WorldWideScience

Sample records for blocking approximation dipole

  1. Electric dipole response of neutron-rich Calcium isotopes in relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Egorova, Irina A

    2016-01-01

    New results for electric dipole strength in the chain of even-even Calcium isotopes with the mass numbers A = 40 - 54 are presented. Starting from the covariant Lagrangian of Quantum Hadrodynamics, spectra of collective vibrations (phonons) and phonon-nucleon coupling vertices for $J \\leq 6$ and normal parity were computed in a self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA). These vibrations coupled to Bogoliubov two-quasiparticle configurations (2q$\\otimes$phonon) form the model space for the calculations of the dipole response function in the relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation (RQTBA). The results for giant dipole resonance in the latter approach are compared to those obtained in RQRPA and to available data. Evolution of the dipole strength with neutron number is investigated for both high-frequency giant dipole resonance (GDR) and low-lying strength. Development of a pygmy resonant structure on the low-energy shoulder of GDR is traced and analyzed in terms...

  2. Relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation. II. Pygmy dipole resonance in neutron-rich nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Litvinova, E; Tselyaev, V; Langanke, K

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical studies of low-lying dipole strength in even-even spherical nuclei within the relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation (RQTBA) are presented. The RQTBA developed recently as an extension of the self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA) enables one to investigate effects of coupling of two-quasiparticle excitations to collective vibrations within a fully consistent calculation scheme based on covariant energy density functional theory. Dipole spectra of even-even $^{130}$Sn -- $^{140}$Sn and $^{68}$Ni -- $^{78}$Ni isotopes calculated within both RQRPA and RQTBA show two well separated collective structures: the higher-lying giant dipole resonance (GDR) and the lower-lying pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) which can be identified by a different behavior of the transition densities of states in these regions.

  3. Relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation. Dipole response of open-shell nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Litvinova, E; Tselyaev, V

    2008-01-01

    The self-consistent Relativistic Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation (RQRPA) is extended by the quasiparticle-phonon coupling (QPC) model using the Quasiparticle Time Blocking Approximation (QTBA). The method is formulated in terms of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) in the two-quasiparticle space with an energy-dependent two-quasiparticle residual interaction. This equation is solved either in the basis of Dirac states forming the self-consistent solution of the ground state or in the momentum representation. Pairing correlations are treated within the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) model with a monopole-monopole interaction. The same NL3 set of the coupling constants generates the Dirac-Hartree-BCS single-quasiparticle spectrum, the static part of the residual two-quasiparticle interaction and the quasiparticle-phonon coupling amplitudes. A quantitative description of electric dipole excitations in the chain of tin isotopes (Z=50) with the mass numbers A = 100, 106, 114, 116, 120, and 130 and in the ...

  4. N-block separable random phase approximation: dipole oscillations in sodium clusters and {C}_{60} fullerene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palade, D. I.; Baran, V.

    2016-09-01

    We generalize the schematic model based on the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) with separable interaction, to a collection of subspaces of ph excitations which interact with different coupling constants. This ansatz notably lowers the numerical effort involved, by reducing the RPA eigenvalue problem to a finite small dimensional system of equation. We derive the associated dispersion relation and the normalization condition for the newly defined unknowns of the system. In contrast with the standard separable approach, the present formalism is able to describe more than one collective excitation even in the degenerate limit, giving also access to the nature of the resonance. The theoretical framework is tested investigating the dipolar oscillations in various neutral and singly charged sodium clusters and C 60 fullerene with results in good agreement with full RPA calculations and experimental data. It is proven that the 40 eV resonance present in photoabsorption spectra of C 60 is a localized surface plasmon.

  5. Photoelectron spectroscopy and the dipole approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmers, O.; Hansen, D.L.; Wang, H. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is a powerful technique because it directly probes, via the measurement of photoelectron kinetic energies, orbital and band structure in valence and core levels in a wide variety of samples. The technique becomes even more powerful when it is performed in an angle-resolved mode, where photoelectrons are distinguished not only by their kinetic energy, but by their direction of emission as well. Determining the probability of electron ejection as a function of angle probes the different quantum-mechanical channels available to a photoemission process, because it is sensitive to phase differences among the channels. As a result, angle-resolved photoemission has been used successfully for many years to provide stringent tests of the understanding of basic physical processes underlying gas-phase and solid-state interactions with radiation. One mainstay in the application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is the well-known electric-dipole approximation for photon interactions. In this simplification, all higher-order terms, such as those due to electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole interactions, are neglected. As the photon energy increases, however, effects beyond the dipole approximation become important. To best determine the range of validity of the dipole approximation, photoemission measurements on a simple atomic system, neon, where extra-atomic effects cannot play a role, were performed at BL 8.0. The measurements show that deviations from {open_quotes}dipole{close_quotes} expectations in angle-resolved valence photoemission are observable for photon energies down to at least 0.25 keV, and are quite significant at energies around 1 keV. From these results, it is clear that non-dipole angular-distribution effects may need to be considered in any application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy that uses x-ray photons of energies as low as a few hundred eV.

  6. Scattering from rough thin films: discrete-dipole-approximation simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Hannu; Lumme, Kari

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the wave-optical light scattering properties of deformed thin circular films of constant thickness using the discrete-dipole approximation. Effects on the intensity distribution of the scattered light due to different statistical roughness models, model dependent roughness parameters, and uncorrelated, random, small-scale porosity of the inhomogeneous medium are studied. The suitability of the discrete-dipole approximation for rough-surface scattering problems is evaluated by considering thin films as computationally feasible rough-surface analogs. The effects due to small-scale inhomogeneity of the scattering medium are compared with the analytic approximation by Maxwell Garnett, and the results are found to agree with the approximation.

  7. Application of the discrete dipole approximation to extreme refractive indices: Filtered coupled dipoles revived

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Yurkin; M. Min; A.G. Hoekstra

    2008-01-01

    We compared three formulations of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) for simulation of light scattering by particles with refractive indices m = 10 + 10i, 0.1 + i, and 1.6 + 0.01i. These formulations include filtered coupled dipoles (FCD), lattice dispersion relation (LDR) and radiative reactio

  8. Application of the discrete dipole approximation to very large refractive indices: Filtered coupled dipoles revived

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Yurkin; M. Min; A.G. Hoekstra

    2010-01-01

    We compared three formulations of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) for simulation of light scattering by particles with refractive indices m = 10+10i, 0.1+i, and 1.6+0.01i. These formulations include the filtered coupled dipoles (FCD), the lattice dispersion relation (LDR) and the radiative r

  9. Toroidal dipole resonances in the relativistic random phase approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, D; Ring, P

    2002-01-01

    The isoscalar toroidal dipole strength distributions in spherical nuclei are calculated in the framework of a fully consistent relativistic random phase approximation, based on effective mean-field Lagrangians with nonlinear meson self-interaction terms. It is suggested that the recently observed "low-lying component of the isoscalar dipole mode" might in fact correspond to the toroidal giant dipole resonance. Although predicted by several theoretical models, the existence of toroidal resonances has not yet been confirmed in experiment. In the present analysis the vortex dynamics of these states is displayed by the corresponding velocity fields.

  10. Envelope induced ionization dynamics beyond the dipole approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Simonsen, Aleksander Skjerlie; Førre, Morten; Lindroth, Eva; Selstø, Sølve

    2015-01-01

    When atoms and molecules are ionized by laser pulses of finite duration and increasingly high intensities, the validity of the much used dipole approximation, in which the spatial dependence and magnetic component of the external field are neglected, eventually breaks down. We report that when going beyond the dipole approximation for the description of atoms exposed to ultraviolet light, the spatial dependence of the pulse shape, the envelope, provides the dominant correction, while the spatial dependence of the carrier may safely be neglected in the general case. We present a first order beyond-dipole correction to the Hamiltonian which accounts exclusively for effects stemming from the carrier-envelope of the pulse. This much simpler form of the correction is further discussed in connection with various descriptions of the light-matter interaction. We demonstrate by ab initio calculations that this approximation, which we will refer to as the envelope approximation, reproduces the full interaction beyond t...

  11. Application of the discrete dipole approximation to very large refractive indices: Filtered coupled dipoles revived

    OpenAIRE

    Yurkin, M.A.; Min, M.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    We compared three formulations of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) for simulation of light scattering by particles with refractive indices m = 10+10i, 0.1+i, and 1.6+0.01i. These formulations include the filtered coupled dipoles (FCD), the lattice dispersion relation (LDR) and the radiative reaction correction. We compared the number of iterations required for the convergence of the iterative solver (proportional to simulation time) and the accuracy of final results. We showed that the...

  12. Landau-Dykhne approximation for multiphoton dipole-forbidden transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A two-level system in a monochromatic laser field is considered in the Landau-Dykhne approximation under the violation of dipole selection rules. An analytic expression is obtained for the rate of transitions. The multiphoton and tunneling limits are found

  13. Isovector dipole-resonance structure within the effective surface approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Blocki, J P; Ring, P

    2013-01-01

    The nuclear isovector-dipole strength structure is analyzed in terms of the main and satellite (pygmy) peaks within the Fermi-liquid droplet model. Such a structure is sensitive to the value of the surface symmetry-energy constant obtained analytically for different Skyrme forces in the leptodermous effective surface approximation. Energies, sum rules and transition densities of the main and satellite peaks for specific Skyrme forces are qualitatively in agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical calculations.

  14. Nanoscale capacitance: A classical charge-dipole approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Qiang Lu; Jonathan Gonzalez; Carlos Sierra; Yang Li

    2013-01-01

    Modeling nanoscale capacitance presents particular challenge because of dynamic contribution from electrodes, which can usually be neglected in modeling macroscopic capacitance and nanoscale conductance. We present a model to calculate capacitances of nano-gap configurations and define effective capacitances of nanoscale structures. The model is implemented by using a classical atomic charge-dipole approximation and applied to calculate capacitance of a carbon nanotube nano-gap and effective ...

  15. Light scattering by hexagonal columns in the discrete dipole approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Flatau, P J

    2014-01-01

    Scattering by infinite hexagonal ice prisms is calculated using Maxwell's equations in the discrete dipole approximation for size parameters up to x=400. Birefringence is included in the calculations. Applicability of the geometric optics approximation is investigated. Excellent agreement between wave optics and geometric optics is observed for large size parameter in the outer part of the 22 degree halo feature. For smaller ice crystals halo broadening is predicted, and there is appreciable "spillover" of the halo into shadow scattering angles <22 degrees. Ways to retrieve ice crystal sizes are suggested based on the full width at half-maximum of the halo, the power at <22 deg, and the halo polarization.

  16. Convergence of the discrete dipole approximation. I. Theoretical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Yurkin, Maxim A; Hoekstra, Alfons G

    2006-01-01

    We performed a rigorous theoretical convergence analysis of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA). We prove that errors in any measured quantity are bounded by a sum of a linear and quadratic term in the size of a dipole d, when the latter is in the range of DDA applicability. Moreover, the linear term is significantly smaller for cubically than for non-cubically shaped scatterers. Therefore, for small d errors for cubically shaped particles are much smaller than for non-cubically shaped. The relative importance of the linear term decreases with increasing size, hence convergence of DDA for large enough scatterers is quadratic in the common range of d. Extensive numerical simulations were carried out for a wide range of d. Finally we discuss a number of new developments in DDA and their consequences for convergence.

  17. Breakdown of the Dipole Approximation in Strong-Field Ionization

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig, A.; J. Maurer; MAYER, B.W.; Phillips, C. R.; Gallmann, L; Keller, U.

    2014-01-01

    We report the breakdown of the electric dipole approximation in the long-wavelength limit in strong-field ionization with linearly polarized few-cycle mid-infrared laser pulses at intensities on the order of 10$^{13}$ W/cm$^2$. Photoelectron momentum distributions were recorded by velocity map imaging and projected onto the beam propagation axis. We observe an increasing shift of the peak of this projection opposite to the beam propagation direction with increasing laser intensities. From a c...

  18. The discrete dipole approximation: an overview and recent developments

    CERN Document Server

    Yurkin, Maxim A

    2007-01-01

    We present a review of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), which is a general method to simulate light scattering by arbitrarily shaped particles. We put the method in historical context and discuss recent developments, taking the viewpoint of a general framework based on the integral equations for the electric field. We review both the theory of the DDA and its numerical aspects, the latter being of critical importance for any practical application of the method. Finally, the position of the DDA among other methods of light scattering simulation is shown and possible future developments are discussed.

  19. Breakdown of the dipole approximation in strong-field ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, A; Maurer, J; Mayer, B W; Phillips, C R; Gallmann, L; Keller, U

    2014-12-12

    We report the breakdown of the electric dipole approximation in the long-wavelength limit in strong-field ionization with linearly polarized few-cycle mid-infrared laser pulses at intensities on the order of 10¹³ W/cm². Photoelectron momentum distributions were recorded by velocity map imaging and projected onto the beam propagation axis. We observe an increasing shift of the peak of this projection opposite to the beam propagation direction with increasing laser intensities. From a comparison with semiclassical simulations, we identify the combined action of the magnetic field of the laser pulse and the Coulomb potential as the origin of our observations. PMID:25541770

  20. Discrete Dipole Approximation Aided Design Method for Nanostructure Arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Shao-Li; LUO Xian-Gang; DU Chun-Lei

    2007-01-01

    A discrete dipole approximation (DDA) aided design method is proposed to determine the parameters of nanostructure arrays. The relationship between the thickness, period and extinction efficiency of nanostructure arrays for the given shape can be calculated using the DDA. Based on the calculated curves, the main parameters of the nanostructure arrays such as thickness and period can be determined. Using this aided method, a rhombic sliver nanostructure array is designed with the determinant parameters of thickness (40 nm) and period (440 nm).We further fabricate the rhombic sliver nanostructure arrays and testify the character of the extinction spectra.The obtained extinction spectra is within the visible range and the full width at half maximum is 99nm, as is expected.

  1. Fretting about FRET: failure of the ideal dipole approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Losa, Aurora; Curutchet, Carles; Krueger, Brent P; Hartsell, Lydia R; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2009-06-17

    With recent growth in the use of fluorescence-detected resonance energy transfer (FRET), it is being applied to complex systems in modern and diverse ways where it is not always clear that the common approximations required for analysis are applicable. For instance, the ideal dipole approximation (IDA), which is implicit in the Förster equation, is known to break down when molecules get "too close" to each other. Yet, no clear definition exists of what is meant by "too close". Here we examine several common fluorescent probe molecules to determine boundaries for use of the IDA. We compare the Coulombic coupling determined essentially exactly with a linear response approach with the IDA coupling to find the distance regimes over which the IDA begins to fail. We find that the IDA performs well down to roughly 20 A separation, provided the molecules sample an isotropic set of relative orientations. However, if molecular motions are restricted, the IDA performs poorly at separations beyond 50 A. Thus, isotropic probe motions help mask poor performance of the IDA through cancellation of error. Therefore, if fluorescent probe motions are restricted, FRET practitioners should be concerned with not only the well-known kappa2 approximation, but also possible failure of the IDA. PMID:19527638

  2. Application of the discrete dipole approximation to very large refractive indices: Filtered coupled dipoles revived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurkin, Maxim A; Min, Michiel; Hoekstra, Alfons G

    2010-09-01

    We compared three formulations of the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) for simulation of light scattering by particles with refractive indices m=10+10i , 0.1+i , and 1.6+0.01i . These formulations include the filtered coupled dipoles (FCD), the lattice dispersion relation (LDR) and the radiative reaction correction. We compared the number of iterations required for the convergence of the iterative solver (proportional to simulation time) and the accuracy of final results. We showed that the LDR performance for m=10+10i is especially bad, while the FCD is a good option for all cases studied. Moreover, we analyzed the detailed structure of DDA errors and the spectrum of the DDA interaction matrix to understand the performance of the FCD. In particular, this spectrum, obtained with the FCD for particles smaller than the wavelength, falls into the bounds, physically implied for the spectrum of the infinite-dimensional integral scattering operator, contrary to two other DDA formulations. Finally, such extreme refractive indices can now be routinely simulated using modern desktop computers using the publicly available ADDA code, which includes an efficient implementation of the FCD. PMID:21230209

  3. Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance of Stable Nuclei in a Consistent Relativistic Random-phase Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹李刚; 马中玉

    2003-01-01

    A fully consistent relativistic random-phase approximation is applied to study the systematic behaviour of the isovector giant dipole resonance of nuclei along the β-stability line in order to test the effective Lagrangians recently developed. The centroid energies of response functions of the isovector giant dipole resonance for stable nuclei are compared with the corresponding experimental data and the good agreement is obtained. It is found that the effective Lagrangian with an appropriate nuclear symmetry energy, which can well describe the ground state properties of nuclei, could also reproduce the isovector giant dipole resonance of nuclei along the β-stability line.

  4. Applicability of point-dipoles approximation to all-dielectric metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, S. M.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    All-dielectric metamaterials consisting of high-dielectric inclusions in a low-dielectric matrix are considered as a low-loss alternative to resonant metal-based metamaterials. In this paper we investigate the applicability of the point electric and magnetic dipoles approximation to dielectric meta......-atoms on the example of a dielectric ring metamaterial. Despite the large electrical size of high-dielectric meta-atoms, the dipole approximation allows for accurate prediction of the metamaterials properties for the rings with diameters up to approximate to 0.8 of the lattice constant. The results provide important...... guidelines for design and optimization of all-dielectric metamaterials....

  5. A reliable light scattering computing for black carbon-containing particles: Hybrid discrete dipole approximation (h-DDA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteki, N.

    2015-12-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a light-absorbing carbonaceous aerosol emitted from combustions of fossil fuels and biomasses and is estimated as the second most important contributor to positive climate forcing after the carbon dioxide. In the atmosphere, the fractal aggregate of BC-spherules may be mixed with non-absorbing (or weakly absorbing) compounds that forms morphologically complex "BC-containing particle". A reliable scattering code for BC-containing particles is necessary for predicting mass absorption efficiency of BC and designing/evaluating optical techniques for estimating microphysical properties (i.e., size distribution, mixing state, shape, refractive index) of BC-containing particles. The computational methods that derived from the volume-integral form of the Maxwell equation, such as discrete dipole approximation (DDA), are method of choice for morphologically complex object like BC-containing particles. In ordinary DDA, the entire particle volume is approximated as a collection of tiny cubical dipoles (with side length d) placed on a 3D cubic lattice. For several model BC-containing particles, the comparisons with numerically exact T-matrix method reveals that the ordinary DDA suffered from persistent positive systematic error (up to +30%) in absorption even under d DDA error is identified to be the shape error in BC-spherules. To eliminate the shape error in BC-spherules, we propose a new DDA methodology which may be called hybrid DDA (h-DDA): each primary BC sphere is assumed as a spherical dipole, while remaining particle volume of coating material is approximated by a collection of tiny cubical dipoles on a 3D cubic lattice. Positive absorption bias up to +30% in ordinary DDA is suppressed to within 3% in h-DDA. In h-DDA code, an efficient FFT-based algorithm for solving the matrix equation has been implemented, by utilizing the multilevel block-Toeplitz property of the submatrix corresponding to inter-dipole interaction within coating material.

  6. Hydrogen atom excitation in intense attosecond laser field: Gauge dependence of dipole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is assumed that, the atomic excitations probability can be calculated using first order perturbation theory and dipole approximations. The validity of the dipole approximations had been examined by comparing the results with the results obtained by exact calculations within the first order perturbation theory[2]. Figure 1 shows the time dependence of the transition probability in the dipole approximation. From these plots it is obvious that, the probabilities obtained in the length gauge are higher than that in the velocity gauge, in the interaction period (−τ/20 transition. For the later case, only the length gauge give a false results, but the velocity gauge give the same result as the exact one, for the final value of the transition probability

  7. Derivation of the dipole approximation from the exact transition probabilities for hydrogen atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usual dipole approximation for the transition probabilities for hydrogen atoms is derived from the exact transition probabilities by considering j = 1 photons only, neglecting retardation, and using an identity derived from the wave equation for the radial wave function for the atom

  8. Pygmy dipole response of proton rich argon beyond the random phase approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Barbieri, C; Langanke, K; Martínez-Pinedo, G

    2007-01-01

    The occurrence of a pygmy dipole resonance in proton rich Ar-32 and Ar-34 is studied using the unitary correlator operator method interaction Vucom, based on Argonne V18. Predictions from the random phase approximation (RPA) and the shell model in a no-core basis are compared. It is found that the inclusion of configuration mixing up to two-particle--two-holes broadens the pygmy strength slightly and reduces sensibly its strength, as compared to the RPA predictions. For Ar-32 a clear peak associated with a pygmy resonance is found. For Ar-34, the pygmy states are obtained close to the giant dipole resonance and mix with it.

  9. Discrete dipole approximation of gold nanospheres on substrates: Considerations and comparison with other discretization methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Menguc

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We embark on this preliminary study of the suitability of the discrete dipole approximation with surface interaction (DDA-SI method to model electric field scattering from noble metal nano-structures on dielectric substrates. The refractive index of noble metals, particularly due to their high imaginary components, require smaller lattice spacings and are especially sensitive to the shape integrity and the volume of the dipole model. The results of DDA-SI method are validated against those of the well-established finite element method (FEM and the finite difference time domain (FDTD method.

  10. Scaling for Mixtures of Hard Ions and Dipoles in the Mean Spherical Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, L.

    2001-01-01

    Using new scaling parameters $\\beta_i$, we derive simple expressions for the excess thermodynamic properties of the Mean Spherical Approximation (MSA) for the ion-dipole mixture. For the MSA and its extensions we have shown that the thermodynamic excess functions are a function of a reduced set of scaling matrices ${\\mathbf\\Gamma}_\\chi$. We show now that for factorizable interactions like the hard ion-dipole mixture there is a further reduction to a diagonal matrices ${\\mathbf\\beta}_\\chi$. Th...

  11. Short note on the dipole approximation for electric field enhancement by small metallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widespread numerous applications of electric field enhancement on the surface of nanoparticles are of interest, either in physics, chemistry, or biology. The Lorentz–Mie–Debye rigorous model of the scattering of light by spherical nanoparticles has been known for over a century but is often simplified to its dipole approximation for small particles. Indeed, approximated models are of interest to identify the phenomena involved in the electric field enhancement that is used to improve the signal of surface enhanced raman spectroscopy (SERS) in particular. Using the series expansion of the electric field given by the Lorentz–Mie–Debye theory, we show that an order higher than the dipole approximation is necessary to evaluate the field enhancement, even for small radii. (invited article)

  12. The consequences of improperly describing oscillator strengths beyond the electric dipole approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestrange, Patrick J; Egidi, Franco; Li, Xiaosong

    2015-12-21

    The interaction between a quantum mechanical system and plane wave light is usually modeled within the electric dipole approximation. This assumes that the intensity of the incident field is constant over the length of the system and transition probabilities are described in terms of the electric dipole transition moment. For short wavelength spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption, the electric dipole approximation often breaks down. Higher order multipoles are then included to describe transition probabilities. The square of the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole are often included, but this results in an origin-dependent expression for the oscillator strength. The oscillator strength can be made origin-independent if all terms through the same order in the wave vector are retained. We will show the consequences and potential pitfalls of using either of these two expressions. It is shown that the origin-dependent expression may violate the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule and the origin-independent expression can result in negative transition probabilities.

  13. The consequences of improperly describing oscillator strengths beyond the electric dipole approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestrange, Patrick J.; Egidi, Franco; Li, Xiaosong, E-mail: xsli@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    The interaction between a quantum mechanical system and plane wave light is usually modeled within the electric dipole approximation. This assumes that the intensity of the incident field is constant over the length of the system and transition probabilities are described in terms of the electric dipole transition moment. For short wavelength spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption, the electric dipole approximation often breaks down. Higher order multipoles are then included to describe transition probabilities. The square of the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole are often included, but this results in an origin-dependent expression for the oscillator strength. The oscillator strength can be made origin-independent if all terms through the same order in the wave vector are retained. We will show the consequences and potential pitfalls of using either of these two expressions. It is shown that the origin-dependent expression may violate the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule and the origin-independent expression can result in negative transition probabilities.

  14. The consequences of improperly describing oscillator strengths beyond the electric dipole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction between a quantum mechanical system and plane wave light is usually modeled within the electric dipole approximation. This assumes that the intensity of the incident field is constant over the length of the system and transition probabilities are described in terms of the electric dipole transition moment. For short wavelength spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption, the electric dipole approximation often breaks down. Higher order multipoles are then included to describe transition probabilities. The square of the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole are often included, but this results in an origin-dependent expression for the oscillator strength. The oscillator strength can be made origin-independent if all terms through the same order in the wave vector are retained. We will show the consequences and potential pitfalls of using either of these two expressions. It is shown that the origin-dependent expression may violate the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule and the origin-independent expression can result in negative transition probabilities

  15. Classical dynamics of a charged particle in a laser field beyond the dipole approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Jameson, Paul; Khvedelidze, Arsen

    2008-01-01

    The classical dynamics of a charged particle traveling in a laser field modeled by an elliptically polarized monochromatic electromagnetic plane wave is discussed within the time reparametrization invariant form of the non-relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The exact parametric representation for a particle's orbit in an arbitrary plane wave background beyond the dipole approximation and including effect of the magnetic field is derived. For an elliptically polarized monochromatic plane wav...

  16. Response and normal modes of a system in the electric and magnetic-dipole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of making the interaction fields evolve from a finite time of a system of molecules is studied in the electric- and magnetic-dipole approximation. Features due to the breaking up of the infinite evolution time are discussed. The resulting equations are analyzed for the response of the system. The analysis of the equations for the propagation of normal modes is manifested. The conditions under which normal modes propagate are stated. (author)

  17. Opendda: a Novel High-Performance Computational Framework for the Discrete Dipole Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Donald, James Mc; Golden, Aaron; Jennings, S. Gerard

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a highly optimized computational framework for the Discrete Dipole Approximation, a numerical method for calculating the optical properties associated with a target of arbitrary geometry that is widely used in atmospheric, astrophysical and industrial simulations. Core optimizations include the bit-fielding of integer data and iterative methods that complement a new Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) kernel, which efficiently calculates the matrix vector products required by ...

  18. RCS estimation of linear and planar dipole phased arrays approximate model

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the RCS of a parallel-fed linear and planar dipole array is derived using an approximate method. The signal propagation within the phased array system determines the radar cross section (RCS) of phased array. The reflection and transmission coefficients for a signal at different levels of the phased-in scattering array system depend on the impedance mismatch and the design parameters. Moreover the mutual coupling effect in between the antenna elements is an important factor. A phased array system comprises of radiating elements followed by phase shifters, couplers, and terminating load impedance. These components lead to respective impedances towards the incoming signal that travels through them before reaching receive port of the array system. In this book, the RCS is approximated in terms of array factor, neglecting the phase terms. The mutual coupling effect is taken into account. The dependence of the RCS pattern on the design parameters is analyzed. The approximate model is established as a...

  19. Light scattering by Gaussian random ellipsoid particles: First results with discrete-dipole approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce the stochastic geometry of a Gaussian random ellipsoid (GE) and, with the discrete-dipole approximation, carry out preliminary computations for light scattering by wavelength-scale GE particles. In the GE geometry, we describe the base ellipsoid by the three semiaxes a≥b≥c. The axial ratios b:a and c:a appear as two shape parameters additional to those of the Gaussian random sphere geometry (GS). We compare the scattering characteristics of GE particles to those of ellipsoids. Introducing irregularities on ellipsoids smoothens the angular scattering characteristics, in a way analogous to the smoothening of spherical particle characteristics in the case of GS particles.

  20. User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT (Version 5a10)

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T; Flatau, Piotr J.

    2000-01-01

    DDSCAT.5a is a freely available software package which applies the "discrete dipole approximation" (DDA) to calculate scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by targets with arbitrary geometries and complex refractive index. The DDA approximates the target by an array of polarizable points. DDSCAT.5a requires that these polarizable points be located on a cubic lattice. DDSCAT.5a10 allows accurate calculations of electromagnetic scattering from targets with "size parameters" 2 pi a/lambda < 15 provided the refractive index m is not large compared to unity (|m-1| < 1). The DDSCAT package is written in Fortran and is highly portable. The program supports calculations for a variety of target geometries (e.g., ellipsoids, regular tetrahedra, rectangular solids, finite cylinders, hexagonal prisms, etc.). Target materials may be both inhomogeneous and anisotropic. It is straightforward for the user to import arbitrary target geometries into the code, and relatively straightforward to add new target ...

  1. Generalized velocity-gauge form of the light-matter interaction Hamiltonian beyond the dipole approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Førre, Morten; Simonsen, Aleksander Skjerlie

    2016-01-01

    The exact velocity-gauge minimal-coupling Hamiltonian describing the laser-matter interaction is transformed into another form by means of a series of gauge transformations. The Hamiltonian corresponding to this point of view is valid for an arbitrary time- and space-dependent laser field, also known as a nondipole field. In effect, the Hamiltonian represents a generalization of the original velocity-gauge minimal-coupling Hamiltonian in the sense that the particle's (classical) velocity in the laser propagation direction is also explicitly accounted for by a new operator term. Imposing the so-called long-wavelength approximation (LWA) on the field, i.e., assuming the laser wavelength being much larger than the extent of the atomic system, the spatial dependence of the field can be neglected and the interaction Hamiltonian reduces to a simpler form. Nevertheless, the resulting LWA Hamiltonian includes the effect of the magnetic-field component of the laser, which is in clear contrast with the usual dipole approximation Hamiltonian derived by imposing the LWA directly on the initial velocity-gauge minimal-coupling Hamiltonian. As such, the weak-field condition necessary to justify neglecting the magnetic field, and the LWA condition, can be considered independently in this formalism, making it an attractive alternative for a broad range of applications in strong-field physics. We demonstrate that, from a numerical perspective, this form of the light-matter interaction is advantageous compared to its standard velocity-gauge counterpart as it gives rise to faster convergence properties when describing ionization dynamics in superintense fields beyond the dipole approximation.

  2. Nanostructured systems with arbitrary electric and magnetic properties: Development and Application of an Extension of the Discrete Dipole Approximation (E-DDA)

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz de la Osa, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    The discrete dipole approximation (DDA) has been successfully applied to many light scattering problems. Simply stated, the DDA is an approximation of the continuum target by a finite array of polarizable points. The points acquire dipole moments in response to thelocal fields. The dipoles of course interact with one another via their electric and magnetic fields, so the DDA is also sometimes referred to as the coupled dipole approximation. As of today, the method has established itself as on...

  3. Nanostructured systems with arbitrary electric and magnetic properties : development and application of an extension of the discrete dipole approximation (E-DDA)

    OpenAIRE

    Alcaraz de la Osa, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The discrete dipole approximation (DDA) has been successfully applied to many light scattering problems. Simply stated, the DDA is an approximation of the continuum target by a finite array of polarizable points. The points acquire dipole moments in response to the local fields. The dipoles of course interact with one another via their electric and magnetic fields, so the DDA is also sometimes referred to as the coupled dipole approximation. As of today, the method has established i...

  4. The discrete dipole approximation for simulation of light scattering by particles much larger than the wavelength

    CERN Document Server

    Yurkin, Maxim A; Hoekstra, Alfons G

    2007-01-01

    In this manuscript we investigate the capabilities of the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) to simulate scattering from particles that are much larger than the wavelength of the incident light, and describe an optimized publicly available DDA computer program that processes the large number of dipoles required for such simulations. Numerical simulations of light scattering by spheres with size parameters x up to 160 and 40 for refractive index m=1.05 and 2 respectively are presented and compared with exact results of the Mie theory. Errors of both integral and angle-resolved scattering quantities generally increase with m and show no systematic dependence on x. Computational times increase steeply with both x and m, reaching values of more than 2 weeks on a cluster of 64 processors. The main distinctive feature of the computer program is the ability to parallelize a single DDA simulation over a cluster of computers, which allows it to simulate light scattering by very large particles, like the ones that are...

  5. User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 7.3

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T

    2013-01-01

    DDSCAT 7.3 is an open-source Fortran-90 software package applying the discrete dipole approximation to calculate scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by targets with arbitrary geometries and complex refractive index. The targets may be isolated entities (e.g., dust particles), but may also be 1-d or 2-d periodic arrays of "target unit cells", allowing calculation of absorption, scattering, and electric fields around arrays of nanostructures. The theory of the DDA and its implementation in DDSCAT is presented in Draine (1988) and Draine & Flatau (1994), and its extension to periodic structures in Draine & Flatau (2008), and efficient near-field calculations in Flatau & Draine (2012). DDSCAT 7.3 includes support for MPI, OpenMP, and the Intel Math Kernel Library (MKL). DDSCAT supports calculations for a variety of target geometries. Target materials may be both inhomogeneous and anisotropic. It is straightforward for the user to "import" arbitrary target geometries into the code. DDSCA...

  6. User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 7.1

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T

    2010-01-01

    DDSCAT 7.1 is an open-source Fortran-90 software package applying the discrete dipole approximation to calculate scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by targets with arbitrary geometries and complex refractive index. The targets may be isolated entities (e.g., dust particles), but may also be 1-d or 2-d periodic arrays of "target unit cells", allowing calculation of absorption, scattering, and electric fields around arrays of nanostructures. The theory of the DDA and its implementation in DDSCAT is presented in Draine (1988) and Draine & Flatau (1994), and its extension to periodic structures (and near-field calculations) in Draine & Flatau (2008). DDSCAT 7.1 includes support for MPI, OpenMP, and the Intel Math Kernel Library (MKL). DDSCAT supports calculations for a variety of target geometries. Target materials may be both inhomogeneous and anisotropic. It is straightforward for the user to "import" arbitrary target geometries into the code. DDSCAT automatically calculates total cross ...

  7. Classical dynamics of a charged particle in a laser field beyond the dipole approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Jameson, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The classical dynamics of a charged particle traveling in a laser field modeled by an elliptically polarized monochromatic electromagnetic plane wave is discussed within the time reparametrization invariant form of the non-relativistic Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The exact parametric representation for a particle's orbit in an arbitrary plane wave background beyond the dipole approximation and including effect of the magnetic field is derived. For an elliptically polarized monochromatic plane wave the particle's trajectory, as an explicit function of the laboratory frame's time, is given in terms of the Jacobian elliptic functions, whose modulus is proportional to the laser's intensity and depends on the polarization of radiation. It is shown that the system exposes the ``intensity duality'', correspondence between the motion in the backgrounds with various intensities. In virtue of the modular properties of the Jacobian functions, by starting with the representative ``fundamental solution'' and applying a certai...

  8. User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT.6.0

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T

    2003-01-01

    DDSCAT.6.0 is a freely available software package (http://www.astro.princeton.edu/~draine/DDSCAT.6.0.html) which applies the "discrete dipole approximation" (DDA) to calculate scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by targets with arbitrary geometries and complex refractive index. DDSCAT.6.0 allows accurate calculations of electromagnetic scattering from targets with ``size parameters'' 2*pi*a/lambda < 15 provided the refractive index m is not large compared to unity (|m-1| < 1). DDSCAT.6.0 includes the option of using the FFTW (Fastest Fourier Transform in the West) package. DDSCAT.6.0 also includes MPI support, permitting parallel calculations on multiprocessor systems. DDSCAT package is written in Fortran and is highly portable. The program supports calculations for a variety of target geometries (e.g., ellipsoids, regular tetrahedra, rectangular solids, finite cylinders, hexagonal prisms, etc.). Target materials may be both inhomogeneous and anisotropic. It is straightforward for the use...

  9. Influence of sintering necks on the spectral behaviour of ITO clusters using the Discrete Dipole Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study the spectral behaviour of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticle clusters using different sinter neck models for the connections between the primary particles. The investigations include light scattering calculations based on the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA). The corresponding clusters are generated using the Cluster–Cluster algorithm proposed by Filippov et al. Different sintering neck models led to significantly different spectral features. A spectral neck factor that reveals the thickness of the necks connecting the primary particles with a simple measurement method is introduced. - Highlights: • We investigate the necking phenomenon in ITO fractal-like aggregates. • Extinction diagrams are sensitive to changes of the neck size. • We propose a simple procedure for measuring the neck size in ITO aggregates

  10. Opendda: a Novel High-Performance Computational Framework for the Discrete Dipole Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Donald, James Mc; Jennings, S Gerard

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a highly optimized computational framework for the Discrete Dipole Approximation, a numerical method for calculating the optical properties associated with a target of arbitrary geometry that is widely used in atmospheric, astrophysical and industrial simulations. Core optimizations include the bit-fielding of integer data and iterative methods that complement a new Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) kernel, which efficiently calculates the matrix vector products required by these iterative solution schemes. The new kernel performs the requisite 3-D DFTs as ensembles of 1-D transforms, and by doing so, is able to reduce the number of constituent 1-D transforms by 60% and the memory by over 80%. The optimizations also facilitate the use of parallel techniques to further enhance the performance. Complete OpenMP-based shared-memory and MPI-based distributed-memory implementations have been created to take full advantage of the various architectures. Several benchmarks of the new framework indica...

  11. User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 7.2

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, Bruce T

    2012-01-01

    DDSCAT 7.2 is a freely available open-source Fortran-90 software package applying the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to calculate scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by targets with arbitrary geometries and complex refractive index. The targets may be isolated entities (e.g., dust particles), but may also be 1-d or 2-d periodic arrays of "target unit cells", which can be used to study absorption, scattering, and electric fields around arrays of nanostructures. The DDA approximates the target by an array of polarizable points. The theory of the DDA and its implementation in DDSCAT is presented in Draine (1988) and Draine & Flatau (1994), and its extension to periodic structures in Draine & Flatau (2008). Efficient near-field calculations are enabled following Flatau & Draine (2012). DDSCAT 7.2 allows accurate calculations of electromagnetic scattering from targets with size parameters 2*pi*aeff/lambda < 25 provided the refractive index m is not large compared to unity (|m-1| ...

  12. Test Results of a Nb3Sn Wind/React ''Stress-Managed'' Block Dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A second phase of a highfield dipole technology development has been tested. A Nb3Sn block-coil model dipole was fabricated, using magnetic mirror geometry and wind/react coil technology. The primary objective of this phase was to make a first experimental test of the stress-management strategy pioneered at Texas A and M. In this strategy a high-strength support matrix is integrated with the windings to intercept Lorentz stress from the inner winding so that it does not accumulate in the outer winding. The magnet attained a field that was consistent with short sample limit on the first quench; there was no training. The decoupling of Lorentz stress between inner and outer windings was validated. In ramp rate studies the magnet exhibited a remarkable robustness in rapid ramping operation. It reached 85 percent of short sample(ss) current even while ramping 2-3 T/s. This robustness is attributed to the orientation of the Rutherford cables parallel to the field in the windings, instead of the transverse orientation that characterizes common dipole designs. Test results are presented and the next development phase plans are discussed

  13. Large-scale Continuum Random Phase Approximation predictions of dipole strength for astrophysical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Daoutidis, I

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale calculations of the E1 strength are performed within the random phase approximation (RPA) based on the relativistic point-coupling mean field approach in order to derive the radiative neutron capture cross sections for all nuclei of astrophysical interest. While the coupling to the single-particle continuum is taken into account in an explicit and self-consistent way, additional corrections like the coupling to complex configurations and the temperature and deformation effects are included in a phenomenological way to account for a complete description of the nuclear dynamical problem. It is shown that the resulting E1-strength function based on the PCF1 force is in close agreement with photoabsorption data as well as the available experimental E1 strength data at low energies. For neutron-rich nuclei, as well as light neutron-deficient nuclei, a low-lying so-called pygmy resonance is found systematically in the 5-10 MeV region. The corresponding strength can reach 10% of the giant dipole strength...

  14. Directed energy transfer in films of CdSe quantum dots: beyond the point dipole approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kaibo; Žídek, Karel; Abdellah, Mohamed; Zhu, Nan; Chábera, Pavel; Lenngren, Nils; Chi, Qijin; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2014-04-30

    Understanding of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in thin films composed of quantum dots (QDs) is of fundamental and technological significance in optimal design of QD based optoelectronic devices. The separation between QDs in the densely packed films is usually smaller than the size of QDs, so that the simple point-dipole approximation, widely used in the conventional approach, can no longer offer quantitative description of the FRET dynamics in such systems. Here, we report the investigations of the FRET dynamics in densely packed films composed of multisized CdSe QDs using ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy and theoretical modeling. Pairwise interdot transfer time was determined in the range of 1.5 to 2 ns by spectral analyses which enable separation of the FRET contribution from intrinsic exciton decay. A rational model is suggested by taking into account the distribution of the electronic transition densities in the dots and using the film morphology revealed by AFM images. The FRET dynamics predicted by the model are in good quantitative agreement with experimental observations without adjustable parameters. Finally, we use our theoretical model to calculate dynamics of directed energy transfer in ordered multilayer QD films, which we also observe experimentally. The Monte Carlo simulations reveal that three ideal QD monolayers can provide exciton funneling efficiency above 80% from the most distant layer. Thereby, utilization of directed energy transfer can significantly improve light harvesting efficiency of QD devices.

  15. Classical dynamics of a charged particle in a laser field beyond the dipole approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameson, Paul; Khvedelidze, Arsen

    2008-05-01

    The classical dynamics of a charged particle traveling in a laser field modeled by an elliptically polarized monochromatic electromagnetic plane wave is discussed within the time reparametrization invariant form of the nonrelativistic Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The exact parametric representation for a particle’s orbit in an arbitrary plane wave background beyond the dipole approximation and including effect of the magnetic field is derived. For an elliptically polarized monochromatic plane wave the particle’s trajectory, as an explicit function of the laboratory frame’s time, is given in terms of the Jacobian elliptic functions, whose modulus is proportional to the laser’s intensity and depends on the polarization of radiation. It is shown that the system exposes the intensity duality, correspondence between the motion in the backgrounds with various intensities. In virtue of the modular properties of the Jacobian functions, by starting with the representative “fundamental solution” and applying a certain modular transformation one can obtain the particle’s orbit in the monochromatic plane wave background with arbitrarily prescribed characteristics.

  16. User Guide for the Discrete Dipole Approximation Code DDSCAT 6.1

    CERN Document Server

    Draine, B T; Draine, Bruce T.; Flatau, Piotr J.

    2004-01-01

    DDSCAT 6.1 is a software package which applies the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) to calculate scattering and absorption of electromagnetic waves by targets with arbitrary geometries and complex refractive index. DDSCAT 6.1 allows accurate calculations of electromagnetic scattering from targets with size parameters 2 pi a_eff/lambda < 15 provided the refractive index m is not large compared to unity (|m-1| < 2). DDSCAT 6.1 includes support for MPI and FFTW. We also make available a "plain" distribution of DDSCAT 6.1 that does not include support for MPI, FFTW, or netCDF, but is much simpler to install than the full distribution. The DDSCAT package is written in Fortran and is highly portable. The program supports calculations for a variety of target geometries (e.g., ellipsoids, regular tetrahedra, rectangular solids, finite cylinders, hexagonal prisms, etc.). Target materials may be both inhomogeneous and anisotropic. It is straightforward for the user to import arbitrary target geometries into th...

  17. Discrete Dipole Approximation for Low-Energy Photoelectron Emission from NaCl Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Matthew J.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Sorensen, Chris; Chakrabarti, Amit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-09-22

    This work presents a model for the photoemission of electrons from sodium chloride nanoparticles 50-500 nm in size, illuminated by vacuum ultraviolet light with energy ranging from 9.4-10.9 eV. The discrete dipole approximation is used to calculate the electromagnetic field inside the particles, from which the two-dimensional angular distribution of emitted electrons is simulated. The emission is found to favor the particle?s geometrically illuminated side, and this asymmetry is compared to previous measurements performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. By modeling the nanoparticles as spheres, the Berkeley group is able to semi-quantitatively account for the observed asymmetry. Here however, the particles are modeled as cubes, which is closer to their actual shape, and the interaction of an emitted electron with the particle surface is also considered. The end result shows that the emission asymmetry for these low-energy electrons is more sensitive to the particle-surface interaction than to the specific particle shape, i.e., a sphere or cube.

