mature slices. First, we showed that mature cerebellar slices or their conditioned media stimulated oligodendrocyte differentiation in immature slices thus demonstrating the existence of diffusible factors controlling oligodendrocyte differentiation. Using conditioned media from different models of slice culture in which the number of Purkinje cells varies drastically, we showed that the effects of these differentiating factors were proportional to the number of Purkinje cells. To identify these diffusible factors, we first performed a transcriptome analysis with an Affymetrix array for cerebellar cortex and then real-time quantitative PCR on mRNAs extracted from fluorescent flow cytometry sorted (FACS Purkinje cells of L7-GFP transgenic mice at different ages. These analyses revealed that during postnatal maturation, Purkinje cells down-regulate Sonic Hedgehog and up-regulate vitronectin. Then, we showed that Sonic Hedgehog stimulates the proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells and inhibits their differentiation. In contrast, vitronectin stimulates oligodendrocyte differentiation, whereas its inhibition with blocking antibodies abolishes the conditioned media effects. Altogether, these results suggest that Purkinje cells participate in controlling the timing of oligodendrocyte differentiation in the cerebellum through the developmentally regulated expression of diffusible molecules such as Sonic Hedgehog and vitronectin.

  16. Stochastic Model of Maturation and Vesicular Exchange in Cellular Organelles

    CERN Document Server

    Vagne, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    The dynamical organization of membrane-bound organelles along intracellular transport pathways relies on vesicular exchange between organelles and on biochemical maturation of the organelle content by specific enzymes. The relative importance of each mechanism in controlling organelle dynamics remains controversial, in particular for transport through the Golgi apparatus. Using a stochastic model, we show that full maturation of membrane-bound compartments can be seen as the stochastic escape from a steady-state in which export is dominated by vesicular exchange. We show that full maturation can contribute a significant fraction of the total out-flux for small organelles such as endosomes and Golgi cisternae.

  17. Specific surface area as a maturity index of lunar fines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammage, R. B.; Holmes, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    Mature surface fines have an equilibrium specific surface area of about 0.6 sq m/g the equivalent mean particle size being about 3 microns. The adsorption behavior of inert gases (reversible isotherms) indicates that the particles are also nonporous in the size range of pores from 10 to 3000 A. Apparently, in mature soils there is a balance in the forces which cause fining, attrition, pore filling, and growth of lunar dust grains. Immature, lightly irradiated soils usually have coarser grains which reduce in size as aging proceeds. The specific surface area, determined by nitrogen or krypton sorption at 77 K, is a valuable index of soil maturity.

  18. Predicting technology operational availability using technical maturity assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A technical maturity assessment method was performed by systems engineers in collaboration with an advisory panel composed of team members from different Department of Energy sites and from different engineering and science disciplines. Various stabilization technologies were assessed annually as to their relative maturity and availability for use in stabilizing nuclear materials. After three years of assessments, several of the technologies are now components of operational systems. A regression analysis of the historical assessments was performed, and it was concluded that the numerical technical maturity score produced by a team of experts can provide a powerful predictor of the time remaining until the operational application of technologies

  19. The Influence of Debt Maturity Structure on Accounting Conservatism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Huiqing; Chen Xinguo

    2015-01-01

    According to the related data of A-share listed companies in 2009-2013,through extension model based on Basu's surplus - the stock return rate model ,this paper studies that the debt maturity structure influences on accounting conservatism. The empirical study finds that the amount of debt affects significantly the prudence,that is,the greater the amount of the debt contract con- cluded, the stronger role of accounting conservatism is ; Debt maturity have significant relationship with accounting conservatism. For the shorter debt maturity, the enterprise is easier to choose more prudent accounting policy, and when the period is longer, accounting conservatism is relatively weaker.

  20. Algorithms for Finding the Inverses of Factor Block Circulant Matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, algorithms for finding the inverse of a factor block circulant matrix,a factor block retrocirculant matrix and partitioned matrix with factor block circulant blocks over the complex field are presented respectively. In addition, two algorithms for the inverse of a factor block circulant matrix over the quaternion division algebra are proposed.

  1. EnviroAtlas - Memphis, TN - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Memphis, TN EnviroAtlas community. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Austin, TX - Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is the base layer for the Austin, TX EnviroAtlas area. The block groups are from the US Census Bureau and are included/excluded based on...

  3. Block Tridiagonal Matrices in Electronic Structure Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dan Erik

    is developed and compared to standard Gaussian elimination, where it is shown to be qualitatively quicker for the task of determining the block tridiagonal portion of the Green’s function matrix. The Sweep algorithm is then parallelized via a straightforward approach in order to enable moderate speedup...... and memory distribution. The well known block cyclic reduction algorithm first developed by Gene Golub is then presented and analyzed for further expanding our parallel options, and finally a new hybrid method that combines block cyclic reduction and a form of Schur complement calculation is introduced...... in the Landauer–Büttiker ballistic transport regime. These calculations concentrate on determining the so– called Green’s function matrix, or portions thereof, which is the inverse of a block tridiagonal general complex matrix. To this end, a sequential algorithm based on Gaussian elimination named Sweeps...

  4. Functionalization of Block Copolymer Vesicle Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Meier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In dilute aqueous solutions certain amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble into vesicles that enclose a small pool of water with a membrane. Such polymersomes have promising applications ranging from targeted drug-delivery devices, to biosensors, and nanoreactors. Interactions between block copolymer membranes and their surroundings are important factors that determine their potential biomedical applications. Such interactions are influenced predominantly by the membrane surface. We review methods to functionalize block copolymer vesicle surfaces by chemical means with ligands such as antibodies, adhesion moieties, enzymes, carbohydrates and fluorophores. Furthermore, surface-functionalization can be achieved by self-assembly of polymers that carry ligands at their chain ends or in their hydrophilic blocks. While this review focuses on the strategies to functionalize vesicle surfaces, the applications realized by, and envisioned for, such functional polymersomes are also highlighted.

  5. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao

    Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential...... applications as, e.g., membranes for separation and purification, templates for nanostructured materials, sensors, substrates for catalysis, low dielectric constant materials, photonic materials, and depots for controlled drug delivery. The development of nanoporous polymers with well controlled pore wall...... functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed...

  6. Quantum Integrable Systems from Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Heng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    In this note, we extend the striking connections between quantum integrable systems and conformal blocks recently found in http://arxiv.org/abs/1602.01858 in several directions. First, we explicitly demonstrate that the action of quartic conformal Casimir operator on general d-dimensional scalar conformal blocks, can be expressed in terms of certain combinations of commuting integrals of motions of the two particle hyperbolic BC2 Calogero-Sutherland system. The permutation and reflection properties of the underlying Dunkl operators play crucial roles in establishing such a connection. Next, we show that the scalar superconformal blocks in SCFTs with four and eight supercharges and suitable chirality constraints can also be identified with the eigenfunctions of the same Calogero-Sutherland system, this demonstrates the universality of such a connection. Finally, we observe that the so-called "seed" conformal blocks for constructing four point functions for operators with arbitrary space-time spins in four dime...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: progressive familial heart block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions Enable Javascript for addthis links to activate. ... Conditions Genes Chromosomes & mtDNA Resources Help Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions progressive familial heart block progressive ...

  8. Deformations of one-dimensional block media

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrova, Nadezhda

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives a description of wave propagation in discrete-periodic one-dimensional media with block structure. For one-dimensional problems mathematical models are proposed that describe block structures in the form of a mass chain or bars connected by elastic springs and viscous dampers. For these models, the numerical calculations of the parameters of perturbations are obtained as well as asymptotic solutions at large time since the beginning of pulse action. The numerical calculations and analytical solutions are compared.

  9. Investigating Mortality Uncertainty Using the Block Bootstrap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a block bootstrap method for measuring mortality risk under the Lee-Carter model framework. In order to take account of all sources of risk (the process risk, the parameter risk, and the model risk properly, a block bootstrap is needed to cope with the spatial dependence found in the residuals. As a result, the prediction intervals we obtain for life expectancy are more accurate than the ones obtained from other similar methods.

  10. Theory of circuit block switch-off

    OpenAIRE

    S. Henzler; J. Berthold; G. Georgakos; Schmitt-Landsiedel, D.

    2005-01-01

    Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO) schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for...

