Sample records for blocks latent transforming

  1. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition delays wound healing and blocks the latent transforming growth factor-beta1-promoted myofibroblast formation and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirastschijski, Ursula; Schnabel, Reinhild; Claes, Juliane


    The ability to regulate wound contraction is critical for wound healing as well as for pathological contractures. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been demonstrated to be obligatory for normal wound healing. This study examined the effect that the broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor BB-94 has when...... applied topically to full-thickness skin excisional wounds in rats and its ability to inhibit the promotion of myofibroblast formation and function by the latent transforming-growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). BB-94 delayed wound contraction, as well as all other associated aspects of wound healing examined...... and may explain why wound contraction and other associated events of wound healing were only delayed and not completely inhibited. BB-94 was also found to inhibit the ability of latent TGF-beta1 to promote the formation and function of myofibroblasts. These results suggest that BB-94 could delay wound...

  2. Blocking of potentiation of latent inhibition. (United States)

    Hall, Geoffrey; Rodriguez, Gabriel


    We present a theory of latent inhibition based on the Pearce-Hall (Pearce & Hall, 1980) model for classical conditioning. Its central features are (1) that the associability of a stimulus declines as it comes to predict its consequences and (2) that nonreinforced exposure to a stimulus engages an associative learning process that makes the stimulus an accurate predictor of its consequences (in this case, the occurrence of no event). A formalization of this theory is shown to accommodate the finding that preexposure in compound with another cue can potentiate latent inhibition to the target cue. It further predicts that preexposure to the added cue will eliminate the potentiation effect. An experiment using rats and the flavor-aversion procedure confirmed this prediction.

  3. Dorsal hippocampal lesions impair blocking but not latent inhibition of taste aversion learning in rats. (United States)

    Gallo, M; Cándido, A


    The aim of the present experiments was to study the effect of nonselective electrolytic lesions of the rat dorsal hippocampus on 2 learning phenomena: the L.J. Kamin (1969) blocking effect and latent inhibition of taste aversion learning. Bilateral dorsal hippocampal lesions selectively impaired blocking induced by 1 saccharin-lithium chloride pairing previous to 1 serial compound (saccharin-cider vinegar)-lithium pairing, but lesions had no effect on latent inhibition of a saline aversion, induced by 6 saline preexposures, in the same group of animals. Moreover, dorsal hippocampal lesions did not affect latent inhibition of saccharin-conditioned aversion induced by 1 or 6 preexposures. It is argued that blocking and latent inhibition of taste aversion learning do not share a common neural mechanism.

  4. Fermion RG blocking transformations and IR structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X


    We explore fermion RG block-spinning transformations on the lattice with the aim of studying the IR structure of gauge theories and, in particular, the existence of IR fixed points for varying fermion content. In the case of light fermions the main concern and difficulty is ensuring locality of any adopted blocking scheme. We discuss the problem of constructing a local blocked fermion action in the background of arbitrary gauge fields. We then discuss the carrying out of accompanying gauge field blocking. In the presence of the blocked fermions implementation of MCRG is not straightforward. By adopting judicious approximations we arrive at an easily implementable approximate RG recursion scheme that allows quick, inexpensive estimates of the location of conformal windows for various groups and fermion representations. We apply this scheme to locate the conformal windows in the case of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge groups. Some of the reasons for the apparent efficacy of this and similar decimation schemes are discuss...

  5. New Blocking Artifacts Reduction Method Based on Wavelet Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Min; YI Qing-ming


    It is well known that a block discrete cosine transform compressed image exhibits visually annoying blocking artifacts at low-bit-rate. A new post-processing deblocking algorithm in wavelet domain is proposed. The algorithm exploits blocking-artifact features shown in wavelet domain. The energy of blocking artifacts is concentrated into some lines to form annoying visual effects after wavelet transform. The aim of reducing blocking artifacts is to capture excessive energy on the block boundary effectively and reduce it below the visual scope. Adaptive operators for different subbands are computed based on the wavelet coefficients. The operators are made adaptive to different images and characteristics of blocking artifacts. Experimental results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the visual quality and also increase the peak signal-noise-ratio(PSNR) in the output image.

  6. Adaptive cosine transform image coding with variable block size and constant block distortion (United States)

    Daut, David G.; Wu, Jia-Chyi


    An adaptive discrete cosine transform (DCT) image coding system is implemented with the same average distortion designated for each variable size image block. The variable block size segmentation is performed using a quadtree data structure by dividing the perceptually more important regions of an image into smaller size blocks compared to the size of blocks containing lesser amounts of spatial activity. Due to the nonstationarity of real-world images, each image block is described by a space-varying nonstationary Gauss-Markov random field. The space-varying autoregressive parameters are estimated using an on-line modified least- squares estimator. For each assumed space-varying nonstationary image block, a constant average distortion is assigned and the code rate for each image block is allowed to vary in order to meet the fixed distortion criterion. Simulation results show that reconstructed images coded at low average distortion, based on an assumed space-varying nonstationary image model, using variable size blocks and with variable bit rate per block possess high-quality subjective (visual) and objective (measured) quality at low average bit rates. Performance gains are achieved due to the distortion being distributed more uniformly among the blocks as compared with fixed-rate, stationary image transform coding schemes.

  7. Saturation Detection-Based Blocking Scheme for Transformer Differential Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung Eun Lee


    Full Text Available This paper describes a current differential relay for transformer protection that operates in conjunction with a core saturation detection-based blocking algorithm. The differential current for the magnetic inrush or over-excitation has a point of inflection at the start and end of each saturation period of the transformer core. At these instants, discontinuities arise in the first-difference function of the differential current. The second- and third-difference functions convert the points of inflection into pulses, the magnitudes of which are large enough to detect core saturation. The blocking signal is activated if the third-difference of the differential current is larger than the threshold and is maintained for one cycle. In addition, a method to discriminate between transformer saturation and current transformer (CT saturation is included. The performance of the proposed blocking scheme was compared with that of a conventional harmonic blocking method. The test results indicate that the proposed scheme successfully discriminates internal faults even with CT saturation from the magnetic inrush, over-excitation, and external faults with CT saturation, and can significantly reduce the operating time delay of the relay.

  8. Latent Epstein-Barr virus can inhibit apoptosis in B cells by blocking the induction of NOXA expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade Yee

    Full Text Available Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV has been shown to protect Burkitt's lymphoma-derived B cells from apoptosis induced by agents that cause damage to DNA, in the context of mutant p53. This protection requires expression of the latency-associated nuclear proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C and correlates with their ability to cooperate in the repression of the gene encoding the pro-apoptotic, BH3-only protein BIM. Here we confirm that latent EBV in B cells also inhibits apoptosis induced by two other agents--ionomycin and staurosporine--and show that these act by a distinct pathway that involves a p53-independent increase in expression of another pro-apoptotic, BH3-only protein, NOXA. Analyses employing a variety of B cells infected with naturally occurring EBV or B95.8 EBV-BAC recombinant mutants indicated that the block to NOXA induction does not depend on the well-characterized viral latency-associated genes (EBNAs 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C, the LMPs or the EBERs or expression of BIM. Regulation of NOXA was shown to be at least partly at the level of mRNA and the requirement for NOXA to induce cell death in this context was demonstrated by NOXA-specific shRNA-mediated depletion experiments. Although recombinant EBV with a deletion removing the BHRF1 locus--that encodes the BCL2-homologue BHRF1 and three microRNAs--partially abrogates protection against ionomycin and staurosporine, the deletion has no effect on the EBV-mediated block to NOXA accumulation.

  9. Latent Epstein-Barr virus can inhibit apoptosis in B cells by blocking the induction of NOXA expression. (United States)

    Yee, Jade; White, Robert E; Anderton, Emma; Allday, Martin J


    Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been shown to protect Burkitt's lymphoma-derived B cells from apoptosis induced by agents that cause damage to DNA, in the context of mutant p53. This protection requires expression of the latency-associated nuclear proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C and correlates with their ability to cooperate in the repression of the gene encoding the pro-apoptotic, BH3-only protein BIM. Here we confirm that latent EBV in B cells also inhibits apoptosis induced by two other agents--ionomycin and staurosporine--and show that these act by a distinct pathway that involves a p53-independent increase in expression of another pro-apoptotic, BH3-only protein, NOXA. Analyses employing a variety of B cells infected with naturally occurring EBV or B95.8 EBV-BAC recombinant mutants indicated that the block to NOXA induction does not depend on the well-characterized viral latency-associated genes (EBNAs 1, 2, 3A, 3B, 3C, the LMPs or the EBERs) or expression of BIM. Regulation of NOXA was shown to be at least partly at the level of mRNA and the requirement for NOXA to induce cell death in this context was demonstrated by NOXA-specific shRNA-mediated depletion experiments. Although recombinant EBV with a deletion removing the BHRF1 locus--that encodes the BCL2-homologue BHRF1 and three microRNAs--partially abrogates protection against ionomycin and staurosporine, the deletion has no effect on the EBV-mediated block to NOXA accumulation.

  10. Induction of latent memory for conditioned food aversion and its transformation into "active" state depend on translation and transcription processes. (United States)

    Solntseva, S V; Nikitin, V P


    Mechanisms of induction and retrieval of latent (hidden) memory for conditioned food aversion were investigated in snails. After initial training (single combination of a food stimulus with electric shock), aversive reactions to presentation of the conditioned food stimulus were not revealed. Repeated presentation of the stimuli in 12 days after the first combination was followed by the appearance of aversive food reactions that persisted for at least 14 days. Injections of inhibitors of protein (cycloheximide) or RNA (α-amanitin) synthesis immediately after the first or second combined presentation of the stimuli disturbed skill performance. We hypothesized that single combination of food and reinforcing stimuli led to translation- and transcription-dependent induction of latent conditioned food aversion memory. Transformation of this memory into an active state after repeated presentation of the stimulus combination also depends on the synthesis of new proteins and RNA.

  11. Closer to nature – bio-inspired patterns by transforming latent lithographic images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giselbrecht, Stefan; Reinhardt, Martina; Mappes, Timo; Börner, Martin; Gottwald, Eric; Blitterswijk, van Clemens; Saile, Volker; Truckenmüller, Roman


    Inspired by nature, a new strategy to create three-dimensional organic structures spanning orders of magnitude by using a combination of deep UV or X-ray direct lithography with a solid-state forming process. The stored latent lithographic image is transferred to three-dimensional curvilinear surfac

  12. Fabrication of calcite blocks from gypsum blocks by compositional transformation based on dissolution-precipitation reactions in sodium carbonate solution. (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kunio; Kawachi, Giichiro; Tsuru, Kanji; Yoshimoto, Ayami


    Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) has been used as a bone substitute, and is a precursor for carbonate apatite, which is also a promising bone substitute. However, limited studies have been reported on the fabrication of artificial calcite blocks. In the present study, cylindrical calcite blocks (ϕ6×3mm) were fabricated by compositional transformation based on dissolution-precipitation reactions using different calcium sulfate blocks as a precursor. In the dissolution-precipitation reactions, both CaSO4·2H2O and CaSO4 transformed into calcite, a polymorph of CaCO3, while maintaining their macroscopic structure when immersed in 1mol/L Na2CO3 solution at 80°C for 1week. The diametral tensile strengths of the calcite blocks formed using CaSO4·2H2O and CaSO4 were 1.0±0.3 and 2.3±0.7MPa, respectively. The fabrication of calcite blocks using CaSO4·2H2O and CaSO4 proposed in this investigation may be a useful method to produce calcite blocks because of the self-setting ability and high temperature stability of gypsum precursors.

  13. Latent heat contribution to the direct magnetocaloric effect in Ni-Mn-Ga shape memory alloys with coupled martensitic and magnetic transformations (United States)

    Caballero-Flores, R.; Sánchez-Alarcos, V.; Recarte, V.; Pérez-Landazábal, J. I.; Gómez-Polo, C.


    We report the direct magnetocaloric response of materials that present a second-order phase transition in the temperature range where a first-order structural transition also occurs. In particular, the influence of the latent heat on the field-induced adiabatic temperature change has been analyzed in a Ni-Mn-Ga alloy with coupled martensitic and magnetic transformations. It is found that discrepancies around 20% arise depending on whether the latent heat is taken into account or not. From the observed results, a general expression for the indirect determination of the adiabatic temperature change, that takes into account the contributions of both the martensitic and magnetic transformations, is proposed and experimentally confirmed. The observed key role of the latent heat allows us to understand why materials with first-order transformations do not present adiabatic temperature changes as higher as those which would correspond to materials undergoing second-order transformations with similar isothermal entropy change.

  14. Block-based SVD image watermarking in spatial and transform domains (United States)

    Ghazy, Rania A.; Abbas, Alaa M.; Al-Zubi, Nayel; Hassan, Emad S.; El-Fishawy, Nawal A.; Hadhoud, Mohiy M.; Dessouky, Moawad I.; El-Rabaie, El-Sayed M.; Alshebeili, Saleh A.; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.


    The idea of this paper is to implement an efficient block-by-block singular value (SV) decomposition digital image watermarking algorithm, which is implemented in both the spatial and transforms domains. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the discrete cosine transform and the discrete Fourier transform are exploited for this purpose. The original image or one of its transforms is segmented into non-overlapping blocks, and consequently the image to be inserted as a watermark is embedded in the SVs of these blocks. Embedding the watermark on a block-by-block manner ensures security and robustness to attacks such like Gaussian noise, cropping and compression. The proposed algorithm can also be used for colour image watermarking. A comparison study between the proposed block-based watermarking algorithm and the method of Liu is performed for watermarking in all domains. Simulation results ensure that the proposed algorithm is more effective than the traditional method of Liu, especially when the watermarking is performed in the DWT domain.

  15. Transformation Strategies between Block-Oriented and Graph-Oriented Process Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendling, Jan; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Zdun, Uwe

    to abstract from concrete transformationstrategies by distinguishing two major paradigms for process modelling languages:block-oriented languages (such as BPEL and BPML) and graph-oriented languages(such as EPCs and YAWL). The contribution of this paper are generic strategiesfor transforming from block...

  16. Analysis of the blocking behaviour of schema transformations in relational database systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, Lesley; Hofstra, Matthijs; Tammens, Menno; Huisman, Marieke; Keulen, van Maurice


    In earlier work we have extended the TPC-C benchmark with basic and complex schema transformations. This paper uses this benchmark to investigate the blocking behaviour of online schema transformations in PostgreSQL, MySQL and Oracle 11g. First we discuss experiments using the data definition langua

  17. Zero sequence blocking transformers for multi-pulse rectifier in aerospace applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yao, Wenli; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zhang, Xiaobin


    The power electronics technology plays an even more important role in the aerospace applications of More Electric Aircrafts (MEA). AutoTransformer Rectifier Units (ATRU) have been widely adopted in aircrafts due to its simplicity and reliability. In this paper, Zero Sequence Blocking Transformers...

  18. Warped Discrete Cosine Transform-Based Low Bit-Rate Block Coding Using Image Downsampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertürk Sarp


    Full Text Available This paper presents warped discrete cosine transform (WDCT-based low bit-rate block coding using image downsampling. While WDCT aims to improve the performance of conventional DCT by frequency warping, the WDCT has only been applicable to high bit-rate coding applications because of the overhead required to define the parameters of the warping filter. Recently, low bit-rate block coding based on image downsampling prior to block coding followed by upsampling after the decoding process is proposed to improve the compression performance for low bit-rate block coders. This paper demonstrates that a superior performance can be achieved if WDCT is used in conjunction with image downsampling-based block coding for low bit-rate applications.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Kuzovlev


    Full Text Available Presents investigations on blocking  algorithm for transformer  current  protections  during magnetizing  inrush  current. The investigations have shown that the algorithm has high sensitivity and reliably determines magnetizing  inrush current modes.

  20. Transformation Strategies between Block-Oriented and Graph-Oriented Process Modelling Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mendling, Jan; Lassen, Kristian Bisgaard; Zdun, Uwe


    Much recent research work discusses the transformation between different process modelling languages. This work, however, is mainly focussed on specific process modelling languages, and thus the general reusability of the applied transformation concepts is rather limited. In this paper, we aim...... to abstract from concrete transformation strategies by distinguishing two major paradigms for representing control flow in process modelling languages: block-oriented languages (such as BPEL and BPML) and graph-oriented languages (such as EPCs and YAWL). The contribution of this paper are generic strategies...

  1. Efficient Synthesis of Cyclic Block Copolymers by Rotaxane Protocol by Linear/Cyclic Topology Transformation. (United States)

    Valentina, Stephanie; Ogawa, Takahiro; Nakazono, Kazuko; Aoki, Daisuke; Takata, Toshikazu


    High-yielding synthesis of cyclic block copolymer (CBC) using the rotaxane protocol by linear-cyclic polymer topology transformation was first demonstrated. Initial complexation of OH-terminated sec-ammonium salt and a crown ether was followed by the successive living ring-opening polymerizations of two lactones to a linear block copolymer having a rotaxane structure by the final capping of the propagation end. CBC was obtained in a high yield by an exploitation of the mechanical linkage through the translational movement of the rotaxane component to transform polymer structure from linear to cyclic. Furthermore, the change of the polymer topology was translated into a macroscopic change in crystallinity of the block copolymer.

  2. Latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein 4 is downregulated in esophageal cancer via promoter methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insa Bultmann

    Full Text Available Latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein 4 (LTBP4 is an extracellular matrix molecule that is a member of important connective tissue networks and is needed for the correct folding and the secretion of TGF-β1. LTBP4 is downregulated in carcinomas of various tissues. Here we show that LTBP4 is also downregulated in adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus in vitro and in vivo. Re-expression of LTBP4 in esophageal cancer cell lines reduced cell migration ability, whereas cell viability and cell proliferation remained unchanged. Hypermethylation of the promoter regions of the two main human LTBP4 transcriptional forms, LTBP4L and LTBP4S, was found to be involved in LTBP4 silencing. Detailed investigations of the methylation patterns of the promoter regions of LTBP4L and LTBP4S identified GATA1, SP1, E2F4 and SMAD3 as potential transcription factors involved in LTBP4 expression. In in vitro transcription factor activity studies we discovered E2F4 as novel powerful regulator for LTBP4S expression.

  3. seismic space-time transformation of the periphery of the Ordos block (United States)

    Qi, D.; Ping, L. C.; Yun, S.


    Ordos block is located on the eastern edge of the north-south seismic belt, northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the transfer of three plates of north China, south China and Qinghai-Tibet. Its internal structure is stable, on which earthquakes rarely occur, but the periphery has strong new tectonic movements on it. Research on the periphery of Ordos block seismic activity and transformation of time and space carried out new ideas of earthquake prediction for the area. This paper plots Ordos earthquake catalog data according to existing data, combined with the distribution of active tectonics, using GIS tools statistical regularity, analyze the seismic migration characteristics, earthquake recurrence interval, and predict future earthquake risk zone. In combination of the transformation of spatial and temporal periphery of the Ordos block seismic activity, we draw a conclusion : 1.The moderate earthquakes migrate from the northeastern margin to the southwestern margin of the Ordos, different magnitude earthquakes have different migration cycles. 2.The intensity of the periphery of the seismic activity was significantly higher than the north and south edge, but the north and south edge has higher risk of large earthquake. 3. Different earthquake fault zones has different migration of earthquakes, existing on the same directional migration, and migration between different fault zone. Key words: Ordos block; Seismic time-space transformation; earthquake tectonic movement.

  4. Latent N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the recurrent excitatory pathway between hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons: Ca(2+)-dependent activation by blocking A1 adenosine receptors. (United States)

    Klishin, A; Tsintsadze, T; Lozovaya, N; Krishtal, O


    When performed at increased external [Ca2+]/[Mg2+] ratio (2.5 mM/0.5 mM), temporary block of A1 adenosine receptors in hippocampus [by 8-cyclopentyltheophylline (CPT)] leads to a dramatic and irreversible change in the excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) evoked by Schaffer collateral/commissural (SCC) stimulation and recorded by in situ patch clamp in CA1 pyramidal neurons. The duration of the EPSC becomes stimulus dependent, increasing with increase in stimulus strength. The later occurring component of the EPSC is carried through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-operated channels but disappears under either the NMDA antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (APV) or the non-NMDA antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). These findings indicate that the late component of the SCC-evoked EPSC is polysynaptic: predominantly non-NMDA receptor-mediated SCC inputs excite CA1 neurons that recurrently excite each other by predominantly NDMA receptor-mediated synapses. These recurrent connections are normally silent but become active after CPT treatment, leading to enhancement of the late component of the EPSC. The activity of these connections is maintained for at least 2 hr after CPT removal. When all functional NMDA receptors are blocked by dizocilpine maleate (MK-801), subsequent application of CPT leads to a partial reappearance of NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs evoked by SCC stimulation, indicating that latent NMDA receptors are recruited. Altogether, these findings indicate the existence of a powerful system of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic contacts in SCC input to hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons and probably also in reciprocal connections between these neurons, which in the usual preparation are kept latent by activity of A1 receptors. PMID:8618915

  5. Lambda-Dropping: Transforming Recursive Equations into Programs with Block Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh


    ;rbæk's case study presented at PEPM '95, most polyvariant specializers for procedural programs operate on recursive equations. To this end, in a pre-processing phase, they lambda-lift source programs into recursive equations, As a result, residual programs are also expressed as recursive equations, often......Lambda-lifting a functional program transforms it into a set of recursive equations. We present the symmetric transformation: lambda-dropping. Lambda-dropping a set of recursive equations restores block structure and lexical scope.For lack of scope, recursive equations must carry around all...... with dozens of parameters, which most compilers do not handle efficiently. Lambda-dropping in a post-processing phase restores their block structure and lexical scope thereby significantly reducing both the compile time and the run time of residual programs....

  6. Lambda-Dropping: Transforming Recursive Equations into Programs with Block Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh


    ;rbæk's case study presented at PEPM '95, most polyvariant specializers for procedural programs operate on recursive equations. To this end, in a pre-processing phase, they lambda-lift source programs into recursive equations, As a result, residual programs are also expressed as recursive equations, often......Lambda-lifting a functional program transforms it into a set of recursive equations. We present the symmetric transformation: lambda-dropping. Lambda-dropping a set of recursive equations restores block structure and lexical scope.For lack of scope, recursive equations must carry around all...... with dozens of parameters, which most compilers do not handle efficiently. Lambda-dropping in a post-processing phase restores their block structure and lexical scope thereby significantly reducing both the compile time and the run time of residual programs....

  7. Lambda-Dropping: Transforming Recursive Equations into Programs with Block Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh


    ;rbæk's case study presented at PEPM '95, most polyvariant specializers for procedural programs operate on recursive equations. To this end, in a pre-processing phase, they lambda-lift source programs into recursive equations, As a result, residual programs are also expressed as recursive equations, often......Lambda-lifting a functional program transforms it into a set of recursive equations. We present the symmetric transformation: lambda-dropping. Lambda-dropping a set of recursive equations restores block structure and lexical scope.For lack of scope, recursive equations must carry around all...... with dozens of parameters, which most compilers do not handle efficiently. Lambda-dropping in a post-processing phase restores their block structure and lexical scope thereby significantly reducing both the compile time and the run time of residual programs....

  8. Block Based Video Watermarking Scheme Using Wavelet Transform and Principle Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen I. Yassin


    Full Text Available In this paper, a comprehensive approach for digital video watermarking is introduced, where a binary watermark image is embedded into the video frames. Each video frame is decomposed into sub-images using 2 level discrete wavelet transform then the Principle Component Analysis (PCA transformation is applied for each block in the two bands LL and HH. The watermark is embedded into the maximum coefficient of the PCA block of the two bands. The proposed scheme is tested using a number of video sequences. Experimental results show high imperceptibility where there is no noticeable difference between the watermarked video frames and the original frames. The computed PSNR achieves high score which is 44.097 db. The proposed scheme shows high robustness against several attacks such as JPEG coding, Gaussian noise addition, histogram equalization, gamma correction, and contrast adjustment.

  9. Medical Image Watermarking in Sub-block Three-dimensional Discrete Cosine Transform Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Han


    Full Text Available Digital watermarking can be applied to protection of medical images privacy, hiding of patient's diagnosis information and so on. In order to improve the ability of resisting geometric attacks, a new watermarking algorithm for medical volume data in sub-block three-dimensional discrete cosine transform domain is presented. The original watermarking image is scrambled by a Chebyshev chaotic neural network so as to improve watermarking security. Sub-block three-dimensional discrete cosine transform and perceptual hashing are used to construct zero-watermarking. In this way it does not produce medical image distortion and gives the algorithm the ability to resist geometric attacks. Experimental results show that the algorithm has good security, and it has good robustness to various geometric attacks.

  10. Arikan and Alamouti matrices based on fast block-wise inverse Jacket transform (United States)

    Lee, Moon Ho; Khan, Md Hashem Ali; Kim, Kyeong Jin


    Recently, Lee and Hou (IEEE Signal Process Lett 13: 461-464, 2006) proposed one-dimensional and two-dimensional fast algorithms for block-wise inverse Jacket transforms (BIJTs). Their BIJTs are not real inverse Jacket transforms from mathematical point of view because their inverses do not satisfy the usual condition, i.e., the multiplication of a matrix with its inverse matrix is not equal to the identity matrix. Therefore, we mathematically propose a fast block-wise inverse Jacket transform of orders N = 2 k , 3 k , 5 k , and 6 k , where k is a positive integer. Based on the Kronecker product of the successive lower order Jacket matrices and the basis matrix, the fast algorithms for realizing these transforms are obtained. Due to the simple inverse and fast algorithms of Arikan polar binary and Alamouti multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) non-binary matrices, which are obtained from BIJTs, they can be applied in areas such as 3GPP physical layer for ultra mobile broadband permutation matrices design, first-order q-ary Reed-Muller code design, diagonal channel design, diagonal subchannel decompose for interference alignment, and 4G MIMO long-term evolution Alamouti precoding design.

  11. Study of Block Stability of Surrounding Rock Mass of Main Transformer Chamber Based on VATS Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchang Wang


    Full Text Available The fracture of rock mass for main transformer chamber in HuangGou hydropower station is very developed. The blocks slide along the discontinuous face or free face with the excavation of cavern. It leads to the failure of normal construction. In the study, according to geology of disclosed discontinuous face in detecting cavern and local three-dimensional coordinate of underground caverns, the vector analysis program for tunnel stability VATS is compiled by using the method of vector analysis of the block theory which is applicable to analyze the discontinuous rock mass and numerical software MATLAB. The occurrence of joints, the coordinate of measuring point, the radius and vertical wall height of underground caverns and other relevant engineering datum is required to input the program. The combination of discontinuous face, boundary condition, geometric parameter, the mode of failure and stability factor of existent unstable blocks is obtained. The geometry distributing characteristic of block and key discontinuous faces in different position is figured by the AUTOCAD software. The guidance for construction of underground caverns is provided.

  12. Adaptive Noise Model for Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv Video using Clustering of DCT Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luong, Huynh Van; Huang, Xin; Forchhammer, Søren


    The noise model is one of the most important aspects influencing the coding performance of Distributed Video Coding. This paper proposes a novel noise model for Transform Domain Wyner-Ziv (TDWZ) video coding by using clustering of DCT blocks. The clustering algorithm takes advantage of the residual...... information of all frequency bands, iteratively classifies blocks into different categories and estimates the noise parameter in each category. The experimental results show that the coding performance of the proposed cluster level noise model is competitive with state-ofthe- art coefficient level noise...... modelling. Furthermore, the proposed cluster level noise model is adaptively combined with a coefficient level noise model in this paper to robustly improve coding performance of TDWZ video codec up to 1.24 dB (by Bjøntegaard metric) compared to the DISCOVER TDWZ video codec....

  13. Iterating block spin transformations of the O(3) nonlinear {sigma} model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottlob, A.P. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Kaiserslautern, D-67653 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Hasenbusch, M. [DAMTP, Silver Street, Cambridge, CB3 9EW (England); Pinn, K. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 9, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)


    We study the iteration of block spin transformations in the O(3) symmetric nonlinear {sigma} model on a two-dimensional square lattice with the help of the Monte Carlo method. In contrast with the classical Monte Carlo renormalization group approach, we {ital do} attempt to explicitly compute the block spin effective actions. Using two different methods for the determination of effective couplings, we study the renormalization group flow for various parametrization and truncation schemes. The largest ansatz for the effective action contains thirteen coupling constants. Actions on the renormalized trajectory should describe theories with no lattice artifacts, even at a small correlation length. However, tests with the step scaling function of L{umlt u}scher, Weisz, and Wolff reveal that our truncated effective actions show sizable scaling violations indicating that the {ital Ans{umlt a}tze} are still too small. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  14. Blocking transforming growth factor- receptor signaling down-regulates transforming growth factor-β1 autoproduction in keloid fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 蔡泽浩; 王丹茹; 武小莉; 崔磊; 商庆新; 钱云良; 曹谊林


    Objective: To study transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) autoproduction in keloid fibroblasts and theregulation effect of blocking TGF-β intracellular signalingon rhTGF-β1 autoproduction.Methods: Keloid fibroblasts cultured in vitro weretreated with either rhTGF-β1 (5 ng/ml ) or recombinantadenovirus containing a truncated type II TGF-β receptorgene (50 pfu/cell ). Their effects of regulating geneexpression of TGF-β1 and its receptor I and II wereobserved with Northern blot.Results: rhTGF-β1 up-regulated the gene expressionof TGF-β1 and receptor I, but not receptor II. Over-expression of the truncated receptor II down-regulated thegene expression of TGF-β1 and its receptor I, but notreceptor II.Conclusions: TGF-β1 autoproduction was observed inkeloid fibroblasts. Over-expression of the truncated TGF-βreceptor H decreased TGF-β1 autoproduction via blockingTGF-β receptor signaling.

  15. Latent myofascial trigger points. (United States)

    Ge, Hong-You; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars


    A latent myofascial trigger point (MTP) is defined as a focus of hyperirritability in a muscle taut band that is clinically associated with local twitch response and tenderness and/or referred pain upon manual examination. Current evidence suggests that the temporal profile of the spontaneous electrical activity at an MTP is similar to focal muscle fiber contraction and/or muscle cramp potentials, which contribute significantly to the induction of local tenderness and pain and motor dysfunctions. This review highlights the potential mechanisms underlying the sensory-motor dysfunctions associated with latent MTPs and discusses the contribution of central sensitization associated with latent MTPs and the MTP network to the spatial propagation of pain and motor dysfunctions. Treating latent MTPs in patients with musculoskeletal pain may not only decrease pain sensitivity and improve motor functions, but also prevent latent MTPs from transforming into active MTPs, and hence, prevent the development of myofascial pain syndrome.

  16. Low-Complexity Multiple Description Coding of Video Based on 3D Block Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norkin Andrey


    Full Text Available The paper presents a multiple description (MD video coder based on three-dimensional (3D transforms. Two balanced descriptions are created from a video sequence. In the encoder, video sequence is represented in a form of coarse sequence approximation (shaper included in both descriptions and residual sequence (details which is split between two descriptions. The shaper is obtained by block-wise pruned 3D-DCT. The residual sequence is coded by 3D-DCT or hybrid, LOT+DCT, 3D-transform. The coding scheme is targeted to mobile devices. It has low computational complexity and improved robustness of transmission over unreliable networks. The coder is able to work at very low redundancies. The coding scheme is simple, yet it outperforms some MD coders based on motion-compensated prediction, especially in the low-redundancy region. The margin is up to 3 dB for reconstruction from one description.

  17. Low-Complexity Multiple Description Coding of Video Based on 3D Block Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Norkin


    Full Text Available The paper presents a multiple description (MD video coder based on three-dimensional (3D transforms. Two balanced descriptions are created from a video sequence. In the encoder, video sequence is represented in a form of coarse sequence approximation (shaper included in both descriptions and residual sequence (details which is split between two descriptions. The shaper is obtained by block-wise pruned 3D-DCT. The residual sequence is coded by 3D-DCT or hybrid, LOT+DCT, 3D-transform. The coding scheme is targeted to mobile devices. It has low computational complexity and improved robustness of transmission over unreliable networks. The coder is able to work at very low redundancies. The coding scheme is simple, yet it outperforms some MD coders based on motion-compensated prediction, especially in the low-redundancy region. The margin is up to 3 dB for reconstruction from one description.

  18. 快速r循环分块Jacket变换%Fast r-Circulant Block Jacket Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂波; 罗大庸; 郭迎


    由中心权重哈达玛变换发展而来的Jacket变换,因其正交性、求逆简单和拥有快速算法等特点逐渐受到关注。Jacket变换可应用于信号与图像处理、数字移动通信、量子编码、大数据处理等领域。为了进一步丰富Jacket变换理论,提出了一种通用的循环分块Jacket变换(r-circulant block Jacket transform,r-CBJT)。同时基于基本的r循环分块矩阵的性质,给出了任意阶r循环分块Jacket变换矩阵的构造方法。随后进一步推导了任意阶r循环分块Jacket变换矩阵的快速构造与分解算法,该快速算法可表示为单位矩阵与低阶Jacket矩阵连续克罗内克积的迭代形式。相比直接计算算法,该快速算法拥有更高的计算效率,且该快速算法也可应用于具有类似结构的其他类型的r循环分块Jacket变换。%Jacket transform, inspired by the well-known Hadamard transform, has been attracting more and more attentions due to its orthogonality, simplicity of matrix inversion and existence of fast algorithm. Jacket transform is applied to signal and image processing, digital mobile communication, quantum coding and big-data processing, etc. To further enrich the theory of Jacket transform, this paper proposes a generalized r-circulant block Jacket transform (r-CBJT). Meanwhile, this paper suggests an approach for the elegant construction of the r-circulant block Jacket matrices (r-CBJMs) with any size by using the structure of the permutation matrices. After that, fast construction and decomposi-tion algorithms of r-CBJMs are designed with the Kronecker product of corresponding identity matrices and relative lower order Jacket matrices in a successively iterative form. They have less computation complexity compared to direct calculation approach. Furthermore, the proposed approach can be employed to other r-CBJTs with similar characteristics.

  19. A progressive transmission image coder using linear phase uniform filterbanks as block transforms. (United States)

    Tran, T D; Nguyen, T Q


    This paper presents a novel image coding scheme using M-channel linear phase perfect reconstruction filterbanks (LPPRFBs) in the embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) framework introduced by Shapiro (1993). The innovation here is to replace the EZWs dyadic wavelet transform by M-channel uniform-band maximally decimated LPPRFBs, which offer finer frequency spectrum partitioning and higher energy compaction. The transform stage can now be implemented as a block transform which supports parallel processing and facilitates region-of-interest coding/decoding. For hardware implementation, the transform boasts efficient lattice structures, which employ a minimal number of delay elements and are robust under the quantization of lattice coefficients. The resulting compression algorithm also retains all the attractive properties of the EZW coder and its variations such as progressive image transmission, embedded quantization, exact bit rate control, and idempotency. Despite its simplicity, our new coder outperforms some of the best image coders published previously in the literature, for almost all test images (especially natural, hard-to-code ones) at almost all bit rates.

  20. Distinctive effects of the Epstein-Barr virus family of repeats on viral latent gene promoter activity and B-lymphocyte transformation. (United States)

    Ali, Ahmed K M; Saito, Satoru; Shibata, Sachiko; Takada, Kenzo; Kanda, Teru


    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a human B-lymphotropic gamma herpesvirus, contains multiple repetitive sequences within its genome. A group of repetitive sequences, known as the family of repeats (FR), contains multiple binding sites for the viral trans-acting protein EBNA-1. The FR sequences are important for viral genome maintenance and for the regulation of the promoter involved in viral latent gene expression. It has been reported that a palindromic sequence with a putative secondary structure exists at the 3' end of the FR in the genome of the EBV B95-8 strain and that this palindromic sequence has been deleted from the FR of the commonly used EBV miniplasmids. For the first time, we cloned an EBV B95-8 DNA fragment containing the full-length FR, which enabled us to examine the functional difference between full-length and deleted FRs. The full-length FR, like the deleted FR, functioned as a transcriptional enhancer of the viral latent gene promoter, but that transactivation was significantly attenuated in the case of the full-length FR. No significant enhancement of replication was observed when the deleted FR was replaced with the full-length FR in an EBV miniplasmid. By contrast, when the same set of FR sequences were tested in the context of the complete EBV genome, the full-length FR resulted in more-efficient B-cell transformation than the deleted FR. We propose that the presence of the full-length FR contributes to the precise regulation of the viral latent promoter and increases the efficiency of B-cell transformation.

  1. Polyisobutylene chain end transformations: Block copolymer synthesis and click chemistry functionalizations (United States)

    Magenau, Andrew Jackson David

    The primary objectives of this research were twofold: (1) development of synthetic procedures for combining quasiliving carbocationic polymerization (QLCCP) of isobutylene (IB) and reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization for block copolymer synthesis; (2) utilization of efficient, robust, and modular chemistries for facile functionalization of polyisobutylene (PIB). In the first study block copolymers consisting of PIB, and either PMMA or PS block segments, were synthesized by a site transformation approach combining living cationic and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerizations. The initial PIB block was synthesized via quasiliving cationic polymerization using the TMPCl/TiCl4 initiation system and was subsequently converted into a hydroxylterminated PIB. Site transformation of the hydroxyl-terminated PIB into a macro chain transfer agent (PIB-CTA) was accomplished by N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide/dimethylaminopyridine-catalyzed esterification with 4-cyano-4-(dodecylsulfanylthiocarbonylsulfanyl)pentanoic acid. In the second study another site transformation approach was developed to synthesize a novel block copolymer, composed of PIB and PNIPAM segments. The PIB block was prepared via quasiliving cationic polymerization and end functionalized by in-situ quenching to yield telechelic halogen-terminated PIB. Azido functionality was obtained by displacement of the terminal halogen through nucleophilic substitution, which was confirmed by both 1H and 13C NMR. Coupling of an alkyne-functional chain transfer agent (CTA) to azido PIB was successfully accomplished through a copper catalyzed click reaction. Structure of the resulting PIB-based macro-CTA was verified with 1H NMR, FTIR, and GPC; whereas coupling reaction kinetics were monitored by real time variable temperature (VT) 1H NMR. In a third study, a click chemistry functionalization procedure was developed based upon the azide-alkyne 1,3-dipolar

  2. A Complete Image Compression Scheme Based on Overlapped Block Transform with Post-Processing (United States)

    Kwan, C.; Li, B.; Xu, R.; Li, X.; Tran, T.; Nguyen, T.


    A complete system was built for high-performance image compression based on overlapped block transform. Extensive simulations and comparative studies were carried out for still image compression including benchmark images (Lena and Barbara), synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, and color images. We have achieved consistently better results than three commercial products in the market (a Summus wavelet codec, a baseline JPEG codec, and a JPEG-2000 codec) for most images that we used in this study. Included in the system are two post-processing techniques based on morphological and median filters for enhancing the perceptual quality of the reconstructed images. The proposed system also supports the enhancement of a small region of interest within an image, which is of interest in various applications such as target recognition and medical diagnosis

  3. Spatial Block Codes Based on Unitary Transformations Derived from Orthonormal Polynomial Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandyam Giridhar D


    Full Text Available Recent work in the development of diversity transformations for wireless systems has produced a theoretical framework for space-time block codes. Such codes are beneficial in that they may be easily concatenated with interleaved trellis codes and yet still may be decoded separately. In this paper, a theoretical framework is provided for the generation of spatial block codes of arbitrary dimensionality through the use of orthonormal polynomial sets. While these codes cannot maximize theoretical diversity performance for given dimensionality, they still provide performance improvements over the single-antenna case. In particular, their application to closed-loop transmit diversity systems is proposed, as the bandwidth necessary for feedback using these types of codes is fixed regardless of the number of antennas used. Simulation data is provided demonstrating these types of codes′ performance under this implementation as compared not only to the single-antenna case but also to the two-antenna code derived from the Radon-Hurwitz construction.

  4. Stepwise transformation of the molecular building blocks in a porphyrin-encapsulating metal-organic material

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, ZhenJie


    When immersed in solutions containing Cu(II) cations, the microporous metal-organic material P11 ([Cd4(BPT)4]·[Cd(C 44H36N8)(S)]·[S], BPT = biphenyl-3,4′,5-tricarboxylate) undergoes a transformation of its [Cd 2(COO)6]2- molecular building blocks (MBBs) into novel tetranuclear [Cu4X2(COO)6(S) 2] MBBs to form P11-Cu. The transformation occurs in single-crystal to single-crystal fashion, and its stepwise mechanism was studied by varying the Cd2+/Cu2+ ratio of the solution in which crystals of P11 were immersed. P11-16/1 (Cd in framework retained, Cd in encapsulated porphyrins exchanged) and other intermediate phases were thereby isolated and structurally characterized. P11-16/1 and P11-Cu retain the microporosity of P11, and the relatively larger MBBs in P11-Cu permit a 20% unit cell expansion and afford a higher surface area and a larger pore size. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  5. Landscape transformation under influence of melting buried ice blocks (North Poland) (United States)

    Słowiński, Michał; Błaszkiewicz, Mirosław; Brauer, Achim; Noryśkiewicz, Bożena; Ott, Florian; Tyszkowski, Sebastian


    The aim of the research was to decipher impacts, how dead ice melting can influence landscape transformation in the Lateglacial and early Holocene in Central Europe. Here, we present the paleoecological results from the middle section of the Wda river located in northern Poland (Central Europe), on the outwash plain formed during the Pomeranian phase of the last (Vistulian) glacial period ca 16,000 14C yrs BP. The Wda river has a typical polygenetic valley in young glacial areas of the northern central European lowlands. We reconstructed environmental changes using biotic proxies (plant macrofossil and pollen analyses) and geomorphological investigations. Abrupt changes in lithology and sediment structures show rapid changes and threshold processes in environmental conditions. The AMS 14C dating of terrestrial plant remains reveals an age for the basal sediments of 11 223 ± 23 cal yr BP coinciding with the Preboreal biozone. The results show the existence of buried ice blocks in northern Poland even at the beginning of the Holocene proving that locally discontinuous permafrost was still present at that time. Our study demonstrates a strong influence of melting buried ice blocks on the geomorphological development, hydrological changes in the catchment, and the biotic environment even in the early Holocene. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association. Financial support by the COST Action ES0907 INTIMATE is gratefully acknowledged. The research was supported by the National Science Centre Poland (grants No. NN 306085037 and NCN 2011/01/B/ST10/07367).

  6. Like Extinction, Latent Inhibition of Conditioned Fear in Mice Is Blocked by Systemic Inhibition of L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels (United States)

    Blouin, Ashley M.; Cain, Chris K.; Barad, Mike


    Having recently shown that extinction of conditioned fear depends on L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (LVGCCs), we have been seeking other protocols that require this unusual induction mechanism. We tested latent inhibition (LI) of fear, because LI resembles extinction except that cue exposures precede, rather than follow, cue-shock pairing.…

  7. Modeling Relational Data via Latent Factor Blockmodel

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Sheng; Gallinari, Patrick


    In this paper we address the problem of modeling relational data, which appear in many applications such as social network analysis, recommender systems and bioinformatics. Previous studies either consider latent feature based models but disregarding local structure in the network, or focus exclusively on capturing local structure of objects based on latent blockmodels without coupling with latent characteristics of objects. To combine the benefits of the previous work, we propose a novel model that can simultaneously incorporate the effect of latent features and covariates if any, as well as the effect of latent structure that may exist in the data. To achieve this, we model the relation graph as a function of both latent feature factors and latent cluster memberships of objects to collectively discover globally predictive intrinsic properties of objects and capture latent block structure in the network to improve prediction performance. We also develop an optimization transfer algorithm based on the general...

  8. Targeting latent TGFβ release in muscular dystrophy. (United States)

    Ceco, Ermelinda; Bogdanovich, Sasha; Gardner, Brandon; Miller, Tamari; DeJesus, Adam; Earley, Judy U; Hadhazy, Michele; Smith, Lucas R; Barton, Elisabeth R; Molkentin, Jeffery D; McNally, Elizabeth M


    Latent transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) binding proteins (LTBPs) bind to inactive TGFβ in the extracellular matrix. In mice, muscular dystrophy symptoms are intensified by a genetic polymorphism that changes the hinge region of LTBP, leading to increased proteolytic susceptibility and TGFβ release. We have found that the hinge region of human LTBP4 was also readily proteolysed and that proteolysis could be blocked by an antibody to the hinge region. Transgenic mice were generated to carry a bacterial artificial chromosome encoding the human LTBP4 gene. These transgenic mice displayed larger myofibers, increased damage after muscle injury, and enhanced TGFβ signaling. In the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the human LTBP4 transgene exacerbated muscular dystrophy symptoms and resulted in weaker muscles with an increased inflammatory infiltrate and greater LTBP4 cleavage in vivo. Blocking LTBP4 cleavage may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce TGFβ release and activity and decrease inflammation and muscle damage in muscular dystrophy.

  9. Detection of microscopic particles present as contaminants in latent fingerprints by means of synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infra-red micro-imaging. (United States)

    Banas, A; Banas, K; Breese, M B H; Loke, J; Heng Teo, B; Lim, S K


    Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infra-red (SR-FTIR) micro-imaging has been developed as a rapid, direct and non-destructive technique. This method, taking advantage of the high brightness and small effective source size of synchrotron light, is capable of exploring the molecular chemistry within the microstructures of microscopic particles without their destruction at high spatial resolutions. This is in contrast to traditional "wet" chemical methods, which, during processing for analysis, often caused destruction of the original samples. In the present study, we demonstrate the potential of SR-FTIR micro-imaging as an effective way to accurately identify microscopic particles deposited within latent fingerprints. These particles are present from residual amounts of materials left on a person's fingers after handling such materials. Fingerprints contaminated with various types of powders, creams, medications and high explosive materials (3-nitrooxy-2,2-bis(nitrooxymethyl)propyl nitrate (PETN), 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX), 2-methyl-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNT)) deposited on various - daily used - substrates have been analysed herein without any further sample preparation. A non-destructive method for the transfer of contaminated fingerprints from hard-to-reach areas of the substrates to the place of analysis is also presented. This method could have a significant impact on forensic science and could dramatically enhance the amount of information that can be obtained from the study of fingerprints.