  18. Synthesis, Study, and Discrete Dipole Approximation Simulation of Ag-Au Bimetallic Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Zhang, An-Qi; Li, Hui-Jun; Qian, Dong-Jin; Chen, Meng

    2016-12-01

    Water-soluble Ag-Au bimetallic nanostructures were prepared via co-reduction and seed-mediated growth routes employing poly-(4-styrenesulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) (PSSMA) as both a reductant and a stabilizer. Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles were obtained by the co-reduction of AgNO3 and HAuCl4, while Ag-Au core-shell nanostructures were prepared through seed-mediated growth using PSSMA-Au nanoparticle seeds in a heated AgNO3 solution. The optical properties of the Ag-Au alloy and core-shell nanostructures were studied, and the growth mechanism of the bimetallic nanoparticles was investigated. Plasmon resonance bands in the range 422 to 517 nm were observed for Ag-Au alloy nanoparticles, while two plasmon resonances were found in the Ag-Au core-shell nanostructures. Furthermore, discrete dipole approximation theoretical simulation was used to assess the optical property differences between the Ag-Au alloy and core-shell nanostructures. Composition and morphology studies confirmed that the synthesized materials were Ag-Au bimetallic nanostructures. PMID:27094823

  19. Resonance fluorescence beyond the dipole approximation of a quantum dot in a plasmonic nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Jie; An, Jun-Hong

    2016-05-01

    The mesoscopic characteristics of a quantum dot (QD), which make the dipole approximation (DA) break down, provide a new dimension to manipulate light-matter interaction [M. L. Andersen et al., Nat. Phys. 7, 215 (2011)], 10.1038/nphys1870. Here we investigate the power spectrum and the second-order correlation property of the fluorescence from a resonantly driven QD placed on a planar metal. It is revealed that due to the pronounced QD spatial extension and the dramatic variation of the triggered surface plasmon near the metal, the fluorescence has a notable contribution from the quadrupole moment. The π -rotation symmetry of the fluorescence to the QD orientation under the DA is broken. By manipulating the QD orientation and quadrupole moment, the spectrum can be switched between the Mollow triplet and a single peak, and the fluorescence characterized by the antibunching in the second-order correlation function can be changed from the weak to the strong radiation regime. Our result is instructive for utilizing the unique mesoscopic effects to develop nanophotonic devices.

  20. The discrete-dipole-approximation code ADDA: Capabilities and known limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The open-source code ADDA is described, which implements the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), a method to simulate light scattering by finite 3D objects of arbitrary shape and composition. Besides standard sequential execution, ADDA can run on a multiprocessor distributed-memory system, parallelizing a single DDA calculation. Hence the size parameter of the scatterer is in principle limited only by total available memory and computational speed. ADDA is written in C99 and is highly portable. It provides full control over the scattering geometry (particle morphology and orientation, and incident beam) and allows one to calculate a wide variety of integral and angle-resolved scattering quantities (cross sections, the Mueller matrix, etc.). Moreover, ADDA incorporates a range of state-of-the-art DDA improvements, aimed at increasing the accuracy and computational speed of the method. We discuss both physical and computational aspects of the DDA simulations and provide a practical introduction into performing such simulations with the ADDA code. We also present several simulation results, in particular, for a sphere with size parameter 320 (100-wavelength diameter) and refractive index 1.05.

  1. Complexes of block copolymers in solution: tree approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Bernard J.; Damme, van Ruud

    1989-01-01

    We determine the statistical properties of block copolymer complexes in solution. These complexes are assumed to have the topological structure of (i) a tree or of (ii) a line-dressed tree. In case the structure is that of a tree, the system is shown to undergo a gelation transition at sufficiently

  2. ABSORPTION EFFICIENCIES OF FORSTERITE. I. DISCRETE DIPOLE APPROXIMATION EXPLORATIONS IN GRAIN SHAPE AND SIZE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, Sean S. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of Tennessee, 1421 Circle Drive, Knoxville, TN 37996-2366 (United States); Wooden, Diane H. [Space Science Division, NASA Ames Research Center, MS 245-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035-0001 (United States); Harker, David E. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Kelley, Michael S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Woodward, Charles E. [Minnesota Institute of Astrophysics, 116 Church Street S. E., University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Murphy, Jim R., E-mail: slindsay@utk.edu, E-mail: diane.h.wooden@nasa.gov, E-mail: dharker@uscd.edu, E-mail: msk@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: chelsea@astro.umn.edu, E-mail: murphy@nmsu.edu [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States)

    2013-03-20

    We compute the absorption efficiency (Q{sub abs}) of forsterite using the discrete dipole approximation in order to identify and describe what characteristics of crystal grain shape and size are important to the shape, peak location, and relative strength of spectral features in the 8-40 {mu}m wavelength range. Using the DDSCAT code, we compute Q{sub abs} for non-spherical polyhedral grain shapes with a{sub eff} = 0.1 {mu}m. The shape characteristics identified are (1) elongation/reduction along one of three crystallographic axes; (2) asymmetry, such that all three crystallographic axes are of different lengths; and (3) the presence of crystalline faces that are not parallel to a specific crystallographic axis, e.g., non-rectangular prisms and (di)pyramids. Elongation/reduction dominates the locations and shapes of spectral features near 10, 11, 16, 23.5, 27, and 33.5 {mu}m, while asymmetry and tips are secondary shape effects. Increasing grain sizes (0.1-1.0 {mu}m) shifts the 10 and 11 {mu}m features systematically toward longer wavelengths and relative to the 11 {mu}m feature increases the strengths and slightly broadens the longer wavelength features. Seven spectral shape classes are established for crystallographic a-, b-, and c-axes and include columnar and platelet shapes plus non-elongated or equant grain shapes. The spectral shape classes and the effects of grain size have practical application in identifying or excluding columnar, platelet, or equant forsterite grain shapes in astrophysical environs. Identification of the shape characteristics of forsterite from 8 to 40 {mu}m spectra provides a potential means to probe the temperatures at which forsterite formed.

  3. Discrete dipole approximation for black carbon-containing aerosols in arbitrary mixing state: A hybrid discretization scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteki, Nobuhiro

    2016-07-01

    An accurate and efficient simulation of light scattering by an atmospheric black carbon (BC)-containing aerosol-a fractal-like cluster of hundreds of carbon monomers that is internally mixed with other aerosol compounds such as sulfates, organics, and water-remains challenging owing to the enormous diversities of such aerosols' size, shape, and mixing state. Although the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) is theoretically an exact numerical method that is applicable to arbitrary non-spherical inhomogeneous targets, in practice, it suffers from severe granularity-induced error and degradation of computational efficiency for such extremely complex targets. To solve this drawback, we propose herein a hybrid DDA method designed for arbitrary BC-containing aerosols: the monomer-dipole assumption is applied to a cluster of carbon monomers, whereas the efficient cubic-lattice discretization is applied to the remaining particle volume consisting of other materials. The hybrid DDA is free from the error induced by the surface granularity of carbon monomers that occurs in conventional cubic-lattice DDA. In the hybrid DDA, we successfully mitigate the artifact of neglecting the higher-order multipoles in the monomer-dipole assumption by incorporating the magnetic dipole in addition to the electric dipole into our DDA formulations. Our numerical experiments show that the hybrid DDA method is an efficient light-scattering solver for BC-containing aerosols in arbitrary mixing states. The hybrid DDA could be also useful for a cluster of metallic nanospheres associated with other dielectric materials.

  4. Low-lying dipole response in the stable $^{40,48}$Ca nuclei with the second random-phase approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Gambacurta, D; Catara, F

    2011-01-01

    Low-energy dipole excitations are analyzed for the stable isotopes $^{40}$Ca and $^{48}$Ca in the framework of the Skyrme-second random-phase approximation. The corresponding random-phase approximation calculations provide a negligible strength distribution for both nuclei in the energy region from 5 to 10 MeV. The inclusion and the coupling of 2 particle-2 hole configurations in the second random-phase approximation lead to an appreciable dipole response at low energies for the neutron-rich nucleus $^{48}$Ca. The presence of a neutron skin in the nucleus $^{48}$Ca would suggest the interpretation of the low-lying response in terms of a pygmy excitation. The composition of the excitation modes (content of 1 particle-1 hole and 2 particle-2 hole configurations), their transition densities and their collectivity (number and coherence of the different contributions) are analyzed. This analysis indicates that, in general, these excitations cannot be clearly interpreted in terms of oscillations of the neutron skin...

  5. Optical properties of local surface plasmon resonance in Ag/ITO sliced nanosphere by the discrete dipole approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiwei, Mu; Jingwei, Lv; Zhaoting, Liu; Lin, Yang; Qiang, Liu; Chao, Liu [Northeast Petroleum University, School of Electronics Science, Daqing (China); Shijie, Zheng [Harbin Institute of Technology, School of Civil Engineering, Harbin (China); Tao, Sun [Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A-STAR), Institute of Microelectronics, Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-04-15

    Optical properties of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPR) of Ag/ITO sliced nanosphere have been studied using discrete dipole approximation and plasmon hybridization theory. It is found that different morphologies of sliced nanosphere can induce distinctive features in the extinction spectra. In the meanwhile, gap distances and refractive index of the surrounding medium could modulate the plasmon hybridization and the LSPR shifting. At large separation, the shift of LSPR peaks for the nanosphere sliced in halves consisting of ITO and Ag is small and insensitive to the gap distance in the weak coupling, whereas smaller separation exhibits a distinct red shift. Additionally, multiple resonance peaks are excited for the nanosphere sliced in quarters consisting of ITO and Ag. In this situation, electric field is mainly distributed in the gap region of sliced nanosphere and the central point. These results indicate that different morphologies of sliced nanosphere could create abundant tunable LSPR modes, which provides potential for multiplex optical sensing. (orig.)

  6. Calculation of electric dipole hypershieldings at the nuclei in the Hellmann-Feynman approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncini, Alessandro; Lazzeretti, Paolo; Bakken, Vebjørn; Helgaker, Trygve

    2004-02-15

    The third-rank electric hypershieldings at the nuclei of four small molecules have been evaluated at the Hartree-Fock level of theory in the Hellmann-Feynman approximation. The nuclear electric hypershieldings are closely related to molecular vibrational absorption intensities and a generalization of the atomic polar tensors (expanded in powers of the electric field strength) is proposed to rationalize these intensities. It is shown that the sum rules for rototranslational invariance and the constraints imposed by the virial theorem provide useful criteria for basis-set completeness and for near Hartree-Fock quality of nuclear shieldings and hypershieldings evaluated in the Hellmann-Feynman approximation. Twelve basis sets of different size and quality have been employed for the water molecule in an extended numerical test on the practicality of the proposed scheme. The best results are obtained with the R12 and R12+ basis sets, designed for the calculation of electronic energies by the explicitly correlated R12 method. The R12 basis set is subsequently used to investigate three other molecules, CO, N2, and NH3, verifying that the R12 basis consistently performs very well. PMID:15268466

  7. Calculation of electric dipole hypershieldings at the nuclei in the Hellmann-Feynman approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncini, Alessandro; Lazzeretti, Paolo; Bakken, Vebjørn; Helgaker, Trygve

    2004-02-15

    The third-rank electric hypershieldings at the nuclei of four small molecules have been evaluated at the Hartree-Fock level of theory in the Hellmann-Feynman approximation. The nuclear electric hypershieldings are closely related to molecular vibrational absorption intensities and a generalization of the atomic polar tensors (expanded in powers of the electric field strength) is proposed to rationalize these intensities. It is shown that the sum rules for rototranslational invariance and the constraints imposed by the virial theorem provide useful criteria for basis-set completeness and for near Hartree-Fock quality of nuclear shieldings and hypershieldings evaluated in the Hellmann-Feynman approximation. Twelve basis sets of different size and quality have been employed for the water molecule in an extended numerical test on the practicality of the proposed scheme. The best results are obtained with the R12 and R12+ basis sets, designed for the calculation of electronic energies by the explicitly correlated R12 method. The R12 basis set is subsequently used to investigate three other molecules, CO, N2, and NH3, verifying that the R12 basis consistently performs very well.

  8. The effect of dipole-dipole interactions on coercivity, anisotropy constant, and blocking temperature of MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslibeiki, B., E-mail: b.aslibeiki@tabrizu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 51666-16471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kameli, P.; Salamati, H. [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-14

    Superparamagnetic manganese ferrite nanoparticles with mean size of 〈D〉 = 6.5(±1.5) nm were synthesized through a solvothermal method using Tri-ethylene glycol as a solvent. The peak temperature of zero field cooled measurements of magnetization and AC magnetic susceptibility curves shifted toward higher temperatures by applying different pressures from 0 to 1 kbar and increasing the powders compaction. The frequency dependence of AC susceptibility measurements indicated the presence of weak dipole-dipole interactions between nanoparticles. By increasing the powders compaction and interactions strength, the coercive field (H{sub c}) increased and squareness (M{sub r}/M{sub s}) decreased. The obtained effective anisotropy constant (K{sub eff}), by susceptibility measurements, was from 1.72 × 10{sup 6} to 2.36 × 10{sup 6 }ergs/cm{sup 3} for pressure of 0 to 1 kbar. These values are larger than those obtained from hysteresis loops at 5 K (0.14 × 10{sup 6} to 0.34 × 10{sup 6 }erg/cm{sup 3}). Also, the K{sub eff} was two orders of magnitude greater than that of bulk MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. Size, surface effects, and total energy barrier between equilibrium states were reported as the main causes of large anisotropy. Below 75 K, a signature of weak surface spin glass was observed. However, memory effect experiment indicated that there is no collective superspin glass state in the samples. This study suggests the role of powders compaction on properties of a magnetic nanoparticles system. Furthermore, the coercivity, the anisotropy constant, and the blocking temperature are affected by changing nanoparticles compaction.

  9. Using the Discrete Dipole Approximation and Holographic Microscopy to Measure Rotational Dynamics of Non-spherical Colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Anna; Fung, Jerome; Razavi, Sepideh; Kretzschmar, Ilona; Chaudhary, Kundan; Lewis, Jennifer A; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2013-01-01

    We present a new, high-speed technique to track the three-dimensional translation and rotation of non-spherical colloidal particles. We capture digital holograms of micrometer-scale silica rods and sub-micrometer-scale Janus particles freely diffusing in water, and then fit numerical scattering models based on the discrete dipole approximation to the measured holograms. This inverse-scattering approach allows us to extract the the position and orientation of the particles as a function of time, along with static parameters including the size, shape, and refractive index. The best-fit sizes and refractive indices of both particles agree well with expected values. The technique is able to track the center of mass of the rod to a precision of 35 nm and its orientation to a precision of 1.5$^\\circ$, comparable to or better than the precision of other 3D diffusion measurements on non-spherical particles. Furthermore, the measured translational and rotational diffusion coefficients for the silica rods agree with hy...

  10. Approximants of Al–Cr–Fe–Si decagonal quasicrystals described by single structural block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Zhanbing, E-mail: hezhanbing@ustb.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Wei, Dongxia [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Shen, Xi [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Chen, Yuan; Ma, Haikun; Wang, Leilei [State Key Laboratory for Advanced Metals and Materials, University of Science & Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Du, Kui [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yao, Yuan; Yu, Richeng [Beijing National Laboratory of Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2015-10-25

    The orthorhombic (3/2, 2/1) approximant with a = 3.06 nm, b = 1.23 nm, c = 2.24 nm, and the coexisting (2/1, 3/2) approximant of decagonal quasicrystals with a = 1.90 nm, c = 3.64 nm, and β ≅ 90° are found in Al–Cr–Fe–Si alloys by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope. The structural relationships of these two approximants are analyzed and discussed based on the high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy images at atomic resolution. We find that both of their structural tiling along the [010] direction can be described by one shield-like tile, with the superiority over the previous HBS tiling model due to the clarity. Combining the shield-like tile and HBS tiling model, the domains of approximants are clearly demonstrated. - Highlights: • We discover one new approximant by STEM image. • Single structural block is adopted to describe three approximants. • Shield-like tiling has advantage in concision over the HBS tiling model. • The shield-like tiling and HBS model can be combined.

  11. Random Phase Approximation For allowed and Parity Non-conserving Electric Dipole Transition Amplitudes and its connection with Many-Body Perturbation Theory and Coupled Cluster Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gopakumar, G; Das, B P; Chaudhuri, R K; Mukherjee, D; Hirao, K; Gopakumar, Geetha; Sur, Chirajib; Das, Bhanu Pratap; Chaudhuri, Rajat K.; Hirao, Kimihiko

    2005-01-01

    The connections between the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) and Many-Body Perturbation Theory (MBPT) and its all order generalisation, the Coupled- Cluster Theory (CCT) have been explored. Explicit expressions have been derived for the electric dipole amplitudes for allowed and forbidden transitions induced by the parity non-conserving neutral weak interaction. The Goldstone diagrams associated with the RPA terms in both cases are shown to arise in MBPT and CCT and the numerical verification of this relationship is made for the allowed electric dipole transitions.

  12. Variable Coefficient KdV Equation and the Analytical Diagnoses of a Dipole Blocking Life Cycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Xiao-Yan; HUANG Fei; LOU Sen-Yue

    2006-01-01

    @@ A variable coefficient Korteweg de Vries (VCKdV) system is derived by considering the time-dependent basic flow and boundary conditions from the well-known Euler equation with an earth rotation term. The analytical solution obtained from the VCKdV equation can be successfully used to explain fruitful phenomena in fluid and other physical fields, for instance, the atmospheric blocking phenomena. In particular, a diploe blocking case happened during 9 April 1973 to 18 April 1973 read out from the National Center for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis data is well described by the analytical solution.

  13. Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Scarnato

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available According to recent studies, internal mixing of black carbon (BC with other aerosol materials in the atmosphere alters its aggregate shape, absorption of solar radiation, and radiative forcing. These mixing state effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we characterize the morphology and mixing state of bare BC and BC internally mixed with sodium chloride (NaCl using electron microscopy and examine the sensitivity of optical properties to BC mixing state and aggregate morphology using a discrete dipole approximation model (DDSCAT. DDSCAT predicts a higher mass absorption coefficient, lower single scattering albedo (SSA, and higher absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE for bare BC aggregates that are lacy rather than compact. Predicted values of SSA at 550 nm range between 0.18 and 0.27 for lacy and compact aggregates, respectively, in agreement with reported experimental values of 0.25 ± 0.05. The variation in absorption with wavelength does not adhere precisely to a power law relationship over the 200 to 1000 nm range. Consequently, AAE values depend on the wavelength region over which they are computed. In the 300 to 550 nm range, AAE values ranged in this study from 0.70 for compact to 0.95 for lacy aggregates. The SSA of BC internally mixed with NaCl (100–300 nm in radius is higher than for bare BC and increases with the embedding in the NaCl. Internally mixed BC SSA values decrease in the 200–400 nm wavelength range, a feature also common to the optical properties of dust and organics. Linear polarization features are also predicted in DDSCAT and are dependent on particle morphology. The bare BC (with a radius of 80 nm presents in the linear polarization a bell shape feature, which is a characteristic of the Rayleigh regime (for particles smaller than the wavelength of incident radiation. When BC is internally mixed with NaCl (100–300 nm in radius, strong depolarization features for near-VIS incident radiation are evident

  14. Effects of internal mixing and aggregate morphology on optical properties of black carbon using a discrete dipole approximation model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Scarnato

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available According to recent studies, internal mixing of black carbon (BC with other aerosol materials in the atmosphere alters its aggregate shape, absorption of solar radiation, and radiative forcing. These mixing state effects are not yet fully understood. In this study, we characterize the morphology and mixing state of bare BC and BC internally mixed with sodium chloride (NaCl using electron microscopy and examine the sensitivity of optical properties to BC mixing state and aggregate morphology using a discrete dipole approximation model (DDSCAT. DDSCAT is flexible in simulating the geometry and refractive index of particle aggregates. DDSCAT predicts a higher mass absorption coefficient (MAC, lower single scattering albedo (SSA, and higher absorption Angstrom exponent (AAE for bare BC aggregates that are lacy rather than compact. Predicted values of SSA at 550 nm range between 0.16 and 0.27 for lacy and compact aggregates, respectively, in agreement with reported experimental values of 0.25 ± 0.05. The variation in absorption with wavelength does not adhere precisely to a power law relationship over the 200 to 1000 nm range. Consequently, AAE values depend on the wavelength region over which they are computed. The MAC of BC (averaged over the 200–1000 nm range is amplified when internally mixed with NaCl (100–300 nm in radius by factors ranging from 1.0 for lacy BC aggregates partially immersed in NaCl to 2.2 for compact BC aggregates fully immersed in NaCl. The SSA of BC internally mixed with NaCl is higher than for bare BC and increases with the embedding in the NaCl. Internally mixed BC SSA values decrease in the 200–400 nm wavelength range, a feature also common to the optical properties of dust and organics. Linear polarization features are also predicted in DDSCAT and are dependent on particle size and morphology. This study shows that DDSCAT predicts complex morphology and mixing state dependent aerosol optical properties that have

  15. QED-based Optical Bloch Equations without electric dipole approximation: A model for a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic X-ray laser beam

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Wen-Zhuo

    2012-01-01

    We derive a set of optical Bloch equations (OBEs) directly from the minimal-coupling Hamiltonian density of the bound-state quantum electrodynamics (bound-state QED). Such optical Bloch equations are beyond the former widely-used ones due to that there is no electric dipole approximation (EDA) on the minimal-coupling Hamiltonian density of the bound-state QED. Then our optical Bloch equations can describe a two-level atom interacting with a monochromatic light of arbitrary wavelength, which are suitable to study the spectroscopy and the Rabi oscillations of two-level atoms in X-ray laser beams since that the wavelength of X-ray is close to an atom to make the electric dipole approximation (EDA) invalid.

  16. The Thermal Discrete Dipole Approximation (T-DDA) for near-field radiative heat transfer simulations in three-dimensional arbitrary geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Edalatpour, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    A novel numerical method called the Thermal Discrete Dipole Approximation (T-DDA) is proposed for modeling near-field radiative heat transfer in three-dimensional arbitrary geometries. The T-DDA is conceptually similar to the Discrete Dipole Approximation, except that the incident field originates from thermal oscillations of dipoles. The T-DDA is described in details in the paper, and the method is tested against exact results of radiative conductance between two spheres separated by a sub-wavelength vacuum gap. For all cases considered, the results calculated from the T-DDA are in good agreement with those from the analytical solution. When considering frequency-independent dielectric functions, it is observed that the number of sub-volumes required for convergence increases as the sphere permittivity increases. Additionally, simulations performed for two silica spheres of 0.5 micrometer-diameter show that the resonant modes are predicted accurately via the T-DDA. For separation gaps of 0.5 micrometer and 0...

  17. Pygmy and giant electric dipole responses of medium-heavy nuclei in a self-consistent Random Phase Approximation approach with finite-range interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Co', G; Anguiano, M; Lallena, A M

    2013-01-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) is studied in various medium-heavy nuclei by using a Gogny interaction in a self-consistent Hartree-Fock plus Random Phase Approximation method. We compare the details of the PDR structure with those of the giant dipole resonance (GDR). In the PDR protons and neutrons vibrate in phase, and the main contributions are given by particle-hole excitations involving the neutrons in excess. On the contrary, in the GDR protons and neutrons vibrate out of phase, and all the nucleons are involved in the excitation. The values of the parameters we used to define the collectivity of an excitation indicate that the PDR is less collective than the GDR. We also investigate the role of the residual interaction in the appearance of the PDR and we find a subtle interplay with the shell structure of the nucleus.

  18. Efficient modal-expansion discrete-dipole approximation: Application to the simulation of optical extinction and electron energy-loss spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Stéphane-Olivier; de Abajo, F. Javier García; Henrard, Luc

    2013-12-01

    An efficient procedure is introduced for the calculation of the optical response of individual and coupled metallic nanoparticles in the framework of the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA). We introduce a modal expansion in the basis set of discrete dipoles and show that a few suitably selected modes are sufficient to compute optical spectra with reasonable accuracy, thus reducing the required numerical effort relative to other DDA approaches. Our method offers a natural framework for the study of localized plasmon modes, including plasmon hybridization. As a proof of concept, we investigate optical extinction and electron energy-loss spectra of monomers, dimers, and quadrumers formed by flat silver squares. This method should find application to the previously prohibited simulation of complex particle arrays.

  19. Low-lying dipole response in the stable {sup 40,48}Ca nuclei within the second random-phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambacurta, D.; Grasso, M.; Catara, F. [GANIL,CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di and INFN Catania (Italy)

    2012-10-20

    The low-lying dipole strength distributions of {sup 40}CaCa and {sup 48}Ca, in the energy region between 5 and 10 MeV, are studied within the second random phase approximation (RPA) with Skyrme interaction. Standard RPA models do not usually predict any presence of strength in this energy region, while experimentally a significant amount of strength is found. The inclusion of the 2 particle -2 hole configurations allows to obtain a description in a rather good agreement with the experimental data. The properties of the most collective state are analyzed in terms of its 1 particle -1 hole nature and its transition densities.

  20. Comment on "Pygmy dipole response of proton-rich argon nuclei in random-phase approximation and no-core shell model"

    CERN Document Server

    Paar, N

    2008-01-01

    In recent paper by C. Barbieri, E. Caurier, K. Langanke, and G. Mart\\'inez Pinedo \\cite{Bar.08}, low-energy dipole excitations have been studied in proton-rich $^{32,34}$Ar with random phase approximation (RPA) and no-core shell model (NCSM) using the correlated realistic nucleon-nucleon interactions obtained by the unitary correlation operator method (UCOM) \\cite{Fel.98}. The main objective of this comment is to argue that the paper \\cite{Bar.08} contains an inconsistency with respect to previous study of excitations in the same UCOM-RPA framework using identical correlated Argonne V18 interaction \\cite{Paa.06}, it does not provide any evidence that the low-lying state declared as pygmy dipole resonance in $^{32}$Ar indeed has the resonance-like structure, and that priror to studying exotic modes of excitation away from the valley of stability one should ensure that the model provides reliable description of available experimental data on nuclear ground state properties and excitations in nuclei.

  1. Low-energy dipole excitations in neon isotopes and N=16 isotones within the quasiparticle random phase approximation and the Gogny force

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, M; Dupuis, M

    2011-01-01

    Low-energy dipole excitations in neon isotopes and N=16 isotones are calculated with a fully consistent axially-symmetric-deformed quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) approach based on Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov (HFB) states. The same Gogny D1S effective force has been used both in HFB and QRPA calculations. The microscopical structure of these low-lying resonances, as well as the behavior of proton and neutron transition densities, are investigated in order to determine the isoscalar or isovector nature of the excitations. It is found that the N=16 isotones 24O, 26Ne, 28Mg, and 30Si are characterized by a similar behavior. The occupation of the 2s_1/2 neutron orbit turns out to be crucial, leading to nontrivial transition densities and to small but finite collectivity. Some low-lying dipole excitations of 28Ne and 30Ne, characterized by transitions involving the neutron 1d_3/2 state, present a more collective behavior and isoscalar transition densities. A collective proton low-lying excitation is id...

  2. Beyond the electric-dipole approximation: A formulation and implementation of molecular response theory for the description of absorption of electromagnetic field radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard, E-mail: nhl@sdu.dk; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick, E-mail: panor@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping SE 58183 (Sweden); Saue, Trond [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique Quantiques, UMR 5626—CNRS/Université Toulouse III (Paul Sabatier), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2015-06-28

    We present a formulation of molecular response theory for the description of a quantum mechanical molecular system in the presence of a weak, monochromatic, linearly polarized electromagnetic field without introducing truncated multipolar expansions. The presentation focuses on a description of linear absorption by adopting the energy-loss approach in combination with the complex polarization propagator formulation of response theory. Going beyond the electric-dipole approximation is essential whenever studying electric-dipole-forbidden transitions, and in general, non-dipolar effects become increasingly important when addressing spectroscopies involving higher-energy photons. These two aspects are examined by our study of the near K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure of the alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra) as well as the trans-polyenes. In following the series of alkaline earth metals, the sizes of non-dipolar effects are probed with respect to increasing photon energies and a detailed assessment of results is made in terms of studying the pertinent transition electron densities and in particular their spatial extension in comparison with the photon wavelength. Along the series of trans-polyenes, the sizes of non-dipolar effects are probed for X-ray spectroscopies on organic molecules with respect to the spatial extension of the chromophore.

  3. Beyond the electric-dipole approximation: A formulation and implementation of molecular response theory for the description of absorption of electromagnetic field radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a formulation of molecular response theory for the description of a quantum mechanical molecular system in the presence of a weak, monochromatic, linearly polarized electromagnetic field without introducing truncated multipolar expansions. The presentation focuses on a description of linear absorption by adopting the energy-loss approach in combination with the complex polarization propagator formulation of response theory. Going beyond the electric-dipole approximation is essential whenever studying electric-dipole-forbidden transitions, and in general, non-dipolar effects become increasingly important when addressing spectroscopies involving higher-energy photons. These two aspects are examined by our study of the near K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure of the alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra) as well as the trans-polyenes. In following the series of alkaline earth metals, the sizes of non-dipolar effects are probed with respect to increasing photon energies and a detailed assessment of results is made in terms of studying the pertinent transition electron densities and in particular their spatial extension in comparison with the photon wavelength. Along the series of trans-polyenes, the sizes of non-dipolar effects are probed for X-ray spectroscopies on organic molecules with respect to the spatial extension of the chromophore

  4. Theory of motion for monopole-dipole singularities of classical Yang-Mills-Higgs fields. II. Approximation scheme and equations of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drechsler, Wolfgang; Havas, Peter; Rosenblum, Arnold

    1984-02-01

    In the preceding paper, the laws of motion were established for classical particles with spin which are monopole-dipole singularities of Yang-Mills-Higgs fields. In this paper, a systematic approximation scheme is developed for solving the coupled nonlinear field equations in any order and for determining the corresponding equations of motion. In zeroth order the potentials are taken as the usual Liénard-Wiechert and Bhabha-Harish-Chandra potentials (generalized to isospace); in this order the solutions are necessarily Abelian, since the isovector describing the charge is constant. The regularization necessary to obtain expressions finite on the world lines of the particles is achieved by the method of Riesz potentials. All fields are taken as retarded and are expressed in integral form. Omitting dipole interactions, the integrals for the various terms are carried out as far as possible for general motions, including radiation-reaction terms. In first order, the charge isovectors are no longer necessarily constant; thus the solutions are not necessarily Abelian, and it is possible for charge to be radiated away. The cases of time-symmetric field theory and of an action-at-a-distance formulation of the theory are discussed in an appendix.

  5. Approximate regenerative-block bootstrap for Markov chains: some simulation studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bertail, Patrice; Clémençon, Stéphan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract : In Bertail & Clémençon (2005a) a novel methodology for bootstrappinggeneral Harris Markov chains has been proposed, which crucially exploits their renewalproperties (when eventually extended via the Nummelin splitting technique) and has theoreticalproperties that surpass other existing methods within the Markovian framework(bmoving block bootstrap, sieve bootstrap etc...). This paper is devoted to discuss practicalissues related to the implementation of this specific resampling met...

  6. The accuracy of the DDA (Discrete Dipole Approximation) method in determining the optical properties of black carbon fractal-like aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupski, Krzysztof

    2015-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) particles are a product of incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. One of the possibilities of studying the optical properties of BC structures is to use the DDA (Discrete Dipole Approximation) method. The main goal of this work was to investigate its accuracy and to approximate the most reliable simulation parameters. For the light scattering simulations the ADDA code was used and for the reference program the superposition T-Matrix code by Mackowski was selected. The study was divided into three parts. First, DDA simulations for a single particle (sphere) were performed. The results proved that the meshing algorithm can significantly affect the particle shape, and therefore, the extinction diagrams. The volume correction procedure is recommended for sparse or asymmetrical meshes. In the next step large fractal-like aggregates were investigated. When sparse meshes are used, the impact of the volume correction procedure cannot be easily predicted. In some cases it can even lead to more erroneous results. Finally, the optical properties of fractal-like aggregates composed of spheres in point contact were compared to much more realistic structures made up of connected, non-spherical primary particles.

  7. Computing approximate blocking probability of inverse multiplexing and sub-band conversion in the flexible-grid optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yamei; You, Shanhong

    2016-07-01

    With the rapid growth of data rate, the optical network is evolving from fixed-grid to flexible-grid to provide spectrum-efficient and scalable transport of 100 Gb/s services and beyond. Also, the deployment of wavelength converter in the existing network can increase the flexibility of routing and wavelength allocation (RWA) and improve blocking performance of the optical networks. In this paper, we present a methodology for computing approximate blocking probabilities of the provision of multiclass services in the flexible-grid optical networks with sub-band spectrum conversion and inverse multiplexing respectively. Numerical calculation results based on the model are compared to the simulation results for the different cases. It is shown that the calculation results match well with the simulation results for the flexible-grid optical networks at different scenarios.

  8. N-Block Separable Random Phase Approximation: Application to metal clusters and C60 fullerene

    CERN Document Server

    Palade, D I

    2015-01-01

    Starting from the Random Phase Approximation (RPA), we generalize the schematic model of separable interaction defning subspaces of ph excitations with different coupling constants between them. This ansatz simplifies the RPA eigenvalue problem to a finite, small dimensional system of equations which reduces the numerical effort. Associated dispersion relation and the normalization condition are derived for the new defined unknowns of the system. In contrast with the standard separable approach, the present formalism is able to describe more than one collective excitation even in the degenerate limit. The theoretical framework is applied to neutral and singly charged spherical sodium clusters and C60 fullerene with results in good agreement with full RPA calculations and experimental data.

  9. Population of dipole states via isoscalar probes: the splitting of pygmy dipole resonance in $^{124}$Sn}

    CERN Document Server

    Lanza, Edoardo G; Litvinova, Elena; Savran, Deniz

    2014-01-01

    Inelastic $\\alpha$-scattering excitation cross sections are calculated for electric dipole excitations in $^{124}$Sn based on the transition densities obtained from the relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation (RQTBA) in the framework of a semiclassical model. The calculation provides the missing link to directly compare the results from the microscopic RQTBA calculations to recent experimental data measured via the $(\\alpha ,\\alpha '\\gamma)$ reaction, which show a structural splitting of the low-lying E1 strength often denoted as pygmy dipole resonance (PDR). The experimentally observed splitting is reproduced by the cross section calculations, which allows to draw conclusion on the structure of the PDR.

  10. The discrete dipole approximation with surface interaction for evanescent wave-based characterization of nanostructures on a surface with validation against experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Mitchell R.

    Nanotechnology has become so widely used it can be found in every aspect of life, from cell-phones and computers, to cars, and even athletic socks. As it permeates so many markets, the need for supplemental technologies has also increased. One such needed technology is in the area of nanoscale characterization. Current imaging methods are advanced; however, they do not have the capabilities to characterize the size, shape, composition, and arrangement of nanostructures and nanoparticles in a real-time, unobtrusive manner. The Polarized-Surface-Wave-Scattering system (PSWSS) is a method being researched at the University of Utah that can provide such characterization, although in order for the PSWSS to function accurately through inversion techniques, a predictive forward model must be developed and validated. This work explores the discrete dipole approximation with surface interaction (DDA-SI), an open source MATLAB toolbox, as a predictive model to calculate electromagnetic scattering by objects on a surface illuminated by an evanescent wave generated by total internal reflection (TIR). Far-field scattering predictions via DDA-SI are validated against scaled microwave experimental results for two objects on a surface: a sphere with a diameter of lambda/1.92 and a cube with a side length of lambda/1.785, where lambda refers to the wavelength. A good agreement between experiments and simulations is observed, especially when modified Fresnel reflection coefficients are employed by DDA-SI. Programs to calculate the amplitude scattering matrix and Mueller matrix elements have been also been created. Additionally, the sensitivity of four Mueller matrix elements (M11, M12, M21, and M22) to the particle size, material (gold and silver), shape (sphere and cube), and interparticle spacing, is analyzed. It is found that these four elements are sensitive to changes in shape and interparticle spacing, whereas prove insufficient to difference in material and sizes smaller than

  11. 基于相关性判据的磁体磁性磁偶极子近似距离条件分析%Range condition analysis of magnetic dipole approximation for a magnet magnetism based on correlation criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光辉; 郭正东; 王超; 高盛峰

    2016-01-01

    A method to analyze range condition of magnetic dipole approximation for a magnet magne-tism is developed based on the correlation of the magnet′s field distribution and magnetic dipole mo-del.By utilizing this method,the magnetic dipole approximation degree of a type longitudinal uniform magnetic ellipsoid is calculated at the different CPA distance path of different altitude horizontal plane.Analysis results show that the range condition of magnetic dipole approximation is nearly twice of that of ellipsoid′s long axis.The method may be used to all magnet when the magnetism material distribution is known by use of the finite element analysis (FEA)software,such as ANSYS,Ansoft Maxwell and so on.%针对磁体磁偶极子近似的距离条件问题,提出了基于磁体磁场分布与磁偶极子模型相关性的判定方法。解析计算了不同高度平面内、不同CPA距离直线路径上典型纵向均匀磁化旋转椭球的磁场。相关性分析表明:磁偶极子近似的距离接近两倍的长轴长度。若借助 ANSYS、Ansoft Maxwell等有限元分析软件,该方法可推广于一切已知磁性材料分布的磁体。

  12. A Good Approximate Solution for Li´enard Equation in a Large Interval Using Block Pulse Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Heydari∗

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Block pulse functions (BPFs and their operational matrices of integration and differentiation are used to solve Li´enard equation in a large interval. This method converts the equation to a system of nonlinear algebraic equations whose solution is the coeffi- cients of Block pulse expansion of the solution of the Li´enard equation. Moreover, this method is examined by comparing the results with the results obtained by the Adomian decomposition method (ADM and the Variational iteration method (VIM

  13. Nature of low-lying electric dipole resonance excitations in 74Ge

    CERN Document Server

    Negi, D; Lanza, E G; Litvinova, E; Vitturi, A; Bark, R A; Bernstein, L A; Bleuel, D L; Bvumbi, S; Bucher, T D; Daub, B H; Dinoko, T S; Easton, J L; Gorgen, A; Guttormsen, M; Jones, P; Kheswa, B V; Khumalo, N A; Larsen, A C; Lawrie, E A; Lawrie, J J; Majola, S N T; Masiteng, L P; Nchodu, M R; Ndayishimye, J; Newman, R T; Noncolela, S P; Orce, J N; Papka, P; Pellegri, L; Renstrøm, T; Roux, D G; Schwengner, R; Shirinda, O; Siem, S

    2016-01-01

    Isospin properties of dipole excitations in 74 Ge are investigated using the ({\\alpha},{\\alpha}'{\\gamma}) reaction and compared to ({\\gamma},{\\gamma}) data. The results indicate that the dipole excitations in the energy region of 6 to 9 MeV adhere to the scenario of the recently found splitting of the region of dipole excitations into two separated parts: one at low energy, being populated by both isoscalar and isovector probes, and the other at high energy, excited only by the electromagnetic probe. Relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation (RQTBA) calculations show a reduction in the isoscalar E1 strength with an increase in excitation energy, which is consistent with the measurement.

  14. Isospin Character of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in 124Sn

    CERN Document Server

    Endres, J; Savran, D; Butler, P A; Harakeh, M N; Harissopulos, S; Herzberg, R -D; Krücken, R; Lagoyannis, A; Pietralla, N; Ponomarev, V Yu; Popescu, L; Ring, P; Scheck, M; Sonnabend, K; Stoica, V I; Wörtche, H J; Zilges, A; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.212503

    2010-01-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance has been studied in the proton-magic nucleus 124Sn with the (a,a'g) coincidence method at E=136 MeV. The comparison with results of photon-scattering experiments reveals a splitting into two components with different structure: one group of states which is excited in (a,a'g) as well as in (g,g') reactions and a group of states at higher energies which is only excited in (g,g') reactions. Calculations with the self-consistent relativistic quasiparticle time-blocking approximation and the quasiparticle phonon model are in qualitative agreement with the experimental results and predict a low-lying isoscalar component dominated by neutron-skin oscillations and a higher-lying more isovector component on the tail of the giant dipole resonance.

  15. Dipole-Dipole coupled double Rydberg molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Kiffner, Martin; Park, Hyunwook; Li, Wenhui; Gallagher, Tom F.

    2012-01-01

    We show that the dipole-dipole interaction between two Rydberg atoms can give rise to long range molecules. The binding potential arises from two states that converge to different separated atom asymptotes. These states interact weakly at large distances, but start to repel each other strongly as the van der Waals interaction turns into a resonant dipole-dipole interaction with decreasing separation between the atoms. This mechanism leads to the formation of an attractive well for one of the ...

  16. Dipole-Dipole coupled double Rydberg molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui; Gallagher, Tom F

    2012-01-01

    We show that the dipole-dipole interaction between two Rydberg atoms can give rise to long range molecules. The binding potential arises from two states that converge to different separated atom asymptotes. These states interact weakly at large distances, but start to repel each other strongly as the van der Waals interaction turns into a resonant dipole-dipole interaction with decreasing separation between the atoms. This mechanism leads to the formation of an attractive well for one of the potentials. If the two separated atom asymptotes come from the small Stark splitting of an atomic Rydberg level, which lifts the Zeeman degeneracy, the depth of the well and the location of its minimum are controlled by the external electric field. We discuss two different geometries that result in a localized and a donut shaped potential, respectively.

  17. Efficient treatment of induced dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonett, Andrew C; Pickard, Frank C; Shao, Yihan; Cheatham, Thomas E; Brooks, Bernard R

    2015-08-21

    Most existing treatments of induced dipoles in polarizable molecular mechanics force field calculations use either the self-consistent variational method, which is solved iteratively, or the "direct" approximation that is non-iterative as a result of neglecting coupling between induced dipoles. The variational method is usually implemented using assumptions that are only strictly valid under tight convergence of the induced dipoles, which can be computationally demanding to enforce. In this work, we discuss the nature of the errors that result from insufficient convergence and suggest a strategy that avoids such problems. Using perturbation theory to reintroduce the mutual coupling into the direct algorithm, we present a computationally efficient method that combines the precision of the direct approach with the accuracy of the variational approach. By analyzing the convergence of this perturbation series, we derive a simple extrapolation formula that delivers a very accurate approximation to the infinite order solution at the cost of only a few iterations. We refer to the new method as extrapolated perturbation theory. Finally, we draw connections to our previously published permanent multipole algorithm to develop an efficient implementation of the electric field and Thole terms and also derive some necessary, but not sufficient, criteria that force field parameters must obey. PMID:26298123

  18. Lepton Dipole Moments

    OpenAIRE

    West, Adam

    2016-01-01

    From the famous experiments of Stern and Gerlach to the present, measurements of magnetic dipole moments, and searches for electric dipole moments of ``elementary'' particles have played a major role in our understanding of sub-atomic physics. In this talk I discuss the progress on measurements and theory of the magnetic dipole moments of the electron and muon. I also discuss a new proposal to search for a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the muon and put it into the more general con...

