WorldWideScience

Sample records for blocking approximation dipole

  1. Radiation forces in the discrete dipole approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.G.; Frijlink, M.O.; Waters, L.B.F.M.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    The theory of the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) for light scattering is extended to allow for the calculation of radiation forces on each dipole in the DDA model. Starting with the theory of Draine and Weingartner [Astrophys. J. 470, 551 (1996)] we derive an expression for the radiation force

  2. On the dipole approximation with error estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boßmann, Lea; Grummt, Robert; Kolb, Martin

    2018-01-01

    The dipole approximation is employed to describe interactions between atoms and radiation. It essentially consists of neglecting the spatial variation of the external field over the atom. Heuristically, this is justified by arguing that the wavelength is considerably larger than the atomic length scale, which holds under usual experimental conditions. We prove the dipole approximation in the limit of infinite wavelengths compared to the atomic length scale and estimate the rate of convergence. Our results include N-body Coulomb potentials and experimentally relevant electromagnetic fields such as plane waves and laser pulses.

  3. Photoelectron spectroscopy and the dipole approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemmers, O.; Hansen, D.L.; Wang, H. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Photoelectron spectroscopy is a powerful technique because it directly probes, via the measurement of photoelectron kinetic energies, orbital and band structure in valence and core levels in a wide variety of samples. The technique becomes even more powerful when it is performed in an angle-resolved mode, where photoelectrons are distinguished not only by their kinetic energy, but by their direction of emission as well. Determining the probability of electron ejection as a function of angle probes the different quantum-mechanical channels available to a photoemission process, because it is sensitive to phase differences among the channels. As a result, angle-resolved photoemission has been used successfully for many years to provide stringent tests of the understanding of basic physical processes underlying gas-phase and solid-state interactions with radiation. One mainstay in the application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is the well-known electric-dipole approximation for photon interactions. In this simplification, all higher-order terms, such as those due to electric-quadrupole and magnetic-dipole interactions, are neglected. As the photon energy increases, however, effects beyond the dipole approximation become important. To best determine the range of validity of the dipole approximation, photoemission measurements on a simple atomic system, neon, where extra-atomic effects cannot play a role, were performed at BL 8.0. The measurements show that deviations from {open_quotes}dipole{close_quotes} expectations in angle-resolved valence photoemission are observable for photon energies down to at least 0.25 keV, and are quite significant at energies around 1 keV. From these results, it is clear that non-dipole angular-distribution effects may need to be considered in any application of angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy that uses x-ray photons of energies as low as a few hundred eV.

  4. On the Purcell effect beyond the dipole approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Philip Trøst; Mortensen, Jakob Egeberg; Lodahl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We investigate spontaneous emission from excitons in quantum dots beyond the dipole approximation and show how the symmetry of the exciton wavefunction plays a crucial role. We show explicitly that for spherically symmetric excitons, the Purcell effect is independent of the exciton size and is go......We investigate spontaneous emission from excitons in quantum dots beyond the dipole approximation and show how the symmetry of the exciton wavefunction plays a crucial role. We show explicitly that for spherically symmetric excitons, the Purcell effect is independent of the exciton size...... and is governed by the local density of optical states at the center of the exciton only, which is identical to the result derived with the dipole approximation. This surprising result is a spontaneous emission counterpart to the shell theorem of classical mechanics and electrostatics and provides new insights...

  5. Molecular photoionization cross sections in electron propagator theory: angular distributions beyond the dipole approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, G M; Kaplan, I G; Ortiz, J V

    2005-09-15

    Corrections to dipole approximation results for angular distributions in photoionization of first-row hydrides have determined by using Dyson orbitals calculated with ab initio electron propagator theory and by considering the full multipole expansion for the incident photon representation. The relative importance of first-order corrections which consist of electric quadrupole and magnetic dipole terms and of higher-order terms has been estimated as a function of photon energy. Multipole corrections to the dipole approximation depend on photon energy and on the characteristics of the Dyson orbitals.

  6. A second-order approximation of particle motion in the fringing field of a dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantin, N.I.

    1980-01-01

    The radial and axial motion of charged particles in the fringing field of an arbitrary dipole magnet has been considered with accuracy to the second-order of small quantities. The dipole magnet has an inhomogeneous field and oblique entrance and exit boundaries in the form of second-order curves. The region of the fringing field has a variable extension. A new definition of the effective boundary of the real fringing field has a variable extension. A new definition of the effective boundary of the real fringing field of the dipole magnet is used. A better understanding of the influence of the fringing magnetic field on the motion of charged particles in the pole gap of the dipole magnet has been obtained. In particular, it is shown that it is important to take into account, in the second approximation, some terms related formally to the next approximations. The results are presented in a form convenient for practical calculations. (orig.)

  7. Applicability of point-dipoles approximation to all-dielectric metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsova, S. M.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    All-dielectric metamaterials consisting of high-dielectric inclusions in a low-dielectric matrix are considered as a low-loss alternative to resonant metal-based metamaterials. In this paper we investigate the applicability of the point electric and magnetic dipoles approximation to dielectric meta......-atoms on the example of a dielectric ring metamaterial. Despite the large electrical size of high-dielectric meta-atoms, the dipole approximation allows for accurate prediction of the metamaterials properties for the rings with diameters up to approximate to 0.8 of the lattice constant. The results provide important...... guidelines for design and optimization of all-dielectric metamaterials....

  8. Electric dipole strength and dipole polarizability in 48Ca within a fully self-consistent second random–phase approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gambacurta

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The second random–phase–approximation model corrected by a subtraction procedure designed to cure double counting, instabilities, and ultraviolet divergences, is employed for the first time to analyze the dipole strength and polarizability in 48Ca. All the terms of the residual interaction are included, leading to a fully self-consistent scheme. Results are illustrated with two Skyrme parametrizations, SGII and SLy4. Those obtained with the SGII interaction are particularly satisfactory. In this case, the low-lying strength below the neutron threshold is well reproduced and the giant dipole resonance is described in a very satisfactory way especially in its spreading and fragmentation. Spreading and fragmentation are produced in a natural way within such a theoretical model by the coupling of 1 particle-1 hole and 2 particle-2 hole configurations. Owing to this feature, we may provide for the electric polarizability as a function of the excitation energy a curve with a similar slope around the centroid energy of the giant resonance compared to the corresponding experimental results. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to previous theoretical predictions obtained with the random–phase approximation or with several ab-initio models. In such cases, the spreading width of the excitation cannot be reproduced and the polarizability as a function of the excitation energy displays a stiff increase around the predicted centroid energy of the giant resonance.

  9. Electric dipole strength and dipole polarizability in 48Ca within a fully self-consistent second random-phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacurta, D.; Grasso, M.; Vasseur, O.

    2018-02-01

    The second random-phase-approximation model corrected by a subtraction procedure designed to cure double counting, instabilities, and ultraviolet divergences, is employed for the first time to analyze the dipole strength and polarizability in 48Ca. All the terms of the residual interaction are included, leading to a fully self-consistent scheme. Results are illustrated with two Skyrme parametrizations, SGII and SLy4. Those obtained with the SGII interaction are particularly satisfactory. In this case, the low-lying strength below the neutron threshold is well reproduced and the giant dipole resonance is described in a very satisfactory way especially in its spreading and fragmentation. Spreading and fragmentation are produced in a natural way within such a theoretical model by the coupling of 1 particle-1 hole and 2 particle-2 hole configurations. Owing to this feature, we may provide for the electric polarizability as a function of the excitation energy a curve with a similar slope around the centroid energy of the giant resonance compared to the corresponding experimental results. This represents a considerable improvement with respect to previous theoretical predictions obtained with the random-phase approximation or with several ab-initio models. In such cases, the spreading width of the excitation cannot be reproduced and the polarizability as a function of the excitation energy displays a stiff increase around the predicted centroid energy of the giant resonance.

  10. The discrete-dipole-approximation code ADDA: capabilities and known limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yurkin, M.A.; Hoekstra, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    The open-source code ADDA is described, which implements the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), a method to simulate light scattering by finite 3D objects of arbitrary shape and composition. Besides standard sequential execution, ADDA can run on a multiprocessor distributed-memory system,

  11. Approximate design theory for a simple block design with random block effects

    OpenAIRE

    Christof, Karin

    1985-01-01

    Approximate design theory for a simple block design with random block effects / K. Christof ; F. Pukelsheim. - In: Linear statistical inference / ed. by T. Calinski ... - Berlin u. a. : Springer, 1985. - S. 20-28. - (Lecture notes in statistics ; 35)

  12. Soft dipole mode of 11Li in approximation of asymptotic potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, G.F.; Lashko, Yu.A.

    2001-01-01

    The soft dipole mode of 11 Li is studied in the frame of microscopic tri-cluster model and in the asymptotic potential approximation. The theory reproduces well the ground state energy, matter radius and the behaviour of the effective photodisintegration cross section in the range of low energies above the decay threshold of 11 Li. Our calculations point two resonant states in this range [ru

  13. Calculation of the Induced Charge Distribution on the Surface of a Metallic Nanoparticle Due to an Oscillating Dipole Using Discrete Dipole Approximation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Fallahi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the interaction between an oscillating dipole moment and a Silver nanoparticle has been studied. Our calculations are based on Mie scattering theory and discrete dipole approximation(DDA method.At first, the resonance frequency due to excitingthe localized surface plasmons has been obtained using Mie scattering theory and then by exciting a dipole moment in theclose proximity of the nanoparticle, the induced charge distribution on the nanoparticle surface has been calculated. In our calculations, we have exploited the experimental data obtained by Johnson and Christy for dielectric function.

  14. Projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation with blocking effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, H.; Krmpotić, F.

    1982-05-01

    The blocking effect is introduced through a canonical transformation in the projected BCS-Tamm-Dancoff approximation. It is suggested that the blocking effect may play an important role in the description of the low-lying states in odd-mass nuclei. Present address: Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 1900 La Plata, Argentina. Member of Carrera de Investigador Científico, CONICET, Argentina. Sponsored by Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP), Brasil.

  15. Using the DDA (Discrete Dipole Approximation Method in Determining the Extinction Cross Section of Black Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorupski Krzysztof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available BC (Black Carbon, which can be found in the atmosphere, is characterized by a large value of the imaginary part of the complex refractive index and, therefore, might have an impact on the global warming effect. To study the interaction of BC with light often computer simulations are used. One of the methods, which are capable of performing light scattering simulations by any shape, is DDA (Discrete Dipole Approximation. In this work its accuracy was estimated in respect to BC structures using the latest stable version of the ADDA (vr. 1.2 algorithm. As the reference algorithm the GMM (Generalized Multiparticle Mie-Solution code was used. The study shows that the number of volume elements (dipoles is the main parameter that defines the quality of results. However, they can be improved by a proper polarizability expression. The most accurate, and least time consuming, simulations were observed for IGT_SO. When an aggregate consists of particles composed of ca. 750 volume elements (dipoles, the averaged relative extinction error should not exceed ca. 4.5%.

  16. RCS estimation of linear and planar dipole phased arrays approximate model

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    In this book, the RCS of a parallel-fed linear and planar dipole array is derived using an approximate method. The signal propagation within the phased array system determines the radar cross section (RCS) of phased array. The reflection and transmission coefficients for a signal at different levels of the phased-in scattering array system depend on the impedance mismatch and the design parameters. Moreover the mutual coupling effect in between the antenna elements is an important factor. A phased array system comprises of radiating elements followed by phase shifters, couplers, and terminating load impedance. These components lead to respective impedances towards the incoming signal that travels through them before reaching receive port of the array system. In this book, the RCS is approximated in terms of array factor, neglecting the phase terms. The mutual coupling effect is taken into account. The dependence of the RCS pattern on the design parameters is analyzed. The approximate model is established as a...