  10. Improved algorithm for reducing blocking artifacts of Tetrolet transform%Tetrolet变换方块效应改善算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凌晓; 刘克成; 李财莲


    In order to reduce the blocking artifacts resulted from Ttetrolet transform algorithm, Tetrolet transform was improved and Cycle Spinning was employed to avoid the blocking artifacts in this paper. And thus the improved Tetrolet transform was introduced and performed for image denoising. Some numerical experiments show the effectiveness and superiority of our technique. Compared with typical Tetrolet transform, the denoised images by our method are smoother, and the blocking artifacts is improved to some extent and inhibition. At the same time it can preserve more significant information of original images, such as local features, including image edges and image details. In addition, the proposed method gives better performance in Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and improves the quality of subjective and objective of image. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and feasible, and can perform better on most data sets.%针对Tetrolet变换算法对图像去噪后存在方块效应的缺陷,文中对Tetrolet变换算法进行了扩展和改进,并引入移位(Cycle Spinning)来有效消除Tetrolet变换算法中的方块效应。仿真结果表明,所提出的算法不仅能有效去除噪声,而且可得到更高的峰值信噪比,提高了图像的主客观质量。去噪后图像保留了原始图像的边缘和细节等局部特征,较为平滑,且方块效应得到了一定的改善和抑制,因而该算法是有效可行的。

  11. A Parallel Framework with Block Matrices of a Discrete Fourier Transform for Vector-Valued Discrete-Time Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Soto-Quiros


    Full Text Available This paper presents a parallel implementation of a kind of discrete Fourier transform (DFT: the vector-valued DFT. The vector-valued DFT is a novel tool to analyze the spectra of vector-valued discrete-time signals. This parallel implementation is developed in terms of a mathematical framework with a set of block matrix operations. These block matrix operations contribute to analysis, design, and implementation of parallel algorithms in multicore processors. In this work, an implementation and experimental investigation of the mathematical framework are performed using MATLAB with the Parallel Computing Toolbox. We found that there is advantage to use multicore processors and a parallel computing environment to minimize the high execution time. Additionally, speedup increases when the number of logical processors and length of the signal increase.

  12. Hecke Transformations of Conformal Blocks in WZW Theory. I. KZB Equations for Non-trivial Bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, A; Smirnov, A; Zotov, A


    We describe new families of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard (KZB) equations related to the WZW-theory corresponding to the adjoint G-bundles over complex curves \\Sigma_{g,n} of genus g with n marked points. The bundles are defined by their characteristic classes - elements of H^2(\\Sigma_{g,n}, Z(G)), where Z(G) is a center of the simple complex Lie group G. The KZB equations are the horizontality condition for the projectively flat connection (the KZB connection) defined on the bundle of conformal blocks over the moduli space of curves. The space of conformal blocks has been known to be decomposed into a few sectors corresponding to the characteristic classes of the underlying bundles. The KZB connection preserves these sectors. In this paper we construct the connection explicitly and prove its flatness for elliptic curves with marked points. For the trivial bundles our construction provides the KZB connection proposed by Felder-Wieczerkowski.

  13. Hecke Transformations of Conformal Blocks in WZW Theory. I. KZB Equations for Non-Trivial Bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey M. Levin


    Full Text Available We describe new families of the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov-Bernard (KZB equations related to the WZW-theory corresponding to the adjoint $G$-bundles of different topological types over complex curves $Sigma_{g,n}$ of genus $g$ with $n$ marked points. The bundles are defined by their characteristic classes - elements of $H^2(Sigma_{g,n},mathcal{Z}(G$, where $mathcal{Z}(G$ is a center of the simple complex Lie group $G$. The KZB equations are the orizontality condition for the projectively flat connection (the KZB connectiondefined on the bundle of conformal blocks over the moduli space of curves. The space of conformal blocks has been known to be decomposedinto a few sectors corresponding to the characteristic classes of the underlying bundles. The KZB connection preserves these sectors.In this paper we construct the connection explicitly for elliptic curves with marked points and prove its flatness.

  14. Bovine latent transforming growth factor beta 1-binding protein 2: molecular cloning, identification of tissue isoforms, and immunolocalization to elastin-associated microfibrils. (United States)

    Gibson, M A; Hatzinikolas, G; Davis, E C; Baker, E; Sutherland, G R; Mecham, R P


    Monoclonal antibodies to fibrillin 1 (MP340), a component of elastin-associated microfibrils, were used to screen cDNA libraries made from bovine nuchal ligament mRNA. One of the selected clones (cL9; 1.2 kb) hybridized on Northern (RNA) blotting with nuchal ligament mRNA to two abundant mRNAs of 9.0 and 7.5 kb, which were clearly distinct from fibrillin mRNA (10 kb). Further library screening and later reverse transcription PCR by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique resulted in the isolation of additional overlapping cDNAs corresponding to about 6.7 kb of the mRNA. The encoded protein exhibited sequence similarity of around 80% with a recently identified human protein named latent transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1)-binding protein 2 (LTBP-2), indicating that the new protein was bovine LTBP-2. This was confirmed by the specific localization of bovine LTBP-2 cDNA probes to human chromosome 14q24.3, which is the locus of the human LTBP-2 gene. The domain structure of bovine LTBP-2 is very similar to that of the human LTBP-2, containing 20 examples of 6-cysteine epidermal growth factor-like repeats, 16 of which have the consensus sequence for calcium binding, together with 4 examples of 8-cysteine motifs characteristic of fibrillins and LTBP-1. A 4-cysteine sequence which is unique to bovine LTBP-2 and which has similarity to the 8-cysteine motifs was also present. Antibodies raised to two unique bovine LTBP-2 peptides specifically localized in tissue sections to the elastin-associated microfibrils, indicating that LTBP-2 is closely associated with these structures. Immunoblotting experiments identified putative LTBP-2 isoforms as a 260-kDa species released into the medium by cultured elastic tissue cells and as larger 290- and 310-kDa species in tissue extracts. A major proportion of tissue-derived LTBP-2 required treatment with 6 M guanidine for solubilization, indicating that the protein was strongly bound to the microfibrils. Most of

  15. A new all-zero 4×4 block determination rule for integer transform and quantization in AVS-M encoder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dong-hua; CHEN Yi-qiang


    A new all-zero block determination rule was used to reduce the complexity of the AVS-M encoder. It reuses the sum of absolute difference of 4×4 block obtained from motion estimation or intra prediction as parameters so that the determination threshold need to be computed only once when quantization parameter (QP) is invariable for given video sequence. This method avoids a lot of computation for transform, quantization, inverse transform, inverse quantization and block reconstruction. Simulation results showed that it can save about 20%~50% computation without any video quality degradation.

  16. Toward a Collaborative, Transformative Model of Non-Profit Leadership: Some Conceptual Building Blocks


    Bramwell Osula; Eddie C. W. Ng


    In this paper, the authors propose extending the construct of non-profit leadership to accommodate collaborative and transformational themes. The suggestion is that the resultant broader definition accords with the modern context within which non-profits now operate and feeds into a more resilient model of non-profit leadership. The paper begins with a review of emergent trends in leadership theory and the changing context of the non-profit sector. The argument is made that the extraordinary...

  17. Toward a Collaborative, Transformative Model of Non-Profit Leadership: Some Conceptual Building Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramwell Osula


    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors propose extending the construct of non-profit leadership to accommodate collaborative and transformational themes. The suggestion is that the resultant broader definition accords with the modern context within which non-profits now operate and feeds into a more resilient model of non-profit leadership. The paper begins with a review of emergent trends in leadership theory and the changing context of the non-profit sector. The argument is made that the extraordinary challenges facing the sector signal the need for fresh new perspectives in leadership. The authors then proceed to examine the significance of a nascent non-profit culture point to a re-alignment of the sector that is informed by transformational principles and a values-orientation. The result is said to be a new model of non-profit and public sector leadership that raises important methodological questions which the authors maintain can inform future analyses of the structure, role, and responsibilities of non-profit leadership. Finally, a world of new possibilities is envisioned, one in which non-profit organizations are strategically repositioned to take advantage of a new values-based ethic that is rooted in principles of integrity, increased self-awareness, a collaborative agenda, intentionality, emphasis of followership, cultural competence, and orientation toward the future.

  18. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak


    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  19. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim


    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix. Inde

  20. 基于 Block-Gibbs 抽样的无限潜 Dirichlet 分配模型的高分辨率全色遥感影像非监督分类%Unsupervised Classification of High-resolution Panchromatic Remote Sensing Image Based on Infinite Latent Dirichelt Allocation Using Block-Gibbs Sampling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐银凤; 舒阳; 唐宏


    通过引入文本检索算法中的无限潜 Dirichlet 分配(infinite Latent Dirichlet Allocation,即 iLDA)模型,对遥感影像进行建模以获取地物的统计分布及其共生关系,从而实现遥感影像非监督分类。首先,将遥感影像有重叠地划分成一组大小相等的影像块(文集)。其次,以 iLDA 为基础,构建“像元”(视觉词)、“影像块”(文档)和“地物类”(主题)之间的条件概率关系,并采用 Block-Gibbs 抽样的方法来估计模型参数,从而构建基于 Block-Gibbs 抽样的 iLDA 遥感影像非监督分类模型(Block-Gibbs based iLDA,即 BG-iLDA)。最后,通过对 BG-iLDA 模型的逼近求解实现高分辨率遥感影像的非监督分类。实验结果表明,本文提出的基于 BG-iLDA 的面向对象非监督分类方法相对传统的 K-means 等算法精度更高,更能有效区分“同谱异物”的地物。%In this paper,the infinite Latent Dirichlet Allocation (iLDA)model for unsupervised classification of images is introduced.An effective unsupervised classification method using the semantic information and the symbiotic relationship from iLDA is proposed,which is used for high-resolution panchromatic images.Firstly,the image corpus is structured by overlapped segmentation of the image into sub-images.Secondly,the relationship of conditional probability among pixels (visual-words), sub-images (documents)and land objects (topics)is built.By which,the proposed method using Block-Gibbs based iLDA (BG-iLDA)is modeled.And the model parameters are estimated using the Block-Gibbs sampling.Finally,the unsupervised classification of high-resolution panchromatic images is realized by approximate solution of the BG-iLDA.Experimental results show the classification precision of the proposed method is better than the K-means method,and the effect of the different object with the same spectral characteristics is appropriately displayed by the

  1. Latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein-3 and fibulin-1C interact with the extracellular domain of the heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eidels Leon


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The membrane-bound cell-surface precursor and soluble forms of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF contribute to many cellular developmental processes. The widespread occurrence of HB-EGF in cell and tissue types has led to observations of its role in such cellular and tissue events as tumor formation, cell migration, extracellular matrix formation, wound healing, and cell adherence. Several studies have reported the involvement of such extracellular matrix proteins as latent transforming growth factor β-binding protein, TGF-β, and fibulin-1 in some of these processes. To determine whether HB-EGF interacts with extracellular matrix proteins we used the extracellular domain of proHB-EGF in a yeast two-hybrid system to screen a monkey kidney cDNA library. cDNA clones containing nucleotide sequences encoding domains of two proteins were obtained and their derived amino acid sequences were evaluated. Results From ≈ 3 × 106 screened monkey cDNA clones, cDNA clones were recovered that contained nucleotide sequences encoding domains of the monkey latent transforming growth factor-β binding protein-3 (MkLTBP-3 and fibulin-1C protein. The amino acid sequence derived from the MkLTBP-3 gene shared 98.6% identity with human LTBP-3 and 86.7% identity with mouse LTBP-3 amino acid sequences. The amino acid sequence derived from the monkey fibulin-1C gene shared 97.2% identity with human fibulin-1C. Yeast two-hybrid screens indicate that LTBP-3 and fibulin-1C interact with proHB-EGF through their calcium-binding EGF-like modules. Conclusions The interactions of the extracellular domain of proHB-EGF with LTBP-3 and fibulin-1C suggest novel functions for HB-EGF between cell and tissue surfaces.

  2. Transformation of frequency-magnitude relation prior to large events in the model of block structure dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soloviev


    Full Text Available The b-value change in the frequency-magnitude (FM distribution for a synthetic earthquake catalogue obtained by means of the model of block structure dynamics has been studied. The catalogue is divided into time periods preceding strong earthquakes and time periods that do not precede strong earthquakes. The separate analysis of these periods shows that the b-value is smaller before strong earthquakes. The similar phenomenon has been found also for the observed seismicity of the Southern California. The model of block structure dynamics represents a seismic region as a system of perfectly rigid blocks divided by infinitely thin plane faults. The blocks interact between themselves and with the underlying medium. The system of blocks moves as a consequence of prescribed motion of the boundary blocks and of the underlying medium. As the blocks are perfectly rigid, all deformation takes place in the fault zones and at the block base in contact with the underlying medium. Relative block displacements take place along the fault zones. Block motion is defined so that the system is in a quasistatic equilibrium state. The interaction of blocks along the fault zones is viscous-elastic ("normal state" while the ratio of the stress to the pressure remains below a certain strength level. When the critical level is exceeded in some part of a fault zone, a stress-drop ("failure" occurs (in accordance with the dry friction model, possibly causing failure in other parts of the fault zones. These failures produce earthquakes. Immediately after the earthquake and for some time after, the affected parts of the fault zones are in a state of creep. This state differs from the normal state because of a faster growth of inelastic displacements, lasting until the stress falls below some other level. This numerical simulation gives rise a synthetic earthquake catalogue.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  4. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri


    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  5. TRANSFORMER (United States)

    Baker, W.R.


    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  6. Latent Period of Relaxation. (United States)

    Kobayashi, M; Irisawa, H


    The latent period of relaxation of molluscan myocardium due to anodal current is much longer than that of contraction. Although the rate and the grade of relaxation are intimately related to both the stimulus condition and the muscle tension, the latent period of relaxation remains constant, except when the temperature of the bathing fluid is changed.

  7. Controlling for Latent Homophily in Social Networks through Inferring Latent Locations

    CERN Document Server

    Shalizi, Cosma Rohilla


    Social influence cannot be identified from purely observational data on social networks, because such influence is generically confounded with latent homophily, i.e., with a node's network partners being informative about the node's attributes and therefore its behavior. We show that {\\em if} the network grows according to either a community (stochastic block) model, or a continuous latent space model, then latent homophilous attributes can be consistently estimated from the global pattern of social ties. Moreover, these estimates are informative enough that controlling for them allows for unbiased and consistent estimation of social-influence effects in additive models. For community models, we also provide bounds on the finite-sample bias. These are the first results on the consistent estimation of social-influence effects in the presence of latent homophily, and we discuss the prospects for generalizing them.

  8. Latent fingerprint matching. (United States)

    Jain, Anil K; Feng, Jianjiang


    Latent fingerprint identification is of critical importance to law enforcement agencies in identifying suspects: Latent fingerprints are inadvertent impressions left by fingers on surfaces of objects. While tremendous progress has been made in plain and rolled fingerprint matching, latent fingerprint matching continues to be a difficult problem. Poor quality of ridge impressions, small finger area, and large nonlinear distortion are the main difficulties in latent fingerprint matching compared to plain or rolled fingerprint matching. We propose a system for matching latent fingerprints found at crime scenes to rolled fingerprints enrolled in law enforcement databases. In addition to minutiae, we also use extended features, including singularity, ridge quality map, ridge flow map, ridge wavelength map, and skeleton. We tested our system by matching 258 latents in the NIST SD27 database against a background database of 29,257 rolled fingerprints obtained by combining the NIST SD4, SD14, and SD27 databases. The minutiae-based baseline rank-1 identification rate of 34.9 percent was improved to 74 percent when extended features were used. In order to evaluate the relative importance of each extended feature, these features were incrementally used in the order of their cost in marking by latent experts. The experimental results indicate that singularity, ridge quality map, and ridge flow map are the most effective features in improving the matching accuracy.

  9. Sífilis latente


    Arévalo, Jose David


    Trabajo leído por su autor en la Academia Nacional de Medicina, el día 20 de mayo de 1948. La sífilis Latente es aquella en que el organismo se ha defendido biológicamente sin ningún tratamiento, En la sífilis latente hay que distinguir: la latencia clínica, la latencia serológica y la latencia patológica.

  10. Bifunctional pincer-type organometallics as substrates for organic transformations and as novel building blocks for polymetallic materials. (United States)

    Rodríguez, Gema; Albrecht, Martin; Schoenmaker, Jeroen; Ford, Alan; Lutz, Martin; Spek, Anthony L; van Koten, Gerard


    The reactivity of the bifunctionalized ligand NC(Br)N-I 1 [IC(6)H(2)(CH(2)NMe(2))(2)-3,5-Br-4] has been studied as a versatile synthon for organic and/or organometallic synthesis. Chemoselective metalation (M = Pd, Pt, Li) at the C(aryl)-I or C(aryl)-Br bonds was achieved by choosing the appropriate metal precursors. In this way a series of Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes were prepared that have a second functional group available for further reactions. These Pt(II) and Pd(II) complexes were subjected to a wide range of organic and organometallic reactions, revealing the remarkable stability of their M-C sigma-bond and opening an easy route for the synthesis of mono- and (hetero)bimetallic building blocks. The scope of the chemistry of such building blocks shows that they are good candidates for use in the synthesis of dendrimers, bioorganometallic systems, or polymetallic materials. The X-ray crystal structures of the most representative complexes (2, 3a, 19, 20, and 24) are also reported.

  11. A novel generalized DCT-based JND profile based on an elaborate CM-JND model for variable block-sized transforms in monochrome images. (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Ho; Kim, Munchurl


    In this paper, we propose a new DCT-based just noticeable difference (JND) profile incorporating the spatial contrast sensitivity function, the luminance adaptation effect, and the contrast masking (CM) effect. The proposed JND profile overcomes two limitations of conventional JND profiles: 1) the CM JND models in the conventional JND profiles employed simple texture complexity metrics, which are not often highly correlated with perceived complexity, especially for unstructured patterns. So, we proposed a new texture complexity metric that considers not only contrast intensity, but also structureness of image patterns, called the structural contrast index. We also newly found out that, as the structural contrast index of a background texture pattern increases, the modulation factors for CM-JND show a bandpass property in frequency. Based on this observation, a new CM-JND is modeled as a function of DCT frequency and the proposed structural contrast index, showing significantly high correlations with measured CM-JND values and 2) while the conventional DCT-based JND profiles are only applicable for specific transform block sizes, our proposed DCT-based JND profile is first designed to be applicable to any size of transform by deriving a new summation effect function, which can also be appropriately applied for quad-tree transform of high efficiency video coding. For the overall performance, the proposed DCT-based JND profile shows more tolerance for distortions with better perceptual quality than other JND profiles under comparison.

  12. Block TERM factorization of block matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Yiyuan; HAO Pengwei


    Reversible integer mapping (or integer transform) is a useful way to realize Iossless coding, and this technique has been used for multi-component image compression in the new international image compression standard JPEG 2000. For any nonsingular linear transform of finite dimension, its integer transform can be implemented by factorizing the transform matrix into 3 triangular elementary reversible matrices (TERMs) or a series of single-row elementary reversible matrices (SERMs). To speed up and parallelize integer transforms, we study block TERM and SERM factorizations in this paper. First, to guarantee flexible scaling manners, the classical determinant (det) is generalized to a matrix function, DET, which is shown to have many important properties analogous to those of det. Then based on DET, a generic block TERM factorization,BLUS, is presented for any nonsingular block matrix. Our conclusions can cover the early optimal point factorizations and provide an efficient way to implement integer transforms for large matrices.

  13. Energy transformations associated with the synoptic and planetary scales during the evolution of a blocking anticyclone and an upstream explosively-developing cyclone (United States)

    Smith, Phillip J.; Tsou, Chih-Hua


    The eddy kinetic energy (KE), release of eddy potential energy, generation of eddy kinetic energy, and exchange between eddy and zonal kinetic energy are investigated for a blocking anticyclone over the North Atlantic Ocean and an extratropical cyclone that developed during January 17-21, 1979. The results indicate that KE was maintained by baroclinic conversion of potential to kinetic. As released potential energy was being used to generate KE, a portion of the KE was barotropically converted to zonal KE. These transformations were dominated by the synoptic-scale component. While changes in the mass field depended not only on the synoptic scale but also on the interactions between the synoptic and planetary scales, the corresponding changes in the eddy motion fields responded largely to synoptic-scale processes.

  14. Latent tuberculosis infection. (United States)

    Nuermberger, Eric; Bishai, William R; Grosset, Jacques H


    Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is a clinical condition characterized by a positive tuberculin skin test in the absence of clinical or radiological signs of active tuberculosis disease. It has been estimated that one third of the world's population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and serves as an enormous reservoir for future cases of active tuberculosis. The detection and treatment of individuals with LTBI and a high risk of progression to active tuberculosis are effective means to control the spread of tuberculosis. Furthermore, a better understanding of the host-pathogen interactions that result in latent infection could provide important insights for future drug or vaccine development. This chapter reviews recent developments in the molecular genetics, natural history, diagnosis, and treatment of LTBI within its historical context, including the impact of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Current treatment recommendations are also summarized.

  15. Potentiation of latent inhibition. (United States)

    Rodriguez, Gabriel; Hall, Geoffrey


    Rats were given exposure either to an odor (almond) or a compound of odor plus taste (almond plus saline), prior to training in which the odor served as the conditioned stimulus. It was found, for both appetitive and aversive procedures, that conditioning was retarded by preexposure (a latent inhibition effect), and the extent of the retardation was greater in rats preexposed to the compound (i.e., latent inhibition to the odor was potentiated by the presence of the taste). In contrast, the presence of the taste during conditioning itself overshadowed learning about the odor. We argue that the presence of the salient taste in compound with the odor enhances the rate of associative learning, producing a rapid loss in the associability of the odor. This loss of associability will generate both overshadowing and the potentiation of latent inhibition that is observed after preexposure to the compound.

  16. Latent classification models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langseth, Helge; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre


    One of the simplest, and yet most consistently well-performing setof classifiers is the \\NB models. These models rely on twoassumptions: $(i)$ All the attributes used to describe an instanceare conditionally independent given the class of that instance,and $(ii)$ all attributes follow a specific...... parametric family ofdistributions.  In this paper we propose a new set of models forclassification in continuous domains, termed latent classificationmodels. The latent classification model can roughly be seen ascombining the \\NB model with a mixture of factor analyzers,thereby relaxing the assumptions...... classification model, and wedemonstrate empirically that the accuracy of the proposed model issignificantly higher than the accuracy of other probabilisticclassifiers....

  17. Epigenetic modifications of triterpenoid ursolic acid in activating Nrf2 and blocking cellular transformation of mouse epidermal cells. (United States)

    Kim, Hyuck; Ramirez, Christina N; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony


    Ursolic acid (UA), a well-known natural triterpenoid found in abundance in blueberries, cranberries and apple peels, has been reported to possess many beneficial health effects. These effects include anticancer activity in various cancers, such as skin cancer. Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the world. Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a master regulator of antioxidative stress response with anticarcinogenic activity against UV- and chemical-induced tumor formation in the skin. Recent studies show that epigenetic modifications of Nrf2 play an important role in cancer prevention. However, the epigenetic impact of UA on Nrf2 signaling remains poorly understood in skin cancer. In this study, we investigated the epigenetic effects of UA on mouse epidermal JB6 P+ cells. UA inhibited cellular transformation by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate at a concentration at which the cytotoxicity was no more than 25%. Under this condition, UA induced the expression of the Nrf2-mediated detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes heme oxygenase-1, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1. DNA methylation analysis revealed that UA demethylated the first 15 CpG sites of the Nrf2 promoter region, which correlated with the reexpression of Nrf2. Furthermore, UA reduced the expression of epigenetic modifying enzymes, including the DNA methyltransferases DNMT1 and DNMT3a and the histone deacetylases (HDACs) HDAC1, HDAC2, HDAC3 and HDAC8 (Class I) and HDAC6 and HDAC7 (Class II), and HDAC activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the epigenetic effects of the triterpenoid UA could potentially contribute to its beneficial effects, including the prevention of skin cancer.

  18. Dynamic Latent Classification Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhong, Shengtong; Martínez, Ana M.; Nielsen, Thomas Dyhre

    as possible. Motivated by this problem setting, we propose a generative model for dynamic classification in continuous domains. At each time point the model can be seen as combining a naive Bayes model with a mixture of factor analyzers (FA). The latent variables of the FA are used to capture the dynamics...... in the process as well as modeling dependences between attributes....

  19. Peach latent mosaic viroid: not so latent. (United States)

    Flores, Ricardo; Delgado, Sonia; Rodio, María-Elena; Ambrós, Silvia; Hernández, Carmen; Serio, Francesco D I


    SUMMARY Taxonomy: Peach latent mosaic viroid (PLMVd) is the type species of the genus Pelamoviroid within the family Avsunviroidae of chloroplastic viroids with hammerhead ribozymes. Physical properties: A small circular RNA of 336-351 nt (differences in size result from the absence or presence of certain insertions) adopting a branched conformation stabilized by a pseudoknot between two kissing loops. This particular conformation is most likely responsible for the insolubility of PLMVd in highly saline conditions (in which other viroids adopting a rod-like conformation are soluble). Both polarity strands are able to form hammerhead structures and to self-cleave during replication as predicted by these ribozymes. Biological properties: Although most infections occur without conspicuous symptoms, certain PLMVd isolates induce leaf mosaics, blotches and in the most extreme cases albinism (peach calico, PC), flower streaking, delays in foliation, flowering and ripening, deformations and decolorations of fruits, which usually present cracked sutures and enlarged roundish stones, bud necrosis, stem pitting and premature ageing of the trees, which also adopt a characteristic growing pattern (open habit). The molecular determinant for PC has been mapped at a 12-14-nt insertion that folds into a hairpin capped by a U-rich loop present only in certain variants. PLMVd is horizontally transmitted by the propagation of infected buds and to a lesser extent by pruning tools and aphids, but not by pollen; the viroid is not vertically transmitted through seed. Interesting features: This provides a suitable system for studying how a minimal non-protein-coding catalytic RNA replicates (subverting a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase to transcribe an RNA template), moves, interferes with the metabolism of its host (inciting specific symptoms and a defensive RNA silencing response) and evolves following a quasi-species model characterized by a complex spectrum of variants.

  20. Latent inhibition in schizophrenia. (United States)

    Swerdlow, N R; Braff, D L; Hartston, H; Perry, W; Geyer, M A


    Latent inhibition (LI) refers to the retarded acquisition of a conditioned response that occurs if the subject being tested is first preexposed to the to-be-conditioned stimulus (CS) without the paired unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Because the 'irrelevance' of the to-be-conditioned stimulus is established during non-contingent preexposure, the slowed acquisition of the CS-UCS association is thought to reflect the process of overcoming this learned irrelevance. Latent inhibition has been reported to be diminished in acutely hospitalized schizophrenia patients. If acutely hospitalized schizophrenia patients are preexposed to the CS, they learn the association as fast as, and perhaps faster than, patients who are not preexposed to the CS. This finding has been interpreted as reflecting the inability of acute schizophrenia patients to ignore irrelevant stimuli. In this study, the LI paradigm was identical to the one used in previous reports of LI deficits in schizophrenia patients (Baruch et al., 1988). Latent inhibition was observed in normal control subjects (n = 73), including individuals identified as 'psychosis-prone' based on established screening criteria, and in anxiety (n = 19) and mood disorder (n = 13) patients. Learning scores (trials to criterion) in "acutely' hospitalized as well as "chronic' hospitalized schizophrenia patients (n = 45) were significantly elevated in both preexposed and non-preexposed subjects, compared to controls. Acute schizophrenia patients exhibited intact LI. Separate cohorts of acute and chronic schizophrenia patients (n = 23) and normal controls (n = 34) exhibited intact LI when tested in a new, easier-to-acquire computerized LI paradigm. These results fail to identify specific LI deficits in schizophrenia patients, and raise the possibility that previously observed LI deficits in schizophrenia patients may reflect, at least in part, performance deficits related to learning acquisition.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this research, the form-stable composite phase change material was developed by incorporating paraffin on recycle block concrete (RB through the vacuum impregnation method. The compatibility and thermal properties of RB impregnated with paraffin ranging from 0-35 wt% were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Results revealed that paraffin was uniformly absorbed in RB with a good physical compatibility. The optimum adsorption ratio of paraffin in RB was 25 wt% which produced phase transition temperature of 52.85 OC and latent heat of 30.98 J/g. The obtained form-stable paraffin/RB composite PCM had proper latent heat and phase transition temperature and can be applied for thermal energy storage applications such as solar heating and cooling in buildings.

  2. Rock blocks


    Turner, W.


    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  3. Latent catalyst; Senzaisei shokubai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Epoxy resin, an important function material to support such main industries as electric and electronic devices, automobiles, civil engineering, and building construction, is demanded of development of single liquid type resin having excellent quick hardening performance and storage stability. This requirement comes from environmental problems with an intention of saving energies and reducing resin wastes. The Company, using freely its independent phase separation technology that controls molecular structure of catalysts, developed a latent catalyst having excellent storage stability and high-temperature quick hardening performance. Its major features may be summarized as follows: (1) excellent storage stability at room temperature keeping the product stable for 2.5 months or longer (2 days in conventional products); (2) quick hardening performance hardening the resin in seven seconds at 150 degrees C (equivalent to conventional products); and (3) excellent insulation performance of hardened resin at 140 degrees C of 7 times 10 {sup 13} (ohm) (center dot) cm (2 times 10 {sup 12} (ohm) (center dot) cm in conventional products) (translated by NEDO)

  4. Fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is the code for fast discriminative latent Dirichlet allocation, which is an algorithm for topic modeling and text classification. The related paper is at...

  5. The Infinite Latent Events Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wingate, David; Roy, Daniel; Tenenbaum, Joshua


    We present the Infinite Latent Events Model, a nonparametric hierarchical Bayesian distribution over infinite dimensional Dynamic Bayesian Networks with binary state representations and noisy-OR-like transitions. The distribution can be used to learn structure in discrete timeseries data by simultaneously inferring a set of latent events, which events fired at each timestep, and how those events are causally linked. We illustrate the model on a sound factorization task, a network topology identification task, and a video game task.

  6. Steerable Discrete Cosine Transform


    Fracastoro, Giulia; Fosson, Sophie; Magli, Enrico


    In image compression, classical block-based separable transforms tend to be inefficient when image blocks contain arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. For this reason, transforms incorporating directional information are an appealing alternative. In this paper, we propose a new approach to this problem, namely, a discrete cosine transform (DCT) that can be steered in any chosen direction. Such transform, called steerable DCT (SDCT), allows to rotate in a flexible way pairs of basis vectors, an...

  7. Learning From Hidden Traits: Joint Factor Analysis and Latent Clustering (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Fu, Xiao; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.


    Dimensionality reduction techniques play an essential role in data analytics, signal processing and machine learning. Dimensionality reduction is usually performed in a preprocessing stage that is separate from subsequent data analysis, such as clustering or classification. Finding reduced-dimension representations that are well-suited for the intended task is more appealing. This paper proposes a joint factor analysis and latent clustering framework, which aims at learning cluster-aware low-dimensional representations of matrix and tensor data. The proposed approach leverages matrix and tensor factorization models that produce essentially unique latent representations of the data to unravel latent cluster structure -- which is otherwise obscured because of the freedom to apply an oblique transformation in latent space. At the same time, latent cluster structure is used as prior information to enhance the performance of factorization. Specific contributions include several custom-built problem formulations, corresponding algorithms, and discussion of associated convergence properties. Besides extensive simulations, real-world datasets such as Reuters document data and MNIST image data are also employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed approaches.

  8. Population Blocks. (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.


    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  9. Latent geometry of bipartite networks (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Krioukov, Dmitri


    Despite the abundance of bipartite networked systems, their organizing principles are less studied compared to unipartite networks. Bipartite networks are often analyzed after projecting them onto one of the two sets of nodes. As a result of the projection, nodes of the same set are linked together if they have at least one neighbor in common in the bipartite network. Even though these projections allow one to study bipartite networks using tools developed for unipartite networks, one-mode projections lead to significant loss of information and artificial inflation of the projected network with fully connected subgraphs. Here we pursue a different approach for analyzing bipartite systems that is based on the observation that such systems have a latent metric structure: network nodes are points in a latent metric space, while connections are more likely to form between nodes separated by shorter distances. This approach has been developed for unipartite networks, and relatively little is known about its applicability to bipartite systems. Here, we fully analyze a simple latent-geometric model of bipartite networks and show that this model explains the peculiar structural properties of many real bipartite systems, including the distributions of common neighbors and bipartite clustering. We also analyze the geometric information loss in one-mode projections in this model and propose an efficient method to infer the latent pairwise distances between nodes. Uncovering the latent geometry underlying real bipartite networks can find applications in diverse domains, ranging from constructing efficient recommender systems to understanding cell metabolism.

  10. Biomarkers of latent TB infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhwald, Morten; Ravn, Pernille


    For the last 100 years, the tuberculin skin test (TST) has been the only diagnostic tool available for latent TB infection (LTBI) and no biomarker per se is available to diagnose the presence of LTBI. With the introduction of M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-gamma release assays (IGRAs), a new area...... of in vitro immunodiagnostic tests for LTBI based on biomarker readout has become a reality. In this review, we discuss existing evidence on the clinical usefulness of IGRAs and the indefinite number of potential new biomarkers that can be used to improve diagnosis of latent TB infection. We also present...... early data suggesting that the monocyte-derived chemokine inducible protein-10 may be useful as a novel biomarker for the immunodiagnosis of latent TB infection....

  11. Zitongdong Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The Zitongdong Block (Eastern Zitong Block) is located in the northwest of the Sichuan Basin. Tectonically, it is situated in the east part of Zitong Depression, southeast of mid-Longmenshan folded and faulted belt( as shown on Fig. 8 ), covering an area of 1 730 km2. The traffic is very convenient, the No. 108 national highway passes through the north of the block. Topographically, the area belongs to low hilly land at the elevation of 500-700 m.

  12. Bayesian latent factor regression for functional and longitudinal data. (United States)

    Montagna, Silvia; Tokdar, Surya T; Neelon, Brian; Dunson, David B


    In studies involving functional data, it is commonly of interest to model the impact of predictors on the distribution of the curves, allowing flexible effects on not only the mean curve but also the distribution about the mean. Characterizing the curve for each subject as a linear combination of a high-dimensional set of potential basis functions, we place a sparse latent factor regression model on the basis coefficients. We induce basis selection by choosing a shrinkage prior that allows many of the loadings to be close to zero. The number of latent factors is treated as unknown through a highly-efficient, adaptive-blocked Gibbs sampler. Predictors are included on the latent variables level, while allowing different predictors to impact different latent factors. This model induces a framework for functional response regression in which the distribution of the curves is allowed to change flexibly with predictors. The performance is assessed through simulation studies and the methods are applied to data on blood pressure trajectories during pregnancy.

  13. Completely random measures for modelling block-structured sparse networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten


    Many statistical methods for network data parameterize the edge-probability by attributing latent traits to the vertices such as block structure and assume exchangeability in the sense of the Aldous-Hoover representation theorem. Empirical studies of networks indicate that many real-world network...... is not significantly more difficult to implement than existing approaches to block-modelling and performs well on real network datasets.......Many statistical methods for network data parameterize the edge-probability by attributing latent traits to the vertices such as block structure and assume exchangeability in the sense of the Aldous-Hoover representation theorem. Empirical studies of networks indicate that many real-world networks...... [2014] proposed the use of a different notion of exchangeability due to Kallenberg [2006] and obtained a network model which admits power-law behaviour while retaining desirable statistical properties, however this model does not capture latent vertex traits such as block-structure. In this work we re...

  14. Analysis of latent structures in linear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar


    In chemometrics the emphasis is on latent structure models. The latent structure is the part of the data that the modeling task is based upon. This paper is addressing some fundamental issues, when latent structures are used. The paper consists of three parts. The first part is concerned defining...

  15. A Multicomponent Latent Trait Model for Diagnosis (United States)

    Embretson, Susan E.; Yang, Xiangdong


    This paper presents a noncompensatory latent trait model, the multicomponent latent trait model for diagnosis (MLTM-D), for cognitive diagnosis. In MLTM-D, a hierarchical relationship between components and attributes is specified to be applicable to permit diagnosis at two levels. MLTM-D is a generalization of the multicomponent latent trait…

  16. Involvement of the antioxidative property of morusin in blocking phorbol ester-induced malignant transformation of JB6 P(+) mouse epidermal cells. (United States)

    Cheng, Pai-Shan; Hu, Chao-Chin; Wang, Chau-Jong; Lee, Yean-Jang; Chung, Wei-Chia; Tseng, Tsui-Hwa


    Chemoprevention has been acknowledged as an important and practical strategy for managing cancer. We have previously synthesized morusin, a prenylated flavonoid that exhibits anti-cancer progression activity. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-cancer promotion potential of morusin by using the mouse epidermal JB6 P(+) cell model. Extensive evidence shows that tumor promotion by phorbol esters is due to the stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Therefore, the effect of morusin on 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced ROS production was assessed. Noncytotoxic concentrations of morusin were found to dose-dependently reduce TPA-induced ROS production. Moreover, morusin inhibited TPA-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation, which can mediate cell proliferation and malignant transformation. Furthermore, morusin inhibited the TPA upregulation of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), which may be regulated by AP-1 and NF-κB. In addition, noncytotoxic concentrations of morusin reduced the TPA-promoted cell growth of JB6 P(+) cells and inhibited TPA-induced malignant properties, such as cytoskeletal rearrangement and cell migration of JB6 P(+) cells. Similar to the effects of glutathione (GSH) pretreatment, morusin inhibited TPA-induced expression of N-cadeherin and vimentin, which are malignant cell surface proteins. Finally, morusin treatment dose-dependently suppressed the TPA-induced anchorage-independent cell transformation of JB6 P(+) cells. In conclusion, our results evidence that morusin possesses anti-cancer promotion potential because of its antioxidant property, which mediates multiple transformation-associated gene expression.

  17. Steerable Discrete Cosine Transform


    Magli, Enrico; Fracastoro, Giulia


    Block-based separable transforms tend to be inefficient when blocks contain arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. For this reason, transforms incorporating directional information are an appealing alternative. In this paper, we propose a new approach to this problem, designing a new transform that can be steered in any chosen direction and that is defined in a rigorous mathematical way. This new steerable DCT allows to rotate in a flexible way pairs of basis vectors, enabling precise matching o...

  18. Effect of dopamine and serotonin receptor antagonists on fencamfamine-induced abolition of latent inhibition. (United States)

    de Aguiar, Cilene Rejane Ramos Alves; de Aguiar, Marlison José Lima; DeLucia, Roberto; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo


    The purpose of this investigation was to verify the role of dopamine and serotonin receptors in the effect of fencamfamine (FCF) on latent inhibition. FCF is a psychomotor stimulant with an indirect dopaminergic action. Latent inhibition is a model of attention. Latent inhibition is blocked by dopaminergic agents and facilitated by dopamine receptor agonists. FCF has been shown to abolish latent inhibition. The serotonergic system may also participate in the neurochemical mediation of latent inhibition. The selective dopamine D(1) receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (7-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-3-benzazepin-8-ol), D(2) receptor antagonists pimozide (PIM) and methoclopramide (METH), and serotonin 5-HT(2A/C) receptor antagonist ritanserin (RIT) were used in the present study. Latent inhibition was evaluated using a conditioned emotional response procedure. Male Wistar rats that were water-restricted were subjected to a three-phase procedure: preexposure to a tone, tone-shock conditioning, and a test of the effect of the tone on licking frequency. All of the drugs were administered before the preexposure and conditioning phases. The results showed that FCF abolished latent inhibition, and this effect was clearly antagonized by PIM and METH and moderately attenuated by SCH 23390. At the doses used in the present study, RIT pretreatment did not affect latent inhibition and did not eliminate the effect of FCF, suggesting that the FCF-induced abolition of latent inhibition is not mediated by serotonin 5-HT(2A/C) receptors. These results suggest that the effect of FCF on latent inhibition is predominantly related to dopamine D(2) receptors and that dopamine D(2) receptors participate in attention processes.

  19. Chemical characterization of latent fingerprints by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, mega electron volt secondary mass spectrometry, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging: an intercomparison. (United States)

    Bailey, Melanie J; Bright, Nicholas J; Croxton, Ruth S; Francese, Simona; Ferguson, Leesa S; Hinder, Stephen; Jickells, Sue; Jones, Benjamin J; Jones, Brian N; Kazarian, Sergei G; Ojeda, Jesus J; Webb, Roger P; Wolstenholme, Rosalind; Bleay, Stephen


    The first analytical intercomparison of fingerprint residue using equivalent samples of latent fingerprint residue and characterized by a suite of relevant techniques is presented. This work has never been undertaken, presumably due to the perishable nature of fingerprint residue, the lack of fingerprint standards, and the intradonor variability, which impacts sample reproducibility. For the first time, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry, high-energy secondary ion mass spectrometry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy are used to target endogenous compounds in fingerprints and a method is presented for establishing their relative abundance in fingerprint residue. Comparison of the newer techniques with the more established gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging shows good agreement between the methods, with each method detecting repeatable differences between the donors, with the exception of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization, for which quantitative analysis has not yet been established. We further comment on the sensitivity, selectivity, and practicability of each of the methods for use in future police casework or academic research.

  20. Zitongxi Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Zitongxi Block (Western Zitong Block), is located in Zitong County, northwest of Sichuan Province (as shown on Fig. 8 ). Geologically. it is situated in the Zitong Depression, southwest of the middle Longmenshan faulted and folded belt, covering an area of 1 830 km2. Transportation is very convenient. A crisscross network of highways run through the block and the Baocheng railway is nearby. The climate is moderate. Most area belongs to hilly land with the elevation of 500-600 m.The Tongjiang River runs across the area.

  1. Latent curing systems stabilized by reaction equilibrium in homogeneous mixtures of benzoxazine and amine (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Ya Zhen; Fu, Ya Fei; Liu, Xiang Dong


    Latent curing systems are widely used in industrial thermosets in applications such as adhesion, coating, and composites. Despite many attempts to improve the practicality of this dormant reaction system, the majority of commercially available latent products still use particulate hardeners or liquid compounds with blocked active groups. These formulations generally lack fluidity or rapid reaction characteristics and thus are problematic in some industry applications. Here we describe a novel concept that stabilizes highly reactive benzoxazine/amine mixtures by reaction equilibrium. These new latent benzoxazine curing systems have a long storable lifetime but very short gel time at 150 °C. The reversible reaction between benzoxazine and amine is further demonstrated by FT-IR spectral measurements and rheological experiments, and it is shown that the overall characteristics of the latent system are promising for many industrial applications.

  2. Latent geometry of bipartite networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kitsak, Maksim; Krioukov, Dmitri


    Despite the abundance of bipartite networked systems, their organizing principles are less studied, compared to unipartite networks. Bipartite networks are often analyzed after projecting them onto one of the two sets of nodes. As a result of the projection, nodes of the same set are linked together if they have at least one neighbor in common in the bipartite network. Even though these projections allow one to study bipartite networks using tools developed for unipartite networks, one-mode projections lead to significant loss of information and artificial inflation of the projected network with fully connected subgraphs. Here we pursue a different approach for analyzing bipartite systems that is based on the observation that such systems have a latent metric structure: network nodes are points in a latent metric space, while connections are more likely to form between nodes separated by shorter distances. This approach has been developed for unipartite networks, and relatively little is known about its appli...

  3. Chengzikou Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Chengzikou Block is located in the north of Hekou district, Dongying City, Shandong Province, adjacent to Bohai Bay. It can be geographically divided into three units: onshore, transitional zone and offshore ultrashallow zone, totally covering an area of 470 km2. The southern onshore area is low and gentle in topography;the northern shallow sea is at water depths of 2-8 m below sea level, and the transitional zone occupies more than 60% of the whole block. The climate belongs to temperate zone with seasonal wind. Highways are welldeveloped here, and the traffic is very convenient. The Chengzikou Block is about 80 km away from Dongying City and 290 km from Jinan City in the south. The northern offshore area of the block is 160 km away from Longkou port in the east and only 38 km away in the west from Zhuangxi port.

  4. Advancement of Latent Trait Theory. (United States)


    Estimation with the Multiple-Choice Test Item. American Educational Research Association Meeting, New Orleans, 1984. (Coauthorship with Paul S. Changas...Chicago, 1985. U. S. A. (Coauthorship with Paul S. Changas) (10) Expansion of the General Model for the Homogeneous Case of the Continuous Response Level...17-20. [2] Lazarsfeld , P. F. Latent structure analysis. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology: a study of a science, Volume 3. McGraw-Hill, 1959, pages 476-542

  5. Longmenshan Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Longmenshan Block is located in Jiange County of Jiangyou City in the northwest of Sichuan Basin. covering an area of 2 628 km2. Geologically, it is situated in the Mid-Longmenshan fault and fold belt, neighbouring Zitong Depression in its southeast. There are mountains surrounding its northwest , the rest area being hilly land,with the elevation of 500-700 m. The BaoCheng railway and the No. 108 highway run through the block, the traffic is very convenient.

  6. Latent heat of vehicular motion (United States)

    Ahmadi, Farzad; Berrier, Austin; Habibi, Mohammad; Boreyko, Jonathan


    We have used the thermodynamic concept of latent heat, where a system loses energy due to a solid-to-liquid phase transition, to study the flow of a group of vehicles moving from rest. During traffic flow, drivers keep a large distance from the car in front of them to ensure safe driving. When a group of cars comes to a stop, for example at a red light, drivers voluntarily induce a "phase transition" from this "liquid phase" to a close-packed "solid phase." This phase transition is motivated by the intuition that maximizing displacement before stopping will minimize the overall travel time. To test the effects of latent heat on flow efficiency, a drone captured the dynamics of cars flowing through an intersection on a Smart Road where the initial spacing between cars at the red light was systematically varied. By correlating the experimental results with the Optimal Velocity Model (OVM), we find that the convention of inducing phase transitions at intersections offers no benefit, as the lag time (latent heat) of resumed flow offsets the initial increase in displacement. These findings suggest that in situations where gridlock is not an issue, drivers should not decrease their spacing during stoppages in order to maximize safety with no loss in flow efficiency.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Yu-hong Ma; Jing-yi Xie; Wan-tai Yang


    A one-step process to introduce both the aromatic and aliphatic primary amino groups with high chemoselectivity was developed.Triplet state acetone abstracts the hydrogen atoms from both the C--H bond of the polymeric film substrate and the OH bond of phenol which is the building block and the amino group carrier.As a result,two kinds of free radicals,confined carbon-centered chain radicals of the polymer substrate and mobile oxygen-centered phenoxy radicals,were generated.Then the C-O bonds were formed by the coupling reaction between these two kinds of free radicals,p-Tyramine and p-aminophenol were used as amino carriers.The successful introduction of amino groups onto LDPE,BOPP and PET film substrates was demonstrated by measurements of water contract angle (CA),ultraviolet spectra (UV),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and fluorescent microscopy.The processing factors,such as the UV-light intensity and irradiation time,concentrations of p-tyramine and p-aminophenol,and the ratio of acetone/water were investigated.The optimized process parameters are as follows:UV light intensity 9500 μW/cm2; irradiation time 18 min for BOPP and LDPE,22 rmin for PET; the ratio of acetone/water =1; and concentration ofp-tyramine and p-aminophenol 15% for BOPP and LDPE,1% for PET.Based on the UV absorbance,the amino groups on the polymeric substrates were estimated to be in the range of 6.3 x 10-6-9.5 x 10-6 mmol/mm2.