  19. Changes in earth's dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Peter; Amit, Hagay

    2006-11-01

    The dipole moment of Earth's magnetic field has decreased by nearly 9% over the past 150 years and by about 30% over the past 2,000 years according to archeomagnetic measurements. Here, we explore the causes and the implications of this rapid change. Maps of the geomagnetic field on the core-mantle boundary derived from ground-based and satellite measurements reveal that most of the present episode of dipole moment decrease originates in the southern hemisphere. Weakening and equatorward advection of normal polarity magnetic field by the core flow, combined with proliferation and growth of regions where the magnetic polarity is reversed, are reducing the dipole moment on the core-mantle boundary. Growth of these reversed flux regions has occurred over the past century or longer and is associated with the expansion of the South Atlantic Anomaly, a low-intensity region in the geomagnetic field that presents a radiation hazard at satellite altitudes. We address the speculation that the present episode of dipole moment decrease is a precursor to the next geomagnetic polarity reversal. The paleomagnetic record contains a broad spectrum of dipole moment fluctuations with polarity reversals typically occurring during dipole moment lows. However, the dipole moment is stronger today than its long time average, indicating that polarity reversal is not likely unless the current episode of moment decrease continues for a thousand years or more. PMID:16915369

  20. The isotopic dipole moment of HDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assafrao, Denise; Mohallem, Jose R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP 702, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2007-03-14

    An adiabatic variational approximation is used to study the monodeuterated water molecule, HDO, accounting for the isotopic effect. The isotopic dipole moment, pointing from D to H, is then calculated for the first time, yielding (1.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -3} Debye, being helpful in the interpretation of experiments. (fast track communication)

  1. Diamond dipole active antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Bubnov, I. N.; Falkovych, I. S.; Gridin, A. A.; Stanislavsky, A. A.; Reznik, A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Advantages of the diamond dipole antenna as an active antenna are presented. Such an antenna is like an inverted bow-tie antenna, but the former has some advantages over the ordinary bow-tie antenna. It is shown that the diamond dipole antenna may be an effective element of a new antenna array for low-frequency radio astronomy as well as a communication antenna.

  2. Toroidal dipole excitations in metamolecules formed by interacting plasmonic nanorods

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, Derek W; Ruostekoski, Janne; Fedotov, Vassili A; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2015-01-01

    We show how the elusive toroidal dipole moment appears as a radiative excitation eigenmode in a metamolecule resonator that is formed by pairs of plasmonic nanorods. We analyze one such nanorod configuration - a toroidal metamolecule. We find that the radiative interactions in the toroidal metamolecule can be qualitatively represented by a theoretical model based on an electric point dipole arrangement. Both a finite-size rod model and the point dipole approximation demonstrate how the toroidal dipole moment is subradiant and difficult to excite by incident light. By means of breaking the geometric symmetry of the metamolecule, the toroidal mode can be excited by linearly polarized light and we provide simple optimization protocols for maximizing the toroidal dipole mode excitation. This opens up possibilities for simplified control and driving of metamaterial arrays consisting of toroidal dipole unit-cell resonators.

  3. Mode-coupling and the pygmy dipole resonance in a relativistic two-phonon model

    CERN Document Server

    Litvinova, Elena; Tselyaev, Victor

    2009-01-01

    A two-phonon version of the relativistic quasiparticle time blocking approximation (RQTBA-2) represents a new class of many-body models for nuclear structure calculations based on the covariant energy density functional. As a fully consistent extension of the relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (RQRPA), the two-phonon RQTBA implies a fragmentation of nuclear states over two-quasiparticle and two-phonon configurations. This leads, in particular, to a splitting-out of the lowest 1$^-$ state as a member of the two-phonon $[2^+\\otimes3^-]_{1^-}$ quintuplet from the RQRPA pygmy dipole mode, thus establishing a physical mixing between these three modes. The inclusion of the two-phonon configurations in the model space allows to describe the positions and the reduced transition probabilities of the lowest 1$^-$ states in isotopes $^{116,120}$Sn as well as the low-energy fraction of the dipole strength without any adjustment procedures. The model is also applied to the low-lying dipole strength in n...

  4. Experiments with Dipole Antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Employment of a data-acquisition system for data collection and calculations makes experiments with antennas more convenient and less time consuming. The determined directional patterns of the dipole antennas of different lengths are in reasonable agreement with theory. The enhancement of the signal by using a reflector is demonstrated, and a…

  5. EuCARD-HFM dipole model design options

    CERN Document Server

    Bruchon, Mélanie; Durante, Maria; Karppinen, Mikko; Kircher, François; Manil, Pierre; Milanese, Attilio; Oberli, Luc; Perez, Juan Carlos; Rifflet, Jean-Michel; Rondeaux, Françoise; Todesco, Ezio

    2010-01-01

    The EuCARD-HFM task aims at realizing a 13 T dipole magnet with an aperture of 100 mm, which is a challenging step towards very high field accelerator magnets. This dipole, utilizing Nb3Sn superconductor, will be used in the Fresca test facility at CERN. A preliminary design study has compared two possible design layouts for the EuCARD-HFM magnet: the cos-θ and the block. This report summarizes the conclusions of this study and justifies, on the base of quantitative and qualitative arguments, our decision to pursue the detailed design with the block layout.

  6. The AGL Equation from a Dipole Picture

    CERN Document Server

    Gay-Ducati, M B

    1999-01-01

    The AGL equation includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the double logarithmic approximation (DLA) limit, leading to an unitarized gluon distribution in the small $x$ regime. This equation was originally obtained using the Glauber-Mueller approach. We demonstrate in this contribution that the AGL equation can also be obtained from the dipole picture. Our conclusion is that the AGL equation is a good candidate for an unitarized evolution equation at small $x$ in the DLA limit.

  7. Dissecting an LHC dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The cold mass of a 15-metre main dipole magnet has some fifteen different components. All the main components are manufactured under CERN's direct responsibility. Four of them transit through CERN before being shipped to the dipole assembly contractors, namely the cable, which constitutes the magnet's superconducting core (see Bulletin 14/2004), the beam screens, the heat exchanger tubes and the cold bore beam tubes. The two latter components transit via Building 927 where they undergo part of the production process. The 58-mm diameter heat exchanger tubes will remove heat from the magnets using superfluid helium. The 53-mm diameter cold bore tubes will be placed under vacuum to allow the twin beams to circulate around the LHC.

  8. Diophantine approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Niven, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    This self-contained treatment originated as a series of lectures delivered to the Mathematical Association of America. It covers basic results on homogeneous approximation of real numbers; the analogue for complex numbers; basic results for nonhomogeneous approximation in the real case; the analogue for complex numbers; and fundamental properties of the multiples of an irrational number, for both the fractional and integral parts.The author refrains from the use of continuous fractions and includes basic results in the complex case, a feature often neglected in favor of the real number discuss

  9. The PSCz Dipole Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Basilakos, Spyros; Plionis, Manolis

    2006-01-01

    We re-examine the gravitational acceleration (dipole) induced on the Local Group of galaxies by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) galaxy distribution of the Point Source Catalogue redshift survey (PSCz). We treat the cirrus-affected low galactic latitudes by utilizing a spherical harmonic expansion of the galaxy surface density field up to the octapole order. We find strong indications for significant contributions to the Local Group motion from depths up to $\\sim 185$ $h^{-1}$ Mpc a...

  10. Properties and significance of the surface dipole mode

    CERN Document Server

    Papakonstantinou, P

    2014-01-01

    A strong isoscalar dipole resonance is known to be excited in a variety of nuclei, including isospin symmetric ones, at approximately 6-7 MeV. A series of theoretical studies and accumulating experimental evidence support an interpretation of the above dipole resonance as an elementary surface vibration. Obviously, such a mode is potentially as interesting as any collective excitation for a variety of reasons. In addition, though, it is found to account for the observed isoscalar segment of pygmy dipole strength. As discussed here, this has important implications for pygmy-strength interpretations and searches for genuine neutron-skin oscillations.

  11. Approximation Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This interactive tutorial presents the following concepts of Approximation Techniques: Methods of Weighted Residual (MWR), Weak Formulatioin, Piecewise Continuous Function, Galerkin Finite Element FormulationExplanations especially for mathematical statements are provided using mouseover the highlight equations. ME4613 Finite Element Methods

  12. Many-body dipole-induced dipole model for electrorheological fluids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Ji-Ping; Yu Kin-Wah

    2004-01-01

    Theoretical investigations on electrorheological (ER) fluids usually rely on computer simulations. An initial approach for these studies would be the point-dipole (PD) approximation, which is known to err considerably when the particles approach and finally touch each other due to many-body and multipolar interactions. Thus various works have attempted to go beyond the PD model. Being beyond the PD model, previous attempts have been restricted to either local-field effects only or multipolar effects only, but not both. For instance, we recently proposed a dipoleinduced-dipole (DID) model which is shown to be both more accurate than the PD model and easy to use. This work is necessary because the many-body (local-field) effect is included to put forth the many-body DID model. The results show that the multipolar interactions can indeed be dominant over the dipole interaction, while the local-field effect may yield a correction.

  13. The AGL equation from the dipole picture

    CERN Document Server

    Gay-Ducati, M B

    1999-01-01

    The AGL equation includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the double logarithmic approximation (DLA) limit, leading to an unitarized gluon distribution in the small x regime. This equation was originally obtained using the Glauber-Mueller approach. We demonstrate in this paper that the AGL equation and, consequently, the GLR equation, can also be obtained from the dipole picture in the double logarithmic limit, using an evolution equation, recently proposed, which includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the leading logarithmic approximation. Our conclusion is that the AGL equation is a good candidate for an unitarized evolution equation at small x in the DLA limit.

  14. The AGL equation from the dipole picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The AGL equation includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the double logarithmic approximation (DLA) limit, leading to a unitarized gluon distribution in the small x regime. This equation was originally obtained using the Glauber-Mueller approach. We demonstrate in this paper that the AGL equation and, consequently, the GLR equation, can also be obtained from the dipole picture in the double logarithmic limit, using an evolution equation, recently proposed, which includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the leading logarithmic approximation. Our conclusion is that the AGL equation is a good candidate for a unitarized evolution equation at small x in the DLA limit

  15. Quantum emitter dipole-dipole interactions in nanoplasmonic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nečada, Marek; Törmä, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a generalized Dicke-like model to describe two-level systems coupled with a single bosonic mode. In addition, the two-level systems mutually interact via direct dipole-dipole interaction. We apply the model to an ensemble of dye molecules coupled to a plasmonic excitation in a metallic nanoparticle and study how the dipole-dipole interaction and configurational randomness introduced to the system affect the energy spectra. Comparing the system eigenenergies obtained by our model with the light spectra from a multiple-scattering simulation, we suggest a way to identify dark modes in our model. Finally, we perform a parameter sweep in order to determine the scaling properties of the system and to classify the regions of the parameter space where the dipole-dipole interactions can have significant effects.

  16. AutoDipole - Automated generation of dipole subtraction terms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, K.; Uwer, P. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Moch, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    We present an automated generation of the subtraction terms for next-to-leading order QCD calculations in the Catani-Seymour dipole formalism. For a given scattering process with n external particles our Mathematica package generates all dipole terms, allowing for bothmassless and massive dipoles. The numerical evaluation of the subtraction terms proceeds with MadGraph, which provides Fortran code for the necessary scattering amplitudes. Checks of the numerical stability are discussed. (orig.)

  17. Retardation effects in induced atomic dipole-dipole interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, S D

    2016-01-01

    We present mean-field calculations of azimuthally averaged retarded dipole-dipole interactions in a Bose-Einstein condensate induced by a laser, at both long and short wavelengths. Our calculations demonstrate that dipole-dipole interactions become significantly stronger at shorter wavelengths, by as much as 30-fold, due to retardation effects. This enhancement, along with inclusion of the dynamic polarizability, indicate a method of inducing long-range interatomic interactions in neutral atom condensates at significantly lower intensities than previously realized.

  18. Anion-dipole interactions make the homopolymers self-assemble into multiple nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-Hai; Zhang, Zi-Dan; Hong, Chun-Yan; He, Xue-Hao; You, Wei; You, Ye-Zi

    2015-05-27

    Anion-dipole interactions can make homopolymers self-assemble like an amphiphilic block copolymer. Generally, common homopolymers cannot self-assemble into multiple nanostructures. Here, it is reported that anion-dipole interactions can enable a number of homopolymers to achieve a variety of self-assembly behaviors in aqueous solution. Such interactions and self-assembly features have been exclusively reserved for amphiphilic (block) polymers until now. PMID:25873566

  19. Weisskopf--Wigner approximation in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several approximations involved in the usual Weisskopf-Wigner treatment of the emission of light by an atom are investigated. The system considered is a recoilless, nonrelativistic hydrogen atom interacting with a quantized electromagnetic field, in dipole approximation (with a nonrelativistic cutoff in momentum space). Since only electric dipole waves interact with the atom, the Hamiltonian can be expressed in a simple one-dimensional form. The time evolution of the system is determined by resolvent operator techniques. The method goes beyond the analysis by Van Hove and Hugenholtz, allowing one to treat also fields of finite intensity in the infinite-volume limit. A comparison between this and other techniques is made

  20. Approximate Representations and Approximate Homomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Cristopher

    2010-01-01

    Approximate algebraic structures play a defining role in arithmetic combinatorics and have found remarkable applications to basic questions in number theory and pseudorandomness. Here we study approximate representations of finite groups: functions f:G -> U_d such that Pr[f(xy) = f(x) f(y)] is large, or more generally Exp_{x,y} ||f(xy) - f(x)f(y)||^2$ is small, where x and y are uniformly random elements of the group G and U_d denotes the unitary group of degree d. We bound these quantities in terms of the ratio d / d_min where d_min is the dimension of the smallest nontrivial representation of G. As an application, we bound the extent to which a function f : G -> H can be an approximate homomorphism where H is another finite group. We show that if H's representations are significantly smaller than G's, no such f can be much more homomorphic than a random function. We interpret these results as showing that if G is quasirandom, that is, if d_min is large, then G cannot be embedded in a small number of dimensi...

  1. Future Muon Dipole Moment Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, B. Lee

    2004-01-01

    From the famous experiments of Stern and Gerlach to the present, measurements of magnetic dipole moments, and searches for electric dipole moments of ``elementary'' particles have played a major role in our understanding of sub-atomic physics. In this talk I discuss the progress on measurements and theory of the magnetic dipole moment of the muon. I also discuss a new proposal to search for a permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) of the muon and put it into the more general context of other ...

  2. Approximate Likelihood

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Most physics results at the LHC end in a likelihood ratio test. This includes discovery and exclusion for searches as well as mass, cross-section, and coupling measurements. The use of Machine Learning (multivariate) algorithms in HEP is mainly restricted to searches, which can be reduced to classification between two fixed distributions: signal vs. background. I will show how we can extend the use of ML classifiers to distributions parameterized by physical quantities like masses and couplings as well as nuisance parameters associated to systematic uncertainties. This allows for one to approximate the likelihood ratio while still using a high dimensional feature vector for the data. Both the MEM and ABC approaches mentioned above aim to provide inference on model parameters (like cross-sections, masses, couplings, etc.). ABC is fundamentally tied Bayesian inference and focuses on the “likelihood free” setting where only a simulator is available and one cannot directly compute the likelihood for the dat...

  3. Diophantine approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Wolfgang M

    1980-01-01

    "In 1970, at the U. of Colorado, the author delivered a course of lectures on his famous generalization, then just established, relating to Roth's theorem on rational approxi- mations to algebraic numbers. The present volume is an ex- panded and up-dated version of the original mimeographed notes on the course. As an introduction to the author's own remarkable achievements relating to the Thue-Siegel-Roth theory, the text can hardly be bettered and the tract can already be regarded as a classic in its field."(Bull.LMS) "Schmidt's work on approximations by algebraic numbers belongs to the deepest and most satisfactory parts of number theory. These notes give the best accessible way to learn the subject. ... this book is highly recommended." (Mededelingen van het Wiskundig Genootschap)

  4. Dipoles for High-Energy LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Todesco, E; De Rijk, G; Rossi, L

    2014-01-01

    For the High Energy LHC, a study of a 33 TeV center of mass collider in the LHC tunnel, main dipoles of 20 T operational field are needed. In this paper we first review the conceptual design based on block coil proposed in the Malta workshop, addressing the issues related to coil fabrication and assembly. We then propose successive simplifications of this design, associating a cost estimate of the conductor. We then analyse a block layout for a 15 T magnet. Finally, we consider two layouts based on the D20 and HD2 short models built by LBL. A first analysis of the aspects related to protection of these challenging magnets is given.

  5. Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Ku

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.

  6. Splitting of the Dipole and Spin Dipole Resonances in Pb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Sam M.

    2000-10-01

    The response to different neutrino flavors of a supernova neutrino detector based on Pb depends on the position of the spin-dipole resonance(Fuller, Fowler and McLaughlin, Phys. Rev. D59,085005(1999)). In this talk I will present a phenomenolgical model that allows one to extract the splitting of the dipole and spin-dipole resonances from the variation with bombarding energy of the L=1 resonance in (p,n) reactions. This model has been applied previously to the Zr isotopes (Sam M. Austin, Phys. Rev. C, submitted). The dipole splitting for ^208Pb is determined from available data on the (p,n) reaction for bombarding energies between 45 to 200 MeV. It is found to be 4.7±2.0 MeV, with the spin-dipole resonance lying at lower excitation energy.

  7. Mapping the HISS Dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal component of the Bevalac HISS facility is a large super-conducting 3 Tesla dipole. The facility's need for a large magnetic volume spectrometer resulted in a large gap geometry - a 2 meter pole tip diameter and a 1 meter pole gap. Obviously, the field required detailed mapping for effective use as a spectrometer. The mapping device was designed with several major features in mind. The device would measure field values on a grid which described a closed rectangular solid. The grid would be a regular with the exact measurement intervals adjustable by software. The device would function unattended over the long period of time required to complete a field map. During this time, the progress of the map could be monitored by anyone with access to the HISS VAX computer. Details of the mechanical, electrical, and control design follow

  8. Highly Automated Dipole EStimation (HADES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campi, C; Pascarella, A; Sorrentino, A; Piana, M

    2011-01-01

    Automatic estimation of current dipoles from biomagnetic data is still a problematic task. This is due not only to the ill-posedness of the inverse problem but also to two intrinsic difficulties introduced by the dipolar model: the unknown number of sources and the nonlinear relationship between the source locations and the data. Recently, we have developed a new Bayesian approach, particle filtering, based on dynamical tracking of the dipole constellation. Contrary to many dipole-based methods, particle filtering does not assume stationarity of the source configuration: the number of dipoles and their positions are estimated and updated dynamically during the course of the MEG sequence. We have now developed a Matlab-based graphical user interface, which allows nonexpert users to do automatic dipole estimation from MEG data with particle filtering. In the present paper, we describe the main features of the software and show the analysis of both a synthetic data set and an experimental dataset. PMID:21437232

  9. Magnetic Field of a Dipole and the Dipole-Dipole Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2007-01-01

    With a data-acquisition system and sensors commercially available, it is easy to determine magnetic fields produced by permanent magnets and to study the dipole-dipole interaction for different separations and angular positions of the magnets. For sufficiently large distances, the results confirm the 1/R[superscript 3] law for the magnetic field…

  10. Introduction to the Maxwell Garnett approximation: tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markel, Vadim A

    2016-07-01

    This tutorial is devoted to the Maxwell Garnett approximation and related theories. Topics covered in this first, introductory part of the tutorial include the Lorentz local field correction, the Clausius-Mossotti relation and its role in the modern numerical technique known as the discrete dipole approximation, the Maxwell Garnett mixing formula for isotropic and anisotropic media, multicomponent mixtures and the Bruggeman equation, the concept of smooth field, and Wiener and Bergman-Milton bounds. PMID:27409680

  11. Interacting boson approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lectures notes on the Interacting Boson Approximation are given. Topics include: angular momentum tensors; properties of T/sub i//sup (n)/ matrices; T/sub i//sup (n)/ matrices as Clebsch-Gordan coefficients; construction of higher rank tensors; normalization: trace of products of two s-rank tensors; completeness relation; algebra of U(N); eigenvalue of the quadratic Casimir operator for U(3); general result for U(N); angular momentum content of U(3) representation; p-Boson model; Hamiltonian; quadrupole transitions; S,P Boson model; expectation value of dipole operator; S-D model: U(6); quadratic Casimir operator; an O(5) subgroup; an O(6) subgroup; properties of O(5) representations; quadratic Casimir operator; quadratic Casimir operator for U(6); decomposition via SU(5) chain; a special O(3) decomposition of SU(3); useful identities; a useful property of D/sub αβγ/(α,β,γ = 4-8) as coupling coefficients; explicit construction of T/sub x//sup (2)/ and d/sub αβγ/; D-coefficients; eigenstates of T3; and summary of T = 2 states

  12. LHC Dipoles Accelerate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Andrezej Siemko (left), Peter Sievers (centre), and Lucio Rossi (right), have the exciting challenge of preparing and testing 2000 magnets for the LHC. The LHC is going to require a lot of powerful magnets by the time it begins operation in 2006. More specifically, it is going to need 130 special magnets, 400 quadrupoles, and a whopping 1250 dipoles! Preparing and testing these magnets for the conditions they will encounter in the LHC is not an easy task. But evaluation of the most recently received magnet, from the German company Noell, is showing that while the monumental task of receiving and testing nearly 2000 magnets is going to be exhausting, the goals are definitely attainable. At the moment and over the next year, pre-series magnets (the magnets that CERN uses to fine tune performance) are arriving slowly (90 in total will arrive), but by 2003 the rate of series magnet arrival will accelerate to 9 per week, that's over 450 in a single year! And working with these magnets when they arrive is tough. ...

  13. Intrinsic electric dipole moments of paramagnetic atoms : Rubidium and cesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.

    2008-01-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms is sensitive to the intrinsic EDM contribution from that of its constituent electrons and a scalar-pseudoscalar (S-PS) electron-nucleus interaction. The electron EDM and the S-PS contributions to the EDMs of these atoms scale as approximate to Z

  14. Screening of nucleon electric dipole moments in nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Satoru; Gudkov, Vladimir; Schindler, Matthias R.; Song, Young-Ho

    2016-05-01

    A partial screening of nucleon electric dipole moments (EDMs) in nuclear systems, which is related to the Schiff mechanism known for neutral atomic systems, is discussed. It is shown that the direct contribution from the neutron EDM to the deuteron EDM is partially screened by about 1% in a zero-range approximation calculation.

  15. Screening of Nucleon Electric Dipole Moments in Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, Satoru; Schindler, Matthias R; Song, Young-Ho

    2015-01-01

    A partial screening of nucleon electric dipole moments (EDMs) in nuclear systems, which is related to the Schiff mechanism known for neutral atomic systems, is discussed. It is shown that the direct contribution from the neutron EDM to the deuteron EDM is partially screened by almost 50% in a zero-range approximation calculation.

  16. Dipoles, unintentional antennas and EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend Danker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiated emissions from equipment commonly originate from electronic circuits that act as electric dipoles created by the signal voltage between the signal conductors or as magnetic dipoles formed by the signal current flowing in a loop. Direct emission is mostly small, but circuits often couple to long conductors or large wiring loops which act as antennas and are efficient radiators. A comparable situation exists when short dipole antennas or small wiring loops receive ambient noise (susceptibility. Usually the amplitude of noise sources or the susceptibility of circuits is an invariable. The dipole strength increases with the distance between the conductors and the area. Shielding and proper grounding decreases the interaction via unintentional antennas. Short-circuiting and the insertion of lossy ferrite cores reduce the efficiency of unintentional antennas.

  17. Electrodynamics acceleration of electrical dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolya, S N

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the acceleration of electric dipoles consisting of thin metal plates and dielectric (barium titanate). The dipoles are of a cylindrical shape with a diameter of the cylinder two centimeters and length one centimeter. Capacity of the parallel-plate capacitor is three hundred picofarads and it is charged up to the voltage of two hundred eighty kilovolts. Pre-acceleration of the electric dipoles till velocity one kilometer per second is reached by the gas-dynamic method. The finite acceleration is produced in a spiral waveguide, where the pulse is travelling with voltage amplitude seven hundreds kilovolts and power one hundred twenty-five megawatts. This pulse travels via the spiral waveguide and accelerates the injected electric dipoles in the longitudinal direction till the finite velocity eight and a half kilometers per second over length seven hundred and seventy meters.

  18. Backfire antennas with dipole elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Dragø; Pontoppidan, Knud

    1970-01-01

    A method is set up for a theoretical investigation of arbitrary backfire antennas based upon dipole structures. The mutual impedance between the dipole elements of the antenna is taken into account, and the field radiated due to a surface wave reflector of finite extent is determined by calculating...... the surface current distribution on the reflector plate. Numerical results obtained for Yagi backfire antennas and short-backfire antennas using this theory are compared with experimental results....

  19. Possible displacement of mercury's dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field have required the addition of a quadrupole moment to obtain a good fit to space vehicle observations. In this work we obtain an equally satisfactory fit by assuming a null quadrupole moment and least squares fitting of the displacement of the planetary dipole from the center of the planet. We find a best fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center of 0.033 R/sub m/ away from the solar direction, 0.025 R/sub m/ toward dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane, and 0.189 R/sub m/ northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub m/ is the planet radius. Therefore the presence of a magnetic quadrupole moment is not ruled out. The compressed dipole field more completely represents the field in the present work than in previous work where the intrinsic quadrupole field was not included in the magnetopause surface and field calculations. Moreover, we have corrected a programing error in previous work in the computation of dipole tilt lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet dipole moment of 190γR/sub m/3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet moment of 190γR/sub m/3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda of only 1.20 away from the sun. All other parameters are essentially unchanged

  20. Highly Automated Dipole EStimation (HADES)

    OpenAIRE

    Campi, C.; Pascarella, A.; Sorrentino, A.; M. Piana

    2011-01-01

    Automatic estimation of current dipoles from biomagnetic data is still a problematic task. This is due not only to the ill-posedness of the inverse problem but also to two intrinsic difficulties introduced by the dipolar model: the unknown number of sources and the nonlinear relationship between the source locations and the data. Recently, we have developed a new Bayesian approach, particle filtering, based on dynamical tracking of the dipole constellation. Contrary to many ...

  1. Reversals of the solar dipole

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, David; Kitchatinov, Leonid L.; Sokoloff, Dmitri

    2012-01-01

    During a solar magnetic field reversal the magnetic dipole moment does not vanish, but migrates between poles, in contradiction to the predictions of mean-field dynamo theory. We try to explain this as a consequence of magnetic fluctuations. We exploit the statistics of fluctuations to estimate observable signatures. Simple statistical estimates, taken with results from mean-field dynamo theory, suggest that a non-zero dipole moment may persist through a global field reversal. Fluctuations in...

  2. Path integral approach to the full Dicke model with dipole-dipole interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Alcalde, M Aparicio; Svaiter, N F

    2011-01-01

    We consider the full Dicke spin-boson model composed by a single bosonic mode and an ensemble of $N$ identical two-level atoms with different couplings for the resonant and anti-resonant interaction terms, and incorporate a dipole-dipole interaction between the atoms. Assuming that the system is in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir at temperature $\\beta^{-1}$, we compute the free energy in the thermodynamic limit $N\\rightarrow\\infty$ in the saddle-point approximation to the path integral and determine the critical temperature for the superradiant phase transition. In the zero temperature limit, we recover the critical coupling of the quantum phase transition, presented in the literature.

  3. A path integral approach to the full Dicke model with dipole-dipole interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcalde, M Aparicio [Instituto de Fisica Teorica, UNESP, Sao Paulo State University, Caixa Postal 70532-2, 01156-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Stephany, J [Departamento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Svaiter, N F, E-mail: aparicio@ift.unesp.br, E-mail: stephany@usb.ve, E-mail: nfuxsvai@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-12-16

    We consider the full Dicke spin-boson model composed by a single bosonic mode and an ensemble of N identical two-level atoms with different couplings for the resonant and anti-resonant interaction terms, and incorporate a dipole-dipole interaction between the atoms. Assuming that the system is in thermal equilibrium with a reservoir at temperature {beta}{sup -1}, we compute the free energy in the thermodynamic limit N {yields} {infinity} in the saddle-point approximation to the path integral and determine the critical temperature for the super-radiant phase transition. In the zero temperature limit, we recover the critical coupling of the quantum phase transition, presented in the literature. (paper)

  4. Heart Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the signal causes the heart to contract and pump blood. Heart block occurs if the electrical signal is ... degree heart block limits the heart's ability to pump blood to the rest of the body. This type ...

  5. Measurement of Reproducibility for CSRm Dipoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SuYalong; HeYuan; YuanPing; MaLizhen; LiuWeijun; HanShaofei; ZhangSiling

    2003-01-01

    The reproducibility of CSRm dipoles is an important factor to be considered in CSR project. There have seventeen dipoles in the cooling storage main ring (CSRm). The reproducibility of seventeen dipoles should be better than 2×10-4 at the optimum magnetic held. The longest in the seventeen dipoles is chosen as the reference magnet;. The reproducibility is derived as

  6. Measuring the Forces between Magnetic Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayetsky, Lisa E.; Caylor, Craig L.

    2007-01-01

    We describe a simple undergraduate lab in which students determine how the force between two magnetic dipoles depends on their separation. We consider the case where both dipoles are permanent and the case where one of the dipoles is induced by the field of the other (permanent) dipole. Agreement with theoretically expected results is quite good.

  7. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  8. Dispersion dipoles for coupled Drude oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odbadrakh, Tuguldur T.; Jordan, Kenneth D.

    2016-01-01

    We present the dispersion-induced dipole moments of coupled Drude oscillators obtained from two approaches. The first approach evaluates the dipole moment using the second-order Rayleigh-Schrödinger perturbation theory wave function allowing for dipole-dipole and dipole-quadrupole coupling. The second approach, based on response theory, employs an integral of the dipole-dipole polarizability of one oscillator and the dipole-dipole-quadrupole hyperpolarizability of the other oscillator over imaginary frequencies. The resulting dispersion dipoles exhibit an R-7 dependence on the separation between the two oscillators and are connected to the leading-order C6/R6 dispersion energy through the electrostatic Hellmann-Feynman theorem.

  9. On the collectivity of Pygmy Dipole Resonance within schematic TDA and RPA models

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, V; Colonna, M; Di Toro, M; Croitoru, A; Nicolin, A I

    2014-01-01

    Within schematic models based on the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation and the Random-Phase Approximation with separable interactions, we investigate the physical conditions which determine the emergence of the Pygmy Dipole Resonance in the E1 response of atomic nuclei. We find that if some particle-hole excitation manifests a different, weaker residual interaction, an additional mode will appear, with an energy centroid closer to the distance between two major shells and therefore well below the Giant Dipole Resonance. This state, together with Giant Dipole Resonance, exhausts all the transition strength in the Tamm-Dancoff Approximation and all the Energy Weighted Sum Rule in the Random-Phase Approximation. These features suggest a collective nature for this mode which we identify with the Pygmy Dipole Resonance.

  10. Circular current loops, magnetic dipoles and spherical harmonic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    Spherical harmonic analysis (SHA) is the most used method of describing the Earth's magnetic field, even though spherical harmonic coefficients (SHC) almost completely defy interpretation in terms of real sources. Some moderately successful efforts have been made to represent the field in terms of dipoles placed in the core in an effort to have the model come closer to representing real sources. Dipole sources are only a first approximation to the real sources which are thought to be a very complicated network of electrical currents in the core of the Earth. -Author

  11. Design, manufacture and measurements of permanent dipole magnets for DIRAC

    CERN Document Server

    Vorozhtsov, A; Kasaei, S; Solodko, E; Thonet, P A; Tommasini, D

    2013-01-01

    The one of the aim of the DIRAC experiment is the observation of the long-lived π+π- atoms, using the proton beam of the CERN Proton Synchrotron [1]. Two dipole magnets are needed for the for the DIRAC experiment as high resolution spectrometers. The dipole magnet will be used to identify the long-lived atoms on the high level background of π+π- pairs produced simultaneously with π+π- atoms. The proposed design is a permanent magnet dipole with a mechanical aperture of 60 mm. The magnet, of a total physical length of 66 mm, is based on Sm2Co17 blocks and provides an integrated field strength of 24·10-3 T×m. The Sm2Co17 was chosen as a material for the permanent magnet blocks due to its radiation hardness and weaker temperature dependence. The magnetic field quality is determined by 2 ferromagnetic poles, aligned together with the permanent magnets blocks. The paper describes the design, manufacture and magnetic measurements of the magnets.

  12. Atom-Pair Kinetics with Strong Electric-Dipole Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaicharoen, N; Gonçalves, L F; Raithel, G

    2016-05-27

    Rydberg-atom ensembles are switched from a weakly to a strongly interacting regime via adiabatic transformation of the atoms from an approximately nonpolar into a highly dipolar quantum state. The resultant electric dipole-dipole forces are probed using a device akin to a field ion microscope. Ion imaging and pair-correlation analysis reveal the kinetics of the interacting atoms. Dumbbell-shaped pair-correlation images demonstrate the anisotropy of the binary dipolar force. The dipolar C_{3} coefficient, derived from the time dependence of the images, agrees with the value calculated from the permanent electric-dipole moment of the atoms. The results indicate many-body dynamics akin to disorder-induced heating in strongly coupled particle systems. PMID:27284655

  13. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  14. Synchronization of Interacting Quantum Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Bihui; Xu, Minghui; Urbina, Felipe H; Restrepo, Juan G; Holland, Murray J; Rey, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Macroscopic ensembles of radiating dipoles are ubiquitous in the physical and natural sciences. In the classical limit the dipoles can be described as damped-driven oscillators, which are able to spontaneously synchronize and collectively lock their phases. Here we investigate the correspond- ing phenomenon in the quantum regime with arrays of quantized two-level systems coupled via long-range and anisotropic dipolar interactions. Our calculations demonstrate that the dipoles may overcome the decoherence induced by quantum fluctuations and inhomogeneous couplings and evolve to a synchronized steady-state. This steady-state bears much similarity to that observed in classical systems, and yet also exhibits genuine quantum properties such as quantum correlations and quan- tum phase diffusion (reminiscent of lasing). Our predictions could be relevant for the development of better atomic clocks and a variety of noise tolerant quantum devices.

  15. Radiation from an off-centred rotating dipole in vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Pétri, J

    2016-01-01

    When a neutron star forms, after the collapse of its progenitor, a strong magnetic field survives in its interior. This magnetic topology is usually assumed to be well approximated by a dipole located right at the centre of the star. However, there is no particular reason why this dipole should be attached to this very special point. A slight shift from the stellar centre could have strong implications for the surrounding electromagnetic field configuration leading to clear observational signatures. We study the effect of the most general off-centred dipole anchored in the neutron star interior. Exact analytical solutions are given in vacuum outside the star to any order of accuracy in the small parameter $\\epsilon = d/R$, where $d$ is the displacement of the dipole from the stellar centre and $R$ the neutron star radius. As a simple diagnostic of this decentred dipole, the spin-down luminosity and the torque exerted on its crust are computed to the lowest leading order in~$\\epsilon$. Results are compared to ...

  16. Radiation from an off-centred rotating dipole in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétri, J.

    2016-08-01

    When a neutron star forms, after the collapse of its progenitor, a strong magnetic field survives in its interior. This magnetic topology is usually assumed to be well approximated by a dipole located right at the centre of the star. However, there is no particular reason why this dipole should be attached to this very special point. A slight shift from the stellar centre could have strong implications for the surrounding electromagnetic field configuration leading to clear observational signatures. We study the effect of the most general off-centred dipole anchored in the neutron star interior. Exact analytical solutions are given in vacuum outside the star to any order of accuracy in the small parameter ɛ = d/R, where d is the displacement of the dipole from the stellar centre and R the neutron star radius. As a simple diagnostic of this decentred dipole, the spin-down luminosity and the torque exerted on its crust are computed to the lowest leading order in ɛ. Results are compared to earlier works and a discussion on repercussions on pulsar braking index and multi-wavelength light curves is proposed.

  17. On the Bethe approximation to the reactance matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Bethe approximation to the reactance matrix is considered for electron-neutral-atom collisions. Analytic expressions are given for the matrix elements. For the special case of electron-neutral-atom scattering the sum rules of Burgess are simplified. Particular consideration is given to the problem of calculating cross sections for dipole transitions. Partial cross sections are presented for all non-exact resonance dipole transitions between hydrogen atom states, with n, n' = 11, 31, 51, 71, 91. (author)

  18. Coherent and incoherent dipole-dipole interactions between atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robicheaux, Francis

    2016-05-01

    Results will be presented on the collective interaction between atoms due to the electric dipole-dipole coupling between states of different parity on two different atoms. A canonical example of this effect is when the electronic state of one atom has S-character and the state of another atom has P-character. The energy difference between the two states plays an important role in the interaction since the change in energy determines the wave number of a photon that would cause a transition between the states. If the atoms are much closer than the wave length of this photon, then the dipole-dipole interaction is in the near field and has a 1 /r3 dependence on atomic separation. If the atoms are farther apart than the wave length, then the interaction is in the far field and has a 1 / r dependence. When many atoms interact, collective effects can dominate the system with the character of the collective effect depending on whether the atomic separation leads to near field or far field coupling. As an example of the case where the atoms are in the far field, the line broadening of transitions and strong deviations from the Beer-Lambert law in a diffuse gas will be presented. As an example of near field collective behavior, the radiative properties of a Rydberg gas will be presented. Based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1404419-PHY in collaboration with R.T. Sutherland.

  19. Geometrical simplification of the dipole-dipole interaction formula

    CERN Document Server

    Kocbach, Ladislav

    2009-01-01

    Many students meet quite early this dipole-dipole potential energy when they are taught electrostatics or magnetostatics, and it is also a very popular formula, featured in the encyclopedias. We show that by a simple rewriting of the formula it becomes apparent that for example, by reorienting the two dipoles, their attraction can become exactly twice as large. The physical facts are naturally known, but the presented transformation seems to underline the geometrical features in a rather unexpected way. The consequence of the discussed features is the so called magic angle which appears in many applications. The present discussion also contributes to an easier introduction of this feature. We also discuss a possibility for designing educational toys and try to suggest why this formula has not been written down frequently before this work. Similar transformation is possible for the field of a single dipole, there it seems to be observed earlier, but also in this case we could not find any published detailed di...

  20. Nonrelativistic atom-photon interaction beyond the multipole approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, D.J.; Wijers, C.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the interaction between the hydrogen atomic orbitals and the quantized modes of the electromagnetic field within the domain of nonrelativistic quantum electrodynamics in the Coulomb gauge. Contrary to the conventional dipole approximation and higher-order multipole approximations, whi

  1. Dipole scattering amplitude in momentum space: investigating fluctuations at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, E.; Ducati, M.B. Gay; Oliveira, E.G. de; Amaral, J.T. de Santana [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mails: ebasso@if.ufrgs.br; beatriz.gay@ufrgs.br; emmanuel.deoliveira@ufrgs.br; thiago.amaral@ufrgs.br

    2008-09-15

    We extend a recently proposed dipole model which relates the virtual photon-proton cross section to the dipole-proton forward scattering amplitude in momentum space investigating the effects of the gluon number fluctuations. The model interpolates between well known asymptotic behaviours predicted by perturbative QCD from the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, which describes the rapidity evolution of the dipole-proton scattering amplitude in the mean field approximation. The model was shown to be successful in describing the last HERA data for the case where the strong coupling constant alpha{sub s} is fixed, showing also some important advantages when compared with other dipole models - all of them in coordinate space - in the literature. Based on the fact that the fluctuations may be important in the small-x evolution and on recent results obtained in coordinate space beyond the mean field approximation, we use this model to parametrize the proton structure function and confront it to HERA data using the average (physical) amplitude - then including fluctuations - within the momentum space framework. (author)

  2. Dipole scattering amplitude in momentum space: investigating fluctuations at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We extend a recently proposed dipole model which relates the virtual photon-proton cross section to the dipole-proton forward scattering amplitude in momentum space investigating the effects of the gluon number fluctuations. The model interpolates between well known asymptotic behaviours predicted by perturbative QCD from the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, which describes the rapidity evolution of the dipole-proton scattering amplitude in the mean field approximation. The model was shown to be successful in describing the last HERA data for the case where the strong coupling constant alphas is fixed, showing also some important advantages when compared with other dipole models - all of them in coordinate space - in the literature. Based on the fact that the fluctuations may be important in the small-x evolution and on recent results obtained in coordinate space beyond the mean field approximation, we use this model to parametrize the proton structure function and confront it to HERA data using the average (physical) amplitude - then including fluctuations - within the momentum space framework. (author)

  3. Induced dipole-dipole interactions in light diffusion from point dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherroret, Nicolas; Delande, Dominique; van Tiggelen, Bart A.

    2016-07-01

    We develop a perturbative treatment of induced dipole-dipole interactions in the diffusive transport of electromagnetic waves through disordered atomic clouds. The approach is exact at order 2 in the atomic density and accounts for the vector character of light. It is applied to the calculations of the electromagnetic energy stored in the atomic cloud, which modifies the energy transport velocity, and of the light scattering and transport mean free paths. Results are compared to those obtained from a purely scalar model for light.

  4. Particle electric dipole-moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendlebury, J.M. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    The incentive to detect particle electric dipole-moments, as a window on time-reversal violation, remains undiminished. Efforts to improve the measurements for the neutron, the electron and some nuclei are still making rapid progress as more powerful experimental methods are brought to bear. A new measurement for the neutron at ILL is presented. (author). 7 refs.

  5. A Tale of Two Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach

    2006-01-01

    A number of antenna topics may be treated by studying just two parallel, closely spaced electrical dipoles. They form an array and they may be coupled to form a single antenna with one port, or coupled through a coupling network to form a multiport antenna. The situations discussed are the creation...

  6. The dipole model structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an approach to the evolution of the valence structure functions based on the Colour Dipole Cascade Model for deep inelastic lepto-production. We show that this approach leads to an evolution equation similar to the DGLAP equation. In our approach the dependence on Q2 is however much weaker and the evolution levels out at high Q2. (orig.)

  7. The Collider dipole magnet program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Superconducting Super Collider will consist of more large superconducting magnets than have been built to date. Over 12,000 superconducting magnets are required and more than 8,000 will be Collider dipoles. The dipole magnet program is on the critical path of the project and requires the optimized utilization of the Nation's resources - National Laboratories, Universities and Industry. General Dynamics and Westinghouse Electric Corporation have been chosen as the Leader and Follower companies for the design of producible magnets and the manufacturing of the SSC dipoles. Industry has the necessary experience, skills and facilities required to produce reliable and cost effective dipole magnets. At peak production, 10 CDMs per day, very large quantities (nearly 130 metric tonnes/day) of materials will have to be procured from companies nationwide and fabricated into defect-free magnets. A key element of the SSCL's strategy to produce the most efficient CDM program is to employ the Leader-Follower approach, with the Leader transferring technology from the laboratories to the Leader's facility, fully integrating the Follower in the producibility and tooling/factory design efforts, and assisting the Follower in magnet qualification tests. General Dynamics is ready to help build America's most powerful research tool. Management is in place, the facilities are ready for activation and resources are available for immediate assignment

  8. A Nonlinear Multi-Scale Interaction Model for Atmospheric Blocking: The Eddy-Blocking Matching Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dehai; Cha, Jing; Zhong, Linhao; Dai, Aiguo

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a nonlinear multi-scale interaction (NMI) model is used to propose an eddy-blocking matching (EBM) mechanism to account for how synoptic eddies reinforce or suppress a blocking flow. It is shown that the spatial structure of the eddy vorticity forcing (EVF) arising from upstream synoptic eddies determines whether an incipient block can grow into a meandering blocking flow through its interaction with the transient synoptic eddies from the west. Under certain conditions, the EVF exhibits a low-frequency oscillation on timescales of 2-3 weeks. During the EVF phase with a negative-over- positive dipole structure, a blocking event can be resonantly excited through the transport of eddy energy into the incipient block by the EVF. As the EVF changes into an opposite phase, the blocking decays. The NMI model produces life cycles of blocking events that resemble observations. Moreover, it is shown that the eddy north-south straining is a response of the eddies to a dipole- or Ω-type block. In our model, as in observations, two synoptic anticyclones (cyclones) can attract and merge with one another as the blocking intensifies, but only when the feedback of the blocking on the eddies is included. Thus, we attribute the eddy straining and associated vortex interaction to the feedback of the intensified blocking on synoptic eddies. The results illustrate the concomitant nature of the eddy deformation, whose role as a PV source for the blocking flow becomes important only during the mature stage of a block. Our EBM mechanism suggests that an incipient block flow is amplified (or suppressed) under certain conditions by the EVF coming from the upstream of the blocking region.