  17. The approximation of asymptotic potential and the soft dipole mode of the 6He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, G.F.; Lashko, Yu.A.; Shvrdov, L.P.; Kato, K.

    1999-01-01

    The soft dipole mode of a three-cluster 6 He nucleus is investigated on the basis of the generalized version of the zero-radius nuclear forces approximation, taking into account a slowly decreasing asymptotic potential and influence of the Paulo exclusion principle on the asymptotic of the wave function, and also the fact of degeneration of 1 - continuous spectrum states. The issue of the behaviour of matrix elements of the two-channel S-matrix and problem of existence of the super-threshold 1 - resonance are discussed [ru

  18. Directed Energy Transfer in Films of CdSe Quantum Dots: Beyond the Point Dipole Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Kaibo; Zídek, Karel; Abdellah, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in thin films composed of quantum dots (QDs) is of fundamental and technological significance in optimal design of QD based optoelectronic devices. The separation between QDs in the densely packed films is usually smaller than the size...... of QDs, so that the simple point-dipole approximation, widely used in the conventional approach, can no longer offer quantitative description of the FRET dynamics in such systems. Here, we report the investigations of the FRET dynamics in densely packed films composed of multisized CdSe QDs using...

  19. The discrete dipole approximation code DDscat.C++: features, limitations and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choliy, V. Ya.

    2013-08-01

    We present a new freely available open-source C++ software for numerical solution of the electromagnetic waves absorption and scattering problems within the Discrete Dipole Approximation paradigm. The code is based upon the famous and free Fortan-90 code DDSCAT by B. Draine and P. Flatau. Started as a teaching project, the presented code DDscat.C++ differs from the parent code DDSCAT with a number of features, essential for C++ but quite seldom in Fortran. This article introduces the new code, explains its features, presents timing information and some plans for further development.

  20. Influence of sintering necks on the spectral behaviour of ITO clusters using the Discrete Dipole Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorupski, Krzysztof; Hellmers, Jens; Feng, Wen; Mroczka, Janusz; Wriedt, Thomas; Mädler, Lutz

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the spectral behaviour of indium tin oxide (ITO) nanoparticle clusters using different sinter neck models for the connections between the primary particles. The investigations include light scattering calculations based on the Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA). The corresponding clusters are generated using the Cluster–Cluster algorithm proposed by Filippov et al. Different sintering neck models led to significantly different spectral features. A spectral neck factor that reveals the thickness of the necks connecting the primary particles with a simple measurement method is introduced. - Highlights: • We investigate the necking phenomenon in ITO fractal-like aggregates. • Extinction diagrams are sensitive to changes of the neck size. • We propose a simple procedure for measuring the neck size in ITO aggregates

  1. Electric dipole approximation and allowed electric quadrupole resonances in multiphoton absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachman, A.; Laplanche, G.; Flank, Y.; Jaouen, M.

    1977-01-01

    In this communication the results of a theoretical study of the two-photon transition probability rate of atomic caesium from the ground state 6S are presented. By using the multipole expansion of the interaction hamiltonian we predict a one-photon allowed electric-quadrupole resonance for the double 6D 3/2-6D 5/2, the 6S→nD transitions being forbidden in the electric-dipole approximation. The calculation is made in the framework of perturbation theory to the lowest non-vanishing order, the initial and final atomic states are calculated using the quantum defect method (QDM), as well as the Green's function method which is used to perform the infinite summation over the complete set unperturbed atomic states [fr

  2. Porous effect on the radiative properties of fly ash particles: A discrete dipole approximation investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, B. W.; Dong, J.; Liu, L. H.

    2018-01-01

    Fly ash particles, one of the primary atmospheric pollutants, generally possess internal porous structure. In this work, porous models representing fly ash particles were built via the random midpoint algorithm, in which overall shapes including sphere, Gaussian random sphere, cube, oblate and prolate spheroids were considered. Focusing on fly ash composed of clay minerals, which can be generated in coal combustion processes, we considered a relative refractive index of m = 1.5 + 0.005i and applied the discrete dipole approximation method to calculate the radiative properties of porous fly ash particles with a size parameter from 2 to 15 at the wavelength of 633 nm. Effects of porosity and pore size were analyzed. Meanwhile, approximations by the equivalent mass sphere (EMS) and the equivalent volume sphere (EVS) based on the effective medium approximation were examined. Generally, the angular patterns of the Muller matrix elements get smoother with increasing porosity and pore size, which tend to be insensitive to the particle external shape for a porosity as large as 50%. The scattered intensity increases with increasing pore size in a wide scattering angle range. Larger porosity leads to larger positive linear polarization for unpolarized incident light in the side scattering directions. With increasing porosity, the depolarization-related term S22/S11 decreases for spherical particle but increases for non-spherical ones. In addition, smaller pore size leads to larger asymmetry parameter and single-scattering albedo. The EMS and EVS models predict the radiative properties of porous particles with distinct errors especially for non-spherical particle overall shape. The EVS model only works well for porous spherical particle with pore size parameters smaller than 0.46.

  3. Optical response of hybrid semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system: Beyond the dipole approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzadeh, Atefeh; Miri, MirFaez

    2018-01-01

    We study the response of a semiconductor quantum dot-metal nanoparticle system to an external field E 0 cos ( ω t ) . The borders between Fano, double peaks, weak transition, strong transition, and bistability regions of the phase diagram move considerably as one regards the multipole effects. The exciton-induced transparency is an artifact of the dipole approximation. The absorption of the nanoparticle, the population inversion of the quantum dot, the upper and lower limits of intensity where bistability occurs, the characteristic time to reach the steady state, and other features of the hybrid system change due to the multipole effects. The phase diagrams corresponding to the fields parallel and perpendicular to the axis of system are quite distinguishable. Thus, both the intensity and the polarization of the incident field can be used to control the system. In particular, the incident polarization can be used to switch on and switch off the bistable behavior. For applications such as miniaturized bistable devices and nanosensors sensitive to variations of the dielectric constant of the surrounding medium, multipole effects must be considered.

  4. The discrete-dipole-approximation code ADDA: Capabilities and known limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurkin, Maxim A.; Hoekstra, Alfons G.

    2011-01-01

    The open-source code ADDA is described, which implements the discrete dipole approximation (DDA), a method to simulate light scattering by finite 3D objects of arbitrary shape and composition. Besides standard sequential execution, ADDA can run on a multiprocessor distributed-memory system, parallelizing a single DDA calculation. Hence the size parameter of the scatterer is in principle limited only by total available memory and computational speed. ADDA is written in C99 and is highly portable. It provides full control over the scattering geometry (particle morphology and orientation, and incident beam) and allows one to calculate a wide variety of integral and angle-resolved scattering quantities (cross sections, the Mueller matrix, etc.). Moreover, ADDA incorporates a range of state-of-the-art DDA improvements, aimed at increasing the accuracy and computational speed of the method. We discuss both physical and computational aspects of the DDA simulations and provide a practical introduction into performing such simulations with the ADDA code. We also present several simulation results, in particular, for a sphere with size parameter 320 (100-wavelength diameter) and refractive index 1.05.

  5. Test Results of a Nb3Sn Wind/React ''Stress-Managed'' Block Dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.; Bish, P.; Blackburn, R.; Diaczenko, N.; Elliott, T.; Hafalia Jr., R.; Henchel, W.; Jaisle, A.; Lau, W.; Lietzke, A.; McIntyre, P.; Noyes, P.; Nyman, M.; Sattarov, A.; Sattarov, A.

    2006-01-01

    A second phase of a highfield dipole technology development has been tested. A Nb3Sn block-coil model dipole was fabricated, using magnetic mirror geometry and wind/react coil technology. The primary objective of this phase was to make a first experimental test of the stress-management strategy pioneered at Texas A and M. In this strategy a high-strength support matrix is integrated with the windings to intercept Lorentz stress from the inner winding so that it does not accumulate in the outer winding. The magnet attained a field that was consistent with short sample limit on the first quench; there was no training. The decoupling of Lorentz stress between inner and outer windings was validated. In ramp rate studies the magnet exhibited a remarkable robustness in rapid ramping operation. It reached 85 percent of short sample(ss) current even while ramping 2-3 T/s. This robustness is attributed to the orientation of the Rutherford cables parallel to the field in the windings, instead of the transverse orientation that characterizes common dipole designs. Test results are presented and the next development phase plans are discussed

  6. Low-lying dipole response in the stable 40,48Ca nuclei within the second random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambacurta, D.; Grasso, M.; Catara, F.

    2012-01-01

    The low-lying dipole strength distributions of 40 CaCa and 48 Ca, in the energy region between 5 and 10 MeV, are studied within the second random phase approximation (RPA) with Skyrme interaction. Standard RPA models do not usually predict any presence of strength in this energy region, while experimentally a significant amount of strength is found. The inclusion of the 2 particle −2 hole configurations allows to obtain a description in a rather good agreement with the experimental data. The properties of the most collective state are analyzed in terms of its 1 particle −1 hole nature and its transition densities.

  7. Low-lying dipole response in the stable 40,48Ca nuclei within the second random-phase approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacurta, D.; Grasso, M.; Catara, F.

    2012-10-01

    The low-lying dipole strength distributions of 40CaCa and 48Ca, in the energy region between 5 and 10 MeV, are studied within the second random phase approximation (RPA) with Skyrme interaction. Standard RPA models do not usually predict any presence of strength in this energy region, while experimentally a significant amount of strength is found. The inclusion of the 2 particle -2 hole configurations allows to obtain a description in a rather good agreement with the experimental data. The properties of the most collective state are analyzed in terms of its 1 particle -1 hole nature and its transition densities.

  8. Soft dipole mode of neutron-rich light nuclei in asymptotic potential approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, G.F.; Lashko, Yu.A.; Shvedov, L.P.

    2000-01-01

    Completely antisymmetrized 1''-continuum wave functions as well as the ground state wave function for ''6He have been constructed in asymptotic potential approximation. The behaviour of two-channel S-matrix elements shows on the existence of 1''- resonant state just above the three-body decay threshold of ''6He

  9. Discrete Dipole Approximation Simulation of Nearly Touching Plasmonic Au Dimers and Influence of Particle Shape Assembly on Optical Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xi-Bin; Wang, Yu-Ying; Yi, Zao; Li, Xi-Bo; Luo, Jiang-Shan; Luo, Bing-Chi; Yi, You-Gen; Tang, Yong-Jian

    2016-01-01

    The method Discrete Dipole Approximation (DDA) is used to calculate the extinction spectra and field distribution of three types of dimers. In the paper we provide a systematic analysis of the optical response of different nanoscopic dimer structures with relatively small gap distances. A description is given about how the energy and excitation cross sections of dimer plasmons depend on nanoparticle separation. Resonance peaks of dimers show red-shift compared with single nanoparticle. Dimers formed by different single particle display distinct optical response. Interaction junctions in dimers can serve as hot spots for field enhancement. Field distribution in gaps made of two flat planes is nearly continuous. Changing gaps between two particles in dimers can tune the resonance wavelength effectively as well as different particle ensembles. Existence of sharp corners can attract and change field distribution. It is not effective volume but the effective cross-section that dominates the extinction efficiency.