  11. Latent Block Model for Contingency Table

    OpenAIRE

    Govaert, Gérard; Nadif, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Although many clustering procedures aim to construct an optimal partition of objects or, sometimes, variables, there are other methods, called block clustering methods, which simultaneously consider the two sets and organize the data into homogeneous blocks. This kind of method has practical importance in a wide variety of applications such as text and market basket data analysis. Typically, the data that arise in these applications are arranged as a two-way contingency table. Using Poisson d...

  12. Building-block selectivity of polyketide synthases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Grace F; Khosla, Chaitan

    2003-04-01

    For the past decade, polyketide synthases have presented an exciting paradigm for the controlled manipulation of complex natural product structure. These multifunctional enzymes catalyze the biosynthesis of polyketide natural products by stepwise condensation and modification of metabolically derived building blocks. In particular, regioselective modification of polyketide structure is possible by alterations in either intracellular acyl-CoA pools or, more commonly, by manipulation of acyl transferases that act as the primary gatekeepers for building blocks.

  13. Investigating Mortality Uncertainty Using the Block Bootstrap

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaoming Liu; W. John Braun

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a block bootstrap method for measuring mortality risk under the Lee-Carter model framework. In order to take account of all sources of risk (the process risk, the parameter risk, and the model risk) properly, a block bootstrap is needed to cope with the spatial dependence found in the residuals. As a result, the prediction intervals we obtain for life expectancy are more accurate than the ones obtained from other similar methods.

  14. Theoretical comparisons of block bootstrap methods

    OpenAIRE

    Lahiri, S. N.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the asymptotic behavior of some common block bootstrap methods based on nonrandom as well as random block lengths. It is shown that, asymptotically, bootstrap estimators derived using any of the methods considered in the paper have the same amount of bias to the first order. However, the variances of these bootstrap estimators may be different even in the first order. Expansions for the bias, the variance and the mean-squared error of different bloc...

  15. Paravertebral block: review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Karaman Ilić, Maja; NESEK ADAM, VIŠNJA; MATOLIĆ, MARTINA; Kogler, Jana; Butković, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paravertebral Block (PVB) is an established regional anesthetic technique. It is technically easy to perform and is being used increasingly for intra-operative and post-operative analgesia. This popularity is mainly due to the ease of the technique and fewer complications. Materials and Methods: This is quantitative systematic review of literature database with the aim to assess the efficacy and safety of Paravertebral block in thoracic, abdominal and breast surgery. Resul...

  16. Determining Block Detector Positions for PET Scanners

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce, Larry; Miyaoka, Robert; Lewellen, Tom; Alessio, Adam; Kinahan, Paul

    2009-01-01

    We present an algorithm for accurate localization of block detectors in a positron emission tomography (PET) scanner. Accurate reconstruction of PET images requires precise knowledge of the physical position and orientation of the detectors. However, in some systems, block detector positioning and orientation can have relatively large tolerances, leading to implicit errors in the coincidence line-of-response (LOR) positioning. To compensate we utilize a rotating point source phantom where the...

  17. Permutations with Ascending and Descending Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Steinhardt, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    We investigate permutations in terms of their cycle structure and descent set. To do this, we generalize the classical bijection of Gessel and Reutenauer to deal with permutations that have some ascending and some descending blocks. We then provide the first bijective proofs of some known results. We also solve some problems posed in [3] by Eriksen, Freij, and Wastlund, who study derangements that descend in blocks of prescribed lengths.

  18. Dietary cholesterol modulates pathogen blocking by Wolbachia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P Caragata

    Full Text Available The bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis protects its hosts from a range of pathogens by limiting their ability to form infections inside the insect. This "pathogen blocking" could be explained by innate immune priming by the symbiont, competition for host-derived resources between pathogens and Wolbachia, or the direct modification of the cell or cellular environment by Wolbachia. Recent comparative work in Drosophila and the mosquito Aedes aegypti has shown that an immune response is not required for pathogen blocking, implying that there must be an additional component to the mechanism. Here we have examined the involvement of cholesterol in pathogen blocking using a system of dietary manipulation in Drosophila melanogaster in combination with challenge by Drosophila C virus (DCV, a common fly pathogen. We observed that flies reared on cholesterol-enriched diets infected with the Wolbachia strains wMelPop and wMelCS exhibited reduced pathogen blocking, with viral-induced mortality occurring 2-5 days earlier than flies reared on Standard diet. This shift toward greater virulence in the presence of cholesterol also corresponded to higher viral copy numbers in the host. Interestingly, an increase in dietary cholesterol did not have an effect on Wolbachia density except in one case, but this did not directly affect the strength of pathogen blocking. Our results indicate that host cholesterol levels are involved with the ability of Wolbachia-infected flies to resist DCV infections, suggesting that cholesterol contributes to the underlying mechanism of pathogen blocking.

  19. MIBSA: Multi Interacting Blocks for Slope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattola, Giuseppe; Crosta, Giovanni; Castellanza, Riccardo; di Prisco, Claudio

    2016-04-01

    As it is well known, the slope instabilities have very important consequences in terms of human lives and activities. So predicting the evolution in time and space of slope mass movements becomes fundamental. This is even more relevant when we consider that the triggering mechanisms are a rising ground water level and the occurrence of earthquakes. Therefore, seasonal rainfall has a direct influence on the triggering of large rock and earthslide with a composite failure surface and causing differential behaviors within the sliding mass. In this contribution, a model describing the slope mass by means of an array of blocks that move on a prefixed failure surface, is defined. A shear band located at the base of each block, whose behavior is modelled via a viscous plastic model based on the Perzyna's approach, controls the slip velocity of the block. The motion of the blocks is obtained by solving the second balance equation in which the normal and tangential interaction forces are obtained by a specific interaction model. The model has been implemented in an original code and it is used to perform a parametric analysis that describes the effects of block interactions under a transient ground water oscillation. The numerical results confirm that the normal and tangential interactions between blocks can inhibit or induce the slope movements. The model is tested against some real case studies. This model is under development to add the dynamic effects generated by earthquake shaking.

  20. Block copolymer membranes for aqueous solution applications

    KAUST Repository

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    2016-03-22

    Block copolymers are known for their intricate morphology. We review the state of the art of block copolymer membranes and discuss perspectives in this field. The main focus is on pore morphology tuning with a short introduction on non-porous membranes. The two main strategies for pore formation in block copolymer membranes are (i) film casting and selective block sacrifice and (ii) self-assembly and non-solvent induced phase separation (SNIPS). Different fundamental aspects involved in the manufacture of block copolymer membranes are considered, including factors affecting the equilibrium morphology in solid films, self-assembly of copolymer in solutions and macrophase separation by solvent-non-solvent exchange. Different mechanisms are proposed for different depths of the SNIPS membrane. Block copolymer membranes can be prepared with much narrower pore size distribution than homopolymer membranes. Open questions and indications of what we consider the next development steps are finally discussed. They include the synthesis and application of new copolymers and specific functionalization, adding characteristics to respond to stimuli and chemical environment, polymerization-induced phase separation, and the manufacture of organic-inorganic hybrids.

  1. Peloid Mud: a multi-step maturation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redolfi, M.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work is understanding the process involved in the maturation of artificial peloid mud commonly use in thermal spa. I prepare a standard protocol for analysis: XRD, chemical, heat capacity and heavy metal sequential extraction . I also prepare 12 artificial peloid mud following the procedure describe in Veniale et al. (2004) mixing natural thermal waters form the Lazio region with a common clay also collected in Lazio Region with a ration of 1:1 in weight and put this mud in a sealed box at 40 °C for all the maturation process without remixing. Each peloid mud was sampled at one, three and six month of maturation, dried at 60 °C degree and milled for analysis. Each mud was compared with the result at one, three and six month to identify the major different of parameters at different time of maturation.

  2. Relationship between the IT projects performance and project management maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Oliveira Moraes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the relationship between performance of IT projects and the project management maturity of performing organization. The research was conducted through a survey with 185 respondents during the year 2010. The project performance was evaluated through the first two dimensions Shenhar et al (2001 - project efficiency and customer impact. The maturity of project management was assessed by the level of formalization of procedures for project management described in PMBoK. The data were analyzed using statistical procedures (factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha, cluster analysis and bivariate analysis and revealed that (i that organizations with higher maturity have a superior performance in their projects, and (ii different dimensions of maturity has different impacts on the performance of IT projects.