  8. Design of Quenching Process for Large-sized AISI P20 Steel Block Used as Plastic Die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongli SONG; Jianfeng GU; Jiansheng PAN; Xin YAO


    For large-sized AISI P20 steel block used as plastic die with a thickness of more than 200 mm, appropriate quenching processes are the key to obtain much thick hardened layer. In this paper, different quenching processes of AISI P20 steel block such as oil quenching, direct water quenching, water quenching with precooling and water quenching with pre-cooling and self-tempering were numerically investigated by computer simulation based on the detailed discussion on the mathematical models of quenching processes including partial differential equations of heat transfer, thermal physical properties, latent heat, heat transfer coefficient and calculation of phase transformation, The results show that the water quenching with pre-cooling and self-tempering process can not only effectively avoid quenching cracks, but also obtain deeper harden depth than oil quenching.

  9. Steerable Discrete Cosine Transform (United States)

    Fracastoro, Giulia; Fosson, Sophie M.; Magli, Enrico


    In image compression, classical block-based separable transforms tend to be inefficient when image blocks contain arbitrarily shaped discontinuities. For this reason, transforms incorporating directional information are an appealing alternative. In this paper, we propose a new approach to this problem, namely a discrete cosine transform (DCT) that can be steered in any chosen direction. Such transform, called steerable DCT (SDCT), allows to rotate in a flexible way pairs of basis vectors, and enables precise matching of directionality in each image block, achieving improved coding efficiency. The optimal rotation angles for SDCT can be represented as solution of a suitable rate-distortion (RD) problem. We propose iterative methods to search such solution, and we develop a fully fledged image encoder to practically compare our techniques with other competing transforms. Analytical and numerical results prove that SDCT outperforms both DCT and state-of-the-art directional transforms.

  10. Effects of fencamfamine on latent inhibition. (United States)

    Alves, Cilene R R; Delucia, Roberto; Silva, M Teresa A


    The effects of fencamfamine (FCF), an indirect dopamine (DA) agent, were investigated using the latent inhibition (LI) model of schizophrenia. In the LI procedure, rats preexposed (PE) to an unreinforced stimulus show difficulty in subsequent learning of an association in which that stimulus is predictive of an unconditioned stimulus (US). FCF (1.75, 3.5 and 7.0 mg/kg i.p.) yielded an inverse dose-response relationship regarding LI. At 3.5 mg/kg, LI was abolished and no effect was observed at 1.75 and 7.0 mg/kg. The effect of FCF (3.5 mg/kg) on LI was blocked by the antipsychotic risperidone (RIS; 4.0 mg/kg), a D2/5HT2 antagonist. These results confirm the similarity of the behavioral profile of FCF and amphetamine (AMPH). In addition, they provide a further validation of the LI model for psychosis, since RIS was shown to prevent a psychostimulant-induced disruption of LI.

  11. Chadong Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The Chadong Block, located in the east of Qaidam Basin, Qinghai Province, covers an area of 12 452 km2. It is bounded by Kunlum Mountains in the south and the northwest is closely adjacent to Aimunike Mountain.Rivers are widely distributed, which always run in NWSE direction, including the Sulunguole, Qaidam and Haluwusu Rivers. The traffic condition is good, the Qinghai-Tibet highway stretching through the whole area and the Lan-Qing railway, 20-50 km away from the block, passing from north to west. A lot of Mongolia minority people have settled there, of which herdsmen always live nearby the Qaidam River drainage area.

  12. Invariant Gaussian Process Latent Variable Models and Application in Causal Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kun; Janzing, Dominik


    In nonlinear latent variable models or dynamic models, if we consider the latent variables as confounders (common causes), the noise dependencies imply further relations between the observed variables. Such models are then closely related to causal discovery in the presence of nonlinear confounders, which is a challenging problem. However, generally in such models the observation noise is assumed to be independent across data dimensions, and consequently the noise dependencies are ignored. In this paper we focus on the Gaussian process latent variable model (GPLVM), from which we develop an extended model called invariant GPLVM (IGPLVM), which can adapt to arbitrary noise covariances. With the Gaussian process prior put on a particular transformation of the latent nonlinear functions, instead of the original ones, the algorithm for IGPLVM involves almost the same computational loads as that for the original GPLVM. Besides its potential application in causal discovery, IGPLVM has the advantage that its estimat...

  13. Designed, synthetically accessible bryostatin analogues potently induce activation of latent HIV reservoirs in vitro (United States)

    Dechristopher, Brian A.; Loy, Brian A.; Marsden, Matthew D.; Schrier, Adam J.; Zack, Jerome A.; Wender, Paul A.


    Bryostatin is a unique lead in the development of potentially transformative therapies for cancer, Alzheimer's disease and the eradication of HIV/AIDS. However, the clinical use of bryostatin has been hampered by its limited supply, difficulties in accessing clinically relevant derivatives, and side effects. Here, we address these problems through the step-economical syntheses of seven members of a new family of designed bryostatin analogues using a highly convergent Prins-macrocyclization strategy. We also demonstrate for the first time that such analogues effectively induce latent HIV activation in vitro with potencies similar to or better than bryostatin. Significantly, these analogues are up to 1,000-fold more potent in inducing latent HIV expression than prostratin, the current clinical candidate for latent virus induction. This study provides the first demonstration that designed, synthetically accessible bryostatin analogues could serve as superior candidates for the eradication of HIV/AIDS through induction of latent viral reservoirs in conjunction with current antiretroviral therapy.

  14. Latent herpesvirus infection arms NK cells. (United States)

    White, Douglas W; Keppel, Catherine R; Schneider, Stephanie E; Reese, Tiffany A; Coder, James; Payton, Jacqueline E; Ley, Timothy J; Virgin, Herbert W; Fehniger, Todd A


    Natural killer (NK) cells were identified by their ability to kill target cells without previous sensitization. However, without an antecedent "arming" event, NK cells can recognize, but are not equipped to kill, target cells. How NK cells become armed in vivo in healthy hosts is unclear. Because latent herpesviruses are highly prevalent and alter multiple aspects of host immunity, we hypothesized that latent herpesvirus infection would arm NK cells. Here we show that NK cells from mice latently infected with Murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) were armed as evidenced by increased granzyme B protein expression, cytotoxicity, and interferon-gamma production. NK-cell arming occurred rapidly in the latently infected host and did not require acute viral infection. Furthermore, NK cells armed by latent infection protected the host against a lethal lymphoma challenge. Thus, the immune environment created by latent herpesvirus infection provides a mechanism whereby host NK-cell function is enhanced in vivo.

  15. Latent semantics as cognitive components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai; Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai


    Cognitive component analysis, defined as an unsupervised learning of features resembling human comprehension, suggests that the sensory structures we perceive might often be modeled by reducing dimensionality and treating objects in space and time as linear mixtures incorporating sparsity...... emotional responses can be encoded in words, we propose a simplified cognitive approach to model how we perceive media. Representing song lyrics in a vector space of reduced dimensionality using LSA, we combine bottom-up defined term distances with affective adjectives, that top-down constrain the latent......, which we suggest might function as cognitive components for perceiving the underlying structure in lyrics....

  16. Latent methane in fossil coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Alexeev; E.V. Ulyanova; G.P. Starikov; N.N. Kovriga [Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Donetsk (Ukraine). Institute for Physics of Mining Processes


    It is established experimentally using 1H NMR wide line spectroscopy that methane can exist in coals not only in open or closed porosity and fracture systems but also in solid solutions in coal substance, in particular, under methane pressure 2 MPa or higher. Methane dissolved in coal minerals reversibly modifies their lattice parameters as determined from X-ray diffraction analysis. Co-existence of these methane forms in fossil coals causes multi-step desorption kinetics. It is shown experimentally that the long-term latent methane desorption is effected mainly by closed porosity, which in turn is determined by coal rank. 21 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Enhanced latent inhibition in high schizotypy individuals


    Granger, Kiri T.; Moran, Paula M.; Buckley, Matthew G.; Haselgrove, Mark


    Latent inhibition refers to a retardation in learning about a stimulus that has been rendered familiar by non-reinforced preexposure, relative to a non-preexposed stimulus. Latent inhibition has been shown to be inversely correlated with schizotypy, and abnormal in people with schizophrenia, but these findings are inconsistent. One potential contributing factor to this inconsistency is that many tasks that purport to measure latent inhibition are confounded by alternative effects that also re...

  18. Latent Work and Latent Heat of the Liquid/Vapor Transformation (United States)


    official endorsement or approval of the use thereof. Destroy this report when it is no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator. Army...pressure and temperature, we give a new elegant form, Eq. 33, of the celebrated Clausius-Clapeyron relationship. 15 8. References 1. Sears FW. An

  19. Bayesian variable selection for latent class models. (United States)

    Ghosh, Joyee; Herring, Amy H; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria


    In this article, we develop a latent class model with class probabilities that depend on subject-specific covariates. One of our major goals is to identify important predictors of latent classes. We consider methodology that allows estimation of latent classes while allowing for variable selection uncertainty. We propose a Bayesian variable selection approach and implement a stochastic search Gibbs sampler for posterior computation to obtain model-averaged estimates of quantities of interest such as marginal inclusion probabilities of predictors. Our methods are illustrated through simulation studies and application to data on weight gain during pregnancy, where it is of interest to identify important predictors of latent weight gain classes.

  20. Enhancing multilingual latent semantic analysis with term alignment information.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, Peter A.; Bader, Brett William


    Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) is based on the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) of a term-by-document matrix for identifying relationships among terms and documents from co-occurrence patterns. Among the multiple ways of computing the SVD of a rectangular matrix X, one approach is to compute the eigenvalue decomposition (EVD) of a square 2 x 2 composite matrix consisting of four blocks with X and XT in the off-diagonal blocks and zero matrices in the diagonal blocks. We point out that significant value can be added to LSA by filling in some of the values in the diagonal blocks (corresponding to explicit term-to-term or document-to-document associations) and computing a term-by-concept matrix from the EVD. For the case of multilingual LSA, we incorporate information on cross-language term alignments of the same sort used in Statistical Machine Translation (SMT). Since all elements of the proposed EVD-based approach can rely entirely on lexical statistics, hardly any price is paid for the improved empirical results. In particular, the approach, like LSA or SMT, can still be generalized to virtually any language(s); computation of the EVD takes similar resources to that of the SVD since all the blocks are sparse; and the results of EVD are just as economical as those of SVD.

  1. Dorsal Hand Vein Recognition Algorithm Based on Ridgelet Transforming of Divided Blocks%基于分块脊波变换的手背静脉识别算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾旭; 薛定宇; 崔建江; 刘晶


    提出一种分块提取局部方向特征,并将所有特征融合的静脉识别算法.首先,静脉图像经预处理后,利用改进的细化算法对获得的二值图像进行细化处理,得到了静脉的骨架信息;其次,将细化后的静脉图像进行分块,对分块后所有的子图像进行脊波变换,并对脊波分解系数进行主成分分析(PCA)降维,得到静脉图像的特征向量;最后,基于图像特征向量,利用支持向量机(SVM)对静脉图像进行分类匹配.试验表明,该算法获得的静脉图像特征具有较高的区分度,识别效果受图像采集和预处理过程出现的误差影响较小,正确识别率可达到97%以上.%A vein recognition algorithm based on fusing all local directional features which are extracted from divided blocks is proposed. Firstly, the acquired binary image is thinned by improved thinning algorithm after vein image pre-processing and the vein skeleton information is obtained. Secondly, the thinned vein image is divided into blocks. Then, every sub-image is processed by ridgelet transforming, the dimensions of ridgelet transforming coefficients are reduced by applying principal component analysis, and the eigenvectors of vein image are acquired. Finally, vein images are classified and matched through making use of support vector machine based on the eigenvectors of image. Experimental results show that eigenvectors which are acquired through proposed algorithm have better discrimination, recognition results are affected less by errors that are generated in image acquiring and pre-processing, and the correct recognition rate exceeds 97%.

  2. Synthesis of segmented (pb(ps-block-pb)(n)) and (pb(san-block- pb)(n)) block-copolymers via polymeric thermal iniferters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kroeze, E; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G


    A technique is described for the synthesis of segmented poly(butadiene-block-styrene) block copolymers and segmented poly(butadiene-block-(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)) block copolymers through polybutadiene-based thermal iniferters. Dihydroxy- and dicarboxy-terminated polybutadienes were transformed i

  3. Development of Fraction Comparison Strategies: A Latent Transition Analysis. (United States)

    Rinne, Luke F; Ye, Ai; Jordan, Nancy C


    The present study investigated the development of fraction comparison strategies through a longitudinal analysis of children's responses to a fraction comparison task in 4th through 6th grades (N = 394). Participants were asked to choose the larger value for 24 fraction pairs blocked by fraction type. Latent class analysis of performance over item blocks showed that most children initially exhibited a "whole number bias," indicating that larger numbers in numerators and denominators produce larger fraction values. However, some children instead chose fractions with smaller numerators and denominators, demonstrating a partial understanding that smaller numbers can yield larger fractions. Latent transition analysis showed that most children eventually adopted normative comparison strategies. Children who exhibited a partial understanding by choosing fractions with smaller numbers were more likely to adopt normative comparison strategies earlier than those with larger number biases. Controlling for general math achievement and other cognitive abilities, whole number line estimation accuracy predicted the probability of transitioning to normative comparison strategies. Exploratory factor analyses showed that over time, children appeared to increasingly represent fractions as discrete magnitudes when simpler strategies were unavailable. These results support the integrated theory of numerical development, which posits that an understanding of numbers as magnitudes unifies the process of learning whole numbers and fractions. The findings contrast with conceptual change theories, which propose that children must move from a view of numbers as counting units to a new view that accommodates fractions to overcome whole number bias. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. Learning Latent Structure in Complex Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Hansen, Lars Kai

    such as the Modularity, it has recently been shown that latent structure in complex networks is learnable by Bayesian generative link distribution models (Airoldi et al., 2008, Hofman and Wiggins, 2008). In this paper we propose a new generative model that allows representation of latent community structure...

  5. Introduction to Latent Class Analysis with Applications (United States)

    Porcu, Mariano; Giambona, Francesca


    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to group individuals (cases, units) into classes (categories) of an unobserved (latent) variable on the basis of the responses made on a set of nominal, ordinal, or continuous observed variables. In this article, we introduce LCA in order to demonstrate its usefulness to early adolescence…

  6. Sampling Weights in Latent Variable Modeling (United States)

    Asparouhov, Tihomir


    This article reviews several basic statistical tools needed for modeling data with sampling weights that are implemented in Mplus Version 3. These tools are illustrated in simulation studies for several latent variable models including factor analysis with continuous and categorical indicators, latent class analysis, and growth models. The…

  7. Latent Class and Latent Transition Analysis With Applications in the Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Linda M


    One of the few books on latent class analysis (LCA) and latent transition analysis (LTA) with a comprehensive treatment of longitudinal latent class models, Latent Class and Latent Transition Analysis reflects improvements in statistical computing as the most up-to-date reference for theoretical, technical, and practical issues in cross-sectional and longitudinal data. Plentiful examples enable the reader to acquire a thorough conceptual and technical understanding and to apply techniques to address empirical research questions. Researchers seeking an advanced introduction to LCA and LTA and g

  8. Latent inhibition in human adults without masking. (United States)

    Escobar, Martha; Arcediano, Francisco; Miller, Ralph R


    Latent inhibition refers to attenuated responding to Cue X observed when the X-outcome pairings are preceded by X-alone presentations. It has proven difficult to obtain in human adults unless the preexposure (X-alone) presentations are embedded within a masking (i.e., distracting) task. The authors hypothesized that the difficulty in obtaining latent inhibition with unmasked tasks is related to the usual training procedures, in which the preexposure and conditioning experiences are separated by a set of instructions. Experiment 1 reports latent inhibition without masking in a task in which preexposure and conditioning occur without interruption. Experiments 2 and 3 demonstrate that this attenuation in responding to target Cue X does not pass a summation test for conditioned inhibition and is context specific, thereby confirming that it is latent inhibition. Experiments 3 and 4 confirm that introducing instructions between preexposure and conditioning disrupts latent inhibition.

  9. Algorithm to Generate Kekre's Wavelet Transform from Kekre's Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. H. B. KEKRE


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Kekre’s Wavelet (KW transform which is generated from Kekre’s transform. Kekre’s Wavelet transform can be used for various applications in image processing. Steganography using Kekre’s Wavelet transform is implemented to show one of its applications in this area. The full cover image is transformed usingKekre’s Wavelet transform. Transformed image is then divided into 16 equal non-overlapping blocks. Energy of each block is computed. The system embeds secret data into lower energy blocks of the transformed image. From the experiments and the obtained results the proposed system achieves hiding capacity of 56.25% of the cover image size with 100% retrieval of secret data. The quality of stego image of the proposed system is very close to original one so that the difference is imperceptible to human eye. Moreover the results of Haar ransform, Modified Haar transform and Kekre’s Wavelet transform are compared. It is shown that performance of Kekre’s Wavelet transformis approachable to Haar transform. Since it is possible to generate Kekre’ Wavelet transform matrix of any size, the cover image size need not to be integer power of 2 as in case of Haar transform. Since Kekre’s Wavelet transform is a novel unexplored transform, even if an observer suspects that some covert communication is taking place, it is not possible to extract the secret information because attacker would not know the transform.

  10. General Floorplans with L/T-Shaped Blocks Using Corner Block List

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Chun Ma; Xian-Long Hong; She-Qin Dong; C.K.Cheng; Jun Gu


    With the recent advent of deep submicron technology and new packing schemes, the components in the integrated circuit are often not rectangular. On the basis of the representation of Corner Block List (CBL), we propose a new method of handling rectilinear blocks. In this paper, the handling of the rectilinear blocks is simplified by transforming the L/T-shaped block problem into the align-abutment constraint problem. We devise the block rejoining process and block alignment operation for forming the L/T-shaped blocks into their original configurations. The shape flexibility of the soft blocks, and the rotation and reflection of L/T-shaped blocks are exploited to obtain a tight packing. The empty rooms are introduced to the process of block rejoining. The efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by the experimental results on a set of some benchmark examples.

  11. 基于改进型DCT和Gabor分块的人脸特征提取与识别%Face Feature Extraction and Recognition Based on Modified Discrete Cosine Transform and Gabor Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永宏; 曹健; 王丽华


    人脸特征提取是人脸识别中重要的一个环节.提出了一种新的方法,利用DCT对人脸图像压缩降维,然后对DCT系数用20组Gabor小波滤波,滤波后的结果采用选择性分块统计方法提取特征向量.最后把特征向量用改进型感知器算法进行分类.以VC ++6.0为开发平台在Yale人脸库和ORL人脸库上对该方法进行了测试.实验表明,该方法与常用的PCA、LDA等特征提取方法相比可以有效降低运算时间,并提高识别率.%Face feature extraction is an important part of face recognition. A new method is presented which u-ses discrete cosine transform( DCT) for face images compression and dimension reduction, then the DCT coefficients is filtered by using 20 groups of Gabor wavelet, the selective block statistics method is used to extract eigenvectors from the result of filtering. Finally, the eigenvectors with modified perception algorithm are classified. It is tested on the Yale face database and ORL face database with VC + + 6. 0. Experiment shows that compared with the commonly used feature extraction methods such as PCA and LDA, the new method can reduce the calculation and increase the identification effectively.

  12. Vpx-containing Dendritic Cell Vaccine Vectors Induce CTLs and Reactivate Latent HIV-1 in vitro (United States)

    Norton, Thomas D.; Miller, Elizabeth A.; Bhardwaj, Nina; Landau, Nathaniel R.


    Eradication of HIV-1 from an infected individual requires a means of inducing production of virus from latently infected cells and stimulating an immune response against the infected cells. We report the development of lentiviral vectors that transduce dendritic cells (DCs) to both induce production of virus from latently infected cells and stimulate antigen-specific CTLs. The vectors package Vpx, a lentiviral accessory protein that counteracts the SAMHD1-mediated block to DC transduction, allowing for long-term expression of vector-encoded proteins. The vectors encode influenza or HIV-1-derived epitopes fused via a self-cleaving peptide to CD40L that releases the peptide into the endoplasmic reticulum for entry into the antigen presentation pathway. Expression of CD40L caused transduced DCs to mature and produce Th1-skewing cytokines. The DCs presented antigen to CD8 T cells, enhancing antigen-specific CTLs. Coculture of the transduced DCs with latently infected cells induced high level virus production, an effect that was mediated by TNF-α. The ability of a DC vaccine to reactivate latent HIV-1 and stimulate an adaptive immune response provides a means to reduce the size of the latent reservoir in patients. This strategy can also be applied to develop DC vaccines for other diseases. PMID:25567537

  13. First Versus Second Order Latent Growth Curve Models: Some Insights From Latent State-Trait Theory


    Geiser, Christian; Keller, Brian; Lockhart, Ginger


    First order latent growth curve models (FGMs) estimate change based on a single observed variable and are widely used in longitudinal research. Despite significant advantages, second order latent growth curve models (SGMs), which use multiple indicators, are rarely used in practice, and not all aspects of these models are widely understood. In this article, our goal is to contribute to a deeper understanding of theoretical and practical differences between FGMs and SGMs. We define the latent ...

  14. Expected Classification Accuracy using the Latent Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanmin Guo


    Full Text Available Rudner (2001, 2005 proposed a method for evaluating classification accuracy in tests based on item response theory (IRT. In this paper, a latent distribution method is developed. For comparison, both methods are applied to a set of real data from a state test. While the latent distribution method relaxes several of the assumptions needed to apply Rudner's method, both approaches yield extremely comparable results. A simplified approach for applying Rudner's method and a short SPSS routine are presented.

  15. Handbook of latent variable and related models

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sik-Yum


    This Handbook covers latent variable models, which are a flexible class of models for modeling multivariate data to explore relationships among observed and latent variables.- Covers a wide class of important models- Models and statistical methods described provide tools for analyzing a wide spectrum of complicated data- Includes illustrative examples with real data sets from business, education, medicine, public health and sociology.- Demonstrates the use of a wide variety of statistical, computational, and mathematical techniques.

  16. Habituation, latent inhibition, and extinction. (United States)

    Jordan, Wesley P; Todd, Travis P; Bucci, David J; Leaton, Robert N


    In two conditioned suppression experiments with a latent inhibition (LI) design, we measured the habituation of rats in preexposure, their LI during conditioning, and then extinction over days. In the first experiment, lick suppression, the preexposed group (PE) showed a significant initial unconditioned response (UR) to the target stimulus and significant long-term habituation (LTH) of that response over days. The significant difference between the PE and nonpreexposed (NPE) groups on the first conditioning trial was due solely to the difference in their URs to the conditioned stimulus (CS)-a habituated response (PE) and an unhabituated response (NPE). In the second experiment, bar-press suppression, little UR to the target stimulus was apparent during preexposure, and no detectable LTH. Thus, there was no difference between the PE and NPE groups on the first conditioning trial. Whether the UR to the CS confounds the interpretation of LI (Exp. 1) or not (Exp. 2) can only be known if the UR is measured. In both experiments, LI was observed in acquisition. Also in both experiments, rats that were preexposed and then conditioned to asymptote were significantly more resistant to extinction than were the rats not preexposed. This result contrasts with the consistently reported finding that preexposure either produces less resistance to extinction or has no effect on extinction. The effect of stimulus preexposure survived conditioning to asymptote and was reflected directly in extinction. These two experiments provide a cautionary procedural note for LI experiments and have shown an unexpected extinction effect that may provide new insights into the interpretation of LI.

  17. Transformer Winding Frequency Response Data Analysis with Block Frequency Point Method%变压器绕组频率响应数据的图块频点分析法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许渊; 弓艳朋; 刘有为; 马文媛; 赵强; 王文焕


    Frequency response analysis is an important method of detecting transformer winding deformation.Experienced professionals are able to j udge winding deformation accurately by qualitative analysis of the frequency response data atlas. Firstly,the qualitative analysis methods for frequency response data are summarized.Secondly,according to the characteristics of the qualitative analysis,the mathematical morphology is introduced and the quantitative analysis for the amplitude difference is researched.The frequency domain is defined to divide the extreme points of the frequency response data into matched extreme point,shifted extreme point,lost extreme point,excess extreme point and the quantitative analysis for the extreme points is researched.Finally,the block frequency point method is proposed.The main points of the qualitative analysis for frequency response data atlas are mathematically presented with the block frequency point method,and the quantitative analysis for frequency response data is realized.The effectiveness of the method is proved by verification of an example.%频率响应分析法是诊断电力变压器绕组变形的重要方法。经验丰富的专业人员通过对频率响应数据图谱的定性分析,可以较准确地判断绕组变形。文中首先对频率响应数据的定性分析方法进行了总结;然后根据频率响应数据定性分析的特点,将数学形态学引入频率响应数据分析中,研究了频率响应数据幅值差异的量化分析方法,定义了频点域的概念,将频率响应数据的极值点分为匹配极值点、偏移极值点、缺失极值点和多出极值点,研究了频率响应数据极值点的量化分析方法;最后提出了频率响应数据的图块频点分析法,将频率响应数据图谱定性分析的要点用数学的方式表达出来,实现了对频率响应数据的量化分析。经过实例验证表明,该方法可以取得较好的诊断效果。

  18. Human Cytomegalovirus Manipulation of Latently Infected Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Sinclair


    Full Text Available Primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV results in the establishment of a lifelong infection of the host which is aided by the ability of HCMV to undergo a latent infection. One site of HCMV latency in vivo is in haematopoietic progenitor cells, resident in the bone marrow, with genome carriage and reactivation being restricted to the cells of the myeloid lineage. Until recently, HCMV latency has been considered to be relatively quiescent with the virus being maintained essentially as a “silent partner” until conditions are met that trigger reactivation. However, advances in techniques to study global changes in gene expression have begun to show that HCMV latency is a highly active process which involves expression of specific latency-associated viral gene products which orchestrate major changes in the latently infected cell. These changes are argued to help maintain latent infection and to modulate the cellular environment to the benefit of latent virus. In this review, we will discuss these new findings and how they impact not only on our understanding of the biology of HCMV latency but also how they could provide tantalising glimpses into mechanisms that could become targets for the clearance of latent HCMV.

  19. Transform image enhancement (United States)

    Aghagolzadeh, Sabzali; Ersoy, Okan K.


    Blockwise transform image enhancement techniques are discussed. Previously, transform image enhancement has usually been based on the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) applied to the whole image. Two major drawbacks with the DFT are high complexity of implementation involving complex multiplications and additions, with intermediate results being complex numbers, and the creation of severe block effects if image enhancement is done blockwise. In addition, the quality of enhancement is not very satisfactory. It is shown that the best transforms for transform image coding, namely, the scrambled real discrete Fourier transform, the discrete cosine transform, and the discrete cosine-III transform, are also the best for image enhancement. Three techniques of enhancement discussed in detail are alpha- rooting, modified unsharp masking, and filtering motivated by the human visual system response (HVS). With proper modifications, it is observed that unsharp masking and HVS- motivated filtering without nonlinearities are basically equivalent. Block effects are completely removed by using an overlap-save technique in addition to the best transform.

  20. Learning with Latent Factors in Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Ali


    This paper considers the problem of learning, from samples, the dependency structure of a system of linear stochastic differential equations, when some of the variables are latent. In particular, we observe the time evolution of some variables, and never observe other variables; from this, we would like to find the dependency structure between the observed variables -- separating out the spurious interactions caused by the (marginalizing out of the) latent variables' time series. We develop a new method, based on convex optimization, to do so in the case when the number of latent variables is smaller than the number of observed ones. For the case when the dependency structure between the observed variables is sparse, we theoretically establish a high-dimensional scaling result for structure recovery. We verify our theoretical result with both synthetic and real data (from the stock market).

  1. The latent heat of vaporization of supercritical fluids (United States)

    Banuti, Daniel; Raju, Muralikrishna; Hickey, Jean-Pierre; Ihme, Matthias


    The enthalpy of vaporization is the energy required to overcome intermolecular attractive forces and to expand the fluid volume against the ambient pressure when transforming a liquid into a gas. It diminishes for rising pressure until it vanishes at the critical point. Counterintuitively, we show that a latent heat is in fact also required to heat a supercritical fluid from a liquid to a gaseous state. Unlike its subcritical counterpart, the supercritical pseudoboiling transition is spread over a finite temperature range. Thus, in addition to overcoming intermolecular attractive forces, added energy simultaneously heats the fluid. Then, considering a transition from a liquid to an ideal gas state, we demonstrate that the required enthalpy is invariant to changes in pressure for 0 intermolecular forces in the real fluid vapor during heating. At supercritical pressures, all of the transition occurs at non-equilibrium; for p -> 0 , all of the transition occurs at equilibrium.

  2. Block by Block: Neighborhoods and Public Policy on Chicago's West Side. Historical Studies of Urban America (United States)

    Seligman, Amanda I.


    In the decades following World War II, cities across the United States saw an influx of African American families into otherwise homogeneously white areas. This racial transformation of urban neighborhoods led many whites to migrate to the suburbs, producing the phenomenon commonly known as white flight. In "Block by Block," Amanda I. Seligman…

  3. Model Transformations? Transformation Models!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bézivin, J.; Büttner, F.; Gogolla, M.; Jouault, F.; Kurtev, I.; Lindow, A.


    Much of the current work on model transformations seems essentially operational and executable in nature. Executable descriptions are necessary from the point of view of implementation. But from a conceptual point of view, transformations can also be viewed as descriptive models by stating only the

  4. Latent Fingerprint Matching: Performance Gain via Feedback from Exemplar Prints. (United States)

    Arora, Sunpreet S; Liu, Eryun; Cao, Kai; Jain, Anil K


    Latent fingerprints serve as an important source of forensic evidence in a court of law. Automatic matching of latent fingerprints to rolled/plain (exemplar) fingerprints with high accuracy is quite vital for such applications. However, latent impressions are typically of poor quality with complex background noise which makes feature extraction and matching of latents a significantly challenging problem. We propose incorporating top-down information or feedback from an exemplar to refine the features extracted from a latent for improving latent matching accuracy. The refined latent features (e.g. ridge orientation and frequency), after feedback, are used to re-match the latent to the top K candidate exemplars returned by the baseline matcher and resort the candidate list. The contributions of this research include: (i) devising systemic ways to use information in exemplars for latent feature refinement, (ii) developing a feedback paradigm which can be wrapped around any latent matcher for improving its matching performance, and (iii) determining when feedback is actually necessary to improve latent matching accuracy. Experimental results show that integrating the proposed feedback paradigm with a state-of-the-art latent matcher improves its identification accuracy by 0.5-3.5 percent for NIST SD27 and WVU latent databases against a background database of 100k exemplars.

  5. Latent inhibition of a conditioned taste aversion in fetal rats. (United States)

    Mickley, G Andrew; Hoxha, Zana; DiSorbo, Anthony; Wilson, Gina N; Remus, Jennifer L; Biesan, Orion; Ketchesin, Kyle D; Ramos, Linnet; Luchsinger, Joseph R; Prodan, Suzanna; Rogers, Morgan; Wiles, Nathanael R; Hoxha, Nita


    The etiology of schizophrenia's cognitive symptoms may have its basis in prenatal alterations of glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor functioning. Therefore, the current study investigated the effects of ketamine (an NMDA receptor blocking drug) on both a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and latent inhibition (LI; a model of attentional capacity) in rat fetuses. We first sought to determine if a CTA could be diminished by nonreinforced preexposure to a CS in fetal rats (i.e., LI). We injected E18 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats with 100% allicin (garlic taste) or an equal volume of saline. Some of the pregnant dams also received ketamine (100 mg/kg, i.p.). One day later (E19), the dams received a second injection of the CS, followed by either lithium chloride (the US) or saline. Finally, on E21 pups received oral lavage with allicin and observations of ingestive orofacial motor responses were recorded. When allicin had been paired with LiCl in utero, E21 fetuses exhibited a conditioned suppression of orofacial movements, indicative of an aversion to this taste. Preexposure to the garlic taste on E18 produced a LI of this CTA. Ketamine significantly disrupted the formation of the CTA and had some impact on LI. However, the direct effect of ketamine on LI is less certain since the drug also blocked the original CTA.

  6. Benzotriazoles Reactivate Latent HIV-1 through Inactivation of STAT5 SUMOylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Bosque


    Full Text Available The presence of latent HIV-1 in infected individuals represents a major barrier preventing viral eradication. For that reason, reactivation of latent viruses in the presence of antiretroviral regimens has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy to achieve remission. We screened for small molecules and identified several benzotriazole derivatives with the ability to reactivate latent HIV-1. In the presence of IL-2, benzotriazoles reactivated and reduced the latent reservoir in primary cells, and, remarkably, viral reactivation was achieved without inducing cell proliferation, T cell activation, or cytokine release. Mechanistic studies showed that benzotriazoles block SUMOylation of phosphorylated STAT5, increasing STAT5’s activity and occupancy of the HIV-1 LTR. Our results identify benzotriazoles as latency reversing agents and STAT5 signaling and SUMOylation as targets for HIV-1 eradication strategies. These compounds represent a different direction in the search for “shock and kill” therapies.

  7. Dish-mounted latent heat buffer storage (United States)

    Manvi, R.


    Dish-mounted latent heat storage subsystems for Rankine, Brayton, and Stirling engines operating at 427 C, 816 C, and 816 C respectively are discussed. Storage requirements definition, conceptual design, media stability and compatibility tests, and thermal performance analyses are considered.

  8. Random Effect and Latent Variable Model Selection

    CERN Document Server

    Dunson, David B


    Presents various methods for accommodating model uncertainty in random effects and latent variable models. This book focuses on frequentist likelihood ratio and score tests for zero variance components. It also focuses on Bayesian methods for random effects selection in linear mixed effects and generalized linear mixed models

  9. Forensic Chemistry: The Revelation of Latent Fingerprints (United States)

    Friesen, J. Brent


    The visualization of latent fingerprints often involves the use of a chemical substance that creates a contrast between the fingerprint residues and the surface on which the print was deposited. The chemical-aided visualization techniques can be divided into two main categories: those that chemically react with the fingerprint residue and those…

  10. Generalized Structured Component Analysis with Latent Interactions (United States)

    Hwang, Heungsun; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Lee, Jonathan


    Generalized structured component analysis (GSCA) is a component-based approach to structural equation modeling. In practice, researchers may often be interested in examining the interaction effects of latent variables. However, GSCA has been geared only for the specification and testing of the main effects of variables. Thus, an extension of GSCA…

  11. Charging characteristics of ionographic latent images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallone, B.G.; Podgorsak, E.B.

    The charging characteristics of ionographic latent images are discussed in terms of the saturation characteristics of ionographic chambers. It is shown that latent images are essentially foil electrets with surface charge densities modulated by the x-ray transmission through the object. Empirical methods for the calculation of saturation current densities and extrapolated electric fields are given. Both the saturation current density and the extrapolated field consist of two components: one, which is linear with the air gap thickness, is produced by primary photon interactions in the chamber-sensitive volume; the other, exhibiting an exponential saturation, is attributed to photoelectrons backscattered from the polarizing electrode into the chamber-sensitive volume. The minimum applied electric field needed for an optimized charge collection in the ionographic chamber is presented in terms of both the characteristic polarization time and the electret relaxation time. The maximum possible surface charge density in the latent image is calculated, first exhibiting direct proportionality with the polarizing voltage V0, and then following a V0 (1/2) dependence for voltages larger than the breakpoint voltage. The optimum exposure for latent image production is calculated. Exposures below this optimum give insufficient charge densities for subsequent development, while exposures above it degrade the image and eventually result in a uniform foil electret charged to its maximum theoretical value.

  12. Stability of latent class segments over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller, Simone


    Dynamic stability, as the degree to which identified segments at a given time remain unchanged over time in terms of number, size and profile, is a desirable segment property which has received limited attention so far. This study addresses the question to what degree latent classes identified from...

  13. Bayesian Multitask Learning with Latent Hierarchies

    CERN Document Server

    Daumé, Hal


    We learn multiple hypotheses for related tasks under a latent hierarchical relationship between tasks. We exploit the intuition that for domain adaptation, we wish to share classifier structure, but for multitask learning, we wish to share covariance structure. Our hierarchical model is seen to subsume several previously proposed multitask learning models and performs well on three distinct real-world data sets.

  14. Thermally Stable, Latent Olefin Metathesis Catalysts (United States)

    Thomas, Renee M.; Fedorov, Alexey; Keitz, Benjamin K.


    Highly thermally stable N-aryl,N-alkyl N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ruthenium catalysts were designed and synthesized for latent olefin metathesis. These catalysts showed excellent latent behavior toward metathesis reactions, whereby the complexes were inactive at ambient temperature and initiated at elevated temperatures, a challenging property to achieve with second generation catalysts. A sterically hindered N-tert-butyl substituent on the NHC ligand of the ruthenium complex was found to induce latent behavior toward cross-metathesis reactions, and exchange of the chloride ligands for iodide ligands was necessary to attain latent behavior during ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Iodide-based catalysts showed no reactivity toward ROMP of norbornene-derived monomers at 25 °C, and upon heating to 85 °C gave complete conversion of monomer to polymer in less than 2 hours. All of the complexes were very stable to air, moisture, and elevated temperatures up to at least 90 °C, and exhibited a long catalyst lifetime in solution at elevated temperatures. PMID:22282652

  15. On identifiability of certain latent class models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wieringen, W.N.


    Blischke [1962. Moment estimators for the parameters of a mixture of two binomial distributions. Ann. Math. Statist. 33, 444-454] studies a mixture of two binomials, a latent class model. In this article we generalize this model to a mixture of two products of binomials. We show when this generalize

  16. Latent Trait Estimation: Theory vs. Practice. (United States)

    Kolakowski, Donald

    Empirical results are presented as regards the implementation of a latent-trait psychometric model by means of conditional maximum likelihood estimation. Items are scored polychotomously into varying numbers of nominal categories and the test and item characteristic curves and information functions are examined. It is concluded that scoring items…


    Carrel, A; du Noüy, P L


    1. The latent period of cicatrization varies generally from 5 to 7 days. 2. It stops abruptly and contraction starts with its maximum velocity. 3. The formula of du Noüy applies to the beginning of the contraction period as well as to the subsequent periods.

  18. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    Block ciphersarecryptographicprimitivesthatoperateon fixed sizetexts(blocks). Mostdesigns aim towards secure andfastencryption oflarge amounts ofdata. Block ciphers also serve as the building block of a number of hash functions and message authentication codes(MAC).Thetask of cryptanalysisisto en...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular.......Block ciphersarecryptographicprimitivesthatoperateon fixed sizetexts(blocks). Mostdesigns aim towards secure andfastencryption oflarge amounts ofdata. Block ciphers also serve as the building block of a number of hash functions and message authentication codes(MAC).Thetask of cryptanalysisisto...... ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard...

  19. Latent mnemonic strengths are latent: a comment on Mickes, Wixted, and Wais (2007). (United States)

    Rouder, Jeffrey N; Pratte, Michael S; Morey, Richard D


    Mickes, Wixted, and Wais (2007) proposed a simple test of latent strength variability in recognition memory. They asked participants to rate their confidence using either a 20-point or a 99-point strength scale and plotted distributions of the resulting ratings. They found 25% more variability in ratings for studied than for new items, which they interpreted as providing evidence that latent mnemonic strength distributions are 25% more variable for studied than for new items. We show here that this conclusion is critically dependent on assumptions--so much so that these assumptions determine the conclusions. In fact, opposite conclusions, such that study does not affect the variability of latent strength, may be reached by making different but equally plausible assumptions. Because all measurements of mnemonic strength variability are critically dependent on untestable assumptions, all are arbitrary. Hence, there is no principled method for assessing the relative variability of latent mnemonic strength distributions.

  20. Generalized latent variable modeling multilevel, longitudinal, and structural equation models

    CERN Document Server

    Skrondal, Anders


    METHODOLOGY THE OMNI-PRESENCE OF LATENT VARIABLES Introduction 'True' variable measured with error Hypothetical constructs Unobserved heterogeneity Missing values and counterfactuals Latent responses Generating flexible distributions Combining information Summary MODELING DIFFERENT RESPONSE PROCESSES Introduction Generalized linear models Extensions of generalized linear models Latent response formulation Modeling durations or survival Summary and further reading CLASSICAL LATENT VARIABLE MODELS Introduction Multilevel regression models Factor models and item respons

  1. Novel Efficient De-blocking Method for Highly Compressed Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Min; YI Qing-ming; YANG Liang


    Due to coarse quantization,block-based discrete cosine transform(BDCT) compression methods usually suffer from visible blocking artifacts at the block boundaries.A novel efficient de-blocking method in DCT domain is proposed.A specific criterion for edge detection is given,one-dimensional DCT is applied on each row of the adjacent blocks and the shifted block in smooth region,and the transform coefficients of the shifted block are modified by weighting the average of three coefficients of the block.Mean square difference of slope criterion is used to judge the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.Simulation results show that the new method not only obtains satisfactory image quality,but also maintains high frequency information.

  2. Fingerprint Minutiae from Latent and Matching Tenprint Images (United States)

    NIST Fingerprint Minutiae from Latent and Matching Tenprint Images (PC database for purchase)   NIST Special Database 27 contains latent fingerprints from crime scenes and their matching rolled fingerprint mates. This database can be used to develop and test new fingerprint algorithms, test commercial and research AFIS systems, train latent examiners, and promote the ANSI/NIST file format standard.

  3. Stochastic Approximation Methods for Latent Regression Item Response Models (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip


    This article presents an application of a stochastic approximation expectation maximization (EM) algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression item response models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a latent variable model with covariates…

  4. Nanoscale control of interfacial processes for latent fingerprint enhancement. (United States)

    Sapstead, Rachel M; Ryder, Karl S; Fullarton, Claire; Skoda, Maximilian; Dalgliesh, Robert M; Watkins, Erik B; Beebee, Charlotte; Barker, Robert; Glidle, Andrew; Hillman, A Robert


    Latent fingerprints on metal surfaces may be visualized by exploiting the insulating characteristics of the fingerprint deposit as a "mask" to direct electrodeposition of an electroactive polymer to the bare metal between the fingerprint ridges. This approach is complementary to most latent fingerprint enhancement methods, which involve physical or chemical interaction with the fingerprint residue. It has the advantages of sensitivity (a nanoscale residue can block electron transfer) and, using a suitable polymer, optimization of visual contrast. This study extends the concept in two significant respects. First, it explores the feasibility of combining observation based on optical absorption with observation based on fluorescence. Second, it extends the methodology to materials (here, polypyrrole) that may undergo post-deposition substitution chemistry, here binding of a fluorophore whose size and geometry preclude direct polymerization of the functionalised monomer. The scenario involves a lateral spatial image (the whole fingerprint, first level detail) at the centimetre scale, with identification features (minutiae, second level detail) at the 100-200 microm scale and finer features (third level detail) at the 10-50 microm scale. However, the strategy used requires vertical spatial control of the (electro)chemistry at the 10-100 nm scale. We show that this can be accomplished by polymerization of pyrrole functionalised with a good leaving group, ester-bound FMOC, which can be hydrolysed and eluted from the deposited polymer to generate solvent "voids". Overall the "void" volume and the resulting effect on polymer dynamics facilitate entry and amide bonding of Dylight 649 NHS ester, a large fluorophore. FTIR spectra demonstrate the spatially integrated compositional changes. Both the hydrolysis and fluorophore functionalization were followed using neutron reflectivity to determine vertical spatial composition variations, which control image development in the

  5. Experimental analysis on classification of unmanned aerial vehicle images using the probabilistic latent semantic analysis (United States)

    Yi, Wenbin; Tang, Hong


    In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to classify UAV images through the image annotation which is a semi-supervised method. During the annotation process, we first divide whole image into different sizes of blocks and generate suitable visual words which are the K-means clustering centers or just pixels in small size image block. Then, given a set of image blocks for each semantic concept as training data, learning is based on the Probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis (PLSA). The probability distributions of visual words in every document can be learned through the PLSA model. The labeling of every document (image block) is done by computing the similarity of its feature distribution to the distribution of the training documents with the Kullback-Leibler (K-L) divergence. Finally, the classification of the UAV images will be done by combining all the image blocks in every block size. The UAV images using in our experiments was acquired during Sichuan earthquake in 2008. The results show that smaller size block image will get better classification results.

  6. Noisy-OR Models with Latent Confounding

    CERN Document Server

    Hyttinen, Antti; Hoyer, Patrik O


    Given a set of experiments in which varying subsets of observed variables are subject to intervention, we consider the problem of identifiability of causal models exhibiting latent confounding. While identifiability is trivial when each experiment intervenes on a large number of variables, the situation is more complicated when only one or a few variables are subject to intervention per experiment. For linear causal models with latent variables Hyttinen et al. (2010) gave precise conditions for when such data are sufficient to identify the full model. While their result cannot be extended to discrete-valued variables with arbitrary cause-effect relationships, we show that a similar result can be obtained for the class of causal models whose conditional probability distributions are restricted to a `noisy-OR' parameterization. We further show that identification is preserved under an extension of the model that allows for negative influences, and present learning algorithms that we test for accuracy, scalabili...

  7. Biomedical Literature Exploration through Latent Semantics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo ARAÚJO


    Full Text Available The fast increasing amount of articles published in the biomedical field is creating difficulties in the way this wealth of information can be efficiently exploited by researchers. As a way of overcoming these limitations and potentiating a more efficient use of the literature, we propose an approach for structuring the results of a literature search based on the latent semantic information extracted from a corpus. Moreover, we show how the results of the Latent Semantic Analysis method can be adapted so as to evidence differences between results of different searches. We also propose different visualization techniques that can be applied to explore these results. Used in combination, these techniques could empower users with tools for literature guided knowledge exploration and discovery.

  8. Latent variables and route choice behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Bekhor, Shlomo; Pronello, Cristina


    In the last decade, a broad array of disciplines has shown a general interest in enhancing discrete choice models by considering the incorporation of psychological factors affecting decision making. This paper provides insight into the comprehension of the determinants of route choice behavior by...... results illustrate that considering latent variables (i.e., memory, habit, familiarity, spatial ability, time saving skills) alongside traditional variables (e.g., travel time, distance, congestion level) enriches the comprehension of route choice behavior....

  9. Barcelona - Talent Latent 09 / Ahto Sooaru

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sooaru, Ahto


    Fotonäitusest "Talent Latent 09" Barcelonas Arts Santa Monica kunstikeskuses. Loetletud näitusel eksponeeritud fotode autorid. Pikemalt Rafael Milach'i (sünd. 1978), Lucia Ganieva, Javier Marquerie Thomas'i (sünd. 1986), Amaury da Cunha (sünd. 1976) töödest. Lühidalt ka teistest näitustest Arts Santa Monica kunstikeskuses

  10. New Treatment Regimen for Latent Tuberculosis Infection

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Dr. Kenneth Castro, Director of the Division of Tuberculosis Elimination, discusses the December 9, 2011 CDC guidelines for the use of a new regimen for the treatment of persons with latent tuberculosis infection.  Created: 3/15/2012 by National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention (NCHHSTP).   Date Released: 3/15/2012.