  9. Dynamics of a nonlinear dipole vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Nielsen, A.H.;

    1995-01-01

    A localized stationary dipole solution to the Euler equations with a relationship between the vorticity and streamfunction given as omega=-psi+psi(3) is presented. By numerical integration of the Euler equations this dipole is shown to be unstable. However, the initially unstable dipole reorganiz...... of increasing Newtonian viscosity on the nonlinear dipole is studied revealing that even though the nonlinearity is weakening, the dipole does not relax towards a Lamb dipole. (C) 1995 American Institute of Physics....... itself into a new nonlinear dipole, which is found to be stable. This new structure has a functional relationship given as omega=alpha psi+beta psi(3)-gamma psi(5). Such dipoles are stable to head-on collisions and they are capable of creating tripolar structures when colliding off axis. The effects...

  10. Light scattering by large clusters of dipoles as an analog for cometary dust aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses the question as to whether the characteristics of solar radiation scattered by cometary dust can be intrinsically attributed to light scattering by a number of interacting electric dipoles. We calculate light scattering by an ensemble of dipoles having the polarizability of an isolated sphere using the discrete dipole approximation. Our results are consistent with the recent successful model that describes cometary dust as large aggregate particles consisting of optically dark submicrometer-size monomers. We show that by calculating electric dipole-dipole interactions the overall trend of the optical properties can be studied. Calculating higher scattering orders is currently limited by computer capabilities, but is required for a better quantitative description of light scattering by cometary dust. We finally discuss the different model parameters considered for investigating the optical properties of cometary dust

  11. Zitongxi Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Zitongxi Block (Western Zitong Block), is located in Zitong County, northwest of Sichuan Province (as shown on Fig. 8 ). Geologically. it is situated in the Zitong Depression, southwest of the middle Longmenshan faulted and folded belt, covering an area of 1 830 km2. Transportation is very convenient. A crisscross network of highways run through the block and the Baocheng railway is nearby. The climate is moderate. Most area belongs to hilly land with the elevation of 500-600 m.The Tongjiang River runs across the area.

  12. Noncommutative Dipole Field Theories And Unitarity

    CERN Document Server

    Chiou, D W; Chiou, Dah-Wei; Ganor, Ori J.

    2004-01-01

    We extend the argument of Gomis and Mehen for violation of unitarity in field theories with space-time noncommutativity to dipole field theories. In dipole field theories with a timelike dipole vector, we present 1-loop amplitudes that violate the optical theorem. A quantum mechanical system with nonlocal potential of finite extent in time also shows violation of unitarity.

  13. Noncommutative Dipole Field Theories And Unitarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Dah-Wei; Ganor, Ori J.

    2003-10-24

    We extend the argument of Gomis and Mehen for violation of unitarity in field theories with space-time noncommutativity to dipole field theories. In dipole field theories with a timelike dipole vector, we present 1-loop amplitudes that violate the optical theorem. A quantum mechanical system with nonlocal potential of finite extent in time also shows violation of unitarity.

  14. Dipoles on a Two-leg Ladder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We study polar molecules with long-range dipole-dipole interactions confined to move on a two-leg ladder for different orientations of the molecular dipole moments with respect to the ladder. Matrix product states are employed to calculate the many-body ground state of the system as function of l...

  15. Perturbative Odderon in the Dipole Model

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yu V; Wallon, S; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Szymanowski, Lech; Wallon, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    We show that, in the framework of Mueller's dipole model, the perturbative QCD odderon is described by the dipole model equivalent of the BFKL equation with a $C$-odd initial condition. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the odderon solution are the same as for the dipole BFKL equation and are given by the functions $E^{n,\

  16. Vortex dipole resonance in the giant dipole resonance energy region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The velocity fields associated with isovector excitations of spherical nuclei in the giant dipole resonance (GDR) energy region have been studied within a semiclassical approach based on the solution of the Vlasov kinetic equation for finite two-component Fermi systems with a moving surface. The neutron-proton asymmetry and dynamical surface effects lead to the fragmentation of the isovector dipole strength in the energy region of the GDR on two resonances. It was found that the velocity field has a potential character in the energy range near the main (low-energy) maximum of the GDR. However, the velocity field reveals a vortex character in the surface region at the energy of the high-energy maximum of the GDR

  17. Effects of dipole-dipole interaction on entanglement transfer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Hong; Xiong Heng-Na

    2008-01-01

    A system consisting of two different atoms interacting with a two-mode vacuum, where each atom is resonant only with one cavity mode, is considered.The effects of dipole-dipole (dd) interaction between two atoms on the atom-atom entanglement and mode-mode entanglement are investigated. For a weak dd interaction, when the atoms are initially separable, the entanglement between them can be induced by the dd interaction, and the entanglement transfer between the atoms and the modes occurs efficiently; when the atoms are initially entangled, the entanglement transfer is almost not influenced by the dd interaction. However, for a strong dd interaction, it is difficult to transfer the entanglement from the atoms to the modes, but the atom-atom entanglement can be maintained when the atoms are initially entangled.

  18. Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.

    2006-01-01

    . The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension....... Applications of our general framework include those from number theory (classical, complex, p-adic and formal power series) and dynamical systems (iterated function schemes, rational maps and Kleinian groups)....

  19. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample...

  20. A skull-based multiple dipole phantom for EEG and MEG studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, M.E.; Leahy, R.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mosher, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A versatile phantom for use in evaluating forward and inverse methods for MEG and EEG has been designed and is currently being constructed. The phantom consists of three major components: (i) a 32-element cur- rent dipole array, (ii) a PC-controlled dipole driver with 32 isolated channels allowing independent control of each dipole, (iii) spherical and human-skull mounts in which the dipole array is placed. Materials were selected throughout the phantom to produce minimal field distortions and artifacts to enable acquisition of high quality EEG and MEG data. The dipoles are made from a rigid narrow (0.84 mm) stainless steel coax cable. The dipole drivers can be configured as either current or voltage sources, are independently programmable and fully isolated, and are capable of producing arbitrary bipolar waveforms up to a 200 Hz bandwidth. The spherical mount is a single shell sphere filled with conductive gelatin. The human skull mount has three shells: ``brain`` (conducting gelatin), ``skull`` (the skull is impregnated with a low conductivity conducting gelatin), and ``scalp`` (a thin layer of rubber latex mixed with NaCl to achieve a conductivity matched to the brain). The conductivities will be adjusted to achieve approximately an 80:1:80 ratio. Data collected to date from the spherical phantom shows excellent agreement between measured surface potentials and that predicted from theory (27 of the 32 dipoles give better than 99.9% rms fit) and negligible leakage between dipoles. We are currently completing construction of the skull mount.

  1. Determination of ground and excited state dipole moments via electronic Stark spectroscopy: 5-methoxyindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Josefin; Wilke, Martin; Schmitt, Michael, E-mail: mschmitt@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Meerts, W. Leo, E-mail: leo.meerts@science.ru.nl [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, NL-6525 AS Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-28

    The dipole moments of the ground and lowest electronically excited singlet state of 5-methoxyindole have been determined by means of optical Stark spectroscopy in a molecular beam. The resulting spectra arise from a superposition of different field configurations, one with the static electric field almost parallel to the polarization of the exciting laser radiation, the other nearly perpendicular. Each field configuration leads to different intensities in the rovibronic spectrum. With an automated evolutionary algorithm approach, the spectra can be fit and the ratio of both field configurations can be determined. A simultaneous fit of two spectra with both field configurations improved the precision of the dipole moment determination by a factor of two. We find a reduction of the absolute dipole moment from 1.59(3) D to 1.14(6) D upon electronic excitation to the lowest electronically excited singlet state. At the same time, the dipole moment orientation rotates by 54{sup ∘} showing the importance of the determination of the dipole moment components. The dipole moment in the electronic ground state can approximately be obtained from a vector addition of the indole and the methoxy group dipole moments. However, in the electronically excited state, vector addition completely fails to describe the observed dipole moment. Several reasons for this behavior are discussed.

  2. Dipole relaxation losses in DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Briman, M.; N. P. Armitage; Helgren, E.; Gruner, G.

    2003-01-01

    The electrodynamic response of DNA in the millimeter wave range is investigated. By performing measurements under a wide range of humidity conditions and comparing the response of single strand DNA and double strand DNA, we show that the appreciable AC conductivity of DNA is not due to photon activated hopping between localized states, but instead due to dissipation from dipole motion in the surrounding water helix. Such a result, where the conductivity is due to the constrained motion of ove...

  3. The dipole moment of the spin density as a local indicator for phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, D.; Schmitz-Antoniak, C.; Warland, A.; Darbandi, M.; Haldar, S.; Bhandary, S.; Eriksson, O.; Sanyal, B.; Wende, H.

    2014-07-01

    The intra-atomic magnetic dipole moment - frequently called term - plays an important role in the determination of spin magnetic moments by x-ray absorption spectroscopy for systems with nonspherical spin density distributions. In this work, we present the dipole moment as a sensitive monitor to changes in the electronic structure in the vicinity of a phase transiton. In particular, we studied the dipole moment at the Fe2+ and Fe3+ sites of magnetite as an indicator for the Verwey transition by a combination of x-ray magnetic circular dichroism and density functional theory. Our experimental results prove that there exists a local change in the electronic structure at temperatures above the Verwey transition correlated to the known spin reorientation. Furthermore, it is shown that measurement of the dipole moment is a powerful tool to observe this transition in small magnetite nanoparticles for which it is usually screened by blocking effects in classical magnetometry.

  4. The secular variation of pulsar magnetic dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The time dependences of the inertia tensor and of a dissipative torque caused by the nonleptonic weak interaction have been investigated for a certain class of pulsars with no solid core. Early in the life of the pulsar, the angular velocity vector is predicted to move with respect to fixed body axes in such a way that it becomes perpendicular to the magnetic dipole moment. During this motion, the solid outer shell suffers plastic deformation so that the dipole moment becomes approximately collinear with a principal axis. After 104 or 105 yr, the dissipative torque is negligibly small compared with the electromagnetic torque, the Euler equations are those for a simple rigid body, and alignment of spin and dipole moment occurs. If the dipole moment discussed by Lyne et al. (1975) is interpreted as being equal to the component perpendicular to the spin, its secular decay is a natural property of this model and is not a consequence of field decay through electrical resistivity. (Auth.)

  5. Collectivity of dipole bands in {sup 196}Pb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, M.P.; Liang, Y.; Janssens, R.V.F. [and others

    1995-08-01

    The region of nuclei with mass {approximately} 190 was studied extensively over the last few years following the discovery of superdeformation in {sup 190}Hg. More recently, considerable interest in the neutron-deficient Pb isotopes developed with the discover of a number of bands at high spin connected by dipole transitions in both even {sup 192-200}Pb and odd {sup 197-201}Pb nuclei. The majority of the dipole bands are regular in character (i.e. transition energies increase smoothly with spin) while the remaining bands are referred to as irregular in character, due to the fact that the transition energies do not increase smoothly with spin. The properties of the dipole bands were interpreted in terms of high-K, moderately-deformed oblate states built on configurations involving high-J, shape-driving quasiproton excitations coupled to rotation-aligned quasineutrons. It was suggested that the difference between the regular and irregular dipole sequences is related to the deformation where the irregular sequences are thought to be less collective than their regular counterparts.

  6. Symmetry Energy and Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance in Finite Nuclei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Li-Gang; MA Zhong-Yu

    2008-01-01

    We study the relationship between the properties of the isovector giant dipole resonance of finite nuclei and the symmetry energy in the framework of the relativistic mean field theory with six different parameter sets of nonlinear effective Lagrangian.A strong linear correlation of excited energies of the dipole resonance in finite nuclei and symmetry energy at and below the saturation density is found.This linear correlation leads to the symmetry energy at the saturation density at the interval 33.0 MeV ≤ S(ρo)≤37.0 MeV.The comparison to the present experimental data in the soft dipole mode of 132 Sn constrains approximately the symmetry energy at ρ = 0.1 fm-3 at the interval 21.2MeV~ 22.5 MeV.It is proposed that a precise measurement of the soft dipole mode in neutron rich nuclei could set up an important constraint on the equation of state for asymmetric nuclear matter.

  7. Holographic Description of Glueball and Baryon in Noncommutative Dipole Gauge Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Wung-Hong

    2008-01-01

    We study the glueball spectrum in the supersymmetric and non-supersymmetric 4D non-commutative dipole gauge theory from the holographic description. We adopt the semiclassical WKB approximation to solve the dilaton and antisymmetric tensor field equations on the dual supergravity backgrounds to find the analytic formula of the spectrum of $0^{++}$ and $1^{--}$ glueballs, respectively. In the supersymmetric theory we see that the dipole length plays the intrinsic scale which reflects the discr...

  8. Dimers, Effective Interactions, and Pauli Blocking Effects in a Bilayer of Cold Fermionic Polar Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a bilayer setup with two parallel planes of cold fermionic polar molecules when the dipole moments are oriented perpendicular to the planes. The binding energy of two-body states with one polar molecule in each layer is determined and compared to various analytic approximation schemes in both coordinate- and momentum-space. The effective interaction of two bound dimers is obtained by integrating out the internal dimer bound state wave function and its robustness under analytical approximations is studied. Furthermore, we consider the effect of the background of other fermions on the dimer state through Pauli blocking, and discuss implications for the zero-temperature many-body phase diagram of this experimentally realizable system. (author)

  9. Ghost Block

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Filmed on the English south coast 'Ghost Block' depicts the uncanny and eerie atmosphere at the site of a WW2 coastal defence line. The concrete cubes were used as an anti-invasion blockade against potential landing forces. This protection line now slowly decaying and becoming enmeshed into the environment still acts as a defence to repel unwanted visitors. The area is a natural reserve to nesting birds that often lay eggs directly onto the beach surface. The blocks act as a final barrier ...

  10. A study of microtubule dipole lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Shubhendu

    Microtubules are cytoskeletal protein polymers orchestrating a host of important cellular functions including, but not limited to, cell support, cell division, cell motility and cell transport. In this thesis, we construct a toy-model of the microtubule lattice composed of vector Ising spins representing tubulin molecules, the building block of microtubules. Nearest-neighbor and next-to-nearest neighbor interactions are considered within an anisotropic dielectric medium. As a consequence of the helical topology, we observe that certain spin orientations render the lattice frustrated with nearest neighbor ferroelectric and next-to-nearest neighbor antiferroelectric bonds. Under these conditions, the lattice displays the remarkable property of stabilizing certain spin patterns that are robust to thermal fluctuations. We model this behavior in the framework of a generalized Ising model known as the J1 - J2 model and theoretically determine the set of stable patterns. Employing Monte-Carlo methods, we demonstrate the stability of such patterns in the microtubule lattice at human physiological temperatures. This suggests a novel biological mechanism for storing information in living organisms, whereby the tubulin spin (dipole moment) states become information bits and information gets stored in microtubules in a way that is robust to thermal fluctuations.

  11. Different entanglement dynamics and transfer behaviors due to dipole-dipole interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Likai Cui; Yingjie Zhang; Zhongxiao Man; Yunjie Xia

    2012-01-01

    We analyze entanglement dynamics and transfer in a system composed of two initially correlated two-level atoms,in which each atom is coupled with another atom interacting with its own reservoir.Considering atomic dipole-dipole interactions,the results show that dipole-dipole interactions restrain the entanglement birth of the reservoirs,and a parametric region of dipole-dipole interaction strength exists in which the maximal entanglement of two initially uncorrelated atoms is reduced.The transfer of entanglement shows obvious different behaviors in two initial Bell-like states.

  12. Epidural block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home ... It numbs or causes a loss of feeling in the lower half your body. This lessens the pain of contractions during childbirth. An epidural block may also be used to ...

  13. Collective Dipole-Dipole Interactions in an Atomic Array

    CERN Document Server

    Sutherland, R T

    2016-01-01

    The coherent dipole-dipole interactions of atoms in an atomic array are studied. It is found that the excitation probability of an atom in an array parallel to the direction of laser propagation ($\\boldsymbol{\\hat{k}}$) will either grow or decay logarithmically along $\\boldsymbol{\\hat{k}}$, depending on the detuning of the laser. The symmetry of the system for atomic separations of $\\delta r = j\\lambda/2$, where $j$ is an integer, causes the excitation distribution and scattered radiation to abruptly become symmetric about the center of the array. For atomic separations of $\\delta r < \\lambda/2$, the appearance of a collection of extremely subradiant states ($\\Gamma\\sim 0$), disrupts the described trend. In order to interpret the results from a finite array of atoms, a band structure calculation in the $N\\rightarrow \\infty$ limit is conducted where the decay rates and the Collective Lamb Shifts of the eigenmodes along the Brillouin zone are shown. Finally, the band structure of an array strongly affects it...

  14. Electromagnetic dipole moments of fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Fael, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    The electric (EDM) and magnetic (g-2) dipole moments are static properties sensitive to quantum corrections induced by the virtual particles that populate the vacuum. Indeed, they are well suited to test the Standard Model of Elementary of particle physics and to unveil unknown New Physics (NP) hidden at high energy. The electron and muon g-2 have been measured with the wonderful precision of 0.24 ppb and 0.54 ppm, respectively, and thus they represent one of the strongest confirmation ...

  15. Electric and Magnetic Dipole Moments

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The stringent limit on the electric dipole moment of the neutron forced the issue on the strong CP-problem. The most elegant solution of which is the axion field proposed by Peccei and Quinn. The current limit on the QCD parameter theta coming from the limit on the neutron EDM is of order 10-10. I am going to describe the present status on the neutron EDM searches and further prospects on getting down to theta_qcd sensitivity of 10-13 with the new deuteron EDM in storage rings proposal. For completeness the current status and prospects of the muon g-2 experiment will also be given.

  16. Nanophotonic control of circular dipole emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Feber, B; Rotenberg, N; Kuipers, L

    2015-01-01

    Controlling photon emission by single emitters with nanostructures is crucial for scalable on-chip information processing. Nowadays, nanoresonators can affect the lifetime of linear dipole emitters, while nanoantennas can steer the emission direction. Expanding this control to the emission of orbital angular momentum-changing transitions would enable a future coupling between solid state and photonic qubits. As these transitions are associated with circular dipoles, such control requires knowledge of the interaction of a complex dipole with optical eigenstates containing local helicity. We experimentally map the coupling of classical, circular dipoles to photonic modes in a photonic crystal waveguide. We show that, depending on the combination of the local helicity of the mode and the dipole helicity, circular dipoles can couple to left- or rightwards propagating modes with a near-unity directionality. The experimental maps are in excellent agreement with calculations. Our measurements, therefore, demonstrate the possibility of coupling the spin to photonic pathway. PMID:25833305

  17. Electric dipole polarizability from first principles calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Miorelli, M; Barnea, N; Hagen, G; Jansen, G R; Orlandini, G; Papenbrock, T

    2016-01-01

    The electric dipole polarizability quantifies the low-energy behavior of the dipole strength and is related to critical observables such as the radii of the proton and neutron distributions. Its computation is challenging because most of the dipole strength lies in the scattering continuum. In this paper we combine integral transforms with the coupled-cluster method and compute the dipole polarizability using bound-state techniques. Employing different interactions from chiral effective field theory, we confirm the strong correlation between the dipole polarizability and the charge radius, and study its dependence on three-nucleon forces. We find good agreement with data for the 4He, 40Ca, and 16O nuclei, and predict the dipole polarizability for the rare nucleus 22O.

  18. Construction and component testing of TAMU3, a 14 Tesla stress-managed Nb3Sn model dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holik, Eddie Frank, III; Benson, Chris; Blackburn, Raymond; Diaczenko, Nick; Elliott, Timothy; Jaisle, Andrew; McInturff, A.; McIntyre, P.; Sattarov, Akhdiyor

    2012-06-01

    We report the construction and testing of components of TAMU3, a 14 Tesla Nb3Sn block-coil dipole. A primary goal in developing this model dipole is to test a method of stress management in which Lorentz stress is intercepted within the coil assembly and bypassed so that it cannot accumulate to a level that would cause strain degradation in the superconducting windings. Details of the fabrication, tooling, and results of construction and magnet component testing will be presented.

  19. Study of the Optimal Precursors for Blocking Events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhina; LUO Dehai

    2005-01-01

    The precursors of dipole blocking are obtained by a numerical approach based upon a quasi-geostrophic barotropic planetary- to synoptic-scale interaction model without topography and with a localized synopticscale wave-maker. The optimization problem related to the precursors of blocking is formulated and the nonlinear optimization method is used to examine the optimal synoptic-scale initial field successfully. The results show that the prominent characteristics of the optimal synoptic-scale initial field are that the synoptic-scale wave train structures exist upstream of the incipient blocking. In addition, the large-scale low/high eddy-forcing pattern upstream of the incipient blocking is an essential precondition for the onset of dipole blocking.

  20. Stable divergence angles of a magnetic dipole spiral array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.D.; Bursill, L.A.

    1996-03-01

    An analytical model is introduced for Douady and Couder`s [1992] experiment, where phyllotactic patterns appear as a dynamical result of the interaction between magnetic dipoles. The difference equation for the divergence angle (i.e. the angle between successive radial vectors) is obtained by solving the equations of motion with a second nearest neighbour (SNN) approximation. A one dimensional map analysis as well as a comprehensive analytical proof shows that the divergence angle always converges to a single attractor regardless of the initial conditions. This attractor is approximately the Fibonacci angle ({approx} 138 deg) within variations due to a growth factor {mu} of the pattern. The system is proved to be stable with the SNN approximation. Further analysis with a third nearest neighbour approximation (TNN) shows extra linearly stable attractors may appear around the Lucas angle at {approx} 99.5 deg. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  1. On the isoscalar-isovector splitting of pygmy dipole structures

    CERN Document Server

    Paar, N; Vretenar, D; Meng, J

    2009-01-01

    The electric dipole response of $^{140}$Ce is investigated using the fully consistent relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation. By analyzing the isospin structure of the E1 response, it is shown that the low-energy (pygmy) strength separates into two segments with different isospin character. The more pronounced pygmy structure at lower energy is composed of predominantly isoscalar states with surface-peaked transition densities. At somewhat higher energy the calculated E1 strength is primarily of isovector character, as expected for the low-energy tail of the giant dipole resonance. The results are in qualitative agreement with those obtained in recent $(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ and $(\\alpha,\\alpha'\\gamma)$ experiments, and provide a simple explanation for the splitting of low-energy E1 strength into two groups of states with different isospin structure and radial dependence of the corresponding transition densities.

  2. Short term dynamic aperture with AC dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Mönig, Saskia; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Coello De Portugal, Jaime; Langner, Andy; Tomas, Rogelio; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic aperture of an accelerator is determined by its non-linear components and errors. Control of the dynamic aperture is important for a good understanding and operation of the accelerator. The AC dipole, installed in the LHC for the diagnostic of linear and non-linear optics, could serve as a tool for the determination of the dynamic aperture. However, since the AC dipole itself modifies the non-linear dynamics, the dynamic aperture with and without AC dipole are expected to differ. The effect of the AC dipole on the dynamic aperture is studied within this note.

  3. Dipole interactions in doubly-periodic domains

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, Alan Cheng Hou

    2013-01-01

    We consider the interactions of finite dipoles in a doubly-periodic domain. A finite dipole is a pair of equal and opposite strength point vortices separated by a finite distance. The dynamics of multiple finite dipoles in an unbounded inviscid uid was first proposed by Tchieu, Kanso & Newton in [1] as a model that captures the "far- field" hydrodynamic interactions in fish schools. In this paper, we formulate the equations of motion governing the dynamics of finite-dipoles in a doubly-periodic domain. We show that a single dipole in a doubly-periodic domain exhibits periodic and aperiodic behavior, in contrast to a single dipole in an unbounded domain. In the case of two dipoles in doubly-periodic domain, we identify a number of interesting trajectories including collision, collision avoidance, and passive synchronization of the dipoles. We then examine two types of dipole lattices: rectangular and diamond. We verify that these lattices are in a state of relative equilibrium and show that the rectangular...

  4. The Inverse Problem for the Dipole Field

    CERN Document Server

    Epp, V

    2015-01-01

    The Inverse problem for an electromagnetic field produced by a dipole is solved. It is assumed that the field of an arbitrary changing dipole is known. Obtained formulae allow calculation of the position and dynamics of the dipole which produces the measured field. The derived results can be used in investigations on radiative process in solids caused by changing of the charge distribution. For example, generation of the electromagnetic field caused by oscillations of atoms or electron gas at the trace of a particle channeling in a crystal, or fields arising at solids cracking or dislocation formation -- in any case when one is interested in the details of the dipole field source.

  5. Huhe Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Huhe Block is located in the mid-west part of Inner Mogolia Autonomous Region, covering an area of 15 079km2, in the range of 109°40'-112°00'E and 39°23()-40°40'N. Topographically. the Fengzhen hill is to the east, the Yinshan Mounts is to the north, the Hetao Plain and Ordos Plateau are respectively in its west and south.The Yellow River flows across this block. The elevation is 1 000 m in the flat area and in the range of 1 000-1 300m. in the plateau area, good for the development of agriculture and industry as well as husbandry. It belongs to inland plateau climate with annually averaged temperature of 8℃, the minimum being -12℃ in winter and the maximum 22℃ in summer.

  6. Critical Property of the Geometric Phase in the Dicke Model with the Dipole-dipole Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunfeng WU; Ping ZHANG; Jianzhou ZHENG

    2008-01-01

    We obtained the ground-state energy level and associated geometric phase in the Dicke model with the dipole-dipole interactions analytically by the Holstein-Primakoff transformation and the boson expansion approach in the thermodynamic limit.The nonadiabatic geometric phase induced by the photon field was derived with the time-dependent unitary transformation.It is shown that dipole-dipole interactions have a deep influence on scaled behavior of the geometric phase at the critical point.

  7. Electron exchange between dipole-bound anion and polar molecule and dipole-bound anions dimer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider collision between a dipole-bound molecular anion and a neutral polar molecule and show that the excess electron can bind two neutral molecules into a dimer. Using a variational approach similar to the Heitler-London model of H''+2 ion we obtain the energy terms of such a dimer. Their difference determines the cross-section of electron transfer from the anion to the neutral molecule in quasiclassical near-resonant Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We obtain for the cross-section an analytic expression containing the weak (logarythmic) factor depending on the molecular dipole moment, and collision velocity. Our analytic calculations are in a good accordance with the results of a recent experiment.

  8. Solitary excitations in discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with dispersive dipole-dipole interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Johansson, M.;

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with long-range dispersive interactions is investigated. In particular, we focus on the cases where the dispersion arises from a dipole-dipole interaction, assuming the dipole moments at each lattice site to be aligned either...

  9. Optimal Belief Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Leike, Reimar H

    2016-01-01

    In Bayesian statistics probability distributions express beliefs. However, for many problems the beliefs cannot be computed analytically and approximations of beliefs are needed. We seek a ranking function that quantifies how "embarrassing" it is to communicate a given approximation. We show that there is only one ranking under the requirements that (1) the best ranked approximation is the non-approximated belief and (2) that the ranking judges approximations only by their predictions for actual outcomes. We find that this ranking is equivalent to the Kullback-Leibler divergence that is frequently used in the literature. However, there seems to be confusion about the correct order in which its functional arguments, the approximated and non-approximated beliefs, should be used. We hope that our elementary derivation settles the apparent confusion. We show for example that when approximating beliefs with Gaussian distributions the optimal approximation is given by moment matching. This is in contrast to many su...

  10. Real-Time Localization of Moving Dipole Sources for Tracking Multiple Free-Swimming Weakly Electric Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jaeyoon Jun

    Full Text Available In order to survive, animals must quickly and accurately locate prey, predators, and conspecifics using the signals they generate. The signal source location can be estimated using multiple detectors and the inverse relationship between the received signal intensity (RSI and the distance, but difficulty of the source localization increases if there is an additional dependence on the orientation of a signal source. In such cases, the signal source could be approximated as an ideal dipole for simplification. Based on a theoretical model, the RSI can be directly predicted from a known dipole location; but estimating a dipole location from RSIs has no direct analytical solution. Here, we propose an efficient solution to the dipole localization problem by using a lookup table (LUT to store RSIs predicted by our theoretically derived dipole model at many possible dipole positions and orientations. For a given set of RSIs measured at multiple detectors, our algorithm found a dipole location having the closest matching normalized RSIs from the LUT, and further refined the location at higher resolution. Studying the natural behavior of weakly electric fish (WEF requires efficiently computing their location and the temporal pattern of their electric signals over extended periods. Our dipole localization method was successfully applied to track single or multiple freely swimming WEF in shallow water in real-time, as each fish could be closely approximated by an ideal current dipole in two dimensions. Our optimized search algorithm found the animal's positions, orientations, and tail-bending angles quickly and accurately under various conditions, without the need for calibrating individual-specific parameters. Our dipole localization method is directly applicable to studying the role of active sensing during spatial navigation, or social interactions between multiple WEF. Furthermore, our method could be extended to other application areas involving dipole

  11. Bound states of a light atom and two heavy dipoles in two dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Rosa, D S; Jensen, A S; Krein, G; Yamashita, M T

    2016-01-01

    We study a three-body system, formed by a light particle and two identical heavy dipoles, in two dimensions in the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We present the analytic light-particle wave function resulting from an attractive zero-range potential between the light and each of the heavy particles. It expresses the large-distance universal properties which must be reproduced by all realistic short-range interactions. We calculate the three-body spectrum for zero heavy-heavy interaction as function of light to heavy mass ratio. We discuss the relatively small deviations from Coulomb estimates and the degeneracies related to radial nodes and angular momentum quantum numbers. We include a repulsive dipole-dipole interaction and investigate the three-body solutions as functions of strength and dipole direction. Avoided crossings occur between levels localized in the emerging small and large-distance minima, respectively. The characteristic exchange of properties like mean square radii are calculated. Simulation ...

  12. Quantum–classical correspondence and the role of the dipole function in molecular dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, E.F. de, E-mail: eflima@rc.unesp.br [Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, UNESP – Univ. Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, São Paulo 13506-900 (Brazil); Rosado, E.C., E-mail: tcortez@rc.unesp.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Castelano, L.K., E-mail: lkcastelano@ufscar.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Egydio de Carvalho, R., E-mail: regydio@rc.unesp.br [Instituto de Geociências e Ciências Exatas, UNESP – Univ. Estadual Paulista, Rio Claro, São Paulo 13506-900 (Brazil)

    2014-07-18

    We consider the quantum and classical dissociation dynamics of heteronuclear diatomic molecules induced by infrared laser pulses. The field–molecule interaction is given by the product of the time-dependent electric field and the molecule permanent dipole. We investigate the influence of the dipole function in molecular dissociation. We show that the dissociation can be suppressed at certain external field frequencies for a nonlinear and finite-range dipole function. The correspondence between quantum and classical results is established by relating classical Fourier amplitudes to discrete–continuum quantum matrix elements. - Highlights: • A finite-range dipole can prevent laser-induced dissociation for particular external frequencies. • Quantum and classical calculations show good agreement when the system is initially in excited levels. • An approximation of discrete–continuum matrix elements by Fourier components is obtained.

  13. Stability of high field superconducting dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting dipole magnets of the window-frame type were constructed and operated successfully at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Examples of this type of magnet are the 6 T ''Model T'' magnet, and the 4 T 80 superconducting bending magnet. The latter magnet operated reliably since October 1973 as part of the proton beam transport to the north experimental area at the BNL AGS with intensities of typically 8 x 1012 protons at 28.5 GeV/c passing through the magnet in a curved trajectory with the proton beam center only 2.0 cm from the beam pipe at both ends and the middle of each of the two units comprising the magnet. The energy in the beam is approximately 40 kJ per 3 μsec pulse. Targets were inserted in the beam at locations 2 m and 5.6 m upstream of the first magnet unit to observe the effects of radiation heating. The 80 magnet demonstrated ultrastability, surviving 3 μsec thermal pulses delivering up to 1 kJ into the cold magnet at repetition periods as short as 1.3 sec

  14. How to Introduce the Magnetic Dipole Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.

    2012-01-01

    We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the…

  15. Electric dipole moment of diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of the electric dipole moment of diatomic molecules by the Variational Cellular Method is presented, discussed and compared with the semiempirical CNDO/2 method. The molecule HF is taken as example. It is also shown that the value of the electric dipole moment by the VCM improves considerably when the electronegativity of the atoms of the molecule is taken into account. (Author)

  16. Gravitational radiation from a rotating magnetic dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Hacyan, Shahen

    2016-01-01

    The gravitational radiation emitted by a rotating magnetic dipole is calculated. Formulas for the polarization amplitudes and the radiated power are obtained in closed forms, considering both the near and radiation zones of the dipole. For a neutron star, a comparison is made with other sources of gravitational and electromagnetic radiation.

  17. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Vutha, Amar C

    2014-01-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic & molecular physics.

  18. Integral Measurement of Dipole Prototype of CSR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dipole prototype is C type used as bending magnet of the injection beam line in CSR, and acts as a model of the dipoles in the CSR main ring simultaneously. The designed relative uniformity of good field is 0.001 in 100 mm width. The results of the local distribution and transfunction at transverse profile measured

  19. Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, Jay [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Mauel, Michael [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-03-10

    Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier et al., Physics of Plasmas, 13 (2006) 056111]. High- beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability made LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment operating in the U.S. fusion program. A significant measure of progress in the LDX research program was the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole and the resulting observations of confinement improvement. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements were made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma was created by multi frequency electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2.45 GHz, 6.4 GHz, 10.5 GHz and 28 GHz allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole was levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature was estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities to approach 1e18 m-3. We have found that levitation causes a strong inwards density pinch [Boxer et al., Nature Physics, 6 (2010) 207] and we have observed the central plasma density increase dramatically indicating a significant improvement in the confinement of a thermal plasma species.

  20. Fuzzy Approximating Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Bin Qin

    2014-01-01

    Relationships between fuzzy relations and fuzzy topologies are deeply researched. The concept of fuzzy approximating spaces is introduced and decision conditions that a fuzzy topological space is a fuzzy approximating space are obtained.

  1. Approximate flavor symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Rasin, A

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  2. Approximate iterative algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Almudevar, Anthony Louis

    2014-01-01

    Iterative algorithms often rely on approximate evaluation techniques, which may include statistical estimation, computer simulation or functional approximation. This volume presents methods for the study of approximate iterative algorithms, providing tools for the derivation of error bounds and convergence rates, and for the optimal design of such algorithms. Techniques of functional analysis are used to derive analytical relationships between approximation methods and convergence properties for general classes of algorithms. This work provides the necessary background in functional analysis a

  3. Approximation of distributed delays

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Hao; Eberard, Damien; Simon, Jean-Pierre

    2010-01-01

    We address in this paper the approximation problem of distributed delays. Such elements are convolution operators with kernel having bounded support, and appear in the control of time-delay systems. From the rich literature on this topic, we propose a general methodology to achieve such an approximation. For this, we enclose the approximation problem in the graph topology, and work with the norm defined over the convolution Banach algebra. The class of rational approximates is described, and a constructive approximation is proposed. Analysis in time and frequency domains is provided. This methodology is illustrated on the stabilization control problem, for which simulations results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  4. Sparse approximation with bases

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically presents recent fundamental results on greedy approximation with respect to bases. Motivated by numerous applications, the last decade has seen great successes in studying nonlinear sparse approximation. Recent findings have established that greedy-type algorithms are suitable methods of nonlinear approximation in both sparse approximation with respect to bases and sparse approximation with respect to redundant systems. These insights, combined with some previous fundamental results, form the basis for constructing the theory of greedy approximation. Taking into account the theoretical and practical demand for this kind of theory, the book systematically elaborates a theoretical framework for greedy approximation and its applications.  The book addresses the needs of researchers working in numerical mathematics, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis. It quickly takes the reader from classical results to the latest frontier, but is written at the level of a graduate course and do...

  5. Expectation values of single-particle operators in the random phase approximation ground state

    CERN Document Server

    Kosov, Daniel S

    2016-01-01

    We developed a method for computing matrix elements of single-particle operators in the correlated random phase approximation ground state. Working with the explicit random phase approximation ground state wavefunction, we derived practically useful and simple expression for a molecular property in terms of random phase approximation amplitudes. The theory is illustrated by the calculation of molecular dipole moments. It is shown that Hartree-Fock based random phase approximation provides a systematic improvement of molecular dipole moment values in comparison to M{\\o}ller-Plesset second order perturbation theory and coupled cluster method for a considered set of molecules.

  6. Electric dipole moment of the neutron in a gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of calculation of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron in a gauge theory is discussed. The consideration is carried out in the Kobayashi and Maskawa model of complex couplings, models with spontaneous CP violation and in the framework of quantum chromodynamics. The EDM of the neutron induced by the theta term of quantum chromodynamics is of order of (10-15-10-16) | theta | e cm. The mechanism of the spontaneous CP violation predicts the value of EDM coinciding practically with experimental data. The mechanism of CP violation due to complex couplings predicts the value of EDM of approximately 10-32 e cm

  7. Electric dipole polarizabilities of Rydberg states of alkali atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Yerokhin, V A; Fritzsche, S; Surzhykov, A

    2016-01-01

    Calculations of the static electric-dipole scalar and tensor polarizabilities are presented for two alkali atoms, Rb and Cs, for the $nS$, $nP_{1/2, 3/2}$, and $nD_{3/2, 5/2}$ states with large principal quantum numbers up to $n = 50$. The calculations are performed within an effective one-electron approximation, based on the Dirac-Fock Hamiltonian with a semi-empirical core-polarization potential. The obtained results are compared with those from a simpler semi-empirical approach and with available experimental data.

  8. Comparative study between toroidal coordinates and the magnetic dipole field

    CERN Document Server

    Chávez-Alarcón, Esteban

    2012-01-01

    There is a similar behaviour between the toroidal coordinates and the dipole magnetic field produced by a circular loop. In this work we evaluate up to what extent the former can be used as a representation of the latter. While the tori in the toroidal coordinates have circular cross sections, those of the circular loop magnetic field are nearly elliptical ovoids, but they are very similar for large aspect ratios.The centres of the latter displace from the axis faster than the former. By making a comparison between tori of similar aspect ratios, we find quantitative criteria to evaluate the accuracy of the approximation.

  9. Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, Jay; Mauel, Michael

    2013-03-10

    Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier, Phys. Plasmas, v13, p. 056111, 2006]. High-beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability makes LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment now operating in the U.S. fusion program. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements are made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma is created by multifrequency electron cyclotron resonance heating allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole is levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature is estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities reach 1.0E18 (1/m3). Several significant discoveries resulted from the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole. For the first time, toroidal plasma with pressure approaching the pressure of the confining magnetic field was well-confined in steady-state without a toroidal magnetic field. Magnetic levitation proved to be reliable and is now routine. The dipole's cryostat allows up to three hours of "float time" between re-cooling with liquid helium and providing scientists unprecedented access to the physics of magnetizd plasma. Levitation eliminates field-aligned particle sources and sinks and results in a toroidal, magnetically-confined plasma where profiles are determined by cross

  10. Relativistic Coulomb excitation within Time Dependent Superfluid Local Density Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Stetcu, I; Bulgac, A; Magierski, P; Roche, K J

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the unrestricted time-dependent density functional theory, we present for the first time an analysis of the relativistic Coulomb excitation of the heavy deformed open shell nucleus $^{238}$U. The approach is based on Superfluid Local Density Approximation (SLDA) formulated on a spatial lattice that can take into account coupling to the continuum, enabling self-consistent studies of superfluid dynamics of any nuclear shape. We have computed the energy deposited in the target nucleus as a function of the impact parameter, finding it to be significantly larger than the estimate using the Goldhaber-Teller model. The isovector giant dipole resonance, the dipole pygmy resonance and giant quadrupole modes were excited during the process. The one body dissipation of collective dipole modes is shown to lead a damping width $\\Gamma_\\downarrow \\approx 0.4$ MeV and the number of pre-equilibrium neutrons emitted has been quantified.

  11. Microscopic mean field approximation and beyond with the Gogny force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fully consistent axially-symmetric-deformed quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) calculations have been performed with the D1S Gogny force. A brief review on the main results obtained in this approach is presented. After a reminder on the method and on the first results concerning giant resonances in deformed Mg and Si isotopes, the multipole responses up to octupole in the deformed and heavy nucleus 238U are discussed. In order to analyse soft dipole modes in exotic nuclei, the dipole responses have been studied in Ne isotopes and in N=16 isotopes, for which results are presented. In these nuclei, the QRPA results on the low lying 2+ states are compared to the 5-Dimensional Collective Hamiltonian (5DCH) ones. Results on dipole mode are in good agreement with experimental data. For spherical nuclei, the QRPA formalism completes the 5DCH predictions including the same effective interaction

  12. Dipole gravity waves from unbound quadrupoles

    CERN Document Server

    Felber, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Dipole gravitational disturbances from gravitationally unbound mass quadrupoles propagate to the radiation zone with signal strength at least of quadrupole order if the quadrupoles are nonrelativistic, and of dipole order if relativistic. Angular distributions of parallel-polarized and transverse-polarized dipole power in the radiation zone are calculated for simple unbound quadrupoles, like a linear-oscillator/stress-wave pair and a particle storage ring. Laboratory tests of general relativity through measurements of dipole gravity waves in the source region are proposed. A NASA G2 flywheel module with a modified rotor can produce a post-Newtonian dc bias signal at a gradiometer up to 1 mE. At peak luminosity, the repulsive dipole impulses of proton bunches at the LHC can produce an rms velocity of a high-Q detector surface up to 4 micron/s. Far outside the source region, Newtonian lunar dipole gravity waves can produce a 1-cm displacement signal at LISA. Dipole signal strengths of astrophysical events invol...

  13. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries. II. Inverse Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, which is the sequel to [16], we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for blockwise incoherent dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal...

  14. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries,.. II: Inverse estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    In this paper we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for separated decomposable dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal mutually...

  15. AN OPTIMAL FUZZY APPROXIMATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YueShihong; ZhangKecun

    2002-01-01

    In a dot product space with the reproducing kernel (r. k. S. ) ,a fuzzy system with the estimation approximation errors is proposed ,which overcomes the defect that the existing fuzzy control system is difficult to estimate the errors of approximation for a desired function,and keeps the characteristics of fuzzy system as an inference approach. The structure of the new fuzzy approximator benefits a course got by other means.

  16. Axion induced oscillating electric dipole moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher T. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)

    2015-06-24

    In this study, the axion electromagnetic anomaly induces an oscillating electric dipole for any magnetic dipole. This is a low energy theorem which is a consequence of the space-time dependent cosmic background field of the axion. The electron will acquire an oscillating electric dipole of frequency ma and strength ~ 10-32 e-cm, within four orders of magnitude of the present standard model DC limit, and two orders of magnitude above the nucleon, assuming standard axion model and dark matter parameters. This may suggest sensitive new experimental venues for the axion dark matter search.

  17. The field of a screened magnetic dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, J. M.; Miller, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to quantitatively study the asymptotic behavior of the dipole magnetic field in the tail region of a paraboloidal or cylindrical model of the magnetosphere, assuming the complete screening of the internal field by magnetopause currents. This screening assumption is equivalent to imposing the boundary condition that the normal component of the magnetic field is zero at the magnetopause. With this boundary condition, the screened dipole field falls off exponentially with distance down the tail, in sharp constrast to the bare dipole field. Analytic expressions for a cylindrical and paraboloidal magnetopause are given.