  3. Characters of age, sex and sexual maturity in Canada geese

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This paper discusses the characters of age, sex, and sexual maturity in Canada geese. Present findings are based on trap and/or bag samples of Canada geese. Methods...

  4. Indeks Penilaian Kematangan (Maturity Manajemen Keamanan Layanan TI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farroh Sakinah

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pemanfaatan Teknologi Informasi (TI dalam mendukung terselenggaranya pelayanan yang optimal menjadi kebutuhan utama organisasi saat ini. Jaminan pengelolaan layanan dan keamanan yang baik menjadi salah satu tolok ukurnya. Pengimplementasian sebuah standar menjadi salah satu solusinya meskipun penggunaan satu buah standar dirasa belum maksimal melihat cakupan yang disediakan kurang luas sehingga diadakannya upaya penggabungan beberapa standar dengan harapan standar-standar tersebut dapat saling melengkapi. Pengimplementasian beberapa standar ini dapat dimonitoring tingkat kematangannya (maturity dengan menggunakan alat ukur penilaian kematangan (maturity. Alat ukur kematangan (maturity manajemen keamanan layanan ini merupakan gabungan pemetaan dari control objective IT Governance COBIT 4.1 yang dipenuhi kebutuhan manajemen layanannya sesuai dengan Service Management di dalam ITIL v3 (Information Technology Infrastructure Library. Selanjutnya kebutuhan manajemen layanan ini diukur dengan maturity level COBIT 4.1 dan disesuaikan dengan framework ISO 27000 untuk memaksimalkan manajemen keamanan informasi.

  5. Malignant melanoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi E Godoy; Kesterson, Joshua P.; Kasznica, John M.; Lele, Shashikant

    2011-01-01

    ► Teratomas are composed of elements of all three germ layers, all potentially capable of undergoing malignant transformation. ► A case of malignant melanoma arising in a mature teratoma is presented.

  6. Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NIH Cortex Matures Faster in Youths With Highest IQ Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... on. Photo: Getty image (StockDisc) Youths with superior IQ are distinguished by how fast the thinking part ...

  7. Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulation (AIMM) - maturation, exploitation and implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads

    This thesis introduces the Autonomous Industrial Mobile Manipulator ”Little Helper”, a robotic co-worker which extends the potential of industrial robotics by combining locomotion and manipulation capabilities. The thesis presents promising findings for industrial maturation, exploitation...

  8. An evaluation method of hydrocarbon generating potential of highly mature and over-mature marine carbonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程克明; 王兆云

    1997-01-01

    How to restore the residual organic carbon and residual hydrocarbon-generating potential is discussed based on the hydrocarbon degradability of source rock. The results indicate there is linear function relationship between the restoring coefficient of residual organic carbon (Kc) and the vitrinite reflectance (Ro% ) of various kinds of source rock, but the relationship is secondary functional between the restoring coefficient of residual hydrocarbon-generating potential (Ks) and the vitrinite reflectance (R0%). It is pointed out that Kc= (1 - Dresidual)/(1-Dprimary), Xs=Kc (Dprimary/Dresidual). The restoration of residual organic carbon and hydrocarbon-gen era ting potential of the Cambrian and Ordovician highly mature marine carbonate in the Tarim Basin and North China region shows that the lower limit value of hydrocarbon generating potential and the organic matter abundance of carbonate source rock are basically the same as that of clastic rock. The technical difficulty in hydrocarbon generating eva

  9. Tumor cells prevent mouse dendritic cell maturation induced by TLR ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idoyaga, Juliana; Moreno, José; Bonifaz, Laura

    2007-08-01

    Tumor cells can evade the immune system through several mechanisms, one of which is to block DC maturation. It has been suggested that signaling via Toll-like receptors (TLR) may be involved in the induction of prophylactic anti-cancer immunity and in the treatment of established tumors. In the present study we found that high numbers of tumor cells interfere with BMDC activation induced by the TLR ligands LPS and poly IC. Tumor cells blocked TLR3- and TLR4-mediated induction of MHCII and the co-stimulatory molecules CD40 and CD86, as well as the cytokines IL-12, TNF-alpha and IL-6. Importantly, tumor cells induced inhibitory molecules (B7-DC, B7-H1 and CD80) on spleen DC in vivo and on BMDC, even in the presence of TLR ligands. Moreover, after a long exposure with tumor cells, purified BMDC were unable to respond to a second challenge with TLR ligands. The failure of tumor exposed-BMDC to express co-stimulatory molecules and cytokines in the presence of TLR ligands has implications for the future development of DC-based cancer immune therapies using TLR ligands as adjuvants for the activation of DC.

  10. Results of measurement procedure of innovation maturity of business

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Kozlova

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article the basic approaches of innovation maturity of business has been applied. The realization procedure of innovation maturity as an example of organizations of Perm’s region has been call attention. The preliminary potential assessments of perception of plans innovations will give optimize selection innovative strategy for organization and increase the effectiveness of business for microeconomics and region’s level.

  11. Maturity Structure and Debt Renegotiation in International Lending

    OpenAIRE

    Jaromir Nosal

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model of sovereign default with multi-period debt contracts with endogenous maturity. The sovereign in the model chooses the most favorable combination of interest rate, loan size and maturity out of the contracts oered in equilibrium by international lenders. All three characteristics of the contract endogenously vary with the business cycle of the sovereign. Additionally, in contrast to existing theories, we explicitly model the debt overhang problem: that the market p...

  12. Gait maturation in children with cerebral palsy: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    J.S. Marques; P. Roquetti Fernandes; J. Fernandes Filho; F. B. Policarpo

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at observing children with cerebral palsy's (CP) gait maturation and to correlate gait maturation's motor skill parameters. Podogram and video shooting of eight children's gait were used. Children up to seven years of age participated in the study. Cluster analysis was applied, dividing the sample into two groups, using the relation between pelvis’ width and the spreading of the ankles (REL) as parameters. Data were analyzed using t-test, analysis of Deltas, and Pearson’s cor...

  13. Achieving higher capability maturity in construction process improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Keraminiyage, Kaushal; Amaratunga, Dilanthi; Haigh, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Process improvement has been identified as one of the potential mechanisms to achieve the desired performance improvements within the UK construction industry. In addition, it has further been recognised the importance of learning construction process improvement lessons from other industry examples. Software industry has exemplified a successful implementation of a process improvement strategy, based on the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) which evaluate the capabilities and maturities of org...

  14. Debt Maturity Choices, Multi-stage Investments and Financing Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    E. Agliardi; N. Koussis

    2014-01-01

    We develop a dynamic investment options framework with optimal capital structure and analyze the effect of debt maturity. We find that in the absence of financing constraints short-term debt maximizes firm value. In contrast with most literature results, in the absence of constraints, higher volatility may increase initial debt for firms with low initial revenues, issuing long term debt that expires after the investment option maturity. This effect, which is due to the option value of receivi...

  15. XGef Mediates Early CPEB Phosphorylation during Xenopus Oocyte Meiotic Maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Susana E.; Yuan, Lei; Lacza, Charlemagne; Ransom, Heather; Mahon, Gwendolyn M.; Whitehead, Ian P.; Hake, Laura E.

    2005-01-01

    Polyadenylation-induced translation is an important regulatory mechanism during metazoan development. During Xenopus oocyte meiotic progression, polyadenylation-induced translation is regulated by CPEB, which is activated by phosphorylation. XGef, a guanine exchange factor, is a CPEB-interacting protein involved in the early steps of progesterone-stimulated oocyte maturation. We find that XGef influences early oocyte maturation by directly influencing CPEB function. XGef and CPEB interact dur...