  11. The latent class multitrait-multimethod model. (United States)

    Oberski, Daniel L; Hagenaars, Jacques A P; Saris, Willem E


    A latent class multitrait-multimethod (MTMM) model is proposed to estimate random and systematic measurement error in categorical survey questions while making fewer assumptions than have been made so far in such evaluations, allowing for possible extreme response behavior and other nonmonotone effects. The method is a combination of the MTMM research design of Campbell and Fiske (1959), the basic response model for survey questions of Saris and Andrews (1991), and the latent class factor model of Vermunt and Magidson (2004, pp. 227-230). The latent class MTMM model thus combines an existing design, model, and method to allow for the estimation of the degree to and manner in which survey questions are affected by systematic measurement error. Starting from a general form of the response function for a survey question, we present the MTMM experimental approach to identification of the response function's parameters. A "trait-method biplot" is introduced as a means of interpreting the estimates of systematic measurement error, whereas the quality of the questions can be evaluated by item information curves and the item information function. An experiment from the European Social Survey is analyzed and the results are discussed, yielding valuable insights into the functioning of a set of example questions on the role of women in society in 2 countries.

  12. Factors associated with latent fingerprint exclusion determinations. (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn


    Exclusion is the determination by a latent print examiner that two friction ridge impressions did not originate from the same source. The concept and terminology of exclusion vary among agencies. Much of the literature on latent print examination focuses on individualization, and much less attention has been paid to exclusion. This experimental study assesses the associations between a variety of factors and exclusion determinations. Although erroneous exclusions are more likely to occur on some images and for some examiners, they were widely distributed among images and examiners. Measurable factors found to be associated with exclusion rates include the quality of the latent, value determinations, analysis minutia count, comparison difficulty, and the presence of cores or deltas. An understanding of these associations will help explain the circumstances under which errors are more likely to occur and when determinations are less likely to be reproduced by other examiners; the results should also lead to improved effectiveness and efficiency of training and casework quality assurance. This research is intended to assist examiners in improving the examination process and provide information to the broader community regarding the accuracy, reliability, and implications of exclusion decisions.

  13. Mixture latent autoregressive models for longitudinal data

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolucci, Francesco; Pennoni, Fulvia


    Many relevant statistical and econometric models for the analysis of longitudinal data include a latent process to account for the unobserved heterogeneity between subjects in a dynamic fashion. Such a process may be continuous (typically an AR(1)) or discrete (typically a Markov chain). In this paper, we propose a model for longitudinal data which is based on a mixture of AR(1) processes with different means and correlation coefficients, but with equal variances. This model belongs to the class of models based on a continuous latent process, and then it has a natural interpretation in many contexts of application, but it is more flexible than other models in this class, reaching a goodness-of-fit similar to that of a discrete latent process model, with a reduced number of parameters. We show how to perform maximum likelihood estimation of the proposed model by the joint use of an Expectation-Maximisation algorithm and a Newton-Raphson algorithm, implemented by means of recursions developed in the hidden Mark...

  14. Transformation kinetics in controlled-power and controlled-temperature cycle testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robino, C.V.; Knorovsky, G.; Dykhuizen, R.C.; MacCallum, D.O.; Damkroger, B.K.


    On-heating transformation kinetics were investigated for several steels by using a Gleeble capable of programmable power input as well as programmable temperature cycling. Transformation kinetics determined in both modes are reported. The temperature cycles are significantly different between the two modes due to the latent heat associated with the phase transformations. Both diffusion rates and transformation driving force increase with temperature above the eutectoid temperature, therefore the latent heat can potentially have a significant impact on the transformation kinetics. Experiments with plain carbon steels illustrate that the latent heat of austenite formation causes an appreciable temperature arrest during transformation, and the dilatation response is similarly altered. A kinetic transformation model, based on the decomposition of pearlite and the diffusional growth of austenite, reproduced the transient dilatation data obtained from both control modes reasonably well using the same kinetic parameter values.

  15. First Versus Second Order Latent Growth Curve Models: Some Insights From Latent State-Trait Theory. (United States)

    Geiser, Christian; Keller, Brian; Lockhart, Ginger


    First order latent growth curve models (FGMs) estimate change based on a single observed variable and are widely used in longitudinal research. Despite significant advantages, second order latent growth curve models (SGMs), which use multiple indicators, are rarely used in practice, and not all aspects of these models are widely understood. In this article, our goal is to contribute to a deeper understanding of theoretical and practical differences between FGMs and SGMs. We define the latent variables in FGMs and SGMs explicitly on the basis of latent state-trait (LST) theory and discuss insights that arise from this approach. We show that FGMs imply a strict trait-like conception of the construct under study, whereas SGMs allow for both trait and state components. Based on a simulation study and empirical applications to the CES-D depression scale (Radloff, 1977) we illustrate that, as an important practical consequence, FGMs yield biased reliability estimates whenever constructs contain state components, whereas reliability estimates based on SGMs were found to be accurate. Implications of the state-trait distinction for the measurement of change via latent growth curve models are discussed.

  16. Dopamine D1 receptor involvement in latent inhibition and overshadowing. (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew J D; Thur, Karen E; Cassaday, Helen J


    Latent inhibition (LI) manifests as poorer conditioning to a stimulus that has previously been experienced without consequence. There is good evidence of dopaminergic modulation of LI, as the effect is reliably disrupted by the indirect dopamine (DA) agonist amphetamine. The disruptive effects of amphetamine on LI are reversed by both typical and atypical antipsychotics, which on their own are able to facilitate LI. However, the contribution of different DA receptors to these effects is poorly understood. Amphetamine effects on another stimulus selection procedure, overshadowing, have been suggested to be D1-mediated. Thus, in the current experiments, we systematically investigated the role of D1 receptors in LI. First, we tested the ability of the full D1 agonist SKF 81297 to abolish LI and compared the effects of this drug on LI and overshadowing. Subsequently, we examined whether the D1 antagonist SCH 23390 can lead to the emergence of LI under conditions that do not produce the effect in normal animals (weak pre-exposure). Finally, we tested the ability of SCH 23390 to block amphetamine-induced disruption of LI. We found little evidence that direct stimulation of D1 receptors abolishes LI (although there was some attenuation of LI at 0.4 mg/kg SKF 81297). Similarly, SCH 23390 failed to enhance LI. However, SCH 23390 did block amphetamine-induced disruption of LI. These data indicate that, while LI may be unaffected by selective manipulation of activity at D1 receptors, the effects of amphetamine on LI are to some extent dependent on actions at D1 receptors.

  17. Total Spinal Block after Thoracic Paravertebral Block. (United States)

    Beyaz, Serbülent Gökhan; Özocak, Hande; Ergönenç, Tolga; Erdem, Ali Fuat; Palabıyık, Onur


    Thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) can be performed with or without general anaesthesia for various surgical procedures. TPVB is a popular anaesthetic technique due to its low side effect profile and high analgesic potency. We used 20 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine for a single injection of unilateral TPVB at the T7 level with neurostimulator in a 63 year old patient with co-morbid disease who underwent cholecystectomy. Following the application patient lost consciousness, and was intubated. Haemodynamic instability was normalised with rapid volume replacement and vasopressors. Anaesthetic drugs were stopped at the end of the surgery and muscle relaxant was antagonised. Return of mucle strenght was shown with neuromuscular block monitoring. Approximately three hours after TPVB, spontaneous breathing started and consciousness returned. A total spinal block is a rare and life-threatening complication. A total spinal block is a complication of spinal anaesthesia, and it can also occur after peripheral blocks. Clinical presentation is characterised by hypotension, bradicardia, apnea, and cardiac arrest. An early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is life saving. In this case report, we want to present total spinal block after TPVB.

  18. Increased disulphide dimer formation of latent associated peptide fusions of TGF-β by addition of L-cystine. (United States)

    Mullen, Lisa M; Adams, Gill; Chernajovsky, Yuti


    The development of novel protein therapeutics relies on the ability to express appreciable amounts of correctly folded recombinant proteins. Latent IFN-β is engineered using the latency-associated peptide (LAP) of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) to maintain IFN-β in a biologically inactive form until such time as it is released at sites of inflammation by matrix metalloproteinase activity (see Adams et al., 2003). CHO cells cultured in suspension were used for expression of latent IFN-β to allow medium scale transient transfection. However, the recombinant protein expressed in this system consisted of a mixture of properly linked disulphide dimers and monomers. The ratio of dimer:monomer produced could be significantly altered towards increased dimer production by the addition of L-cystine to the CHO culture medium. The total yield of latent IFN-β was increased by co-transfection of plasmid coding for the simian virus (SV) 40 large T antigen to the plasmid with the SV40 origin of replication expressing latent IFN-β DNA. These results provide valuable new insights for developing protocols to produce substantial quantities of latent cytokine dimers in CHO cells in suspension.

  19. Latent Viruses: A Space Travel Hazard?? (United States)

    Ling, P. D.; Peng, R. S.; Pierson, D.; Lednicky, J.; Butel, J. S.


    A major issue associated with long-duration space flight is the possibility of infectious disease causing an unacceptable medical risk to crew members. Our proposal is designed to gain information that addresses several issues outlined in the Immunology/Infectious disease critical path. The major hypothesis addressed is that space flight causes alterations in the immune system that may allow latent viruses which are endogenous in the human population to reactivate and shed to higher levels than normal which can affect the health of crew members during a long term space-flight mission. We will initially focus our studies on the human herpesviruses and human polyomaviruses which are important pathogens known to establish latent infections in the human population. Both primary infection and reactivation from latent infection with this group of viruses can cause a variety of illnesses that result in morbidity and occasionally mortality of infected individuals. Effective vaccines exist for only one of the eight known human herpesviruses and the vaccine itself can still reactivate from latent infection. Available antivirals are of limited use and are effective against only a few of the human herpesviruses. Although most individuals display little if any clinical consequences from latent infection, events which alter immune function such as immunosuppressive therapy following solid organ transplantation are known to increase the risk of developing complications as a result of latent virus reactivation. This proposal will measure both the frequency and magnitude of viral shedding and genome loads in the blood from humans participating in activities that serve as ground based models of space flight conditions. Our initial goal is to develop sensitive quantitative competitive PCR- based assays (QC-PCR) to detect the herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and the polyomaviruses SV40, BKV, and JCV. Using these assays we will establish baseline patterns of viral genome load in

  20. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe


    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes.......Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...

  1. Latent inhibition and autonomic responses: a psychophysiological approach. (United States)

    Vaitl, D; Lipp, O V


    Latent inhibition, retarded learning after preexposure to the to-be-conditioned stimulus, has been implied as a tool for the investigation of attentional deficits in schizophrenia and related disorders. The present paper reviews research that used Pavlovian conditioning as indexed by autonomic responses (electrodermal, vasomotor, cardiac) to investigate latent inhibition in adult humans. Latent inhibition has been demonstrated repeatedly in healthy subjects in absence of a masking task that is required in other latent inhibition paradigms. Moreover, latent inhibition of Pavlovian conditioning is stimulus-specific and increases with an increased number of preexposure trials which mirrors results from research in animals. A reduction of latent inhibition has been shown in healthy subjects who score high on questionnaire measures of psychosis proneness and in unmedicated schizophrenic patients. The latter result was obtained in a within-subject paradigm that holds promise for research with patient samples.

  2. Using existing questionnaires in latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Molgaard; Vach, Werner; Kent, Peter;


    BACKGROUND: Latent class analysis (LCA) is increasingly being used in health research, but optimal approaches to handling complex clinical data are unclear. One issue is that commonly used questionnaires are multidimensional, but expressed as summary scores. Using the example of low back pain (LBP...... classified into four health domains (psychology, pain, activity, and participation) using the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. LCA was performed within each health domain using the strategies of summary-score and single-item analyses...

  3. Functional networks underlying latent inhibition learning in the mouse brain


    Puga, Frank; Barrett, Douglas W.; Bastida, Christel C.; Gonzalez-Lima, F.


    The present study reports the first comprehensive map of brain networks underlying latent inhibition learning and the first application of structural equation modeling to cytochrome oxidase data. In latent inhibition, repeated exposure to a stimulus results in a latent form of learning that inhibits subsequent associations with that stimulus. As neuronal energy demand to form learned associations changes, so does the induction of the respiratory enzyme cytochrome oxidase. Therefore, cytochrom...

  4. Protection from Latent Inhibition Provided by a Conditioned Inhibitor


    McConnell, Bridget L.; Wheeler, Daniel S.; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R.


    Two conditioned suppression experiments with rats investigated the influence on latent inhibition of compounding a Pavlovian conditioned inhibitor with the target cue during preexposure treatment. Results were compared to subjects that received conventional latent inhibition training, no preexposure, or preexposure to the target cue in compound with a neutral stimulus. In Experiment 1, greater attenuation of the latent inhibition effect was observed in subjects that received target preexposur...

  5. Latent mnemonic strengths are latent : A comment on Mickes, Wixted, and Wais

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rouder, J.N.; Pratte, M.S.; Morey, R.D.


    Mickes, Wixted, and Wais (2007) proposed a simple test of latent strength variability in recognition memory. They asked participants to rate their confidence using either a 20-point or a 99-point strength scale and plotted distributions of the resulting ratings. They found 25% more variability in ra

  6. Bayesian Analysis of Multivariate Latent Curve Models with Nonlinear Longitudinal Latent Effects (United States)

    Song, Xin-Yuan; Lee, Sik-Yum; Hser, Yih-Ing


    In longitudinal studies, investigators often measure multiple variables at multiple time points and are interested in investigating individual differences in patterns of change on those variables. Furthermore, in behavioral, social, psychological, and medical research, investigators often deal with latent variables that cannot be observed directly…

  7. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage


    Klimes Lubomir; Mauder Tomas; Ostry Milan; Charvat Pavel


    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage...

  8. Recent studies of transform image enhancement (United States)

    Aghagolzadeh, Sabzali; Ersoy, Okan K.


    Blockwise transform image enhancement techniques are discussed. It is shown that the best transforms for transform image coding, namely, the scrambled real discrete Fourier transform, the discrete cosine transform, and the discrete cosine-III transform, are also the best for image enhancement. Three techniques of enhancement discussed in detail are alpha- rooting, modified unsharp masking, and filtering motivated by the human visual system response (HVS). With proper modifications, it is observed that unsharp masking and HVS- motivated filtering without nonlinearities are basically equivalent. Block effects are completely removed by using an overlap-save technique in addition to the best transform.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄廷祝; 黎稳


    The block H-matrices are studied by the concept of G-functions, several concepts of block matrices are introduced. Equivalent characters of block H-matrices are obtained. Spectrum localizations claracterized by Gfunctions for block matrices are got.

  10. Morphological Transform for Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pastor Sanchez Fernandez


    Full Text Available A new method for image compression based on morphological associative memories (MAMs is presented. We used the MAM to implement a new image transform and applied it at the transformation stage of image coding, thereby replacing such traditional methods as the discrete cosine transform or the discrete wavelet transform. Autoassociative and heteroassociative MAMs can be considered as a subclass of morphological neural networks. The morphological transform (MT presented in this paper generates heteroassociative MAMs derived from image subblocks. The MT is applied to individual blocks of the image using some transformation matrix as an input pattern. Depending on this matrix, the image takes a morphological representation, which is used to perform the data compression at the next stages. With respect to traditional methods, the main advantage offered by the MT is the processing speed, whereas the compression rate and the signal-to-noise ratio are competitive to conventional transforms.

  11. A conformal block Farey tail

    CERN Document Server

    Maloney, Alexander; Ng, Gim Seng


    We investigate the constraints of crossing symmetry on CFT correlation functions. Four point conformal blocks are naturally viewed as functions on the upper-half plane, on which crossing symmetry acts by PSL(2,Z) modular transformations. This allows us to construct a unique, crossing symmetric function out of a given conformal block by averaging over PSL(2,Z). In some two dimensional CFTs the correlation functions are precisely equal to the modular average of the contributions of a finite number of light states. For example, in the two dimensional Ising and tri-critical Ising model CFTs, the correlation functions of identical operators are equal to the PSL(2,Z) average of the Virasoro vacuum block; this determines the 3 point function coefficients uniquely in terms of the central charge. The sum over PSL(2,Z) in CFT2 has a natural AdS3 interpretation as a sum over semi-classical saddle points, which describe particles propagating along rational tangles in the bulk. We demonstrate this explicitly for the corre...

  12. Vasopeptidase-activated latent ligands of the histamine receptor-1. (United States)

    Gera, Lajos; Roy, Caroline; Charest-Morin, Xavier; Marceau, François


    Whether peptidases present in vascular cells can activate prodrugs active on vascular cells has been tested with 2 potential latent ligands of the histamine H1 receptor (H1R). First, a peptide consisting of the antihistamine cetirizine (CTZ) condensed at the N-terminus of ε-aminocaproyl-bradykinin (εACA-BK) was evaluated for an antihistamine activity that could be revealed by degradation of the peptide part of the molecule. CTZ-εACA-BK had a submicromolar affinity for the BK B2 receptor (B2R; IC50 of 590 nM, [(3)H]BK binding competition), but a non-negligible affinity for the human H1 receptor (H1R; IC50 of 11 μM for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding). In the human isolated umbilical vein, a system where both endogenous B2R and H1R mediate strong contractions, CTZ-εACA-BK exerted mild antagonist effects on histamine-induced contraction that were not modified by omapatrilat or by a B2R antagonist that prevents endocytosis of the BK conjugate. Cells expressing recombinant ACE or B2R incubated with CTZ-εACA-BK did not release a competitor of [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. Thus, there is no evidence that CTZ-εACA-BK can release free cetirizine in biological environments. The second prodrug was a blocked agonist, L-alanyl-histamine, potentially activated by aminopeptidase N (APN). This compound did not compete for [(3)H]pyrilamine binding to H1Rs. The human umbilical vein contractility assay responded to L-alanyl-histamine (EC50 54.7 μM), but the APN inhibitor amastatin massively (17-fold) reduced its apparent potency. Amastatin did not influence the potency of histamine as a contractile agent. One of the 2 tested latent H1R ligands, L-alanyl-histamine, supported the feasibility of pro-drug activation by vascular ectopeptidases.

  13. Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲


    @@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.

  14. Statistical analysis of latent generalized correlation matrix estimation in transelliptical distribution (United States)

    Han, Fang; Liu, Han


    Correlation matrix plays a key role in many multivariate methods (e.g., graphical model estimation and factor analysis). The current state-of-the-art in estimating large correlation matrices focuses on the use of Pearson’s sample correlation matrix. Although Pearson’s sample correlation matrix enjoys various good properties under Gaussian models, its not an effective estimator when facing heavy-tail distributions with possible outliers. As a robust alternative, Han and Liu (2013b) advocated the use of a transformed version of the Kendall’s tau sample correlation matrix in estimating high dimensional latent generalized correlation matrix under the transelliptical distribution family (or elliptical copula). The transelliptical family assumes that after unspecified marginal monotone transformations, the data follow an elliptical distribution. In this paper, we study the theoretical properties of the Kendall’s tau sample correlation matrix and its transformed version proposed in Han and Liu (2013b) for estimating the population Kendall’s tau correlation matrix and the latent Pearson’s correlation matrix under both spectral and restricted spectral norms. With regard to the spectral norm, we highlight the role of “effective rank” in quantifying the rate of convergence. With regard to the restricted spectral norm, we for the first time present a “sign subgaussian condition” which is sufficient to guarantee that the rank-based correlation matrix estimator attains the optimal rate of convergence. In both cases, we do not need any moment condition.

  15. Research on the Transformation of Traditional Blocks of Wudian,Jinjiang Based on Organic Renewal Theory%基于有机更新理论的晋江五店市传统街区改造的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩乐; 李铌; 张弓; 覃永晖


    The traditional blocks of Wudian are living fossils of evolutional history in the city of Jinjiang , with its architectures fairly- well preserved and with a larger proportion, but the rapid business development of surrounding areas and concentration of population make this area difficult to meet the functional requirements brought about by economic development of the city center zone and the people's quality demands for living. So we adopt the "organic renewal" theory to get the measures and ways of renewal and reconstruction by having a deeper analysis of the present situation .%五店市传统街区是晋江城市演变历史的活化石,建筑风貌保存较好且比重较大,但由于该区周边的商业快速发展和人口的集聚,使得该区难以满足城市中心区经济发展所带来的功能需求以及人们对居住品质的要求.所以我们采用“有机更新”理论对现状进行深层次的剖析之后得出更新与改造的措施与方式.

  16. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Kai


    latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora; HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements...... versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing...

  17. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming


    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  18. A Simplified Estimation of Latent State--Trait Parameters (United States)

    Hagemann, Dirk; Meyerhoff, David


    The latent state-trait (LST) theory is an extension of the classical test theory that allows one to decompose a test score into a true trait, a true state residual, and an error component. For practical applications, the variances of these latent variables may be estimated with standard methods of structural equation modeling (SEM). These…

  19. Nonlinear Latent Curve Models for Multivariate Longitudinal Data (United States)

    Blozis, Shelley A.; Conger, Katherine J.; Harring, Jeffrey R.


    Latent curve models have become a useful approach to analyzing longitudinal data, due in part to their allowance of and emphasis on individual differences in features that describe change. Common applications of latent curve models in developmental studies rely on polynomial functions, such as linear or quadratic functions. Although useful for…

  20. A Review of the Latent and Manifest Benefits (LAMB) Scale (United States)

    Muller, Juanita; Waters, Lea


    The latent and manifest benefits (LAMB) scale (Muller, Creed, Waters & Machin, 2005) was designed to measure the latent and manifest benefits of employment and provide a single scale to test Jahoda's (1981) and Fryer's (1986) theories of unemployment. Since its publication in 2005 there have been 13 studies that have used the scale with 5692…

  1. PROC LCA: A SAS Procedure for Latent Class Analysis (United States)

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Collins, Linda M.; Lemmon, David R.; Schafer, Joseph L.


    Latent class analysis (LCA) is a statistical method used to identify a set of discrete, mutually exclusive latent classes of individuals based on their responses to a set of observed categorical variables. In multiple-group LCA, both the measurement part and structural part of the model can vary across groups, and measurement invariance across…

  2. Latent lifestyle and mode choice decisions when travelling short distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Nielsen, Otto Anker


    of a representative sample of the Danish population in the Copenhagen Region were analysed, and more specifically a latent class choice model was estimated to uncover latent lifestyle groups and choice specific travel behaviour. Results show that four lifestyle groups are identified in the population: car oriented...

  3. Incorporating direct marketing activity into latent attrition models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweidel, David A.; Knox, George


    When defection is unobserved, latent attrition models provide useful insights about customer behavior and accurate forecasts of customer value. Yet extant models ignore direct marketing efforts. Response models incorporate the effects of direct marketing, but because they ignore latent attrition, th

  4. Gene Variants Associated with Antisocial Behaviour: A Latent Variable Approach (United States)

    Bentley, Mary Jane; Lin, Haiqun; Fernandez, Thomas V.; Lee, Maria; Yrigollen, Carolyn M.; Pakstis, Andrew J.; Katsovich, Liliya; Olds, David L.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Leckman, James F.


    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if a latent variable approach might be useful in identifying shared variance across genetic risk alleles that is associated with antisocial behaviour at age 15 years. Methods: Using a conventional latent variable approach, we derived an antisocial phenotype in 328 adolescents utilizing data from a…

  5. A Latent Class Approach to Estimating Test-Score Reliability (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; van der Palm, Daniel W.; Sijtsma, Klaas


    This study presents a general framework for single-administration reliability methods, such as Cronbach's alpha, Guttman's lambda-2, and method MS. This general framework was used to derive a new approach to estimating test-score reliability by means of the unrestricted latent class model. This new approach is the latent class reliability…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The PARELLA model is a probabilistic parallelogram model that can be used for the measurement of latent attitudes or latent preferences. The data analyzed are the dichotomous responses of persons to stimuli, with a one (zero) indicating agreement (disagreement) with the content of the stimulus. The

  7. Blocked Urethral Valves (United States)

    ... Blocked Urethral Valves Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Blocked Urethral Valves Page Content Article Body Urine leaves the bladder through a tube called the urethra, which in boys passes through the penis. Rarely, small membranes form across the urethra in ...

  8. Types of Heart Block (United States)

    ... P wave as it normally would. If an electrical signal is blocked before it reaches the ventricles, they won't contract and pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body. Second-degree heart block is divided into two ...

  9. Latent Images, Blind Comments on Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Feray


    Full Text Available Photographs, or images as the final result of a process, merely mark out the moment when the eye is helplessly limited to what it sees. Thus, what escapes the eye in the physical sense, i.e. what the eye will never see, is what occurs before the product- image, within the act itself. The latent image, the desire-image, unfolds throughout the duration of the photographic act. When the picture is ‘taken’, then the desire subsides until the next desire for another image arises. Based on the photographic experiment by Jerry Chan, member of a group of blind people, this article aims at rethinking the photographic act as the real- life experience of an impression process, leading the blind apprentice photographer to experience sightedness within his very flesh.  

  10. Endogenous Opioid-Masked Latent Pain Sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Manuel P; Donahue, Renee R; Dahl, Jørgen B


    naloxone dose (0.021 mg/kg). However, while LS was consistently demonstrated in 21/24 mice, LS was only seen in 4/12 subjects. This difference is likely due to selection bias since the C57BL/6 mouse strain exhibits markedly enhanced pain sensitivity in assays of acute thermal nociception. Future......UNLABELLED: Following the resolution of a severe inflammatory injury in rodents, administration of mu-opioid receptor inverse agonists leads to reinstatement of pain hypersensitivity. The mechanisms underlying this form of latent pain sensitization (LS) likely contribute to the development...... of chronic pain, but LS has not yet been demonstrated in humans. Using a C57BL/6 mouse model of cutaneous mild heat injury (MHI) we demonstrated a dose-dependent reinstatement of pain sensitization, assessed as primary (P

  11. Unsupervised Feature Selection for Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Weiran; Du Gang; Chen Guang; Guo Jun; Yang Jie


    As a generative model Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model,which lacks optimization of topics' discrimination capability focuses on how to generate data,This paper aims to improve the discrimination capability through unsupervised feature selection.Theoretical analysis shows that the discrimination capability of a topic is limited by the discrimination capability of its representative words.The discrimination capability of a word is approximated by the Information Gain of the word for topics,which is used to distinguish between “general word” and “special word” in LDA topics.Therefore,we add a constraint to the LDA objective function to let the “general words” only happen in “general topics”other than “special topics”.Then a heuristic algorithm is presented to get the solution.Experiments show that this method can not only improve the information gain of topics,but also make the topics easier to understand by human.

  12. Pretreatment of Latent Prints for Laser Development. (United States)

    Menzel, E R


    The pretreatment procedures for laser detection of latent fingerprints is reviewed. The general features of laser detection and the operational aspects of the examination of physical evidence for laser fingerprint detection are enumerated in the initial sections. The literature review is divided into various pretreatment approaches. Cited studies prior to 1981 are primarily concerned with the demonstration of the viability of laser fingerprint detection, whereas work post-1981 addresses issues of compatibility with the traditional methods of fingerprint development, examination of difficult surfaces, and the routine implementation of laser detection by law enforcement agencies. Related topics of research, review articles, conference reports, case examinations, the research support climate, and future trends are also briefly addressed.

  13. A latent classification of male batterers. (United States)

    Mauricio, Anne M; Lopez, Frederick G


    Regression latent class analysis was used to identify batterer subgroups with distinct violence patterns and to examine associations between class membership and adult attachment orientations as well as antisocial and borderline personality disorders. Results supported three batterer subgroups, with classes varying on frequency and severity of violence. The high-level violence class represented 40% of batterers, and both anxious and avoidant adult attachment orientations as well as borderline personality characteristics predicted membership in this class. The moderate-level violence class represented 35% of the batterers, and adult anxious attachment orientation was associated with membership in this class. The low-level violence class represented 25% of the sample and reported significantly less violence than other classes. Neither adult attachment orientations nor personality disorders predicted membership in this class.

  14. Latent factors and route choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    . A reliable dataset was prepared through measures of internal consistency and sampling adequacy, and data were analyzed with a proper application of factor analysis to the route choice context. For the dataset obtained from the survey, six latent constructs affecting driver behaviour were extracted and scores...... by proposing a methodology for collecting and analyzing behavioural indicators and modelling route choices of individuals driving habitually from home to their workplace. A web-based survey was designed to collect attitudinal data and observed route choices among faculty and staff members of Turin Polytechnic...... on each factor for each survey participant were calculated. Path generation algorithms were examined with respect to observed behaviour, through a measure of reproduction with deterministic techniques of the routes indicated in the answers to the survey. Results presented evidence that the majority...

  15. The Block Neighborhood

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, Pablo


    We define the block neighborhood of a reversible CA, which is related both to its decomposition into a product of block permutations and to quantum computing. We give a purely combinatorial characterization of the block neighborhood, which helps in two ways. First, it makes the computation of the block neighborhood of a given CA relatively easy. Second, it allows us to derive upper bounds on the block neighborhood: for a single CA as function of the classical and inverse neighborhoods, and for the composition of several CAs. One consequence of that is a characterization of a class of "elementary" CAs that cannot be written as the composition of two simpler parts whose neighborhoods and inverse neighborhoods would be reduced by one half.

  16. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kai Petersen

    Full Text Available Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes.

  17. CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Genome Editing of Herpesviruses Limits Productive and Latent Infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdy R van Diemen


    Full Text Available Herpesviruses infect the majority of the human population and can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Herpes simplex virus (HSV type 1 causes cold sores and herpes simplex keratitis, whereas HSV-2 is responsible for genital herpes. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV is the most common viral cause of congenital defects and is responsible for serious disease in immuno-compromised individuals. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is associated with infectious mononucleosis and a broad range of malignancies, including Burkitt's lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, Hodgkin's disease, and post-transplant lymphomas. Herpesviruses persist in their host for life by establishing a latent infection that is interrupted by periodic reactivation events during which replication occurs. Current antiviral drug treatments target the clinical manifestations of this productive stage, but they are ineffective at eliminating these viruses from the infected host. Here, we set out to combat both productive and latent herpesvirus infections by exploiting the CRISPR/Cas9 system to target viral genetic elements important for virus fitness. We show effective abrogation of HCMV and HSV-1 replication by targeting gRNAs to essential viral genes. Simultaneous targeting of HSV-1 with multiple gRNAs completely abolished the production of infectious particles from human cells. Using the same approach, EBV can be almost completely cleared from latently infected EBV-transformed human tumor cells. Our studies indicate that the CRISPR/Cas9 system can be effectively targeted to herpesvirus genomes as a potent prophylactic and therapeutic anti-viral strategy that may be used to impair viral replication and clear latent virus infection.

  18. Latent semantics of action verbs reflect phonetic parameters of intensity and emotional content. (United States)

    Petersen, Michael Kai


    Conjuring up our thoughts, language reflects statistical patterns of word co-occurrences which in turn come to describe how we perceive the world. Whether counting how frequently nouns and verbs combine in Google search queries, or extracting eigenvectors from term document matrices made up of Wikipedia lines and Shakespeare plots, the resulting latent semantics capture not only the associative links which form concepts, but also spatial dimensions embedded within the surface structure of language. As both the shape and movements of objects have been found to be associated with phonetic contrasts already in toddlers, this study explores whether articulatory and acoustic parameters may likewise differentiate the latent semantics of action verbs. Selecting 3 × 20 emotion-, face-, and hand-related verbs known to activate premotor areas in the brain, their mutual cosine similarities were computed using latent semantic analysis LSA, and the resulting adjacency matrices were compared based on two different large scale text corpora: HAWIK and TASA. Applying hierarchical clustering to identify common structures across the two text corpora, the verbs largely divide into combined mouth and hand movements versus emotional expressions. Transforming the verbs into their constituent phonemes, and projecting them into an articulatory space framed by tongue height and formant frequencies, the clustered small and large size movements appear differentiated by front versus back vowels corresponding to increasing levels of arousal. Whereas the clustered emotional verbs seem characterized by sequences of close versus open jaw produced phonemes, generating up- or downwards shifts in formant frequencies that may influence their perceived valence. Suggesting, that the latent semantics of action verbs reflect parameters of intensity and emotional polarity that appear correlated with the articulatory contrasts and acoustic characteristics of phonemes.

  19. Latent Herpes Viral Reactivation in Astronauts (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Mehta, S. K.; Stowe, R.


    Latent viruses are ubiquitous and reactivate during stressful periods with and without symptoms. Latent herpes virus reactivation is used as a tool to predict changes in the immune status in astronauts and to evaluate associated health risks. Methods: Viral DNA was detected by real time polymerase chain reaction in saliva and urine from astronauts before, during and after short and long-duration space flights. Results and Discussion: EpsteinBarr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivated, and viral DNA was shed in saliva (EBV and VZV) or urine (CMV). EBV levels in saliva during flight were 10fold higher than baseline levels. Elevations in EBV specific CD8+ T-cells, viral antibody titers, and specific cytokines were consistent with viral reactivation. Intracellular levels of cytokines were reduced in EBVspecific Tcells. CMV, rarely present in urine of healthy individuals, was shed in urine of 27% of astronauts during all phases of spaceflight. VZV, not found in saliva of asymptomatic individuals, was found in saliva of 50% of astronauts during spaceflight and 35 days after flight. VZV recovered from astronaut saliva was found to be live, infectious virus. DNA sequencing demonstrated that the VZV recovered from astronauts was from the common European strain of VZV. Elevation of stress hormones accompanied viral reactivation indicating involvement of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic adrenal-medullary axes in the mechanism of viral reactivation in astronauts. A study of 53 shingles patients found that all shingles patients shed VZV DNA in their saliva and the VZV levels correlated with the severity of the disease. Lower VZV levels in shingles patients were similar to those observed in astronauts. We proposed a rapid, simple, and cost-effective assay to detect VZV in saliva of patients with suspected shingles. Early detection of VZV infection allows early medical intervention.

  20. Latent Virus Reactivation in Space Shuttle Astronauts (United States)

    Mehta, S. K.; Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Sams, C.; Castro, V. A.; Pierson, D. L.


    Latent virus reactivation was measured in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected 2-4 months before launch, 10 days before launch (L-10), 2-3 hours after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+14), and 120 days after landing (R+120). Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA was measured in these samples by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) DNA was measured in the 381 saliva samples and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA in the 66 urine samples collected from these subjects. Fourteen astronauts shed EBV DNA in 21% of their saliva samples before, during, and after flight, and 7 astronauts shed VZV in 7.4% of their samples during and after flight. It was interesting that shedding of both EBV and VZV increased during the flight phase relative to before or after flight. In the case of CMV, 32% of urine samples from 8 subjects contained DNA of this virus. In normal healthy control subjects, EBV shedding was found in 3% and VZV and CMV were found in less than 1% of the samples. The circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol measured before, during, and after space flight did not show any significant difference between flight phases. These data show that increased reactivation of latent herpes viruses may be associated with decreased immune system function, which has been reported in earlier studies as well as in these same subjects (data not reported here).

  1. Dual functions of interferon regulatory factors 7C in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of human B lymphocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhao

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV infection is associated with several human malignancies. Interferon (IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF-7 has several splicing variants, and at least the major splicing variant (IRF-7A has oncogenic potential and is associated with EBV transformation processes. IRF-7C is an alternative splicing variant with only the DNA-binding domain of IRF-7. Whether IRF-7C is present under physiological conditions and its functions in viral transformation are unknown. In this report, we prove the existence of IRF-7C protein and RNA in certain cells under physiological conditions, and find that high levels of IRF-7C are associated with EBV transformation of human primary B cells in vitro as well as EBV type III latency. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1 stimulates IRF-7C expression in B lymphocytes. IRF-7C has oncogenic potential in rodent cells and partially restores the growth properties of EBV-transformed cells under a growth-inhibition condition. A tumor array experiment has identified six primary tumor specimens with high levels of IRF-7C protein--all of them are lymphomas. Furthermore, we show that the expression of IRF-7C is apparently closely associated with other IRF-7 splicing variants. IRF-7C inhibits the function of IRF-7 in transcriptional regulation of IFN genes. These data suggest that EBV may use splicing variants of IRF-7 for its transformation process in two strategies: to use oncogenic properties of various IRF-7 splicing variants, but use one of its splicing variants (IRF-7C to block the IFN-induction function of IRF-7 that is detrimental for viral transformation. The work provides a novel relation of host/virus interactions, and has expanded our knowledge about IRFs in EBV transformation.

  2. Data on the interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradford T. Ulery


    Full Text Available The data in this article supports the research paper entitled “Interexaminer variation of minutia markup on latent fingerprints” [1]. The data in this article describes the variability in minutia markup during both analysis of the latents and comparison between latents and exemplars. The data was collected in the “White Box Latent Print Examiner Study,” in which each of 170 volunteer latent print examiners provided detailed markup documenting their examinations of latent-exemplar pairs of prints randomly assigned from a pool of 320 pairs. Each examiner examined 22 latent-exemplar pairs; an average of 12 examiners marked each latent.

  3. Dissociated vertical deviation: an exaggerated normal eye movement used to damp cyclovertical latent nystagmus. (United States)

    Guyton, D L; Cheeseman, E W; Ellis, F J; Straumann, D; Zee, D S


    PURPOSE: Dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) has eluded explanation for more than a century. The purpose of this study has been to elucidate the etiology and mechanism of DVD. METHODS: Eye movement recordings of six young adults with DVD were made with dual-coil scleral search coils under various conditions of fixation, illumination, and head tilt. Horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements were recorded for both eyes simultaneously. Analyses of the simultaneous vertical and torsional movements occurring during the DVD response were used to separate and identify the component vergence and version eye movements involved. RESULTS: Typically, both horizontal and cyclovertical latent nystagmus developed upon occlusion of either eye. A cycloversion then occurred, with the fixing eye intorting and tending to depress, the covered eye extorting and elevating. Simultaneously, upward versions occurred for the maintenance of fixation, consisting variously of saccades and smooth eye movements, leading to further elevation of the eye behind the cover. The cyclovertical component of the latent nystagmus became partially damped as the DVD developed. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with an early-onset defect of binocular function, the occlusion of one eye, or even concentration on fixing with one eye, produces unbalanced input to the vestibular system. This results in latent nystagmus, sometimes seen only with magnification. The cyclovertical component of the latent nystagmus, when present, is similar to normal vestibular nystagmus induced by dynamic head tilting about an oblique axis. Such vestibular nystagmus characteristically produces a hyperdeviation of the eyes. In the case of cyclovertical latent nystagmus, the analogous hyperdeviation will persist unless corrected by a vertical vergence. A normal, oblique-muscle-mediated, cycloversion/vertical vergence is called into play. This occurs in the proper direction to correct the hyperdeviation, but it occurs in an exaggerated

  4. Tropical Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes and Latent Heating Distributions (United States)

    Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Love, Peter T.


    Recent satellite determinations of global distributions of absolute gravity wave (GW) momentum fluxes in the lower stratosphere show maxima over the summer subtropical continents and little evidence of GW momentum fluxes associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). This seems to be at odds with parameterizations forGWmomentum fluxes, where the source is a function of latent heating rates, which are largest in the region of the ITCZ in terms of monthly averages. The authors have examined global distributions of atmospheric latent heating, cloud-top-pressure altitudes, and lower-stratosphere absolute GW momentum fluxes and have found that monthly averages of the lower-stratosphere GW momentum fluxes more closely resemble the monthly mean cloud-top altitudes rather than the monthly mean rates of latent heating. These regions of highest cloud-top altitudes occur when rates of latent heating are largest on the time scale of cloud growth. This, plus previously published studies, suggests that convective sources for stratospheric GW momentum fluxes, being a function of the rate of latent heating, will require either a climate model to correctly model this rate of latent heating or some ad hoc adjustments to account for shortcomings in a climate model's land-sea differences in convective latent heating.

  5. In vivo disruption of latent HSV by designer endonuclease therapy. (United States)

    Aubert, Martine; Madden, Emily A; Loprieno, Michelle; DeSilva Feelixge, Harshana S; Stensland, Laurence; Huang, Meei-Li; Greninger, Alexander L; Roychoudhury, Pavitra; Niyonzima, Nixon; Nguyen, Thuy; Magaret, Amalia; Galleto, Roman; Stone, Daniel; Jerome, Keith R


    A large portion of the global population carries latent herpes simplex virus (HSV), which can periodically reactivate, resulting in asymptomatic shedding or formation of ulcerative lesions. Current anti-HSV drugs do not eliminate latent virus from sensory neurons where HSV resides, and therefore do not eliminate the risk of transmission or recurrent disease. Here, we report the ability of HSV-specific endonucleases to induce mutations of essential HSV genes both in cultured neurons and in latently infected mice. In neurons, viral genomes are susceptible to endonuclease-mediated mutagenesis, regardless of the time of treatment after HSV infection, suggesting that both HSV lytic and latent forms can be targeted. Mutagenesis frequency after endonuclease exposure can be increased nearly 2-fold by treatment with a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Using a mouse model of latent HSV infection, we demonstrate that a targeted endonuclease can be delivered to viral latency sites via an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector, where it is able to induce mutation of latent HSV genomes. These data provide the first proof-of-principle to our knowledge for the use of a targeted endonuclease as an antiviral agent to treat an established latent viral infection in vivo.

  6. Eutectic mixtures of some fatty acids for latent heat storage: Thermal properties and thermal reliability with respect to thermal cycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)]. E-mail:


    Accelerated thermal cycle tests have been conducted to study the change in melting temperatures and latent heats of fusion of the eutectic mixtures of lauric acid (LA)-myristic acid (MA), lauric acid (LA)-palmitic acid (PA) and myristic acid (MA)-stearic acid (SA) as latent heat storage materials. The thermal properties of these materials were determined by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis method. The thermal reliability of the eutectic mixtures after melt/freeze cycles of 720, 1080 and 1460 was also evaluated using the DSC curves. The accelerated thermal cycle tests indicate that the melting temperatures usually tend to decrease, and the variations in the latent heats of fusion are irregular with increasing number of thermal cycles. Moreover, the probable reasons for the change in thermal properties of the eutectic mixtures after repeated thermal cycles were investigated. Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic analysis indicates that the accelerated melt/freeze processes do not cause any degradation in the chemical structure of the mixtures. The change in thermal properties of the eutectic mixtures with increasing number of thermal cycles is only because of the presence of certain amounts of impurities in the fatty acids used in their preparation. It is concluded that the tested eutectic mixtures have reasonable thermal properties and thermal reliability as phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat storage in any solar heating applications that include a four year utilization period.

  7. Block copolymer battery separator (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez


    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  8. Hawaii Census 2000 Blocks (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups...

  9. Steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierda, JMKH; Mori, K; Ohmura, A; Toyooka, H; Hatano, Y; Shingu, K; Fukuda, K


    Since 1964 approximately 20 steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents have been evaluated clinically. Pancuronium, a bisquaternary compound designed on the drawingboard, was the first steroidal relaxant introduced into clinical practice worldwide in the 1970's. Although a major improvement, pancuroniu

  10. Superalloy Lattice Block Structures (United States)

    Nathal, M. V.; Whittenberger, J. D.; Hebsur, M. G.; Kantzos, P. T.; Krause, D. L.


    Initial investigations of investment cast superalloy lattice block suggest that this technology will yield a low cost approach to utilize the high temperature strength and environmental resistance of superalloys in lightweight, damage tolerant structural configurations. Work to date has demonstrated that relatively large superalloy lattice block panels can be successfully investment cast from both IN-718 and Mar-M247. These castings exhibited mechanical properties consistent with the strength of the same superalloys measured from more conventional castings. The lattice block structure also accommodates significant deformation without failure, and is defect tolerant in fatigue. The potential of lattice block structures opens new opportunities for the use of superalloys in future generations of aircraft applications that demand strength and environmental resistance at elevated temperatures along with low weight.

  11. Application of cross finned tubes in latent heat storages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwind, H.; Wolff, D. (Dortmund Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Anlagentechnik); Brose, J. (Dortmund Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Arbeitsgruppe Chemieapparatebau)


    Heat storages, utilizing the latent heat of materials have in comparison with sensible heat storages the two fundamental advantages of small storage volumes and constant temperatures during charge and discharge. Known storage systems in the field of industrial heating may be replaced advantageous by latent heat storage systems. A new latent heat storage, applying storage material around vertical arranged cross finned tubes is presented. It results in good heat transfer rates and avoids degredation and stratification of salthydrates during operation. The scaling-up of a single cross finned tube to a compact unit with plate fins seems to be practicable without problems. Some experimental results are presented.

  12. Optical Properties of Drug Metabolites in Latent Fingermarks

    CERN Document Server

    Shen, Yao


    Drug metabolites usually have structures of split-ring resonators (SRRs), which might lead to negative permittivity and permeability in electromagnetic field. As a result, in the UV-vis region, the latent fingermarks images of drug addicts and non drug users are inverse. The optical properties of latent fingermarks are quite different between drug addicts and non-drug users. This is a technic superiority for crime scene investigation to distinguish them. In this paper, we calculate the permittivity and permeability of drug metabolites using tight-binding model. The latent fingermarks of smokers and non-smokers are given as an example.

  13. Group Lasso with Overlaps: the Latent Group Lasso approach

    CERN Document Server

    Obozinski, Guillaume; Vert, Jean-Philippe


    We study a norm for structured sparsity which leads to sparse linear predictors whose supports are unions of prede ned overlapping groups of variables. We call the obtained formulation latent group Lasso, since it is based on applying the usual group Lasso penalty on a set of latent variables. A detailed analysis of the norm and its properties is presented and we characterize conditions under which the set of groups associated with latent variables are correctly identi ed. We motivate and discuss the delicate choice of weights associated to each group, and illustrate this approach on simulated data and on the problem of breast cancer prognosis from gene expression data.

  14. The latent rationality of risky decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Japp, K.P. [Bielefeld Univ. (Germany). Faculty for Sociology


    . So rationality will stay latent as the operation of re-entry. It may become manifest as legitimating of something else, for instance as rational choice. In everyday life re-entries emerge as compromise. But compromises conceal the relevant difference. In scientific life re-entries emerge as mixed scanning. But mixed scanning displays a mix, not a difference. And it is always a difference which makes a difference. This remains latent.

  15. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.


    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth

  16. Plasma transforming growth factor beta levels in breast cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sminia, P; Barten, AD; Van Waarde, MAWH; Vujaskovic, Z; Van Tienhoven, G


    We investigated whether the concentration of circulating transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) yields diagnostic value in breast cancer. Blood was collected from twenty stage I and II breast cancer patients both prior to treatment and after surgical excision of the tumour. Both latent and activ

  17. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko


    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  18. Latent Infections with Plasmodium ovale Malaria (United States)

    Miller, Max J.; Marcus, David M.; Cameron, Douglas G.