  10. Ion solvation in polymer blends and block copolymer melts: effects of chain length and connectivity on the reorganization of dipoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Issei

    2014-05-29

    We studied the thermodynamic properties of ion solvation in polymer blends and block copolymer melts and developed a dipolar self-consistent field theory for polymer mixtures. Our theory accounts for the chain connectivity of polymerized monomers, the compressibility of the liquid mixtures under electrostriction, the permanent and induced dipole moments of monomers, and the resultant dielectric contrast among species. In our coarse-grained model, dipoles are attached to the monomers and allowed to rotate freely in response to electrostatic fields. We demonstrate that a strong electrostatic field near an ion reorganizes dipolar monomers, resulting in nonmonotonic changes in the volume fraction profile and the dielectric function of the polymers with respect to those of simple liquid mixtures. For the parameter sets used, the spatial variations near an ion can be in the range of 1 nm or larger, producing significant differences in the solvation energy among simple liquid mixtures, polymer blends, and block copolymers. The solvation energy of an ion depends substantially on the chain length in block copolymers; thus, our theory predicts the preferential solvation of ions arising from differences in chain length.

  11. Effects of thermal and particle-number fluctuations on the giant isovector dipole modes for the 58Ni nucleus in the finite-temperature random-phase approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Dinhdang; Nguyen Zuythang

    1988-01-01

    Using the realistic single-particle energy spectrum obtained in the Woods-Saxon nucleon mean-field potential, we calculate the BCS pairing gap for 58 Ni as a function of temperature taking into account the thermal and particle-number fluctuations. The strength distributions of the electric dipole transitions and the centroids of the isovector giant dipole resonance (IV-GDR) are computed in the framework of the finite-temperature random-phase approximation (RPA) based on the Hamiltonian of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model with separate dipole forces. It is shown that the change of the pairing gap at finite temperature can noticeably influence the IV-GDR localisation in realistic nuclei. By taking both thermal and quasiparticle fluctuations in the pairing gap into account the effect of the phase transition from superfluid to normal in the temperature dependence of the IV-GDR centroid is completely smeared out. (author)

  12. Rate-distortion functions of non-stationary Markoff chains and their block-independent approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Mukul

    2018-01-01

    It is proved that the limit of the normalized rate-distortion functions of block independent approximations of an irreducible, aperiodic Markoff chain is independent of the initial distribution of the Markoff chain and thus, is also equal to the rate-distortion function of the Markoff chain.

  13. Comparison of Two-Block Decomposition Method and Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method for Depletion Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Cho, Nam Zin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The code gives inaccurate results of nuclides for evaluation of source term analysis, e.g., Sr- 90, Ba-137m, Cs-137, etc. A Krylov Subspace method was suggested by Yamamoto et al. The method is based on the projection of solution space of Bateman equation to a lower dimension of Krylov subspace. It showed good accuracy in the detailed burnup chain calculation if dimension of the Krylov subspace is high enough. In this paper, we will compare the two methods in terms of accuracy and computing time. In this paper, two-block decomposition (TBD) method and Chebyshev rational approximation method (CRAM) are compared in the depletion calculations. In the two-block decomposition method, according to the magnitude of effective decay constant, the system of Bateman equation is decomposed into short- and longlived blocks. The short-lived block is calculated by the general Bateman solution and the importance concept. Matrix exponential with smaller norm is used in the long-lived block. In the Chebyshev rational approximation, there is no decomposition of the Bateman equation system, and the accuracy of the calculation is determined by the order of expansion in the partial fraction decomposition of the rational form. The coefficients in the partial fraction decomposition are determined by a Remez-type algorithm.

  14. Comparison of Two-Block Decomposition Method and Chebyshev Rational Approximation Method for Depletion Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Cho, Nam Zin

    2016-01-01

    The code gives inaccurate results of nuclides for evaluation of source term analysis, e.g., Sr- 90, Ba-137m, Cs-137, etc. A Krylov Subspace method was suggested by Yamamoto et al. The method is based on the projection of solution space of Bateman equation to a lower dimension of Krylov subspace. It showed good accuracy in the detailed burnup chain calculation if dimension of the Krylov subspace is high enough. In this paper, we will compare the two methods in terms of accuracy and computing time. In this paper, two-block decomposition (TBD) method and Chebyshev rational approximation method (CRAM) are compared in the depletion calculations. In the two-block decomposition method, according to the magnitude of effective decay constant, the system of Bateman equation is decomposed into short- and longlived blocks. The short-lived block is calculated by the general Bateman solution and the importance concept. Matrix exponential with smaller norm is used in the long-lived block. In the Chebyshev rational approximation, there is no decomposition of the Bateman equation system, and the accuracy of the calculation is determined by the order of expansion in the partial fraction decomposition of the rational form. The coefficients in the partial fraction decomposition are determined by a Remez-type algorithm.

  15. Low-lying dipole response in the stable {sup 40,48}Ca nuclei within the second random-phase approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gambacurta, D.; Grasso, M.; Catara, F. [GANIL,CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Caen (France); Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universite Paris-Sud, IN2P3-CNRS, F-91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia dell' Universita di and INFN Catania (Italy)

    2012-10-20

    The low-lying dipole strength distributions of {sup 40}CaCa and {sup 48}Ca, in the energy region between 5 and 10 MeV, are studied within the second random phase approximation (RPA) with Skyrme interaction. Standard RPA models do not usually predict any presence of strength in this energy region, while experimentally a significant amount of strength is found. The inclusion of the 2 particle -2 hole configurations allows to obtain a description in a rather good agreement with the experimental data. The properties of the most collective state are analyzed in terms of its 1 particle -1 hole nature and its transition densities.

  16. Interpretation of small-angle scattering of block copolymer/nanoparticle blends using random phase approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakem, I F; Benmouna, A; Benmouna, R; Ferebee, R; Benmouna, M; Bockstaller, M R

    2014-06-01

    The scattering characteristics of block copolymer (BCP)/nanoparticle (NP) blend systems are analyzed in the weak segregation limit using random phase approximation (RPA). The scattering function is established and shown to adequately capture reported data of small-angle neutron scattering in poly(norbornene-b -d-norbornene dicarboxylic acid)/ Fe3O4 nanoparticle blend systems over the entire small-angle range for a variety of BCP and NP compositions. Besides predicting the relevant length scales of microstructure formation, the RPA analysis reveals the increase of segregation in the BCP system upon NP addition. The insight into the thermodynamics of microstructure formation in BCP/NP blend systems that is provided by the RPA analysis should be a valuable asset for the design of BCP-based microstructured hybrid materials with predetermined structure and properties.

  17. Beyond the electric-dipole approximation: A formulation and implementation of molecular response theory for the description of absorption of electromagnetic field radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard; Kauczor, Joanna; Saue, Trond; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard; Norman, Patrick

    2015-06-28

    We present a formulation of molecular response theory for the description of a quantum mechanical molecular system in the presence of a weak, monochromatic, linearly polarized electromagnetic field without introducing truncated multipolar expansions. The presentation focuses on a description of linear absorption by adopting the energy-loss approach in combination with the complex polarization propagator formulation of response theory. Going beyond the electric-dipole approximation is essential whenever studying electric-dipole-forbidden transitions, and in general, non-dipolar effects become increasingly important when addressing spectroscopies involving higher-energy photons. These two aspects are examined by our study of the near K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure of the alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra) as well as the trans-polyenes. In following the series of alkaline earth metals, the sizes of non-dipolar effects are probed with respect to increasing photon energies and a detailed assessment of results is made in terms of studying the pertinent transition electron densities and in particular their spatial extension in comparison with the photon wavelength. Along the series of trans-polyenes, the sizes of non-dipolar effects are probed for X-ray spectroscopies on organic molecules with respect to the spatial extension of the chromophore.

  18. Beyond the electric-dipole approximation: A formulation and implementation of molecular response theory for the description of absorption of electromagnetic field radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    List, Nanna Holmgaard, E-mail: nhl@sdu.dk; Jensen, Hans Jørgen Aagaard [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Southern Denmark, Campusvej 55, DK-5230 Odense M (Denmark); Kauczor, Joanna; Norman, Patrick, E-mail: panor@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, Linköping SE 58183 (Sweden); Saue, Trond [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique Quantiques, UMR 5626—CNRS/Université Toulouse III (Paul Sabatier), 118 route de Narbonne, F-31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2015-06-28

    We present a formulation of molecular response theory for the description of a quantum mechanical molecular system in the presence of a weak, monochromatic, linearly polarized electromagnetic field without introducing truncated multipolar expansions. The presentation focuses on a description of linear absorption by adopting the energy-loss approach in combination with the complex polarization propagator formulation of response theory. Going beyond the electric-dipole approximation is essential whenever studying electric-dipole-forbidden transitions, and in general, non-dipolar effects become increasingly important when addressing spectroscopies involving higher-energy photons. These two aspects are examined by our study of the near K-edge X-ray absorption fine structure of the alkaline earth metals (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, and Ra) as well as the trans-polyenes. In following the series of alkaline earth metals, the sizes of non-dipolar effects are probed with respect to increasing photon energies and a detailed assessment of results is made in terms of studying the pertinent transition electron densities and in particular their spatial extension in comparison with the photon wavelength. Along the series of trans-polyenes, the sizes of non-dipolar effects are probed for X-ray spectroscopies on organic molecules with respect to the spatial extension of the chromophore.

  19. Extreme enhancement of blocking temperature by strong magnetic dipoles interaction of α-Fe nanoparticle-based high-density agglomerate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, H; Takahashi, M; Ogawa, T

    2011-01-01

    High-volume fraction α-Fe nanoparticle (NP) agglomerates were prepared using chemically synthesized NPs. In the agglomerate, NPs are separated by surfactant and NP superlattice with a hexagonal close-packed structure is locally realized. Volume fractions of NPs at 20% and 42% were obtained in agglomerates consisting of 2.9 nm and 8.2 nm diameter NPs, respectively. The high saturation magnetization of α-Fe NPs and high volume fraction of NPs in the agglomerate provide strong magnetic dipole-dipole interaction. The interaction energy of the agglomerate became much larger than the anisotropic energy of individual NPs. As a result, the blocking temperature of the 8.2 nm NP agglomerate was significantly enhanced from 52.2 K to around 500 K. (fast track communication)

  20. Finite-Temperature Relativistic Time-Blocking Approximation for Nuclear Strength Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Herlik; Litvinova, Elena

    2017-09-01

    This work presents an extension of the relativistic nuclear field theory (RNFT) developed throughout the last decade as an approach to the nuclear many-body problem, based on QHD meson-nucleon Lagrangian and relativistic field theory. The unique feature of RNFT is a consistent connection of the high-energy scale of heavy mesons, the medium-energy range of pion, and the low-energy domain of emergent collective vibrations (phonons). RNFT has demonstrated a very good performance in various nuclear structure calculations across the nuclear chart and, in particular, provides a consistent input for description of the two phases of r-process nucleosynthesis: neutron capture and beta decay. Further inclusion of finite temperature effects presented here allows for an extension of the method to highly excited compound nuclei. The covariant response theory in the relativistic time-blocking approximation (RTBA) is generalized for thermal effects, adopting the Matsubara Green's function formalism to the RNFT framework. The finite-temperature RTBA is implemented numerically to calculate multipole strength functions in medium-mass and heavy nuclei. The obtained results will be discussed in comparison to available experimental data and in the context of possible consequences for astrophysics.