  16. Guidelines for assessing the knowledge management maturity of organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Kruger

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In a recent article Kruger and Snyman hypothesized that progressions in knowledge management maturity (from a strategic perspective are directly related to an increased ability to speed up the strategic cycle of imitation, consolidation and innovation. The arguments proposed, however, neglected to supply the reader with a practical toolkit or even a roadmap (a time-related matrix, or questionnaire to successfully measure succession in knowledge management maturity. This article builds on the previous one and proposes a questionnaire consisting of six sections, containing 101 descriptive questions, to enable organizations to test and assess their knowledge management maturity empirically. The development of an instrument to measure knowledge management maturity required adhering to a research design that combined theoretical propositions with practical experimentation. As a point of departure, a knowledge management maturity matrix consisting of seven maturity levels was formulated. All questions contained within the matrix were benchmarked against a survey questionnaire developed by the public management service of the OECD (PUMA and were also pre-tested and validated. This process of refinement led to the formulation of the Knowledge Management Maturity Questionnaire. To avoid any taint of this research being based only on theoretical propositions, the questionnaire was tested by 178 master students of the University of Pretoria, South Africa, in nine different industries. The proposed questionnaire provides a bridge between theoretical propositions and practical usability, not only enabling knowledge management practitioners to assess the level of knowledge management maturity reached successfully but, more importantly, also serving as a guideline to institutionalize further and future knowledge management endeavours.

  17. Enabling Front End of Innovation in a Mature Development Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum, Louise; Clausen, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Many mature development organizations find it difficult to handle radical and incremental innovations within the same organizational structures. We examine how organizational structures, management, development mindsets and cultures represent a constitution of development for the thinking...... in staging new temporary development spaces framing for alternative Front End of Innovation opportunities in a mature development organization. The analysis indicates that it is important to know of the implicit and explicit rules of the constitution of development as these are re-enacted and points...

  18. Study Progress on Tissue Culture of Maize Mature Embryo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongzhen; Cheng, Jun; Cheng, Yanping; Zhou, Xioafu

    It has been paid more and more attention on maize tissue culture as it is a basic work in maize genetic transformation, especially huge breakthrough has been made in maize tissue culture utilizing mature embryos as explants in the recent years. This paper reviewed the study progress on maize tissue culture and plant regeneration utilizing mature embryos as explants from callus induction, subculture, plant regeneration and browning reduction and so on.

  19. Project Management Maturity Analysis in the Serbian Energy Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Marko M. Mihic; Dejan C. Petrovic; Vladimir Lj. Obradovic; Aleksandar M. Vuckovic

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we will present an analysis of the current state of practice in project management in the energy sector in Serbia, wherein the mentioned analysis is based on the results of original research on project maturity in this field. This paper includes a literature review about the current situation in the Serbian energy system, the basic concepts and significance of the research of project maturity in organizations, the basic concepts related to the projects in the energy sector, as w...

  20. Differential retardation of organic matter maturation by overpressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO; Fang; JIANG; Jianqun; ZOU; Huayao; FANG; Yong; ZENG; Z

    2004-01-01

    The thermal evolution of organic matter (OM) is composed of a series of reactions that are paralell and successive with each other. Different reactions have different activation energy, different rates of product concentration variation, and different volume expansion effects,and therefore have different responses to overpressure, which determines the differential retardation of different OM maturation reactions and maturity parameters. Based upon comprehensive studies on the OM maturation in different pressure systems in the Yinggehai, Qiongdongnan and Bohai Bay basins, 4 hierarchies of overpressure retardation have been recognized. (1) OM maturation in all aspects has been retarded by overpressure. (2) The thermal evolution of hydrocarbons and thermal degradation of hydrogen-rich kerogens has been retarded, but the thermal evolution of hydrogen-poor kerogen components has not been affected by overpressure.As a result, vitrinite reflectance has not been retarded. (3) The thermal cracking of hydrocarbons has been retarded, yet overpressure has had little or no effect on thermal degradation of kerogens. (4) Overpressure has no detectable effect on all aspects of OM maturation. The hierarchy that overpressure has retarded all aspects of OM maturation is the combined result of "early"overpressure (overpressure began to develop when the source rock was still immature) and the protracted maintenances of closed fluid system. Any case that overpressure had developed too late, or overpressure was too small to reach the threshold values, or overpressured fluid had been frequently released, could give rise to the occurrence of state 4 that overpressure had no detectable effect on all aspects of OM maturation. It seems that in many basins, overpressure retardation of hierarchies 2 and 3 developed where the most commonly used maturity parameter,vitrinite reflectance, had not been affected. In theses cases, multiple parameters must be used to distinguish overpressure

  1. Exogastric mature teratoma in an infant: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jung Wook; Hwang, Yoon Joon; Kim, Su Young; Hur, Gham; Cha, Soon Joo [Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University School of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-08-15

    Gastric teratomas are extremely rare neoplasms that have clinical characteristics such as a male predominance and a benign nature. We experienced a case of mature gastric teratoma occurring in a 12-month-old boy, who presented with an exogastric cystic mass, and this was confirmed by complete excision with subsequent pathologic examination. We report here on the radiologic and pathologic findings of an exogastric mature teratoma in an infant.

  2. Immature Teratoma after Three Laparoscopic Resections for Mature Cystic Teratomas

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuhiro Nishioka; Naoto Furukawa; Taketoshi Noguchi; Hirotaka Kajihara; Kiyoshige Horie

    2014-01-01

    We report a case in which an immature teratoma developed following three previous resections for mature cystic teratomas. The patient was a 26-year-old nulliparous woman with a regular menstrual cycle. Twelve years earlier, she had consulted a pediatrician for complaints of lower abdominal pain. Bilateral cystic teratomas were suspected and she underwent a left salpingo-oophorectomy and a right cystectomy laparoscopically, and bilateral mature cystic teratomas were diagnosed histologically. S...

  3. Antioxidant activity of Agaricus brasiliensis basidiocarps on different maturation phases

    OpenAIRE

    Francielly Mourão; Suzana Harue Umeo; Orlando Seiko Takemura; Giani Andrea Linde; Nelson Barros Colauto

    2011-01-01

    Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al.(A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity ...

  4. Antioxidant Activity of Agaricus brasiliensis Basidiocarps on Different Maturation Phases

    OpenAIRE

    Mourão, Francielly; Harue Umeo, Suzana; Seiko Takemura, Orlando; Andrea Linde, Giani; Barros Colauto, Nelson

    2011-01-01

    Different maturation phases of basidiocarp could affect the bioactivity and concentration of some active substances. A. brasiliensis Wasser et al. (A. blazei Murrill) has shown antitumor activity that could be related to the antioxidant activity. However there is no information of the best basidiocarp maturation phase for extracting antioxidant substances in order to determine the moment of harvesting in mushroom cultivation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the antioxidant activity...

  5. A maturity model to assess organisational readiness for change

    OpenAIRE

    Zephir, Olivier; Minel, Stéphanie; Chapotot, Emilie

    2011-01-01

    International audience; The presented model which is developed in a European project allows project management teams to assess the organisational maturity to integrate new practices under structural or technological change. Maturity for change is defined here as workforce capability to operate effectively in transformed processes. This methodology is addressed to tackle organisational readiness to fulfil business objectives through technological and structural improvements. The tool integrate...

  6. A knowledge management framework to grow innovation capability maturity

    OpenAIRE

    Denéle Esterhuizen; Corne Schutte; Adeline du Toit

    2012-01-01

    Background: Innovation is a key prerequisite for being organisationally competitive. Therefore, it is imperative that enterprises grow and mature their innovation capability. Knowledge management plays a fundamental role in the ability of enterprises to innovate successfully.Objectives: There are no formal guidelines for using knowledge management to grow innovation capability maturity. The researchers intended to develop a knowledge management framework that enables innovation capability.Met...

  7. Guidelines for assessing the knowledge management maturity of organizations

    OpenAIRE

    C.J. Kruger; M.M.M. Snyman

    2007-01-01

    In a recent article Kruger and Snyman hypothesized that progressions in knowledge management maturity (from a strategic perspective) are directly related to an increased ability to speed up the strategic cycle of imitation, consolidation and innovation. The arguments proposed, however, neglected to supply the reader with a practical toolkit or even a roadmap (a time-related matrix, or questionnaire) to successfully measure succession in knowledge management maturity. This article builds on th...

  8. Mature ovarian teratoma with large floating fat globules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hye Min; Kim, See Hyung; Hwang, Il Seon [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    Mature ovarian teratoma (dermoid cyst), a germ cell neoplasm, is one of the most common ovarian tumors. It is composed of derivatives of three germ cell layers. A mature ovarian teratoma with intracystic fat globules is rare. The pathogenesis on the formation of fat globules is unclear. Here we present a pathologically proven cystic ovarian teratoma with three large floating fat globules in a young woman with CT and MR findings.