    Two cases of Plasmodium ovale malaria acquired in West Africa appeared as primary delayed attacks after one year's continuous residence in Canada. Both patients took full prophylactic doses of chloroquine before, during, and for several weeks after exposure. The inadequacy of the 4-aminoquinolines for protection against latent benign tertian malaria is noted, and the use of primaquine is recommended. Paroxysms occurred in the evening and were accompanied by severe muscle pain, features considered typical of ovale malaria. One patient showed electrocardiographic changes and clinical signs of cardiac malfunction; these disappeared following specific treatment for malaria. In this age of accelerated travel and international movements of people it is important that physicians in temperate regions be aware of the exotic infections of the tropics, as well as of the need for protective measures for travellers to areas where these diseases are endemic. ImagesFig. 1aFig. 1b,1cFig. 3 a-dFig. 3 e-h PMID:14296004

  19. Predicting Component Failures Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hailin Liu


    Full Text Available Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA is a statistical topic model that has been widely used to abstract semantic information from software source code. Failure refers to an observable error in the program behavior. This work investigates whether semantic information and failures recorded in the history can be used to predict component failures. We use LDA to abstract topics from source code and a new metric (topic failure density is proposed by mapping failures to these topics. Exploring the basic information of topics from neighboring versions of a system, we obtain a similarity matrix. Multiply the Topic Failure Density (TFD by the similarity matrix to get the TFD of the next version. The prediction results achieve an average 77.8% agreement with the real failures by considering the top 3 and last 3 components descending ordered by the number of failures. We use the Spearman coefficient to measure the statistical correlation between the actual and estimated failure rate. The validation results range from 0.5342 to 0.8337 which beats the similar method. It suggests that our predictor based on similarity of topics does a fine job of component failure prediction.

  20. Latent learning in zebrafish (Danio rerio). (United States)

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M; Gerlai, Robert


    The zebrafish may represent an excellent compromise between system complexity and practical simplicity for behavioral brain research. It may be particularly appropriate for large scale screening studies whose aim is to identify mutants with altered phenotypes or novel compounds with particular efficacy. For example, the zebrafish may have utility in the analysis of the biological mechanisms of learning and memory. Although learning and memory have been extensively studied and hundreds of underlying molecular mechanisms have been identified, this number may represent only the fraction of genes involved in these complex brain functions. Thus large scale mutagenesis screens may have utility. In order for such screens to succeed, appropriate screening paradigms must be developed. The first step in this research is the characterization of learning and memory capabilities of zebrafish and the development of automatable tasks. Here we show that zebrafish is capable of latent learning, i.e. can acquire memory of their environment after being allowed to explore it. For example, we found experimental zebrafish that experienced an open left tunnel or an open right tunnel of a maze during the unrewarded exploration phase of the test to show the appropriate side bias during a probe trial when they had to swim to a group of conspecifics (the reward). Given that exploration of the maze does not require the presence of the experimenter and the probe trial, during which the subjects are video-recorded and their memory is tested, is short, we argue that the paradigm has utility in high-throughput screening.

  1. Solar Thermoelectricity via Advanced Latent Heat Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Michele L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, Greg C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, Azure D.; Bobela, David; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, Philip A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, Eric S.; Ginley, David S.


    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a 'thermal valve,' which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  2. Solar thermoelectricity via advanced latent heat storage (United States)

    Olsen, M. L.; Rea, J.; Glatzmaier, G. C.; Hardin, C.; Oshman, C.; Vaughn, J.; Roark, T.; Raade, J. W.; Bradshaw, R. W.; Sharp, J.; Avery, A. D.; Bobela, D.; Bonner, R.; Weigand, R.; Campo, D.; Parilla, P. A.; Siegel, N. P.; Toberer, E. S.; Ginley, D. S.


    We report on a new modular, dispatchable, and cost-effective solar electricity-generating technology. Solar ThermoElectricity via Advanced Latent heat Storage (STEALS) integrates several state-of-the-art technologies to provide electricity on demand. In the envisioned STEALS system, concentrated sunlight is converted to heat at a solar absorber. The heat is then delivered to either a thermoelectric (TE) module for direct electricity generation, or to charge a phase change material for thermal energy storage, enabling subsequent generation during off-sun hours, or both for simultaneous electricity production and energy storage. The key to making STEALS a dispatchable technology lies in the development of a "thermal valve," which controls when heat is allowed to flow through the TE module, thus controlling when electricity is generated. The current project addresses each of the three major subcomponents, (i) the TE module, (ii) the thermal energy storage system, and (iii) the thermal valve. The project also includes system-level and techno- economic modeling of the envisioned integrated system and will culminate in the demonstration of a laboratory-scale STEALS prototype capable of generating 3kWe.

  3. Photoacoustic and Colorimetric Visualization of Latent Fingerprints. (United States)

    Song, Kai; Huang, Peng; Yi, Chenglin; Ning, Bo; Hu, Song; Nie, Liming; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Nie, Zhihong


    There is a high demand on a simple, rapid, accurate, user-friendly, cost-effective, and nondestructive universal method for latent fingerprint (LFP) detection. Herein, we describe a combination imaging strategy for LFP visualization with high resolution using poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)-b-polystyrene (PSMA-b-PS) functionalized gold nanoparticles (GNPs). This general approach integrates the merits of both colorimetric imaging and photoacoustic imaging. In comparison with the previous methods, our strategy is single-step and does not require the signal amplification by silver staining. The PSMA-b-PS functionalized GNPs have good stability, tunable color, and high affinity for universal secretions (proteins/polypeptides/amino acids), which makes our approach general and flexible for visualizing LFPs on different substrates (presumably with different colors) and from different people. Moreover, the unique optical property of GNPs enables the photoacoustic imaging of GNPs-deposited LFPs with high resolution. This allows observation of level 3 hyperfine features of LFPs such as the pores and ridge contours by photoacoustic imaging. This technique can potentially be used to identify chemicals within LFP residues. We believe that this dual-modality imaging of LFPs will find widespread use in forensic investigations and medical diagnostics.

  4. Gaussian Process Structural Equation Models with Latent Variables

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Ricardo


    In a variety of disciplines such as social sciences, psychology, medicine and economics, the recorded data are considered to be noisy measurements of latent variables connected by some causal structure. This corresponds to a family of graphical models known as the structural equation model with latent variables. While linear non-Gaussian variants have been well-studied, inference in nonparametric structural equation models is still underdeveloped. We introduce a sparse Gaussian process parameterization that defines a non-linear structure connecting latent variables, unlike common formulations of Gaussian process latent variable models. An efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo procedure is described. We evaluate the stability of the sampling procedure and the predictive ability of the model compared against the current practice.

  5. Effect of Boundary Layer Latent Heating on MJO Simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LING Jian; LI Chongyin; ZHOU Wen; JIA Xiaolong; Chidong ZHANG


    A latent heating peak in the PBL was detected in a simulation by a global GCM that failed to reproduce Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO).The latent heating peak in the PBL was generated by very shallow convection,which prevented moisture from being transported to the free troposphere.Large amount of moisture was therefore confined to the PBL,leading to a dry bias in the free atmosphere.Suffering from this dry bias,deep convection became lethargic,and MJO signals failed to occur.When the latent heating peak in the PBL was removed in another simulation,reasonable MJO signals,including the eastward propagation and the structure of its large-scale circulation,appeared.We therefore propose that the excessive latent heating peak in the PBL due to hyperactive shallow convection may be a reason for a lack of MJO signals in some simulations by other GCMs as well.

  6. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage (United States)

    Charvat, Pavel; Ostry, Milan; Mauder, Tomas; Klimes, Lubomir


    Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM) was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data).

  7. A solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimes Lubomir


    Full Text Available Simulations of the behaviour of a solar air collector with integrated latent heat thermal storage were performed. The model of the collector was created with the use of coupling between TRNSYS 17 and MATLAB. Latent heat storage (Phase Change Material - PCM was integrated with the solar absorber. The model of the latent heat storage absorber was created in MATLAB and the model of the solar air collector itself was created in TRNSYS with the use of TYPE 56. The model of the latent heat storage absorber allows specification of the PCM properties as well as other parameters. The simulated air collector was the front and back pass collector with the absorber in the middle of the air cavity. Two variants were considered for comparison; the light-weight absorber made of sheet metal and the heat-storage absorber with the PCM. Simulations were performed for the climatic conditions of the Czech Republic (using TMY weather data.

  8. Understanding the sufficiency of information for latent fingerprint value determinations. (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Kiebuzinski, George I; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, Joann


    A latent print examiner's assessment of the value, or suitability, of a latent impression is the process of determining whether the impression has sufficient information to make a comparison. A "no value" determination preemptively states that no individualization or exclusion determination could be made using the impression, regardless of quality of the comparison prints. Factors contributing to a value determination include clarity and the types, quantity, and relationships of features. These assessments are made subjectively by individual examiners and may vary among examiners. We modeled the relationships between value determinations and feature annotations made by 21 certified latent print examiners on 1850 latent impressions. Minutia count was strongly associated with value determinations. None of the models resulted in a stronger intraexaminer association with "value for individualization" determinations than minutia count alone. The association between examiner annotation and value determinations is greatly limited by the lack of reproducibility of both annotation and value determinations.

  9. Protection from latent inhibition provided by a conditioned inhibitor. (United States)

    McConnell, Bridget L; Wheeler, Daniel S; Urcelay, Gonzalo P; Miller, Ralph R


    Two conditioned suppression experiments with rats investigated the influence on latent inhibition of compounding a Pavlovian conditioned inhibitor with the target cue during preexposure treatment. Results were compared with those of subjects that received conventional latent inhibition training, no preexposure, or preexposure to the target cue in compound with a neutral stimulus. In Experiment 1, greater attenuation of the latent inhibition effect was observed in subjects that received target preexposure in compound with a Pavlovian conditioned inhibitor relative to subjects that received preexposure with a neutral stimulus or to the target alone. In Experiment 2, this protection from latent inhibition was attenuated if the excitor that was used to train the conditioned inhibitor was extinguished between preexposure and target training. The results are consistent with an account offered by the extended comparator hypothesis.

  10. Motivational control of latent inhibition in flavor preference conditioning. (United States)

    Garcia-Burgos, David; González, Felisa; Hall, Geoffrey


    In three experiments, rats given pairings of a neutral flavor with sucrose showed a preference for that flavor when subsequently allowed to choose between it and water. Preexposure to the flavor produced a latent inhibition effect (reduced the size of the preference) when the rats were hungry during the test (Experiments 1 and 2). Rats that were not hungry during the test failed to show latent inhibition (Experiments 1-3). Experiment 3 confirmed that sucrose-flavor pairings were capable of producing a preference even in nonhungry rats. It is argued that the preference shown by rats that are hungry on test depends on a flavor-nutrient association, a form of learning that is susceptible to latent inhibition in the same way as standard conditioning procedures are. The failure to obtain latent inhibition in nonhungry rats suggests that the preference obtained in these conditions depends on a different form of learning that is less susceptible to the effects of stimulus exposure.

  11. A Non-Gaussian Spatial Generalized Linear Latent Variable Model

    KAUST Repository

    Irincheeva, Irina


    We consider a spatial generalized linear latent variable model with and without normality distributional assumption on the latent variables. When the latent variables are assumed to be multivariate normal, we apply a Laplace approximation. To relax the assumption of marginal normality in favor of a mixture of normals, we construct a multivariate density with Gaussian spatial dependence and given multivariate margins. We use the pairwise likelihood to estimate the corresponding spatial generalized linear latent variable model. The properties of the resulting estimators are explored by simulations. In the analysis of an air pollution data set the proposed methodology uncovers weather conditions to be a more important source of variability than air pollution in explaining all the causes of non-accidental mortality excluding accidents. © 2012 International Biometric Society.

  12. Homeostatically maintained resting naïve CD4+ T cells resist latent HIV reactivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuko Tsunetsugu-Yokota


    Full Text Available Homeostatic proliferation (HSP is a major mechanism by which long-lived naïve and memory CD4+ T cells are maintained in vivo and suggested to contribute to the persistence of the latent HIV-1 reservoir. However, while many in vitro latency models rely on CD4+ T cells that were initially differentiated via T-cell receptor stimulation (TCR into memory/effector cells, latent infection of naïve resting CD4+ T cells maintained under HSP conditions has not been fully addressed. Here we describe an in vitro HSP culture system utilizing the cytokines IL-7 and IL-15 that allows studying latency in naïve resting CD4+ T cells. CD4+ T cells isolated from several healthy donors were infected with HIV pseudotypes expressing GFP and cultured under HSP conditions or TCR conditions as control. Cell proliferation, phenotype and GFP expression were analyzed by flow cytometry. RNA expression was quantified by qRT-PCR. Under HSP culture conditions, latently HIV-1 infected naïve cells are in part maintained in the non-dividing (= resting state. Although a few HIV-1 provirus+ cells were present in these resting GFP negative cells, the estimated level of GFP transcripts per infected cell seems to indicate a block at the post-transcriptional level. Interestingly, neither TCR nor the prototypic HDAC inhibitor SAHA were able to reactivate HIV-1 provirus from these cells. This lack of reactivation was not due to methylation of the HIV LTR. These results point to a mechanism of HIV control in HSP-cultured resting naïve CD4+ T cells that may be distinct from that in TCR-stimulated memory/effector T cells.

  13. Latent-failure risk estimates for computer control (United States)

    Dunn, William R.; Folsom, Rolfe A.; Green, Owen R.


    It is shown that critical computer controls employing unmonitored safety circuits are unsafe. Analysis supporting this result leads to two additional, important conclusions: (1) annual maintenance checks of safety circuit function do not, as widely believed, eliminate latent failure risk; (2) safety risk remains even if multiple, series-connected protection circuits are employed. Finally, it is shown analytically that latent failure risk is eliminated when continuous monitoring is employed.

  14. Time-resolved imaging of latent fingerprints with nanosecond resolution (United States)

    Seah, L. K.; Dinish, U. S.; Ong, S. K.; Chao, Z. X.; Murukeshan, V. M.


    Imaging of latent fingerprints using time-resolved (TR) method offers a broader platform to eliminate the unwanted background emission. In this paper, a novel TR imaging technique is demonstrated and implemented, which facilitates the detection of latent fingerprints with nanosecond resolution. Simulated experiments were carried out with two overlapping fingerprints treated with two fluorescent powders having different lifetimes in nanosecond range. The dependence of the fluorescence emission intensity in nanosecond resolution of TR imaging is also revealed.



    Tsakanikos, Elias


    The review of the literature suggests that the interpretation of the disruption of latent inhibition within the schizophrenia continuum remains elusive due to a number of methodological and theoretical problems. This thesis adopted a personality-based approach to experimental psychopathology testing alternative interpretations of latent inhibition deficits as a function of psychotic-like features in non-clinical participants. Results from 12 Experiments are discussed in terms of a two-compone...

  16. Fitting Latent Cluster Models for Networks with latentnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel N. Krivitsky


    Full Text Available latentnet is a package to fit and evaluate statistical latent position and cluster models for networks. Hoff, Raftery, and Handcock (2002 suggested an approach to modeling networks based on positing the existence of an latent space of characteristics of the actors. Relationships form as a function of distances between these characteristics as well as functions of observed dyadic level covariates. In latentnet social distances are represented in a Euclidean space. It also includes a variant of the extension of the latent position model to allow for clustering of the positions developed in Handcock, Raftery, and Tantrum (2007.The package implements Bayesian inference for the models based on an Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm. It can also compute maximum likelihood estimates for the latent position model and a two-stage maximum likelihood method for the latent position cluster model. For latent position cluster models, the package provides a Bayesian way of assessing how many groups there are, and thus whether or not there is any clustering (since if the preferred number of groups is 1, there is little evidence for clustering. It also estimates which cluster each actor belongs to. These estimates are probabilistic, and provide the probability of each actor belonging to each cluster. It computes four types of point estimates for the coefficients and positions: maximum likelihood estimate, posterior mean, posterior mode and the estimator which minimizes Kullback-Leibler divergence from the posterior. You can assess the goodness-of-fit of the model via posterior predictive checks. It has a function to simulate networks from a latent position or latent position cluster model.

  17. Latent class instrumental variables: a clinical and biostatistical perspective. (United States)

    Baker, Stuart G; Kramer, Barnett S; Lindeman, Karen S


    In some two-arm randomized trials, some participants receive the treatment assigned to the other arm as a result of technical problems, refusal of a treatment invitation, or a choice of treatment in an encouragement design. In some before-and-after studies, the availability of a new treatment changes from one time period to this next. Under assumptions that are often reasonable, the latent class instrumental variable (IV) method estimates the effect of treatment received in the aforementioned scenarios involving all-or-none compliance and all-or-none availability. Key aspects are four initial latent classes (sometimes called principal strata) based on treatment received if in each randomization group or time period, the exclusion restriction assumption (in which randomization group or time period is an instrumental variable), the monotonicity assumption (which drops an implausible latent class from the analysis), and the estimated effect of receiving treatment in one latent class (sometimes called efficacy, the local average treatment effect, or the complier average causal effect). Since its independent formulations in the biostatistics and econometrics literatures, the latent class IV method (which has no well-established name) has gained increasing popularity. We review the latent class IV method from a clinical and biostatistical perspective, focusing on underlying assumptions, methodological extensions, and applications in our fields of obstetrics and cancer research.

  18. Cultured Vestibular Ganglion Neurons Demonstrate Latent HSV1 Reactivation (United States)

    Roehm, Pamela C.; Camarena, Vladimir; Nayak, Shruti; Gardner, James B.; Wilson, Angus; Mohr, Ian; Chao, Moses V.


    Objectives/Hypothesis Vestibular neuritis is a common cause of both acute and chronic vestibular dysfunction. Multiple pathologies have been hypothesized to be the causative agent of vestibular neuritis; however, whether herpes simplex type I (HSV1) reactivation occurs within the vestibular ganglion has not been demonstrated previously by experimental evidence. We developed an in vitro system to study HSV1 infection of vestibular ganglion neurons (VGNs) using a cell culture model system. Study design basic science study. Results Lytic infection of cultured rat VGNs was observed following low viral multiplicity of infection (MOI). Inclusion of acyclovir suppressed lytic replication and allowed latency to be established. Upon removal of acyclovir, latent infection was confirmed with reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and by RNA fluorescent in situ hybridization for the latency-associated transcript (LAT). 29% cells in latently infected cultures were LAT positive. The lytic IPC27 transcript was not detected by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Reactivation of HSV1 occurred at a high frequency in latently infected cultures following treatment with trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deactylase inhibitor. Conclusions VGNs can be both lytically and latently infected with HSV1. Furthermore, latently infected VGNs can be induced to reactivate using TSA. This demonstrates that reactivation of latent HSV1 infection in the vestibular ganglion can occur in a cell culture model, and suggests that reactivation of HSV1 infection a plausible etiologic mechanism of vestibular neuritis. PMID:21898423

  19. Comparing the context specificity of extinction and latent inhibition. (United States)

    Miller, Ralph R; Laborda, Mario A; Polack, Cody W; Miguez, Gonzalo


    Exposure to a cue alone either before (i.e., latent inhibition treatment) or after (i.e., extinction) the cue is paired with an unconditioned stimulus results in attenuated conditioned responding to the cue. Here we report two experiments in which potential parallels between the context specificity of the effects of extinction and latent inhibition treatments were directly compared in a lick suppression preparation with rats. The reversed ordering of conditioning and nonreinforcement in extinction and latent inhibition designs allowed us to examine the effect of training order on the context specificity of what is learned given phasic reinforcement and nonreinforcement of a target cue. Experiment 1 revealed that when conditioned-stimulus (CS) conditioning and CS nonreinforcement were administered in the same context, both extinction and latent inhibition treatments had reduced impacts on test performance, relative to excitatory conditioning when testing occurred outside the treatment context. Similarly, Experiment 2 showed that when conditioning was administered in one context and nonreinforcement was administered in a second context, the effects of both extinction and latent inhibition treatments were attenuated when testing occurred in a neutral context, relative to the context in which the CS was nonreinforced. The observed context specificity of extinction and latent inhibition treatments has been previously reported in both cases, but not in a single experiment under otherwise identical conditions. The results of the two experiments convergently suggest that memory of nonreinforcement becomes context dependent after a cue is both reinforced and nonreinforced, independent of the order of training.

  20. 温肺化瘀定喘用于小儿风寒闭肺证病毒性毛细支气管炎的临床疗效及安全性分析%Clinical Efficacy and Safety of Lung Warming, Stasis Transforming and Panting Stabilizing for Wind-cold Blocking Lung-type Viral Bronchiolitis in Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To explore the efficacy and safety of the method of lung warming, stasis transforming and panting stabilizing in treating wind-cold blocking lung-type viral bronchiolitis in Children. Methods 42 children with viral bronchiolitis admitted to our hospital during April 2013 and April 2014 were selected as the observation group in which the method of lung warming, stasis transforming and panting stabilizing was used, and 42 other children with the same disease admitted to our hospital during the same period were selected as the control group in which the inhalation therapy was used. The clinical efficacy and safety of the two groups were compared. Results The therapeutic effect of the two groups were 92.9% and 90.5%,P>0.05; the time of fever, cough, wheeze extinction of the observation group were shorter than those of the control group, P0.05);观察组发热、咳嗽、憋喘消退时间均短于对照组(P>0.05);观察组复发率为2.6%,明显低于对照组的15.8%(P>0.05);均未发生严重药物不良反应。结论该疗法治疗小儿风寒闭肺证病毒性毛细支气管炎的临床疗效确切,可短期内改善临床症状,且用药安全性较高。

  1. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse;


    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly.......60-1.62). The presence of IRBBB was not associated with any adverse outcome.ConclusionIn this cohort study, RBBB and IRBBB were two to three times more common among men than women. Right bundle branch block was associated with increased cardiovascular risk and all-cause mortality, whereas IRBBB was not. Contrary...

  2. Contrasting effects of diazepam and repeated restraint stress on latent inhibition in mice. (United States)

    Mongeau, Raymond; Marcello, Stefania; Andersen, Jacob Sparre; Pani, Luca


    The effects on latent inhibition (LI; a delay in conditioning when a CS has been pre-exposed without consequences) of repeated restraint stress and the anxiolytic drug diazepam were examined in C57BL/6 mice to know whether previous aversive events or anxiolysis are factors determining the expression of LI. The LI model was optimized for this strain particularly sensitive to stress (using both the CER and the conditioned freezing procedures) and characterized with typical (haloperidol) and atypical (clozapine and olanzapine) antipsychotic drugs administered either during the conditioning or the pre-exposure phases. An acute challenge with amphetamine, a dopamine releaser, was done to verify the enhancement of hyperactivity in C57BL/6 mice after the restraint stress sensitization. At all doses tested, diazepam decreased latent inhibition when administered during the pre-exposure phase (similarly to atypical antipsychotic drugs). Repeated restraint stress enhanced LI by blocking the CS-induced freezing in pre-exposed mice. In contrast, pre-treatment with diazepam before pre-exposure allowed the expression of CS-induced freezing in stressed mice pre-exposed to the tone. It is suggested that stress and anxiolytic drugs can have opposite effects on attention or perseveration processes during learning of conflicting contingency responses.

  3. Link Prediction via Convex Nonnegative Matrix Factorization on Multiscale Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enming Dong


    Full Text Available Low rank matrices approximations have been used in link prediction for networks, which are usually global optimal methods and lack of using the local information. The block structure is a significant local feature of matrices: entities in the same block have similar values, which implies that links are more likely to be found within dense blocks. We use this insight to give a probabilistic latent variable model for finding missing links by convex nonnegative matrix factorization with block detection. The experiments show that this method gives better prediction accuracy than original method alone. Different from the original low rank matrices approximations methods for link prediction, the sparseness of solutions is in accord with the sparse property for most real complex networks. Scaling to massive size network, we use the block information mapping matrices onto distributed architectures and give a divide-and-conquer prediction method. The experiments show that it gives better results than common neighbors method when the networks have a large number of missing links.

  4. Seismic random noise attenuation via 3D block matching (United States)

    Amani, Sajjad; Gholami, Ali; Javaheri Niestanak, Alireza


    The lack of signal to noise ratio increases the final errors of seismic interpretation. In the present study, we apply a new non-local transform domain method called "3 Dimensional Block Matching (3DBM)" for seismic random noise attenuation. Basically, 3DBM uses the similarities through the data for retrieving the amplitude of signal in a specific point in the f-x domain, and because of this, it is able to preserve discontinuities in the data such as fractures and faults. 3DBM considers each seismic profile as an image and thus it can be applied to both pre-stack and post-stack seismic data. It uses the block matching clustering method to gather similar blocks contained in 2D data into 3D groups in order to enhance the level of correlation in each 3D array. By applying a 2D transform and 1D transform (instead of a 3D transform) on each array, we can effectively attenuate the noise by shrinkage of the transform coefficients. The subsequent inverse 2D transform and inverse 1D transform yield estimates of all matched blocks. Finally, the random noise attenuated data is computed using the weighted average of all block estimates. We applied 3DBM on both synthetic and real pre-stack and post-stack seismic data and compared it with a Curvelet transform based denoising method which is one of the most powerful methods in this area. The results show that 3DBM method eventuates in higher signal to noise ratio, lower execution time and higher visual quality.

  5. Automatic Blocking Of QR and LU Factorizations for Locality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Q; Kennedy, K; You, H; Seymour, K; Dongarra, J


    QR and LU factorizations for dense matrices are important linear algebra computations that are widely used in scientific applications. To efficiently perform these computations on modern computers, the factorization algorithms need to be blocked when operating on large matrices to effectively exploit the deep cache hierarchy prevalent in today's computer memory systems. Because both QR (based on Householder transformations) and LU factorization algorithms contain complex loop structures, few compilers can fully automate the blocking of these algorithms. Though linear algebra libraries such as LAPACK provides manually blocked implementations of these algorithms, by automatically generating blocked versions of the computations, more benefit can be gained such as automatic adaptation of different blocking strategies. This paper demonstrates how to apply an aggressive loop transformation technique, dependence hoisting, to produce efficient blockings for both QR and LU with partial pivoting. We present different blocking strategies that can be generated by our optimizer and compare the performance of auto-blocked versions with manually tuned versions in LAPACK, both using reference BLAS, ATLAS BLAS and native BLAS specially tuned for the underlying machine architectures.

  6. Matrix transformation of digital image and its periodicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The periodicity of a general matrix modular transformation is discussed, and a simple proof of a sufficient and necessary condition that a matrix transformation has periodicity is given. Using a block matrix method, the higher dimensional transformation and its inverse are studied, and a simple algorithm for calculating their periods is put forward. The security of n-dimensional Amold transformation and its inverse is also discussed. The results show that the two transformations are applicable in scrambling and recovering images.

  7. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.


    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In ord

  8. Effects of Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Veal


    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  9. Concrete Block Pavements (United States)


    1967, Cedergren 1974, Federal Highway .’,U .. V,47 -’":: 37 Administration 1980). Block pavements have essentially the same prob- lems with moisture...Vicksburg, Miss. Cedergren , H. R. 1974. Drainage of Highway and Airfield Pavements, John Wiley and Sons, New VOk. I Cement and Concrete Association

  10. Block That Pain! (United States)

    ... along with the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). This finding shows that a specific combination of two molecules can block only pain-related neurons. It holds the promise of major ...

  11. Organelle transformation. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Anjanabha; Kumar, Anish; Desai, Nirali; Parikh, Seema


    The source of genetic information in a plant cell is contained in nucleus, plastids, and mitochondria. Organelle transformation is getting a lot of attention nowadays because of its superior performance over the conventional and most commonly used nuclear transformation for obtaining transgenic lines. Absence of gene silencing, strong predictable transgene expression, and its application in molecular pharming, both in pharmaceutical and nutraceuticals, are some of many advantages. Other important benefits of utilizing this technology include the absence of transgene flow, as organelles are maternally inherited. This may increase the acceptability of organelle transformation technology in the development of transgenic crops in a wider scale all over the globe. As the need for crop productivity and therapeutic compounds increases, organelle transformation may be able to bridge the gap, thereby having a definite promise for the future.

  12. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia


    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process...... of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project...

  13. Latent viral immune inflammatory response model for chronic multisymptom illness. (United States)

    Maloney, Sean R; Jensen, Susan; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; Goolkasian, Paula


    A latent viral immune inflammatory response (LVIIR) model is presented which integrates factors that contribute to chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) in both the veteran and civilian populations. The LVIIR model for CMI results from an integration of clinical experience with a review of the literature in four distinct areas: (1) studies of idiopathic multisymptom illness in the veteran population including two decades of research on Gulf War I veterans with CMI, (2) new evidence supporting the existence of chronic inflammatory responses to latent viral antigens and the effect these responses may have on the nervous system, (3) recent discoveries concerning the role of vitamin D in maintaining normal innate and adaptive immunity including suppression of latent viruses and regulation of the immune inflammatory response, and (4) the detrimental effects of extreme chronic repetitive stress (ECRS) on the immune and nervous systems. The LVIIR model describes the pathophysiology of a pathway to CMI and presents a new direction for the clinical assessment of CMI that includes the use of neurological signs from a physical exam, objective laboratory data, and a new proposed latent viral antigen-antibody imaging technique for the peripheral and central nervous system. The LVIIR model predicts that CMI can be treated by a focus on reversal of immune system impairment, suppression of latent viruses and their antigens, and healing of nervous system tissue damaged by chronic inflammation associated with latent viral antigens and by ECRS. In addition, the LVIIR model suggests that maintaining optimal serum 25 OH vitamin D levels will maximize immune system suppression of latent viruses and their antigens and will minimize immune system inflammation. This model also emphasizes the importance of decreasing ECRS to improve immune system function and to minimize nervous system injury from excess serum glucocorticoid levels. The proposed model supports growing evidence that increasing

  14. Transformational leadership. (United States)

    Luzinski, Craig


    This month, the director of the Magnet Recognition Program® takes an in-depth look at the Magnet® model component transformational leadership. The author examines the expectations for Magnet organizations around this component. What are the qualities that make a nursing leader truly transformational, and what is the best approach to successfully lead a healthcare organization through today's volatile healthcare environment?

  15. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke


    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  16. Latent Virus Reactivation: From Space to Earth (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.


    Reactivation of latent viruses is a recognized consequence of decreased immunity. More recently viral reactivation has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. Viral reactivation can be determined quickly and easily by the presence of virus in saliva and other body fluids. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a highly sensitive and specific molecular method to detect the presence of specific viral DNA. Studies in astronauts demonstrated that herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1), Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivate at rates above normal during and after spaceflight in response to moderately decreased T-cell immunity. This technology was expanded to patients on Earth beginning with human immune deficiency virus (HIV) immuno-compromised patients. The HIV patients shed EBV in saliva at rates 9-fold higher than observed in astronauts demonstrating that the level of EBV shedding reflects the severity of impaired immunity. Whereas EBV reactivation is not expected to produce serious effects in astronauts on missions of 6 months or less, VZV reactivation in astronauts could produce shingles. Reactivation of live, infectious VZV in astronauts with no symptoms was demonstrated in astronauts during and after spaceflight. We applied our technology to study VZV-induced shingles in patients. In a study of 54 shingles patients, we showed salivary VZV was present in every patient on the day antiviral (acyclovir) treatment was initiated. Pain and skin lesions decreased with antiviral treatment. Corresponding decreases in levels of VZV were also observed and accompanied recovery. Although the level of VZV in shingles patients before the treatment was generally higher than those found in astronauts, lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients overlapped with astronaut s levels. This suggests a potential risk of shingles to astronauts resulting from reactivation of VZV. In

  17. Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 3C stabilizes Gemin3 to block p53-mediated apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiliang Cai


    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 3C (EBNA3C, one of the essential latent antigens for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-induced immortalization of primary human B lymphocytes in vitro, has been implicated in regulating cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis via interaction with several cellular and viral factors. Gemin3 (also named DDX20 or DP103 is a member of DEAD RNA helicase family which exhibits diverse cellular functions including DNA transcription, recombination and repair, and RNA metabolism. Gemin3 was initially identified as a binding partner to EBNA2 and EBNA3C. However, the mechanism by which EBNA3C regulates Gemin3 function remains unclear. Here, we report that EBNA3C directly interacts with Gemin3 through its C-terminal domains. This interaction results in increased stability of Gemin3 and its accumulation in both B lymphoma cells and EBV transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs. Moreover, EBNA3C promotes formation of a complex with p53 and Gemin3 which blocks the DNA-binding affinity of p53. Small hairpin RNA based knockdown of Gemin3 in B lymphoma or LCL cells remarkably attenuates the ability of EBNA3C to inhibit the transcription activity of p53 on its downstream genes p21 and Bax, as well as apoptosis. These findings provide the first evidence that Gemin3 may be a common target of oncogenic viruses for driving cell proliferation and anti-apoptotic activities.

  18. A Magnetically Responsive Polydiacetylene Precursor for Latent Fingerprint Analysis. (United States)

    Lee, Joosub; Lee, Chan Woo; Kim, Jong-Man


    A magnetically responsive diacetylene (DA) powder was developed for the visualization of latent fingerprints. A mixture of the DA and magnetite nanoparticles, applied to a surface containing latent fingermarks, becomes immobilized along the ridge patterns of the fingerprints when a magnetic field is applied. Alignment along the ridge structures is a consequence of favorable hydrophobic interactions occurring between the long alkyl chains in the DAs and the lipid-rich, sebaceous latent fingermarks. UV irradiation of the DA-magnetite composite immobilized on the latent fingerprint results in the generation of blue-colored PDAs. Heat treatment of the blue-colored image promotes a blue-to-red transition as well as fluorescence turn-on. A combination of the aligned pale brown-colored monomeric state, UV irradiation generated blue-colored PDA state, as well as the heat treatment generated red-colored and fluorescent PDA state enables efficient visual imaging of a latent fingerprint, which is deposited on various colored solid surfaces.

  19. Latent lip print development and its role in suspect identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Dwivedi


    Full Text Available Aims and Objective: The study aims to develop latent lip prints on glass surface using fingerprint black powder and its comparison with standard lipstick prints and also determines the effectiveness of the technique. Materials and Methods: This study included a total of 100 subjects, comprising of 50 males and 50 females with age ranging from 17 to 38 years. Latent lipprint was developed by pressing the lips against a glass slab with lips together and the print formed was developed by sprinkling the black finger print powder and transferred to a bond sheet. Subsequently, standard lipstick print was developed from the same subject. All the samples were coded and graded according to the patterns suggested in the literature. Results: Out of 100 latent prints only 29 prints showed lip patterns in all four quadrants. The percentage matching with self lipstick print of good latent prints ranged from 25% to 100% and those of random prints ranged from 8% to 92%. Quadrant wise matching ranged from 52.67% to 57.67%. Statistically significant difference was observed between males and females. Conclusion: The study demonstrates the usefulness of latent lip print in personal identification.

  20. Regression of latent endometrial precancers by progestin infiltrated intrauterine device. (United States)

    Ørbo, Anne; Rise, Cecil E; Mutter, George L


    PTEN tumor suppressor inactivation is the earliest step in endometrial carcinogenesis, occurring in morphologically unremarkable endometrial glands in half of normal women. We test the hypothesis that sex hormones positively or negatively select for these "latent precancers" by examining their emergence, persistence, and regression rates under differing hormonal conditions. Perimenopausal and postmenopausal women had an intake endometrial biopsy and underwent hormonal therapy with progestin-impregnated intrauterine device (IUD; n = 21), cyclic oral progestins (n = 28), or surveillance only (n = 22) with follow-up biopsies. For comparison, premenopausal naturally cycling endometrial biopsies were studied as single time points in 87 patients and multiple surveillance time points in 34 patients. Biopsies in which any PTEN protein-null glands were found by immunohistochemistry were scored as containing a latent endometrial precancer. All groups had a similar proportion of latent precancers at intake but differed after therapy. Emergence rates were highest (21%) for the naturally cycling premenopausal group compared with just 9% for untreated perimenopausal women. The IUD group had the highest rate of regression, with a 62% pretherapy and 5% post-therapy rate of latent precancers. This contrasted to nonsignificant changes for the oral progestin and untreated control groups. Delivery of high doses of progestins locally to the endometrium by IUD leads to ablation of preexisting PTEN-inactivated endometrial latent precancers and is a possible mechanism for reduction of long-term endometrial cancer risk known to occur in response to this hormone.

  1. Some properties of active and latent catechol oxidase of mushroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski


    Full Text Available Latent form of mushroom catechol oxidase was activated by O,1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. Catalytic power of the latent form, calculated from the kinetic parameters was 1,8 times higher than that of active one. Salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHAM appeared as a powerful inhibitor for both active and latent forms of catechol oxidase. However, in the range of 150-250 μM SHAM the inhibitory effect for active catechol oxidase was significantly higher than that for the latent one. Non-competitive and irreversible characteristics of inhibition of latent and active catechol oxidase was calculated from kinetic data. Electrophoretic analysis followed by scanning of the gels was used. The spots' absorbance was determined from a computer image of the isoenzyme band patterns. It allowed us to estimate gels quantitatively. Presence of one additional clearly defined slow moving isoform of SDS-activated catechol oxidase, differed in the respect of 3 bands for the active and 4 bands for the total.

  2. Modelling time evolving interactions in networks through a non stationary extension of stochastic block models



    National audience; In this paper, we focus on the stochastic block model (SBM),a probabilistic tool describing interactions between nodes of a network using latent clusters. The SBM assumes that the networkhas a stationary structure, in which connections of time varying intensity are not taken into account. In other words, interactions between two groups are forced to have the same features during the whole observation time. To overcome this limitation,we propose a partition of the whole time...

  3. Transfer Latent SVM for Joint Recognition and Localization of Actions in Videos. (United States)

    Liu, Cuiwei; Wu, Xinxiao; Jia, Yunde


    In this paper, we develop a novel transfer latent support vector machine for joint recognition and localization of actions by using Web images and weakly annotated training videos. The model takes training videos which are only annotated with action labels as input for alleviating the laborious and time-consuming manual annotations of action locations. Since the ground-truth of action locations in videos are not available, the locations are modeled as latent variables in our method and are inferred during both training and testing phrases. For the purpose of improving the localization accuracy with some prior information of action locations, we collect a number of Web images which are annotated with both action labels and action locations to learn a discriminative model by enforcing the local similarities between videos and Web images. A structural transformation based on randomized clustering forest is used to map the Web images to videos for handling the heterogeneous features of Web images and videos. Experiments on two public action datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model for both action localization and action recognition.

  4. Uncovering a latent multinomial: Analysis of mark-recapture data with misidentification (United States)

    Link, W.A.; Yoshizaki, J.; Bailey, L.L.; Pollock, K.H.


    Natural tags based on DNA fingerprints or natural features of animals are now becoming very widely used in wildlife population biology. However, classic capture-recapture models do not allow for misidentification of animals which is a potentially very serious problem with natural tags. Statistical analysis of misidentification processes is extremely difficult using traditional likelihood methods but is easily handled using Bayesian methods. We present a general framework for Bayesian analysis of categorical data arising from a latent multinomial distribution. Although our work is motivated by a specific model for misidentification in closed population capture-recapture analyses, with crucial assumptions which may not always be appropriate, the methods we develop extend naturally to a variety of other models with similar structure. Suppose that observed frequencies f are a known linear transformation f = A???x of a latent multinomial variable x with cell probability vector ?? = ??(??). Given that full conditional distributions [?? | x] can be sampled, implementation of Gibbs sampling requires only that we can sample from the full conditional distribution [x | f, ??], which is made possible by knowledge of the null space of A???. We illustrate the approach using two data sets with individual misidentification, one simulated, the other summarizing recapture data for salamanders based on natural marks. ?? 2009, The International Biometric Society.

  5. Recovery from blocking between outcomes. (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R


    Contemporary associative learning research largely focuses on cue competition phenomena that occur when 2 cues are paired with a common outcome. Little research has been conducted to investigate similar phenomena occurring when a single cue is trained with 2 outcomes. Three conditioned lick suppression experiments with rats assessed whether treatments known to alleviate blocking between cues would also attenuate blocking between outcomes. In Experiment 1, conditioned responding recovered from blocking between outcomes when a long retention interval was interposed between training and testing. Experiment 2 obtained recovery from blocking between outcomes when the blocking outcome was extinguished after the blocking treatment. In Experiment 3, a recovery from blocking between outcomes occurred when a reminder stimulus was presented in a novel context prior to testing. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that blocking of outcomes, like blocking of cues, appears to be caused by a deficit in the expression of an acquired association.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari


    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  7. Managing access block. (United States)

    Cameron, Peter; Scown, Paul; Campbell, Donald


    There is pessimism regarding the ability of the Acute Health Sector to manage access block for emergency and elective patients. Melbourne Health suffered an acute bed crisis in 2001 resulting in record ambulance diversions and emergency department (ED) delays. We conducted an observational study to reduce access block for emergency patients whilst maintaining elective throughput at Melbourne Health. This involved a clinician-led taskforce using previously proven principles for organisational change to implement 51 actions to improve patient access over a three-month period. The primary outcome measures were ambulance diversion, emergency patients waiting more than 12 hours for an inpatient bed, elective throughput and theatre cancellations. Despite a reduction in multi-day bed numbers all primary objectives were met, ambulance diversion decreased to minimal levels, 12-hour waits decreased by 40% and elective throughput was maintained. Theatre cancellations were also minimised. We conclude that access block can be improved by clinician-led implementation of proven process improvements over a short time frame. The ability to sustain change over the longer term requires further study.

  8. On new exact conformal blocks and Nekrasov functions (United States)

    Nemkov, Nikita


    Recently, an intriguing family of the one-point toric conformal blocks AGT related to the N = 2∗SU(2) Nekrasov functions was discovered by M. Beccaria and G. Macorini. Members of the family are distinguished by having only finite amount of poles as functions of the intermediate dimension/v.e.v. in gauge theory. Another remarkable property is that these conformal blocks/Nekrasov functions can be found in closed form to all orders in the coupling expansion. In the present paper we use Zamolodchikov's recurrence equation to systematically account for these exceptional conformal blocks. We conjecture that the family is infinite-dimensional and describe the corresponding parameter set. We further apply the developed technique to demonstrate that the four-point spheric conformal blocks feature analogous exact expressions. We also study the modular transformations of the finite-pole blocks.

  9. Use of fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) for latent fingerprints detection (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Chao, Zhi Xia; Seah, Leong K.; Murukeshan, Vadakke M.


    Fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) in frequency domain enables the mapping of the spatial distribution of fluorescence lifetimes of a specimen. FLIM can provide unique information about fluorophores and hence is widely used in biology and for medical diagnostics. In this paper, a theoretical analysis for the fluorescence lifetime determination of latent fingerprint samples is described, which is followed by the feasibility study of using FLIM in frequency domain for latent fingerprints detection. Experiments are carried out with fingerprint on green paper substrate and postcard substrate treated with certain fluorescent powder. The total phase lag and demodulation factor are calculated to determine the lifetimes pixel by pixel. The resulting fluorescence lifetime image of fingerprint revealed an improvement in the contrast, and was able to detect the latent fingerprint clearly.

  10. Latent Fundamentals Arbitrage with a Mixed Effects Factor Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Salem Gonçalves


    Full Text Available We propose a single-factor mixed effects panel data model to create an arbitrage portfolio that identifies differences in firm-level latent fundamentals. Furthermore, we show that even though the characteristics that affect returns are unknown variables, it is possible to identify the strength of the combination of these latent fundamentals for each stock by following a simple approach using historical data. As a result, a trading strategy that bought the stocks with the best fundamentals (strong fundamentals portfolio and sold the stocks with the worst ones (weak fundamentals portfolio realized significant risk-adjusted returns in the U.S. market for the period between July 1986 and June 2008. To ensure robustness, we performed sub period and seasonal analyses and adjusted for trading costs and we found further empirical evidence that using a simple investment rule, that identified these latent fundamentals from the structure of past returns, can lead to profit.

  11. Classification criteria of syndromes by latent variable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Janne


    The thesis has two parts; one clinical part: studying the dimensions of human immunodeficiency virus associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) by latent class models, and a more statistical part: investigating how to predict scores of latent variables so these can be used in subsequent regression...... analyses. Part 1: HALS engages different phenotypic changes of peripheral lipoatrophy and central lipohypertrophy.  There are several different definitions of HALS and no consensus on the number of phenotypes. Many of the definitions consist of counting fulfilled criteria on markers and do not include...... patient's characteristics. These methods may erroneously reduce multiplicity either by combining markers of different phenotypes or by mixing HALS with other processes such as aging. Latent class models identify homogenous groups of patients based on sets of variables, for example symptoms. As no gold...

  12. Current management options for latent tuberculosis: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norton BL


    Full Text Available Brianna L Norton, David P HollandDepartment of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: Tuberculosis remains the world’s second leading infectious cause of death, with nearly one-third of the global population latently infected. Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection is a mainstay of tuberculosis-control efforts in low-to medium-incidence countries. Isoniazid monotherapy has been the standard of care for decades, but its utility is impaired by poor completion rates. However, new, shorter-course regimens using rifamycins improve completion rates and are cost-saving compared with standard isoniazid monotherapy. We review the currently available therapies for latent tuberculosis infection and their toxicities and include a brief economic comparison of the different regimens.Keywords: isoniazid, rifampin, rifapentine, tuberculin skin test, interferon-gamma release assay

  13. Cosine Based Latent Factor Model for Precision Oriented Recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Kumar


    Full Text Available Recommender systems suggest a list of interesting items to users based on their prior purchase or browsing behaviour on e-commerce platforms. The continuing research in recommender systems have primarily focused on developing algorithms for rating prediction task. However, most e-commerce platforms provide ‘top-k’ list of interesting items for every user. In line with this idea, the paper proposes a novel machine learning algorithm to predict a list of ‘top-k’ items by optimizing the latent factors of users and items with the mapped scores from ratings. The basic idea is to learn latent factors based on the cosine similarity between the users and items latent features which is then used to predict the scores for unseen items for every user. Comprehensive empirical evaluations on publicly available benchmark datasets reveal that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art algorithms in recommending good items to a user.