  18. Plasma confinement in a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A dipole fusion confinement device is stable to MHD interchange and ballooning modes when the pressure profile is sufficiently gentle. The plasma can be confined at high beta, is steady state and disruption free. Theory indicates that when the pressure gradient is sufficiently gentle to satisfy MHD requirements drift waves will also be stable. The dipole approach is particularly applicable for advanced fuels. A new experimental facility is presently being built to test the stability and transport properties of a dipole-confined plasma. (author)

  19. Non-dipole effects in photoelectron angular distributions for rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors present a theoretical study of O(ka) and O(k2a2) corrections to the dipole approximation in photoionization of rare gas atoms, where k is the magnitude of the photon wave vector and a is the radius of the ionized subshell. In the dipole approximation, the photoelectron angular distribution is characterized by the single parameter Β. The O(ka) corrections are characterized by two parameters γ and delta, and the O(k2a2) corrections are characterized by three parameters λ, μ, and ν, constrained by the relation λ + μ + ν = 0 and a correction ΔΒ to the dipole parameter Β. Formulas are given for the non-dipole parameters in terms of reduced matrix elements of electric and magnetic multipole operators. Tables and graphs of the seven angular distribution parameters, calculated in the relativistic independent-particle approximation (IPA), are given for electron energies ranging from 20 to 5,000 eV for all 41 subshells of the rare gas atoms He,NE,Ar,Kr, and Xe. Tables and graphs of the O(ka) parameters are also given in the energy range 2--60 eV for the n = 3 and 4 shells of Kr, and for the n = 4 and 5 shells of Xe, where interesting non-dipole effects are found. Comparisons of the IPA calculations with correlated relativistic random-phase approximation calculations are made for selected subshells of Ar and Kr, illustrating the influence of correlation on the non-dipole parameters

  20. Approximation techniques for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Komzsik, Louis

    2006-01-01

    Presenting numerous examples, algorithms, and industrial applications, Approximation Techniques for Engineers is your complete guide to the major techniques used in modern engineering practice. Whether you need approximations for discrete data of continuous functions, or you''re looking for approximate solutions to engineering problems, everything you need is nestled between the covers of this book. Now you can benefit from Louis Komzsik''s years of industrial experience to gain a working knowledge of a vast array of approximation techniques through this complete and self-contained resource.

  1. Pygmy dipole mode in deformed neutron-rich Mg isotopes close to the drip line

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Kenichi

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the microscopic structure of the low-lying isovector-dipole excitation mode in neutron-rich $^{36,38,40}$Mg close to the drip line by means of the deformed quasiparticle-random-phase-approximation employing the Skyrme and the local pairing energy-density functionals. It is found that the low-lying bump structure above the neutron emission-threshold energy develops when the drip line is approached, and that the isovector dipole strength at $E_{x} < 10$ MeV exhausts about $6.0 %$ of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn dipole sum rule in $^{40}$Mg. We obtained the collective dipole modes at around 8-10 MeV in Mg isotopes, which consist of many two-quasiparticle excitations of neutron. The transition density clearly shows an oscillation of the neutron skin against the isoscalar core. We found significant coupling effects between the dipole and octupole excitation modes due to the nuclear deformation. It is also found that the responses for the compressional dipole and isoscalar octupole excitations...

  2. Van der Waals Interactions and Dipole Blockade in a Cold Rydberg Gas Probed by Microwave Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh Long; Celistrino Teixeira, Raul; Hermann Avigliano, Carla; Cantat Moltrecht, Tigrane; Raimond, Jean Michel; Haroche, Serge; Gleyzes, Sebastiens; Brune, Michel

    2016-05-01

    Dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg atoms are a flourishing tool for quantum information processing and for quantum simulation of complex many-body problems. Microwave spectroscopy of a dense Rydberg gas trapped close to a superconducting atom chip in the strong dipole blockade regime reveals directly the many-body atomic interaction spectrum. We present here a direct measurement of the interaction energy distribution in the strong dipole blockade regime, based on microwave spectroscopy. We first apply this method to the observation of the excitation dynamics of the Rydberg gas, conditioned by dipole-dipole interactions, in either the strong blockade regime or the so-called facilitation regime. We also observe with this method the atomic cloud expansion driven by the repulsive Van der Waals interaction after excitation. This measurement, in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations of the excitation process and of the cloud dynamics, reveals the limits of the frozen gas approximation. This method can help investigate self-organization and dynamical phase transitions in Rydberg-atom based quantum simulators. This study thus opens a promising route for quantum simulation of many-body systems and quantum information transport in chains of strongly interacting Rydberg atom.

  3. Study on the connection between the rotating mass dipole and natural elongated bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangyuan; Jiang, Fanghua; Li, Junfeng; Baoyin, Hexi

    2015-03-01

    The focus of this paper is to connect the rotating mass dipole with natural elongated bodies. The dipole system is consisted with two point masses connected with a massless rod in a constant characteristic distance. A brief introduction on the dynamics near the rotating mass dipole is given with the distribution of its equilibrium points and zero-velocity curves. Five parameters of the dipole model are required to approximate the potential distribution of an elongated body out of the body's surface, including the mass ratio, system mass, spinning period, characteristic distance and the ratio between the gravitational and centrifugal forces. The method to obtain the five parameters is presented along with its application to the asteroid 1620 Geographos in detail. The accuracy of the dipole model is quantified with the relative tolerance of locations of the equilibrium points. Six more elongated asteroids and comets, such as 25143 Itokawa and 103P/Hartley-2, are illustrated to provide a reference for further studies. Model justification is evaluated through comparison between sample elongated bodies and their corresponding dipole models with regard to the external potential distribution, the stability and topological manifold structure of the equilibrium points.

  4. Superconducting Coil of Po Dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The Po superconducting dipole was built as a prototype beam transport magnet for the SPS extracted proton beam P0. Its main features were: coil aperture 72 mm, length 5 m, room-temperature yoke, NbTi cable conductor impregnated with solder, nominal field 4.2 T at 4.7 K (87% of critical field). It reached its nominal field without any quench.After this successful test up to its nominal field of 4.2 T, the power was not raised to reach a quench. The magnet was not installed in a beam and had no other further use. Nevertheless its construction provided knowledges and experience which became useful in the design and construction of the LHC magnets. The photo shows a detail of the inner layer winding before superposing the outer layer to form the complete coil of a pole. Worth noticing is the interleaved glass-epoxy sheet (white) with grooved channels for the flow of cooling helium. See also 8211532X.

  5. Derivative corrections to the symmetry energy and the isovector dipole-resonance structure in nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Blocki, J. P.; Magner, A. G.; Ring, P.

    2014-01-01

    The effective surface approximation is extended accounting for derivatives of the symmetry energy density per particle. Using the analytical isovector surface energy constants within the Fermi-liquid droplet model, one obtains energies and sum rules of the isovector dipole resonance structure in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data and other theoretical approaches.

  6. Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability dis...

  7. Ordered cones and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Keimel, Klaus

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a unified approach to Korovkin-type approximation theorems. It includes classical material on the approximation of real-valuedfunctions as well as recent and new results on set-valued functions and stochastic processes, and on weighted approximation. The results are notonly of qualitative nature, but include quantitative bounds on the order of approximation. The book is addressed to researchers in functional analysis and approximation theory as well as to those that want to applythese methods in other fields. It is largely self- contained, but the readershould have a solid background in abstract functional analysis. The unified approach is based on a new notion of locally convex ordered cones that are not embeddable in vector spaces but allow Hahn-Banach type separation and extension theorems. This concept seems to be of independent interest.

  8. Approximate Modified Policy Iteration

    CERN Document Server

    Scherrer, Bruno; Ghavamzadeh, Mohammad; Geist, Matthieu

    2012-01-01

    Modified policy iteration (MPI) is a dynamic programming (DP) algorithm that contains the two celebrated policy and value iteration methods. Despite its generality, MPI has not been thoroughly studied, especially its approximation form which is used when the state and/or action spaces are large or infinite. In this paper, we propose three approximate MPI (AMPI) algorithms that are extensions of the well-known approximate DP algorithms: fitted-value iteration, fitted-Q iteration, and classification-based policy iteration. We provide an error propagation analysis for AMPI that unifies those for approximate policy and value iteration. We also provide a finite-sample analysis for the classification-based implementation of AMPI (CBMPI), which is more general (and somehow contains) than the analysis of the other presented AMPI algorithms. An interesting observation is that the MPI's parameter allows us to control the balance of errors (in value function approximation and in estimating the greedy policy) in the fina...

  9. Beam dynamics with new booster dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New bending magnets are being designed for the booster synchrotron at RRCAT, Indore with the same effective length and field which will be installed in the existing ring with the same configuration of drifts and quadrupole magnets. Presently sector type dipoles are in use. It is easier to fabricate parallel edge (rectangular type) dipoles but the beam optics gets modified due to edges which provide additional focusing. The effect on tune point can be corrected using two quadrupole families. Studies indicate that the beam emittance is lower in the optics with rectangular type dipoles but the beam injection and extraction are more difficult. In this paper, the beam optics, beam emittance, injection and extraction with two configurations of the dipole magnets are compared. (author)

  10. Pygmy dipole resonance in stable nuclei

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Von Neumann-Cosel

    2010-07-01

    Two examples of recent work on the structure of low-energy electric dipole modes are presented. The first part discusses the systematics of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in stable tin isotopes deduced from high-resolution (, ′) experiments. These help to distinguish between microscopic QRPA calculations based on either a relativistic or a non-relativistic mean-field description, predicting significantly different properties of the PDR. The second part presents a novel approach to measure the complete electric dipole strength distribution from excitation energies starting at about 5 MeV across the giant dipole resonance (GDR) with high-resolution inelastic proton scattering under 0° at energies of a few 100 MeV/nucleon. The case of 208Pb is discussed in detail and first result from a recent experiment on 120Sn is presented.

  11. Plasmonic functionalities based on detuned electrical dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anders Lambertus; Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate the concept of detuned electrical dipoles (DED) that originates from the plasmonic realization of the dressed-state picture of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic physics. Numerically and experimentally analyzing DED metamaterials consisting of unit cells...

  12. Ultrawideband method of feeding a dipole antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Bakhrakh, Lev D.; Los', V. F.; Shamanov, A. N.

    2003-01-01

    An antenna-feeder device is considered, in which a new way of antenna excitation is implemented. An example is presented of its use with a dipole antenna for the radiation of super-short pulse signals.

  13. Electric dipole moments of fundamental particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electric dipole moments (EDM) are at the fore-front of search for physics beyond the standard model. The next generation searches promise to improve by several orders of magnitude the current EDM sensitivity levels

  14. Cluster state generation using van der Waals and dipole-dipole interactions in optical lattices

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsova, Elena; Bragdon, T.; Côté, Robin; Yelin, S. F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a scalable method for generation of a cluster state for measurement-based quantum computing using van der Waals or dipole-dipole interactions between neutral atoms or polar molecules in an optical lattice. Nearest neighbor entanglement is accomplished by performing a phase gate using interaction of atoms in Rydberg states or molecules in large dipole moment states. All nearest neighbors are sequentially entangled in a finite number of operations, independent of the number of qubits...

  15. Cosmological CMBR dipole in open universes ?

    OpenAIRE

    Langlois, David

    1997-01-01

    The observed CMBR dipole is generally interpreted as a Doppler effect arising from the motion of the Earth relative to the CMBR frame. An alternative interpretation, proposed in the last years, is that the dipole results from ultra-large scale isocurvature perturbations. We examine this idea in the context of open cosmologies and show that the isocurvature interpretation is not valid in an open universe, unless it is extremely close to a flat universe, $|\\Omega_0 -1|< 10^{-4}$.

  16. Magnetic dipole interactions in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of magnetic dipole interactions (MDIs) on the magnetic properties of local-moment Heisenberg spin systems is investigated. A general formulation is presented for calculating the eigenvalues λ and eigenvectors μ ̂ of the MDI tensor of the magnetic dipoles in a line (one dimension, 1D), within a circle (2D) or a sphere (3D) of radius r surrounding a given moment μ⃗i for given magnetic propagation vectors k for collinear and coplanar noncollinear magnetic structures on both Bravais and non-Bravais spin lattices. Results are calculated for collinear ordering on 1D chains, 2D square and simple-hexagonal (triangular) Bravais lattices, 2D honeycomb and kagomé non-Bravais lattices, and 3D cubic Bravais lattices. The λ and μ ̂ values are compared with previously reported results. Calculations for collinear ordering on 3D simple tetragonal, body-centered tetragonal, and stacked triangular and honeycomb lattices are presented for c /a ratios from 0.5 to 3 in both graphical and tabular form to facilitate comparison of experimentally determined easy axes of ordering on these Bravais lattices with the predictions for MDIs. Comparisons with the easy axes measured for several illustrative collinear antiferromagnets (AFMs) are given. The calculations are extended to the cycloidal noncollinear 120∘ AFM ordering on the triangular lattice where λ is found to be the same as for collinear AFM ordering with the same k. The angular orientation of the ordered moments in the noncollinear coplanar AFM structure of GdB4 with a distorted stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland spin-lattice geometry is calculated and found to be in disagreement with experimental observations, indicating the presence of another source of anisotropy. Similar calculations for the undistorted 2D and stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland lattices are reported. The thermodynamics of dipolar magnets are calculated using the Weiss molecular field theory for quantum spins, including the magnetic transition

  17. Dynamic Dipole-Dipole Interactions between Excitons in Quantum Dots of Different Sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, Hideaki; Leosson, Kristjan; Xu, Zhangcheng;

    2005-01-01

    Micro-photoluminescence spectra of GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum dots (QDs) are given, and proposed to be analyzed by our resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction (RDDDI) model, based on parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons among QDs of different sizes.......Micro-photoluminescence spectra of GaAs/AlGaAs coupled quantum dots (QDs) are given, and proposed to be analyzed by our resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction (RDDDI) model, based on parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons among QDs of different sizes....

  18. Dynamic dipole-dipole interactions between excitons in quantum dots of different sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, Hideaki; Leosson, Kristjan; Xu, Zhangcheng;

    2004-01-01

    A model of the resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction between excitons confined in quantum dots (QDs) of different sizes at close enough distance is given in terms of parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons. Microphotoluminescence spectra of GaAs-AlGaAs coupled QDs are proposed...... to be analyzed by this model, including features created by high-speed random switching, depending on the carrier configuration in and around the QD pair, between the dipole-dipole split states and the nonsplit states to give double peaks at both of the QDs....

  19. Intrinsic Decoherence of a Two-Atom System with Dipole-Dipole Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Lin-Na; ZHU Ai-Dong; ZHANG Shou

    2008-01-01

    @@ We investigate the effect of dipole-dipole interaction on the intrinsic decoherence of a system which consists of two two-level atoms and an optical cavity. The entanglement of the system is calculated by making use of concurrence. Our results show that the appropriate choice for the coupling constant Ω of dipole-dipole interaction can restrain the intrinsic decoherence of the system. We also find a special phenomenon. No matter what the value of γ is, the concurrence of system slowly increases and cannot exceed 0.71 when Ω= 1.

  20. Effects of the dipole-dipole interaction on the physics of ultracold quantum gases

    OpenAIRE

    Abad García, Marta

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we study the effects of the dipole-dipole interaction on the physics of ultracold quantum gases, both bosonic and fermionic, within the theoretical framework provided by the mean-field regime. This kind of interaction takes place in ultracold atomic gases (for instance 52Cr or 164Dy) due to their atomic magnetic dipole moment, and in ultracold molecular gases due to the magnetic or electric dipole moment. In the case of quantum gases of bosonic atoms, or Bose-Einstein conde...

  1. The electric dipole response of $^{76}$Se

    CERN Document Server

    Goddard, P M; Werner, V; Rusev, G; Stevenson, P D; Rios, A; Bernards, C; Chakraborty, A; Crider, B P; Kelley, J H; Kwan, E; Glorius, J; Peters, E E; Pietralla, N; Raut, R; Romig, C; Savran, D; Schnorrenberger, L; Smith, M K; Sonnabend, K; Tonchev, A P; Tornow, W; Yates, S W

    2013-01-01

    The dipole response of $^{76}_{34}$Se in the energy range 4 to 9 MeV has been analyzed using a $(\\vec\\gamma,{\\gamma}')$ polarized photon scattering technique, performed at the High Intensity $\\gamma$-Ray Source facility, to complement previous work performed using unpolarized photons. The results of this work offer both an enhanced sensitivity scan of the dipole response and an unambiguous determination of the parities of the observed J=1 states. The dipole response is found to be dominated by $E1$ excitations, and can reasonably be attributed to a pygmy dipole resonance. Evidence is presented to suggest that a significant amount of directly unobserved excitation strength is present in the region, due to unobserved branching transitions in the decays of resonantly excited states. The dipole response of the region is severely underestimated when considering only ground state decay branches. We investigate the electric dipole response theoretically, performing calculations in a 3D cartesian-basis time-dependent...

  2. 750 GeV diphoton resonance and electric dipole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kiwoon; Im, Sang Hui; Kim, Hyungjin; Mo, Doh Young

    2016-09-01

    We examine the implication of the recently observed 750 GeV diphoton excess for the electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron. If the excess is due to a spin zero resonance which couples to photons and gluons through the loops of massive vector-like fermions, the resulting neutron electric dipole moment can be comparable to the present experimental bound if the CP-violating angle α in the underlying new physics is of O (10-1). An electron EDM comparable to the present bound can be achieved through a mixing between the 750 GeV resonance and the Standard Model Higgs boson, if the mixing angle itself for an approximately pseudoscalar resonance, or the mixing angle times the CP-violating angle α for an approximately scalar resonance, is of O (10-3). For the case that the 750 GeV resonance corresponds to a composite pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson formed by a QCD-like hypercolor dynamics confining at ΛHC, the resulting neutron EDM can be estimated with α ∼(750 GeV /ΛHC) 2θHC, where θHC is the hypercolor vacuum angle.

  3. 750 GeV diphoton resonance and electric dipole moments

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Hyungjin; Mo, Doh Young

    2016-01-01

    We examine the implication of the recently observed 750 GeV diphoton excess for the electric dipole moments of the neutron and electron. If the excess is due to a spin zero resonance which couples to photons and gluons through the loops of massive vector-like fermions, the resulting neutron electric dipole moment can be comparable to the present experimental bound if the CP-violating angle {\\alpha} in the underlying new physics is of O(10^{-1}). An electron EDM comparable to the present bound can be achieved through a mixing between the 750 GeV resonance and the Standard Model Higgs boson, if the mixing angle itself for an approximately pseudoscalar resonance, or the mixing angle times the CP-violating angle {\\alpha} for an approximately scalar resonance, is of O(10^{-3}). For the case that the 750 GeV resonance corresponds to a composite pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson formed by a QCD-like hypercolor dynamics confining at \\Lambda_HC, the resulting neutron EDM can be estimated with \\alpha ~ (750 GeV / \\Lambda_HC...

  4. The Karlqvist approximation revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Tannous, C.

    2015-01-01

    The Karlqvist approximation signaling the historical beginning of magnetic recording head theory is reviewed and compared to various approaches progressing from Green, Fourier, Conformal mapping that obeys the Sommerfeld edge condition at angular points and leads to exact results.

  5. Approximations in Inspection Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Faber, M. H.;

    2000-01-01

    Planning of inspections of civil engineering structures may be performed within the framework of Bayesian decision analysis. The effort involved in a full Bayesian decision analysis is relatively large. Therefore, the actual inspection planning is usually performed using a number of approximations....... One of the more important of these approximations is the assumption that all inspections will reveal no defects. Using this approximation the optimal inspection plan may be determined on the basis of conditional probabilities, i.e. the probability of failure given no defects have been found...... by the inspection. In this paper the quality of this approximation is investigated. The inspection planning is formulated both as a full Bayesian decision problem and on the basis of the assumption that the inspection will reveal no defects....

  6. Approximation of irrationals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvina Baica

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available The author uses a new modification of Jacobi-Perron Algorithm which holds for complex fields of any degree (abbr. ACF, and defines it as Generalized Euclidean Algorithm (abbr. GEA to approximate irrationals.

  7. Block methods for linear Hamiltonian systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Hongjiong; Chen, Bailin

    2014-01-01

    For the numerical treatment of Hamiltonian differential equations,symplectic integrators are regarded as the most suitable choice.In this paper we are concerned with the applicability of block methods for the discrete approximate solution of linear Hamiltonian systems.The k-dimensional block methods are convergent of order at least k+1 for ordinary differential equations.We provide conditions on the coefficients of the equivalent block methods in order to maintain two important properties of...

  8. Test Results Of A Single Aperture Dipole Model Magnet For LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Shintomi, T; Higashi, N; Kimura, N; Ogitsu, T; Tanaka, K; Terashima, A; Tsuchiya, K; Yamamoto, A; Orikasa, A; Makishima, K; Siegel, N; Leroy, D; Perin, R

    1999-01-01

    The 56 mm single aperture superconducting dipole model with a 5-block coil configuration was reassembled and tested to investigate the full support of electromagnetic forces using a high-manganese steel collar structure without $9 mechanical contribution from an iron yoke. The reassembled model, which has a gap between the high manganese steel collar and the horizontally split iron yoke, reached a central field of 9 tesla (93554330f short sample) at the first

  9. Approximation Behooves Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009.......Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009....

  10. Approximation and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gautschi, Walter; Rassias, Themistocles M

    2011-01-01

    Approximation theory and numerical analysis are central to the creation of accurate computer simulations and mathematical models. Research in these areas can influence the computational techniques used in a variety of mathematical and computational sciences. This collection of contributed chapters, dedicated to renowned mathematician Gradimir V. Milovanovia, represent the recent work of experts in the fields of approximation theory and numerical analysis. These invited contributions describe new trends in these important areas of research including theoretic developments, new computational alg

  11. A basic program to transform continuous polar dipole-dipole resistivity soundings to half-Schlumberger soundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerilli, A.; Bisdorf, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    An interactive HP 9845B BASIC program transforms continuous polar dipole-dipole resistivity soundings to half-Schlumberger soundings. The program features graphic presentation of the field dipole-dipole data as well as the transformed half-Schlumberger data. An example of the transformation and its effectiveness in smoothing "high-frequency" noise is given. ?? 1990.

  12. Study of pygmy dipole resonance with a new time-dependent mean field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ebata, Shuichiro; Inakura, Tsunenori

    2011-01-01

    We carry out a systematic investigation on the low-energy electric dipole strength, which is often called pygmy dipole resonances (PDR), using the canonical-basis time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (Cb-TDHFB) method. The Cb-TDHFB is a new method which is derived from TDHFB with an approximation analogous to the BCS theory that the pair potential is assumed to be diagonal in the time-dependent canonical basis. We apply the method to linear-response calculation for even-even nuclei. We report the neutron-number dependence of PDR in light (A 100) around N = 82.

  13. Excitation energy and strength of the pygmy dipole resonance in stable tin isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Özel, B; Lenske, H; Von Neumann-Cosel, P; Poltoratska, I; Ponomarev, V Yu; Richter, A; Savran, D; Tsoneva, N

    2009-01-01

    The $^{112,120}$Sn$(\\gamma,\\gamma')$ reactions have been studied at the S-DALINAC. Electric dipole (E1) strength distributions have been determined including contributions from unresolved strength extracted by a fluctuation analysis. Together with available data on $^{116,124}$Sn, an experimental systematics of the pygmy dipole resonance (PDR) in stable even-mass tin isotopes is established. The PDR centroid excitation energies and summed strengths are in reasonable agreement with quasiparticle-phonon model calculations based on a nonrelativistic description of the mean field but disagree with relativistic quasiparticle random-phase approximation predictions.

  14. Terahertz emission by diffusion of carriers and metal-mask dipole inhibition of radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, M E; Daniell, G J; Whitworth, G; Chung, A L; Quarterman, A H; Wilcox, K G; Beere, H E; Ritchie, D A; Apostolopoulos, V

    2011-01-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation can be generated by ultrafast photo-excitation of carriers in a semiconductor partly masked by a gold surface. A simulation of the effect taking into account the diffusion of carriers and the electric field shows that the total net current is approximately zero and cannot account for the THz radiation. Finite element modelling and analytic calculations indicate that the THz emission arises because the metal inhibits the radiation from part of the dipole population, thus creating an asymmetry and therefore a net current. Experimental investigations confirm the simulations and show that metal-mask dipole inhibition can be used to create THz emitters.

  15. Observation of Stückelberg oscillations in dipole-dipole interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.E. van Ditzhuijzen; A. Tauschinsky; H.B. van Linden van den Heuvell

    2009-01-01

    We have observed Stückelberg oscillations in the dipole-dipole interaction between Rydberg atoms with an externally applied radio-frequency field. The oscillating rf field brings the interaction between cold Rydberg atoms in two separated volumes into resonance. We observe multiphoton transitions wh

  16. Radio-frequency-driven dipole-dipole interactions in spatially separated volumes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Tauschinsky; C.S.E. van Ditzhuijzen; L.D. Noordam; H.B. van Linden van den Heuvell

    2008-01-01

    Radio-frequency (rf) fields in the MHz range are used to induce resonant energy transfer between cold Rydberg atoms in spatially separated volumes. After laser preparation of the Rydberg atoms, dipole-dipole coupling excites the 49s atoms in one cylinder to the 49p state while the 41d atoms in the s

  17. Collapse of Bose-Einstein condensate with dipole-dipole interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Lushnikov, Pavel M.

    2002-01-01

    A dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensate of a gas of bosonic particles with long-range dipole-dipole interactions in a harmonic trap is studied. Sufficient analytical criteria are found both for catastrophic collapse of Bose-Einstein condensate and for long-time condensate existence. Analytical criteria are compared with variational analysis.

  18. Optical force on toroidal nanostructures: toroidal dipole versus renormalized electric dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xu-Lin; Lin, Zhifang; Sun, Hong-Bo; Chan, C T

    2015-01-01

    We study the optical forces acting on toroidal nanostructures. A great enhancement of optical force is unambiguously identified as originating from the toroidal dipole resonance based on the source-representation, where the distribution of the induced charges and currents is characterized by the three families of electric, magnetic, and toroidal multipoles. On the other hand, the resonant optical force can also be completely attributed to an electric dipole resonance in the alternative field-representation, where the electromagnetic fields in the source-free region are expressed by two sets of electric and magnetic multipole fields based on symmetry. The confusion is resolved by conceptually introducing the irreducible electric dipole, toroidal dipole, and renormalized electric dipole. We demonstrate that the optical force is a powerful tool to identify toroidal response even when its scattering intensity is dwarfed by the conventional electric and magnetic multipoles.

  19. Directed Energy Transfer in Films of CdSe Quantum Dots: Beyond the Point Dipole Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Kaibo; Zídek, Karel; Abdellah, Mohamed;

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in thin films composed of quantum dots (QDs) is of fundamental and technological significance in optimal design of QD based optoelectronic devices. The separation between QDs in the densely packed films is usually smaller than the size of ...

  20. Diophantine approximations on fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Einsiedler, Manfred; Shapira, Uri

    2009-01-01

    We exploit dynamical properties of diagonal actions to derive results in Diophantine approximations. In particular, we prove that the continued fraction expansion of almost any point on the middle third Cantor set (with respect to the natural measure) contains all finite patterns (hence is well approximable). Similarly, we show that for a variety of fractals in [0,1]^2, possessing some symmetry, almost any point is not Dirichlet improvable (hence is well approximable) and has property C (after Cassels). We then settle by similar methods a conjecture of M. Boshernitzan saying that there are no irrational numbers x in the unit interval such that the continued fraction expansions of {nx mod1 : n is a natural number} are uniformly eventually bounded.

  1. Laser-Induced Magnetic Dipole Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Christian; Bücker, Dennis; Domingo Köhler, Silvia; Jeschke, Gunnar; Drescher, Malte

    2016-06-16

    Pulse electron paramagnetic resonance measurements of nanometer scale distance distributions have proven highly effective in structural studies. They exploit the magnetic dipole-dipole coupling between spin labels site-specifically attached to macromolecules. The most commonly applied technique is double electron-electron resonance (DEER, also called pulsed electron double resonance (PELDOR)). Here we present the new technique of laser-induced magnetic dipole (LaserIMD) spectroscopy based on optical switching of the dipole-dipole coupling. In a proof of concept experiment on a model peptide, we find, already at a low quantum yield of triplet excitation, the same sensitivity for measuring the distance between a porphyrin and a nitroxide label as in a DEER measurement between two nitroxide labels. On the heme protein cytochrome C, we demonstrate that LaserIMD allows for distance measurements between a heme prosthetic group and a nitroxide label, although the heme triplet state is not directly observable by an electron spin echo. PMID:27163749

  2. Evolution of the pygmy dipole resonance in nuclei with neutron excess

    CERN Document Server

    Có, G; Maieron, C; Anguiano, M; Lallena, A M

    2009-01-01

    The electric dipole excitation of various nuclei is calculated with a Random Phase Approximation phenomenological approach. The evolution of the strength distribution in various groups of isotopes, oxygen, calcium, zirconium and tin, is studied. The neutron excess produces $E1$ strength in the low energy region. Indexes to measure the collectivity of the excitation are defined. We studied the behavior of proton and neutron transition densities to determine the isoscalar or isovector nature of the excitation. We observed that in medium-heavy nuclei the low-energy $E1$ excitation has characteristics rather different that those exhibited by the giant dipole resonance. This new type of excitation can be identified as pygmy dipole resonance.

  3. Effect of rotational-state-dependent molecular alignment on the optical dipole force

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Lee Yeong; Kim, Hye Ah; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Friedrich, Bretislav; Zhao, Bum Suk

    2016-01-01

    The properties of molecule-optical elements such as lenses or prisms based on the interaction of molecules with optical fields depend in a crucial way on the molecular quantum state and its alignment created by the optical field. However, in previous experimental studies, the effects of state-dependent alignment have never been included in estimates of the optical dipole force acting on the molecules while previous theoretical investigations took the state-dependent molecular alignment into account only implicitly. Herein, we consider the effects of molecular alignment explicitly and, to this end, introduce an effective polarizability which takes proper account of molecular alignment and is directly related to the alignment-dependent optical dipole force. We illustrate the significance of including molecular alignment in the optical dipole force by a trajectory study that compares previously used approximations with the present approach. The trajectory simulations were carried out for an ensemble of linear mo...

  4. Magnetic dipole localization based on magnetic gradient tensor data at a single point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang, Yin; Yingtang, Zhang; Hongbo, Fan; Zhining, Li

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic dipole localization methods that rely on measurement of the magnetic field vector are compromised by the relatively strong background geomagnetic field. A localization method that uses only magnetic gradient tensor data is proposed. The localization equations are established by transforming Euler's equation of degree -3 into degree -4 and using the orthogonality of the intermediate eigenvector of the magnetic gradient tensor that is produced by a magnetic dipole and the source-sensor displacement vector. To measure the quantities required in the localization equations, we designed a magnetic gradient tensor system in which finite differences are used to approximate the first- and second-order spatial gradients of magnetic field components. Numerical simulations show that the proposed method can accurately and uniquely solve for the location of a magnetic dipole in the presence of the geomagnetic field, and the experimental results show the superiority and the practicability of the proposed method.

  5. Quark contribution to the small-x evolution of color dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian Balitsky

    2006-09-11

    The small-x deep inelastic scattering in the saturation region is governed by the non-linear evolution of Wilson-lines operators. In the leading logarithmic approximation it is given by the BK equation for the evolution of color dipoles. In the NLO the nonlinear equation gets contributions from quark and gluon loops. In this paper I calculate the quark-loop contribution to small-x evolution of Wilson lines in the NLO. It turns out that there are no new operators at the one-loop level--just as at the tree level, the high-energy scattering can be described in terms of Wilson lines. In addition, from the analysis of quark loops I find that the argument of coupling constant in the BK equation is determined by the size of the parent dipole rather than by the size of produced dipoles. These results are to be supported by future calculation of gluon loops.

  6. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  7. A realistic formulation of approximate CP

    CERN Document Server

    Dent, T; Dent, Thomas; Silva-Marcos, Joaquim

    2003-01-01

    CP violation in the SM is naturally implemented as a small imaginary perturbation to real Yukawa couplings. For example, a large CP asymmetry in B_d decays can arise if the imaginary parts of quark mass matrices are of order 10^(-3)m_t,b or smaller. Applying the same principle of ``additive CP violation'' to soft SUSY-breaking terms, the electric dipole moments of the neutron and mercury atom are predicted near current experimental limits; for nonuniversal A-terms, EDM bounds can be satisfied given certain flavour structures. The proposal is conveniently formulated in a democratic basis, with Yukawas and soft terms of the form const x (1+eps+i zeta) where eps<<1, zeta<~10^(-3), motivated by approximate permutation x CP symmetry.

  8. Approximate and Incomplete Factorizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, T.F.; Vorst, H.A. van der

    2001-01-01

    In this chapter, we give a brief overview of a particular class of preconditioners known as incomplete factorizations. They can be thought of as approximating the exact LU factorization of a given matrix A (e.g. computed via Gaussian elimination) by disallowing certain ll-ins. As opposed to other PD

  9. Prestack wavefield approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2013-09-01

    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  10. The Zeldovich approximation

    CERN Document Server

    White, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This year marks the 100th anniversary of the birth of Yakov Zel'dovich. Amongst his many legacies is the Zel'dovich approximation for the growth of large-scale structure, which remains one of the most successful and insightful analytic models of structure formation. We use the Zel'dovich approximation to compute the two-point function of the matter and biased tracers, and compare to the results of N-body simulations and other Lagrangian perturbation theories. We show that Lagrangian perturbation theories converge well and that the Zel'dovich approximation provides a good fit to the N-body results except for the quadrupole moment of the halo correlation function. We extend the calculation of halo bias to 3rd order and also consider non-local biasing schemes, none of which remove the discrepancy. We argue that a part of the discrepancy owes to an incorrect prediction of inter-halo velocity correlations. We use the Zel'dovich approximation to compute the ingredients of the Gaussian streaming model and show that ...

  11. Approximating The DCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg

    2005-01-01

    The Dirichlet compound multinomial (DCM), which has recently been shown to be well suited for modeling for word burstiness in documents, is here investigated. A number of conceptual explanations that account for these recent results, are provided. An exponential family approximation of the DCM that...

  12. Connecting Pygmy Dipole Resonance to neutron skin

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, V; Di Toro, M; Croitoru, A; Dumitru, D

    2013-01-01

    We study the correlation between the neutron skin development and the low-energy dipole response associated with Pygmy Dipole Resonance (PDR) in connection with the properties of symmetry energy. We perform our investigation within a microscopic transport model based on Landau-Vlasov kinetic equation by employing three different equations of state in the isovector sector. Together with Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR), for all studied systems, we identify a PDR collective mode whose energy centroid is very well described by the parametrization E_{PDR}=41 A^{-1/3}. A linear correlation between the Energy Weighted Sum Rule (EWSR) associated to PDR and the neutron skin thickness is evidenced. We conjecture that different nuclei having close neutron skin size will exhaust the same EWSR in the pygmy region. This suggests that a precise experimental estimate of total EWSR exhausted by PDR allows the determination of the neutron skin size and to constrain the slope parameter of the symmetry energy.

  13. Theory of Dipole Induced Electromagnetic Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Puthumpally-Joseph, Raiju; Sukharev, Maxim; Charron, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A detailed theory describing linear optics of vapors comprised of interacting multi-level quantum emitters is proposed. It is shown both by direct integration of Maxwell-Bloch equations and using a simple analytical model that at large densities narrow transparency windows appear in otherwise completely opaque spectra. The existence of such windows is attributed to overlapping resonances. This effect, first introduced for three-level systems in [R. Puthumpally-Joseph, M. Sukharev, O. Atabek and E. Charron, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 163603 (2014)], is due to strongly enhanced dipole-dipole interactions at high emitters' densities. The presented theory extends this effect to the case of multilevel systems. The theory is applied to the D1 transitions of interacting Rb-85 atoms. It is shown that at high atomic densities, Rb-85 atoms can behave as three-level emitters exhibiting all the properties of dipole induced electromagnetic transparency. Applications including slow light and laser pulse shaping are also propose...

  14. What is the dual of a dipole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: l.f.alday@phys.uu.nl; Boer, Jan de [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jdeboer@science.uva.nl; Messamah, Ilies [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: imessama@science.uva.nl

    2006-07-03

    We study gravitational solutions that admit a dual CFT description and carry non-zero dipole charge. We focus on the black ring solution in AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3} and extract from it the one-point functions of all CFT operators dual to scalar excitations of the six-dimensional metric. In the case of small black rings, characterized by the level N, angular momentum J and dipole charge q{sub 3}, we show how the large N and J dependence of the one-point functions can be reproduced, under certain assumptions, directly from a suitable ensemble in the dual CFT. Finally we present a simple toy model that describes the thermodynamics of the small black ring for arbitrary values of the dipole charge.

  15. Pursuit and Synchronization in Hydrodynamic Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Kanso, Eva

    2015-01-01

    We study theoretically the behavior of a class of hydrodynamic dipoles. This study is motivated by recent experiments on synthetic and biological swimmers in microfluidic \\textit{Hele-Shaw} type geometries. Under such confinement, a swimmer's hydrodynamic signature is that of a potential source dipole, and the long-range interactions among swimmers are obtained from the superposition of dipole singularities. Here, we recall the equations governing the positions and orientations of interacting asymmetric swimmers in doubly-periodic domains, and focus on the dynamics of swimmer pairs. We obtain two families of `relative equilibria'-type solutions that correspond to pursuit and synchronization of the two swimmers, respectively. Interestingly, the pursuit mode is stable for large tail swimmers whereas the synchronization mode is stable for large head swimmers. These results have profound implications on the collective behavior reported in several recent studies on populations of confined microswimmers.

  16. Pygmy dipole resonance as a constraint on the neutron skin of heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J

    2006-01-01

    The isotopic dependence of the isovector Pygmy dipole response in tin is studied within the framework of the relativistic random phase approximation. Regarded as an oscillation of the neutron skin against the isospin-symmetric core, the pygmy dipole resonance may place important constraints on the neutron skin of heavy nuclei and, as a result, on the equation of state of neutron-rich matter. The present study centers around two questions. First, is there a strong correlation between the development of a neutron skin and the emergence of low-energy isovector dipole strength? Second, could one use the recently measured Pygmy dipole resonance in 130Sn and 132Sn to discriminate among theoretical models? For the first question we found that while a strong correlation between the neutron skin and the Pygmy dipole resonance exists, a mild anti-correlation develops beyond 120Sn. The answer to the second question suggests that models with overly large neutron skins--and thus stiff symmetry energies--are in conflict wi...

  17. Dynamics of dipoles and vortices in nonlinearly coupled three-dimensional field oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driben, R.; Konotop, V. V.; Malomed, B. A.; Meier, T.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of a pair of harmonic oscillators represented by three-dimensional fields coupled with a repulsive cubic nonlinearity is investigated through direct simulations of the respective field equations and with the help of the finite-mode Galerkin approximation (GA), which represents the two interacting fields by a superposition of 3 +3 harmonic-oscillator p -wave eigenfunctions with orbital and magnetic quantum numbers l =1 and m =1 , 0, -1 . The system can be implemented in binary Bose-Einstein condensates, demonstrating the potential of the atomic condensates to emulate various complex modes predicted by classical field theories. First, the GA very accurately predicts a broadly degenerate set of the system's ground states in the p -wave manifold, in the form of complexes built of a dipole coaxial with another dipole or vortex, as well as complexes built of mutually orthogonal dipoles. Next, pairs of noncoaxial vortices and/or dipoles, including pairs of mutually perpendicular vortices, develop remarkably stable dynamical regimes, which feature periodic exchange of the angular momentum and periodic switching between dipoles and vortices. For a moderately strong nonlinearity, simulations of the coupled-field equations agree very well with results produced by the GA, demonstrating that the dynamics is accurately spanned by the set of six modes limited to l =1 .

  18. Dynamics of dipoles and vortices in nonlinearly coupled three-dimensional field oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driben, R; Konotop, V V; Malomed, B A; Meier, T

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of a pair of harmonic oscillators represented by three-dimensional fields coupled with a repulsive cubic nonlinearity is investigated through direct simulations of the respective field equations and with the help of the finite-mode Galerkin approximation (GA), which represents the two interacting fields by a superposition of 3+3 harmonic-oscillator p-wave eigenfunctions with orbital and magnetic quantum numbers l=1 and m=1, 0, -1. The system can be implemented in binary Bose-Einstein condensates, demonstrating the potential of the atomic condensates to emulate various complex modes predicted by classical field theories. First, the GA very accurately predicts a broadly degenerate set of the system's ground states in the p-wave manifold, in the form of complexes built of a dipole coaxial with another dipole or vortex, as well as complexes built of mutually orthogonal dipoles. Next, pairs of noncoaxial vortices and/or dipoles, including pairs of mutually perpendicular vortices, develop remarkably stable dynamical regimes, which feature periodic exchange of the angular momentum and periodic switching between dipoles and vortices. For a moderately strong nonlinearity, simulations of the coupled-field equations agree very well with results produced by the GA, demonstrating that the dynamics is accurately spanned by the set of six modes limited to l=1. PMID:27575123

  19. Complete electric dipole response in 208Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Tamii, A; von Neumann-Cosel, P; Fujita, Y; Adachi, T; Bertulani, C A; Carter, J; Dozono, M; Fujita, H; Fujita, K; Hatanaka, K; Heilmann, A M; Ishikawa, D; Itoh, M; Ong, H J; Kawabata, T; Kalmykov, Y; Litvinova, E; Matsubara, H; Nakanishi, K; Neveling, R; Okamura, H; Özel-Tashenov, B; Ponomarev, V Yu; Richter, A; Rubio, B; Sakaguchi, H; Sakemi, Y; Sasamoto, Y; Shimbara, Y; Shimizu, Y; Smit, F D; Suzuki, T; Tameshige, Y; Wambach, J; Yamada, R; Yosoi, M; Zenihiro, J

    2011-01-01

    A benchmark experiment on 208Pb shows that polarized proton inelastic scattering at very forward angles including 0{\\deg} is a powerful tool for high-resolution studies of electric dipole (E1) and spin magnetic dipole (M1) modes in nuclei over a broad excitation energy range testing up-to-date nuclear model calculations. The E1 polarizability extracted from the data provides a constraint on the neutron skin thickness in 208Pb and the poorly known density dependence of the symmetry energy, relevant to the description of neutron stars.

  20. Dipole strength distributions from HIGS Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, V.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Humby, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Rusev, G.; Beller, J.; Bernards, C.; Crider, B. P.; Isaak, J.; Kelley, J. H.; Kwan, E.; Löher, B.; Peters, E. E.; Pietralla, N.; Romig, C.; Savran, D.; Scheck, M.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Yates, S. W.; Zweidinger, M.

    2015-05-01

    A series of photon scattering experiments has been performed on the double-beta decay partners 76Ge and 76Se, in order to investigate their dipole response up to the neutron separation threshold. Gamma-ray beams from bremsstrahlung at the S-DALINAC and from Compton-backscattering at HIGS have been used to measure absolute cross sections and parities of dipole excited states, respectively. The HIGS data allows for indirect measurement of averaged branching ratios, which leads to significant corrections in the observed excitation cross sections. Results are compared to statistical calculations, to test photon strength functions and the Axel-Brink hypothesis

  1. Dipole strength distributions from HIGS Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner V.

    2015-01-01

    76Ge and 76Se, in order to investigate their dipole response up to the neutron separation threshold. Gamma-ray beams from bremsstrahlung at the S-DALINAC and from Compton-backscattering at HIGS have been used to measure absolute cross sections and parities of dipole excited states, respectively. The HIGS data allows for indirect measurement of averaged branching ratios, which leads to significant corrections in the observed excitation cross sections. Results are compared to statistical calculations, to test photon strength functions and the Axel-Brink hypothesis

  2. Projected Dipole Model for Quantum Plasmonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Wei; Wubs, Martijn; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2015-01-01

    of classical electrodynamics, while quantum properties are described accurately through an infinitely thin layer of dipoles oriented normally to the metal surface. The nonlocal polarizability of the dipole layer-the only introduced parameter-is mapped from the free-electron distribution near the metal surface...... as obtained with 1D quantum calculations, such as time-dependent density-functional theory (TDDFT), and is determined once and for all. The model can be applied in two and three dimensions to any system size that is tractable within classical electrodynamics, while capturing quantum plasmonic aspects...