  1. Self-consistent calculations of the electric giant dipole resonances in light and heavy nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyutorovich, N; Tselyaev, V I; Speth, J; Krewald, S; Grümmer, F; Reinhard, P-G

    2012-08-31

    While bulk properties of stable nuclei are successfully reproduced by mean-field theories employing effective interactions, the dependence of the centroid energy of the electric giant dipole resonance on the nucleon number A is not. This problem is cured by considering many-particle correlations beyond mean-field theory, which we do within the quasiparticle time blocking approximation. The electric giant dipole resonances in 16O, 40Ca, and 208Pb are calculated using two new Skyrme interactions.

  2. VENTURE: a code block for solving multigroup neutronics problems applying the finite-difference diffusion-theory approximation to neutron transport, version II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1977-11-01

    The report documents the computer code block VENTURE designed to solve multigroup neutronics problems with application of the finite-difference diffusion-theory approximation to neutron transport (or alternatively simple P 1 ) in up to three-dimensional geometry. It uses and generates interface data files adopted in the cooperative effort sponsored by the Reactor Physics Branch of the Division of Reactor Research and Development of the Energy Research and Development Administration. Several different data handling procedures have been incorporated to provide considerable flexibility; it is possible to solve a wide variety of problems on a variety of computer configurations relatively efficiently

  3. VENTURE: a code block for solving multigroup neutronics problems applying the finite-difference diffusion-theory approximation to neutron transport, version II. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1977-11-01

    The report documents the computer code block VENTURE designed to solve multigroup neutronics problems with application of the finite-difference diffusion-theory approximation to neutron transport (or alternatively simple P/sub 1/) in up to three-dimensional geometry. It uses and generates interface data files adopted in the cooperative effort sponsored by the Reactor Physics Branch of the Division of Reactor Research and Development of the Energy Research and Development Administration. Several different data handling procedures have been incorporated to provide considerable flexibility; it is possible to solve a wide variety of problems on a variety of computer configurations relatively efficiently.

  4. VENTURE: a code block for solving multigroup neutronics problems applying the finite-difference diffusion-theory approximation to neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.; Cunningham, G.W.

    1975-10-01

    The computer code block VENTURE, designed to solve multigroup neutronics problems with application of the finite-difference diffusion-theory approximation to neutron transport (or alternatively simple P 1 ) in up to three-dimensional geometry is described. A variety of types of problems may be solved: the usual eigenvalue problem, a direct criticality search on the buckling, on a reciprocal velocity absorber (prompt mode), or on nuclide concentrations, or an indirect criticality search on nuclide concentrations, or on dimensions. First-order perturbation analysis capability is available at the macroscopic cross section level

  5. Dipole-sheet multipole magnets for accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walstrom, P.L.

    1993-01-01

    The dipole-sheet formalism can be used to describe both cylindrical current-sheet multipole magnets and cylindrical-bore magnets made up of permanent magnet blocks. For current sheets, the formalism provides a natural way of finding a finite set of turns that approximate a continuous distribution. The formalism is especially useful In accelerator applications where large-bore, short, high-field-quality magnets that are dominated by fringe fields are needed. A further advantage of the approach is that in systems with either open or cylindrically symmetric magnetic boundaries, analytical expressions for the three-dimensional fields that are suitable for rapid numerical evaluation can be derived. This development is described in some detail. Also, recent developments in higher-order particle-beam optics codes based on the formalism are described briefly

  6. Solvents level dipole moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wenkel; Li, Xiaosong; Dalton, Larry R; Robinson, Bruce H; Eichinger, Bruce E

    2011-11-03

    The dipole moments of highly polar molecules measured in solution are usually smaller than the molecular dipole moments that are calculated with reaction field methods, whereas vacuum values are routinely calculated in good agreement with available vapor phase data. Whether from Onsager's theory (or variations thereof) or from quantum mechanical methods, the calculated molecular dipoles in solution are found to be larger than those measured. The reason, of course, is that experiments measure the net dipole moment of solute together with the polarized (perturbed) solvent "cloud" surrounding it. Here we show that the reaction field charges that are generated in the quantum mechanical self-consistent reaction field (SCRF) method give a good estimate of the net dipole moment of the solute molecule together with the moment arising from the reaction field charges. This net dipole is a better description of experimental data than the vacuum dipole moment and certainly better than the bare dipole moment of the polarized solute molecule.

  7. Dipole localization in Moon rocks from sparse magnetic data

    OpenAIRE

    Chevillard , Sylvain; Leblond , Juliette; Mavreas , Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    International audience; We consider dipole recovery issues from sparse magnetic data, with the use of best quadratic rational approximation techniques, together with geometrical and algebraic properties of the poles of the approximants.

  8. Electric dipole moments reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupertsberger, H.

    1989-01-01

    The electric dipole moments of elementary particles, atoms, molecules and their connection to the electric susceptibility are discussed for stationary states. Assuming rotational invariance it is emphasized that for such states only in the case of a parity and time reversal violating interaction the considered particles can obtain a nonvanishing expectation value for the electric dipole moment. 1 fig., 13 refs. (Author)

  9. ARIADNE 3. A Monte Carlo for QCD cascades in the colour dipole formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennblad, Leif.

    1989-06-01

    A Monte Carlo program for generating QCD cascades, based on the colour dipole approximation is presented. The program is an extension of the program ARIADNE 2, including gluon splitting in the colour dipole formulation of QCD. (author)

  10. Lepton dipole moments

    CERN Document Server

    Marciano, William J

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a self-contained description of the measurements of the magnetic dipole moments of the electron and muon, along with a discussion of the measurements of the fine structure constant, and the theory associated with magnetic and electric dipole moments. Also included are the searches for a permanent electric dipole moment of the electron, muon, neutron and atomic nuclei. The related topic of the transition moment for lepton flavor violating processes, such as neutrinoless muon or tauon decays, and the search for such processes are included as well. The papers, written by many o

  11. Some dipole shower studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabouat, Baptiste; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2018-03-01

    Parton showers have become a standard component in the description of high-energy collisions. Nowadays most final-state ones are of the dipole character, wherein a pair of partons branches into three, with energy and momentum preserved inside this subsystem. For initial-state showers a dipole picture is also possible and commonly used, but the older global-recoil strategy remains a valid alternative, wherein larger groups of partons share the energy-momentum preservation task. In this article we introduce and implement a dipole picture also for initial-state radiation in Pythia, and compare with the existing global-recoil one, and with data. For the case of Deeply Inelastic Scattering we can directly compare with matrix element expressions and show that the dipole picture gives a very good description over the whole phase space, at least for the first branching.

  12. Corrected electrostatic model for dipoles adsorbed on a metal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maschhoff, B.L.; Cowin, J.P. (Enviornmental and Molecular Science Laboratory, Pacific Northwest Laboratories Box 999 MS K2-14, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States))

    1994-11-01

    We present a dipole--dipole interaction model for polar molecules vertically adsorbed on a idealized metal surface in an approximate analytic form suitable for estimating the coverage dependence of the work function, binding energies, and thermal desorption activation energies. In contrast to previous treatments, we have included all contributions to the interaction energy within the dipole model, such as the internal polarization energy and the coverage dependence of the self-image interaction with the metal. We show that these can contribute significantly to the total interaction energy. We present formulae for both point and extended dipole cases.

  13. Dipole-dipole dispersion interactions between neutrons

    OpenAIRE

    Babb, James F.; Higa, Renato; Hussein, Mahir S.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the long-range interactions between two neutrons utilizing recent data on the neutron static and dynamic electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities. The resulting long-range potentials are used to make quantitative comparisons between the collisions of a neutron with a neutron and a neutron with a proton. We also assess the importance of the first pion production threshold and first excited state of the nucleon, the $\\Delta$-resonance ($J^{\\pi}$ = + 3/2, I = 3/2). We found b...

  14. Dipole-dipole dispersion interactions between neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babb, James F. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, ITAMP, Cambridge, MA (United States); Higa, Renato [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hussein, Mahir S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Fisica, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Estudos Avancados, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, CTA, Sao Jose dos Campos (Brazil)

    2017-06-15

    We investigate the long-range interactions between two neutrons utilizing recent data on the neutron static and dynamic electric and magnetic dipole polarizabilities. The resulting long-range potentials are used to make quantitative comparisons between the collisions of a neutron with a neutron and a neutron with a proton. We also assess the importance of the first pion production threshold and first excited state of the nucleon, the Δ-resonance (J{sup π} = +3/2, I = 3/2). We found both dynamical effects to be quite relevant for distances r between ∝ 50 fm up to ∝ 10{sup 3} fm in the nn system, the neutron-wall system and in the wall-neutron-wall system, reaching the expected asymptotic limit beyond that. Relevance of our findings to the confinement of ultra cold neutrons inside bottles is discussed. (orig.)

  15. Dipole-dipole interaction in cavity QED: The weak-coupling, nondegenerate regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire, M.; Muñoz-Castañeda, J. M.; Nieto, L. M.

    2017-10-01

    We compute the energies of the interaction between two atoms placed in the middle of a perfectly reflecting planar cavity, in the weak-coupling nondegenerate regime. Both inhibition and enhancement of the interactions can be obtained by varying the size of the cavity. We derive exact expressions for the dyadic Green's function of the cavity field which mediates the interactions and apply time-dependent quantum perturbation theory in the adiabatic approximation. We provide explicit expressions for the van der Waals potentials of two polarizable atomic dipoles and the electrostatic potential of two induced dipoles. We compute the van der Waals potentials in three different scenarios: two atoms in their ground states, two atoms excited, and two dissimilar atoms with one of them excited. In addition, we calculate the phase-shift rate of the two-atom wave function in each case. The effect of the two-dimensional confinement of the electromagnetic field on the dipole-dipole interactions is analyzed. This effect depends on the atomic polarization. For dipole moments oriented parallel to the cavity plates, both the electrostatic and the van der Waals interactions are exponentially suppressed for values of the cavity width much less than the interatomic distance, whereas for values of the width close to the interatomic distance, the strength of both interactions is higher than their values in the absence of cavity. For dipole moments perpendicular to the plates, the strength of the van der Waals interaction decreases for values of the cavity width close to the interatomic distance, while it increases for values of the width much less than the interatomic distance with respect to its strength in the absence of cavity. We illustrate these effects by computing the dipole-dipole interactions between two alkali atoms in circular Rydberg states.

  16. Slice of LHC dipole wiring

    CERN Multimedia

    Dipole model slice made in 1994 by Ansaldo. The high magnetic fields needed for guiding particles around the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) ring are created by passing 12’500 amps of current through coils of superconducting wiring. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC is the largest superconducting installation ever built. The magnetic field must also be extremely uniform. This means the current flowing in the coils has to be very precisely controlled. Indeed, nowhere before has such precision been achieved at such high currents. 50’000 tonnes of steel sheets are used to make the magnet yokes that keep the wiring firmly in place. The yokes constitute approximately 80% of the accelerator's weight and, placed side by side, stretch over 20 km!