  9. Intra-His bundle block in 2:1 atrioventricular block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seung; Pyo; Hong; Yon; Woong; Park; Young; Soo; Lee

    2015-01-01

    Intra-hisian atrioventricular(AV) block is not a common phenomenon, but it is important for the development of advanced or complete AV block. We observed a 77-yearold female patient with the 2:1 AV block due to an intrahisian block. In this case we tried to detect the block site, but an alternating pattern of the AH conduction was noted on the His-electrogram in the electrophysiological study(EPS). The cause of the confusing finding might have been the instability of the catheter to record a His potential. We could detect a splitting of the Hiselectrogram with an intra-hisian block after minimal manipulation of the catheter. The authors’ observations suggest that catheter stability is important for a precise recording in the EPS and radiofrequency catheter ablation procedure.

  10. The Early Paleozoic paleogeography of the North China block and the other major blocks of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    With the summarization of the Early Paleozoic paleomagnetic data recently obtained from the three major blocks of China, the Early Paleozoic (I.e. Cambrian and Ordovician) paleogeographic positions of the North China, South China and Tarim blocks were discussed in detail. The North China, South China and Tarim blocks were inferred to be located adjacent to East Gondwana in low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere during the Early Cambrian. During the Early-Middle Ordovician, the South China and Tarim blocks were also located in low latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere with some affinities of the Gondwanaland, whereas the North China block may have episodically separated from the Gondwanaland, and might be sited close to the North America and Siberia. The reestablished paleogeographic configurations are in agreement with the studies on the biogeography, paleoclimate and sedimental facies of the North China and South China blocks.

  11. Tailored Immunogens Direct Affinity Maturation toward HIV Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briney, Bryan; Sok, Devin; Jardine, Joseph G; Kulp, Daniel W; Skog, Patrick; Menis, Sergey; Jacak, Ronald; Kalyuzhniy, Oleksandr; de Val, Natalia; Sesterhenn, Fabian; Le, Khoa M; Ramos, Alejandra; Jones, Meaghan; Saye-Francisco, Karen L; Blane, Tanya R; Spencer, Skye; Georgeson, Erik; Hu, Xiaozhen; Ozorowski, Gabriel; Adachi, Yumiko; Kubitz, Michael; Sarkar, Anita; Wilson, Ian A; Ward, Andrew B; Nemazee, David; Burton, Dennis R; Schief, William R

    2016-09-01

    Induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) is a primary goal of HIV vaccine development. VRC01-class bnAbs are important vaccine leads because their precursor B cells targeted by an engineered priming immunogen are relatively common among humans. This priming immunogen has demonstrated the ability to initiate a bnAb response in animal models, but recall and maturation toward bnAb development has not been shown. Here, we report the development of boosting immunogens designed to guide the genetic and functional maturation of previously primed VRC01-class precursors. Boosting a transgenic mouse model expressing germline VRC01 heavy chains produced broad neutralization of near-native isolates (N276A) and weak neutralization of fully native HIV. Functional and genetic characteristics indicate that the boosted mAbs are consistent with partially mature VRC01-class antibodies and place them on a maturation trajectory that leads toward mature VRC01-class bnAbs. The results show how reductionist sequential immunization can guide maturation of HIV bnAb responses. PMID:27610570

  12. Predictive Capability Maturity Model for computational modeling and simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberkampf, William Louis; Trucano, Timothy Guy; Pilch, Martin M.

    2007-10-01

    The Predictive Capability Maturity Model (PCMM) is a new model that can be used to assess the level of maturity of computational modeling and simulation (M&S) efforts. The development of the model is based on both the authors experience and their analysis of similar investigations in the past. The perspective taken in this report is one of judging the usefulness of a predictive capability that relies on the numerical solution to partial differential equations to better inform and improve decision making. The review of past investigations, such as the Software Engineering Institute's Capability Maturity Model Integration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Department of Defense Technology Readiness Levels, indicates that a more restricted, more interpretable method is needed to assess the maturity of an M&S effort. The PCMM addresses six contributing elements to M&S: (1) representation and geometric fidelity, (2) physics and material model fidelity, (3) code verification, (4) solution verification, (5) model validation, and (6) uncertainty quantification and sensitivity analysis. For each of these elements, attributes are identified that characterize four increasing levels of maturity. Importantly, the PCMM is a structured method for assessing the maturity of an M&S effort that is directed toward an engineering application of interest. The PCMM does not assess whether the M&S effort, the accuracy of the predictions, or the performance of the engineering system satisfies or does not satisfy specified application requirements.

  13. Information system maturity and the hospitality enterprise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Garbin Pranicevic

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to empirically evaluate the relationship between the maturity of hotels’ information systems and their performance. This study uses customized models of information system (IS maturity and hotel performance measurement. Since we wanted to include the intangible aspects of performance, we opted for an adapted application of the Balanced Scorecard model. In the empirical part of the paper, fundamental constructs of the model are verified, while the individual items are further evaluated by employing discriminant analysis to distinguish hotels with relatively low and high performance levels. The findings demonstrate the existence of a significant and positive relationship between IS maturity and two dimensions of performance in the hospitality industry – process quality and guest relationships. The level of employee development and financial performance do not seem to be related to IS maturity. Although representative, the sample is relatively small, and the primary data were collected in a single country. The paper provides a framework of IS maturity items in the hospitality industry which seem to contribute to hotels’ business performances. As such, it can serve as a practical framework relevant for IT management in tourism and hospitality. The paper addresses a topic already discussed in a range of industries, although it does not seem to have been empirically evaluated by many studies of the tourism and hospitality industry. In addition, a new theoretical model of IT maturity in tourism and hospitality is proposed.

  14. Gamma radiation in papaya harvested at three stages of maturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, Rodrigo Meirelles de Azevedo; Walder, Julio Marcos Melges [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Irradiacao de Alimentos]. E-mail: jmwalder@cena.usp.br

    2004-04-01

    Papaya is a fragile, perishable fruit, highly accepted worldwide. To keep the quality of papaya from harvest to the consumers, conservation techniques are often used; among them is the application of gamma irradiation. The objective of this work was to evaluate gamma irradiation in papayas harvested at three degrees of maturation, in order to increase shelf life. Papayas were harvested in perfect quality conditions and selected by skin coloration into three distinct degrees of maturation: maturation 0, or beginning of yellow coloration; maturation 1, yellow stripes more developed, and maturation 2, one third yellow. Half of them were irradiated with 0.75 kGy, while the other half became control treatment. They were analyzed in four periods of conservation, which were 1 DAI (days after irradiation refrigerated at 11 {+-} 1 deg C), 14 DAI, 14 DAI + 3 DRT (room temperature at 24 deg C {+-} 2 deg C) and 14 DAI + 6 DRT. The papaya maturation degree at harvest did not influence the radiation effect. Irradiation maintained firmness of papaya and, therefore, delayed ripening; modified the green color of papaya to a lighter, more intense tone, which determined more homogeneity in the development of the skin's yellow color (greater values of L{sup *} and chroma). There was no effect of irradiation in papaya weight loss, occurrence of diseases, chroma of flesh color, p H and total soluble solids contents. (author)

  15. Comparative Gene Expression Analysis of Mouse and Human Cardiac Maturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideki Uosaki; Y-h Taguchi

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how human cardiomyocytes mature is crucial to realizing stem cell-based heart regeneration, modeling adult heart diseases, and facilitating drug discovery. However, it is not feasible to analyze human samples for maturation due to inaccessibility to samples while cardiomy-ocytes mature during fetal development and childhood, as well as difficulty in avoiding variations among individuals. Using model animals such as mice can be a useful strategy;nonetheless, it is not well-understood whether and to what degree gene expression profiles during maturation are shared between humans and mice. Therefore, we performed a comparative gene expression analysis of mice and human samples. First, we examined two distinct mice microarray platforms for shared gene expression profiles, aiming to increase reliability of the analysis. We identified a set of genes display-ing progressive changes during maturation based on principal component analysis. Second, we demonstrated that the genes identified had a differential expression pattern between adult and ear-lier stages (e.g., fetus) common in mice and humans. Our findings provide a foundation for further genetic studies of cardiomyocyte maturation.