  3. Fermion RG blocking transformations and IR structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, X

    2011-01-01

    We explore fermion RG block-spinning transformations on the lattice with the aim of studying the IR structure of gauge theories and, in particular, the existence of IR fixed points for varying fermion content. In the case of light fermions the main concern and difficulty is ensuring locality of any adopted blocking scheme. We discuss the problem of constructing a local blocked fermion action in the background of arbitrary gauge fields. We then discuss the carrying out of accompanying gauge field blocking. In the presence of the blocked fermions implementation of MCRG is not straightforward. By adopting judicious approximations we arrive at an easily implementable approximate RG recursion scheme that allows quick, inexpensive estimates of the location of conformal windows for various groups and fermion representations. We apply this scheme to locate the conformal windows in the case of SU(2) and SU(3) gauge groups. Some of the reasons for the apparent efficacy of this and similar decimation schemes are discuss...

  4. Three-dimensional ab initio dipole moment surfaces and stretching vibrational band intensities of the XH3 molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu An-Wen; Hu Shui-Ming; Ding Yun; Zhu Qing-Shi

    2005-01-01

    Stretching vibrational band intensities of XH3 (X=N, Sb) molecules are investigated employing three-dimensional dipole moment surfaces combined with the local mode Hamiltonian model. The dipole moment surfaces of NH3 and SbH3 are calculated with the density functional theory and at the correlated MP2 level, respectively. The calculated band intensities are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The contribution to the band intensities from the different terms in the polynomial expansion of the dipole moments of four group V hydrides (NH3, PH3, AsH3 and SbH3) are discussed. It is concluded that the breakdown of the bond dipole approximation must be considered.The intensity "borrowing" effect due to the wave function mixing among the stretching vibrational states is found to be less significant for the molecules that reach the local mode limit.

  5. ALICE Muon Arm Dipole Magnet - Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Swoboda, D; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    A large Dipole Magnet is required for the Muon Arm spectrometer of the ALICE experiment 1,2[Figure 1]. The main parameters and basic design options of the dipole magnet have been described in 3. The absence of criteria for the necessary symmetry and homogeneity of the magnetic field has lead to a design dominated by economical and feasibility considerations. List of Figures: Figure 1 ALICE Experiment. Figure 2 Dipole Magnet Assembly. Figure 3 Dipole Magnet Yoke. Figure 4 Dipole Magnet Coil System. Figure 5 Schematic of Heat Screen. Figure 6 Dipole Magnet Moving Base.

  6. Asymmetry of Neoclassical Transport by Dipole Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中天; 王龙

    2004-01-01

    Effects of dipole electric fields on neoclassical transport are studied. Large asymmetry in transport is created. The dipole fields, which are in a negative R-direction, reduce the ion drift, increase electron drift, and change the steps of excursion due to collisions. It is found that different levels of dipole field intensities have different types of transport. For the lowest level of the dipole field, the transport returns to the neoclassical one. For the highest level of the dipole field, the transport is turned to be the turbulence transport similar to the pseudo-classical transport. Experimental data may be corresponded to a large level of the dipole field intensity.

  7. Emergence of pygmy dipole resonances: Magic numbers and neutron skins

    CERN Document Server

    Inakura, Tsunenori; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The pygmy dipole resonances (PDR) for even-even nuclei in 8=approximation with the Skyrme functional of SkM*. The calculation is fully self-consistent and does not assume any symmetry in the nuclear shape of the ground state. In every isotopic chain, the PDR emerges by showing a peak of the E1 strength at energies less than 10 MeV. The E1 strength of the PDR strongly depends on the position of the Fermi level and shows a clear correlation with the occupation of the orbits with the orbital angular momenta less than 3\\hbar (l =< 2). We also found a strong correlation between the isotopic dependence of the neutron skin thickness and the pygmy dipole strength. The fraction of the energy weighted strength exhausted by the PDR and the neutron skin thickness show a linear correlation with the universal rate of about 0.2/fm.

  8. Reorientable electric dipoles and cooperative phenomena in human tooth enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitmi, N; Lamure-Plaino, E; Lamure, A; LaCabanne, C; Young, R A

    1986-05-01

    A preliminary investigation of electric dipole reorientability in human tooth enamel (TE) in comparison to that in hydroxyapatite (OHAp) has been made with the fractional-polarization form of the thermally stimulated currents (TSC) method. The reorientable dipoles are the structural OH-ions. The OHAp exhibited compensation phenomena at 211.5 degrees C and at 356 degrees C which are associated here with the hexagonal form becoming quasi-statically stabilized and dynamically stabilized, respectively, against the monoclinic form. TE specimens were pretreated at various temperatures. All showed the onset of cooperative motions that could quasi-statically stabilize the hexagonal form at the same temperature, approximately 212 degrees C, as did OHAp, even though the TE was already statically stabilized in the hexagonal form. Parts of the TSC spectra that did not conform to the 212 degrees C compensation changed progressively with pretreatment temperature. Loss of incorporated H2O is identified as the most probable cause of most of these changes. This work shows considerable promise for TSC as a tool for further quantitative investigation of TE. PMID:3013384

  9. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Most prestack traveltime relations we tend work with are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multi-focusing or double square-root (DSR) and the common reflection stack (CRS) equations. Using the DSR equation, I analyze the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I derive expansion based solutions of this eikonal based on polynomial expansions in terms of the reflection and dip angles in a generally inhomogenous background medium. These approximate solutions are free of singularities and can be used to estimate travetimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. A Marmousi example demonstrates the usefulness of the approach. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  10. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  11. Temporal behaviour of multipole components of the magnetic field in a small dipole magnet wound with coated conductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the influence of coated-conductor magnetization on the field quality of accelerator magnets, we made a small dipole magnet consisting of four racetrack coils wound with GdBCO coated conductors and measured its magnetic field in liquid nitrogen by using rotating pick-up coils. We focused on the dipole and sextupole components (coefficients) of the magnetic field, which vary with time owing to the decay of the magnetization of the coated conductors. About 50 min (3055 s) after the current was ramped up to 50 A, the dipole coefficient normalized by the design value of the dipole component, i.e., the value calculated with the designed coil shape and the uniform current distribution in the coated conductors, increased by 7.4 × 10−4, and the sextupole coefficient normalized by the design value of the dipole component increased by 1.8 × 10−4. The magnitudes of the dipole and sextupole components depended on the excitation history of the magnet. Electromagnetic field analyses were carried out to calculate the current distributions in coated conductors, considering their superconducting properties; the dipole and sextupole coefficients were then determined from the calculated current distributions. Although the analyses were based on the two-dimensional approximation of the cross-section of the magnet, the temporal behaviours as well as the hysteretic characteristics of the calculated dipole and sextupole coefficients agree qualitatively with those of the dipole and sextupole coefficients measured in the magnet. (paper)

  12. Effect of dipole-dipole interaction on self-control magnetization oscillation in double-domain nanomagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y. J.; Guo, Y. J.; Liu, J.-M.

    2012-03-01

    A double-domain model with long-range dipole-dipole interaction is proposed to investigate the self-oscillation of magnetization in nano-magnetic systems driven by self-controlled spin-polarized current. The dynamic behavior of magnetization oscillation is calculated by a modified Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation in order to evaluate the effects of the long-range dipole-dipole interaction. While the self-oscillation of magnetization can be maintained substantially, several self-oscillation regions are experienced as the dipole-dipole interaction increases gradually.

  13. Creative Construction: Unit Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Describes the use of unit blocks with young children in early childhood education (ECE) settings to expand all areas of the curriculum. Discusses the origin of blocks in ECE programs, presents developmental stages of block play, describes children's building styles, and makes recommendations for getting started in block play for children of…

  14. Pygmy dipole resonance in exotic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoneva, N

    2007-01-01

    The evolution of the PDR strength with the neutron excess is investigated in Sn isotopic and N=82 isotonic chains with regard to its possible connection with the neutron skin thickness. For this purpose a recently proposed method incorporating both HFB and multi-phonon QPM theory is applied. Analysis of the corresponding neutron and proton dipole transition densities is presented.

  15. Reorientation of Defect Dipoles in Ferroelectric Ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bao-Shan; LI Guo-Rong; ZHAO Su-Chuan; ZHU Zhi-Gang; DING Ai-Li

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate the frequency, temperature, tetragonality and quenched temperature dependences of the hysteresis loops in Pb[(Zr0.52 Ti0.48)0.95 (Mn1/3Nb2/3)0.05]O3 (PMnN-PZT) ceramics. It has been demonstrated that the polarization-field hysteresis curves show "pinched" shapes when tested at room temperature, higher frequency or using the large-tetragonality specimen. While normal square-like loops are observed at 200 ℃ and 0.01 Hz or using the small-tetragonality one. Meanwhile, close relations between the P-E loops and the applied frequency,temperature or tetragonality reveal that there exists a typical relaxation time corresponding to the reorientation of the defect dipoles. It can be seen further from the quenched temperature dependences of the loops that the reorientation of the defect dipoles may influence the pinching. Compared to the intrinsic depinning procedure induced by changes of the distribution of defect dipoles, we provide new evidence for extrinsic depinning mechanism of the defect dipoles in the ferroelectric ceramics.

  16. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB...

  17. LHC Dipoles: The countdown has begun

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    One of the LHC dipole magnets has just achieved a record magnetic field of 9 Tesla in one go without quenching. The challenge now is to increase the production rate to 35 magnets a month by 2004. As a new information panel in Building 30 shows, the countdown has begun.

  18. SEARCH FOR A NEUTRON ELECTRIC DIPOLE MOMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Morse, J

    1984-01-01

    To search for evidence of a breakdown of symmetry under the time reversal transformation, a magnetic resonance measurement is made to detect an electric dipole moment (EDM) of ultracold neutrons stored for periods ≈60s in the presence of a strong electric field. The measured neutron EDM is (0.3 ± 4.8) x 10-25 ecm.

  19. Wide-band dipole-slot antenna

    OpenAIRE

    Tsaliev, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    Properties of the antenna in the form of parallel slots array cut in the flat well-conducting screen excited by symmetrical half-wave dipole are considered. On the basis of computer modeling frequency dependences of antenna input impedance, directivity and the VSWR are designed and analyzed. Results of researches evidently display advantages of such antenna.

  20. Exclusive final states in the Dipole Model

    OpenAIRE

    Flensburg, Christoffer

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a BFKL-based dipole model in impact parameter space, that has successfully predicted a wide range of total cross sections. The model has now been extended to a full event generator that is showing promising results. Some of the difficulties in non-leading order BFKL are discussed, and preliminary results are compared to CDF and ALICE data.

  1. The Case of the Disappearing Magnetic Dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, W.

    2008-01-01

    The problem of an oscillating magnetic dipole at the centre of a lossless dielectric spherical shell is considered. For simplicity, the free-space wavelength is taken to be much greater than the shell radii, but the relative permittivity [epsilon][subscript r] of the shell is taken as much greater than unity, so the wavelength in the shell could…

  2. Microscopic Magnetic Dipole Radiation in Neutron Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Tong; Qiu-He Peng; Hua Bai

    2008-01-01

    There is a 3P2 neutron superfluid region in NS (neutron star) interior. For a rotating NS the 3P2 superfluid region is like a system of rotating magnetic dipoles. It will give out electromagnetic radiation, which may provide a new heating mechanism of NSs. This mechanism plus some cooling agent may give a sound explanation to NS glitches.

  3. Multidimensional stochastic approximation Monte Carlo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotskiy, Sergey V; Ivanov, Victor A; Paul, Wolfgang

    2016-06-01

    Stochastic Approximation Monte Carlo (SAMC) has been established as a mathematically founded powerful flat-histogram Monte Carlo method, used to determine the density of states, g(E), of a model system. We show here how it can be generalized for the determination of multidimensional probability distributions (or equivalently densities of states) of macroscopic or mesoscopic variables defined on the space of microstates of a statistical mechanical system. This establishes this method as a systematic way for coarse graining a model system, or, in other words, for performing a renormalization group step on a model. We discuss the formulation of the Kadanoff block spin transformation and the coarse-graining procedure for polymer models in this language. We also apply it to a standard case in the literature of two-dimensional densities of states, where two competing energetic effects are present g(E_{1},E_{2}). We show when and why care has to be exercised when obtaining the microcanonical density of states g(E_{1}+E_{2}) from g(E_{1},E_{2}). PMID:27415383

  4. On the electric dipole moments of small sodium clusters from different theoretical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado, Andres, E-mail: aguado@metodos.fam.cie.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Largo, Antonio, E-mail: alargo@qf.uva.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Vega, Andres, E-mail: vega@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Balbas, Luis Carlos, E-mail: balbas@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    2012-05-03

    Graphical abstract: The dipole moments and polarizabilities of a few isomers of sodium clusters of selected sizes (n = 13, 14, 16) are calculated using density functional theory methods as well as ab initio MP2, CASSCF, and MR-CI methods. Among the density functional approaches, we consider the usual local density and generalized gradient approximations, as well as a recent van der Waals self-consistent functional accounting for non-local dispersion interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dipole moment and polarizability of sodium clusters from DFT and ab initio methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New van der Waals selfconsistent implementation of non-local dispersion interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New starting isomeric geometries from extensive search of global minimum structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement with recent experiments at cryogenic temperatures. - Abstract: The dipole moments of Na{sub n} clusters in the size range 10 < n < 20, recently measured at very low temperature (20 K), are much smaller than predicted by standard density functional methods. On the other hand, the calculated static dipole polarizabilities in that range of sizes deviate non-systematically from the measured ones, depending on the employed first principles approach. In this work we calculate the dipole moments and polarizabilities of a few isomers of Na{sub n} clusters of selected sizes (n = 13, 14, 16), obtained recently through an extensive unbiased search of the global minimum structures, and using density functional theory methods as well as ab initio MP2, CASSCF, and MR-CI methods. Among the density functional approaches, we consider the usual local density and generalized gradient approximations, as well as a recent van der Waals self-consistent functional accounting for non-local dispersion interactions. Both non-local pseudopotentials and all-electron implementations are employed and compared in order to assess the possible

  5. The DLLA limit of BFKL in the Dipole Picture

    CERN Document Server

    Ducati, M B G; Goncalves, Victor P.

    1998-01-01

    In this work we obtain the DLLA limit of BFKL in the dipole picture and compare it with HERA data. We demonstrate that in leading-logarithmic- approximation, where $\\alpha_s$ is fixed, a transition between the BFKL dynamics and the DLLA limit can be obtained in the region of $Q^2 \\approx 150 GeV^2$. We compare this result with the DLLA predictions obtained with GeV^2)$. This demonstrates the importance of the next-to-leading order corrections to the BFKL dynamics. Our conclusion is that the $F_2$ structure function is not the best observable for the determination of the dynamics, since there is great freedom in the choice of the parameters used in both BFKL and DLLA predictions.

  6. Soft dipole mode in ^{11}Li and three body continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Lurie, Yu A; Smirnov, Yu F

    1994-01-01

    Properties of the neutron rich ^{11}Li nucleus are calculated in the framework of the cluster model ^{9}Li +n+n. The formalism of the harmonic oscillator representation of the scattering theory is used for the description of bound and continuum spectrum states in the three-body-democratic-decay approximation. It is shown that this approach allows one to take into account adequately the long asymptotic tail of the ^{11}Li wave function ({\\em neutron halo}) and to reproduce correctly the binding energy, radius and ^{11}Li electromagnetic dissociation cross-section on target nuclei. The shape and the energy position of the B(E1) peak corresponding to the soft dipole mode are also in agreement with experiment.

  7. Approximate option pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Jha, S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  8. Approximations to Euler's constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a problem of finding good approximations to Euler's constant γ=lim→∞ Sn, where Sn = Σk=Ln (1)/k-log(n+1), by linear forms in logarithms and harmonic numbers. In 1995, C. Elsner showed that slow convergence of the sequence Sn can be significantly improved if Sn is replaced by linear combinations of Sn with integer coefficients. In this paper, considering more general linear transformations of the sequence Sn we establish new accelerating convergence formulae for γ. Our estimates sharpen and generalize recent Elsner's, Rivoal's and author's results. (author)

  9. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  10. 3D Design, Contruction, and Field Analysis of CIS Main Dipole Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, G. P. A.; Fox, W.; Friesel, D. L.; Rinckel, T.

    1997-05-01

    The lattice for CIS ( Cooler Injection Synchroton ) requires four laminated 90^circ main dipole magnets with bending radius ρ = 1.273 m, EFL = 2 m, and an edge angle of 12^circ. Optimum Cooler injection and injection in the planned 15 GeV LISS ring requires operation up to about 1.75 T. Initial operation of 1 Hz, with later upgrade to 5 Hz is planned. We will present 2D and 3D field calculations used to optimize the shape of laminations and endpacks of the magnet. Endpacks are designed to determine edge angle and to compensate hexapole components, in particular above 1.4 T where saturation becomes significant. The large dipole curvature required a new type of dipole construction. Each magnet consists of wedge shaped blocks fabricated from stamped lamination of cold rolled low carbon iron. B-stage (dry) epopy was used for bonding and insulation. The end blocks are machined to include the calculated 3D shape of the endpacks. All four magnets were mapped in the field range from 0.3 T - 1.8 T. Comparison of calculations and data in terms of B(I) curves, EFL, edge angle, and hexapole component as function of field excitation will be presented. The constructed magnets are well within expected specifications.

  11. Dipole-Dipole Interaction and the Directional Motion of Brownian Motors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Hui; ZHAO TongJun; JI Qing; SONG YanLi; WANG YongHong; ZHAN Yong

    2002-01-01

    The electric field of the microtubule is calculated according to its dipole distribution. The conformationalchange of a molecular motor is described by the rotation ofa dipole which interacts with the microtubulc. The mricalsimulation for the particle current shows that this interaction helps to produce a directional motion along the microtubule.And tte average displacement executes step changes that resemble the experimental result for kinesin motors.

  12. Effects of hydrophobic and dipole-dipole interactions on the conformational transitions of a model polypeptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Yan; Gao, Yi Qin

    2007-09-01

    We studied the effects of hydrophobicity and dipole-dipole interactions between the nearest-neighbor amide planes on the secondary structures of a model polypeptide by calculating the free energy differences between different peptide structures. The free energy calculations were performed with low computational costs using the accelerated Monte Carlo simulation (umbrella sampling) method, with a bias-potential method used earlier in our accelerated molecular dynamics simulations. It was found that the hydrophobic interaction enhances the stability of α helices at both low and high temperatures but stabilizes β structures only at high temperatures at which α helices are not stable. The nearest-neighbor dipole-dipole interaction stabilizes β structures under all conditions, especially in the low temperature region where α helices are the stable structures. Our results indicate clearly that the dipole-dipole interaction between the nearest neighboring amide planes plays an important role in determining the peptide structures. Current research provides a more unified and quantitative picture for understanding the effects of different forms of interactions on polypeptide structures. In addition, the present model can be extended to describe DNA/RNA, polymer, copolymer, and other chain systems.

  13. The Compact Approximation Property does not imply the Approximation Property

    OpenAIRE

    Willis, George A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown how to construct, given a Banach space which does not have the approximation property, another Banach space which does not have the approximation property but which does have the compact approximation property.

  14. Propagation of magnetic dipole radiation through a medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldus, Henk F; Xu, Zhangjin

    2016-05-01

    An oscillating magnetic dipole moment emits radiation. We assume that the dipole is embedded in a medium with relative permittivity ϵr and relative permeability μr, and we have studied the effects of the surrounding material on the flow lines of the emitted energy. For a linear dipole moment in free space the flow lines of energy are straight lines, coming out of the dipole. When located in a medium, these field lines curve toward the dipole axis, due to the imaginary part of μr. Some field lines end on the dipole axis, giving a nonradiating contribution to the energy flow. For a rotating dipole moment in free space, each field line of energy flow lies on a cone around the axis perpendicular to the plane of rotation of the dipole moment. The field line pattern is an optical vortex. When embedded in a material, the cone shape of the vortex becomes a funnel shape, and the windings are much less dense than for the pattern in free space. This is again due to the imaginary part of μr. When the real part of μr is negative, the field lines of the vortex swirl around the dipole axis opposite to the rotation direction of the dipole moment. For a near-single-negative medium, the spatial extent of the vortex becomes huge. We compare the results for the magnetic dipole to the case of an embedded electric dipole. PMID:27140885

  15. Relativistic Continuum Quasiparticle Random Phase Approximation in Spherical Nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Daoutidis, I

    2011-01-01

    We have calculated the strength distributions of the dipole response in spherical nuclei, ranging all over the periodic table. The calculations were performed within two microscopic models: the discretized quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA) and the quasiparticle continuum RPA, which takes into account the coupling of the single-particle continuum in an exact way. Pairing correlations are treated with the BCS model. In the calculations, two density functionals were used, namely the functional PC-F1 and the functional DD-PC1. Both are based on relativistic point coupling Lagrangians. It is explicitly shown that this model is capable of reproducing the giant as well as the pygmy dipole resonance for open-shell nuclei in a high level of quantitative agreement with the available experimental observations.

  16. Propagating and annihilating vortex dipoles in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation

    CERN Document Server

    Rorai, Cecilia; Fisher, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    Quantum vortex dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensates or superfluid helium can be informatively described by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation. Various approximate analytical formulae for a single stationary vortex are recalled and their shortcomings demonstrated. Significantly more accurate two-point [2/2] and [3/3] Pade' approximants for stationary vortex profiles are presented. Two straight, singly quantized, antiparallel vortices, located at a distance d apart, form a vortex dipole, which, in the GP model, can either annihilate or propagate indefinitely as a `solitary wave'. We show, through calculations performed in a periodic domain, that the details and types of behavior displayed by vortex dipoles depend strongly on the initial conditions rather than only on the separation distance (as has been previously claimed). It is found, indeed, that the choice of the initial two-vortex profile (i.e., the modulus of the `effective wave function'), strongly affects the vortex trajectories and the time scale of t...

  17. Modeling of Coil Pre-stress Loss During Cool-down in the Main Dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Ferracin, P; Todesco, Ezio; Tommasini, D

    2002-01-01

    We describe a finite element mechanical model of the main LHC dipole, based on the geometry and on the properties of its components; coil characteristics are derived from measurements on stacks of conductors. We show how to define equivalent properties of cable blocks that take into account the collaring procedure when it is not explicitly modelled. Numerical results are then compared to experimental measurements of loads and deformations in dipole prototypes. At cryogenic temperature, equivalent properties are used to implement in the model a pressure- dependent thermal contraction factor observed in stack measurements. This allows to forecast the large pre-stress loss during the cool-down observed in the LHC dipole prototypes.

  18. Magnetic measurements on the ring dipoles and quadrupoles for the Los Alamos proton storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses magnetic measurements and shimming performed on the ring dipoles and quadrupoles for the Los Alamos Proton Storage Ring (PSR). For the dipoles, point-by-point field maps were obtained using a search coil that could be scanned over a three-dimensional grid. By appropriate machining of removable end blocks, all magnet lengths were adjusted to within 0.01% of a nominal value and all integrated multipoles were set within tolerance. Integrated fields of 20 PSR quadrupoles were measured using a rotating ''Morgan Coil'' and a digital spectrum analyzer. The magnets were shimmed to specifications by adjusting steel bolts threaded through the field clamps. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Is the Double Giant Dipole Resonance Process Responsible for Alpha Emission in Ternary Fission?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Hong-Yin(韩洪银); WAND Yi-Hua(王屹华); G.Mouze

    2001-01-01

    The Monte Carlo program built on the double giant dipole resonance model proposed by Mouze et al. [Nuovo Cimento A 110(1997)1097] was employed to calculate the energy spectrum of alpha particles emitted in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252Cf. It has been found that in the case of the zero orbital angular momentum of alpha particles in the alpha decay of the fragments, the measured alpha spectrum can be reproduced approximately by the model without any adjustable parameter.

  20. Experimental results on the Pygmy dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The so-called Pygmy Dipole Resonance(PDR), an additional structure of low-lying electric dipole strength, has attracted strong interest in the last years. Different experimental approaches have been used in the last decade in order to investigate this new interesting nuclear excitation mode. In this contribution an overview on the available experimental data is given. The strength of the PDR, its decay properties as well as what can be expected from hadron scattering are examined. In summary, the experiments performed so far to investigate the PDR have shown, that this new excitation mode is a general phenomenon of medium-heavy to heavy nuclei. In many aspects the available experimental data is still incomplete and the open questions need to be answered by the experiments which are currently under way

  1. Pygmy dipole resonance in 208Pb

    CERN Document Server

    Poltoratska, I; Tamii, A; Adachi, T; Bertulani, C A; Carter, J; Dozono, M; Fujita, H; Fujita, K; Fujita, Y; Hatanaka, K; Itoh, M; Kawabata, T; Kalmykov, Y; Krumbholz, A M; Litvinova, E; Matsubara, H; Nakanishi, K; Neveling, R; Okamura, H; Ong, H J; Özel-Tashenov, B; Ponomarev, V Yu; Richter, A; Rubio, B; Sakaguchi, H; Sakemi, Y; Sasamoto, Y; Shimbara, Y; Shimizu, Y; Smit, F D; Suzuki, T; Tameshige, Y; Wambach, J; Yosoi, M; Zenihiro, J

    2012-01-01

    Scattering of protons of several hundred MeV is a promising new spectroscopic tool for the study of electric dipole strength in nuclei. A case study of 208Pb shows that at very forward angles J^pi = 1- states are strongly populated via Coulomb excitation. A separation from nuclear excitation of other modes is achieved by a multipole decomposition analysis of the experimental cross sections based on theoretical angular distributions calculated within the quasiparticle-phonon model. The B(E1) transition strength distribution is extracted for excitation energies up to 9 MeV, i.e., in the region of the so-called pygmy dipole resonance (PDR). The Coulomb-nuclear interference shows sensitivity to the underlying structure of the E1 transitions, which allows for the first time an experimental extraction of the strength and energy centroid of the PDR.

  2. Directional Dipole Model for Subsurface Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Hachisuka, Toshiya; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim

    2014-01-01

    Rendering translucent materials using Monte Carlo ray tracing is computationally expensive due to a large number of subsurface scattering events. Faster approaches are based on analytical models derived from diffusion theory. While such analytical models are efficient, they miss out on some...... point source diffusion. A ray source corresponds better to the light that refracts through the surface of a translucent material. Using this ray source, we are able to take the direction of the incident light ray and the direction toward the point of emergence into account. We use a dipole construction...... similar to that of the standard dipole model, but we now have positive and negative ray sources with a mirrored pair of directions. Our model is as computationally efficient as existing models while it includes single scattering without relying on a separate Monte Carlo simulation, and the rendered images...

  3. Chaos in a gravitational field with dipoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈菊华; 王永久

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the dyna nics of a test particle in the gravitational field with dipoles. At first we study the gravitational potential by numerical simulations, we find that, for appropriate parameters, there are two different cases in the potential curve: one is the one-well case with a stable critical point, and the other is the three-well case with three stable critical points and two unstable critical points. By performing Poincare sections for different values of the parameters and initial conditions, we find a regular motion and a chaotic motion. From these Poincare sections,we further confirm that the chaotic motion of the test particle originates mainly from the dipoles.

  4. Magnetic Dipole Band in 113^In

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马克岩; 杨东; 陆景彬; 王烈林; 王辉东; 刘运祚; 刘弓冶; 李黎; 马英君; 杨森; 李广生; 贺创业; 李雪琴

    2012-01-01

    High spin states in the odd-A nucleus 113^In have been investigated using the re- action 110^Pd(7^Li, 4n) at a beam energy of 50 MeV. A new positive parity dipole band with the configuration of π(g9/2)^-lv(h11/2)^2 v (g7/2)^2 is established. The effective interaction V(θ) values of this band have been successfully described by a semiclassical geometric model based on shear mechanism, which show that the dipole band has the characteristics of magnetic rotation. In addition the collective rotational angular momentum for this band is extracted. The results show that the core contribution increases gradually with the increase of the rotation frequency.

  5. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-05-01

    Many of the explicit prestack traveltime relations used in practice are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multifocusing, based on the double square-root (DSR) equation, and the common reflection stack (CRS) approaches. Using the DSR equation, I constructed the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I recasted the eikonal in terms of the reflection angle, and thus, derived expansion based solutions of this eikonal in terms of the difference between the source and receiver velocities in a generally inhomogenous background medium. The zero-order term solution, corresponding to ignoring the lateral velocity variation in estimating the prestack part, is free of singularities and can be used to estimate traveltimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. The higher-order terms include limitations for horizontally traveling waves, however, we can readily enforce stability constraints to avoid such singularities. In fact, another expansion over reflection angle can help us avoid these singularities by requiring the source and receiver velocities to be different. On the other hand, expansions in terms of reflection angles result in singularity free equations. For a homogenous background medium, as a test, the solutions are reasonably accurate to large reflection and dip angles. A Marmousi example demonstrated the usefulness and versatility of the formulation. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  6. Extended equivalent dipole model for radiated emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Obiekezie, Chijioke S.

    2016-01-01

    This work is on the characterisation of radiated fields from electronic devices. An equivalent dipole approach is used. Previous work showed that this was an effective approach for single layer printed circuit boards where an infinite ground plane can be assumed. In this work, this approach is extended for the characterisation of more complex circuit boards or electronic systems. For complex electronic radiators with finite ground planes, the main challenge is characterising field diffract...

  7. Electric dipole moment of light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Afnan, I R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We examine the sensitivity of the deuteron Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) to variation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. In particular, we write the EDM as a sum of two terms, one depends on the target wave function, the second on intermediate multiple scattering states in the {sup 3}P{sub 1} channel. This second contribution is sensitive to off-shell behavior of the {sup 3}P{sub 1} amplitude.

  8. Bosonic and Fermionic Dipoles on a Ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zöllner, Sascha; Bruun, Georg; Pethick, Christopher;

    2011-01-01

    We show that dipolar bosons and fermions confined in a quasi-one-dimensional ring trap exhibit a rich variety of states because their interaction is inhomogeneous. For purely repulsive interactions, with increasing strength of the dipolar coupling there is a crossover from a gaslike state to an i...... to an inhomogeneous crystal-like one. For small enough angles between the dipoles and the plane of the ring, there are regions with attractive interactions, and clustered states can form....

  9. Instantaneous Power Radiated from Magnetic Dipole Moments

    CERN Document Server

    Morley, Peter D

    2014-01-01

    We compute the power radiated per unit solid angle of a moving magnetic dipole moment, and its instantaneous radiated power, both non-relativistically and relativistically. This is then applied to various interesting situations: solar neutrons, electron synchrotrons and cosmological Dirac neutrinos. Concerning the latter, we show that hypothesized early-universe Big Bang conditions allow for neutrino radiation cooling and provide an energy loss-mechanism for subsequent neutrino condensation.

  10. On the Neutron Electric Dipole Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Bentalha; O. Lazrec

    2004-01-01

    @@ Within the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism of electroweak interaction and using the recent measured mass of the top quark, we estimate the neutron electric dipole moment (NEDM) via the diquark electroweak interaction.The resulting moment is about 10-30 e cm. The actual upper bound on the NEDM is 6.3 × 10-26 ecm and it can reach the value 5 × 10-28 ecm predicted by experiments in recent years.

  11. Magnetic dipole bands in {sup 198}Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwartz, G.; Drake, T.E.; Cromaz, M. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada); Ward, D.; Janzen, V.; Galindo-Uribarria, A. [Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario K0J 1J0 (Canada); Prevost, D.; Waddington, J.; Mullins, S.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1 (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    High spin states in {sup 198}{l_brace}Bi{r_brace} were populated using a {sup 184}W({sup 19}F, 5n) reaction at 107 MeV. Three {sup 198}Bi {gamma}-ray cascades resulting from aseries of magnetic dipole transitions were observed. Measurements of the B(M1)/B(E2) ratio, angular correlation ratios and second moment of inertia are presented. (author)

  12. Local electric dipole moments: A generalized approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groß, Lynn; Herrmann, Carmen

    2016-09-30

    We present an approach for calculating local electric dipole moments for fragments of molecular or supramolecular systems. This is important for understanding chemical gating and solvent effects in nanoelectronics, atomic force microscopy, and intensities in infrared spectroscopy. Owing to the nonzero partial charge of most fragments, "naively" defined local dipole moments are origin-dependent. Inspired by previous work based on Bader's atoms-in-molecules (AIM) partitioning, we derive a definition of fragment dipole moments which achieves origin-independence by relying on internal reference points. Instead of bond critical points (BCPs) as in existing approaches, we use as few reference points as possible, which are located between the fragment and the remainder(s) of the system and may be chosen based on chemical intuition. This allows our approach to be used with AIM implementations that circumvent the calculation of critical points for reasons of computational efficiency, for cases where no BCPs are found due to large interfragment distances, and with local partitioning schemes other than AIM which do not provide BCPs. It is applicable to both covalently and noncovalently bound systems. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27520590

  13. Dipole diffusion in a random electrical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Touya, Clement; Dean, David S; Sire, Clement [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique, IRSAMC, Universite de Toulouse, CNRS, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2009-09-18

    We study the Langevin dynamics of a dipole diffusing in a random electrical field E derived from a quenched Gaussian potential. We show that in a suitable adiabatic limit (where the dynamics of the dipole moment is much faster than the dynamics of its position), one can reduce the coupled stochastic equations to an effective Langevin equation for a particle diffusing in an effective potential with a spatially varying and anisotropic local diffusivity {kappa}{sub ij}. Analytic results, close to the adiabatic limit, for the diffusion constant {kappa}{sub e} are found in one dimension and a finite temperature dynamical transition is found. The system is also studied numerically. In particular, we study the anomalous diffusion exponent in the low-temperature regime. Our findings strongly support the conclusion that the location of the dynamical transition and the anomalous diffusion exponents are determined by purely static considerations, i.e. they are independent of the relative values of the diffusion constants of the particle position and its dipole moment.

  14. SPS Dipole Multipactor Test and TEWave Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F; Edwards, P; Federmann, S; Holz, M; Taborelli, M

    2013-01-01

    Electron cloud accumulation in particle accelerators can be mitigated by coating the vacuum beam pipe with thin films of low secondary electron yield (SEY) material. The SEY of small coated samples are usually measured in the laboratory. To further test the properties of different coating materials, RF-induced multipacting in a coaxial waveguide configuration can be performed. The technique is applied to two main bending dipoles of the SPS, where the RF power is fed through a tungsten wire stretched along the vacuum chamber (6.4 m). A dipole with a bare stainless steel chamber shows a clear power threshold initiating an abrupt rise in reflected power and pressure. The effect is enhanced at RF frequencies corresponding to electron cyclotron resonances for given magnetic fields. Preliminary results show that the dipole with a carbon coated vacuum chamber does not exhibit any pressure rise or reflected RF power up to the maximum available input power. In the case of a large scale coating production this techniqu...

  15. A no-go theorem for matter-wave interferometry with application to the neutron's electric-dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general theorem for matter-wave interferometry that relies only on the unitary property of the Schroedinger equation and not upon any classical or semi-classical approximation restricts the benefits of using long drift spaces. In particular, it negates some, but not all, suggestions that have been made for measuring the neutron's electric-dipole moment by interferometry

  16. ELASTIC INTERACTION BETWEEN WEDGE DISCLINATION DIPOLE AND INTERNAL CRACK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Qi-hong; LIU You-wen

    2006-01-01

    The system of a wedge disclination dipole interacting with an internal crack was investigated. By using the complex variable method, the closed form solutions of complex potentials to this problem were presented. The analytic formulae of the physics variables, such as stress intensity factors at the tips of the crack produced by the wedge disclination dipole and the image force acting on disclination dipole center were obtained.The influence of the orientation, the dipole arm and the location of the disclination dipole on the stress intensity factors was discussed in detail. Furthermore, the equilibrium position of the wedge disclination dipole was also examined. It is shown that the shielding or antishielding effect of the wedge disclination to the stress intensity factors is significant when the disclination dipole moves to the crack tips.

  17. Blocking and associability change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter M; Haselgrove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Blocking of learning about a conditioned stimulus (the "blocked" cue) occurs when it is trained alongside an additional stimulus (the "blocking" cue) that has been previously presented with the outcome. A number of theories (e.g., N. J. Mackintosh. 1975a. A Theory of Attention: Variations in the Associability of Stimuli With Reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 276-298; J. M. Pearce & G. Hall. 1980. A Model for Pavlovian Learning: Variation in the Effectiveness of Conditioned But Not Unconditioned Stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532-552) account for this attenuation in learning by proposing that attention paid to the blocked cue is restricted. In three experiments, we examined the associability of both blocked and blocking cues. In Experiment 1, rats were trained with a blocking protocol before being given a test discrimination composed of two components; one of these components required the use of the previously blocked cue as a discriminative stimulus, and the other component was soluble by using the blocking cue. To our surprise, the component that depended on the blocked cue was more readily solved than the component dependent on the blocking cue. The results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggest that this is due to the quantity of exposure that each stimulus received during initial training. Implications for theories of blocking, and more widely associative learning, are discussed. PMID:23668185

  18. Blocking and associability change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter M; Haselgrove, Mark

    2013-07-01

    Blocking of learning about a conditioned stimulus (the "blocked" cue) occurs when it is trained alongside an additional stimulus (the "blocking" cue) that has been previously presented with the outcome. A number of theories (e.g., N. J. Mackintosh. 1975a. A Theory of Attention: Variations in the Associability of Stimuli With Reinforcement. Psychological Review, 82, 276-298; J. M. Pearce & G. Hall. 1980. A Model for Pavlovian Learning: Variation in the Effectiveness of Conditioned But Not Unconditioned Stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532-552) account for this attenuation in learning by proposing that attention paid to the blocked cue is restricted. In three experiments, we examined the associability of both blocked and blocking cues. In Experiment 1, rats were trained with a blocking protocol before being given a test discrimination composed of two components; one of these components required the use of the previously blocked cue as a discriminative stimulus, and the other component was soluble by using the blocking cue. To our surprise, the component that depended on the blocked cue was more readily solved than the component dependent on the blocking cue. The results of Experiments 2 and 3 suggest that this is due to the quantity of exposure that each stimulus received during initial training. Implications for theories of blocking, and more widely associative learning, are discussed.

  19. Low-energy isovector and isoscalar dipole response in neutron-rich nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Vretenar, D; Paar, N; Meng, J

    2012-01-01

    The self-consistent random phase approximation (RPA), based on the framework of relativistic energy density functionals, is employed in the study of isovector and isoscalar dipole response in $^{68}$Ni, $^{132}$Sn, and $^{208}$Pb. The evolution of pygmy dipole states (PDS) in the region of low excitation energies is analyzed as a function of the density-dependence of the symmetry energy for a set of relativistic effective interactions. The occurrence of PDS is predicted in the response to both the isovector and isoscalar dipole operators, and its strength is enhanced with the increase of the symmetry energy at saturation and the slope of the symmetry energy. In both channels the PDS exhausts a relatively small fraction of the energy-weighted sum rule but a much larger percentage of the inverse energy-weighted sum rule. For the isovector dipole operator the reduced transition probability $B(E1)$ of the PDS is generally small because of pronounced cancellation of neutron and proton partial contributions. The is...

  20. Laminar and transitional liquid metal duct flow near a magnetic point dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Tympel, Saskia; Schumacher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The flow transformation and the generation of vortex structures by a strong magnetic dipole field in a liquid metal duct flow is studied by means of three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. The dipole is considered as the paradigm for a magnetic obstacle which will deviate the streamlines due to Lorentz forces acting on the fluid elements. The duct is of square cross-section. The dipole is located above the top wall and is centered in spanwise direction. Our model uses the quasi-static approximation which is applicable in the limit of small magnetic Reynolds numbers. The analysis covers the stationary flow regime at small hydrodynamic Reynolds numbers $Re$ as well as the transitional time-dependent regime at higher values which may generate a turbulent flow in the wake of the magnetic obstacle. We present a systematic study of these two basic flow regimes and their dependence on $Re$ and on the Hartmann number $Ha$, a measure of the strength of the magnetic dipole field. Furthermore, three orientations...

  1. Effect of rotational-state-dependent molecular alignment on the optical dipole force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Lee Yeong; Lee, Ju Hyeon; Kim, Hye Ah; Kwak, Sang Kyu; Friedrich, Bretislav; Zhao, Bum Suk

    2016-07-01

    The properties of molecule-optical elements such as lenses or prisms based on the interaction of molecules with optical fields depend in a crucial way on the molecular quantum state and its alignment created by the optical field. Herein, we consider the effects of state-dependent alignment in estimating the optical dipole force acting on the molecules and, to this end, introduce an effective polarizability which takes proper account of molecular alignment and is directly related to the alignment-dependent optical dipole force. We illustrate the significance of including molecular alignment in the optical dipole force by a trajectory study that compares previously used approximations with the present approach. The trajectory simulations were carried out for an ensemble of linear molecules subject to either propagating or standing-wave optical fields for a range of temperatures and laser intensities. The results demonstrate that the alignment-dependent effective polarizability can serve to provide correct estimates of the optical dipole force, on which a state-selection method applicable to nonpolar molecules could be based. We note that an analogous analysis of the forces acting on polar molecules subject to an inhomogeneous static electric field reveals a similarly strong dependence on molecular orientation.

  2. Dipole and quadrupole integrals for the C I, N I, and O I sequences. [electron transition probabilities computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, S. O.; Wade, C.

    1974-01-01

    The Coulomb approximation tables of Oertel and Shomo, together with binding-energy values obtained by a screening approximation, have been used to produce values of the dipole and quadrupole radial integrals needed in obtaining transition probabilities for ions of six, seven, and eight electrons. Some comparisons with more rigorously calculated values show that the present values are quite accurate, especially for ions of higher atomic number.

  3. Operators of Approximations and Approximate Power Set Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-yong; MO Zhi-wen; SHU Lan

    2004-01-01

    Boundary inner and outer operators are introduced; and union, intersection, complement operators of approximations are redefined. The approximation operators have a good property of maintaining union, intersection, complement operators, so the rough set theory has been enriched from the operator-oriented and set-oriented views. Approximate power set spaces are defined, and it is proved that the approximation operators are epimorphisms from power set space to approximate power set spaces. Some basic properties of approximate power set space are got by epimorphisms in contrast to power set space.

  4. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes.......Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...

  5. Magnetic Field Measurements Of HD2, A HIgh Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Superconducting Magnet Program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has designed and tested HD2, a 1 m long Nb3Sn accelerator-type dipole based on a simple block-type coil geometry with flared ends. HD2 represents a step toward the development of cost-effective accelerator quality magnets operating in the range of 13-15 T. The design was optimized to minimize geometric harmonics and to address iron saturation and conductor magnetization effects. Field quality was measured during recent cold tests. The measured harmonics are presented and compared to the design values.

  6. Design of the EuCARD High-Field Model Dipole Magnet FRESCA2

    CERN Document Server

    Milanese, A; Durante, M; Manil, P; Perez, J C; Rifflet, J M; de Rijk, G; Rondeaux, F

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the design of FRESCA2, a dipole magnet model wound with Nb3Sn Rutherford cable. This magnet is one of the deliverables of the High Field Magnets work package of the European FP7-EuCARD project. The nominal magnetic flux density of 13 Tesla in a 100 mm bore will make it suitable for upgrading the FRESCA cable test facility at CERN. The magnetic layout is based on a block coil, with four layers per pole. The mechanical structure is designed to provide adequate pre-stress, through the use of bladders, keys and an aluminum alloy shrinking cylinder.

  7. Design of the EuCARD high field model dipole magnet FRESCA2

    CERN Document Server

    Milanese, A; Durante, M; Manil, P; Perez, J-C; Rifflet, J-M; de Rijk, G; Rondeaux, F

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the design of FRESCA2, a dipole magnet model wound with Nb3Sn Rutherford cable. This magnet is one of the deliverables of the High Field Magnets work package of the European FP7-EuCARD project. The nominal magnetic flux density of 13 Tesla in a 100 mm bore will make it suitable for upgrading the FRESCA cable test facility at CERN. The magnetic layout is based on a block coil, with four layers per pole. The mechanical structure is designed to provide adequate pre-stress, through the use of bladders, keys and an aluminum alloy shrinking cylinder.