  14. Latent Tuberculosis in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Malhamé

    Full Text Available In countries with low tuberculosis (TB incidence, immigrants from higher incidence countries represent the major pool of individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI. The antenatal period represents an opportunity for immigrant women to access the medical system, and hence for potential screening and treatment of LTBI. However, such screening and treatment during pregnancy remains controversial.In order to further understand the prevalence, natural history, screening and management of LTBI in pregnancy, we conducted a systematic literature review addressing the screening and treatment of LTBI, in pregnant women without known HIV infection.A systematic review of 4 databases (Embase, Embase Classic, Medline, Cochrane Library covering articles published from January 1st 1980 to April 30th 2014. Articles in English, French or Spanish with relevant information on prevalence, natural history, screening tools, screening strategies and treatment of LTBI during pregnancy were eligible for inclusion. Articles were excluded if (1 Full text was not available (2 they were case series or case studies (3 they focused exclusively on prevalence, diagnosis and treatment of active TB (4 the study population was exclusively HIV-infected.Of 4,193 titles initially identified, 208 abstracts were eligible for review. Of these, 30 articles qualified for full text review and 22 were retained: 3 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies, and 17 cross-sectional studies. In the USA, the estimated prevalence of LTBI ranged from 14 to 48% in women tested, and tuberculin skin test (TST positivity was associated with ethnicity. One study suggested that incidence of active TB was significantly increased during the 180 days postpartum (Incidence rate ratio, 1.95 (95% CI 1.24-3.07. There was a high level of adherence with both skin testing (between 90-100% and chest radiography (93-100%.. In three studies from low incidence settings, concordance between TST and an interferon

  15. Treatment guidelines for latent tuberculosis infection. (United States)


    The treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been established as valid for patients at high risk for developing active tuberculosis. Treatment of LTBI is also considered an important strategy for eliminating tuberculosis (TB) in Japan. In recent years, interferon-gamma release assays have come into widespread use; isoniazid (INH) preventive therapy for HIV patients has come to be recommended worldwide; and there have been increases in both types of biologics used in the treatment of immune diseases as well as the diseases susceptible to treatment. In light of the above facts, the Prevention Committee and the Treatment Committee of the Japanese Society for Tuberculosis have jointly drafted these guidelines. In determining subjects for LTBI treatment, the following must be considered: 1) risk of TB infection/ development; 2) infection diagnosis; 3) chest image diagnosis; 4) the impact of TB development; 5) the possible manifestation of side effects; and 6) the prospects of treatment completion. LTBI treatment is actively considered when relative risk is deemed 4 or higher, including risk factors such as the following: HIV/AIDS, organ transplants (immunosuppressant use), silicosis, dialysis due to chronic renal failure, recent TB infection (within 2 years), fibronodular shadows in chest radiographs (untreated old TB), the use of biologics, and large doses of corticosteroids. Although the risk is lower, the following risk factors require consideration of LTBI treatment when 2 or more of them are present: use of oral or inhaled corticosteroids, use of other immunosuppressants, diabetes, being underweight, smoking, gastrectomy, and so on. In principle, INH is administered for a period of 6 or 9 months. When INH cannot be used, rifampicin is administered for a period of 4 or 6 months. It is believed that there are no reasons to support long-term LTBI treatment for immunosuppressed patients in Japan, where the risk of infection is not considered markedly high

  16. Enantiopure cyclopentane building blocks from iridoid glucosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jon Holbech

    building blocks in a short and efficient way. Two enantiopure carbocyclic homo-N-nucleosides, 382 and 391, were synthesised from 352. In another approach, catalpol (5) was transformed into cyclopentane derivative 59. Selective protection of 59, a subsequent coupling sequence with 6-iodopurine......The main objective of this work has been to investigate the use of the plant metabolites iridoid glucosides as starting materials in the synthesis of versatile cyclopentanoid building blocks. With the aim of isolating the iridoid glucoside catalpol (5) several species of the genus Scutellaria, i...... tetrabutylammonium salt 339 and a final deprotection/substitution step, afforded homo-N-nucleoside 359. Iridolactone 369 was prepared through a third sequence, and treatment of 369 with ammonia in methanol gave the a,b-unsaturated cyclopentene amide 370. A fourth sequence starting with 236 led to iridoid alcohol 396...

  17. Latent or Manifest Observers: Two Dichotomous Approaches of Surveillance in Mental Health Nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Salzmann-Erikson


    Full Text Available Background. Surveillance is a central activity among mental health nursing, but it is also questioned for its therapeutic value and considered to be custodial. Aim. The aim of this study was to describe how mental health nurses use different approaches to observe patients in relation to the practice of surveillance in psychiatric nursing care. Methods. In this study, Spradley's twelve-step ethnographic method was used. Results. Mental health nurses use their cultural knowing to observe patients in psychiatric care in various ways. Two dichotomous approaches were identified: the latent and the manifest approach. Discussion. Different strategies and techniques for observing patients are structured along two dichotomies. The underlying relationships between these two different dichotomous positions transform the act of observing into surveillance. This is further developed in a theoretical model called the powerful scheme of observation and surveillance (PSOS.

  18. Design and simulation of latent heat storage units. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsundar, N.; Stein, E.; Rooz, E.; Bascaran, E.; Lee, T.C. [Houston Univ., TX (United States)


    This report presents the results of two years of research and development on passive latent heat storage systems. Analytical models have been developed and extended, and a computer code for simulating the performance of a latent heat storage has been developed. The code is intended to be merged into a larger solar energy system simulation code and used for making realistic system studies. Simulation studies using a code which has a flexible and accurate routine for handling the storage subsystem should lead to the development of better systems than those in which storage is added on after the rest of the system has already been selected and optimized.

  19. Design and simulation of latent heat storage units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamsundar, N.; Stein, E.; Rooz, E.; Bascaran, E.; Lee, T.C. (Houston Univ., TX (United States))


    This report presents the results of two years of research and development on passive latent heat storage systems. Analytical models have been developed and extended, and a computer code for simulating the performance of a latent heat storage has been developed. The code is intended to be merged into a larger solar energy system simulation code and used for making realistic system studies. Simulation studies using a code which has a flexible and accurate routine for handling the storage subsystem should lead to the development of better systems than those in which storage is added on after the rest of the system has already been selected and optimized.

  20. Chromatin Structure of Epstein-Barr Virus Latent Episomes. (United States)

    Lieberman, Paul M


    EBV latent infection is characterized by a highly restricted pattern of viral gene expression. EBV can establish latent infections in multiple different tissue types with remarkable variation and plasticity in viral transcription and replication. During latency, the viral genome persists as a multi-copy episome, a non-integrated-closed circular DNA with nucleosome structure similar to cellular chromosomes. Chromatin assembly and histone modifications contribute to the regulation of viral gene expression, DNA replication, and episome persistence during latency. This review focuses on how EBV latency is regulated by chromatin and its associated processes.

  1. Powder method for detecting latent fingerprints: a review. (United States)

    Sodhi, G S; Kaur, J


    The powder technique for detecting latent fingerprints involves the application of a finely divided formulation to the fingermark impression, generally with a glass-fibre or a camel hair brush. The powder gets mechanically adhered to the sweat residue defining the ridge pattern. The furrows which are devoid of the fingerprint residue, do not adhere the powder onto them. The final outcome is that the powder formulation sticks to the ridges, but is easily blown off the furrows. Since the powder is normally coloured, the ridge pattern becomes visible and the latent print is said to have developed.

  2. Latent common manifold learning with alternating diffusion: analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Talmon, Ronen


    The analysis of data sets arising from multiple sensors has drawn significant research attention over the years. Traditional methods, including kernel-based methods, are typically incapable of capturing nonlinear geometric structures. We introduce a latent common manifold model underlying multiple sensor observations for the purpose of multimodal data fusion. A method based on alternating diffusion is presented and analyzed; we provide theoretical analysis of the method under the latent common manifold model. To exemplify the power of the proposed framework, experimental results in several applications are reported.

  3. Hippocampus NMDA receptors selectively mediate latent extinction of place learning. (United States)

    Goodman, Jarid; Gabriele, Amanda; Packard, Mark G


    Extinction of maze learning may be achieved with or without the animal performing the previously acquired response. In typical "response extinction," animals are given the opportunity to make the previously acquired approach response toward the goal location of the maze without reinforcement. In "latent extinction," animals are not given the opportunity to make the previously acquired response and instead are confined to the previous goal location without reinforcement. Previous evidence indicates that the effectiveness of these protocols may depend on the type of memory being extinguished. Thus, one aim of the present study was to further examine the effectiveness of response and latent extinction protocols across dorsolateral striatum (DLS)-dependent response learning and hippocampus-dependent place learning tasks. In addition, previous neural inactivation experiments indicate a selective role for the hippocampus in latent extinction, but have not investigated the precise neurotransmitter mechanisms involved. Thus, the present study also examined whether latent extinction of place learning might depend on NMDA receptor activity in the hippocampus. In experiment 1, adult male Long-Evans rats were trained in a response learning task in a water plus-maze, in which animals were reinforced to make a consistent body-turn response to reach an invisible escape platform. Results indicated that response extinction, but not latent extinction, was effective at extinguishing memory in the response learning task. In experiment 2, rats were trained in a place learning task, in which animals were reinforced to approach a consistent spatial location containing the hidden escape platform. In experiment 2, animals also received intra-hippocampal infusions of the NMDA receptor antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphopentanoic acid (AP5; 5.0 or 7.5 ug/0.5 µg) or saline vehicle immediately before response or latent extinction training. Results indicated that both extinction protocols were

  4. Block Transfer Handbook: Constructing and Negotiating Block Transfer Agreements. (United States)

    Finlay, Finola

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide resources for institutions or articulation committees who are engaged in the task of investigating the feasibility of block transfer agreements. Block transfer is the process whereby a block of credits is granted to students who have successfully completed a certificate, diploma, or cluster of courses…

  5. Rapid Mapping Method Based on Free Blocks of Surveys (United States)

    Yu, Xianwen; Wang, Huiqing; Wang, Jinling


    While producing large-scale larger than 1:2000 maps in cities or towns, the obstruction from buildings leads to difficult and heavy tasks of measuring mapping control points. In order to avoid measuring the mapping control points and shorten the time of fieldwork, in this paper, a quick mapping method is proposed. This method adjusts many free blocks of surveys together, and transforms the points from all free blocks of surveys into the same coordinate system. The entire surveying area is divided into many free blocks, and connection points are set on the boundaries between free blocks. An independent coordinate system of every free block is established via completely free station technology, and the coordinates of the connection points, detail points and control points in every free block in the corresponding independent coordinate systems are obtained based on poly-directional open traverses. Error equations are established based on connection points, which are determined together to obtain the transformation parameters. All points are transformed from the independent coordinate systems to a transitional coordinate system via the transformation parameters. Several control points are then measured by GPS in a geodetic coordinate system. All the points can then be transformed from the transitional coordinate system to the geodetic coordinate system. In this paper, the implementation process and mathematical formulas of the new method are presented in detail, and the formula to estimate the precision of surveys is given. An example has demonstrated that the precision of using the new method could meet large-scale mapping needs.

  6. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional, with an understand......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional......, as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged...

  7. Transformational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, Katrien; Dewulf, Art; Biesbroek, Robbert


    Although transformational change is a rather new topic in climate change adaptation literature, it has been studied in organisational theory for over 30 years. This paper argues that governance scholars can learn much from organisation theory, more specifically regarding the conceptualisation of

  8. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    , that it can be adapted to changing functional needs, and that it has an architectural and cultural value. A specific proposal for a transformation that enhances the architectural qualities and building heritage values of an existing building forms the empirical material, which is discussed using different...

  9. ADE Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Donagi, Ron


    There is a beautiful correspondence between configurations of lines on a rational surface and tautological bundles over that surface. We extend this correspondence to families, by means of a generalized Fourier-Mukai transform that relates spectral data to bundles over a rational surface fibration.

  10. Demographic Data - MDC_Block (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A polygon feature class of Miami-Dade Census 2000 Blocks. Census blocks are areas bounded on all sides by visible and/or invisible features shown on a map prepared...

  11. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  12. Ophthalmic regional blocks: management, challenges, and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palte HD


    Full Text Available Howard D Palte Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative Medicine and Pain Management, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Abstract: In the past decade ophthalmic anesthesia has witnessed a major transformation. The sun has set on the landscape of ophthalmic procedures performed under general anesthesia at in-hospital settings. In its place a new dawn has ushered in the panorama of eye surgeries conducted under regional and topical anesthesia at specialty eye care centers. The impact of the burgeoning geriatric population is that an increasing number of elderly patients will present for eye surgery. In order to accommodate increased patient volumes and simultaneously satisfy administrative initiatives directed at economic frugality, administrators will seek assistance from anesthesia providers in adopting measures that enhance operating room efficiency. The performance of eye blocks in a holding suite meets many of these objectives. Unfortunately, most practicing anesthesiologists resist performing ophthalmic regional blocks because they lack formal training. In future, anesthesiologists will need to block eyes and manage common medical conditions because economic pressures will eliminate routine preoperative testing. This review addresses a variety of topical issues in ophthalmic anesthesia with special emphasis on cannula and needle-based blocks and the new-generation antithrombotic agents. In a constantly evolving arena, the sub-Tenon’s block has gained popularity while the deep angulated intraconal (retrobulbar block has been largely superseded by the shallower extraconal (peribulbar approach. Improvements in surgical technique have also impacted anesthetic practice. For example, phacoemulsification techniques facilitate the conduct of cataract surgery under topical anesthesia, and suture-free vitrectomy ports may cause venous air embolism during air/fluid exchange. Hyaluronidase is a useful adjuvant because it

  13. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold


    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  14. Properties of blocked linear systems. (United States)

    Chen, Weitian; Anderson, Brian D O; Deistler, Manfred; Filler, Alexander


    This paper presents a systematic study on the properties of blocked linear systems that have resulted from blocking discrete-time linear time invariant systems. The main idea is to explore the relationship between the blocked and the unblocked systems. Existing results are reviewed and a number of important new results are derived. Focus is given particularly on the zero properties of the blocked system as no such study has been found in the literature.

  15. Appropriate schemata and building blocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Haijun; Li Minqiang


    Appropriate schemata as a novel concept to characterize building blocks are introduced, and then, the traits of appropriate schemata are presented. The effects of building blocks by search operators are analyzed. Hence, the experiments on RR-8X8 are employed to verify that appropriate schemata construct the building blocks. The validity of appropriate schemata and building blocks from the views of theory and practice is presented.

  16. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.


    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  17. Property Blocks: Games and Activities. (United States)

    Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

    This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

  18. Asymptotic accuracy of Bayesian estimation for a single latent variable. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Keisuke


    In data science and machine learning, hierarchical parametric models, such as mixture models, are often used. They contain two kinds of variables: observable variables, which represent the parts of the data that can be directly measured, and latent variables, which represent the underlying processes that generate the data. Although there has been an increase in research on the estimation accuracy for observable variables, the theoretical analysis of estimating latent variables has not been thoroughly investigated. In a previous study, we determined the accuracy of a Bayes estimation for the joint probability of the latent variables in a dataset, and we proved that the Bayes method is asymptotically more accurate than the maximum-likelihood method. However, the accuracy of the Bayes estimation for a single latent variable remains unknown. In the present paper, we derive the asymptotic expansions of the error functions, which are defined by the Kullback-Leibler divergence, for two types of single-variable estimations when the statistical regularity is satisfied. Our results indicate that the accuracies of the Bayes and maximum-likelihood methods are asymptotically equivalent and clarify that the Bayes method is only advantageous for multivariable estimations.

  19. Immune parameters differentiating active from latent tuberculosis infection in humans. (United States)

    Lee, Ji Yeon; Jung, Young Won; Jeong, Ina; Joh, Joon-Sung; Sim, Soo Yeon; Choi, Boram; Jee, Hyeon-Gun; Lim, Dong-Gyun


    Tuberculosis remains a highly prevalent infectious disease worldwide. Identification of the immune parameters that differentiate active disease from latent infection will facilitate the development of efficient control measures as well as new diagnostic modalities for tuberculosis. Here, we investigated the cytokine production profiles of monocytes and CD4(+) T lymphocytes upon encountering mycobacterial antigens. In addition, cytokines and lipid mediators with immune-modulating activities were examined in plasma samples ex vivo. Comparison of these parameters in active tuberculosis patients and healthy subjects with latent infection revealed that, active tuberculosis was associated with diminished Th1-type cytokine secretion from CD4(+) T cells and less augmented inflammatory cytokine secretion from monocytes induced by IFN-γ than that in latent tuberculosis infection. In addition, a higher plasma concentration of lipoxin A4 and lower ratio of prostaglandin E2 to lipoxin A4 were observed in active cases than in latent infections. These findings have implications for preparing new therapeutic strategies and for differential diagnosis of the two types of tuberculosis infection.

  20. Removing systematic errors for exoplanet search via latent causes

    CERN Document Server

    Schölkopf, Bernhard; Wang, Dun; Foreman-Mackey, Daniel; Janzing, Dominik; Simon-Gabriel, Carl-Johann; Peters, Jonas


    We describe a method for removing the effect of confounders in order to reconstruct a latent quantity of interest. The method, referred to as half-sibling regression, is inspired by recent work in causal inference using additive noise models. We provide a theoretical justification and illustrate the potential of the method in a challenging astronomy application.

  1. Evaluation of AFIS-Ranked latent fingerprint matched templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krish, Ram P.; Fierrez, Julian; Ramos, Daniel; Veldhuis, Raymond; Wang, Ruifang; Klette, Reinhard; Rivera, Mariano; Satoh, Shin'ichi


    The methodology currently practiced in latent print examination (known as ACE-V) yields only a decision as result, namely individualization, exclusion or inconclusive. From such a decision, it is not possible to express the strength of opinion of a forensic examiner quantitatively with a scientific

  2. A Taxometric Exploration of the Latent Structure of Hoarding (United States)

    Timpano, Kiara R.; Broman-Fulks, Joshua J.; Glaesmer, Heide; Exner, Cornelia; Rief, Winfried; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Keough, Meghan E.; Riccardi, Christina J.; Brahler, Elmar; Wilhelm, Sabine; Schmidt, Norman B.


    Despite controversy regarding the classification and diagnostic status of hoarding disorder, there remains a paucity of research on the nosology of hoarding that is likely to inform the classification debate. The present investigation examined the latent structure of hoarding in three, large independent samples. Data for three well-validated…

  3. Identifying subgroups of patients using latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Mølgaard; Kent, Peter; Hestbæk, Lise


    BACKGROUND: Heterogeneity in patients with low back pain (LBP) is well recognised and different approaches to subgrouping have been proposed. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) is a statistical technique that is increasingly being used to identify subgroups based on patient characteristics. However, as ...

  4. Temporal analysis of text data using latent variable models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mølgaard, Lasse Lohilahti; Larsen, Jan; Goutte, Cyril


    Detecting and tracking of temporal data is an important task in multiple applications. In this paper we study temporal text mining methods for Music Information Retrieval. We compare two ways of detecting the temporal latent semantics of a corpus extracted from Wikipedia, using a stepwise...

  5. Complete genome sequence of the alfalfa latent virus (United States)

    Alfalfa latent virus (ALV) is a member of the carlavirus group and occurs symptomlessly in alfalfa (Medicago sativa). In the US it is prevalent in Nebraska and Wisconsin. The virus is recognized as a strain of Pea streak virus (PeSV) So far, no complete genomic sequence of PSV or ALV is availab...

  6. Latent cluster analysis of ALS phenotypes identifies prognostically differing groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeban Ganesalingam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disease predominantly affecting motor neurons and manifesting as several different phenotypes. Whether these phenotypes correspond to different underlying disease processes is unknown. We used latent cluster analysis to identify groupings of clinical variables in an objective and unbiased way to improve phenotyping for clinical and research purposes. METHODS: Latent class cluster analysis was applied to a large database consisting of 1467 records of people with ALS, using discrete variables which can be readily determined at the first clinic appointment. The model was tested for clinical relevance by survival analysis of the phenotypic groupings using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: The best model generated five distinct phenotypic classes that strongly predicted survival (p<0.0001. Eight variables were used for the latent class analysis, but a good estimate of the classification could be obtained using just two variables: site of first symptoms (bulbar or limb and time from symptom onset to diagnosis (p<0.00001. CONCLUSION: The five phenotypic classes identified using latent cluster analysis can predict prognosis. They could be used to stratify patients recruited into clinical trials and generating more homogeneous disease groups for genetic, proteomic and risk factor research.

  7. Censored latent effects autoregression, with an application to US unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); R. Paap (Richard)


    textabstractA new time series model is proposed to describe observed asymmetries in postwar unemployment data. We assume that recession periods, when unemployment increases rapidly, are caused by unobserved positive shocks. The generating mechanism of these latent shocks is a censored regression mod

  8. Blueberry latent virus: An Amalgam of the Totiviridae and Partitiviridae (United States)

    A new, symptomless virus was identified in blueberry. The dsRNA genome of the virus, provisionally named Blueberry latent virus (BBLV), codes for two putative proteins and lacks a movement protein, a property only shared with cryptic viruses. More than 35 isolates of the virus from different cultiv...

  9. Treatment: Latent TB Infection (LTBI) and TB Disease (United States)

    ... the Facts Tuberculosis - The Connection between TB and HIV 12-Dose Regimen for Latent TB Infection-Patient Education Brochure Posters Mantoux Tuberculin Skin Test Wall Chart World TB Day Think TB Stop TB Reports & Articles Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Reports (MMWRs) DTBE Authored ...

  10. Improving Measurement Precision of Hierarchical Latent Traits Using Adaptive Testing (United States)

    Wang, Chun


    Many latent traits in social sciences display a hierarchical structure, such as intelligence, cognitive ability, or personality. Usually a second-order factor is linearly related to a group of first-order factors (also called domain abilities in cognitive ability measures), and the first-order factors directly govern the actual item responses.…

  11. An Alternative Approach for Nonlinear Latent Variable Models (United States)

    Mooijaart, Ab; Bentler, Peter M.


    In the last decades there has been an increasing interest in nonlinear latent variable models. Since the seminal paper of Kenny and Judd, several methods have been proposed for dealing with these kinds of models. This article introduces an alternative approach. The methodology involves fitting some third-order moments in addition to the means and…

  12. Exploring Different Types of Academic Delayers: A Latent Profile Analysis (United States)

    Grunschel, Carola; Patrzek, Justine; Fries, Stefan


    In this study, we explored whether there are different types of academic delayers (i.e., types of students who delay academic tasks). Latent profile analysis based on 554 university students' reasons for academic delay revealed four distinct types: inconspicuous, successful pressure-seeking, worried/anxious, and discontent with studies. The types…

  13. Mediation Analysis in a Latent Growth Curve Modeling Framework (United States)

    von Soest, Tilmann; Hagtvet, Knut A.


    This article presents several longitudinal mediation models in the framework of latent growth curve modeling and provides a detailed account of how such models can be constructed. Logical and statistical challenges that might arise when such analyses are conducted are also discussed. Specifically, we discuss how the initial status (intercept) and…

  14. Model Criticism of Bayesian Networks with Latent Variables. (United States)

    Williamson, David M.; Mislevy, Robert J.; Almond, Russell G.

    This study investigated statistical methods for identifying errors in Bayesian networks (BN) with latent variables, as found in intelligent cognitive assessments. BN, commonly used in artificial intelligence systems, are promising mechanisms for scoring constructed-response examinations. The success of an intelligent assessment or tutoring system…

  15. Combining SNPs in latent variables to improve genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuven, Henri C M; Rosa, G J M; Janss, Luc

    The objective of this study was to develop and test hierarchical genomic models with latent variables that represent parts of the genomic values. An interaction model and a chromosome model were compared with a model based on variable selection in a simulated and real dataset. The program Bayz......: Hierarchical genetic model; Predictive value; Gibbs sampling; Variable selection....

  16. The relationship between cub and loglinear models with latent variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberski, D. L.; Vermunt, J. K.


    The "combination of uniform and shifted binomial"(cub) model is a distribution for ordinal variables that has received considerable recent attention and specialized development. This article notes that the cub model is a special case of the well-known loglinear latent class model, an observation tha

  17. Latent organizations in the film industry: contracts, rewards and resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebbers, J.J.; Wijnberg, N.M.


    The main aim of this article is to study the extent to which the project-based organization (PBO) and the latent organization determine the actual behavior of actors in a project-based industry and how this is mediated by the types of contracts and rewarding practices these organizational forms allo

  18. Multilevel Latent Class Analysis: Parametric and Nonparametric Models (United States)

    Finch, W. Holmes; French, Brian F.


    Latent class analysis is an analytic technique often used in educational and psychological research to identify meaningful groups of individuals within a larger heterogeneous population based on a set of variables. This technique is flexible, encompassing not only a static set of variables but also longitudinal data in the form of growth mixture…

  19. Layout of a latent heat storage system with finned tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, D.


    The theoretical and experimental investigations show by the example of Glauber's salt in a finned-tube latent heat storage vessel how heat transfer and storage capacity at charging and discharging depend on the variables of geometry, temperature, time and on the composition of the storing medium. By vertical arrangement of transversely finned tubes the separation problems occurring with Glauber's salt are solved insofar as the technical utilization of the latent heat of conversion corresponding to the complete conversion during charging and discharging not being possible, no decrease, of the reduced storage capacity, however, is found even after very many charging/discharging cycles. For the heat transfer during discharging correlations can be given on the basis of a model concept, be means of which a heat transfer coefficient, varying during the discharging process, can be predicted almost for the total range of discharge as a function of geometry, temperature and state of discharge. On the basis of the simple working formula for the heat transfer coefficient at crystallization of a latent heat storing medium the dynamic behavior of a compact finned-tube storage vessel can be predicted by means of a computer code. These means allow to perform the thermal design of a compact latent heat storage facility according to given design criteria accounting for economic aspects.

  20. A Hierarchical Latent Stochastic Differential Equation Model for Affective Dynamics (United States)

    Oravecz, Zita; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Vandekerckhove, Joachim


    In this article a continuous-time stochastic model (the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process) is presented to model the perpetually altering states of the core affect, which is a 2-dimensional concept underlying all our affective experiences. The process model that we propose can account for the temporal changes in core affect on the latent level. The key…

  1. Changes in latent fingerprint examiners' markup between analysis and comparison. (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn


    After the initial analysis of a latent print, an examiner will sometimes revise the assessment during comparison with an exemplar. Changes between analysis and comparison may indicate that the initial analysis of the latent was inadequate, or that confirmation bias may have affected the comparison. 170 volunteer latent print examiners, each randomly assigned 22 pairs of prints from a pool of 320 total pairs, provided detailed markup documenting their interpretations of the prints and the bases for their comparison conclusions. We describe changes in value assessments and markup of features and clarity. When examiners individualized, they almost always added or deleted minutiae (90.3% of individualizations); every examiner revised at least some markups. For inconclusive and exclusion determinations, changes were less common, and features were added more frequently when the image pair was mated (same source). Even when individualizations were based on eight or fewer corresponding minutiae, in most cases some of those minutiae had been added during comparison. One erroneous individualization was observed: the markup changes were notably extreme, and almost all of the corresponding minutiae had been added during comparison. Latents assessed to be of value for exclusion only (VEO) during analysis were often individualized when compared to a mated exemplar (26%); in our previous work, where examiners were not required to provide markup of features, VEO individualizations were much less common (1.8%).

  2. The Latent Structure of Psychopathy in Youth: A Taxometric Investigation (United States)

    Vasey, Michael W.; Kotov, Roman; Frick, Paul J.; Loney, Bryan R.


    Using taxometric procedures, the latent structure of psychopathy was investigated in two studies of children and adolescents. Prior studies have identified a taxon (i.e., a natural category) associated with antisocial behavior in adults as well as children and adolescents. However, features of this taxon suggest that it is not psychopathy but…

  3. Augmenting Latent Dirichlet Allocation and Rank Threshold Detection with Ontologies (United States)


    Department of Defense, or the United States Government . AFIT/GCS/ENG/10-03 Augmenting Latent Dirichlet Allocation and Rank Threshold Detection great pyrenees dalmation dog domestic dog canis familiaris dog andiron firedog dog dog-iron frump dog pawl detent click dog chap fellow feller

  4. Some Determinants of Latent Inhibition in Human Predictive Learning (United States)

    Pineno, Oskar; de la Casa, Luis Gonzalo; Lubow, R. E.; Miller, Ralph R.


    The present experiments assessed the effects of different manipulations between cue preexposure and cue-outcome pairings on latent inhibition (LI) in a predictive learning task with human participants. To facilitate LI, preexposure and acquisition with the target cues took place while participants performed a secondary task. Presentation of…

  5. Estrogen Abolishes Latent Inhibition in Ovariectomized Female Rats (United States)

    Nofrey, Barbara S.; Ben-Shahar, Osnat M.; Brake, Wayne G.


    Estrogen is frequently prescribed as a method of birth control and as hormone replacement therapy for post-menopausal women with varied effects on cognition. Here the effects of estrogen on attention were examined using the latent inhibition (LI) behavioral paradigm. Ovariectomized (OVX) female rats were given either estrogen benzoate (EB, 10 or…

  6. Context-dependent latent inhibition in preweanling rats. (United States)

    Revillo, D A; Gaztañaga, M; Aranda, E; Paglini, M G; Chotro, M G; Arias, C


    Preexposure to a conditioned stimulus (CS) usually weakens conditioning, an effect known as latent inhibition. Similar to other learning interference effects, latent inhibition has been characterized as context-dependent, which means that the magnitude of this effect can be attenuated by changing the context between the different phases of the procedure (e.g., preexposure and conditioning). Latent inhibition has been found with a variety of procedures in infant rats, but the few studies that examined the context-dependency of this phenomenon during this ontogenetic period found no context-change effect. The present study explored the context-dependency of latent inhibition during infancy using a conditioned taste aversion preparation and employing contexts enriched with distinctive odors to increase the possible efficacy of the context manipulation. Experiment 1 showed that three preexposures to the CS (saccharin) were sufficient to retard conditioning to the same CS, although this effect was also observed in a control group preexposed to an alternative taste stimulus (saline), in comparison with a non-preexposed control group. In Experiment 2a, the CS-preexposure effect was found to be specific to the preexposed CS when the number of preexposures was increased. This effect was revealed as context-dependent in Experiment 2b, since it was attenuated by changing the context between preexposure and conditioning. The present result is consistent with recent studies showing the context-dependency of extinction in preweanling rats, thus demonstrating these animals' capacity to learn about context early on in their development.

  7. Latent Inhibition in an Insect: The Role of Aminergic Signaling (United States)

    Fernandez, Vanesa M.; Giurfa, Martin; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Farina, Walter M.


    Latent inhibition (LI) is a decrement in learning performance that results from the nonreinforced pre-exposure of the to-be-conditioned stimulus, in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In vertebrates, LI development involves dopamine and serotonin; in invertebrates there is yet no information. We studied differential olfactory conditioning of the…

  8. Rolipram attenuates MK-801-induced deficits in latent inhibition. (United States)

    Davis, Jennifer A; Gould, Thomas J


    Latent inhibition is used to examine attention and study cognitive deficits associated with schizophrenia. Research using MK-801, an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) open channel blocker, implicates glutamate receptors in acquisition of latent inhibition of cued fear conditioning. Evidence suggests an important relationship between NMDA-induced increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and learning and memory. The authors examine whether amplification of the cAMP signaling pathway by rolipram, a selective Type 4 cAMP phosphodiesterase inhibitor, reverses MK-801-induced impairments in latent inhibition. One day before training, mice were injected with MK-801, rolipram, MK-801 and rolipram, or vehicle and received 20 preexposures or no preexposures to an auditory conditioned stimulus (CS). Training consisted of 2 CS-footshock unconditioned stimulus pairings. Rolipram attenuated the disruptive effect of MK-801 on latent inhibition, which suggests a role for the cAMP signaling pathway in the task and implicates phosphodiesterase inhibition as a target for treating cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia.

  9. Bayesian latent feature modeling for modeling bipartite networks with overlapping groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Philip H.; Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard;


    Bi-partite networks are commonly modelled using latent class or latent feature models. Whereas the existing latent class models admit marginalization of parameters specifying the strength of interaction between groups, existing latent feature models do not admit analytical marginalization...... of the parameters accounting for the interaction strength within the feature representation. We propose a new binary latent feature model that admits analytical marginalization of interaction strengths such that model inference reduces to assigning nodes to latent features. We propose a constraint inspired...... to the infinite relational model and the infinite Bernoulli mixture model. We find that the model provides a new latent feature representation of structure while in link-prediction performing close to existing models. Our current extension of the notion of communities and collapsed inference to binary latent...

  10. Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (United States)

    Niimi, Hirofumi; Koike, Minoru; Takeuchi, Seiichi; Douhara, Noriyoshi


    Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (robot block system) and the rational formula of robots were proposed. ROBO-BLOCK is composed of servo motors, the parts for servomotor rotor, the brackets for servomotor fixation, the board parts and the controllers. A robot can be assembled easily by ROBO-BLOCK. Meanwhile, it is convenient when the structure of the robot can be described easily as a character. The whole structure of the robot is expressed as rational formula of the robot to show molecule structure in chemistry. ROBO-BLOCK can be useful for not only the research but also the education. Creative student experiment was done in the college of industrial technology.

  11. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M


    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  12. Center of Mass-Based Adaptive Fast Block Motion Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hung Chen


    Full Text Available This work presents an efficient adaptive algorithm based on center of mass (CEM for fast block motion estimation. Binary transform, subsampling, and horizontal/vertical projection techniques are also proposed. As the conventional CEM calculation is computationally intensive, binary transform and subsampling approaches are proposed to simplify CEM calculation; the binary transform center of mass (BITCEM is then derived. The BITCEM motion types are classified by percentage of (0,0 BITCEM motion vectors. Adaptive search patterns are allocated according to the BITCEM moving direction and the BITCEM motion type. Moreover, the BITCEM motion vector is utilized as the initial search point for near-still or slow BITCEM motion types. To support the variable block sizes, the horizontal/vertical projections of a binary transformed macroblock are utilized to determine whether the block requires segmentation. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is better than the five conventional algorithms, that is, three-step search (TSS, new three-step search (N3SS, four three-step search (4SS, block-based gradient decent search (BBGDS, and diamond search (DS, in terms of speed or picture quality for eight benchmark sequences.

  13. Center of Mass-Based Adaptive Fast Block Motion Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeh Kuo-Liang


    Full Text Available This work presents an efficient adaptive algorithm based on center of mass (CEM for fast block motion estimation. Binary transform, subsampling, and horizontal/vertical projection techniques are also proposed. As the conventional CEM calculation is computationally intensive, binary transform and subsampling approaches are proposed to simplify CEM calculation; the binary transform center of mass (BITCEM is then derived. The BITCEM motion types are classified by percentage of (0,0 BITCEM motion vectors. Adaptive search patterns are allocated according to the BITCEM moving direction and the BITCEM motion type. Moreover, the BITCEM motion vector is utilized as the initial search point for near-still or slow BITCEM motion types. To support the variable block sizes, the horizontal/vertical projections of a binary transformed macroblock are utilized to determine whether the block requires segmentation. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithm is better than the five conventional algorithms, that is, three-step search (TSS, new three-step search (N3SS, four three-step search (4SS, block-based gradient decent search (BBGDS, and diamond search (DS, in terms of speed or picture quality for eight benchmark sequences.

  14. XML Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU


    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  15. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  16. RF transformer (United States)

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.


    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  17. Subspaces of FMmlet transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹红星; 戴琼海; 赵克; 陈桂明; 李衍达


    The subspaces of FMmlet transform are investigated.It is shown that some of the existing transforms like the Fourier transform,short-time Fourier transform,Gabor transform,wavelet transform,chirplet transform,the mean of signal,and the FM-1let transform,and the butterfly subspace are all special cases of FMmlet transform.Therefore the FMmlet transform is more flexible for delineating both the linear and nonlinear time-varying structures of a signal.

  18. Skin Resistivity Value of Upper Trapezius Latent Trigger Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorupska


    Full Text Available Introduction. The skin resistivity (SkR measurement is commonly recommended for acupoints measurement, but for trigger points (TrPs only one study is available. The purpose of the study was to evaluate SkR for latent TrPs compared to non-TrPs and the surrounding tissue. Material and Methods. Forty-two healthy volunteers with unilateral latent upper trapezius TrPs (12 men, 30 women aged 21–23 (mean age: 22.1 ± 0.6 y participated in the study. Keithley electrometer 610B was used for measuring SkR (Ag/AgCl self-adhesive, disposable ground electrode: 30 mm diameter. SkR was measured for latent TrPs and compared to opposite non-TrPs sites and the surrounding tissue. Results. The SkR decrease of TrPs-positive sites as compared to TrPs-negative sites and the surrounding tissue was confirmed. However, no statistically significant difference in the SkR value occurred when all data were analyzed. The same was confirmed after gender division and for TrPs-positive subjects examined for referred pain and twitch response presence. Conclusion. SkR reactive changes at latent TrPs are possible but the results were not consistent with the previous study. Thus, caution in applying SkR to latent TrPs isolation is recommended and its clinical use should not be encouraged yet. Further studies, especially on active TrPs, are yet required.

  19. Subband/Transform MATLAB Functions For Processing Images (United States)

    Glover, D.


    SUBTRANS software is package of routines implementing image-data-processing functions for use with MATLAB*(TM) software. Provides capability to transform image data with block transforms and to produce spatial-frequency subbands of transformed data. Functions cascaded to provide further decomposition into more subbands. Also used in image-data-compression systems. For example, transforms used to prepare data for lossy compression. Written for use in MATLAB mathematical-analysis environment.

  20. Image quality improvement for underground radar by block migration method (United States)

    Ho, Gwangsu; Kawanaka, Akira; Takagi, Mikio


    Techniques have been developed which have been imaging optically opaque regions using an electromagnetic wave radar in order to estimate the location of the objects in those regions. One important application of these techniques is the detection of buried pipes and cables. In the case of underground radar, its image quality often becomes low because the nature of the soil is not uniform and an electromagnetic wave is attenuated in soil. Hence, the method which improves the quality of the radar images is required. In this paper, we point out that the quality of underground images can be improved significantly by means of the block migration method. In this method LOT (Lapped Orthogonal Transform) was applied. LOT is a new block transform method in which basis functions overlap in adjacent blocks, and it has a fast computation algorithm. In addition to above, we propose a method of estimating dielectric constant in soil using the processed images. The result of applying the block migration method to the underground radar images are presented. It points out the good capability for the image quality improvement and the application of LOT can improve the influence by blocking and the processing time. Also the dielectric constant in each block can be estimated accurately.

  1. Exploring the Estimation of Examinee Locations Using Multidimensional Latent Trait Models under Different Distributional Assumptions (United States)

    Jang, Hyesuk


    This study aims to evaluate a multidimensional latent trait model to determine how well the model works in various empirical contexts. Contrary to the assumption of these latent trait models that the traits are normally distributed, situations in which the latent trait is not shaped with a normal distribution may occur (Sass et al, 2008; Woods…

  2. Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation of a Latent Variable Model with Interaction (United States)

    Cudeck, Robert; Harring, Jeffrey R.; du Toit, Stephen H. C.


    There has been considerable interest in nonlinear latent variable models specifying interaction between latent variables. Although it seems to be only slightly more complex than linear regression without the interaction, the model that includes a product of latent variables cannot be estimated by maximum likelihood assuming normality.…

  3. Defining a Family of Cognitive Diagnosis Models Using Log-Linear Models with Latent Variables (United States)

    Henson, Robert A.; Templin, Jonathan L.; Willse, John T.


    This paper uses log-linear models with latent variables (Hagenaars, in "Loglinear Models with Latent Variables," 1993) to define a family of cognitive diagnosis models. In doing so, the relationship between many common models is explicitly defined and discussed. In addition, because the log-linear model with latent variables is a general model for…

  4. Stochastic Approximation Methods for Latent Regression Item Response Models. Research Report. ETS RR-09-09 (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip


    This paper presents an application of a stochastic approximation EM-algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a 2-level latent variable model in which covariates serve as predictors of the…

  5. Polytomous latent scales for the investigation of the ordering of items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtvoet, R.; van der Ark, L.A.; Bergsma, W. P.; Sijtsma, K.


    We propose three latent scales within the framework of nonparametric item response theory for polytomously scored items. Latent scales are models that imply an invariant item ordering, meaning that the order of the items is the same for each measurement value on the latent scale. This ordering prope

  6. Relations of FMmlet Transform to Some Integral Transforms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOUHongxing; DAIQionghai; WANGDianjun; LIYanda


    In this paper, we explore the relationships between FMmlet transform and some of the existing integral transforms, namely, the chirplet transform, dispersion transform, wavelet transform, chirp-Fourier transform, Short-time fourier transform (STFT), Gabor transform, Fourier transform, cosine transform, sine transform,Hartley transform, Laplace transform, z-transform, Mellintransform, Hilbert transform, autocorrelation function,cross-correlation function, energy, and the mean value.It is shown that all of these transforms are subspaces of FMmlet transform with specific parameters.

  7. Spintronics: Conceptual Building Blocks (United States)

    Ansermet, J.-Ph.

    The purpose of this introduction to spintronics is to provide some elementary description of its conceptual building blocks. Thus, it is intended for a newcomer to the field. After recalling rudimentary descriptions of spin precession and spin relaxation, spin-dependent transport is treated within the Boltzmann formalism. This suffices to introduce key notions such as the spin asymmetry of the conductivities in the two-current model, the spin diffusion length, and spin accumulation. Two basic mechanisms of spin relaxation are then presented, one arising from spin-orbit scattering and the other from electron-magnon collisions. Finally, the action of a spin-polarized current on magnetization is presented in a thermodynamics framework. This introduces the notion of spin torque and the characteristic length scale over which the transverse spin polarization of conduction electron decays as it is injected into a magnet.

  8. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael


    it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...... efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...

  9. Celiac ganglia block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akinci, Devrim [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Sihhiye, 06100 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail:


    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation.

  10. Atomic Basic Blocks (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  11. Studies of Phase Change Materials and a Latent Heat Storage Unit Used for a Natural Circulation Cooling/Latent Heat Storage System (United States)

    Sakitani, Katsumi; Honda, Hiroshi

    Experimental and theoretical studies were made of the heat transfer characteristics of a latent heat storage unit used for a natural circulation cooling /latent heat storage system. Heating and cooling curves of the latent heat storage unit undergoing solid-liquid phase change of a PCM (lauric acid) was obtained by using anatural circulation loop of R22 which consisted of an electrically heated evaporater, a water cooled condenser and the latent heat storage unit. The latent heat storage unit showed a heat transfer performance which was high enough for practical use. An approximate theoretical analysis was conducted to investigate transient behavior of the latent heat storage unit. Predictions of the refrigerant and outer surface temperatures during the melting process were in fair agreement with the experimental data, whereas that of the refrigerant temperature during the solidification process was considerably lower than the measurement.

  12. Viral Interleukin-10 Expressed by Human Cytomegalovirus during the Latent Phase of Infection Modulates Latently Infected Myeloid Cell Differentiation ▿ †


    Avdic, Selmir; Cao, John Z.; Cheung, Allen K.L.; Abendroth, Allison; Slobedman, Barry


    The human cytomegalovirus UL111A gene is expressed during latent and productive infections, and it codes for homologs of interleukin-10 (IL-10). We examined whether viral IL-10 expressed during latency altered differentiation of latently infected myeloid progenitors. In comparison to infection with parental virus or mock infection, latent infection with a virus in which the gene encoding viral IL-10 has been deleted upregulated cytokines associated with dendritic cell (DC) formation and incre...

  13. Hamlet's Transformation. (United States)

    Usher, P. D.


    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.


    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.


    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  15. Communication: Self-assembly of semiflexible-flexible block copolymers (United States)

    Kumar, N. Arun; Ganesan, Venkat


    We apply the methodology of self-consistent Brownian dynamics simulations to study the self-assembly behavior in melts of semiflexible-flexible diblock copolymers as a function of the persistence length of the semiflexible block. Our results reveal a novel progression of morphologies in transitioning from the case of flexible-coil to rod-coil copolymers. At even moderate persistence lengths, the morphologies in the semiflexible-block rich region of the phase diagram transform to liquid crystalline phases. In contrast, the phases in the flexible-block rich region of the phase diagram persist up to much larger persistence lengths. Our analysis suggests that the development of orientational order in the semiflexible block to be a critical factor influencing the morphologies of self-assembly.

  16. Activation of Latent HIV Using Drug-loaded Nanoparticles (United States)

    Kovochich, Michael

    Antiretroviral therapy is currently only capable of controlling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication, rather than completely eradicating virus from patients. This is due in part to the establishment of a latent virus reservoir in resting CD4+ T-cells, which persists even in the presence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is thought that forced activation of latently infected cells could induce virus production, allowing targeting of the cell by the immune response. A variety of molecules are able to stimulate HIV from latency. However, no tested purging strategy has proven capable of eliminating the infection completely or preventing viral rebound if therapy is stopped. Hence, novel latency activation approaches are required. Nanoparticles can offer several advantages over more traditional drug delivery methods, including improved drug solubility, stability, and the ability to simultaneously target multiple different molecules to particular cell or tissue types. Here we describe the development of a novel lipid nanoparticle with the protein kinase C activator bryostatin-2 incorporated (LNP-Bry). These particles can target, activate primary human CD4+ T-cells, and stimulate latent virus production from human T-cell lines in vitro and from latently infected cells in a humanized mouse model ex vivo. This activation was synergistically enhanced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) sodium butyrate. Furthermore, LNP-Bry can also be loaded with the protease inhibitor nelfinavir (LNP-Bry-Nel), producing a particle capable of both activating latent virus and inhibiting viral spread. LNP-Bry was further tested for its in vivo biodistribution in both wild type mice (C57 black 6), as well as humanized mice (SCID-hu Thy/Liv, and bone marrow-liver-thymus [BLT]). LNP-Bry accumulated in the spleen and induced the early activation marker CD69 in wild type mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate the ability of nanotechnological approaches to

  17. Characteristics of Mitochondrial Transformation into Human Cells (United States)

    Kesner, E. E.; Saada-Reich, A.; Lorberboum-Galski, H.


    Mitochondria can be incorporated into mammalian cells by simple co-incubation of isolated mitochondria with cells, without the need of transfection reagents or any other type of intervention. This phenomenon was termed mitochondrial transformation, and although it was discovered in 1982, currently little is known regarding its mechanism(s). Here we demonstrate that mitochondria can be transformed into recipient cells very quickly, and co-localize with endogenous mitochondria. The isolated mitochondria interact directly with cells, which engulf the mitochondria with cellular extensions in a way, which may suggest the involvement of macropinocytosis or macropinocytosis-like mechanisms in mitochondrial transformation. Indeed, macropinocytosis inhibitors but not clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibition-treatments, blocks mitochondria transformation. The integrity of the mitochondrial outer membrane and its proteins is essential for the transformation of the mitochondria into cells; cells can distinguish mitochondria from similar particles and transform only intact mitochondria. Mitochondrial transformation is blocked in the presence of the heparan sulfate molecules pentosan polysulfate and heparin, which indicate crucial involvement of cellular heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the mitochondrial transformation process. PMID:27184109

  18. Characteristics of Mitochondrial Transformation into Human Cells. (United States)

    Kesner, E E; Saada-Reich, A; Lorberboum-Galski, H


    Mitochondria can be incorporated into mammalian cells by simple co-incubation of isolated mitochondria with cells, without the need of transfection reagents or any other type of intervention. This phenomenon was termed mitochondrial transformation, and although it was discovered in 1982, currently little is known regarding its mechanism(s). Here we demonstrate that mitochondria can be transformed into recipient cells very quickly, and co-localize with endogenous mitochondria. The isolated mitochondria interact directly with cells, which engulf the mitochondria with cellular extensions in a way, which may suggest the involvement of macropinocytosis or macropinocytosis-like mechanisms in mitochondrial transformation. Indeed, macropinocytosis inhibitors but not clathrin-mediated endocytosis inhibition-treatments, blocks mitochondria transformation. The integrity of the mitochondrial outer membrane and its proteins is essential for the transformation of the mitochondria into cells; cells can distinguish mitochondria from similar particles and transform only intact mitochondria. Mitochondrial transformation is blocked in the presence of the heparan sulfate molecules pentosan polysulfate and heparin, which indicate crucial involvement of cellular heparan sulfate proteoglycans in the mitochondrial transformation process.