  16. Maternal synchronization of gestational length and lung maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Besnard

    Full Text Available Among all mammals, fetal growth and organ maturation must be precisely synchronized with gestational length to optimize survival at birth. Lack of pulmonary maturation is the major cause of infant mortality in preterm birth. Whether fetal or maternal genotypes influence the close relationship between the length of gestation and lung function at birth is unknown. Structural and biochemical indicators of pulmonary maturity were measured in two mouse strains whose gestational length differed by one day. Shorter gestation in C57BL/6J mice was associated with advanced morphological and biochemical pulmonary development and better perinatal survival when compared to A/J pups born prematurely. After ovarian transplantation, A/J pups were born early in C57BL/6J dams and survived after birth, consistent with maternal control gestational length. Expression of genes critical for perinatal lung function was assessed in A/J pups born after ovarian transfer. A subset of mRNAs important for perinatal respiratory adaptation was selectively induced in the A/J pups born after ovarian transfer. mRNAs precociously induced after ovarian transfer indicated an important role for the transcription factors C/EBPα and CREB in maternally induced lung maturation. We conclude that fetal lung maturation is determined by both fetal and maternal genotypes. Ovarian transfer experiments demonstrated that maternal genotype determines the timing of birth and can influence fetal lung growth and maturation to ensure perinatal survival.

  17. Rheological and Mechanical behaviour of Block copolymers, Multigraft copolymers and Block copolymer Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Thunga, Mahendra

    2009-01-01

    Block copolymers are commercially significant and fundamentally interesting class of polymeric materials. The ability to undergo interfacial thermodynamics-controlled microphase separation from a completely disordered state in the melt to a specifically defined ordered structure through self-organization makes the block copolymers based materials unique. Block copolymer are strongly replacing many of the commercially available polymers due to their unique microstructure and properties. The mo...

  18. Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Pia; Zaric, Dusanka; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm;

    2013-01-01

    Femoral nerve block (FNB), a commonly used postoperative pain treatment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), reduces quadriceps muscle strength essential for mobilization. In contrast, adductor canal block (ACB) is predominately a sensory nerve block. We hypothesized that ACB preserves quadriceps...... muscle strength as compared with FNB (primary end point) in patients after TKA. Secondary end points were effects on morphine consumption, pain, adductor muscle strength, morphine-related complications, and mobilization ability....

  19. Controlling sub-microdomain structure in microphase-ordered block copolymers and their nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Michelle Kathleen

    Block copolymers exhibit a wealth of morphologies that continue to find ubiquitous use in a diverse variety of mature and emergent (nano)technologies, such as photonic crystals, integrated circuits, pharmaceutical encapsulents, fuel cells and separation membranes. While numerous studies have explored the effects of molecular confinement on such copolymers, relatively few have examined the sub-microdomain structure that develops upon modification of copolymer molecular architecture or physical incorporation of nanoscale objects. This work will address two relevant topics in this vein: (i) bidisperse brushes formed by single block copolymer molecules and (ii) copolymer nanocomposites formed by addition of molecular or nanoscale additives. In the first case, an isomorphic series of asymmetric poly(styrene-b -isoprene-b-styrene) (S1IS2) triblock copolymers of systematically varied chain length has been synthesized from a parent SI diblock copolymer. Small-angle x-ray scattering, coupled with dynamic rheology and self-consistent field theory (SCFT), reveals that the progressively grown S2 block initially resides in the I-rich matrix and effectively reduces the copolymer incompatibility until a critical length is reached. At this length, the S2 block co-locates with the S1 block so that the two blocks generate a bidisperse brush (insofar as the S1 and S2 lengths differ). This single-molecule analog to binary block copolymer blends affords unique opportunities for materials design at sub-microdomain length scales and provides insight into the transition from diblock to triblock copolymer (and thermoplastic elastomeric nature). In the second case, I explore the distribution of molecular and nanoscale additives in microphase-ordered block copolymers and demonstrate via SCFT that an interfacial excess, which depends strongly on additive concentration, selectivity and relative size, develops. These predictions are in agreement with experimental findings. Moreover, using a

  20. Real-time ultrasound-guided comparison of adductor canal block and psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block in laparoscopic knee surgeries

    OpenAIRE

    Messeha, Medhat M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lumbar plexus block, combined with a sciatic nerve block, is an effective locoregional anesthetic technique for analgesia and anesthesia of the lower extremity. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical results outcome of the adductor canal block versus the psoas compartment block combined with sciatic nerve block using real time ultrasound guidance in patients undergoing elective laparoscopic knee surgeries. Patients and Methods: Ninety patients who were undergoing electi...

  1. Synthesis of polyacrylonitrile-block-polydimethylsiloxane-block-polyacrylonitrile triblock copolymers via RAFT polymerization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Yue; Deng Xu Wang; Jing Quan Liu; Jie Zhang; Sheng Yu Feng

    2012-01-01

    A new A-B-A type of block copolymers,polyacrylonitrile-block-polydimethylsiloxane-block-polyacrylonitrile (PAN-b-PDMS-b-PAN),which comprises two polymer blocks of different polarities and compatibilities,were synthesized for the first time via reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization.Reaction kinetics was investigated.PAN-b-PDMS-b-PAN films were prepared by spin-coating on glass chips.Significant order on the film surface morphologies was observed.(C) 2012 Jie Zhang.Published by Elsevier B.V.on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society.All rights reserved.

  2. A comparison of four different block bootstrap methods

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Radovanov; Aleksandra Marcikić

    2014-01-01

    The paper contains a description of four different block bootstrap methods, i.e., non-overlapping block bootstrap, overlapping block bootstrap (moving block bootstrap), stationary block bootstrap and subsampling. Furthermore, the basic goal of this paper is to quantify relative efficiency of each mentioned block bootstrap procedure and then to compare those methods. To achieve the goal, we measure mean square errors of estimation variance returns. The returns are calculated from 1250 daily ob...

  3. Randomized Block Subgradient Methods for Convex Nonsmooth and Stochastic Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Qi; Lan, Guanghui; Rangarajan, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Block coordinate descent methods and stochastic subgradient methods have been extensively studied in optimization and machine learning. By combining randomized block sampling with stochastic subgradient methods based on dual averaging, we present stochastic block dual averaging (SBDA)---a novel class of block subgradient methods for convex nonsmooth and stochastic optimization. SBDA requires only a block of subgradients and updates blocks of variables and hence has significantly lower iterati...

  4. [Effectiveness of sympathetic block using various technics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenberg, W

    1987-07-01

    Blocking of sympathetic conduction aims at permanent or temporary elimination of those pain pathways conducted by the sympathetic nervous system. In order to provide an objective evaluation of sufficient blocking effect, earlier inquiries referred to parameters such as: (1) observation of clinical signs such as Horner's syndrome, Guttman's sign, anhidrosis, extended venous filling; (2) difference in skin temperature of at least 1.5 degrees C between blocked and unblocked side; (3) increase in amplitude of the pulse wave; and (4) depression of the psychogalvanic reflex (PGR) on the blocked side (Fig. 1). In clinical practice, these control parameters are effective because they are time-saving, technically simple, and highly evidential. Further parameters for evaluating sympathetic blockade are examination of hydrosis by means of color indicators such as bromocresol and ninhydrin, oscillometry, and plethysmography. The effectiveness of sympathetic blockade after stellate ganglion and sympathetic trunk blocks has been verified by various authors. In a clinical study, 16 patients were divided into four groups in order to test the effectiveness of sympathetic blockade after spinal anesthesia with 3 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group I) and 4 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group II) and after peridural anesthesia with 15 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group III) and 20 ml 0.75% bupivacaine (group IV) by means of temperature difference, response of pulse wave amplitude and PGR between blocked lower and unblocked upper extremity, and sensory levels of block. The patients were classified as ASA I and II; their ages varied from 20 to 63 years.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Varietal Difference in Leaf Nitrogen Content and Leaf Area and Their Effects to Ripening Rate During Mature Period of japonica Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiRong-tian; KojimaNobuyoshi; 等

    1999-01-01

    Employing the pot experiment of the complete random block design with 6 replications,four varieties of japonica rice (Fujisaka 5,Honenwase,Akitakomachi and Taichung 65) were used to study the varietal differences in leaf nitrogen content (LNC) and leaf area during mature period,their relation and effects to the ripening rate.The results showed that (1) thee were varietal differences in LNC at the heading stage and the LNC decrease rate during the matur period,the high LNC at the heading stage was related to the rapid LNC decrease.(2) There were two phases of the leaf area changing process during the mature period,first was the stable,and second was the decreased phase.There was varietal difference in the critical time of phase 1 and phase 2.The hign leaf area in the phase 1 was in relation to the rapid leaf area decrease in the phase 2.It was not found that there was relation between the leaf quality and quantity.(2)It wa unfavorable to the ripening rate for the high leaf area at the heading stage and the rapid decrease of the leaf area during the mature period.(4)It was put forward that the super high yield rice variety should possess the not very high leaf area and high LNC at the heading stage,slow senescence in the leaf area during the mature period.