  17. Dissecting an LHC dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    The cold mass of a 15-metre main dipole magnet has some fifteen different components. All the main components are manufactured under CERN's direct responsibility. Four of them transit through CERN before being shipped to the dipole assembly contractors, namely the cable, which constitutes the magnet's superconducting core (see Bulletin 14/2004), the beam screens, the heat exchanger tubes and the cold bore beam tubes. The two latter components transit via Building 927 where they undergo part of the production process. The 58-mm diameter heat exchanger tubes will remove heat from the magnets using superfluid helium. The 53-mm diameter cold bore tubes will be placed under vacuum to allow the twin beams to circulate around the LHC.

  18. On the Mean Spherical Approximation for Hard Ions and Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-09

    de Ingenieria Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina ***Department of Chemistry, University of California Davis, CA 95616 Reproduction...Fernando Vericat Instituto de Ffsica de Lfquidos y Sistemas Biologicos (IFLYSIB) c.c 565 (1900) and Departamento de Ffsicomatematicas, Facultad de ... Ingenieria , Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata, Argentina and W.R. Fawcett Department of Chemistry, University of California, Davis CA 95616

  19. Dipole matrix element approach versus Peierls approximation for optical conductivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wissgott, P.; Kuneš, Jan; Toschi, A.; Held, K.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 20 (2012), "205133-1"-"205133-9" ISSN 1098-0121 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : optical spectroscopy * dynamical mean-field theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.767, year: 2012 http://link.aps.org/doi/10.1103/PhysRevB.85.205133

  20. EuCARD-HFM dipole model design options

    CERN Document Server

    Bruchon, Mélanie; Durante, Maria; Karppinen, Mikko; Kircher, François; Manil, Pierre; Milanese, Attilio; Oberli, Luc; Perez, Juan Carlos; Rifflet, Jean-Michel; Rondeaux, Françoise; Todesco, Ezio

    2010-01-01

    The EuCARD-HFM task aims at realizing a 13 T dipole magnet with an aperture of 100 mm, which is a challenging step towards very high field accelerator magnets. This dipole, utilizing Nb$_{3}$Sn superconductor, will be used in the Fresca test facility at CERN. A preliminary design study has compared two possible design layouts for the EuCARD-HFM magnet: the cos-θ and the block. This report summarizes the conclusions of this study and justifies, on the base of quantitative and qualitative arguments, our decision to pursue the detailed design with the block layout.

  1. ALICE dipole and decoration

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    The ALICE cavern receives a painting made specially to mark the 50th anniversary of CERN that is mounted on the L3 solenoid magnet, reused from the LEP experiment that ran from 1989 to 2000. The dipole, which is cooled by demineralised water, will bend the path of muons that leave the huge rectangular solenoid. These muons are heavy electrons that interact less with matter allowing them to be studied at large distances from the interaction point.

  2. Giant Primeval Magnetic Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Christopher

    2017-07-01

    Macroscopic magnetic dipoles are considered cosmic dark matter. Permanent magnetism in relativistic field structures can involve some form of superconductivity, one example being current-carrying string loops (“springs”) with vanishing net tension. We derive the cross-section for free classical dipoles to collide, finding it depends weakly on orientation when mutual precession is rapid. The collision rate of “spring” loops with tension { T }˜ {10}-8{c}4/G in galactic halos approaches the measured rate of fast radio bursts (FRBs) if the loops compose most of the dark matter. A large superconducting dipole (LSD) with mass ˜1020 g and size ˜1 mm will form a ˜100 km magnetosphere moving through interstellar plasma. Although hydromagnetic drag is generally weak, it is strong enough to capture some LSDs into long-lived rings orbiting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) that form by the direct collapse of massive gas clouds. Repeated collisions near young SMBHs could dominate the global collision rate, thereby broadening the dipole mass spectrum. Colliding LSDs produce tiny, hot electromagnetic explosions. The accompanying paper shows that these explosions couple effectively to propagating low-frequency electromagnetic modes, with output peaking at 0.01-1 THz. We describe several constraints on, and predictions of, LSDs as cosmic dark matter. The shock formed by an infalling LSD triggers self-sustained thermonuclear burning in a C/O (ONeMg) white dwarf (WD) of mass ≳1 M ⊙ (1.3 M ⊙). The spark is generally located off the center of the WD. The rate of LSD-induced explosions matches the observed rate of Type Ia supernovae.

  3. Dipole defects in beryl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holanda, B A; Cordeiro, R C; Blak, A R

    2010-01-01

    Dipole defects in gamma irradiated and thermally treated beryl (Be 3 Al 2 Si 6 O 18 ) samples have been studied using the Thermally Stimulated Depolarization Currents (TSDC) technique. TSDC experiments were performed in pink (morganite), green (emerald), blue (aquamarine) and colourless (goshenite) natural beryl. TSDC spectra present dipole peaks at 190K, 220K, 280K and 310K that change after gamma irradiation and thermal treatments. In morganite samples, for thermal treatments between 700K and 1100K, the 280K peak increase in intensity and the band at 220K disappears. An increase of the 280K peak and a decrease of the 190K peak were observed in the TSDC spectra of morganite after a gamma irradiation of 25kGy performed after the thermal treatments. In the case of emerald samples, thermal treatments enhanced the 280K peak and gamma irradiation partially destroyed this band. The goshenite TSDC spectra present only one band at 280K that is not affected either by thermal treatments or by gamma irradiation. All the observed peaks are of dipolar origin because the intensity of the bands is linearly dependent on the polarization field, behaviour of dipole defects. The systematic study, by means of TSDC measurements, of ionizing irradiation effects and thermal treatments in these crystals makes possible a better understanding of the role played by the impurities in beryl crystals.

  4. The dipole representation of vector meson electroproduction beyond leading twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besse, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2013-01-01

    We link the recent computation beyond leading twist of the impact factor of the transition γ T ⁎ →ρ T performed in the light-cone collinear approach, to the dipole picture by expressing the hard part of the process through its Fourier transform in coordinate space. We show that in the Wandzura–Wilczek approximation the impact factor up to twist 3 factorises in the wave function of the photon combined with the distribution amplitudes of the ρ-meson and the colour dipole scattering amplitude with the t-channel gluons. We show also that beyond the Wandzura–Wilczek approximation, the hard contribution of the amplitude still exhibits the signature of the interaction of a single colour dipole with the t-channel gluons. This result allows a phenomenological approach of the helicity amplitudes of the leptoproduction of vector meson, by combining our results to a dipole/target scattering amplitude model.

  5. Supersymmetric relations among electromagnetic dipole operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graesser, Michael; Thomas, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Supersymmetric contributions to all leptonic electromagnetic dipole operators have essentially identical diagrammatic structure. With approximate slepton universality this allows the muon anomalous magnetic moment to be related to the electron electric dipole moment in terms of supersymmetric phases, and to radiative flavor changing lepton decays in terms of small violations of slepton universality. If the current discrepancy between the measured and standard model values of the muon anomalous magnetic moment is due to supersymmetry, the current bound on the electron electric dipole moment then implies that the phase of the electric dipole operator is less than 2x10 -3 . Likewise the current bound on μ→eγ decay implies that the fractional selectron-smuon mixing in the left-left mass squared matrix, δm μ-tildee-tilde) 2 /m l-tilde) 2 , is less than 10 -4 . These relations and constraints are fairly insensitive to details of the superpartner spectrum for moderate to large tan β

  6. Breakdown of the few-level approximation in collective systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiffner, M.; Evers, J.; Keitel, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    The validity of the few-level approximation in dipole-dipole interacting collective systems is discussed. As an example system, we study the archetype case of two dipole-dipole interacting atoms, each modeled by two complete sets of angular momentum multiplets. We establish the breakdown of the few-level approximation by first proving the intuitive result that the dipole-dipole induced energy shifts between collective two-atom states depend on the length of the vector connecting the atoms, but not on its orientation, if complete and degenerate multiplets are considered. A careful analysis of our findings reveals that the simplification of the atomic level scheme by artificially omitting Zeeman sublevels in a few-level approximation generally leads to incorrect predictions. We find that this breakdown can be traced back to the dipole-dipole coupling of transitions with orthogonal dipole moments. Our interpretation enables us to identify special geometries in which partial few-level approximations to two- or three-level systems are valid

  7. Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, J. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Chen, H. H.; Deng, R. D.; Yan, Q. X.

    2016-02-01

    A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.

  8. Interaction between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. G. Ku

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A new formula for the interaction force between two magnetic dipoles in a uniform magnetic field is derived taking their mutual magnetic interaction into consideration and used to simulate their relative motion. Results show that when the angle β between the direction of external magnetic field and the centerline of two magnetic dipoles is 0 ° or 90 °, magnetic dipoles approach each other or move away from each other in a straight line, respectively. And the time required for them to contact each other from the initial position is related to the specific susceptibility and the diameter of magnetic particles, medium viscosity and magnetic field strength. When β is between 0 ° and 90 °, magnetic dipole pair performs approximate elliptical motion, and the motion trajectory is affected by the specific susceptibility, diameter and medium viscosity but not magnetic field strength. However, time required for magnetic dipoles to complete the same motion trajectory is shorter when adopting stronger magnetic field. Moreover, the subsequent motion trajectory of magnetic dipoles is ascertained once the initial position is set in a predetermined motion trajectory. Additionally, magnetic potential energy of magnetic dipole pairs is transformed into kinetic energy and friction energy during the motion.

  9. Internal dipole radiation as a tool for particle identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yu; Kattawar, George W; Li, Changhui; Yang, Ping

    2006-12-20

    A numerical approach for the calculation of the internal dipole radiation associated with particles of arbitrary morphology is investigated by using the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA) method. The DDA and analytical solutions for the total radiated power and radiation pattern are compared in the case of spherical host particles. It is shown that the DDA can be quite accurate under the condition that m lambda is the wavenumber in vacuum, and d is the distance between two adjacent dipoles in the DDA cubic dipole array. Furthermore, the DDA solutions for the dipole radiation patterns associated with nonspherical host particles are compared with their corresponding counterparts obtained from the finite-difference time-domain method. Excellent agreement between the two results is noted. The DDA method is also applied to the computation of the internal dipole radiation associated with simulated nonspherical sporelike particles. The results suggest that the internal dipole radiation patterns contain a great deal of information about the morphology and composition of the host particle.

  10. Backfire antennas with dipole elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Dragø; Pontoppidan, Knud

    1970-01-01

    A method is set up for a theoretical investigation of arbitrary backfire antennas based upon dipole structures. The mutual impedance between the dipole elements of the antenna is taken into account, and the field radiated due to a surface wave reflector of finite extent is determined by calculating...

  11. Magnetic dipoles and electric currents

    OpenAIRE

    Corbó, Guido; Testa, Massimo

    2009-01-01

    We discuss several similarities and differences between the concepts of electric and magnetic dipoles. We then consider the relation between the magnetic dipole and a current loop and show that in the limit of a pointlike circuit, their magnetic fields coincide. The presentation is accessible to undergraduate students with a knowledge of the basic ideas of classical electromagnetism.

  12. The neutron electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, X.G.; McKellar, B.H.J.; Pakvasa, S.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study was made of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of neutron D n in various models of CP violation. It was found that in the standard KM model with 3 families the neutron EDM is in the range 1.4x10 -33 ≤ D n ≤ 1.6x10 -31 ecm; that the two Higgs doublet model has approximately the same value of D n as the standard model; that D n in the Weinberg model is predicted to satisfy D n > 10 -25 ecm; that in a class of left-right symmetric models D n is of the order of 10 -26-11 ecm; that in supersymmetric models D n is of the order 10 -22 φ ecm with φ being the possible phase difference of the phases of gluino mass and the gluino-quark-smark mixing matrix and that the strong CP parameter θ is found to be θ -9 , using the present experimental limit that D n -25 ecm with 90% confidence. 65 refs., 10 figs

  13. Stochastic Approximation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    V S Borkar is the Institute. Chair Professor of. Electrical Engineering at. IIT Bombay. His research interests are stochastic optimization, theory, algorithms and applica- tions. 1 'Markov Chain Monte Carlo' is another one (see [1]), not to mention schemes that combine both. Stochastic approximation is one of the unsung.