  8. Measuring the CMB Dipole at 11 GHz—for cheap!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Aaron; Harrison, S.; Karkare, K. S.; Kimbert, R.; Kovac, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    We report the design of a telescope capable of making mK-sensitivity maps of the microwave sky, with potential to map large-scale structure of the CMB and galaxy, within the budget of a classroom or amateur astronomer. This project modifies a telescope designed by Harvard’s advanced undergraduate astrophysics lab course, with the goal of improving sensitivity enough to detect the CMB dipole. The telescope’s design allows replication of the experiment within the resources of most similar undergraduate laboratory research courses. We use a low-noise block (LNB) receiver and a bandpass filter to amplify radiation near 10.7 GHz and remove RFI, and we rotate the telescope at constant angular velocity and elevation to provide coverage of the entire visible sky over 24 hours. Before modifications, the telescope accurately measured the isotropic CMB temperature, but interference and 1/f noise limited detection of isotropies in the microwave signal. With current modifications, the telescope can collect data continuously for over 24 hours, and produce maps used to constrain galactic and CMB signals.

  9. Dipole-dipole shift of quantum emitters coupled to surface plasmons of a nano-wire

    CERN Document Server

    Dzsotjan, David; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Placing quantum emitters close to a metallic nano-wire, an effective interaction can be achieved over distances large compared to the resonance wavelength due to the strong coupling between emitters and the surface plasmon modes of the wire. This leads to modified collective decay rates, as well as to Lamb and dipole-dipole shifts. In this paper we present a general method for calculating these level shifts which we subsequently apply to the case of a pair of atoms coupled to the guided modes of a nano-wire.

  10. Urban Dipoles in Greece: Economic Development Opportunities for Larissa-Volos Dipole in Thessaly Region

    OpenAIRE

    Metaxas, Theodore

    2009-01-01

    The article attempts to illustrate the significance of the existence of co-operation and in tandem development of an urban dipole, as well as the impact of such a dipole development on each of the two cities and on the greater region they belong. For this reason, the article focuses on a specific case of two medium size cities in Greece, Larissa and Volos, which activate in the same region by taking development actions complementary to one another. The aim of the article is to define the pros...

  11. Perturbed Coupled-Cluster theory to calculate dipole polarizabilities of closed shell systems: Application to Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn

    CERN Document Server

    Chattopadhyay, S; Angom, D

    2012-01-01

    We use perturbed relativistic coupled-cluster (PRCC) theory to calculate the electric dipole polarizability of noble gas atoms Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn. We also provide a detailed description of the nonlinear terms in the PRCC theory and consider the Dirac-Coulomb-Breit atomic Hamiltonian for the calculations. We find that the largest contribution from Breit interaction to the electric dipole polarizability is 0.1%, in the case of Rn. As we go from Ar to Rn, based on the pattern in the random phase approximation effects, the contraction of the outermost $p_{1/2}$ due to relativistic corrections is discernible without any ambiguity.

  12. Conservation of a helix-stabilizing dipole moment in the PP-fold family of regulatory peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholm, B; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Schwartz, T W

    1993-01-01

    of the electrostatic properties of five representative members of the PP-fold family of peptides (human neuropeptide Y, human peptide YY, human pancreatic polypeptide, avian PP, and lamprey peptide methionine tyrosine) shows that this characteristic charge clustering gives rise to a common dipole moment of 325-450 D...... forces alone when the screening effect is considered. This energy is of the same order of magnitude as the enthalpy change for the unfolding of avian PP (approximately 30 kcal/mol), strongly indicating that the charge-dipole interactions are of significant importance for the stability of the three...

  13. Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Arteaga, D.

    2007-06-25

    Covariant density functional theory is used to study the influence of electromagnetic radiation on deformed superfluid nuclei. The relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov equations and the resulting diagonalization problem of the quasiparticle random phase approximation are solved for axially symmetric systems in a fully self-consistent way by a newly developed parallel code. Three different kinds of high precision energy functionals are investigated and special care is taken for the decoupling of the Goldstone modes. This allows the microscopic investigation of Pygmy and scissor resonances in electric and magnetic dipole fields. Excellent agreement with recent experiments is found and new types of modes are predicted for deformed systems with large neutron excess. (orig.)

  14. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  15. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes. PMID:21318011

  16. Approximation algorithms and hardness of approximation for knapsack problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhrman, H.; Loff, B.; Torenvliet, L.

    2012-01-01

    We show various hardness of approximation algorithms for knapsack and related problems; in particular we will show that unless the Exponential-Time Hypothesis is false, then subset-sum cannot be approximated any better than with an FPTAS. We also give a simple new algorithm for approximating knapsac

  17. BLOCK H-MATRICES AND SPECTRUM OF BLOCK MATRICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄廷祝; 黎稳

    2002-01-01

    The block H-matrices are studied by the concept of G-functions, several concepts of block matrices are introduced. Equivalent characters of block H-matrices are obtained. Spectrum localizations claracterized by Gfunctions for block matrices are got.

  18. Improving massive experiments with threshold blocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Michael J; Sävje, Fredrik; Sekhon, Jasjeet S

    2016-07-01

    Inferences from randomized experiments can be improved by blocking: assigning treatment in fixed proportions within groups of similar units. However, the use of the method is limited by the difficulty in deriving these groups. Current blocking methods are restricted to special cases or run in exponential time; are not sensitive to clustering of data points; and are often heuristic, providing an unsatisfactory solution in many common instances. We present an algorithm that implements a widely applicable class of blocking-threshold blocking-that solves these problems. Given a minimum required group size and a distance metric, we study the blocking problem of minimizing the maximum distance between any two units within the same group. We prove this is a nondeterministic polynomial-time hard problem and derive an approximation algorithm that yields a blocking where the maximum distance is guaranteed to be, at most, four times the optimal value. This algorithm runs in O(n log n) time with O(n) space complexity. This makes it, to our knowledge, the first blocking method with an ensured level of performance that works in massive experiments. Whereas many commonly used algorithms form pairs of units, our algorithm constructs the groups flexibly for any chosen minimum size. This facilitates complex experiments with several treatment arms and clustered data. A simulation study demonstrates the efficiency and efficacy of the algorithm; tens of millions of units can be blocked using a desktop computer in a few minutes. PMID:27382151

  19. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  20. Position-dependent property of resonant dipole dipole interaction mediated by localized surface plasmon of an Ag nanosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹; 王小云; 黄勇刚; 欧阳仕粮; 何海龙; 何浩

    2015-01-01

    We use the photon Green-function method to study the quantum resonant dipole–dipole interaction (RDDI) induced by an Ag nanosphere (ANP). As the distance between the two dipoles increases, the RDDI becomes weaker, accompanied by the influence of the higher-order mode of the ANP on RDDI declining more quickly than that of the dipole mode. Across a broad frequency range (above 0.05 eV), the transfer rate of the RDDI is nearly constant as the two dipoles are fixed at the proper position, in addition, this phenomenon still exists for slightly different radius of the ANPs. We find that the frequency corresponding to the maximum transfer rate of RDDI exhibits a monotonic decrease by moving away one dipole, with the other dipole and the ANP fixed. In addition, the radius of ANP has little effect on that. As the two dipoles are far from the ANP, the maximum transfer rate of the RDDI takes place at the frequency of the dipole mode. In contrast, when the two dipoles are close to the ANP, the higher-order modes come into effect and play a leading role in the RDDI if they match the transition frequency of the dipole. Our results may be used in biological detector and have a certain guiding significance for further application.

  1. Collective Hamiltonians for dipole giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The collective hamiltonian for the Giant Dipole resonance (GDR), in the Goldhaber-Teller-Model, is analytically constructed using the semiclassical and generator coordinates method. Initially a conveniently parametrized set of many body wave functions and a microscopic hamiltonian, the Skyrme hamiltonian - are used. These collective Hamiltonians are applied to the investigation of the GDR, in He4, O16 and Ca40 nuclei. Also the energies and spectra of the GDR are obtained in these nuclei. The two sets of results are compared, and the zero point energy effects analysed. (author)

  2. Prototype steel-concrete LEP dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic field needed in the LEP dipole magnets was rather low, of a fraction of tesla. This lead to the conception of a novel yoke structure consisting of stacks of 1.5 mm thick low-carbon steel laminations spaced by 4.1 mm with the spaces filled with concrete. The excitation coils were also very simple: aluminium bars insulated by polyester boxes in this prototype, by glass-epoxy in the final magnets. For details see LEP-Note 118,1978 and LEP-Note 233 1980. See also 8111529,7908528X.

  3. Field simulations for large dipole magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazzaro, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Cappuzzello, F. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy) and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy)]. E-mail: cappuzzello@lns.infn.it; Cunsolo, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Cavallaro, M. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Foti, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); INFN - Sezione di Catania, Via S. Sofia 64, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Khouaja, A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Orrigo, S.E.A. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy); Winfield, J.S. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, I-95123 Catania (Italy)

    2007-01-01

    The problem of the description of magnetic field for large bending magnets is addressed in relation to the requirements of modern techniques of trajectory reconstruction. The crucial question of the interpolation and extrapolation of fields known at a discrete number of points is analysed. For this purpose a realistic field model of the large dipole of the MAGNEX spectrometer, obtained with finite elements three dimensional simulations, is used. The influence of the uncertainties in the measured field to the quality of the trajectory reconstruction is treated in detail. General constraints for field measurements in terms of required resolutions, step sizes and precisions are thus extracted.

  4. Dipole moments of the τ-neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounds on the anomalous magnetic moment and the electric dipole moment of the τ -neutrino are calculated through the reaction e+e- → ν ν-bar γ at the Z1-pole, and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model. The results are based on the recent data reported by the L3 Collaboration at CERN LEP. We find that the bounds are almost independent of the mixing angle φ of the model in the allowed experimental range for this parameter

  5. Electric-dipole transitions in 165Er

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shi-Tao; ZHOU Xiao-Hong; ZHANG Yu-Hu; ZHENG Yong; LIU Min-Liang; MA Fei; HU Jun; CHEN Liang; ZHANG Xin; ZHANG Ning-Tao; ZHU Li-Hua; WU Xiao-Guang; LI Guang-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    High-spin states of 165Er were studied using the 160Gd(9Be, 4n)reaction at beam energies of 42 and 45 MeV. The previously known bands based on the γ5/2-[523] and γ5/2+ [642] configurations have been extended to high-spin states. Electric-dipole transitions linking these two opposite parity bands were observed. Relatively large B(E1) values have been extracted experimentally and were attributed to octupole softness.

  6. Double giant dipole resonance in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cinausero, M.; Rizzi, V.; Viesti, G.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Barbui, M.; Fioretto, E.; Prete, G.; Bracco, A.; Camera, F.; Million, B.; Leoni, S.; Wieland, O.; Benzoni, G.; Brambilla, S.; Airoldi, A.; Maj, A.; Kmiecik, M

    2004-02-09

    Signals from Double Dipole Giant Resonances (DGDR) in hot nuclei have been searched in a {gamma}-{gamma} coincidence experiment using the HECTOR array at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. The experimental single {gamma}-ray spectrum and the projection of the {gamma}-{gamma} matrix have been compared with a standard Monte Carlo Statistical Model code including only the single GDR excitation. These calculations have been used as background to determine the extra-yield associated with the DGDR de-excitation. Results have been compared with a previous experiment confirming the presence of the DGDR excitation in fusion-evaporation reactions.

  7. Effective gluon operators and neutron dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the purely gluon CP odd six-dimension effective arising in various CP-breaking models is discussed. This operators of most interest in the nonminimal Higgs sector models, the right W models and supersymmetric theories, where it may induce the neutron dipole moment at the level of the experimental restriction. The method for evaluating the magnitude dn is proposed and the reasons are given in favor that the original Weiberg's estimate based on the naive Dimensional Analysis is overdone significantly. The Peccei -Quinn mechanism, impact on the magnitude of dn, which generally may be very essential, is discussed

  8. Transfer matrices of dipoles with bending radius variation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the increasing demand of high brightness in light source, the uniform dipole can not meet the needs of low emittance, and thus the dipole with bending radius variation is introduced in this paper. The transfer matrix of a non-uniform dipole whose bending radius is linearly changed is chosen as an example and a very simple calculation formula of non-uniform dipole transfer matrices is given. The transfer matrices of some common profile non-uniform dipoles are also listed. The comparison of these transfer matrices and the matrices calculated with slices method verifies the numerical accuracy of this formula. This method can make the non-uniform beam dynamic problem simpler, very helpful for emittance research and lattice design with non-uniform dipoles.

  9. The giant dipole resonance at high spin and moderate temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of deformation, temperature and angular momentum in the evolution of the isovector giant dipole resonance (GDR) with excitation energy is studied. The dipole cross section is calculated applying a cranked Nilsson potential together with a separable dipole-dipole force. Calculations for 90Zr, 108Sn and 164Er are presented. For the last two nuclides, 108Sn and 164Er, the observed development of the damping width of the dipole intensity is explained by the evolution of the equilibrium deformation. 90Zr remains spherical at the E* studied, the thermal shape fluctuations being responsible of the broadening of the cross section. The effect of fluctuations on the angular distribution of the gamma-rays associated with the dipole emission, strongly depends on the free energy surface shape. (orig.)

  10. Angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine based on coherent dipole-dipole coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shan-He; Luo, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Jin-Can; Sun, Chang-Pu

    2016-08-01

    Electromagnetic interactions between molecules or within a molecule have been widely observed in biological systems and exhibit broad application for molecular structural studies. Quantum delocalization of molecular dipole moments has inspired researchers to explore new avenues to utilize this physical effect for energy harvesting devices. Herein, we propose a simple model of the angle-dependent quantum Otto heat engine which seeks to facilitate the conversion of heat to work. Unlike previous studies, the adiabatic processes are accomplished by varying only the directions of the magnetic field. We show that the heat engine continues to generate power when the angle relative to the vector r joining the centres of coupled dipoles departs from the magic angle θm where the static coupling vanishes. A significant improvement in the device performance has to be attributed to the presence of the quantum delocalized levels associated with the coherent dipole-dipole coupling. These results obtained may provide a promising model for the biomimetic design and fabrication of quantum energy generators.

  11. Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲

    2005-01-01

    @@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.

  12. Electric Dipole Antenna: A Source of Gravitational Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the gravitational scalar potential due to an oscillating electric dipole antenna placed in empty space is derived. The gravitational potential obtained propagates as a wave. The gravitational waves have phase velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum (c at the equatorial plane of the electric dipole antenna, unlike electromagnetic waves from the dipole antenna that cancel out at the equatorial plane due to charge symmetry.

  13. Cosmic microwave background dipole, peculiar velocity and Hubble flow

    CERN Document Server

    Tomozawa, Yukio

    2007-01-01

    Two types of cosmology are discussed and their implications for the observed cmb (cosmic microwave background radiation) dipole are described. Theorems useful for understanding the cause for a cmb dipole are presented. Since the present peculiar velocity of the solar system relative to the GA (Great Attracter) cannot explain the observed cmb dipole, the author presents the possibility of Hubble flow of the GA as a cause in one case and a further peculiar velocity of the GA in the other case.

  14. Hybird of Quantum Phases for Induced Dipole Moments

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The quantum phase effects for induced electric and magnetic dipole moments are investigated. It is shown that the phase shift received by induced electric dipole has the same form with the one induced by magnetic dipole moment, therefore the total phase is a hybrid of these two types of phase. This feature indicates that in order to have a decisive measurement on either one of these two phases, it is necessary to measure the velocity dependence of the observed phase.

  15. Lunar magnetic field - Permanent and induced dipole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    Apollo 15 subsatellite magnetic field observations have been used to measure both the permanent and the induced lunar dipole moments. Although only an upper limit of 1.3 x 10 to the 18th gauss-cubic centimeters has been determined for the permanent dipole moment in the orbital plane, there is a significant induced dipole moment which opposes the applied field, indicating the existence of a weak lunar ionosphere.

  16. Block Advertisement Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Nemirovsky, Danil

    2015-01-01

    Bitcoin, a decentralized cryptocurrency, has attracted a lot of attention from academia, financial service industry and enthusiasts. The trade-off between transaction confirmation throughput and centralization of hash power do not allow Bitcoin to perform at the same level as modern payment systems. Block Advertisement Protocol is proposed as a step to resolve this issue. The protocol allows block mining and block relaying to happen in parallel. The protocol dictates a miner to advertise the ...

  17. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  18. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2015-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....

  19. Approximate sine-Gordon solitons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratopoulos, G.N. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom)); Zakrzewski, W.J. (Dept. of Mathematical Sciences, Durham Univ. (United Kingdom))

    1993-08-01

    We look at the recently proposed scheme of approximating a sine-Gordon soliton by an expression derived from two dimensional instantons. We point out that the scheme of Sutcliffe in which he uses two dimensional instantons can be generalised to higher dimensions and that these generalisations produce even better approximations than the original approximation. We also comment on generalisations to other models. (orig.)

  20. Average Dissipative and Dipole Forces on a Three-Level Atom in a Laguerre-Gaussian Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zheng-Ling; YIN Jian-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ By means of the optical Bloch equations based on the atomic density matrix elements, the general expressions of the average dissipative force, dipole force and the mechanical torque acting on a A-configuration three-level atom in a linearly-polarized Laguerre-Gaussian beam (LGB) with an angular momentum of lh are derived, and the general properties of the average dissipative and dipole force on the three-level atom in the linearly-polarized LGB are analysed. We find a resonant property (with two resonant peaks) of the dissipative force and a non-resonant property (with two pairs of non-resonant peaks) of the dipole force on the three-level atom, which are completely different from those on the two-level atom. Our study also shows that all of general expressions on the three-level atom will be simplified to those on the two-level atom in the approximation of large detuning.

  1. Terahertz radiation-induced sub-cycle field electron emission across a split-gap dipole antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jingdi; Averitt, Richard D., E-mail: xinz@bu.edu, E-mail: raveritt@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Zhao, Xiaoguang; Fan, Kebin; Wang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Xin, E-mail: xinz@bu.edu, E-mail: raveritt@ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Zhang, Gu-Feng [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Geng, Kun [Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)

    2015-12-07

    We use intense terahertz pulses to excite the resonant mode (0.6 THz) of a micro-fabricated dipole antenna with a vacuum gap. The dipole antenna structure enhances the peak amplitude of the in-gap THz electric field by a factor of ∼170. Above an in-gap E-field threshold amplitude of ∼10 MV/cm{sup −1}, THz-induced field electron emission is observed as indicated by the field-induced electric current across the dipole antenna gap. Field emission occurs within a fraction of the driving THz period. Our analysis of the current (I) and incident electric field (E) is in agreement with a Millikan-Lauritsen analysis where log (I) exhibits a linear dependence on 1/E. Numerical estimates indicate that the electrons are accelerated to a value of approximately one tenth of the speed of light.

  2. Trends in Cable Magnetization and Persistent Currents during the Production of the Main Dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bellesia, B; Granata, V; Le Naour, S; Oberli, L; Sanfilippo, S; Santoni, C; Scandale, Walter; Schwerg, N; Todesco, Ezio; Völlinger, C

    2005-01-01

    The production of more than 60% of superconducting cables for the main dipoles of the Large Hadron Collider has been completed. The results of the measurements of cable magnetization and the dependence on the manufacturers are presented. The strand magnetization produces field errors that have been measured in a large number of dipoles (approximately 100 to date) tested in cold conditions. We examine here the correlation between the available magnetic measurements and the large database of cable magnetization. The analysis is based on models documented elsewhere in the literature. Finally, a forecast of the persistent current effects to be expected in the LHC main dipoles is presented, and the more critical parameters for beam dynamics are singled out.

  3. Terahertz radiation-induced sub-cycle field electron emission across a split-gap dipole antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jingdi; Fan, Kebin; Wang, Xiaoning; Zhang, Gu-Feng; Geng, Kun; Zhang, Xin; Averitt, Richard D

    2015-01-01

    We use intense terahertz pulses to excite the resonant mode (0.6 THz) of a micro-fabricated dipole antenna with a vacuum gap. The dipole antenna structure enhances the peak amplitude of the in-gap THz electric field by a factor of ~170. Above an in-gap E-field threshold amplitude of ~10 MVcm-1, THz-induced field electron emission is observed (TIFEE) as indicated by the field-induced electric current across the dipole antenna gap. Field emission occurs within a fraction of the driving THz period. Our analysis of the current (I) and incident electric field (E) is in agreement with a Millikan-Lauritsen analysis where log (I) exhibits a linear dependence on 1/E. Numerical estimates indicate that the electrons are accelerated to a value of approximately one tenth of the speed of light.

  4. The pygmy dipole strength, the neutron radius of ${}^{208}$Pb and the symmetry energy

    CERN Document Server

    Roca-Maza, X; Centelles, M; Colo', G; Mizuyama, K; Pozzi, G; Viñas, X; Warda, M; 10.1088/1742-6596/342/1/012009

    2012-01-01

    The accurate characterization of the nuclear symmetry energy and its density dependence is one of the outstanding open problems in nuclear physics. A promising nuclear observable in order to constrain the density dependence of the symmetry energy at saturation is the neutron skin thickness of medium and heavy nuclei. Recently, a low-energy peak in the isovector dipole response of neutron-rich nuclei has been discovered that may be correlated with the neutron skin thickness. The existence of this correlation is currently under debate due to our limited experimental knowledge on the microscopic structure of such a peak. We present a detailed analysis of Skyrme Hartree-Fock (HF) plus random phase approximation (RPA) predictions for the dipole response in several neutron-rich nuclei and try to elucidate whether models of common use in nuclear physics confirm or dismiss its possible connection with the neutron skin thickness. Finally, we briefly present theoretical results for parity violating electron scattering ...

  5. On the importance of using exact pairing in the study of pygmy dipole resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Dang, Nguyen Dinh

    2013-01-01

    The strength functions of giant dipole resonance (GDR) in oxygen $^{18 - 24}$O, calcium $^{50 - 60}$Ca, and tin $^{120 - 130}$Sn isotopes are calculated within the phonon damping model under three approximations: without superfluid pairing, including BCS pairing, and exact pairing gaps. The analysis of the numerical results shows that exact pairing decreases the two-neutron separation energy in light nuclei, but increases it in heavy nuclei as compared to that obtained within the BCS theory. In neutron-rich medium and heavy nuclei, exact pairing significantly enhances the strength located at the low-energy tail of the GDR, which is usually associated with the pygmy dipole resonance. The line shape of the GDR changes significantly with increasing the neutron number within an isotopic chain if the model parameter is kept fixed at the value determined for the stable isotope.

  6. Dipole response in neutron-rich nuclei within self-consistent approaches using realistic potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Iudice N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A nucleon-nucleon chiral potential with a corrective density dependent term simulating a three-body force is used in a self-consistent calculation of the dipole strength distribution in neutron-rich nuclei, with special attention to the low-lying spectra associated to the pygmy resonance. A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov basis is generated and adopted in Tamm-Dancoff and random-phase approximations and, then, in an equation of motion approach which includes a basis of two-phonon states. The direct use of the mentioned chiral potential improves the description of both giant and pygmy dipole modes with respect to other realistic interactions. Moreover, the inclusion of the two-phonon states induces a pronounced fragmentation of the giant resonance and enhances the density of the low-lying levels in the pygmy region in agreement with recent experiments.

  7. Interaction of a magnetic dipole with a slowly moving electrically conducting plate

    CERN Document Server

    Votyakov, Evgeny V

    2011-01-01

    We report an analytical investigation of the force and torque acting upon a magnetic dipole placed in the vicinity of a moving electrically conducting nonmagnetic plate. This problem is relevant to contactless electromagnetic flow measurement in metallurgy and extends previous theoretical works (Thess et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2006), 164501; New J. Phys. 9(2007), 299) to the case where the orientation of the magnetic dipole relative to the plate is arbitrary. It is demonstrated that for the case of low magnetic Reynolds number the three-dimensional distributions of the induced electric potential, of the eddy currents and of the induced magnetic field can be rigorously derived. It is also shown that all components of the force and torque can be computed without any further approximation. The results of the present work serve as a benchmark problem that can be used to verify numerical simulations of more complex magnetic field distributions.

  8. Probing the Dynamical Behaviour of Surface Dipoles Through Energy Absorption Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Withington, Stafford

    2012-01-01

    Spatial interferometry, based on the measurement of total absorbed power, can be used to determine the state of coherence of the electromagnetic field to which any energy-absorbing structure is sensitive. The measured coherence tensor can be diagonalized to give the amplitude, phase, polarization patterns, and responsivities of the individual electromagnetic modes through which the structure can absorb energy. Because the electromagnetic modes are intimately related to dynamical modes of the system, information about collective excitations can be found. We present simulations, based on the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA), showing how the dynamical modes of systems of surface dipoles can be recovered. Interactions are taken into consideration, leading to long-range coherent phenomena, which are revealed by the method. The use of DDA enables the interferometric response of a wide variety of objects to be modeled, from patterned photonic films to biological macromolecules.

  9. Theoretical Study the Error Caused by Dipole Hypothesis of Large-loop TEM Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, S.; Xue, G.; Zhou, N.

    2010-12-01

    Transient electromagnetic method (Transient Electromagnetic Field is TEM for short) is an time domain artificial sources of electromagnetic detection method based on the principle of electromagnetic induction. This method has higher sensitivity for the anomalous body of low resistivity , a stimulating can cover the required frequency bands and greatly improve the work efficiency by using a rich spectrum component pulse waveform . Also because send magnetic moment is relatively large, so the loop source system TEM has been very widely used in geological exploration, engineering, geothermal and environmental exploration which belong to medium depth ( less than 2000m) exploration [1], especially the central-loop system TEM has become the preferred method in Coalfield Hydrogeology Exploration and metal ore exploration . In order to obtain greater depth of exploration, the launch frame side of loop system commonly use large-scale form , Now the imported equipments with a large number of applications are large-loop system which shall be accounted for about 80% of the share of middle-depth exploration on the ground , sush as V-5, V8, GDP-32, PROTEM, SIROTEM, PEM, etc. If only one point be observed in the frame center to move the whole system when the side of loop system reach to hundreds of meters, the work efficiency of TEM will be greatly reduced. In order to increase the production efficiency, we will observe the points from center of loop to 0ne third of loop in the actual production, which is to think that the field in this region is approximately homogeneous. So, we can derive large-loop center-model TEM system which is different from the center-loop TEM system in the conventional sense as well as large-loop source TEM system. Fixed loop source TEM sysetm has been built based on the theory of dipole infinitesimal, which can not show more correct character in near-field area, even though this kind of theory has played more important guide in TEM study. There exist

  10. Finite amplitude method applied to giant dipole resonance in heavy rare-earth nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Oishi, Tomohiro; Hinohara, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Background: The quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), within the framework of the nuclear density functional theory (DFT), has been a standard tool to access the collective excitations of the atomic nuclei. Recently, finite amplitude method (FAM) has been developed, in order to perform the QRPA calculations efficiently without any truncation on the two-quasiparticle model space. Purpose: We discuss the nuclear giant dipole resonance (GDR) in heavy rare-earth isotopes, for which the conventional matrix diagonalization of the QRPA is numerically demanding. A role of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule enhancement factor, connected to the isovector effective mass, is also investigated. Methods: The electric dipole photoabsorption cross section was calculated within a parallelized FAM-QRPA scheme. We employed the Skyrme energy density functional self-consistently in the DFT calculation for the ground states and FAM-QRPA calculation for the excitations. Results: The mean GDR frequency and width are mo...

  11. Experimental study on dipole motion of an ion plasma confined in a linear Paul trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K., E-mail: kzito@hiroshima-u.ac.jp; Okano, T.; Moriya, K.; Fukushima, K.; Higaki, H.; Okamoto, H. [Hiroshima University, Graduate School of Advanced Sciences of Matter (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The compact non-neutral plasma trap systems named “S-POD” have been developed at Hiroshima University as an experimental simulator of beam dynamics. S-POD is based either on a linear Paul trap or on a Penning trap and can approximately reproduce the collective motion of a relativistic charged-particle beam observed in the center-of-mass frame. We here employ the Paul trap system to investigate the behavior of an ion plasma near a dipole resonance. A simple method is proposed to calibrate the data of secular frequency measurements by using the dipole instability condition. We also show that the transverse density profile of an ion plasma in the trap can be estimated from the time evolution of ion losses caused by the resonance.

  12. Experimental study on dipole motion of an ion plasma confined in a linear Paul trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, K.; Okano, T.; Moriya, K.; Fukushima, K.; Higaki, H.; Okamoto, H.

    2015-11-01

    The compact non-neutral plasma trap systems named "S-POD" have been developed at Hiroshima University as an experimental simulator of beam dynamics. S-POD is based either on a linear Paul trap or on a Penning trap and can approximately reproduce the collective motion of a relativistic charged-particle beam observed in the center-of-mass frame. We here employ the Paul trap system to investigate the behavior of an ion plasma near a dipole resonance. A simple method is proposed to calibrate the data of secular frequency measurements by using the dipole instability condition. We also show that the transverse density profile of an ion plasma in the trap can be estimated from the time evolution of ion losses caused by the resonance.

  13. LFV and Dipole Moments in Models with A4 Flavour Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Merlo, Luca

    2009-01-01

    It is presented an analysis on lepton flavour violating transitions, leptonic magnetic dipole moments and electric dipole moments in a class of models characterized by the flavour symmetry A4 x Z3 x U(1)_FN, whose choice is motivated by the approximate Tri-Bimaximal mixing observed in neutrino oscillations. A low-energy effective Lagrangian is constructed, where these effects are dominated by dimension six operators, suppressed by the scale M of new physics. All the flavour breaking effects are universally described by the vacuum expectation values of a set of spurions. Two separate cases, a supersymmetric and a general one, are described. An upper limit on the reactor angle of a few percent is concluded.

  14. Dipole-Magnetic Photo-Recombination in Ultracold Hydrogen Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Baltenkov, Arkadiy S.

    2013-01-01

    The cross section of dipole-magnetic photodisintegration of the negative hydrogen ion has been calculated within the framework of an effective-range theory. The dipole-magnetic cross section of photodetachment within the very narrow range of energy near the process threshold dominates over the dipole-electric one. It has been shown that in ultracold hydrogen plasma at temperatures below kT=3.29.10-4 K the dipole-magnetic photo-recombination becomes a main mechanism of electron capture by hydr...

  15. Detecting the dipole moment of a single carbon monoxide molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarz, A., E-mail: aschwarz@physnet.uni-hamburg.de; Köhler, A.; Grenz, J.; Wiesendanger, R. [Physics Department, Institute of Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-07-07

    Using non-contact atomic force microscopy with metallic tips enabled us to detect the electrostatic dipole moment of single carbon monoxide (CO) molecules adsorbed on three very different substrates. The observed distance dependent contrast can be explained by an interplay between the attractive van der Waals interaction and the repulsive electrostatic interaction, respectively, with the latter stemming from antiparallel aligned dipoles in tip and molecule. Our results suggest that metallic as well as CO-functionalized tips are able to probe electrostatic properties of polar molecules and that repulsive dipole-dipole interactions have to be considered when interpreting complex contrast patterns.

  16. Z-SHAPED DIPOLE ANTENNA AND ITS FRACTAL ITERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa H. Abu Nasr

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Z-shaped dipole and fractal Z-shaped dipole antennas made of wires are introduced. Theses antennas exhibit lower resonant frequencies and small space occupations. The performance characteristics of theproposed antennas are examined and compared with successive iterations for the same wire length. The radiation properties are considered including input impedance and VSWR as functions of frequency. Also the comparison between the third iteration of fractal Z-shaped dipole antenna and linear dipole antenna with the same wire length are presented.

  17. Decomposing the electromagnetic response of magnetic dipoles to determine the geometric parameters of a dipole conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Jacques K.; Smith, Richard S.

    2016-03-01

    A novel automatic data interpretation algorithm is presented for modelling airborne electromagnetic (AEM) data acquired over resistive environments, using a single-component (vertical) transmitter, where the position and orientation of a dipole conductor is allowed to vary in three dimensions. The algorithm assumes that the magnetic fields produced from compact vortex currents are expressed as a linear combinations of the fields arising from dipoles in the subsurface oriented parallel to the [1, 0, 0], [0, 1, 0], and [0, 0, 1], unit vectors. In this manner, AEM responses can be represented as 12 terms. The relative size of each term in the decomposition can be used to determine geometrical information about the orientation of the subsurface conductivity structure. The geometrical parameters of the dipole (location, depth, dip, strike) are estimated using a combination of a look-up table and a matrix inverted in a least-squares sense. Tests on 703 synthetic models show that the algorithm is capable of extracting most of the correct geometrical parameters of a dipole conductor when three-component receiver data is included in the interpretation procedure. The algorithm is unstable when the target is perfectly horizontal, as the strike is undefined. Ambiguities may occur in predicting the orientation of the dipole conductor if y-component data is excluded from the analysis. Application of our approach to an anomaly on line 15 of the Reid Mahaffy test site yields geometrical parameters in reasonable agreement with previous authors. However, our algorithm provides additional information on the strike and offset from the traverse line of the conductor. Disparities in the values of predicted dip and depth are within the range of numerical precision. The index of fit was better when strike and offset were included in the interpretation procedure. Tests on the data from line 15701 of the Chibougamau MEGATEM survey shows that the algorithm is applicable to situations where

  18. Pygmy dipole strength in 90Zr

    CERN Document Server

    Schwengner, R; Tsoneva, N; Benouaret, N; Beyer, R; Erhard, M; Grosse, E; Junghans, A R; Klug, J; Kosev, K; Lenske, H; Nair, C; Schilling, K D; Wagner, A

    2008-01-01

    The dipole response of the N=50 nucleus 90Zr was studied in photon-scattering experiments at the electron linear accelerator ELBE with bremsstrahlung produced at kinetic electron energies of 7.9, 9.0, and 13.2 MeV. We identified 189 levels up to an excitation energy of 12.9 MeV. Statistical methods were applied to estimate intensities of inelastic transitions and to correct the intensities of the ground-state transitions for their branching ratios. In this way we derived the photoabsorption cross section up to the neutron-separation energy. This cross section matches well the photoabsorption cross section obtained from (gamma,n) data and thus provides information about the extension of the dipole-strength distribution toward energies below the neutron-separation energy. An enhancement of E1 strength has been found in the range of 6 MeV to 11 MeV. Calculations within the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model ascribe this strength to a vibration of the excessive neutrons against the N = Z neutron-proton c...

  19. Brownian dipole rotator in alternating electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, V. M.; Vovchenko, O. Ye.; Korochkova, T. Ye.

    2008-06-01

    The study addresses the azimuthal jumping motion of an adsorbed polar molecule in a periodic n -well potential under the action of an external alternating electric field. Starting from the perturbation theory of the Pauli equation with respect to the weak field intensity, explicit analytical expressions have been derived for the time dependence of the average dipole moment as well as the frequency dependences of polarizability and the average angular velocity, the three quantities exhibiting conspicuous stochastic resonance. As shown, unidirectional rotation can arise only provided simultaneous modulation of the minima and maxima of the potential by an external alternating field. For a symmetric potential of hindered rotation, the average angular velocity, if calculated by the second-order perturbation theory with respect to the field intensity, has a nonzero value only at n=2 , i.e., when two azimuthal wells specify a selected axis in the system. Particular consideration is given to the effect caused by the asymmetry of the two-well potential on the dielectric loss spectrum and other Brownian motion parameters. When the asymmetric potential in a system of dipole rotators arises from the average local fields induced by an orientational phase transition, the characteristics concerned show certain peculiarities which enable detection of the phase transition and determination of its parameters.

  20. Giant dipole resonance in hot rotating nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, D. R.; Dinh Dang, N.; Datar, V. M.

    2016-05-01

    Over the last several decades, extensive experimental and theoretical work has been done on the giant dipole resonance (GDR) in excited nuclei covering a wide range of temperature ( T), angular momentum ( J) and nuclear mass. A reasonable stability of the GDR centroid energy and an increase of the GDR width with T (in the range ˜ 1 - 3 MeV) and J are the two well-established results. Some experiments have indicated the saturation of the GDR width at high T . The gradual disappearance of the GDR vibration at much higher T has been observed. Experiments on the Jacobi transition and the GDR built on superdeformed shapes at high rotational frequencies have been reported in a few cases. Theoretical calculations on the damping of the collective dipole vibration, characterised by the GDR width, have been carried out within various models such as the thermal shape fluctuation model and the phonon damping model. These models offer different interpretations of the variation of the GDR width with T and J and have met with varying degrees of success in explaining the experimental data. In this review, the present experimental and theoretical status in this field will be discussed along with the future outlook. The interesting phenomenon of the pre-equilibrium GDR excitation in nuclear reactions will be briefly addressed.

  1. Giant dipole resonance in hot rotating nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, D.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India); Dinh Dang, N. [RIKEN, Nishina Centre for Accelerator-based Science, Saitama (Japan); VINATOM, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technique, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Datar, V.M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, INO Cell, Mumbai (India)

    2016-05-15

    Over the last several decades, extensive experimental and theoretical work has been done on the giant dipole resonance (GDR) in excited nuclei covering a wide range of temperature (T), angular momentum (J) and nuclear mass. A reasonable stability of the GDR centroid energy and an increase of the GDR width with T (in the range∝1-3 MeV) and J are the two well-established results. Some experiments have indicated the saturation of the GDR width at high T. The gradual disappearance of the GDR vibration at much higher T has been observed. Experiments on the Jacobi transition and the GDR built on superdeformed shapes at high rotational frequencies have been reported in a few cases. Theoretical calculations on the damping of the collective dipole vibration, characterised by the GDR width, have been carried out within various models such as the thermal shape fluctuation model and the phonon damping model. These models offer different interpretations of the variation of the GDR width with T and J and have met with varying degrees of success in explaining the experimental data. In this review, the present experimental and theoretical status in this field is discussed along with the future outlook. The interesting phenomenon of the pre-equilibrium GDR excitation in nuclear reactions is briefly addressed. (orig.)

  2. Dipole Alignment in Rotating MHD Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebalin, John V.; Fu, Terry; Morin, Lee

    2012-01-01

    We present numerical results from long-term CPU and GPU simulations of rotating, homogeneous, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence, and discuss their connection to the spherically bounded case. We compare our numerical results with a statistical theory of geodynamo action that has evolved from the absolute equilibrium ensemble theory of ideal MHD turbulence, which is based on the ideal MHD invariants are energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity. However, for rotating MHD turbulence, the cross helicity is no longer an exact invariant, although rms cross helicity becomes quasistationary during an ideal MHD simulation. This and the anisotropy imposed by rotation suggests an ansatz in which an effective, nonzero value of cross helicity is assigned to axisymmetric modes and zero cross helicity to non-axisymmetric modes. This hybrid statistics predicts a large-scale quasistationary magnetic field due to broken ergodicity , as well as dipole vector alignment with the rotation axis, both of which are observed numerically. We find that only a relatively small value of effective cross helicity leads to the prediction of a dipole moment vector that is closely aligned (less than 10 degrees) with the rotation axis. We also discuss the effect of initial conditions, dissipation and grid size on the numerical simulations and statistical theory.

  3. Brownian dipole rotator in alternating electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozenbaum, V M; Vovchenko, O Ye; Korochkova, T Ye

    2008-06-01

    The study addresses the azimuthal jumping motion of an adsorbed polar molecule in a periodic n -well potential under the action of an external alternating electric field. Starting from the perturbation theory of the Pauli equation with respect to the weak field intensity, explicit analytical expressions have been derived for the time dependence of the average dipole moment as well as the frequency dependences of polarizability and the average angular velocity, the three quantities exhibiting conspicuous stochastic resonance. As shown, unidirectional rotation can arise only provided simultaneous modulation of the minima and maxima of the potential by an external alternating field. For a symmetric potential of hindered rotation, the average angular velocity, if calculated by the second-order perturbation theory with respect to the field intensity, has a nonzero value only at n=2 , i.e., when two azimuthal wells specify a selected axis in the system. Particular consideration is given to the effect caused by the asymmetry of the two-well potential on the dielectric loss spectrum and other Brownian motion parameters. When the asymmetric potential in a system of dipole rotators arises from the average local fields induced by an orientational phase transition, the characteristics concerned show certain peculiarities which enable detection of the phase transition and determination of its parameters. PMID:18643221

  4. Ultrafast fluorescent decay induced by metal-mediated dipole-dipole interaction in two-dimensional molecular aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Qing; Nam, Sang Hoon; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Xiang; Fang, Nicholas X

    2016-01-01

    Two-dimensional molecular aggregate (2DMA), a thin sheet of strongly interacting dipole molecules self-assembled at close distance on an ordered lattice, is a fascinating fluorescent material. It is distinctively different from the single or colloidal dye molecules or quantum dots in most previous research. In this paper, we verify for the first time that when a 2DMA is placed at a nanometric distance from a metallic substrate, the strong and coherent interaction between the dipoles inside the 2DMA dominates its fluorescent decay at picosecond timescale. Our streak-camera lifetime measurement and interacting lattice-dipole calculation reveal that the metal-mediated dipole-dipole interaction shortens the fluorescent lifetime to about one half and increases the energy dissipation rate by ten times than expected from the noninteracting single-dipole picture. Our finding can enrich our understanding of nanoscale energy transfer in molecular excitonic systems and may designate a new direction for developing fast a...

  5. Exact constants in approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Korneichuk, N

    1991-01-01

    This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base

  6. Compendium of the ULF/ELF electromagnetic fields generated above a sea of finite depth by submerged harmonic dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Smith, A. C.; Bubenik, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    This report extends earlier computations of the amplitudes of the quasi-static electromagnetic fields produced on and above the surface of a sea of finite depth by a submerged vertically directed harmonic magnetic dipole (VMD) to other dipoles. Specifically, it now presents data for the fields produced by a submerged vertically directed harmonic electric dipole (VED) and by submerged horizontally directed magnetic and electric dipoles (HMD and HED, respectively). The primary purpose of these computations is to determine the conditions under which an electrically conducting sea floor can produce significant changes in the fields, as compared with the fields produced on and above an infinitely deep sea, for frequencies in the ULF/ELF bands (frequencies less than 3 kHz). As in the earlier work, this report finds that even a comparatively highly conducting sea floor (conductivity of approximately 0.4S/m) can produce substantial changes in the field amplitudes for some source-receiver configurations, and, in the case of the horizontal dipoles (as previously found for the VMD), alterations of two orders of magnitude or more can occur in the amplitudes on the sea surface for smaller values of sigma.

  7. The entanglement of two dipole-dipole coupled atoms interacting with a thermal field via a two-photon process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Xiang-Ping; Fang Mao-Fa; Cai Jian-Wu; Zheng Xiao-Juan

    2008-01-01

    This paper studies entanglement between two dipole-dipole coupled atoms interacting with a thermal field via a two-photon process. It shows that the entanglement is dependent on the mean photon number of the thermal field and the dipole-dipole interaction. The results also show that the atom-atom entanglement through the two-photon process is larger than that through the one-photon process and a remarkable amount of entanglement between the atoms still remains at certain times even for a very highly noisy thermal field.

  8. Computing the Exponential of Large Block-Triangular Block-Toeplitz Matrices Encountered in Fluid Queues

    OpenAIRE

    Bini, D. A.; Dendievel, S.; Latouche, G.; Meini, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Erlangian approximation of Markovian fluid queues leads to the problem of computing the matrix exponential of a subgenerator having a block-triangular, block-Toeplitz structure. To this end, we propose some algorithms which exploit the Toeplitz structure and the properties of generators. Such algorithms allow to compute the exponential of very large matrices, which would otherwise be untreatable with standard methods. We also prove interesting decay properties of the exponential of a gene...