  6. Immature, Semi-mature and Fully mature Dendritic Cells: Towards a DC-cancer cells interface that augments anticancer immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Maria Dudek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Dendritic cells (DCs are the sentinel antigen-presenting cells of the immune system; such that their productive interface with the dying cancer cells is crucial for proper communication of the non-self status of cancer cells to the adaptive immune system. Efficiency and the ultimate success of such a communication hinges upon the maturation status of the DCs, attained following their interaction with cancer cells. Immature DCs facilitate tolerance towards cancer cells (observed for many apoptotic inducers while fully mature DCs can strongly promote anticancer immunity if they secrete the correct combinations of cytokines (observed when DCs interact with cancer cells undergoing immunogenic cell death (ICD. However, an intermediate population of DC maturation, called semi-mature DCs exists, which can potentiate either tolerogenicity or pro-tumourigenic responses (as happens in the case of certain chemotherapeutics and agents exerting ambivalent immune reactions. Specific combinations of DC phenotypic markers, DC-derived cytokines/chemokines, dying cancer cell-derived danger signals and other less characterized entities (e.g. exosomes can define the nature and evolution of the DC maturation state. In the present review, we discuss these different maturation states of DCs, how they might be attained and which anticancer agents or cell death modalities (e.g. tolerogenic cell death vs. ICD may regulate these states.

  7. Ultrasound guided TAP block versus ultrasound guided caudal block for pain relief in children undergoing lower abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Mohamed Alsadek

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: TAP block and caudal block under ultrasound guidance proved to be safe with no recorded complications either intra or postoperatively. Patient and parent satisfaction was markedly observed in case of TAP block.

  8. Chain exchange in block copolymer micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jie; Bates, Frank; Lodge, Timothy

    2014-03-01

    Block copolymer micelles are aggregates formed by self-assembly of amphiphilic copolymers dispersed in a selective solvent, driven by unfavorable interactions between the solvent and the core-forming block. Due to the relatively long chains being subject to additional thermodynamic and dynamic constraints (e.g., entanglements, crystallinity, vitrification), block copolymer micelles exhibit significantly slower equilibration kinetics than small molecule surfactants. As a result, details of the mechanism(s) of equilibration in block copolymer micelles remain unclear. This present works focuses on the chain exchange kinetics of poly(styrene-b-ethylenepropylene) block copolymers in squalane (C30H62) using time-resolved small angle neutron scattering (TR-SANS). A mixture of h-squalane and d-squalane is chosen so that it contrast matches a mixed 50/50 h/d polystyrene micelle core. When the temperature is appropriate and isotopically labeled chains undergo mixing, the mean core contrast with respect to the solvent decreases, and the scattering intensity is therefore reduced. This strategy allows direct probing of chain exchange rate from the time dependent scattering intensity I(q, t).

  9. Natural convection through enclosed disconnected solid blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lao, Fernando Cesar De; Junqueira, Silvio L.M.; Franco, Admilson T. [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mails: fernandodelai@gmail.com; silvio@utfpr.edu.br; admilson@utfpr.edu.br; Lage, Jose L. [Southern Methodist University (SMU), Dallas, TX (United States)]. E-mail: JLL@smu.edu

    2008-07-01

    In this study, the natural convection inside a fluid filled, enclosure containing several solid obstructions and being heated from the side is modeled and numerically simulated. The solid obstructions are equally spaced, conducting, and disconnected square blocks. The mathematical model is based on the balance equations of mass, momentum and energy, which are then solved numerically via the finite-volume method with the SIMPLEST algorithm and the HYBRID scheme. The effects of varying the solid-fluid thermal conductivity ratio (K), the fluid volume-fraction or porosity ({phi}), the number of solid blocks (N) and the heating strength (represented by the Rayleigh number, Ra) of the enclosure on the Nusselt number based on the surface-averaged heat transfer coefficient along the heated wall of the enclosure are studied. The results indicate a competing effect caused by the proximity of the solid blocks to the heated and cooled walls, vis-a-vis hindering the boundary layer growth, hence reducing the heat transfer effectiveness, and at the same time enhancing the heat transfer when the blocks' thermal conductivity is larger than that of the fluid. An analytical estimate of the minimum number of blocks beyond which the convection hindrance becomes predominant is presented and validated by the numerical results. (author)

  10. Corticosteroids reverse cytokine-induced block of survival and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells from rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Romy

    2008-09-01

    protein. The most potent corticosteroid tested, dexamethasone, was shown to counteract cytokine effects on membrane surface extension and capacitance. Furthermore, coapplication of dexamethasone blocked the cytokine-induced downregulation of the inwardly rectifying potassium current in 80% of the precursor cells and restored the cytokine-blocked down-regulation of the voltage activated Na+- and K+ currents during subsequent differentiation. Conclusion Our results show that treatment of oligodendrocyte precursors with the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IFN-γ block the differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursors at the level of the differentiation of the voltage-gated ion currents. Co-treatment with corticosteroids at the time of cytokine application restores to a considerable extent survival and differentiation of oligodendrocytes at the level of morphological, myelin protein as well as ion current maturation suggesting the option for a functional restoration of cytokine-damaged immature oligodendrocytes.

  11. Partial transmission block production for real efficient method of block and MLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ji Min; Park, Ju Young; Ju, Sang Kyu; Park, Jong Ho [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Samsung Medical Center, Sunkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    The Vaginal, the urethra, the vulva and anal cancer avoid the many dose to femur head and the additional treatment is necessary in inguinal LN. The partial transmission block to use inguinal LN addition there is to a method which it treats and produce partial transmission block a method and the MLC which to it analyzes. The Inguinal the LN treatment patient partial transmission it used block and the MLC in the object and with solid water phantom with the patient it reappeared the same depth. In order to analyze the error of the junction the EDR2 (Extended dose range, the Kodak and the U.S) it used the Film and it got film scanner it got the beam profile. The partial transmission block and the MLC bias characteristic, accuracy and stability of production for, it shared at hour and comparison it analyzed. The partial the transmission block compares in the MLC and the block production is difficult and production hour also above 1 hours. The custom the block the place where it revises the error of the junction is a difficult problem. If use of the MLC the fabrication will be break and only the periodical calibration of the MLC it will do and it will be able to use easily. The Inguinal there is to LN treatment and partial transmission block and the MLC there is efficiency of each one but there is a place where the junction of block for partial transmission block the production hour is caught long and it fixes and a point where the control of the block is difficult. Like this problem it transfers with the MLC and if it treats, it means the effective treatment will be possible.

  12. Partial transmission block production for real efficient method of block and MLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vaginal, the urethra, the vulva and anal cancer avoid the many dose to femur head and the additional treatment is necessary in inguinal LN. The partial transmission block to use inguinal LN addition there is to a method which it treats and produce partial transmission block a method and the MLC which to it analyzes. The Inguinal the LN treatment patient partial transmission it used block and the MLC in the object and with solid water phantom with the patient it reappeared the same depth. In order to analyze the error of the junction the EDR2 (Extended dose range, the Kodak and the U.S) it used the Film and it got film scanner it got the beam profile. The partial transmission block and the MLC bias characteristic, accuracy and stability of production for, it shared at hour and comparison it analyzed. The partial the transmission block compares in the MLC and the block production is difficult and production hour also above 1 hours. The custom the block the place where it revises the error of the junction is a difficult problem. If use of the MLC the fabrication will be break and only the periodical calibration of the MLC it will do and it will be able to use easily. The Inguinal there is to LN treatment and partial transmission block and the MLC there is efficiency of each one but there is a place where the junction of block for partial transmission block the production hour is caught long and it fixes and a point where the control of the block is difficult. Like this problem it transfers with the MLC and if it treats, it means the effective treatment will be possible.