  19. Subband/transform functions for image processing (United States)

    Glover, Daniel


    Functions for image data processing written for use with the MATLAB(TM) software package are presented. These functions provide the capability to transform image data with block transformations (such as the Walsh Hadamard) and to produce spatial frequency subbands of the transformed data. Block transforms are equivalent to simple subband systems. The transform coefficients are reordered using a simple permutation to give subbands. The low frequency subband is a low resolution version of the original image, while the higher frequency subbands contain edge information. The transform functions can be cascaded to provide further decomposition into more subbands. If the cascade is applied to all four of the first stage subbands (in the case of a four band decomposition), then a uniform structure of sixteen bands is obtained. If the cascade is applied only to the low frequency subband, an octave structure of seven bands results. Functions for the inverse transforms are also given. These functions can be used for image data compression systems. The transforms do not in themselves produce data compression, but prepare the data for quantization and compression. Sample quantization functions for subbands are also given. A typical compression approach is to subband the image data, quantize it, then use statistical coding (e.g., run-length coding followed by Huffman coding) for compression. Contour plots of image data and subbanded data are shown.

  20. Large Block Test Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, W


    This report documents the Large-Block Test (LBT) conducted at Fran Ridge near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The LBT was a thermal test conducted on an exposed block of middle non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff (Tptpmn) and was designed to assist in understanding the thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes associated with heating and then cooling a partially saturated fractured rock mass. The LBT was unique in that it was a large (3 x 3 x 4.5 m) block with top and sides exposed. Because the block was exposed at the surface, boundary conditions on five of the six sides of the block were relatively well known and controlled, making this test both easier to model and easier to monitor. This report presents a detailed description of the test as well as analyses of the data and conclusions drawn from the test. The rock block that was tested during the LBT was exposed by excavation and removal of the surrounding rock. The block was characterized and instrumented, and the sides were sealed and insulated to inhibit moisture and heat loss. Temperature on the top of the block was also controlled. The block was heated for 13 months, during which time temperature, moisture distribution, and deformation were monitored. After the test was completed and the block cooled down, a series of boreholes were drilled, and one of the heater holes was over-cored to collect samples for post-test characterization of mineralogy and mechanical properties. Section 2 provides background on the test. Section 3 lists the test objectives and describes the block site, the site configuration, and measurements made during the test. Section 3 also presents a chronology of events associated with the LBT, characterization of the block, and the pre-heat analyses of the test. Section 4 describes the fracture network contained in the block. Section 5 describes the heating/cooling system used to control the temperature in the block and presents the thermal history of the block during the test

  1. Entanglement Continuous Unitary Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Sahin, S; Orus, R


    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called "entanglement-CUT" or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators, and we present proof-of-principle results for the spin-1/2 1d quantum Ising model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermo...

  2. Entanglement continuous unitary transformations (United States)

    Sahin, Serkan; Schmidt, Kai Phillip; Orús, Román


    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called “entanglement-CUT” or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators. We also present proof-of-principle results for the spin-(1/2) 1d quantum Ising model and the 3-state quantum Potts model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermodynamic limit.

  3. Transformational leadership. (United States)

    Marlow, D L


    In these uncertain times in the healthcare industry, administrators are asked to do more with less time and resources. Because of the extended roles they are playing in today's organizations, radiology administrators are looked upon as agents of change. What leadership skills do they need in this turbulent and uncertain healthcare environment? What are the trait's of tomorrow's leaders? The transformational leader is the one who will guide us through this changing healthcare environment. Several behavioral patterns emerge as important traits for tomorrow's leaders to have-individual consideration, intellectual stimulation and charisma. Tomorrow's leader must view each person as an individual, showing genuine concern and belief in each person's ability to perform. Transformational leaders stimulate others by encouraging them to be curious and try new ideas. The final characteristic, charisma, is the ability to inspire others. Luckily, leaders are made, not born: today's leaders can learn to be responsive, to draw out new ideas from employees, and to communicate self-esteem, energy and enthusiasm.

  4. Dimensional Reduction for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hogervorst, Matthijs


    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO(d+1,1) up into multiplets of SO(d,1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d-1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2F1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  5. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo


    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  6. Mixed-Membership Stochastic Block-Models for Transactional Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Shafiei, Mahdi


    Transactional network data can be thought of as a list of one-to-many communications(e.g., email) between nodes in a social network. Most social network models convert this type of data into binary relations between pairs of nodes. We develop a latent mixed membership model capable of modeling richer forms of transactional network data, including relations between more than two nodes. The model can cluster nodes and predict transactions. The block-model nature of the model implies that groups can be characterized in very general ways. This flexible notion of group structure enables discovery of rich structure in transactional networks. Estimation and inference are accomplished via a variational EM algorithm. Simulations indicate that the learning algorithm can recover the correct generative model. Interesting structure is discovered in the Enron email dataset and another dataset extracted from the Reddit website. Analysis of the Reddit data is facilitated by a novel performance measure for comparing two soft ...

  7. Ship Block Transportation Scheduling Problem Based on Greedy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Wang


    Full Text Available Ship block transportation problems are crucial issues to address in reducing the construction cost and improving the productivity of shipyards. Shipyards aim to maximize the workload balance of transporters with time constraint such that all blocks should be transported during the planning horizon. This process leads to three types of penalty time: empty transporter travel time, delay time, and tardy time. This study aims to minimize the sum of the penalty time. First, this study presents the problem of ship block transportation with the generalization of the block transportation restriction on the multi-type transporter. Second, the problem is transformed into the classical traveling salesman problem and assignment problem through a reasonable model simplification and by adding a virtual node to the proposed directed graph. Then, a heuristic algorithm based on greedy algorithm is proposed to assign blocks to available transporters and sequencing blocks for each transporter simultaneously. Finally, the numerical experiment method is used to validate the model, and its result shows that the proposed algorithm is effective in realizing the efficient use of the transporters in shipyards. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the promising application of the proposed method to efficiently improve the utilization of transporters and to reduce the cost of ship block logistics for shipyards.

  8. Eikonalization of Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, A Liam; Walters, Matthew T; Wang, Junpu


    Classical field configurations such as the Coulomb potential and Schwarzschild solution are built from the $t$-channel exchange of many light degrees of freedom. We study the CFT analog of this phenomenon, which we term the `eikonalization' of conformal blocks. We show that when an operator $T$ appears in the OPE $\\mathcal{O}(x) \\mathcal{O}(0)$, then the large spin $\\ell$ Fock space states $[TT \\cdots T]_{\\ell}$ also appear in this OPE with a computable coefficient. The sum over the exchange of these Fock space states in an $\\langle \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\mathcal{O} \\rangle$ correlator build the classical `$T$ field' in the dual AdS description. In some limits the sum of all Fock space exchanges can be represented as the exponential of a single $T$ exchange in the 4-pt correlator of $\\mathcal{O}$. Our results should be useful for systematizing $1/\\ell$ perturbation theory in general CFTs and simplifying the computation of large spin OPE coefficients. As examples we obtain the leading $\\log \\ell$...

  9. Explicit estimating equations for semiparametric generalized linear latent variable models

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Yanyuan


    We study generalized linear latent variable models without requiring a distributional assumption of the latent variables. Using a geometric approach, we derive consistent semiparametric estimators. We demonstrate that these models have a property which is similar to that of a sufficient complete statistic, which enables us to simplify the estimating procedure and explicitly to formulate the semiparametric estimating equations. We further show that the explicit estimators have the usual root n consistency and asymptotic normality. We explain the computational implementation of our method and illustrate the numerical performance of the estimators in finite sample situations via extensive simulation studies. The advantage of our estimators over the existing likelihood approach is also shown via numerical comparison. We employ the method to analyse a real data example from economics. © 2010 Royal Statistical Society.

  10. Identification of Novel Type III Effectors Using Latent Dirichlet Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yang


    Full Text Available Among the six secretion systems identified in Gram-negative bacteria, the type III secretion system (T3SS plays important roles in the disease development of pathogens. T3SS has attracted a great deal of research interests. However, the secretion mechanism has not been fully understood yet. Especially, the identification of effectors (secreted proteins is an important and challenging task. This paper adopts machine learning methods to identify type III secreted effectors (T3SEs. We extract features from amino acid sequences and conduct feature reduction based on latent semantic information by using latent Dirichlet allocation model. The experimental results on Pseudomonas syringae data set demonstrate the good performance of the new methods.

  11. Latent state-space models for neural decoding. (United States)

    Aghagolzadeh, Mehdi; Truccolo, Wilson


    Ensembles of single-neurons in motor cortex can show strong low-dimensional collective dynamics. In this study, we explore an approach where neural decoding is applied to estimated low-dimensional dynamics instead of to the full recorded neuronal population. A latent state-space model (SSM) approach is used to estimate the low-dimensional neural dynamics from the measured spiking activity in population of neurons. A second state-space model representation is then used to decode kinematics, via a Kalman filter, from the estimated low-dimensional dynamics. The latent SSM-based decoding approach is illustrated on neuronal activity recorded from primary motor cortex in a monkey performing naturalistic 3-D reach and grasp movements. Our analysis show that 3-D reach decoding performance based on estimated low-dimensional dynamics is comparable to the decoding performance based on the full recorded neuronal population.

  12. The latent structure of secure base script knowledge. (United States)

    Waters, Theodore E A; Fraley, R Chris; Groh, Ashley M; Steele, Ryan D; Vaughn, Brian E; Bost, Kelly K; Veríssimo, Manuela; Coppola, Gabrielle; Roisman, Glenn I


    There is increasing evidence that attachment representations abstracted from childhood experiences with primary caregivers are organized as a cognitive script describing secure base use and support (i.e., the secure base script). To date, however, the latent structure of secure base script knowledge has gone unexamined-this despite that such basic information about the factor structure and distributional properties of these individual differences has important conceptual implications for our understanding of how representations of early experience are organized and generalized, as well as methodological significance in relation to maximizing statistical power and precision. In this study, we report factor and taxometric analyses that examined the latent structure of secure base script knowledge in 2 large samples. Results suggested that variation in secure base script knowledge-as measured by both the adolescent (N = 674) and adult (N = 714) versions of the Attachment Script Assessment-is generalized across relationships and continuously distributed.

  13. Switched Dynamical Latent Force Models for Modelling Transcriptional Regulation

    CERN Document Server

    López-Lopera, Andrés F


    In order to develop statistical approaches for transcription networks, statistical community has proposed several methods to infer activity levels of proteins, from time-series measurements of targets' expression levels. A few number of approaches have been proposed in order to outperform the representation of fast switching time instants, but computational overheads are significant due to complex inference algorithms. Using the theory related to latent force models (LFM), the development of this project provide a switched dynamical hybrid model based on Gaussian processes (GPs). To deal with discontinuities in dynamical systems (or latent driving force), an extension of the single input motif approach is introduced, that switches between different protein concentrations, and different dynamical systems. This creates a versatile representation for transcription networks that can capture discrete changes and non-linearities in the dynamics. The proposed method is evaluated on both simulated data and real data,...

  14. Modeling the latent dimensions of multivariate signaling datasets (United States)

    Jensen, Karin J.; Janes, Kevin A.


    Cellular signal transduction is coordinated by modifications of many proteins within cells. Protein modifications are not independent, because some are connected through shared signaling cascades and others jointly converge upon common cellular functions. This coupling creates a hidden structure within a signaling network that can point to higher level organizing principles of interest to systems biology. One can identify important covariations within large-scale datasets by using mathematical models that extract latent dimensions—the key structural elements of a measurement set. In this paper, we introduce two principal component-based methods for identifying and interpreting latent dimensions. Principal component analysis provides a starting point for unbiased inspection of the major sources of variation within a dataset. Partial least-squares regression reorients these dimensions toward a specific hypothesis of interest. Both approaches have been used widely in studies of cell signaling, and they should be standard analytical tools once highly multivariate datasets become straightforward to accumulate.

  15. Application of evolutionary algorithm for cast iron latent heat identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mendakiewicz


    Full Text Available In the paper the cast iron latent heat in the form of two components corresponding to the solidification of austenite and eutectic phases is assumed. The aim of investigations is to estimate the values of austenite and eutectic latent heats on the basis of cooling curve at the central point of the casting domain. This cooling curve has been obtained both on the basis of direct problem solution as well as from the experiment. To solve such inverse problem the evolutionary algorithm (EA has been applied. The numerical computations have been done using the finite element method by means of commercial software MSC MARC/MENTAT. In the final part of the paper the examples of identification are shown.

  16. Disruption of overshadowing and latent inhibition in high schizotypy individuals. (United States)

    Granger, K T; Prados, J; Young, A M J


    Deficits in selective attention are seen in positively symptomatic schizophrenia sufferers, and in normal people displaying schizotypal traits. We investigated the relationship between selective attention and schizotypy in undergraduate students, by comparing participants' performance in two models of selective attention, overshadowing and latent inhibition, with psychoticism scores derived from the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE). Using a novel within-subject overshadowing task, we showed that the unusual experiences dimension of schizotypy, but not the other three O-LIFE dimensions, was negatively related to overshadowing score. We also replicated findings that the unusual experiences dimension of schizotypy was negatively related to latent inhibition score. These experiments provide evidence that selective attention is disrupted in normal individuals showing traits relating to positive-like schizophrenic symptoms, and has implications for interpreting selective attention deficits measured in schizophrenia patients.

  17. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne;


    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  18. Remote sensing image segmentation using local sparse structure constrained latent low rank representation (United States)

    Tian, Shu; Zhang, Ye; Yan, Yimin; Su, Nan; Zhang, Junping


    Latent low-rank representation (LatLRR) has been attached considerable attention in the field of remote sensing image segmentation, due to its effectiveness in exploring the multiple subspace structures of data. However, the increasingly heterogeneous texture information in the high spatial resolution remote sensing images, leads to more severe interference of pixels in local neighborhood, and the LatLRR fails to capture the local complex structure information. Therefore, we present a local sparse structure constrainted latent low-rank representation (LSSLatLRR) segmentation method, which explicitly imposes the local sparse structure constraint on LatLRR to capture the intrinsic local structure in manifold structure feature subspaces. The whole segmentation framework can be viewed as two stages in cascade. In the first stage, we use the local histogram transform to extract the texture local histogram features (LHOG) at each pixel, which can efficiently capture the complex and micro-texture pattern. In the second stage, a local sparse structure (LSS) formulation is established on LHOG, which aims to preserve the local intrinsic structure and enhance the relationship between pixels having similar local characteristics. Meanwhile, by integrating the LSS and the LatLRR, we can efficiently capture the local sparse and low-rank structure in the mixture of feature subspace, and we adopt the subspace segmentation method to improve the segmentation accuracy. Experimental results on the remote sensing images with different spatial resolution show that, compared with three state-of-the-art image segmentation methods, the proposed method achieves more accurate segmentation results.

  19. Prevalence of latent alpha-herpesviruses in Thoroughbred racing horses. (United States)

    Pusterla, Nicola; Mapes, Samantha; David Wilson, W


    The objective of this study was to detect and characterize latent equine herpes virus (EHV)-1 and -4 from the submandibular (SMLN) and bronchial lymph (BLN) nodes, as well as from the trigeminal ganglia (TG) of 70 racing Thoroughbred horses submitted for necropsy following sustaining serious musculoskeletal injuries while racing. A combination of nucleic acid precipitation and pre-amplification steps was used to increase analytical sensitivity. Tissues were deemed positive for latent EHV-1 and/or -4 infection when found PCR positive for the corresponding glycoprotein B (gB) gene in the absence of detectable late structural protein gene (gB gene) mRNA. The EHV-1 genotype was also determined using a discriminatory real-time PCR assay targeting the DNA polymerase gene (ORF 30). Eighteen (25.7%) and 58 (82.8%) horses were PCR positive for the gB gene of EHV-1 and -4, respectively, in at least one of the three tissues sampled. Twelve horses were dually infected with EHV-1 and -4, two carried a latent neurotropic strain of EHV-1, six carried a non-neurotropic genotype of EHV-1 and 10 were dually infected with neurotropic and non-neurotropic EHV-1. The distribution of latent EHV-1 and -4 infection varied in the samples, with the TG found to be most commonly infected. Overall, non-neurotropic strains were more frequently detected than neurotropic strains, supporting the general consensus that non-neurotropic strains are more prevalent in horse populations, and hence the uncommon occurrence of equine herpes myeloencephalopathy.

  20. Reactivation of latent viruses after treatment with biological therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asthana AK


    Full Text Available Anil Kumar Asthana,1 John Samuel Lubel2,31Department of Gastroenterology, The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Eastern Health, 3Eastern Health Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC, AustraliaAbstract: Biological therapies are used extensively for malignant (eg, lymphoma and autoimmune (eg, rheumatoid arthritis conditions. These agents include anti-tumor necrosis factor antagonists, such as infliximab, and B-cell-depleting therapies, such as rituximab. In the past decade, there has been an explosion in the types and numbers of agents being used. One of the known risks with these agents is infection. In particular, there is increasing awareness regarding latent virus reactivation. This occurs when a latent virus is reactivated into its active replicative phase as a result of an internal or external trigger, such as immunosuppression. It is challenging, however, to quantitatively attribute the risk of reactivation to biological therapy alone because the underlying malignant or autoimmune condition could also be a contributing factor. There is well documented evidence regarding the reactivation of viruses such as hepatitis B virus and cytomegalovirus with drugs such as rituximab. Long-term data are lacking; such data are essential to guide risk stratification and chemoprophylaxis. Universally accepted viral screening guidelines prior to commencement of immunosuppression are lacking. As an example, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have published recommendations regarding hepatitis B virus screening prior to commencing immunosuppression, but this action has not translated into universally accepted guidelines. Some of the other relevant viruses involved include cytomegalovirus, hepatitis C virus, varicella zoster virus, Epstein–Barr virus, and other members of the herpes family. This article reviews the current literature on the risk of latent viral reactivation with biological



    Richards, Timothy J.


    Typically, marketers define market segments by their demographic characteristics, assuming that these segments represent consumers with relatively homogeneous buying patterns. A more managerially useful definition, however, groups consumers of similar behavior directly and then seeks to find demographic commonalities among them. This study uses a latent class analysis technique to segment consumers based on their responsiveness to a set of marketing variables, finding that a multiple-segment ...

  2. Potential immunomodulatory effects of latent toxoplasmosis in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stříž Ilja


    Full Text Available Abstract Background About 30% of the population worldwide are infected with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Latent toxoplasmosis has many specific behavioral and physiological effects on the human organism. Modified reactivity of the immune system has been suggested to play a key role in many of these effects. For example, the immunosuppression hypothesis explains the higher probability of the birth of male offspring observed in Toxoplasma-positive humans and mice by the protection of the (more immunogenic male embryos against abortion. Methods Here we searched for indices of immunosuppression in Toxoplasma-positive subjects by comparing clinical records of immunology outpatients. Results Our cohort study showed that the male patients with latent toxoplasmosis had decreased and the Toxoplasma-positive women had increased leukocyte, NK-cell and monocyte counts in comparison with controls. The B-cell counts were reduced in both Toxoplasma-positive men and women. The difference between Toxoplasma-positive and Toxoplasma-negative subjects diminished with the decline of the specific Toxoplasma antibody titre (a proxy for the length of infection, which is consistent with the observed decreasing strength of the effect of latent toxoplasmosis on human reproduction. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in 128 male patients was unusually low (10.9% which contrasted with normal prevalence in 312 female patients (23.7% and in general population Prague (20-30%. Conclusions Latent toxoplasmosis has immunomodulatory effects in human and probably protects men against some classes of immunopathological diseases. The main limitation of the present study was the absence of the data on the immunoreactivity of immune cells subpopulations. Therefore further studies are needed to search for indices of immunosuppression in human using more specific markers.

  3. A discrete latent factor model for smoking, cancer and mortality.


    Howdon, D.; Jones, A


    This paper investigates the relationships between social circumstances, individual behaviours, and ill-health later in life, with a particular focus on the development of cancer. A discrete latent factor model incorporating individuals' smoking and health outcomes (lifespan and time-to-cancer) is jointly estimated, using the 1984/5 British Health and Lifestyle Survey (HALS) dataset and its July 2009 follow-up, allowing for unobservable factors to affect decisions regarding smoking behaviours ...

  4. Sex determination of human skeletal populations using latent profile analysis. (United States)

    Passalacqua, Nicholas V; Zhang, Zhen; Pierce, Steven J


    Accurately estimating biological sex from the human skeleton can be especially difficult for fragmentary or incomplete remains often encountered in bioarchaeological contexts. Where typical anatomically dimorphic skeletal regions are incomplete or absent, observers often take their best guess to classify biological sex. Latent profile analysis (LPA) is a mixture modeling technique which uses observed continuous data to estimate unobserved categorical group membership using posterior probabilities. In this study, sex is the latent variable (male and female are the two latent classes), and the indicator variables used here were eight standard linear measurements (long bone lengths, diaphyseal and articular breadths, and circumferences). Mplus (Muthén and Muthén: Mplus user's guide, 6th ed. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén, 2010) was used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates for latent class membership from a known sample of individuals from the forensic data bank (FDB) (Jantz and Moore-Jansen: Database for forensic anthropology in the United States 1962-1991, Ann Arbor, MI: Interuniversity Consortium for Political and Social Research, 2000) (n = 1,831), yielding 87% of correct classification for sex. Then, a simulation extracted 5,000 different random samples of 206 complete cases each from the FDB (these cases also had known sex). We then artificially imposed patterns of missing data similar to that observed in a poorly preserved bioarchaeological sample from Medieval Asturias, Spain (n = 206), and ran LPA on each sample. This tested the efficacy of LPA under extreme conditions of poor preservation (missing data, 42%). The simulation yielded an average of 82% accuracy, indicating that LPA is robust to large amounts of missing data when analyzing incomplete skeletons.

  5. Linear latent variable models: the lava-package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Klaus Kähler; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben


    An R package for specifying and estimating linear latent variable models is presented. The philosophy of the implementation is to separate the model specification from the actual data, which leads to a dynamic and easy way of modeling complex hierarchical structures. Several advanced features...... are implemented including robust standard errors for clustered correlated data, multigroup analyses, non-linear parameter constraints, inference with incomplete data, maximum likelihood estimation with censored and binary observations, and instrumental variable estimators. In addition an extensive simulation...

  6. Modeling, estimation and identification of stochastic systems with latent variables


    Bottegal, Giulio


    The main topic of this thesis is the analysis of static and dynamic models in which some variables, although directly influencing the behavior of certain observables, are not accessible to measurements. These models find applications in many branches of science and engineering, such as control systems, communications, natural and biological sciences and econometrics. It is well-known that models with unaccessible - or latent - variables, usually suffer from a lack of uniqueness of representat...

  7. Segmentation and Enhancement of Latent Fingerprints: A Coarse to Fine Ridge Structure Dictionary. (United States)

    Cao, Kai; Liu, Eryun; Jain, Anil K


    Latent fingerprint matching has played a critical role in identifying suspects and criminals. However, compared to rolled and plain fingerprint matching, latent identification accuracy is significantly lower due to complex background noise, poor ridge quality and overlapping structured noise in latent images. Accordingly, manual markup of various features (e.g., region of interest, singular points and minutiae) is typically necessary to extract reliable features from latents. To reduce this markup cost and to improve the consistency in feature markup, fully automatic and highly accurate ("lights-out" capability) latent matching algorithms are needed. In this paper, a dictionary-based approach is proposed for automatic latent segmentation and enhancement towards the goal of achieving "lights-out" latent identification systems. Given a latent fingerprint image, a total variation (TV) decomposition model with L1 fidelity regularization is used to remove piecewise-smooth background noise. The texture component image obtained from the decomposition of latent image is divided into overlapping patches. Ridge structure dictionary, which is learnt from a set of high quality ridge patches, is then used to restore ridge structure in these latent patches. The ridge quality of a patch, which is used for latent segmentation, is defined as the structural similarity between the patch and its reconstruction. Orientation and frequency fields, which are used for latent enhancement, are then extracted from the reconstructed patch. To balance robustness and accuracy, a coarse to fine strategy is proposed. Experimental results on two latent fingerprint databases (i.e., NIST SD27 and WVU DB) show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art segmentation and enhancement algorithms and boosts the performance of a state-of-the-art commercial latent matcher.

  8. Evolution of the Water Vapor Plume over Eastern Europe during Summer 2010 Atmospheric Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Sitnov


    Full Text Available We present an analysis of water vapor (WV plume evolution over Eastern Europe (EE during atmospheric blocking in the summer of 2010, carried out on the basis of satellite (MODIS and MLS instruments, aerological, and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The obtained results show that the development of blocking was accompanied by the development of a positive anomaly of total column water vapor (TCWV content over the northern part of EE. Local TCWV content from 28 July to 6 August 2010 reached 3.35 cm, a value that exceeded by 3.3 times its content before the block. The surplus of WV was mainly conditioned by the advection of WV due to transfer of moist air from the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea into northern EE and also due to increased evaporation from the surface enriched with water due to increased temperature and wind. We hypothesize that the influx of latent heat in the block area can contribute to the energy supply of the blocking anticyclone and prolong the existence of block. Strong humidification of the troposphere and some dehumidification of the lower stratosphere during the block were accompanied by warming of the troposphere and cooling of the lower stratosphere.

  9. [Latent infection of human herpes virus in hematopoietic system]. (United States)

    Wu, Ke-Fu; Ma, Xiao-Tong; Zheng, Guo-Guang; Song, Yu-Hua


    Up to date, eight types of human herpes viruses have been identified, all of which are ubiquitous, and usually establish latent infection in the host after primary infection. Since most of the herpes viruses are maintained in an asymptomatic form, they are often neglected. However, under some circumstances, these herpes viruses can cause fatal or severe diseases. Furthermore, the association of herpes viruses with hematopoietic malignancies is attracting researchers' attention. With the extensive development of hematopoietic stem cell and organ transplantation, reports regarding transplantation failure and complication caused by infection of human herpes virus has been increasing. Cytokine storm was firstly suggested as the mechanism of graft-versus-host diseases. In recent years, which has also been applied in the pathogenesis research of inflammation, and is supposed to play an important role in severe virus infection. In this paper, through discussing the possible role of latent infection of human herpes virus in the failure or complication of bone marrow or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and in refractory leukemia, the function and significance of latent infection of human herpes virus and the cytokine storm it caused were investigated.

  10. Recovery of latent fingerprints and DNA on human skin. (United States)

    Färber, Doris; Seul, Andrea; Weisser, Hans-Joachim; Bohnert, Michael


    The project "Latent Fingerprints and DNA on Human Skin" was the first systematic research in Europe dealing with detection of fingerprints and DNA left by offenders on the skin of corpses. One thousand samples gave results that allow general statements on the materials and methods used. The tests were carried out according to a uniform trial structure. Fingerprints were deposited by natural donors on corpses. The latent fingerprints were treated with magnetic powder or black fingerprint powder. Afterward, they were lifted with silicone casting material (Isomark(®)) or gelatine foil. All lifts were swabbed to recover DNA. It was possible to visualize comparable and identifiable fingerprints on the skin of corpses (16%). In the same categories, magnetic powder (18.4%) yielded better results than black fingerprint powder (13.6%). The number of comparable and identifiable fingerprints decreased on the lifts (12.7%). Isomark(®) (14.9%) was the better lifting material in comparison with gelatine foil (10.1%). In one-third of the samples, DNA could be extracted from the powdered and lifted latents. Black fingerprint powder delivered the better result with a rate of 2.2% for full DNA profiles and profiles useful for exclusion in comparison with 1.8% for the magnetic powder traces. Isomark(®) (3.1%) yielded better results than gelatine foil (0.6%).

  11. Latent structure and construct validity of the reinforcement sensitivity questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Dušanka


    Full Text Available The Revised reinforcement sensitivity theory contains three basic systems: Behavioral inhibition system (BAS, Behavioral activation system (BIS and the Fight/ Flight/ Freeze (FFF system. In this model, BIS is a system for detection of potential conflict or threat, and FFFS differs three basic patterns of reaction to actual or perceived danger. In Study 1, which was aimed at the examination of the latent structure of the RSQ, was conducted on a sample of 472 participants of both genders. The best - fitting model suggests that, at the top level of hierarchy, three dimensions exist, which are analogous to the BIS, BAS and FFF. The last dimension contains three subordinate dimensions, which represent the subsystems of the FFF. Study 2, in which 203 subjects participated, was aimed at examination of the relations between the dimensions of the Revised reinforcement sensitivity theory and dimensions of the PEN model. Confirmatory factor analyses of the RSQ and EPQ-R dimensions revealed that the best-fitting model comprised three latent dimensions, the first one being analogous to the BIS - Neuroticism, the second one to the BAS - Extraversion, and the third to the Aggressiveness- Psychoticism. The structure of the latent dimensions is in accordance with the expectations. The results state that fear and anxiety (which neurophysiological distinction is emphasized by Gray, are substantively similar on the behavioral level. Also, the results suggest that the Freeze dimension is probably closer to the BIS system than to the FFF.

  12. Latent developmental and evolutionary shapes embedded within the grapevine leaf. (United States)

    Chitwood, Daniel H; Klein, Laura L; O'Hanlon, Regan; Chacko, Steven; Greg, Matthew; Kitchen, Cassandra; Miller, Allison J; Londo, Jason P


    Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. In addition, leaf shape varies among individuals, populations and species as a result of evolutionary processes and environmental influences. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically, the effects of distinct developmental and evolutionary processes are separable, even within the shape of a single leaf. Here, we measured the shapes of > 3200 leaves representing > 270 vines from wild relatives of domesticated grape (Vitis spp.) to determine whether leaf shapes attributable to genetics and development are separable from each other. We isolated latent shapes (multivariate signatures that vary independently from each other) embedded within the overall shape of leaves. These latent shapes can predict developmental stages independent from species identity and vice versa. Shapes predictive of development were then used to stage leaves from 1200 varieties of domesticated grape (Vitis vinifera), revealing that changes in timing underlie leaf shape diversity. Our results indicate that distinct latent shapes combine to produce a composite morphology in leaves, and that developmental and evolutionary contributions to shape vary independently from each other.

  13. Statistical study and review of prostatic latent carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamali M


    Full Text Available The autopsies, which have been performed within the last 50 years, have revealed that real prevalence of prostatic carcinoma is more frequent than clinical one. The real prevalence of prostatic carcinoma, is prevalence combination of carcinomas which have been revealed clinically (They have been confirmed by autopsy or by operation and the prostatic latent carcinomas are those, which are found in autopsy or randomly in the biopsies taken for hyperplasia. But they have no clinical syndromes. In order to review prevalence of prostatic latent carcinoma in Iran, all prostatic lesions (Including hyperplasia or carcinoma were studied in Imam Khomeini medical complex during 10 years (1981-91, in university Jihad center and medical center of Iran within 2 years and in Yazd faculty of medicine within 3 years (1981-84. The total cases were 1110 among which 1085 cases were selected upon reviewing for statistical analysis. At first all lamellas were studied, then the ratio of adenocarcinoma to total prostatic lesions were analyzed and types of carcinoma and their percentage in total cases were identified. Finally the prostatic latent carcinoma and its percentage in total malignancy cases were presented

  14. Modeling healthcare data using multiple-channel latent Dirichlet allocation. (United States)

    Lu, Hsin-Min; Wei, Chih-Ping; Hsiao, Fei-Yuan


    Information and communications technologies have enabled healthcare institutions to accumulate large amounts of healthcare data that include diagnoses, medications, and additional contextual information such as patient demographics. To gain a better understanding of big healthcare data and to develop better data-driven clinical decision support systems, we propose a novel multiple-channel latent Dirichlet allocation (MCLDA) approach for modeling diagnoses, medications, and contextual information in healthcare data. The proposed MCLDA model assumes that a latent health status group structure is responsible for the observed co-occurrences among diagnoses, medications, and contextual information. Using a real-world research testbed that includes one million healthcare insurance claim records, we investigate the utility of MCLDA. Our empirical evaluation results suggest that MCLDA is capable of capturing the comorbidity structures and linking them with the distribution of medications. Moreover, MCLDA is able to identify the pairing between diagnoses and medications in a record based on the assigned latent groups. MCLDA can also be employed to predict missing medications or diagnoses given partial records. Our evaluation results also show that, in most cases, MCLDA outperforms alternative methods such as logistic regressions and the k-nearest-neighbor (KNN) model for two prediction tasks, i.e., medication and diagnosis prediction. Thus, MCLDA represents a promising approach to modeling healthcare data for clinical decision support.

  15. Latent resonance in tidal rivers, with applications to River Elbe (United States)

    Backhaus, Jan O.


    We describe a systematic investigation of resonance in tidal rivers, and of river oscillations influenced by resonance. That is, we explore the grey-zone between absent and fully developed resonance. Data from this study are the results of a one-dimensional numerical channel model applied to a four-dimensional parameter space comprising geometry, i.e. length and depths of rivers, and varying dissipation and forcing. Similarity of real rivers and channels from parameter space is obtained with the help of a 'run-time depth'. We present a model-channel, which reproduces tidal oscillations of River Elbe in Hamburg, Germany with accuracy of a few centimetres. The parameter space contains resonant regions and regions with 'latent resonance'. The latter defines tidal oscillations that are elevated yet not in full but juvenile resonance. Dissipation reduces amplitudes of resonance while creating latent resonance. That is, energy of resonance radiates into areas in parameter space where periods of Eigen-oscillations are well separated from the period of the forcing tide. Increased forcing enhances the re-distribution of resonance in parameter space. The River Elbe is diagnosed as being in a state of anthropogenic latent resonance as a consequence of ongoing deepening by dredging. Deepening the river, in conjunction with the expected sea level rise, will inevitably cause increasing tidal ranges. As a rule of thumb, we found that 1 m deepening would cause 0.5 m increase in tidal range.

  16. Limits of the lab: diagnosing "latent gonorrhea," 1872-1910. (United States)

    Bowen, Elliott


    One of the most heatedly contested disease entities in turn-of-the-century medicine was "latent gonorrhea," a condition first discussed in an 1872 paper published by the German-born gynecologist Emil Noeggerath. Although none of the bacteriological discoveries of the next few decades-including the isolation of the gonococcus in 1879-provided much evidence of its existence, by the 1890s most Western physicians and medical scientists had nonetheless come to believe that latent gonorrhea was a real, diagnosable disease. While in the wake of its resolution, leading gynecologists contended that laboratory science had cleared up the controversy over latent gonorrhea, in reality it was through more "traditional" diagnostic methods (especially the taking of case histories) that Noeggerath's once-debatable theory gained acceptance. As such, this episode challenges the idea that turn-of-the-century Western medicine witnessed a "laboratory revolution," and that with the rise of bacteriology "the clinic" no longer informed the processes by which doctors defined and diagnosed disease.

  17. Psychiatric comorbidity among adults with schizophrenia: a latent class analysis. (United States)

    Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A


    Schizophrenia is a severe mental illness that often co-occurs with and can be exacerbated by other psychiatric conditions. There have not been adequate efforts to examine schizophrenia and psychiatric comorbidity beyond pairwise examination using clusters of diagnoses. This study used latent class analysis to characterize patterns of 5-year psychiatric comorbidity among a national sample of adults with schizophrenia. Baseline data from 1446 adults with schizophrenia across 57 sites in the United States were analyzed. Three latent classes were identified labeled Solely Schizophrenia, Comorbid Anxiety and Depressive Disorders with Schizophrenia, and Comorbid Addiction and Schizophrenia. Adults in the Solely Schizophrenia class had significantly better mental health than those in the two comorbid classes, but poorer illness and treatment insight than those with comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders. These results suggest that addiction and schizophrenia may represent a separate latent profile from depression, anxiety, and schizophrenia. More research is needed on how treatment can take advantage of the greater insight possessed by those with schizophrenia and comorbid anxiety and depression.

  18. Second demographic transition de-blocked?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobić Mirjana


    Full Text Available The text is re-examining the previously established dilemma related to whether Serbia (without Kosovo and Metohija is the country of second demographic transition, i.e.: has the transition been de-blocked, under the assumption that this is a worldwide historical process of transformation of industrialized countries. The last thesis, around which there exists a lot of controversy in the contemporary population theory, is however not dealt with in detail; to the contrary, it is used as the general theoretical framework for the exploration of the most recent tendencies in the transformation of nuptiality and fertility regime in Serbia, as well as in the western and countries in post-socialist transformation. Special attention is given to the ideational changes, more precisely to the specific features of the value profile of the Serbian population, which is one of the most important determinants of the societal framework, that acts in the back of the afore mentioned aggregate demographic indicators. Finally, the hypothesis is posed (which should be further investigated by means of in-depth research and complementary approach that the speeding-up of the second demographic transition and intensification of the individualisation not only of the partnership but of the parenthood as well, accompanied with the rise of living standard and social support to balancing work and family, would have produced important emancipating and, concomitantly, positive socioeconomic and demographic effects.

  19. Fast processing of foreign fiber images by image blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutao Wu


    Full Text Available In the textile industry, it is always the case that cotton products are constitutive of many types of foreign fibers which affect the overall quality of cotton products. As the foundation of the foreign fiber automated inspection, image process exerts a critical impact on the process of foreign fiber identification. This paper presents a new approach for the fast processing of foreign fiber images. This approach includes five main steps, image block, image pre-decision, image background extraction, image enhancement and segmentation, and image connection. At first, the captured color images were transformed into gray-scale images; followed by the inversion of gray-scale of the transformed images ; then the whole image was divided into several blocks. Thereafter, the subsequent step is to judge which image block contains the target foreign fiber image through image pre-decision. Then we segment the image block via OSTU which possibly contains target images after background eradication and image strengthening. Finally, we connect those relevant segmented image blocks to get an intact and clear foreign fiber target image. The experimental result shows that this method of segmentation has the advantage of accuracy and speed over the other segmentation methods. On the other hand, this method also connects the target image that produce fractures therefore getting an intact and clear foreign fiber target image.

  20. Block Transfer Agreement Evaluation Project (United States)

    Bastedo, Helena


    The objective of this project is to evaluate for the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) the effectiveness of block transfer agreements (BTAs) in the BC Transfer System and recommend steps to be taken to improve their effectiveness. Findings of this study revealed that institutions want to expand block credit transfer;…

  1. Four-block beam collimator

    CERN Multimedia


    The photo shows a four-block collimator installed on a control table for positioning the alignment reference marks. Designed for use with the secondary beams, the collimators operated in vacuum conditions. The blocks were made of steel and had a standard length of 1 m. The maximum aperture had a square coss-section of 144 cm2. (See Annual Report 1976.)

  2. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  3. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  4. The HSV-1 Latency-Associated Transcript Functions to Repress Latent Phase Lytic Gene Expression and Suppress Virus Reactivation from Latently Infected Neurons. (United States)

    Nicoll, Michael P; Hann, William; Shivkumar, Maitreyi; Harman, Laura E R; Connor, Viv; Coleman, Heather M; Proença, João T; Efstathiou, Stacey


    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) establishes life-long latent infection within sensory neurons, during which viral lytic gene expression is silenced. The only highly expressed viral gene product during latent infection is the latency-associated transcript (LAT), a non-protein coding RNA that has been strongly implicated in the epigenetic regulation of HSV-1 gene expression. We have investigated LAT-mediated control of latent gene expression using chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses and LAT-negative viruses engineered to express firefly luciferase or β-galactosidase from a heterologous lytic promoter. Whilst we were unable to determine a significant effect of LAT expression upon heterochromatin enrichment on latent HSV-1 genomes, we show that reporter gene expression from latent HSV-1 genomes occurs at a greater frequency in the absence of LAT. Furthermore, using luciferase reporter viruses we have observed that HSV-1 gene expression decreases during long-term latent infection, with a most marked effect during LAT-negative virus infection. Finally, using a fluorescent mouse model of infection to isolate and culture single latently infected neurons, we also show that reactivation occurs at a greater frequency from cultures harbouring LAT-negative HSV-1. Together, our data suggest that the HSV-1 LAT RNA represses HSV-1 gene expression in small populations of neurons within the mouse TG, a phenomenon that directly impacts upon the frequency of reactivation and the maintenance of the transcriptionally active latent reservoir.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Loman


    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation on transformer current protection with blocking against magnetizing inrush current in short circuit fault modes. It has been shown that the proposed magnetizing in-rush current blocking algorithm can be implemented in microprocessor current protections of transformers.

  6. Design of Optimal Diffusion Layers for SPN Block Ciphers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Ling-guo; CAO Yuan-da


    The diffusion layers in substitution-permutation network(SPN) block ciphers are almost invertible linear transformations, which is optimal if the branch number reaches the maximum value. The method of constructing involutory optimal diffusion layers is proposed based on the Cauchy matrix, which can decrease the cost of implementation. The analysis to experimental results indicates that the diffusion layer ensures the security of the SPN block cipher against differential cryptanalysis(DC) and linear cryptanalysis(LC), and decreases half the cost of implementation.

  7. Nanoencapsulation of blocked isocyanates through aqueous emulsion polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Blocked isocyanates were successfully encapsulated into polystyrene and hydroxyl and amine functionalized polymeric nanospheres via emulsion polymerization. The nanocapsules were characterized via Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and transmission electronic microscopy. The blocked isocyanates generated free isocyanate functionality upon thermal annealing of nanocapsules. This research establishes a novel encapsulating method for release and retention of free isocyanates in aqueous media. These nanocapsules can provide active isocyanates in coatings and adhesive applications, and represent a novel application of nanoencapsulated materials for controlled or delayed active material utilization.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Sudha


    Full Text Available This paper analyses performance of multiwavelets - a variant of wavelet transform on compression of medical images. To do so, two processes namely, transformation for decorrelation and encoding are done. In transformation stage medical images are subjected to multiwavelet transform using multiwavelets such as Geronimo- Hardin-Massopust, Chui Lian, Cardinal 2 Balanced (Cardbal2 and orthogonal symmetric/antsymmetric multiwavelet (SA4. Set partitioned Embedded Block Coder is used as a common platform for encoding the transformed coefficients. Peak Signal to noise ratio, bit rate and Structural Similarity Index are used as metrics for performance analysis. For experiment we have used various medical images such as Magnetic Resonance Image, Computed Tomography and X-ray images.

  9. Characterization of Prunus-infecting apricot latent virus-like Foveaviruses: evolutionary and taxonomic implications. (United States)

    Youssef, Fater; Marais, Armelle; Faure, Chantal; Barone, Maria; Gentit, Pascal; Candresse, Thierry


    The complete genomic sequences of four Prunus-infecting Apricot latent virus (ApLV) like isolates were determined and used to analyze the taxonomic position and variability of these viruses. The results indicate that all isolates show a typical Foveavirus genetic organization. Despite an average 23% nucleotide divergence, they show strong colinearity with only three regions of significant indel variability, in the internal and 3' non-coding regions and variable N-terminal half of the coat protein (CP). Sequence comparisons using the polymerase (Pol) and CP genes provide a conflicting taxonomic picture, with divergence level in the Pol and CP genes suggesting the existence of a single or of two species, respectively. However, a range of considerations argue that all four isolates should likely be considered as belonging to the ApLV species. ApLV is closely related to Apple stem pitting virus and could be considered a sister species to it, with ASPV being specialized to infect members of the Maloideae family and ApLV members of the Prunoideae. Analysis of selection pressures affecting the five open reading frames of ApLV and ASPV identified two regions under strong purifying selection, that coding for the conserved C-terminal half of the CP and the gene coding for the first protein of the triple gene block (TGBp1).

  10. Transforming giants. (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss


    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  11. A novel algorithm and architecture of combined direct 2-D transform and quantization for H.264

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper proposes a novel high-performance direct 2-D transform algorithm which suitably arranges the data processing sequences adopted in row and column transforms of H.264 CODEC systems to finish the data transposition. Simultaneity, this paper proposes a new direct 2-D transform and quantization architectures for H.264 video coding standard. The induced new transform and quantization architecture greatly increases the data processing rate and eliminates transform multiplication and transpose memory, and select different mode and quantization according to AC coefficient, DC coefficient, chrominance block and Luminance block. And this architecture just need to storage one quantization tables for Integer transform and Hadamard transform, but it can do two types of forward transforms and quantization just in one block.

  12. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André


    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  13. Alkoxyallenes as building blocks for organic synthesis. (United States)

    Zimmer, Reinhold; Reissig, Hans-Ulrich


    Alkoxyallenes are unusually versatile C3 building blocks in organic synthesis. Hence this tutorial review summarizes the most important transformations, including subsequent reactions and their applications in the synthesis of relevant compounds, e.g. natural products. The reactivity patterns involved and the synthons derived from alkoxyallenes are presented. Often alkoxyallenes can serve as substitutes of acrolein or acrolein acetals, utilisation of which has already led to interesting products. Most important is the use of lithiated alkoxyallenes which smoothly react with a variety of electrophiles and lead to products with unique substitution patterns. The heterocycles or carbocycles formed are intermediates for the stereoselective synthesis of natural products or for the preparation of other structurally relevant compounds. The different synthons being put into practice by the use of lithiated alkoxyallenes in these variations will be discussed.

  14. Latent HIV in primary T lymphocytes is unresponsive to histone deacetylase inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahu Gautam K


    Full Text Available Abstract Recently, there is considerable interest in the field of anti-HIV therapy to identify and develop chromatin-modifying histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors that can effectively reactivate latent HIV in patients. The hope is that this would help eliminate cells harboring latent HIV and achieve an eventual cure of the virus. However, how effectively these drugs can stimulate latent HIVs in quiescent primary CD4 T cells, despite their relevant potencies demonstrated in cell line models of HIV latency, is not clear. Here, we show that the HDAC inhibitors valproic acid (VPA and trichostatin A (TSA are unable to reactivate HIV in latently infected primary CD4 T cells generated in the H80 co-culture system. This raises a concern that the drugs inhibiting HDAC function alone might not be sufficient for stimulating latent HIV in resting CD4 T cells in patients and not achieve any anticipated reduction in the pool of latent reservoirs.

  15. Irradiation-induced changes of martensitic transformation temperatures in a TiNiNb shape memory alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, H.Q. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Department of Material Forming and Controlling Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zu, X.T. [Department of Applied Physics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)]. E-mail:; Huo, Y. [Department of Mechanics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)


    Effects of electron irradiations on the transition behavior of 1123 K annealed Ti{sub 44}Ni{sub 47}Nb{sub 9} shape memory alloy specimens were studied. The transformation temperatures and the latent heat of phase transformation were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The microstructure changes were determined by XRD and TEM. The 1.7 MeV electron irradiation increases the martensitic transformation start temperature, finish temperature, austenite transformation start, finish temperature by {approx}20 K. The XRD and TEM observation showed that the volume fraction of {beta}-Nb precipitate increased after electron irradiation, which contributed to the observed changes of the transformation temperatures.