  9. Block Scheduling Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, J. Allen

    2000-01-01

    Successful block scheduling depends on provision of initial and ongoing instructional training. Teaching strategies should vary and include cooperative learning, the case method, the socratic seminar, synectics, concept attainment, the inquiry method, and simulations. Recommendations for maximizing block scheduling are outlined. (Contains 52…

  10. Surviving Block Scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Marjorie

    A discussion of block scheduling for second language instruction looks at the advantages and disadvantages and offers some suggestions for classroom management and course organization. It is argued that block scheduling may offer a potential solution to large classes, insufficient time for labs, too little individualized instruction; few…

  11. Approximate solutions for the skyrmion

    CERN Document Server

    Ponciano, J A; Fanchiotti, H; Canal-Garcia, C A

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the Euler-Lagrange equation for the Skyrme model in the hedgehog ansatz and study the analytical properties of the solitonic solution. In view of the lack of a closed form solution to the problem, we work on approximate analytical solutions. We show that Pade approximants are well suited to continue analytically the asymptotic representation obtained in terms of a power series expansion near the origin, obtaining explicit approximate solutions for the Skyrme equations. We improve the approximations by applying the 2-point Pade approximant procedure whereby the exact behaviour at spatial infinity is incorporated. An even better convergence to the exact solution is obtained by introducing a modified form for the approximants. The new representations share the same analytical properties with the exact solution at both small and large values of the radial variable r.

  12. Toroidal, compression, and vortical dipole strengths in 124Sn

    CERN Document Server

    Kvasil, J; Repko, A; Kleinig, W; Reinhard, P -G; Iudice, N Lo

    2012-01-01

    The toroidal, compression and vortical dipole strength functions in semi-magic $^{124}$Sn (and partly in doubly-magic $^{100,132}$Sn) are analyzed within the random-phase-approximation method with the SkT6, SkI3, SLy6, SV-bas, and SkM* Skyrme forces. The isoscalar (T=0), isovector (T=1), and electromagnetic ('elm') channels are considered. Both convection $j_c$ and magnetization $j_m$ nuclear currents are taken into account. The calculations basically confirm the previous results obtained for $^{208}$Pb with the force SLy6. In particular, it is shown that the vortical and toroidal strengths are dominated by $j_c$ in T=0 channel and by $j_m$ in T=1 and 'elm' channels. The compression strength is always determined by $j_c$. It is also shown that the 'elm' strength (relevant for (e,e') reaction) is very similar to T=1 one. The toroidal mode resides in the region of the pygmy resonance. So, perhaps, this region embraces both irrotational (pygmy) and vortical (toroidal) flows.

  13. BDD Minimization for Approximate Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Soeken, Mathias; Grosse, Daniel; Chandrasekharan, Arun; Drechsler, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    We present Approximate BDD Minimization (ABM) as a problem that has application in approximate computing. Given a BDD representation of a multi-output Boolean function, ABM asks whether there exists another function that has a smaller BDD representation but meets a threshold w.r.t. an error metric. We present operators to derive approximated functions and present algorithms to exactly compute the error metrics directly on the BDD representation. An experimental evaluation demonstrates the app...

  14. Neutrino structure functions in the QCD dipole picture

    CERN Document Server

    Ducati, M B G; Machado, M V T

    2007-01-01

    In this contribution we present an exploratory QCD analysis of the neutrino structure functions in charged current DIS using the color dipole formalism. The corresponding dipole cross sections are taken from recent phenomenological and theoretical studies in deep inelastic inclusive production, including nuclear shadowing corrections. The theoretical predictions are compared to the available experimental results in the small-x region.

  15. Neutrino structure functions in the QCD dipole picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay Ducati, M.B.; Machado, M.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. High Energy Physics Phenomenology Group - GFPAE; Machado, M.V.T. [Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bage, RS (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    In this contribution we present an exploratory QCD analysis of the neutrino structure functions in charged current DIS using the color dipole formalism. The corresponding dipole cross sections are taken from recent phenomenological and theoretical studies in deep inelastic inclusive production, including nuclear shadowing corrections. The theoretical predictions are compared to the available experimental results in the small-x region. (author)

  16. Electric dipole moment of the electron and of the neutron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, S. M.; Zee, A.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that if Higgs-boson exchange mediates CP violation a significant electric dipole moment for the electron can result. Analogous effects can contribute to the neutron's electric dipole moment at a level competitive with Weinberg's three-gluon operator.

  17. Considerations for an Ac Dipole for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, M; Fischer, W; Oddo, P; Schmickler, Hermann; Serrano, J; Jansson, A; Syphers, M; Kopp, S; Miyamoto, R

    2007-01-01

    Following successful experience at the BNL AGS, FNAL Tevatron, and CERN SPS, an AC Dipole will be adopted at the LHC for rapid measurements of ring optics. This paper describes some of the parameters of the AC dipole for the LHC, scaling from performance of the FNAL and BNL devices.

  18. Structure of the pygmy dipole resonance in Sn-124

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endres, J.; Savran, D.; Butler, P. A.; Harakeh, M. N.; Harissopulos, S.; Herzberg, R. -D.; Kruecken, R.; Lagoyannis, A.; Litvinova, E.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Popescu, L.; Ring, P.; Scheck, M.; Schlueter, F.; Sonnabend, K.; Stoica, V. I.; Zilges, A.; Wortche, Heinrich

    2012-01-01

    Background: In atomic nuclei, a concentration of electric dipole strength around the particle threshold, commonly denoted as pygmy dipole resonance, may have a significant impact on nuclear structure properties and astrophysical scenarios. A clear identification of these states and the structure of

  19. Time Domain Analysis of Transmit/Receive Dipole Pair Array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li-zhi; Xiao Bo-xur; Zhu Guo-qiang; Yang Zi-jie

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a new transmit/receive dipole pair array to obtain a compact quasi-monostatic antenna structure for ground penetrating radar systems. And we analyze this transmit/receive dipole pair array in time domain. The numerical results show that if the distance between the transmit antenna and receive antenna is appropriate the array configuration is adoptable.

  20. Positivity and unitarity constraints on dipole gluon distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, Robi

    2016-01-01

    In the high-energy domain, gluon transverse-momentum dependent distributions in nuclei obey constraints coming from positivity and unitarity of the colorless QCD dipole distributions through Fourier-Bessel transformations. Using mathematical properties of Fourier-positive functions, we investigate the nature of these constraints which apply to dipole model building and formulation

  1. The neutron electric dipole moment and the Weinberg mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, D. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We gave an overview of various mechanism for CP violation paying special attention to their prediction of the neutron electric dipole moment. The implication of the recent developments associated with the color electric dipole moment of gluon in various models of CP-violation are then critically assessed. 25 refs.

  2. ‘The crab’ transporting LHC dipole cold mass

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    For the careful transport of the LHC dipole magnets a robot, called ‘the crab’ has been specially built. It transports the cold masses between the storage area and assembly hall. These cold masses contain the cooling system and container for the dipole magnet.

  3. Dipole collapse and reversal precursors in a numerical dynamo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Peter; Driscoll, Peter; Amit, Hagay

    2009-03-01

    Precursors to extreme geomagnetic field changes are examined in a numerical dynamo with a reversing dipolar magnetic field. A dynamo model with compositional convection in a rotating spherical shell produces a strongly dipolar external magnetic field over 6 Myr of simulated paleomagnetic time, with stable polarity epochs and occasional dipole collapses, some of which result in polarity reversals or dipole axis excursions. We analyze the model behavior during two dipole collapses, one that leads to a polarity reversal and one that does not, focusing on observable precursors. Reversed magnetic field induced in the dynamo interior by intermittent convective variability is the primary cause of dipole collapse. Spots of reversed magnetic flux emerge on the outer boundary at an early stage, then re-emerge with greater intensity at the height of the collapse. The energy in the external field cascades to higher harmonics as these reversed patches appear. Butterfly diagrams showing the reversed and normal flux contributions to the axial dipole reveal poleward migration of the patches during dipole collapse. Axial dipole reduction by precursory reversed flux is several times larger in the reversing case, compared to the non-reversing case. A butterfly diagram of the geomagnetic field since 1840 shows high latitude reversed flux emerging on the core-mantle boundary. Although the reversed geomagnetic flux is presently too weak to be labeled a reversal precursor, it is consistent with early stage dipole collapse in the dynamo model.

  4. Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f ~ 20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.

  5. Magnetic Dipoles and Quantum Coherence in Muscle Contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Hatori, K; Matsuno, K; Hatori, Kuniyuki; Honda, Hajime; Matsuno, Koichiro

    2001-01-01

    An actin filament contacting myosin molecules as a functional unit of muscle contraction induces magnetic dipoles along the filament when ATP molecules to be hydrolyzed are available there. The induced magnetic dipoles are coherent over the entire filament, though they are fluctuating altogether as constantly being subject to the ambient thermal agitations.

  6. Novel Electrically Small Spherical Electric Dipole Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel electrically small spherical meander antenna. Horizontal sections of the meander are composed of wire loops, radii of which are chosen so that the whole structure is conformal to a sphere of radius a. To form the meander the loops are connected by wires at a meridian...... plane. The antenna operates as an electric dipole, i.e. it radiates the TM10 spherical mode. The antenna is self-resonant and can be matched to a wide range of input feed lines without an external matching network. In this paper, a spherical meander antenna of the size ka = 0.27 and the input impedance...... of 72 ohms is numerically investigated and its performance is compared to that of the multiarm spherical helix antenna of the same size. Both antennas yield equal quality factors, which are about 1.5 times the Chu lower bound, but quite different cross-polarization characteristics....

  7. Electric dipole polarizability and the neutron skin

    CERN Document Server

    Piekarewicz, J; Colo, G; Nazarewicz, W; Paar, N; Reinhard, P -G; Roca-Maza, X; Vretenar, D

    2012-01-01

    The recent high-resolution measurement of the electric dipole (E1) polarizability (alphad) in 208Pb [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 062502 (2011)] provides a unique constraint on the neutron-skin thickness of this nucleus. The neutron-skin thickness (rskin) of 208Pb is a quantity of critical importance for our understanding of a variety of nuclear and astrophysical phenomena. To assess the model dependence of the correlation between alphad and rskin, we carry out systematic calculations for 208Pb, 132Sn, and 48Ca based on the nuclear density functional theory (DFT) using both non-relativistic and relativistic energy density functionals (EDFs). Our analysis indicates that whereas individual models exhibit a linear dependence between alphad and rskin, this correlation is not universal when one combines predictions from a host of different models. By averaging over these model predictions, we provide estimates with associated systematic errors for rskin and alphad for the nuclei under consideration. We conclude that prec...

  8. BEAM MANIPULATION WITH AN RF DIPOLE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAI,M.

    1999-03-29

    Coherent betatron motion adiabatically excited by an RF dipole has been successfully employed to overcome strong intrinsic spin depolarization resonances in the AGS, while a solenoid partial snake has been used to correct imperfection spin resonances. The experimental results showed that a full spin flip was obtained in passing through an intrinsic spin resonance when all the beam particles were forced to oscillate coherently at a large amplitude without diluting the beam emittance. With this method, we have successfully accelerated polarized beam up to 23.5 GeV/c. A new type of second order spin resonances was also discovered. As a non-destructive manipulation, this method can also be used for nonlinear beam dynamics studies and beam diagnosis such as measuring phase advance and betatron amplitude function.

  9. Novel Design of Superconducting Helical Dipole Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, R.; Senti, M.; Stelzer, G.

    1997-05-01

    Superconducting helical dipole magnets with a nominal field of 4 Tesla are needed for the spin physics program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The magnets are required to operate at a relatively low current of 400 A since many of these magnets have to be independently controlled. The Advanced Magnet Lab, Inc., in Palm Bay, FL has designed and built two prototype magnets using advanced computer controlled coil winding technology. The AML design is extremely cost effective since it avoids magnet specific tooling despite the required complex coil pattern and any precision machined inserts or spacers. It is the first time an accelerator magnet of this technology has reached a field above 4 Tesla. Results from the prototype testing at BNL are presented.

  10. Near-Field Magnetic Dipole Moment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Patrick K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the data analysis technique used for magnetic testing at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Excellent results have been obtained using this technique to convert a spacecraft s measured magnetic field data into its respective magnetic dipole moment model. The model is most accurate with the earth s geomagnetic field cancelled in a spherical region bounded by the measurement magnetometers with a minimum radius large enough to enclose the magnetic source. Considerably enhanced spacecraft magnetic testing is offered by using this technique in conjunction with a computer-controlled magnetic field measurement system. Such a system, with real-time magnetic field display capabilities, has been incorporated into other existing magnetic measurement facilities and is also used at remote locations where transport to a magnetics test facility is impractical.

  11. Electric dipole moments of superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Radžiūtė, Laima; Jönsson, Per; Bieroń, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock (MCDHF) method was employed to calculate atomic electric dipole moments (EDM) of the superheavy element copernicium (Cn, $Z=112$). The EDM enhancement factors of Cn, here calculated for the first time, are about one order of magnitude larger than those of Hg. The exponential dependence of enhancement factors on atomic number $Z$ along group 12 of the periodic table was derived from the EDMs of the entire homolog series, $^{69}_{30}$Zn, $^{111}_{\\phantom{1}48}$Cd, $^{199}_{\\phantom{1}80}$Hg, $^{285}_{112}$Cn, and $^{482}_{162}$Uhb. These results show that superheavy elements with sufficiently large half-lives are good candidates for EDM searches.

  12. Selective Absorption Mechanism for the Maintenance of Blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Akira; Itoh, Hisanori

    2010-05-01

    Atmospheric blocking is one of the most influential phenomena in global atmospheric environments. The understanding of its dynamical processes is important to clarify weather extremes and the stratosphere-troposphere coupling and to extend forecast periods. In the dynamics of blocking, especially, its maintenance mechanism has been a stimulating topic for many meteorologists. About the maintenance mechanism of blocking, Shutts (1983) evaluated the effect of synoptic eddies in his numerical model and proposed the Eddy Straining Mechanism (hereafter, referred to as ESM). Using simple numerical models, he demonstrated that synoptic eddies strained in the north-south direction by blocking provide negative/positive vorticity to a blocking high/low and this vorticity forcing, i.e., the second-order flow maintains the blocking dipole structure against dissipation. Some pieces of evidence, however have shown that the ESM does not work well in several real cases of the block maintenance. For example, Arai and Mukougawa (2002) performed a similar experiment to Shutts (1983) and indicated the strong sensitivity of the ESM against a small meridional shift of the stormtrack (strictly speaking, wavemaker), or a small change of the size of high-frequency eddies. This is a very adverse constraint in the real atmosphere because the relative positions of blocking to the stormtrack tend to fluctuate from case to case so that they do not necessarily exist in the same latitude band. Thus, we propose a more realistic mechanism of the block maintenance named as the Selective Absorption Mechanism (hereafter referred to as SAM), in which a blocking anticyclone selectively and exclusively absorbs synoptic anticyclones. This mechanism is essentially the same mechanism as the Fujiwhara effect, which qualitatively explains that binary eddies with the same polarity merge and eddies with the opposite polarity separate. In this study, we verify the effectiveness of the SAM by observational

  13. Controlling the dipole-dipole interaction using NMR composite rf pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudin, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.baudin@lpa.ens.fr [Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Ecole Normale Supérieure, CNRS, UPMC, 24 rue Lhomond, F75005 Paris (France)

    2014-08-07

    New composite rf pulses are proposed during which the average dipole-dipole interactions within a spin ensemble are controlled, while a global rotation is achieved. The method used to tailor the pulses is based on the average Hamiltonian theory and relies on the geometrical properties of the spin-spin dipolar interaction. I describe several such composite pulses and analyze quantitatively the improvement brought on the control of the NMR dynamics. Numerical simulations show that the magic sandwich pulse sequence, during which the average dipolar field is effectively reversed, is plagued by defects originating from the finite initial and final π/2 rf pulses. A numerical test based on a classical description of nuclear magnetic resonance is used to check that, when these pulses are replaced by magic composite pulses, the efficiency of the magic sandwich is improved.

  14. Effect of resonance dipole-dipole interaction on spectra of adsorbed SF6 molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrotvorskaia, Anna N; Kolomiitsova, Tatiana D; Petrov, Sergey N; Shchepkin, Dmitriy N; Smirnov, Konstantin S; Tsyganenko, Alexey A

    2015-09-01

    Adsorption of SF6 on zinc oxide and on silicalite-1 was investigated by a combination of IR spectroscopy with the calculations of spectra by means of a modernized model, developed previously for liquids. Comparison of the experimental spectra and the results of modeling shows that the complex band shapes in spectra of adsorbed molecules with extremely high absorbance are due to the strong resonance dipole-dipole interaction (RDDI) rather that the surface heterogeneity or the presence of specific surface sites. Perfect agreement between calculated and observed spectra was found for ZnO, while some dissimilarity in band intensities for silicalite-1 was attributed to complicated geometry of molecular arrangement in the channels. PMID:25897721

  15. Inclusion of magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions in implant-assisted magnetic drug targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathematical modelling of the implant-assisted magnetic drug targeting system of Aviles, Ebner and Ritter is performed. In order to model the agglomeration of particles known to occur in this system, the magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions are included. Such interactions were calculated previously by Mikkelsen et al. under low magnetic fields (∼0.05 T) in microfluidic systems. Here, a higher magnetic field (0.7 T) is considered and the effect of interactions on two nanoparticles with a seed implant is calculated. The calculations were performed with the open-source software OpenFOAM. Different initial positions are considered and the system performance is assessed in terms of capture cross section. Inclusion of both interactions was seen to alter the capture cross section of the system by up to 7% in absolute terms.

  16. Quantum defect theory for the van der Waals plus dipole-dipole interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Gao-Ren; Xie, Ting; Huang, Yin; Zhang, Wei; Cong, Shu-Lin

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the scattering dynamics governed by the long-range van der Waals plus dipole-dipole interaction potential, -C6/R6-C3/R3, which describes the long-range interaction between two polar molecules in an electric field. In the spirit of quantum defect theory, a set of parameters which are nearly constants in the threshold regime is defined to characterize the scattering process. Using appropriate boundary conditions for the scattering wave functions and relevant parameters, we explore the quantum reflection by and quantum tunneling through the long-range potential. As a sample application, the reactive collision rates of 40K87Rb + 40K87Rb are calculated.

  17. Applicability of the dipole-dipole method for structural studies: examples from the Northern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alfano

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We present some results of a geoelectrical investigation program conducted in the Northern Apennines, namely in the Val d'Aveto and Bobbio window and surrounding areas. Field activity included the execution of more than 50 vertical electrical soundings with continuous polar dipole-dipole spread. We image the geometries of some deep geological structures; in particular we found a resistive background, whose resistivity is different along the geoelectrical profiles. In our interpretation the resistive background consists of subligurid and tuscan units underlying the alloctone Ligurid units in the area surrounding the Val d'Aveto and Bobbio window. The resistive background was not found, at least at the same depths, toward north-east. Therefore, the geoelectrical survey revealed the position of the front of the subligurid and Tuscan nappes toward the plain for a depth of about one kilometer.

  18. Pygmy dipole resonance: collective features and symmetry energy effects

    CERN Document Server

    Baran, V; Colonna, M; Di Toro, M

    2011-01-01

    Some of the very actual questions regarding the pygmy dipole resonance are concerned with the collective nature, quite elusive, of this mode. In this paper, within a harmonic oscillator shell model, we generalize an approach first introduced by Brink and identify the dipole normal modes in neutron rich nuclei. This allows one to obtain an upper limit for the energy weighted sum rule exhausted by the pygmy dipole resonance. By solving numerically the self-consistent Landau-Vlasov kinetic equations for neutrons and protons with specific initial conditions, we explore the structure of the different dipole vibrations in the neutron rich nucleus $^{132}Sn$ and investigate their dependence on the symmetry energy. Our calculations point out the existence of a distinctive collective mode with an energy well below the giant dipole resonance, very weak dependent on the isovector part of the nuclear effective interaction.

  19. Acceleration of magnetic dipoles by the sequence of current turns

    CERN Document Server

    Dolya, S N

    2014-01-01

    Acceleration of magnetic dipoles is carried out by the running gradient of the magnetic field formed while sequent switching on the current turns. Magnetic dipoles, with a diameter of sixty millimeters and full length one meter, are pre-accelerated by using the gas-dynamic method to speed one kilometer per second, corresponding to the injection rate into the main accelerator. To prevent the turning of the dipoles by one hundred eighty degrees in the field of the accelerating pulse and focus them, the magnetic dipoles are accelerated inside the titanium tube. The magnetic dipoles have mass two kilograms and acquire the finite speed five kilometers per second on the acceleration length three hundreds meters.

  20. Formation and temporal evolution of the Lamb-dipole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The formation and dynamics of dipolar vortex structures in two-dimensional flows are studied. Localized initial structures possessing a finite linear momentum are found to develop into dipoles by direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The detailed structure...... of the evolving dipoles depend on the initial condition. However, the gross properties of their evolution are only weakly dependent on the detailed structure and can be well-described by the so-called Lamb-dipole solution. The viscous decay of the Lamb-dipole, leading to an expansion and a decreasing velocity......, is well described by an adiabatic theory. During the expansion the dipole is found to trap fluid as it evolves. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....

  1. Dipole blockade in a cold Rydberg atomic sample

    CERN Document Server

    Comparat, Daniel; 10.1364/JOSAB.27.00A208

    2010-01-01

    We review here the studies performed about interactions in an assembly of cold Rydberg atoms. We focus more specially the review on the dipole-dipole interactions and on the effect of the dipole blockade in the laser Rydberg excitation, which offers attractive possibilities for quantum engineering. We present first the various interactions between Rydberg atoms. The laser Rydberg excitation of such an assembly is then described with the introduction of the dipole blockade phenomenon. We report recent experiments performed in this subject by starting with the case of a pair of atoms allowing the entanglement of the wave-functions of the atoms and opening a fascinating way for the realization of quantum bits and quantum gates. We consider then several works on the blockade effect in a large assembly of atoms for three different configurations: blockade through electric-field induced dipole, through F\\"orster resonance and in van der Waals interaction. The properties of coherence and cooperativity are analyzed. ...

  2. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  3. Dimensioning of multiservice links taking account of soft blocking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Villy Bæk; Stepanov, S.N.; Kostrov, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    of a multiservice link taking into account the possibility of soft blocking. An approximate algorithm for estimation of main performance measures is constructed. The error of estimation is numerically studied for different types of soft blocking. The optimal procedure of dimensioning is suggested....

  4. Universal Behavior of Dielectric Responses of Glass Formers: Role of Dipole-Dipole Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, M.; Knapik, J.; Wojnarowska, Z.; Grzybowski, A.; Ngai, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    From an exhaustive examination of the molecular dynamics in practically all van der Waals molecular glass formers ever probed by dielectric spectroscopy, we found that the width of the α -loss peak at or near the glass transition temperature Tg is strongly anticorrelated with the polarity of the molecule. The larger the dielectric relaxation strength Δ ɛ (Tg) of the system, the narrower is the α -loss peak. This remarkable property is explained by the contribution from the dipole-dipole interaction potential Vd d(r )=-D r-6 to the attractive part of the intermolecular potential, making the resultant potential more harmonic, and the effect increases rapidly with the dipole moment μ and Δ ɛ (Tg) in view of the relation, D ∝(μ4/k Tg)∝k Tg[Δɛ (Tg)] 2 . Since the novel correlation discovered encompasses practically all van der Waals molecular glass formers studied by dielectric spectroscopy, it impacts the large dielectric research community as well as those engaged in solving the glass transition problem.

  5. The solution of a wedge disclination dipole interacting with an annular inclusion and the force acting on the disclination dipole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Song Hao-Peng; Fang Qi-Hong; Liu You-Wen

    2008-01-01

    The interaction between a wedge disclination dipole and an elastic annular inclusion is investigated. Utilizing the Muskhelishvili complex variable method, the explicit series form solutions of the complex potentials in the matrix and the inclusion region are derived. The image force acting on the disclination dipole centre is also calculated. The influence of the location of the disclination dipole and the thickness of the annular inclusion as well as the elastic dissimilarity of materials upon the equilibrium position of the disclination dipole is discussed in detail. The results show that a stable equilibrium point of the disclination dipole near the inclusion is found for certain combinations of material constant.Moreover, the force on the disclination dipole is strongly affected by the position of the disclination dipole and the thickness of annular inclusion. The repulsion force increases (or the attraction force reduces) with the increase of the thickness of the annular inclusion. An appropriate critical value of the thickness of the annular inclusion may be found to change the direction of the force on the disclination dipole. The present solutions include previous results as special cases.

  6. Nonlinear approximation with redundant dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Lasse; Nielsen, M.; Gribonval, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study nonlinear approximation and data representation with redundant function dictionaries. In particular, approximation with redundant wavelet bi-frame systems is studied in detail. Several results for orthonormal wavelets are generalized to the redundant case. In general...

  7. Approximate Inference in Probabilistic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole

    2004-01-01

    We present a framework for approximate inference in probabilistic data models which is based on free energies. The free energy is constructed from two approximating distributions which encode different aspects of the intractable model. Consistency between distributions is required on a chosen set...

  8. The Logic of Approximate Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Väänänen, Jouko

    2014-01-01

    We extend the treatment of functional dependence, the basic concept of dependence logic, to include the possibility of dependence with a limited number of exceptions. We call this approximate dependence. The main result of the paper is a Completeness Theorem for approximate dependence atoms. We point out some problematic features of this which suggests that we should consider multi-teams, not just teams.

  9. Beyond the random phase approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Thomas; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2013-01-01

    We assess the performance of a recently proposed renormalized adiabatic local density approximation (rALDA) for ab initio calculations of electronic correlation energies in solids and molecules. The method is an extension of the random phase approximation (RPA) derived from time-dependent density...

  10. Dipole polarizabilities of the transition and post-transition metallic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Yashpal

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the role of the electron correlation effects in the calculations of the electric dipole polarizabilities (\\alpha) of elements belonging to three different groups of periodic table. To understand the propagation of the electron correlation effects at different levels of approximations, we employ the relativistic many-body methods developed, based on the first principles, at mean-field Dirac-Fock (DF), third order many-body perturbation theory (MBPT(3)), random-phase approximation (RPA) and the singly and doubly approximated coupled-cluster methods at the linearized (LCCSD) and non-linearized (CCSD) levels. We observe variance in the trends of the contributions from the correlation effects in a particular group of elements through a employed many-body method; however they resemble similar tendency among the isoelectronic systems. Our CCSD results are within sub-one percent agreement with the experimental values which are further ameliorated by including the contributions from the important triple...

  11. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-12-22

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  12. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  13. N-variable rational approximants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Desirable properties'' of a two-variable generalization of Pade approximants are laid down. The ''Chisholm approximants'' are defined and are shown to obey nearly all of these properties; the alternative ways of completing a unique definition are discussed, and the ''prong structure'' of the defining equations is elucidated. Several generalizations and variants of Chisholm approximants are described: N-variable diagonal, 2-variable simple off-diagonal, N-variable simple and general off-diagonal, and rotationally covariant 2-variable approximants. All of the 2-variable approximants are capable of representing singularities of functions of two variables, and of analytically continuing beyond the polycylinder of convergence of the double series. 8 figures

  14. Diffusion-mediated dephasing in the dipole field around a single spherical magnetic object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschle, Lukas R; Kurz, Felix T; Kampf, Thomas; Triphan, Simon M F; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Ziener, Christian Herbert

    2015-11-01

    In this work, the time evolution of the free induction decay caused by the local dipole field of a spherical magnetic perturber is analyzed. The complicated treatment of the diffusion process is replaced by the strong-collision-approximation that allows a determination of the free induction decay in dependence of the underlying microscopic tissue parameters such as diffusion coefficient, sphere radius and susceptibility difference. The interplay between susceptibility- and diffusion-mediated effects yields several dephasing regimes of which, so far, only the classical regimes of motional narrowing and static dephasing for dominant and negligible diffusion, respectively, were extensively examined. Due to the asymmetric form of the dipole field for spherical objects, the free induction decay exhibits a complex component in contradiction to the cylindrical case, where the symmetric local dipole field only causes a purely real induction decay. Knowledge of the shape of the corresponding frequency distribution is necessary for the evaluation of more sophisticated pulse sequences and a detailed understanding of the off-resonance distribution allows improved quantification of transverse relaxation.

  15. Precise dipole moment of methanol by microwave Stark spectroscopy III: Parent 12CH316OH species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Indra; Sastry, K. V. L. N.

    2015-06-01

    In this work, precise Stark effect measurements have been carried out on several transitions in the first four torsional states of methanol. The Stark shifted transition frequencies for a wide range of steady electric field have been measured with an accuracy of approximately ±10 kHz. Detailed analysis of the data allowed for the determination of the dipole moment components in the first four torsional states of the ground vibrational state. The extrapolated zero field frequencies of the transitions studied have been determined and found to be in perfect agreement with known values. For the torsional ground state the values of μa = 0.8961(2) and μb = 1.4201(9) have been obtained, whereas for the first excited torsional state the corresponding values obtained are 0.9035(1) and 1.4317(5) (These values are in Debye, denoted by D). These values confirm the fact that the dipole moment values increase at a considerable rate as one move toward higher torsional states as seen in previous studies. To our knowledge, this is the first time the most accurate and elaborate dipole moment values of methanol are being reported.

  16. Dipole-forbidden atomic transitions induced by superintense x-ray laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Aleksander Skjerlie; Førre, Morten

    2016-06-01

    A hydrogen atom, initially prepared in the 2 s and/or 2 p (m =±1 ) states, is assumed irradiated by 0.8 keV (1.5 nm) photons in pulses of 1 -250 fs duration and intensities in the range 1020 to 1023W /cm2 . Solving the corresponding time-dependent Schrödinger equation from first principles, we show that the ionization and excitation dynamics of the laser-atom system is strongly influenced by interactions beyond the electric dipole approximation. A beyond-dipole two-photon Raman-like transition between the 2 s and 2 p (m =±1 ) states is found to completely dominate the underlying laser-matter interaction. It turns out that the large difference in the ionization rates of the 2 s and 2 p (m =±1 ) states is important in this context, effectively leading to a symmetry breaking in the corresponding (beyond-dipole) bound-bound dynamics with the result that a net population transfer between the states occurs throughout the laser-matter interaction period. Varying the x-ray exposure time as well as the laser intensity, we probe the phenomenon as the bound wave packet oscillates between having 2 s and 2 p (m =±1 ) character, eventually giving rise to a Rabi-like oscillation pattern in the populations.

  17. Electric transition dipole moment in pre-Born-Oppenheimer molecular structure theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmen, Benjamin; Mátyus, Edit; Reiher, Markus

    2014-10-21

    This paper presents the calculation of the electric transition dipole moment in a pre-Born-Oppenheimer framework. Electrons and nuclei are treated equally in terms of the parametrization of the non-relativistic total wave function, which is written as a linear combination of basis functions constructed from explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and the global vector representation. The integrals of the electric transition dipole moment are derived corresponding to these basis functions in both the length and the velocity representation. The calculations are performed in laboratory-fixed Cartesian coordinates without relying on coordinates which separate the center of mass from the translationally invariant degrees of freedom. The effect of the overall motion is eliminated through translationally invariant integral expressions. The electric transition dipole moment is calculated between two rovibronic levels of the H2 molecule assignable to the lowest rovibrational states of the X (1)Σ(g)(+) and B (1)Σ(u)(+) electronic states in the clamped-nuclei framework. This is the first evaluation of this quantity in a full quantum mechanical treatment without relying on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. PMID:25338879

  18. Experimental modelling of the dipole magnet for the electron storage ring DELSY

    CERN Document Server

    Meshkov, I N; Syresin, E M

    2003-01-01

    In the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna) the project of Dubna Electron Synchrotron (DELSY) with an electron energy of 1.2 GeV is developed. The electron storage ring in the DELSY project is planned to be created on the basis of magnetic elements, which were used earlier in the storage ring AmPS (NIKHEF, Amsterdam). The optics of the ring is necessary to be changed, its perimeter to be reduced approximately in one and a half time, the energy of electrons to be increased. The paper is devoted to the development of a modified dipole magnet of the storage ring. The preliminary estimation of geometry of the magnet pole is carried out by means of computer modelling using two- and three- dimensional codes of the magnetic field calculation SUPERFISH and RADIA. The experimental stand for the measurements of the dipole magnetic field is described. As the result of calculational and experimental modelling for the dipole magnet, the geometry of its poles was estimated, providing in the horizontal aperture +- 3...

  19. Entangling Dipole-Dipole Interactions for Quantum Logic in Optical Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ivan

    2000-06-01

    The ability to engineer the quantum state of a many-body system represents the ``holy grail" of coherent control and opens the door to a host of new applications and fundamental studies ranging from improvements in precision measurement to quantum computation. At the heart of these quantum-information processing tasks are entangled states. These can be created through a ``quantum-circuit" consisting of a series of simple quantum logic gates acting only on single or pairs of qubits. Any physical implementation of a quantum circuit must contend with an inherent conflict. Qubits must strongly couple to one another and to an external classical field which drives the algorithm, while simultaneously coupling very weakly to the noisy environment which decoheres the quantum superpositions. We have identified a new system for quantum-information processing: ultra-cold trapped neutral atoms (G. K. Brennen et al. ), Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 , 1060 (1999); see also eprint quant- ph/9910031. Neutrals interact very weakly with the environment and coupling between them can be induced on demand through resonant excitation or elastic collisions via direct overlap between wavepackets(D. Jaksch et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 1975 (1999).. The ability to turn interactions on and off reduces decoherence and the spread of errors amongst qubits. In the implementation presented here I will discuss entangling atoms with electric dipole-dipole interactions in optical lattices (P.S. Jessen and I. H. Deutsch, Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 36), 91 (1996).. These traps provide an extremely flexible environment for coherent control of both internal and external degrees of freedom of atom wave packets as in ion traps(D. Wineland et al.), Fortschr. Phys. 46, 363 (1998).. Dipole-dipole interactions can be coherent when atoms are tightly localized at a distance small compared to the optical wavelength. By inducing dipoles conditional on the logical state of the atoms we can engineer quantum gates. Detailed analysis

  20. Block copolymer battery separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  1. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  2. Superconvergence of tricubic block finite elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce interpolation operator of projection type in three dimen- sions, from which we derive weak estimates for tricubic block finite elements. Then using the estimate for the W 2, 1-seminorm of the discrete derivative Green’s function and the weak estimates, we show that the tricubic block finite element solution uh and the tricubic interpolant of projection type Πh3u have superclose gradient in the pointwise sense of the L∞-norm. Finally, this supercloseness is applied to superconvergence analysis, and the global superconvergence of the finite element approximation is derived.

  3. Reflection and transmission properties of a metasurface composed of resonant loaded wire dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Z A

    2016-05-20

    A considered metasurface is assumed to consist of a two-dimensional periodic arrangement of inductively loaded wires. The effects of incident angles and inductive loads upon equivalent surface impedance, reflection, and transmission properties of this metasurface have been investigated using numerical simulations. It is shown that at a particular frequency and angle, a metasurface can be cloaked for the incoming incident wave with nearly zero reflection. It is further studied that this approximate zero reflection is independent of the inductances of the inductively loaded wire dipoles. PMID:27411153

  4. Electron electric dipole moment experiment using electric-field quantized slow cesium atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Amini, Jason M.; Munger Jr., Charles T.; Gould, Harvey

    2007-01-01

    A proof-of-principle electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM) experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic fields, and electric field quantization has been performed. With the ambient magnetic fields seen by the atoms reduced to less than 200 pT, an electric field of 6 MV/m lifts the degeneracy between states of unequal lbar mF rbar and, along with the low (approximately 3 m/s) velocity, suppresses the systematic effect from the motional magnetic field. The low velocity and small r...

  5. Electric dipole polarizabilities of Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerokhin, V. A.; Buhmann, S. Y.; Fritzsche, S.; Surzhykov, A.

    2016-09-01

    Calculations of the static electric-dipole scalar and tensor polarizabilities are presented for two alkali-metal atoms, Rb and Cs, for the n S , n P½,3 /2 , and n D3 /2 ,5 /2 states with large principal quantum numbers up to n =50 . The calculations are performed within an effective one-electron approximation, based on the Dirac-Fock Hamiltonian with a semiempirical core-polarization potential. The obtained results are compared with those from a simpler semiempirical approach and with available experimental data.

  6. The efficiency of Flory approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Flory approximation for the self-avoiding chain problem is compared with a conventional perturbation theory expansion. While in perturbation theory each term is averaged over the unperturbed set of configurations, the Flory approximation is equivalent to the perturbation theory with the averaging over the stretched set of configurations. This imposes restrictions on the integration domain in higher order terms and they can be treated self-consistently. The accuracy δν/ν of Flory approximation for self-avoiding chain problems is estimated to be 2-5% for 1 < d < 4. (orig.)

  7. Growing Up with Their Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winarski, Diana L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes one teacher's use of traditional wooden blocks in fifth-grade curriculum. Notes that use of blocks can teach communication, teamwork, precision, and arithmetic concepts. Also describes four easy classroom block projects. (TM)

  8. Test results of HD2, a high field Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole with a 36 mm bore

    CERN Document Server

    Ferracin, P

    2009-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed the 1 m long Nb3Sn dipole magnet HD2. With tilted (flared) ends to avoid obstructing a 36 mm clear bore, HD2 represents a step towards the use of block-type coils in high-field accelerator magnets. The coil design has been optimized to minimize geometric harmonics and reduce the conductor peak field in the end region, resulting in an expected short sample dipole field of 15 T. The support structure is composed by an external aluminum shell pretensioned with pressurized bladders and interference keys, and by two stainless steel end plates compressing the coil ends through four aluminum axial rods. We report on magnet design, assembly, and test results, including training performance, quench locations, and strain gauge measurements

  9. Binary nucleation beyond capillarity approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalikmanov, V.I.

    2010-01-01

    Large discrepancies between binary classical nucleation theory (BCNT) and experiments result from adsorption effects and inability of BCNT, based on the phenomenological capillarity approximation, to treat small clusters. We propose a model aimed at eliminating both of these deficiencies. Adsorption

  10. Approximate Implicitization Using Linear Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. D. Barrowclough

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a family of algorithms for approximate implicitization of rational parametric curves and surfaces. The main approximation tool in all of the approaches is the singular value decomposition, and they are therefore well suited to floating-point implementation in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD systems. We unify the approaches under the names of commonly known polynomial basis functions and consider various theoretical and practical aspects of the algorithms. We offer new methods for a least squares approach to approximate implicitization using orthogonal polynomials, which tend to be faster and more numerically stable than some existing algorithms. We propose several simple propositions relating the properties of the polynomial bases to their implicit approximation properties.

  11. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  12. Approximate maximizers of intricacy functionals

    CERN Document Server

    Buzzi, Jerome

    2009-01-01

    G. Edelman, O. Sporns, and G. Tononi introduced in theoretical biology the neural complexity of a family of random variables. This functional is a special case of intricacy, i.e., an average of the mutual information of subsystems whose weights have good mathematical properties. Moreover, its maximum value grows at a definite speed with the size of the system. In this work, we compute exactly this speed of growth by building "approximate maximizers" subject to an entropy condition. These approximate maximizers work simultaneously for all intricacies. We also establish some properties of arbitrary approximate maximizers, in particular the existence of a threshold in the size of subsystems of approximate maximizers: most smaller subsystems are almost equidistributed, most larger subsystems determine the full system. The main ideas are a random construction of almost maximizers with a high statistical symmetry and the consideration of entropy profiles, i.e., the average entropies of sub-systems of a given size. ...

  13. Image theory for electric dipoles above a conducting anisotropic earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, S. F.

    1984-07-01

    New image representations for vertical electric dipoles (VED) above an imperfectly conducting and axially anisotropic earth are developed. These include multidiscrete images at different depths below the air-earth interface and multipole image sources. It is shown that, in contrast with the available image representations in the literature, the developed ones predict the correct behavior of the fields in the far zone along the earth's surface. Extension to a layered earth's model is made. The theory is also extended to the horizontal electric dipole with similar conclusions to the case of the vertical dipole.

  14. Initial results from 50mm short SSC dipoles at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Carson, J.A.; Coulter, K.; Delchamps, S.; Ewald, K.D.; Fulton, H.; Gonczy, I.; Gourlay, S.A.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Strait, J.B.; Wake, M.; Gordon, M.; Hassan, N.; Sims, R.; Winters, M.

    1991-03-01

    Several short model SSC 50 mm bore dipoles are being built and tested at Fermilab. Mechanical design of these magnets has been determined from experience involved in the construction and testing of 40 mm dipoles. Construction experience includes coil winding, curing and measuring, coil end part design and fabrication, ground insulation, instrumentation, collaring and yoke assembly. Fabrication techniques are explained and construction problems are discussed. Similarities and differences from the 40 mm dipole tooling and management components are outlined. Test results from the first models are presented. 19 refs., 12 figs.

  15. Molecular Dipole Moment Computed with Ab Initio MKS Charges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Molecular dipole moments computed at the levels of HF/STO-3G, HF/6-31G(d, p), HF/6-311+G(2d, 2p), MP2/6-31G(d, p) and MP2/6-311+G(2d, 2p) have been investigated. HF/6-311+G(2d, 2p) was found to be the relatively good choice to compute MKS charges for reproducing the experimental values of molecular dipole moments. Root mean square deviation of computed dipole moments for 21 small polar molecules is about 0.1969 D.

  16. The CMB Dipole: The Most Recent Measurement And Some History

    OpenAIRE

    Lineweaver, Charles H.

    1996-01-01

    The largest anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the $\\approx 3$ mK dipole assumed to be due to our velocity with respect to the CMB. Over the past ten years the precision of our knowledge of the dipole has increased by a factor of ten. We discuss the most recent measurement of this dipole obtained from the four year COBE Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMR) as reported by Lineweaver \\etal (1996). The inferred velocity of the Local Group is $v_{LG}= 627 \\pm 22$ km/s in t...

  17. Development and study of the UNK superconducting dipole models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two full-scale dipole models, 6 m long each, have been manufactured in the scope of the programme on development of superconducting dipoles for the UNK. Results of their tests in a bath cryostat are reported. A number of short models have been manufactured and tested with view to improve the integral characteristics of the magnetic field. The results of magnetic measurements of the central and edge field are presented. Also reported are the results of study of training and dynamic characteristics of dipoles

  18. Dipole-Quadrupole dynamics during magnetic field reversals

    CERN Document Server

    Gissinger, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    The shape and the dynamics of reversals of the magnetic field in a turbulent dynamo experiment are investigated. We report the evolution of the dipolar and the quadrupolar parts of the magnetic field in the VKS experiment, and show that the experimental results are in good agreement with the predictions of a recent model of reversals: when the dipole reverses, part of the magnetic energy is transferred to the quadrupole, reversals begin with a slow decay of the dipole and are followed by a fast recovery, together with an overshoot of the dipole. Random reversals are observed at the borderline between stationary and oscillatory dynamos.

  19. Characterizing optical dipole trap via fluorescence of trapped cesium atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Tao; GENG; Tao; YAN; Shubin; LI; Gang; ZHANG; Jing; WANG; Junmin; PENG; Kunchi; ZHANG; Tiancai

    2006-01-01

    Optical dipole trap (ODT) is becoming an important tool of manipulating neutral atoms. In this paper ODT is realized with a far-off resonant laser beam strongly focused in the magneto-optical trap (MOT) of cesium atoms. The light shift is measured by simply monitoring the fluorescence of the atoms in the magneto-optical trap and the optical dipole trap simultaneously. The advantages of our experimental scheme are discussed, and the effect of the beam waist and power on the potential of dipole trap as well as heating rate is analyzed.

  20. Small non-Gaussianity and dipole asymmetry in the CMB

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Lingfei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we provide a prescription for obtaining a small non-Gaussianity and the observed dipole asymmetry in the cosmic microwave background radiation. The observations inevitably lead to multi-field inflationary dynamics, where each field can create positive or negative large non-Gaussianity, resulting a fine cancellation but with an observable imprint on the hemispherical asymmetry. We discuss this possibility within a simple slow-roll scenario and find that it is hard to explain the observed dipole asymmetry. We briefly discuss some speculative scenarios where one can explain dipole asymmetry.