  14. A Non-Linear Finite Element Model for the LHC Main Dipole Coil Cross-Section

    CERN Document Server

    Pojer, M; Scandale, Walter

    2006-01-01

    The production of the dipole magnets for the Large Hadron Collider is at its final stage. Nevertheless, some mechanical instabilities are still observed for which no clear explanation has been found yet. A FE modelization of the dipole cold mass cross-section had already been developed at CERN, mainly for magnetic analysis, taking into account conductor blocks and a frictionless behavior. This paper describes a new ANSYS® model of the dipole coil cross-section, featuring individual turns inside conductor blocks, and implementing friction and the mechanical non-linear behavior of insulated cables. Preliminary results, comparison with measurements performed in industry and ongoing developments are discussed.

  15. Long-term dipole-dipole resistivity monitoring at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilt, M.; Goldstein, N.E.; Sasaki, Y.

    1984-04-01

    Dipole-dipole resistivity measurements for the combined purposes of reservoir delineation and reservoir monitoring were first made at Cerro Prieto in 1978 and have continued on approximately an annual basis since then. Two 20 km-long dipole-dipole lines with permanently emplaced electrodes at 1-km spacings were established over the field area. Resistivity remeasurements have been made on one line at 6- to 18-month intervals using a 25 kW generator capable of up to 80A output and a microprocessor-controlled signal-averaging receiver. This high-power, low-noise system provides highly accurate measurements even at large transmitter receiver separations. Standard error calculations for collected data indicate errors less than 5% for all points. Results from four years of monitoring (1979-1983) indicate a 5% average annual increase in apparent resistivity over the present production area, and larger decreases in apparent resistivity in the region to the east. The increase in resistivity in the production zone is most likely due to dilution of reservoir fluids with fresher water, as evidenced by a drop in chloride content of produced waters. The area of decreasing resistivity east of the reservoir is associated with a steeply dipping conductive body, a zone of higher thermal gradients and an increase in shale thickness in the section. Decreasing resistivity in this area may be caused by an influx of high temperature, saline water from depths of 3/sup +/ km through a sandy gap in the shales.

  16. LHC Dipoles Accelerate

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    Andrezej Siemko (left), Peter Sievers (centre), and Lucio Rossi (right), have the exciting challenge of preparing and testing 2000 magnets for the LHC. The LHC is going to require a lot of powerful magnets by the time it begins operation in 2006. More specifically, it is going to need 130 special magnets, 400 quadrupoles, and a whopping 1250 dipoles! Preparing and testing these magnets for the conditions they will encounter in the LHC is not an easy task. But evaluation of the most recently received magnet, from the German company Noell, is showing that while the monumental task of receiving and testing nearly 2000 magnets is going to be exhausting, the goals are definitely attainable. At the moment and over the next year, pre-series magnets (the magnets that CERN uses to fine tune performance) are arriving slowly (90 in total will arrive), but by 2003 the rate of series magnet arrival will accelerate to 9 per week, that's over 450 in a single year! And working with these magnets when they arrive is tough. ...

  17. Continuous millennial decrease of the Earth's magnetic axial dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletti, Wilbor; Biggin, Andrew J.; Trindade, Ricardo I. F.; Hartmann, Gelvam A.; Terra-Nova, Filipe

    2018-01-01

    Since the establishment of direct estimations of the Earth's magnetic field intensity in the first half of the nineteenth century, a continuous decay of the axial dipole component has been observed and variously speculated to be linked to an imminent reversal of the geomagnetic field. Furthermore, indirect estimations from anthropologically made materials and volcanic derivatives suggest that this decrease began significantly earlier than direct measurements have been available. Here, we carefully reassess the available archaeointensity dataset for the last two millennia, and show a good correspondence between direct (observatory/satellite) and indirect (archaeomagnetic) estimates of the axial dipole moment creating, in effect, a proxy to expand our analysis back in time. Our results suggest a continuous linear decay as the most parsimonious long-term description of the axial dipole variation for the last millennium. We thus suggest that a break in the symmetry of axial dipole moment advective sources occurred approximately 1100 years earlier than previously described. In addition, based on the observed dipole secular variation timescale, we speculate that the weakening of the axial dipole may end soon.

  18. Dipoles, unintentional antennas and EMC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berend Danker

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiated emissions from equipment commonly originate from electronic circuits that act as electric dipoles created by the signal voltage between the signal conductors or as magnetic dipoles formed by the signal current flowing in a loop. Direct emission is mostly small, but circuits often couple to long conductors or large wiring loops which act as antennas and are efficient radiators. A comparable situation exists when short dipole antennas or small wiring loops receive ambient noise (susceptibility. Usually the amplitude of noise sources or the susceptibility of circuits is an invariable. The dipole strength increases with the distance between the conductors and the area. Shielding and proper grounding decreases the interaction via unintentional antennas. Short-circuiting and the insertion of lossy ferrite cores reduce the efficiency of unintentional antennas.

  19. Density wave instabilities of tilted fermionic dipoles in a multilayer geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Block, Jens; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; Bruun, Georg

    2012-01-01

    We consider the density wave instability of fermionic dipoles aligned by an external field and moving in equidistant layers at zero temperature. Using a conserving Hartree–Fock approximation, we show that correlations between dipoles in different layers significantly decrease the critical coupling...

  20. Self-Interaction of an electric dipole in the gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leaute, B.; Linet, B.

    1983-01-01

    We consider an electric dipole at rest in a weak gravitational field. We determine the electric self-force and the electric self-torque on the dipole, using a lagrangian method at the post-Newtonian approximation of general relativity [fr

  1. Possible displacement of mercury's dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.H.; Beard, D.B.

    1979-01-01

    Earlier attempts to model the Hermean magnetospheric field based on a planet-centered magnetic multipole field have required the addition of a quadrupole moment to obtain a good fit to space vehicle observations. In this work we obtain an equally satisfactory fit by assuming a null quadrupole moment and least squares fitting of the displacement of the planetary dipole from the center of the planet. We find a best fit for a dipole displacement from the planet center of 0.033 R/sub m/ away from the solar direction, 0.025 R/sub m/ toward dawn in the magnetic equatorial plane, and 0.189 R/sub m/ northward along the magnetic dipole axis, where R/sub m/ is the planet radius. Therefore the presence of a magnetic quadrupole moment is not ruled out. The compressed dipole field more completely represents the field in the present work than in previous work where the intrinsic quadrupole field was not included in the magnetopause surface and field calculations. Moreover, we have corrected a programing error in previous work in the computation of dipole tilt lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet dipole moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda away from the sun. We find a slight increase for the planet moment of 190γR/sub m/ 3 and a dipole tilt angle lambda of only 1.2 0 away from the sun. All other parameters are essentially unchanged

  2. Approximate Likelihood

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Most physics results at the LHC end in a likelihood ratio test. This includes discovery and exclusion for searches as well as mass, cross-section, and coupling measurements. The use of Machine Learning (multivariate) algorithms in HEP is mainly restricted to searches, which can be reduced to classification between two fixed distributions: signal vs. background. I will show how we can extend the use of ML classifiers to distributions parameterized by physical quantities like masses and couplings as well as nuisance parameters associated to systematic uncertainties. This allows for one to approximate the likelihood ratio while still using a high dimensional feature vector for the data. Both the MEM and ABC approaches mentioned above aim to provide inference on model parameters (like cross-sections, masses, couplings, etc.). ABC is fundamentally tied Bayesian inference and focuses on the “likelihood free” setting where only a simulator is available and one cannot directly compute the likelihood for the dat...

  3. Intrinsic electric dipole moments of paramagnetic atoms : Rubidium and cesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nataraj, H. S.; Sahoo, B. K.; Das, B. P.; Mukherjee, D.

    2008-01-01

    The electric dipole moment (EDM) of paramagnetic atoms is sensitive to the intrinsic EDM contribution from that of its constituent electrons and a scalar-pseudoscalar (S-PS) electron-nucleus interaction. The electron EDM and the S-PS contributions to the EDMs of these atoms scale as approximate to

  4. Manufacture and Performance of the LHC Main Dipole Final Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Modena, M; Bajko, M; Bottura, L; Buzio, M; Fessia, P; Pagano, O; Perini, D; Savary, F; Scandale, Walter; Siemko, A; Spigo, G; Todesco, Ezio; Vanenkov, I; Vlogaert, J; Wyss, C

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports about the program of six LHC main dipole final prototypes. This program, launched in summer 1998, relies on industrially manufactured collared coils and cold masses assembled at the CERN Magnet Assembly Facility. The magnet design for series manufacture features a "6-block" coil and austenitic steel collars, following design, stability and robustness studies. Results of mechanical and magnetic measurements are given and discussed, as well as the performances of the prototypes measured so far.

  5. ISABELLE full scale dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Dahl, P.F.; Kassner, D.; Lasky, C.; Robins, K.; Sampson, W.B.

    1975-01-01

    Data are presented on the various cosine theta type magnet models constructed at BNL in the development of ring magnets for ISABELLE, a pair of intersecting 200 GeV proton accelerating storage rings. The rings are to be filled with 30 GeV protons from the AGS and then accelerated to 200 GeV. The acceleration period is a 120 sec ramp from approximately 0.5 T to 4 T. The effect of mechanical precompression on training was studied by varying the interference fit between the coil (ISA IV) and its iron shield. The results were used to optimize the mechanical design of the full-size magnet models

  6. Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    Stacks of SPS Dipole Magnets ready for installation in the tunnel. The SPS uses a separated function lattice with dipoles for bending and quadrupoles for focusing. The 6.2 m long normal conducting dipoles are of H-type with coils that are bent-up at the ends. There are two types, B1 (total of 360) and B2 (384). Both are for a maximum field of 1.8 Tesla and have the same outer dimensions (450x800 mm2 vxh) but with different gaps (B1: 39x129 mm2, B2: 52x92 mm2) tailored to the beam size. The yoke, made of 1.5 mm thick laminations, consists of an upper and a lower half joined together in the median plane once the coils have been inserted.