  16. Integrated Evaluation of Latent Viral Reactivation During Spaceflight (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Paloski, W. H. (Technical Monitor)


    This application proposes a continuation of our current effort, which has provided the first demonstration of viral reactivation during space flight. We have used the herpesvirus EBV as a model for latent viral reactivation and have shown that increased amounts of EBV DNA were shed by astronauts during space flight. Analysis of the Antarctic space flight analog indicated that the frequency of viral shedding may also increase (along with the increased numbers of virus) during long periods of isolation. However, a number of critical questions remain before the findings may be considered a significant health risk during extended space flight. These include: Are other latent viruses (e.g., other herpesviruses and polyornaviruses) in addition to EBV also reactivated and shed more frequently and/or in higher numbers during space flight? Is the viral reactivation observed in space flight and ground-based analogs mediated through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis resulting in a decreased cell-mediated immune response? How does detection of viral DNA by PCR analysis correlate with infectious virus? How does the amount of virus found during flight compare with viral levels observed in acute/chronic viral illnesses and in control individuals? This expanded study will examine the phenomenon of viral reactivation from the initiating stress through the HPA axis with the accompanying suppression of the immune system resulting in viral reactivation. This information is essential to determine if latent viral reactivation among crewmembers represents a sufficient medical risk to space travel to require the development of suitable countermeasures.

  17. From paragraph to graph: latent semantic analysis for information visualization. (United States)

    Landauer, Thomas K; Laham, Darrell; Derr, Marcia


    Most techniques for relating textual information rely on intellectually created links such as author-chosen keywords and titles, authority indexing terms, or bibliographic citations. Similarity of the semantic content of whole documents, rather than just titles, abstracts, or overlap of keywords, offers an attractive alternative. Latent semantic analysis provides an effective dimension reduction method for the purpose that reflects synonymy and the sense of arbitrary word combinations. However, latent semantic analysis correlations with human text-to-text similarity judgments are often empirically highest at approximately 300 dimensions. Thus, two- or three-dimensional visualizations are severely limited in what they can show, and the first and/or second automatically discovered principal component, or any three such for that matter, rarely capture all of the relations that might be of interest. It is our conjecture that linguistic meaning is intrinsically and irreducibly very high dimensional. Thus, some method to explore a high dimensional similarity space is needed. But the 2.7 x 10(7) projections and infinite rotations of, for example, a 300-dimensional pattern are impossible to examine. We suggest, however, that the use of a high dimensional dynamic viewer with an effective projection pursuit routine and user control, coupled with the exquisite abilities of the human visual system to extract information about objects and from moving patterns, can often succeed in discovering multiple revealing views that are missed by current computational algorithms. We show some examples of the use of latent semantic analysis to support such visualizations and offer views on future needs.

  18. Latent cooling and microphysics effects in deep convection (United States)

    Fernández-González, S.; Wang, P. K.; Gascón, E.; Valero, F.; Sánchez, J. L.


    Water phase changes within a storm are responsible for the enhancement of convection and therefore the elongation of its lifespan. Specifically, latent cooling absorbed during evaporation, melting and sublimation is considered the main cause of the intensification of downdrafts. In order to know more accurately the consequences of latent cooling caused by each of these processes (together with microphysical effects that they induce), four simulations were developed with the Wisconsin Dynamical and Microphysical Model (WISCDYMM): one with all the microphysical processes; other without sublimation; melting was suppressed in the third simulation; and evaporation was disabled in the fourth. The results show that sublimation cooling is not essential to maintain the vertical currents of the storm. This is demonstrated by the fact that in the simulation without sublimation, maximum updrafts are in the same range as in the control simulation, and the storm lifespan is similar or even longer. However, melting was of vital importance. The storm in the simulation without melting dissipated prematurely, demonstrating that melting is indispensable to the enhancement of downdrafts below the freezing level and for avoiding the collapse of low level updrafts. Perhaps the most important finding is the crucial influence of evaporative cooling above the freezing level that maintains and enhances mid-level downdrafts in the storm. It is believed that this latent cooling comes from the evaporation of supercooled liquid water connected with the Bergeron-Findeisen process. Therefore, besides its influence at low levels (which was already well known), this evaporative cooling is essential to strengthen mid-level downdrafts and ultimately achieve a quasi-steady state.

  19. MarineMineralsProgramBlocks (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — This data set contains OCS block outlines and delineated polygons in ESRI ArcGIS shape file format for the BOEM Gulf of Mexico Region that contain sediment resources...

  20. Hawaii Census 2000 Block Groups (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer represents Census 2000 demographic data derived from the PL94-171 redistricting files and SF3. Census geographic entities include blocks, blockgroups...

  1. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;


    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  2. Visualization of latent fingerprints using Prussian blue thin films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Qin; Mei-Qin Zhang; Yang Zhang; Yu Zhu; Shou-Liang Liu; Wen-Jin Wu; Xue-Ji Zhang


    Herein,a facile and effective approach was proposed for visualizing latent fingerprints (LFPs) on two kinds of conductive surfaces by spatially selective electrochemical deposition of Prussian blue (PB) thin films.This strategy exploited the fingerprint residue as an insulating mask and the PB thin films were only generated on the bare surface including the valleys between the papillary ridges,which produced a negative image of LFPs with high resolution up to the third level information.The surface morphology of PB films was characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM).This enhancement technique showed promising performance in selected materials of practical interest.

  3. Inhibitory processes in toddlers: a latent-variable approach (United States)

    Gandolfi, Elena; Viterbori, Paola; Traverso, Laura; Usai, M. Carmen


    The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of inhibitory processes in early childhood. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the latent structure of inhibitory processes in day-care center children aged 24–32 months and in preschool children aged 36–48 months. The best fit to the data for the younger sample was a single undifferentiated inhibition factor model; in older children, a two-factor model was differently identified in which response inhibition and interference suppression were distinguished. PMID:24817858

  4. Inhibitory processes in toddlers: A latent-variable approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena eGandolfi


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the nature of inhibitory processes in early childhood. A confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the latent structure of inhibitory processes in day-care center children aged 24-32 months and in preschool children aged 36-48 months. The best fit to the data for the younger sample was a single undifferentiated inhibition factor model; in older children, a two-factor model was differently identified in which response inhibition and interference suppression were distinguished.

  5. Block-to-Point Fine Registration in Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Wang


    Full Text Available Fine registration of point clouds plays an important role in data analysis in Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS. This work proposes a block-to-point fine registration approach to correct the errors of point clouds from TLS and of geodetic networks observed using total stations. Based on a reference coordinate system, the block-to-point estimation is performed to obtain representative points. Then, fine registration with a six-parameter transformation is performed with the help of an Iterative Closest Point (ICP method. For comparisons, fine registration with a seven-parameter transformation is introduced by applying a Singular Value Decomposition (SVD algorithm. The proposed method not only corrects the registration errors between a geodetic network and the scans, but also considers the errors among the scans. The proposed method was tested on real TLS data of a dam surface, and the results showed that distance discrepancies of estimated representative points between scans were reduced by approximately 60%.

  6. Multi-block and path modelling procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar


    The author has developed a unified theory of path and multi-block modelling of data. The data blocks are arranged in a directional path. Each data block can lead to one or more data blocks. It is assumed that there is given a collection of input data blocks. Each of them is supposed to describe one...

  7. Modeling Individual Subtests of the WAIS IV with Multiple Latent Factors



    Performance on a cognitive test can be viewed either as measuring a unitary function or as reflecting the operation of multiple factors. Individual subtests in batteries designed to measure human abilities are commonly modeled as a single latent factor. Several latent factors are then used to model groups of subtests. However these latent factors are not independent as they are related through hierarchical or oblique structures. As a result, the simple structure of subtest performance results...

  8. Effects of swim stress on latent inhibition using a conditioned taste aversion procedure. (United States)

    Smith, Shawn; Fieser, Sarah; Jones, Jennifer; Schachtman, Todd R


    Rats were used to examine the effects of inescapable swim stress on latent inhibition using a conditioned taste aversion procedure. Subjects were subjected to inescapable swim after each of three saccharin taste preexposures and saccharin was later paired with LiCl. The ability of swim to influence latent inhibition was assessed on subsequent saccharin test trials. Swim stress significantly attenuated latent inhibition. The implications of these results regarding the effects of swim stress on conditioned taste aversion are discussed.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guojun Liu


    Nanostructure fabrication from block copolymers in my group normally involves polymer design, synthesis, selfassembly, selective domain crosslinking, and sometimes selective domain removal. Preparation of thin films with nanochannels was used to illustrate the strategy we took. In this particular case, a linear triblock copolymer polyisopreneblock-poly(2-cinnamoylethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(t-butyl acrylate), PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA, was used. Films, 25 to50μm thick, were prepared from casting on glass slides a toluene solution of PI-b-PCEMA-b-PtBA and PtBA homopolymer,hPtBA, where hPtBA is shorter than the PtBA block. At the hPtBA mass fraction of 20% relative to the triblock or the total PtBA (hPtBA and PtBA block) volume fraction of 0.44, hPtBA and PtBA formed a seemingly continuous phase in the matrix of PCEMA and PI. Such a block segregation pattern was locked in by photocrosslinking the PCEMA domain. Nanochannels were formed by extracting out hPtBA with solvent. Alternatively, larger channels were obtained from extracting out hPtBA and hydrolyzing the t-butyl groups of the PtBA block. Such membranes were not liquid permeable but had gas permeability constants ~6 orders of magnitude higher than that of low-density polyethylene films.

  10. An enhanced feature set for pattern recognition based contrast enhancement of contact-less captured latent fingerprints in digitized crime scene forensics (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Mario; Kiltz, Stefan; Dittmann, Jana; Vielhauer, Claus


    In crime scene forensics latent fingerprints are found on various substrates. Nowadays primarily physical or chemical preprocessing techniques are applied for enhancing the visibility of the fingerprint trace. In order to avoid altering the trace it has been shown that contact-less sensors offer a non-destructive acquisition approach. Here, the exploitation of fingerprint or substrate properties and the utilization of signal processing techniques are an essential requirement to enhance the fingerprint visibility. However, especially the optimal sensory is often substrate-dependent. An enhanced generic pattern recognition based contrast enhancement approach for scans of a chromatic white light sensor is introduced in Hildebrandt et al.1 using statistical, structural and Benford's law2 features for blocks of 50 micron. This approach achieves very good results for latent fingerprints on cooperative, non-textured, smooth substrates. However, on textured and structured substrates the error rates are very high and the approach thus unsuitable for forensic use cases. We propose the extension of the feature set with semantic features derived from known Gabor filter based exemplar fingerprint enhancement techniques by suggesting an Epsilon-neighborhood of each block in order to achieve an improved accuracy (called fingerprint ridge orientation semantics). Furthermore, we use rotation invariant Hu moments as an extension of the structural features and two additional preprocessing methods (separate X- and Y Sobel operators). This results in a 408-dimensional feature space. In our experiments we investigate and report the recognition accuracy for eight substrates, each with ten latent fingerprints: white furniture surface, veneered plywood, brushed stainless steel, aluminum foil, "Golden-Oak" veneer, non-metallic matte car body finish, metallic car body finish and blued metal. In comparison to Hildebrandt et al.,1 our evaluation shows a significant reduction of the error rates

  11. A chaotic block cipher algorithm for image cryptosystems (United States)

    Amin, Mohamed; Faragallah, Osama S.; Abd El-Latif, Ahmed A.


    Recently, many scholars have proposed chaotic cryptosystems in order to promote communication security. However, there are a number of major problems detected in some of those schemes such as weakness against differential attack, slow performance speed, and unacceptable data expansion. In this paper, we introduce a new chaotic block cipher scheme for image cryptosystems that encrypts block of bits rather than block of pixels. It encrypts 256-bits of plainimage to 256-bits of cipherimage within eight 32-bit registers. The scheme employs the cryptographic primitive operations and a non-linear transformation function within encryption operation, and adopts round keys for encryption using a chaotic system. The new scheme is able to encrypt large size of images with superior performance speed than other schemes. The security analysis of the new scheme confirms a high security level and fairly uniform distribution.

  12. Stability of ordered phases in block copolymer melts and solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kell Mortensen


    Block copolymer melts and solutions assemble into nanosized objects that order into a variety of phases, depending on molecular parameters and mutual interactions. Beyond the classical phases of lamella ordered sheets, hexagonally ordered cylinders and cubic ordered spheres, the complex bicontinuous gyroid phase and the modulated lamellar phase are observed near the phase boundaries. The stability of these phases has been discussed on the basis of theoretical calculations. Here, we will discuss new experimental results showing that the given ordered phase depends critically on both molecular purity and mechanical treatment of the sample. While a variety of block copolymer micellar systems have been shown to undergo the liquid-to-bcc-to-fcc phase sequence upon varying micellar parameters (or temperature), we find for a purified system a different sequence, namely liquid-to-fcc-to-bcc [1]. The latter sequence is by the way the one predicted for pure block copolymer melts. External fields like shear or stress may also affect the ordered phase. Applying well-controlled large-amplitude oscillatory shear can be used to effectively control the texture of soft materials in the ordered states. As an example, we present results on a body-centred-cubic phase of a block copolymer system, showing how a given texture can be controlled with the application of specific shear rate and shear amplitude [2,3]. Shear may however also affect the thermodynamic ground state, causing shear-induced ordering and disordering (melting), and shear-induced order–order transitions. We will present data showing that the gyroid state of diblock copolymer melts is unstable when exposed to large amplitude/frequency shear, transforming into the hexagonal cylinder phase [4]. The transformation is completely reversible. With the rather slow kinetics in the transformation of copolymer systems, it is possible in detail to follow the complex transformation process, where we find transient ordered

  13. Association between latent toxoplasmosis and cognition in adults: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Gale, S D; Brown, B L; Erickson, L D; Berrett, A; Hedges, D W


    Latent infection from Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is widespread worldwide and has been associated with cognitive deficits in some but not all animal models and in humans. We tested the hypothesis that latent toxoplasmosis is associated with decreased cognitive function in a large cross-sectional dataset, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). There were 4178 participants aged 20-59 years, of whom 19.1% had IgG antibodies against T. gondii. Two ordinary least squares (OLS) regression models adjusted for the NHANES complex sampling design and weighted to represent the US population were estimated for simple reaction time, processing speed and short-term memory or attention. The first model included only main effects of latent toxoplasmosis and demographic control variables, and the second added interaction terms between latent toxoplasmosis and the poverty-to-income ratio (PIR), educational attainment and race-ethnicity. We also used multivariate models to assess all three cognitive outcomes in the same model. Although the models evaluating main effects only demonstrated no association between latent toxoplasmosis and the cognitive outcomes, significant interactions between latent toxoplasmosis and the PIR, between latent toxoplasmosis and educational attainment, and between latent toxoplasmosis and race-ethnicity indicated that latent toxoplasmosis may adversely affect cognitive function in certain groups.

  14. Bayesian latent structure modeling of walking behavior in a physical activity intervention (United States)

    Lawson, Andrew B; Ellerbe, Caitlyn; Carroll, Rachel; Alia, Kassandra; Coulon, Sandra; Wilson, Dawn K; VanHorn, M Lee; St George, Sara M


    The analysis of walking behavior in a physical activity intervention is considered. A Bayesian latent structure modeling approach is proposed whereby the ability and willingness of participants is modeled via latent effects. The dropout process is jointly modeled via a linked survival model. Computational issues are addressed via posterior sampling and a simulated evaluation of the longitudinal model’s ability to recover latent structure and predictor effects is considered. We evaluate the effect of a variety of socio-psychological and spatial neighborhood predictors on the propensity to walk and the estimation of latent ability and willingness in the full study. PMID:24741000

  15. Peculiarities of latent inhibition formation in SHR rats in conditioned task of different complexity. (United States)

    Kostyunina, N V; Loskutova, L V


    Inhibition of attention to irrelevant stimuli was studied in SHR rats using latent inhibition test. Latent inhibition was formed in two types of conditioned tasks with different levels of complexity and stress. Passive and active avoidance conditioning was preceded by preexposure to conditioned stimulus consisting of 20 and 100 non-reinforced presentations, respectively. Control Wistar rats demonstrated successful formation of latent inhibition in both tasks. SHR rats showed different degree of disruption of latent inhibition depending on the type of behavioral task. We assume that learning defect in these animals in respect to both novel and preexposed conditioned stimuli is associated with the lack of behavioral inhibition.

  16. Additional exposures to a compound of two preexposed stimuli deepen latent inhibition. (United States)

    Leung, Hiu Tin; Killcross, A S; Westbrook, R Frederick


    The present experiments studied the role of error correction mechanisms in the latent inhibition of conditioned fear responses by conditioned stimulus (CS) preexposure. They demonstrated that a preexposed CS subjected to additional exposures in compound with either another preexposed stimulus or a novel stimulus was more latently inhibited than a preexposed CS which received additional exposures in isolation. They also showed that a preexposed CS subjected to additional exposures in compound with another preexposed stimulus was more latently inhibited than a preexposed CS given additional exposures in compound with a novel stimulus. These results were discussed in terms of the Hall-Rodriguez (2010) model of latent inhibition.

  17. Skin delivery by block copolymer nanoparticles (block copolymer micelles). (United States)

    Laredj-Bourezg, Faiza; Bolzinger, Marie-Alexandrine; Pelletier, Jocelyne; Valour, Jean-Pierre; Rovère, Marie-Rose; Smatti, Batoule; Chevalier, Yves


    Block copolymer nanoparticles often referred to as "block copolymer micelles" have been assessed as carriers for skin delivery of hydrophobic drugs. Such carriers are based on organic biocompatible and biodegradable materials loaded with hydrophobic drugs: poly(lactide)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PLA-b-PEG) nanoparticles that have a solid hydrophobic core made of glassy poly(d,l-lactide), and poly(caprolactone)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer (PCL-b-PEG) nanoparticles having a liquid core of polycaprolactone. In vitro skin absorption of all-trans retinol showed a large accumulation of retinol in stratum corneum from both block copolymer nanoparticles, higher by a factor 20 than Polysorbate 80 surfactant micelles and by a factor 80 than oil solution. Additionally, skin absorption from PLA-b-PEG nanoparticles was higher by one order of magnitude than PCL-b-PEG, although their sizes (65nm) and external surface (water-swollen PEG layer) were identical as revealed by detailed structural characterizations. Fluorescence microscopy of histological skin sections provided a non-destructive picture of the storage of Nile Red inside stratum corneum, epidermis and dermis. Though particle cores had a different physical states (solid or liquid as measured by (1)H NMR), the ability of nanoparticles for solubilization of the drug assessed from their Hildebrand solubility parameters appeared the parameter of best relevance regarding skin absorption.

  18. Missing Modality Transfer Learning via Latent Low-Rank Constraint. (United States)

    Ding, Zhengming; Shao, Ming; Fu, Yun


    Transfer learning is usually exploited to leverage previously well-learned source domain for evaluating the unknown target domain; however, it may fail if no target data are available in the training stage. This problem arises when the data are multi-modal. For example, the target domain is in one modality, while the source domain is in another. To overcome this, we first borrow an auxiliary database with complete modalities, then consider knowledge transfer across databases and across modalities within databases simultaneously in a unified framework. The contributions are threefold: 1) a latent factor is introduced to uncover the underlying structure of the missing modality from the known data; 2) transfer learning in two directions allows the data alignment between both modalities and databases, giving rise to a very promising recovery; and 3) an efficient solution with theoretical guarantees to the proposed latent low-rank transfer learning algorithm. Comprehensive experiments on multi-modal knowledge transfer with missing target modality verify that our method can successfully inherit knowledge from both auxiliary database and source modality, and therefore significantly improve the recognition performance even when test modality is inaccessible in the training stage.

  19. The Latent Curriculum: Breaking Conceptual Barriers to Information Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Boden


    Full Text Available In online instruction there is a physical and temporal distance between students and instructors that is not present in face-to-face instruction, which has implications for developing online curricula. This paper examines information literacy components of Introduction to Systematic Reviews, an online graduate-level course offered at the University of Saskatchewan. Course evaluation suggested that, although the screencast tutorials were well accepted by the students as a method of learning, there was need to enhance their content. Through grading of assignments, consultations with the students, and evaluation of the final search strategies, the authors identified common aspects of search strategy development with which the students struggled throughout the course. There was a need to unpack the curriculum to more clearly identify specific areas that needed to be expanded or improved. Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy was utilized as the construct to identify information literacy learning objectives at a relatively granular level. Comparison of learning objectives and the content of the screencast tutorials revealed disparities between desired outcomes and the curriculum (particularly for high-level thinking – the latent curriculum. Analyzing curricula using a tool like Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy will help information literacy librarians recognize hidden or latent learning objectives.

  20. A review of murine models of latent tuberculosis infection. (United States)

    Shi, Changhong; Shi, Jieran; Xu, Zhikai


    The mechanisms of latency and the causes of reactivation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis remain poorly understood; an important reason for this gap in knowledge is the absence of a standardized animal model of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). A complete LTBI model should incorporate 2 aspects of LTBI: a persistent infection model with a low bacterial load and a latent infection model that is modified from the Cornell model. Many parameters must be carefully considered to establish an LTBI model, including the inoculating dose, the route of infection, the time interval between infection and the initiation of antibiotic therapy, and the genetic background of the host animal. The responsiveness of this mouse model of LTBI can be assessed through the integrated use of indices, including Karnofsky performance status, bacterial load in spleen and lungs, induced levels of interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, expression of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-4 in tissues, specific antigen load in organs, time required for hormone-induced TB relapse, expression level of dormancy genes, and CD4 T-cell count.

  1. Investigation of Latent Traces Using Infrared Reflectance Hyperspectral Imaging (United States)

    Schubert, Till; Wenzel, Susanne; Roscher, Ribana; Stachniss, Cyrill


    The detection of traces is a main task of forensics. Hyperspectral imaging is a potential method from which we expect to capture more fluorescence effects than with common forensic light sources. This paper shows that the use of hyperspectral imaging is suited for the analysis of latent traces and extends the classical concept to the conservation of the crime scene for retrospective laboratory analysis. We examine specimen of blood, semen and saliva traces in several dilution steps, prepared on cardboard substrate. As our key result we successfully make latent traces visible up to dilution factor of 1:8000. We can attribute most of the detectability to interference of electromagnetic light with the water content of the traces in the shortwave infrared region of the spectrum. In a classification task we use several dimensionality reduction methods (PCA and LDA) in combination with a Maximum Likelihood classifier, assuming normally distributed data. Further, we use Random Forest as a competitive approach. The classifiers retrieve the exact positions of labelled trace preparation up to highest dilution and determine posterior probabilities. By modelling the classification task with a Markov Random Field we are able to integrate prior information about the spatial relation of neighboured pixel labels.

  2. Analyzing large-scale proteomics projects with latent semantic indexing. (United States)

    Klie, Sebastian; Martens, Lennart; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Côté, Richard; Jones, Phil; Apweiler, Rolf; Hinneburg, Alexander; Hermjakob, Henning


    Since the advent of public data repositories for proteomics data, readily accessible results from high-throughput experiments have been accumulating steadily. Several large-scale projects in particular have contributed substantially to the amount of identifications available to the community. Despite the considerable body of information amassed, very few successful analyses have been performed and published on this data, leveling off the ultimate value of these projects far below their potential. A prominent reason published proteomics data is seldom reanalyzed lies in the heterogeneous nature of the original sample collection and the subsequent data recording and processing. To illustrate that at least part of this heterogeneity can be compensated for, we here apply a latent semantic analysis to the data contributed by the Human Proteome Organization's Plasma Proteome Project (HUPO PPP). Interestingly, despite the broad spectrum of instruments and methodologies applied in the HUPO PPP, our analysis reveals several obvious patterns that can be used to formulate concrete recommendations for optimizing proteomics project planning as well as the choice of technologies used in future experiments. It is clear from these results that the analysis of large bodies of publicly available proteomics data by noise-tolerant algorithms such as the latent semantic analysis holds great promise and is currently underexploited.

  3. A Probabilistic Recommendation Method Inspired by Latent Dirichlet Allocation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenBo Xie


    Full Text Available The recent decade has witnessed an increasing popularity of recommendation systems, which help users acquire relevant knowledge, commodities, and services from an overwhelming information ocean on the Internet. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA, originally presented as a graphical model for text topic discovery, now has found its application in many other disciplines. In this paper, we propose an LDA-inspired probabilistic recommendation method by taking the user-item collecting behavior as a two-step process: every user first becomes a member of one latent user-group at a certain probability and each user-group will then collect various items with different probabilities. Gibbs sampling is employed to approximate all the probabilities in the two-step process. The experiment results on three real-world data sets MovieLens, Netflix, and show that our method exhibits a competitive performance on precision, coverage, and diversity in comparison with the other four typical recommendation methods. Moreover, we present an approximate strategy to reduce the computing complexity of our method with a slight degradation of the performance.

  4. Screening for latent tuberculosis in refugees with renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanshyam Palamaner Subash Shantha


    Full Text Available Refugee camps are prone for easy spread of infections of various kinds and tuberculosis (TB is no exception. Refugees with renal failure are often a vulnerable group because they are immunocompromised due to reasons such as poor nutrition, overcrowding and immune suppression due to renal failure. Latent pulmonary TB is a particular problem in this patient population as it is not easily diagnosed and has immense potential for spread. Tuberculin Skin Test (TST, although easy to perform and is cost-effective, suffers from the limitations of giving false positive results due to cross-reaction with the vaccination. Chest radiography though cheap, has not yet been validated in refugee populations for this purpose. Sputum analysis shows promise due to ease of performing but again has not been validated in refugees. Newer assays such as IF-γ show great promise but needs large scale studies for validation and cheaper assays need to be developed for use in resource poor refugee setting. In short, an ideal tool for effective screening of latent TB in refugees with renal failure is lacking. Future studies are required to identify this ideal tool.

  5. Latent log-linear models for handwritten digit classification. (United States)

    Deselaers, Thomas; Gass, Tobias; Heigold, Georg; Ney, Hermann


    We present latent log-linear models, an extension of log-linear models incorporating latent variables, and we propose two applications thereof: log-linear mixture models and image deformation-aware log-linear models. The resulting models are fully discriminative, can be trained efficiently, and the model complexity can be controlled. Log-linear mixture models offer additional flexibility within the log-linear modeling framework. Unlike previous approaches, the image deformation-aware model directly considers image deformations and allows for a discriminative training of the deformation parameters. Both are trained using alternating optimization. For certain variants, convergence to a stationary point is guaranteed and, in practice, even variants without this guarantee converge and find models that perform well. We tune the methods on the USPS data set and evaluate on the MNIST data set, demonstrating the generalization capabilities of our proposed models. Our models, although using significantly fewer parameters, are able to obtain competitive results with models proposed in the literature.

  6. Surface latent heat flux as an earthquake precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dey


    Full Text Available The analysis of surface latent heat flux (SLHF from the epicentral regions of five recent earthquakes that occurred in close proximity to the oceans has been found to show anomalous behavior. The maximum increase of SLHF is found 2–7 days prior to the main earthquake event. This increase is likely due to an ocean-land-atmosphere interaction. The increase of SLHF prior to the main earthquake event is attributed to the increase in infrared thermal (IR temperature in the epicentral and surrounding region. The anomalous increase in SLHF shows great potential in providing early warning of a disastrous earthquake, provided that there is a better understanding of the background noise due to the tides and monsoon in surface latent heat flux. Efforts have been made to understand the level of background noise in the epicentral regions of the five earthquakes considered in the present paper. A comparison of SLHF from the epicentral regions over the coastal earthquakes and the earthquakes that occurred far away from the coast has been made and it has been found that the anomalous behavior of SLHF prior to the main earthquake event is only associated with the coastal earthquakes.

  7. KSHV latent protein LANA2 inhibits sumo2 modification of p53 (United States)

    Laura, Marcos-Villar; de la Cruz-Herrera, Carlos F; Ferreirós, Alba; Baz-Martínez, Maite; Lang, Valerie; Vidal, Anxo; Muñoz-Fontela, Cesar; Rodríguez, Manuel S; Collado, Manuel; Rivas, Carmen


    Tumor suppressor p53 plays a crucial antiviral role and targeting of p53 by viral proteins is a common mechanism involved in virus oncogenesis. The activity of p53 is tightly regulated at the post-translational levels through a myriad of modifications. Among them, modification of p53 by SUMO has been associated with the onset of cellular senescence. Kaposi´s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) expresses several proteins targeting p53, including the latent protein LANA2 that regulates polyubiquitylation and phosphorylation of p53. Here we show that LANA2 also inhibits the modification of p53 by SUMO2. Furthermore, we show that the reduction of p53-SUMO2 conjugation by LANA2, as well as the p53-LANA2 interaction, both require the SUMOylation of the viral protein and its interaction with SUMO or SUMOylated proteins in a non-covalent manner. Finally, we show that the control of p53-SUMO2 conjugation by LANA2 correlates with its ability to inhibit SUMO2- and type I interferon-induced senescence. These results highlight the importance of p53 SUMOylation in the control of virus infection and suggest that viral oncoproteins could contribute to viral infection and cell transformation by abrogating p53 SUMOylation. PMID:25607652

  8. Optimal Backward Perturbation Analysis for the Block Skew Circulant Linear Systems with Skew Circulant Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang


    Full Text Available We first give the block style spectral decomposition of arbitrary block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks. Secondly, we obtain the singular value of block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks as well. Finally, based on the block style spectral decomposition, we deal with the optimal backward perturbation analysis for the block skew circulant linear system with skew circulant blocks.

  9. Heterospecific transformation among cyanobacteria.


    Stevens, S. E.; Porter, R D


    Heterospecific transformation occurred between cyanobacteria currently classified in either the genus Synechococcus or Synechocystis. Cyanobacterial strains 73109 and 6906 were capable of physiological transformation.

  10. A block variant of the GMRES method on massively parallel processors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Guangye [Cray Research, Inc., Eagan, MN (United States)


    This paper presents a block variant of the GMRES method for solving general unsymmetric linear systems. This algorithm generates a transformed Hessenberg matrix by solely using block matrix operations and block data communications. It is shown that this algorithm with block size s, denoted by BVGMRES(s,m), is theoretically equivalent to the GMRES(s*m) method. The numerical results show that this algorithm can be more efficient than the standard GMRES method on a cache based single CPU computer with optimized BLAS kernels. Furthermore, the gain in efficiency is more significant on MPPs due to both efficient block operations and efficient block data communications. Our numerical results also show that in comparison to the standard GMRES method, the more PEs that are used on an MPP, the more efficient the BVGMRES(s,m) algorithm is.

  11. Proliferation of latently infected CD4+ T cells carrying replication-competent HIV-1: Potential role in latent reservoir dynamics (United States)

    Hosmane, Nina N.; Kwon, Kyungyoon J.; Bruner, Katherine M.; Capoferri, Adam A.; Rosenbloom, Daniel I.S.; Keele, Brandon F.; Ho, Ya-Chi


    A latent reservoir for HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T lymphocytes precludes cure. Mechanisms underlying reservoir stability are unclear. Recent studies suggest an unexpected degree of infected cell proliferation in vivo. T cell activation drives proliferation but also reverses latency, resulting in productive infection that generally leads to cell death. In this study, we show that latently infected cells can proliferate in response to mitogens without producing virus, generating progeny cells that can release infectious virus. Thus, assays relying on one round of activation underestimate reservoir size. Sequencing of independent clonal isolates of replication-competent virus revealed that 57% had env sequences identical to other isolates from the same patient. Identity was confirmed by full-genome sequencing and was not attributable to limited viral diversity. Phylogenetic and statistical analysis suggested that identical sequences arose from in vivo proliferation of infected cells, rather than infection of multiple cells by a dominant viral species. The possibility that much of the reservoir arises by cell proliferation presents challenges to cure. PMID:28341641

  12. Analyzing Latent State-Trait and Multiple-Indicator Latent Growth Curve Models as Multilevel Structural Equation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eGeiser


    Full Text Available Latent state-trait (LST and latent growth curve (LGC models are frequently used in the analysis of longitudinal data. Although it is well-known that standard single-indicator LGC models can be analyzed within either the structural equation modeling (SEM or multilevel (ML; hierarchical linear modeling frameworks, few researchers realize that LST and multivariate LGC models, which use multiple indicators at each time point, can also be specified as ML models. In the present paper, we demonstrate that using the ML-SEM rather than the SL-SEM framework to estimate the parameters of these models can be practical when the study involves (1 a large number of time points, (2 individually-varying times of observation, (3 unequally spaced time intervals, and/or (4 incomplete data. Despite the practical advantages of the ML-SEM approach under these circumstances, there are also some limitations that researchers should consider. We present an application to an ecological momentary assessment study (N = 158 youths with an average of 23.49 observations of positive mood per person using the software Mplus (Muthén & Muthén, 1998-2012 and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using the ML-SEM approach to estimate the parameters of LST and multiple-indicator LGC models.

  13. Contrasting reduced overshadowing and blocking. (United States)

    Wheeler, Daniel S; Miller, Ralph R


    Preexposure of a cue without an outcome (X-) prior to compound pairings with the outcome (XZ-->O) can reduce overshadowing of a target cue (Z). Moreover, pairing a cue with an outcome (X-->O) before compound training can enhance its ability to compete with another cue (i.e., blocking). Four experiments were conducted in a conditioned bar-press suppression preparation with rats to determine whether spacing of the X- or X-->O trials would differentially affect reduced overshadowing and blocking. Experiment 1a showed that reduced overshadowing was larger with massed trials than with spaced trials. Experiment 1b found that blocking was larger with spaced trials than with massed trials. Experiments 2a and 2b indicated that these effects of trial spacing were both mediated by the associative status of the context at test. The results are interpreted in the framework of contemporary learning theories.

  14. Diversity Gain through Antenna Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dehghanian


    Full Text Available As part of the typical usage mode, interaction between a handheld receiver antenna and the operator's RF absorbing body and nearby objects is known to generate variability in antenna radiation characteristics through blocking and pattern changes. It is counterintuitive that random variations in blocking can result in diversity gain of practical applicability. This diversity gain is quantified from a theoretical and experimental perspective. Measurements carried out at 1947.5 MHz verify the theoretical predictions, and a diversity gain of 3.1 dB was measured through antenna blocking and based on the utilized measurement setup. The diversity gain can be exploited to enhance signal detectability of handheld receivers based on a single antenna in indoor multipath environments.

  15. Multi-modal Color Medical Image Fusion Using Quaternion Discrete Fourier Transform (United States)

    Nawaz, Qamar; Xiao, Bin; Hamid, Isma; Jiao, Du


    Multimodal image fusion is a process of combining multiple images, generated by identical or diverse imaging modalities, to get precise inside information about the same body organ. In recent years, various multimodal image fusion algorithms have been proposed to fuse medical image. However, most of them focus on fusing grayscale images. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for the fusion of multimodal color medical images. The proposed algorithm divides source images into blocks, converts each RGB block into quaternion representation and transforms them from special domain to frequency domain by applying quaternion discrete Fourier transform. The fused coefficients are obtained by calculating and comparing contrast values of corresponding coefficients in transformed blocks. The resultant fused image is reconstructed by merging all the blocks after applying inverse quaternion discrete Fourier transform on each block. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed algorithm qualitatively outperforms many existing state-of-the-art multimodal image fusion algorithms.

  16. Block ground interaction of rockfalls (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter


    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  17. Incidence of Latent Virus Shedding during Space Flight (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Cohrs, Randall J.; Gilden, Donald H.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.


    Measurements of immune parameters of both cellular and innate immunity indicate alterations in immune function in astronauts. Immune changes are due to stress and perhaps other factors associated with launch, flight, and landing phases. Medical relevance of observed changes is not known. The reactivation of latent viruses has been identified as an important in vivo indicator of clinically relevant immune changes. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect the presence of specific viral DNA in body fluids. Initial studies demonstrated Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation during all 3 mission phases. EBV is shed in saliva following reactivation from B-cells. Incidence of EBV in saliva was higher than control subjects during all 3 mission phases. However, quantitative PCR revealed 10-fold higher levels of EBV DNA present in saliva collected during flight than found in pre- and post flight specimens. To determine if other latent viruses showed similar effects, cytomegalovirus (CMV), another herpes virus, shed in urine following reactivation was studied. A very low incidence (less than 2%) of CMV in urine is found in healthy, lowstressed individuals. However, 25-50% of astronauts shed CMV in their urine before, during, or after flight. Our studies are now focused on varicella-zoster virus (VZV), the etiological agent of chicken-pox during childhood and shingles later in life. We demonstrated reactivation of VZV and shedding of the virus during and after spaceflight in saliva of astronauts with no sign of active infection or symptoms. The maximum shedding of VZV occurred during the flight phase and diminishes rapidly during the first five days after landing. We have utilized the same PCR assay for VZV in a clinical study of shingles patients. Generally, shingles patients shed much more VZV in saliva than astronauts. However, the VZV levels in astronauts overlap with the lower range of VZV numbers in shingles patients. Saliva from shingles patients and

  18. Sensible and latent heating of the atmosphere as inferred from DST-6 data (United States)

    Herman, G. F.; Schubert, S. D.; Johnson, W. T.


    The average distribution of convective latent heating, boundary layer sensible heat flux, and vertical velocity are determined for the winter 1976 DST period from GLAS model diagnostics. Key features are the regions of intense latent heating over Brazil, Central Africa, and Indonesia; and the regions of strong sensible heating due to air mass modification over the North Atlantic and North Pacific Oceans.

  19. A Herpesviral Lytic Protein Regulates the Structure of Latent Viral Chromatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Raja


    Full Text Available Latent infections by viruses usually involve minimizing viral protein expression so that the host immune system cannot recognize the infected cell through the viral peptides presented on its cell surface. Herpes simplex virus (HSV, for example, is thought to express noncoding RNAs such as latency-associated transcripts (LATs and microRNAs (miRNAs as the only abundant viral gene products during latent infection. Here we describe analysis of HSV-1 mutant viruses, providing strong genetic evidence that HSV-infected cell protein 0 (ICP0 is expressed during establishment and/or maintenance of latent infection in murine sensory neurons in vivo. Studies of an ICP0 nonsense mutant virus showed that ICP0 promotes heterochromatin and latent and lytic transcription, arguing that ICP0 is expressed and functional. We propose that ICP0 promotes transcription of LATs during establishment or maintenance of HSV latent infection, much as it promotes lytic gene transcription. This report introduces the new concept that a lytic viral protein can be expressed during latent infection and can serve dual roles to regulate viral chromatin to optimize latent infection in addition to its role in epigenetic regulation during lytic infection. An additional implication of the results is that ICP0 might serve as a target for an antiviral therapeutic acting on lytic and latent infections.

  20. The Use of Loglinear Models for Assessing Differential Item Functioning Across Manifest and Latent Examinee Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelderman, Henk; Macready, George B.


    Loglinear latent class models are used to detect differential item functioning (DIF). These models are formulated in such a manner that the attribute to be assessed may be continuous, as in a Rasch model, or categorical, as in Latent Class Mastery models. Further, an item may exhibit DIF with respec

  1. Longitudinal Data Analysis with Latent Growth Modeling: An Introduction and Illustration for Higher Education Researchers (United States)

    Blanchard, Rebecca D.; Konold, Timothy R.


    This paper introduces latent growth modeling (LGM) as a statistical method for analyzing change over time in latent, or unobserved, variables, with particular emphasis of the application of this method in higher education research. While increasingly popular in other areas of education research and despite a wealth of publicly-available datasets…

  2. Planned missing designs to optimize the efficiency of latent growth parameter estimates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhemtulla, M.; Jia, F.; Wu, W.; Little, T.D.


    We examine the performance of planned missing (PM) designs for correlated latent growth curve models. Using simulated data from a model where latent growth curves are fitted to two constructs over five time points, we apply three kinds of planned missingness. The first is item-level planned missingn

  3. A Taxonomy of Latent Structure Assumptions for Probability Matrix Decomposition Models. (United States)

    Meulders, Michel; De Boeck, Paul; Van Mechelen, Iven


    Proposed a taxonomy of latent structure assumptions for probability matrix decomposition (PMD) that includes the original PMD model and a three-way extension of the multiple classification latent class model. Simulation study results show the usefulness of the taxonomy. (SLD)

  4. Visualizing Confidence Bands for Semiparametrically Estimated Nonlinear Relations among Latent Variables (United States)

    Pek, Jolynn; Chalmers, R. Philip; Kok, Bethany E.; Losardo, Diane


    Structural equation mixture models (SEMMs), when applied as a semiparametric model (SPM), can adequately recover potentially nonlinear latent relationships without their specification. This SPM is useful for exploratory analysis when the form of the latent regression is unknown. The purpose of this article is to help users familiar with structural…

  5. A Composite Likelihood Inference in Latent Variable Models for Ordinal Longitudinal Responses (United States)

    Vasdekis, Vassilis G. S.; Cagnone, Silvia; Moustaki, Irini


    The paper proposes a composite likelihood estimation approach that uses bivariate instead of multivariate marginal probabilities for ordinal longitudinal responses using a latent variable model. The model considers time-dependent latent variables and item-specific random effects to be accountable for the interdependencies of the multivariate…

  6. Advanced Nonlinear Latent Variable Modeling: Distribution Analytic LMS and QML Estimators of Interaction and Quadratic Effects (United States)

    Kelava, Augustin; Werner, Christina S.; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Moosbrugger, Helfried; Zapf, Dieter; Ma, Yue; Cham, Heining; Aiken, Leona S.; West, Stephen G.


    Interaction and quadratic effects in latent variable models have to date only rarely been tested in practice. Traditional product indicator approaches need to create product indicators (e.g., x[superscript 2] [subscript 1], x[subscript 1]x[subscript 4]) to serve as indicators of each nonlinear latent construct. These approaches require the use of…

  7. A Note on Stochastic Ordering of the Latent Trait Using the Sum of Polytomous Item Scores (United States)

    van der Ark, L. Andries; Bergsma, Wicher P.


    In contrast to dichotomous item response theory (IRT) models, most well-known polytomous IRT models do not imply stochastic ordering of the latent trait by the total test score (SOL). This has been thought to make the ordering of respondents on the latent trait using the total test score questionable and throws doubt on the justifiability of using…

  8. Measurement Uncertainty in Racial and Ethnic Identification among Adolescents of Mixed Ancestry: A Latent Variable Approach (United States)

    Tracy, Allison J.; Erkut, Sumru; Porche, Michelle V.; Kim, Jo; Charmaraman, Linda; Grossman, Jennifer M.; Ceder, Ineke; Garcia, Heidie Vazquez


    In this article, we operationalize identification of mixed racial and ethnic ancestry among adolescents as a latent variable to (a) account for measurement uncertainty, and (b) compare alternative wording formats for racial and ethnic self-categorization in surveys. Two latent variable models were fit to multiple mixed-ancestry indicator data from…

  9. A Latent Transition Analysis of Academic Intrinsic Motivation from Childhood through Adolescence (United States)

    Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.


    A longitudinal modeling approach was utilized to determine the existence of latent classes with regard to academic intrinsic motivation and the points of stability and transition of individuals between and within classes. A special type of latent Markov Chain model using "Mplus" was fit to data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study, with…

  10. Bayesian Methods for Analyzing Structural Equation Models with Covariates, Interaction, and Quadratic Latent Variables (United States)

    Lee, Sik-Yum; Song, Xin-Yuan; Tang, Nian-Sheng


    The analysis of interaction among latent variables has received much attention. This article introduces a Bayesian approach to analyze a general structural equation model that accommodates the general nonlinear terms of latent variables and covariates. This approach produces a Bayesian estimate that has the same statistical optimal properties as a…

  11. Substantial molecular evolution and mutation rates in prolonged latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebaek, Troels; Norman, Anders; Rasmussen, Erik Michael;


    The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) of latently infected individuals may hold the key to understanding the processes that lead to reactivation and progression to clinical disease. We report here analysis of pairs of Mtb isolates from putative prolonged latent TB cases. We identified tw...

  12. Latent tuberculosis in HIV positive, diagnosed by the M. tuberculosis specific interferon-gamma test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brock, Inger; Ruhwald, Morten; Lundgren, Bettina


    Although tuberculosis (TB) is a minor problem in Denmark, severe and complicated cases occur in HIV positive. Since the new M. tuberculosis specific test for latent TB, the QuantiFERON-TB In-Tube test (QFT-IT) became available the patients in our clinic have been screened for the presence of latent...

  13. Assessment of School Performance through a Multilevel Latent Markov Rasch Model (United States)

    Bartolucci, Francesco; Pennoni, Fulvia; Vittadini, Giorgio


    An extension of the latent Markov Rasch model is described for the analysis of binary longitudinal data with covariates when subjects are collected in clusters, such as students clustered in classes. For each subject, a latent process is used to represent the characteristic of interest (e.g., ability) conditional on the effect of the cluster to…

  14. A Comparison of Latent Growth Models for Constructs Measured by Multiple Items (United States)

    Leite, Walter L.


    Univariate latent growth modeling (LGM) of composites of multiple items (e.g., item means or sums) has been frequently used to analyze the growth of latent constructs. This study evaluated whether LGM of composites yields unbiased parameter estimates, standard errors, chi-square statistics, and adequate fit indexes. Furthermore, LGM was compared…

  15. Substantial molecular evolution and mutation rates in prolonged latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillebaek, Troels; Norman, Anders; Rasmussen, Erik Michael;


    The genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) of latently infected individuals may hold the key to understanding the processes that lead to reactivation and progression to clinical disease. We report here analysis of pairs of Mtb isolates from putative prolonged latent TB cases. We identified two...

  16. D-Cycloserine Enhances Memory Consolidation of Hippocampus-Dependent Latent Extinction (United States)

    Gabriele, Amanda; Packard, Mark G.


    Adult male Long-Evans rats were trained to run in a straight-alley maze for food reward and subsequently received hippocampus-dependent latent extinction training. Immediately following latent extinction, rats received peripheral injections of the NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine (DCS, 15 mg/kg), or saline. Twenty-four hours later, rats…

  17. Detecting Appropriate Trajectories of Growth in Latent Growth Models: The Performance of Information-Based Criteria (United States)

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Khojasteh, Jam


    Latent growth modeling (LGM) is a popular and flexible technique that may be used when data are collected across several different measurement occasions. Modeling the appropriate growth trajectory has important implications with respect to the accurate interpretation of parameter estimates of interest in a latent growth model that may impact…

  18. Selection between Linear Factor Models and Latent Profile Models Using Conditional Covariances (United States)

    Halpin, Peter F.; Maraun, Michael D.


    A method for selecting between K-dimensional linear factor models and (K + 1)-class latent profile models is proposed. In particular, it is shown that the conditional covariances of observed variables are constant under factor models but nonlinear functions of the conditioning variable under latent profile models. The performance of a convenient…

  19. Extending dynamic segmentation with lead generation : A latent class Markov analysis of financial product portfolios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paas, L.J.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.; Vermunt, J.K.


    A recent development in marketing research concerns the incorporation of dynamics in consumer segmentation.This paper extends the latent class Markov model, a suitable technique for conducting dynamic segmentation, in order to facilitate lead generation.We demonstrate the application of the latent M

  20. OPAL 96 Blocks Lead Glass

    CERN Multimedia

    This array of 96 lead glass bricks formed part of the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. One half of the complete calorimeter is shown in the picture above. There were 9440 lead glass counters in the OPAL electromagnetic calorimeter. These are made of Schott type SF57 glass and each block weighs about 25 kg and consists of 76% PbO by weight. Each block has a Hamamatsu R2238 photomultiplier glued on to it. The complete detector was in the form of a cylinder 7m long and 6m in diameter. It was used to measure the energy of electrons and photons produced in LEP interactions.