  13. Sexual maturation pattern in the mirror of socioeconomic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzsar, Eva B; Zsakai, Annamaria

    2015-01-01

    The inequalities among the socioeconomic strata in the Hungarian society increased during the last decades. Since the socioeconomic conditions play a decisive part in shaping the growth and maturation of children, our purpose was to study the body structure and the growth and maturation pattern of children living in deprived regions in Hungary. Our former analysis revealed that the prevalence of non-normal nutritional status was significantly higher in children and adolescents living in the seriously deprived regions of Hungary than the national reference values. The main purpose of the present study was to compare the sexual maturation pattern of pubertal children living in the deprived regions by comparing the timing of pubertal maturation events to the national reference values. Sexual maturity status of 711 girls and 790 boys (aged 10 - 16 years) living in the deprived small regions of Hungary was compared to the national reference values (Hungarian National Growth Study II). Sexual maturity status was estimated by the stages of pubic hair, axillary hair, breast and external genitalia development, as well as by the menarcheal and spermarcheal status, respectively. The median ages of being in the pubertal stages of the sexual characteristics, menarcheal and spermarcheal age were estimated by probit analysis. By comparing it to the national reference values, the timing of pubertal development in boys and girls living in the seriously deprived regions showed a 1 - 3-month shift toward older ages. However, the length of sexual maturation: the interval between the median ages of the first and last pubertal stages of sexual characteristics was similar in the subjects living in the regions of Hungary as the Hungarian reference values. PMID:25779872

  14. MicroRNA function is required for neurite outgrowth of mature neurons in the mouse postnatal cerebral cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet eHong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the postnatal mammalian cerebral cortex is an assembly of numerous mature neurons that exhibit proper neurite outgrowth and axonal and dendritic morphology. While many protein coding genes are shown to be involved in neuronal maturation, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs in this process is also becoming evident. We here report that blocking miRNA biogenesis in differentiated neurons results in microcephaly-like phenotypes in the postnatal mouse brain. The smaller brain defect is not caused by defective neurogenesis, altered neuronal migration or significant neuronal cell death. Surprisingly, a dramatic increase in neuronal packing density within the postnatal brain is observed. Loss of miRNA function causes shorter neurite outgrowth and smaller soma size of mature neurons in vitro. Our results reveal the impact of miRNAs on normal development of neuronal morphology and brain function. Because neurite outgrowth is critical for neuroregeneration, our studies further highlight the importance of miRNAs in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Endotoxin-induced nitric oxide production rescues airway growth and maturation in atrophic fetal rat lung explants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inflammation induces premature maturation of the fetal lung but the signals causing this effect remain unclear. We determined if nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, evoked by Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 μg ml-1), participated in this process. Fetal rat lung airway surface complexity rose 2.5-fold over 96 h in response to LPS and was associated with increased iNOS protein expression and activity. iNOS inhibition by N6-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine-2HCl (L-NIL) abolished this and induced airway atrophy similar to untreated explants. Surfactant protein-C (SP-C) expression was also induced by LPS and abolished by L-NIL. As TGFβ suppresses iNOS activity, we determined if feedback regulation modulated NO-dependent maturation. LPS induced TGFβ1 release and SMAD4 nuclear translocation 96 h after treatment. Treatment of explants with a blocking antibody against TGFβ1 sustained NO production and airway morphogenesis whereas recombinant TGFβ1 antagonized these effects. Feedback regulation of NO synthesis by TGFβ may, thus, modulate airway branching and maturation of the fetal lung

  16. Casein kinase 1 alpha regulates chromosome congression and separation during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation and early embryo development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    Full Text Available Casein kinase I alpha (CK1α is a member of serine/threonine protein kinase, generally present in all eukaryotes. In mammals, CK1α regulates the transition from interphase to metaphase in mitosis. However, little is known about its role in meiosis. Here we examined Ck1α mRNA and protein expression, as well as its subcellular localization in mouse oocytes from germinal vesicle to the late 1-cell stage. Our results showed that the expression level of CK1α was increased in metaphase. Immunostaining results showed that CK1α colocalized with condensed chromosomes during oocyte meiotic maturation and early embryo development. We used the loss-of-function approach by employing CK1α specific morpholino injection to block the function of CK1α. This functional blocking leads to failure of polar body 1 (PB1 extrusion, chromosome misalignment and MII plate incrassation. We further found that D4476, a specific and efficient CK1 inhibitor, decreased the rate of PB1 extrusion. Moreover, D4476 resulted in giant polar body extrusion, oocyte pro-MI arrest, chromosome congression failure and impairment of embryo developmental potential. In addition, we employed pyrvinium pamoate (PP, an allosteric activator of CK1α, to enhance CK1α activity in oocytes. Supplementation of PP induced oocyte meiotic maturation failure, severe congression abnormalities and misalignment of chromosomes. Taken together, our study for the first time demonstrates that CK1α is required for chromosome alignment and segregation during oocyte meiotic maturation and early embryo development.

  17. Concentration Dependent Structure of Block Copolymer Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soohyung; Bates, Frank S.; Lodge, Timothy P.

    2015-03-01

    Addition of solvent molecules into block copolymer can induce additional interactions between the solvent and both blocks, and therefore expands the range of accessible self-assembled morphologies. In particular, the distribution of solvent molecules plays a key role in determining the microstructure and its characteristic domain spacing. In this study, concentration dependent structures formed by poly(styrene-b-ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) solution in squalane are investigated using small-angle X-ray scattering. This reveals that squalane is essentially completely segregated into the PEP domains. In addition, the conformation of the PS block changes from stretched to nearly fully relaxed (i.e., Gaussian conformation) as amounts of squalane increases. NRF

  18. Understanding dwarf galaxies as galactic building blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Tosi, M P

    2003-01-01

    This is a summary of a general discussion held during the third EuroConference on galaxy evolution. Various observational features of the stellar populations in present--day dwarf galaxies were presented to introduce the discussion on the possibility that these systems be the main building blocks of spiral and elliptical galaxies. Many people in the audience turned out to think that the inconsistencies among the observed properties of large and dwarf galaxies are too many to believe that the former are built up only by means of successive accretions of the latter. However, theorists of hierarchical galaxy formation suggested that present--day dwarfs are not representative of the galactic building blocks, which may be completely invisible nowadays. Some of them suggested that, contrary to what is usually assumed in hierarchical modelling, the actual building blocks were still fully gaseous systems when their major mergers occurred. If this is the case, then most of the inconsistencies can be overcome, and the ...

  19. Non-blocking message total ordering protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun; WANG JunLing

    2008-01-01

    Message total ordering is a critical part in active replication in order to maintain consistency among members in a fault tolerant group. The paper proposes a non-blocking message total ordering protocol (NBTOP) for distributed systems. Non-blocking property refers to that the members in a fault tolerant group keep on running independently without waiting for installing the same group view when a fault tolerant group evolves even when decision messages collide. NBTOP takes advantage of token ring as its logical control way. Members adopt re-requesting mechanism (RR) to obtain their lost decisions. Forward acknowledgement mechanism (FA) is put forth to solve decision collisions. The paper further proves that NBTOP satisfies the properties of total order, agreement, and termination. NBTOP is implemented, and its performance test is done. Comparing with the performance of Totem, the results show that NBTOP has a better total ordering delay. It manifests that non-blocking property helps to improve protocol efficiency.

  20. Radial expansion for spinning conformal blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Costa, Miguel$uPorto U.; Hansen, Tobias; Penedones, João; Trevisani, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    This paper develops a method to compute any bosonic conformal block as a series expansion in the optimal radial coordinate introduced by Hogervorst and Rychkov. The method reduces to the known result when the external operators are all the same scalar operator, but it allows to compute conformal blocks for external operators with spin. Moreover, we explain how to write closed form recursion relations for the coefficients of the expansions. We study three examples of four point functions in detail: one vector and three scalars; two vectors and two scalars; two spin 2 tensors and two scalars. Finally, for the case of two external vectors, we also provide a more efficient way to generate the series expansion using the analytic structure of the blocks as a function of the scaling dimension of the exchanged operator.