  7. The pygmy dipole resonance in neutron-rich nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Nguyen Quang; Kiet, Hoang Anh Tuan; Duc, Huynh Ngoc; Chuong, Nguyen Thi

    2016-01-01

    The pygmy dipole resonance (PDR), which has been observed via the enhancement of the electric dipole strength E 1 of atomic nuclei, is studied within a microscopic collective model. The latter employs the Hartree-Fock (HF) method with effective nucleon-nucleon interactions of the Skyrme types plus the random-phase approximation (RPA). The results of the calculations obtained for various even-even nuclei such as 16-28 O, 40-58 Ca, 100-120 Sn, and 182-218 Pb show that the PDR is significantly enhanced when the number of neutrons outside the stable core of the nucleus is increased, that is, in the neutron-rich nuclei. As the result, the relative ratio between the energy weighted sum of the strength of the PDR and that of the GDR (giant dipole resonance) does not exceed 4%. The collectivity of the PDR and GDR states will be also discussed. (paper)

  8. Isoscalar and isovector collective dipole states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelhekken, T.D.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study on the excitation of isoscalar and isovector dipole collective states by inelastic alpha scattering. In ch. 2 the experimental techniques and the characteristics of the α-particle and the γ-ray detection system are summarized. The details of the relevant theory, such as the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) formalism, the energy-weighted sum rules and the α-γ angular correlations are given in ch. 3. Ch. 4 presents the results of the search for low-energy isoscalar giant dipole resonance (ISLEDR) strength by studying inelastic scattering at very forward angles, including 0 deg, of 120 MeV α-particles in coincidence with γ-ray decay. For the identification of these ISLEDR states use has been made of the fact that the α-γ angular correlations show a very characteristic pattern for γ-decay to the ) + ground state of the nuclei. Results are shown for 208 Pb, 90 Zr, 58 Ni and 40 Ca. A second experiment used the same reaction but focussed on the excitation of the isovector giant dipole resonance (IVGDR) in 208 Pb, located in a different excitation energy region (ch. 5). With the help of the (α,α'γ)-reaction it could be shown that at most 12 (± 4) % of the observed resonance strength around 13.6MeV in 208 Pb could be caused by IVGDR excitation. Finally a summary is presented in ch. 6 together with the future prospects for this particular branch in the field of giant resonances. (author). 209 refs.; 68 figs.; 42 tabs

  9. 5cm aperture dipole studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInturff, A.D.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Lundy, R.; Mantech, P.; Strait, J.

    1986-01-01

    The results obtained during the evolution of the design, construction, and testing program of the design ''B'' dipole are presented here. Design ''B'' is one of the original three competing designs for the Superconducting Super Collider ''SSC'' arc dipoles. The final design parameters were as follows: air cored (less than a few percent of the magnetic field derived from any iron present), aluminum collared, two layered winding, 5.5T maximum operating field, and a 5 cm cold aperture. There have been fourteen 64 cm long 5 cm aperture model dipoles cold tested (at 4.3K and less) in this program so far. There was a half length full size (6m) mechanical analog (M-10) built and tested to check the cryostat's mechanical design under ramping and quench conditions. Several deviations from the ''Tevatron'' dipole fabrication technique were incorporated, for example the use of aluminum collars instead of stainless steel. The winding technique variations explored were ''dry welding,'' a technique with the cable covered with Kapton insulation only and ''wet winding'' where the Kapton was covered with a light coat of ''B'' stage epoxy. Test data include quench currents, field quality (Fourier multipole co-efficients), coil magnetization, conductor current performance, and coil loading. Quench current, loss per cycle, and harmonics were measured as a function of the magnitude and rate of change of the magnetic field, and helium bath temperature

  10. Raising the last LEP dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    The last of the 3280 dipole magnets from the Large Electron-Positron (LEP) collider is seen on its journey to the surface on 12 February 2002. The LEP era, which began at CERN in 1989 and ended 2000, comes to an end.

  11. Particle electric dipole-moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendlebury, J.M. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    The incentive to detect particle electric dipole-moments, as a window on time-reversal violation, remains undiminished. Efforts to improve the measurements for the neutron, the electron and some nuclei are still making rapid progress as more powerful experimental methods are brought to bear. A new measurement for the neutron at ILL is presented. (author). 7 refs.

  12. Multiscale dipole relaxation in dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2016-01-01

    Dipole relaxation from thermally induced perturbations is investigated on different length scales for dielectric materials. From the continuum dynamical equations for the polarisation, expressions for the transverse and longitudinal dipole autocorrelation functions are derived in the limit where...

  13. The dipole representation of vector meson electroproduction beyond leading twist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besse, A. [LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France); Szymanowski, L. [National Center for Nuclear Research (NCBJ), Warsaw (Poland); Wallon, S., E-mail: wallon@th.u-psud.fr [LPT, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS, 91405, Orsay (France); UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Faculte de Physique, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2013-02-01

    We link the recent computation beyond leading twist of the impact factor of the transition {gamma}{sub T}{sup Low-Asterisk }{yields}{rho}{sub T} performed in the light-cone collinear approach, to the dipole picture by expressing the hard part of the process through its Fourier transform in coordinate space. We show that in the Wandzura-Wilczek approximation the impact factor up to twist 3 factorises in the wave function of the photon combined with the distribution amplitudes of the {rho}-meson and the colour dipole scattering amplitude with the t-channel gluons. We show also that beyond the Wandzura-Wilczek approximation, the hard contribution of the amplitude still exhibits the signature of the interaction of a single colour dipole with the t-channel gluons. This result allows a phenomenological approach of the helicity amplitudes of the leptoproduction of vector meson, by combining our results to a dipole/target scattering amplitude model.

  14. Dynamics of a nonlinear dipole vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesthaven, J.S.; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Nielsen, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    A localized stationary dipole solution to the Euler equations with a relationship between the vorticity and streamfunction given as omega=-psi+psi(3) is presented. By numerical integration of the Euler equations this dipole is shown to be unstable. However, the initially unstable dipole reorganiz...

  15. Descent of the last LHC dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The last of 1746 superconducting magnets is lowered into the LHC tunnel via a specially constructed pit at 12:00 on 26 April. This 15-m long dipole magnet is one of 1232 dipoles positioned around the 27-km circumference of the collider. Dipole magnets produce a magnetic field that bends the particle beams around the circular accelerator.

  16. Acoustic dispersion in a two-dimensional dipole system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Donko, Zoltan; Hartmann, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We calculate the full density response function and from it the long-wavelength acoustic dispersion for a two-dimensional system of strongly coupled point dipoles interacting through a 1/r 3 potential at arbitrary degeneracy. Such a system has no random-phase-approximation (RPA) limit and the calculation has to include correlations from the outset. We follow the quasilocalized charge (QLC) approach, accompanied by molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations. Similarly to what has been recently reported for the closely spaced classical electron-hole bilayer [G. J. Kalman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 236801 (2007)] and in marked contrast to the RPA, we report a long-wavelength acoustic phase velocity that is wholly maintained by particle correlations and varies linearly with the dipole moment p. The oscillation frequency, calculated both in an extended QLC approximation and in the Singwi-Tosi-Land-Sjolander approximation [Phys. Rev. 176, 589 (1968)], is invariant in form over the entire classical to quantum domains all the way down to zero temperature. Based on our classical MD-generated pair distribution function data and on ground-state energy data generated by recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a bosonic dipole system [G. E. Astrakharchik et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 060405 (2007)], there is a good agreement between the QLC approximation kinetic sound speeds and the standard thermodynamic sound speeds in both the classical and quantum domains

  17. Dipole and spin-dipole strength distributions in isotopes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Necla Cakmak

    2018-01-03

    Jan 3, 2018 ... and 14 and the giant resonances in the energy region of. 19–27 MeV were found to be predominantly excited by. L = 1 transition [19]. Also, the angular distributions of double differential cross-section were measured for. 40Ca(p, p ) reaction at 319 MeV [20]. The spin-dipole resonance has a total measured ...

  18. Observation of isoscalar and isovector dipole excitations in neutron-rich 20O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nakatsuka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The isospin characters of low-energy dipole excitations in neutron-rich unstable nucleus 20O were investigated, for the first time in unstable nuclei. Two spectra obtained from a dominant isovector probe (O20+Au and a dominant isoscalar probe (O20+α were compared and analyzed by the distorted-wave Born approximation to extract independently the isovector and isoscalar dipole strengths. Two known 1− states with large isovector dipole strengths at energies of 5.36(5 MeV (11− and 6.84(7 MeV (12− were also excited by the isoscalar probe. These two states were found to have different isoscalar dipole strengths, 2.70(32% (11− and 0.67(12% (12−, respectively, in exhaustion of the isoscalar dipole-energy-weighted sum rule. The difference in isoscalar strength indicated that they have different underlying structures.

  19. Technology of superconducting accelerator dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Meuser, R.B.; Taylor, C.

    1983-06-01

    We discuss accelerator dipoles and their characteristics. Other types of magnets, in particular bubble chamber magnets have been quite successful. Their performance is based on cryogenic stability which is addressed only briefly in this chapter. This type of stability is not available to the accelerator designer because of the large quantities of copper or other stabilizer that would reduce the current density in the windings to an unacceptably low value

  20. Aperture measurements with AC dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Fuster Martinez, Nuria; Dilly, Joschua Werner; Nevay, Laurence James; Bruce, Roderik; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Redaelli, Stefano; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2018-01-01

    During the MDs performed on the 15th of September and 29th of November 2017, we measured the LHC global aperture at injection with a new AC dipole method as well as using the Transverse Damper (ADT) blow-up method used during the 2017 LHC commissioning for benchmarking. In this note, the MD procedure is presented as well as the analysis of the comparison between the two methods. The possible benefits of the new method are discussed.

  1. Random walks in disordered lattice, CTRW, memory and dipole transport

    OpenAIRE

    Dzheparov, F. S.

    2017-01-01

    Application of CTRW to dipole hopping transport is considered. Correct versions of derivation of the CTRW-equations are presented. Existence of different forms of memory kernels is demonstrated. Correction of Scher-Lax memory kernel within geometrical memory approach is fulfilled in accordance with leading terms of concentration expansion. Approximate solution for autocorrelation function is constructed. Modern state of numerical simulation and experimental measurements of autocorrelation fun...

  2. A skull-based multiple dipole phantom for EEG and MEG studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, M.E.; Leahy, R.M. [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mosher, J.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-07-01

    A versatile phantom for use in evaluating forward and inverse methods for MEG and EEG has been designed and is currently being constructed. The phantom consists of three major components: (i) a 32-element cur- rent dipole array, (ii) a PC-controlled dipole driver with 32 isolated channels allowing independent control of each dipole, (iii) spherical and human-skull mounts in which the dipole array is placed. Materials were selected throughout the phantom to produce minimal field distortions and artifacts to enable acquisition of high quality EEG and MEG data. The dipoles are made from a rigid narrow (0.84 mm) stainless steel coax cable. The dipole drivers can be configured as either current or voltage sources, are independently programmable and fully isolated, and are capable of producing arbitrary bipolar waveforms up to a 200 Hz bandwidth. The spherical mount is a single shell sphere filled with conductive gelatin. The human skull mount has three shells: ``brain`` (conducting gelatin), ``skull`` (the skull is impregnated with a low conductivity conducting gelatin), and ``scalp`` (a thin layer of rubber latex mixed with NaCl to achieve a conductivity matched to the brain). The conductivities will be adjusted to achieve approximately an 80:1:80 ratio. Data collected to date from the spherical phantom shows excellent agreement between measured surface potentials and that predicted from theory (27 of the 32 dipoles give better than 99.9% rms fit) and negligible leakage between dipoles. We are currently completing construction of the skull mount.

  3. Determination of ground and excited state dipole moments via electronic Stark spectroscopy: 5-methoxyindole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilke, Josefin; Wilke, Martin; Schmitt, Michael, E-mail: mschmitt@uni-duesseldorf.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Heinrich-Heine-Universität, D-40225 Düsseldorf (Germany); Meerts, W. Leo, E-mail: leo.meerts@science.ru.nl [Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, NL-6525 AS Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2016-01-28

    The dipole moments of the ground and lowest electronically excited singlet state of 5-methoxyindole have been determined by means of optical Stark spectroscopy in a molecular beam. The resulting spectra arise from a superposition of different field configurations, one with the static electric field almost parallel to the polarization of the exciting laser radiation, the other nearly perpendicular. Each field configuration leads to different intensities in the rovibronic spectrum. With an automated evolutionary algorithm approach, the spectra can be fit and the ratio of both field configurations can be determined. A simultaneous fit of two spectra with both field configurations improved the precision of the dipole moment determination by a factor of two. We find a reduction of the absolute dipole moment from 1.59(3) D to 1.14(6) D upon electronic excitation to the lowest electronically excited singlet state. At the same time, the dipole moment orientation rotates by 54{sup ∘} showing the importance of the determination of the dipole moment components. The dipole moment in the electronic ground state can approximately be obtained from a vector addition of the indole and the methoxy group dipole moments. However, in the electronically excited state, vector addition completely fails to describe the observed dipole moment. Several reasons for this behavior are discussed.

  4. A Large Aperture Superconducting Dipole for Beta Beams to Minimize Heat Deposition in the Coil

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E

    The aim of beta beams in a decay ring is to produce highly energetic pure electron neutrino and anti-neutrino beams coming from b-decay of 18Ne10+ and 6He2+ ion beams. The decay products, having different magnetic rigidities than the ion beam, are deviated inside the dipole. The aperture and the length of the magnet have to be optimized to avoid that the decay products hit the coil. The decay products are intercepted by absorber blocks inside the beam pipe between the dipoles to protect the following dipole. A first design of a 6T arc dipole using a cosine theta layout of the coil with an aperture of 80 mm fulfils the optics requirements. Heat deposition in the coil has been calculated using different absorber materials to find a solution to efficiently protect the coil. Aspects of impedance minimization for the case of having the absorbers inside the beam pipe have also been addressed.

  5. A Large Aperture Superconducting Dipole for Beta Beams to Minimize Heat Deposition in the Coil

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E

    2007-01-01

    The aim of beta beams in a decay ring is to produce highly energetic pure electron neutrino and anti-neutrino beams coming from b-decay of 18Ne10+ and 6He2+ ion beams. The decay products, having different magnetic rigidities than the main ion beam, are deviated inside the dipole. The aperture and the length of the magnet have to be optimized to avoid that the decay products hit the coil. The decay products are intercepted by absorber blocks inside the beam pipe between the dipoles to protect the following dipole. A first design of a 6T arc dipole using a cosine theta layout of the coil with an aperture of 80 mm fulfils the optics requirements. Heat deposition in the coil has been calculated using different absorber materials to find a solution to efficiently protect the coil. Aspects of impedance minimization for the case of having the absorbers inside the beam pipe have also been addressed.

  6. RHIC spin flipper AC dipole controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oddo, P.; Bai, M.; Dawson, C.; Gassner, D.; Harvey, M.; Hayes, T.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Roser, T.; Severino, F.; Smith, K.

    2011-03-28

    The RHIC Spin Flipper's five high-Q AC dipoles which are driven by a swept frequency waveform require precise control of phase and amplitude during the sweep. This control is achieved using FPGA based feedback controllers. Multiple feedback loops are used to and dynamically tune the magnets. The current implementation and results will be presented. Work on a new spin flipper for RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) incorporating multiple dynamically tuned high-Q AC-dipoles has been developed for RHIC spin-physics experiments. A spin flipper is needed to cancel systematic errors by reversing the spin direction of the two colliding beams multiple times during a store. The spin flipper system consists of four DC-dipole magnets (spin rotators) and five AC-dipole magnets. Multiple AC-dipoles are needed to localize the driven coherent betatron oscillation inside the spin flipper. Operationally the AC-dipoles form two swept frequency bumps that minimize the effect of the AC-dipole dipoles outside of the spin flipper. Both AC bumps operate at the same frequency, but are phase shifted from each other. The AC-dipoles therefore require precise control over amplitude and phase making the implementation of the AC-dipole controller the central challenge.

  7. Conservation of a helix-stabilizing dipole moment in the PP-fold family of regulatory peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnholm, B; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Schwartz, T W

    1993-01-01

    of the electrostatic properties of five representative members of the PP-fold family of peptides (human neuropeptide Y, human peptide YY, human pancreatic polypeptide, avian PP, and lamprey peptide methionine tyrosine) shows that this characteristic charge clustering gives rise to a common dipole moment of 325-450 D...... directed from the beta-turn region toward the receptor-binding region. This overall dipole moment is antiparallel to the dipole moment of the alpha-helix caused by alignment of the peptide dipoles parallel to the helix. Calculations of the stabilization energy for this antiparallel dipole moment...... forces alone when the screening effect is considered. This energy is of the same order of magnitude as the enthalpy change for the unfolding of avian PP (approximately 30 kcal/mol), strongly indicating that the charge-dipole interactions are of significant importance for the stability of the three...

  8. AutoDipole - Automated generation of dipole subtraction terms -

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, K.; Moch, S.; Uwer, P.

    2010-10-01

    We present an automated generation of the subtraction terms for next-to-leading order QCD calculations in the Catani-Seymour dipole formalism. For a given scattering process with n external particles our Mathematica package generates all dipole terms, allowing for both massless and massive dipoles. The numerical evaluation of the subtraction terms proceeds with MadGraph, which provides Fortran code for the necessary scattering amplitudes. Checks of the numerical stability are discussed. Program summaryProgram title: AutoDipole Catalogue identifier: AEGO_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGO_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 138 042 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 117 665 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica and Fortran Computer: Computers running Mathematica (version 7.0) Operating system: The package should work on every Linux system supported by Mathematica. Detailed tests have been performed on Scientific Linux as supported by DESY and CERN and on openSUSE and Debian. RAM: Depending on the complexity of the problem, recommended at least 128 MB RAM Classification: 11.5 External routines: MadGraph (including HELAS library) available under http://madgraph.hep.uiuc.edu/ or http://madgraph.phys.ucl.ac.be/ or http://madgraph.roma2.infn.it/. A copy of the tar file, MG_ME_SA_V4.4.30, is included in the AutoDipole distribution package. Nature of problem: Computation of next-to-leading order QCD corrections to scattering cross sections, regularization of real emission contributions. Solution method: Catani-Seymour subtraction method for massless and massive partons [1,2]; Numerical evaluation of subtracted matrix elements interfaced to MadGraph [3-5] (stand-alone version) using

  9. Coupling between crossed dipole feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Lessow, H.

    1974-01-01

    as a function of orientation and feeding network properties. The antennas are used as feeds for a parabolic reflector, and the effect of coupling on the secondary fields is analyzed. Especially significant is the polarization loss and it may, to some extent, be reduced by a proper choice of feeding network.......Various effects of coupling between crossed-dipole antennas are analyzed and by using an arbitrary feeding network some generality is preserved. With one cross excited and another cross acting as a parasitic loaded antenna, coupling losses and gain and polarization losses are presented...

  10. Electric and Magnetic Dipole Moments

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    The stringent limit on the electric dipole moment of the neutron forced the issue on the strong CP-problem. The most elegant solution of which is the axion field proposed by Peccei and Quinn. The current limit on the QCD parameter theta coming from the limit on the neutron EDM is of order 10-10. I am going to describe the present status on the neutron EDM searches and further prospects on getting down to theta_qcd sensitivity of 10-13 with the new deuteron EDM in storage rings proposal. For completeness the current status and prospects of the muon g-2 experiment will also be given.

  11. Numerical Based Linear Model for Dipole Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li,Y.; Krinsky, S.; Rehak, M.

    2009-05-04

    In this paper, we discuss an algorithm for constructing a numerical linear optics model for dipole magnets from a 3D field map. The difference between the numerical model and K. Brown's analytic approach is investigated and clarified. It was found that the optics distortion due to the dipoles' fringe focusing must be properly taken into account to accurately determine the chromaticities. In NSLS-II, there are normal dipoles with 35-mm gap and dipoles for infrared sources with 90-mm gap. This linear model of the dipole magnets is applied to the NSLS-II lattice design to match optics parameters between the DBA cells having dipoles with different gaps.

  12. Muon Dipole Moment Experiments Interpretation and Prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, J L; Shadmi, Y; Feng, Jonathan L; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Shadmi, Yael

    2001-01-01

    We examine the prospects for discovering new physics through muon dipole moments. The current deviation in $g_{\\mu}-2$ may be due entirely to the muon's {\\em electric} dipole moment. We note that the precession frequency in the proposed BNL muon EDM experiment is also subject to a similar ambiguity, but this can be resolved by up-down asymmetry measurements. We then review the theoretical expectations for the muon's electric dipole moment in supersymmetric models.

  13. The ALICE muon spectrometer dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The ALICE detector consists of two large magnets, the huge red solenoid which can be seen on the right, and the blue dipole magnet. The solenoid was used for the L3 experiment when LEP was in use between 1989 and 2000, but the dipole has been built especially for the new ALICE detector. The dipole was successfully tested on 14 July 2005 when it ran at the operating current of 6 kiloamps for 24 hours.

  14. Stochastic resonance in a surface dipole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinsalu, E., E-mail: els@ifisc.uib-csic.es [IFISC, Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos (CSIC-UIB), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Raevala 10, 15042 Tallinn (Estonia); Patriarca, M. [IFISC, Instituto de Fisica Interdisciplinar y Sistemas Complejos (CSIC-UIB), E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Raevala 10, 15042 Tallinn (Estonia); Marchesoni, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Camerino, I-62032 Camerino (Italy)

    2010-10-05

    The dynamics of a neutral dipole diffusing on a one-dimensional symmetric periodic substrate is numerically investigated in the presence of an ac electric field. It is observed that the amplitude of the forced oscillations of the dipole can be enhanced by tuning the noise strength, i.e., the substrate temperature. Such a manifestation of stochastic resonance turns out to be extremely sensitive to the mechanical properties of the dipole. This phenomenon has immediate applications in surface physics and nanodevice technology.

  15. Electric dipole moment of diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, A.

    1983-01-01

    The electric dipole moment of some diatomic molecules is calculated using the Variational Cellular Method. The results obtained for the CO, HB, HF and LiH molecules are compared with other calculations and with experimental data. It is shown that there is strong dependence of the electric dipole moment with respect to the geometry of the cells. The possibility of fixing the geometry of the problem by giving the experimental value of the dipole moment is discussed. (Author) [pt

  16. Electric dipole moment of diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, A.

    1983-01-01

    The electric dipole moment of some diatomic molecules is calculated using the Variational Cellular Method. The results obtained for the molecules CO, HB, HF and LiH are compared with other calculations and with experimental data. It is shown that there is strong dependence of the electric dipole moment with respect to the geometry of the cells. It is discussed the possibility of fixing the geometry of the problem by giving the experimental value of the dipole moment. (Author) [pt

  17. An update on passive correctors for the SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.A.

    1991-05-01

    The concept of correction of the magnetization sextupole became a topic of discussion as soon as it was realized that superconductor magnetization could have a serious effect on the SSC beam during injection. Several methods of correction were proposed. These included (1) correction with active bore tube windings like those on the HERA machine which correct out magnetization sextupole and the sextupole due to iron saturation, (2) correction with persistent sextupole windings mounted on the bore tube (3) correction using passive superconductor (4) correction using ferromagnetic material, and (5) correction using oriented magnetized materials. This report deals with the use of passive superconductor to correct the magnetization sextupole. Two basic methods are explored in this report: (1) One can correct the magnetization sextupole by changing the diameter of the superconductor filaments in one or more blocks of the SSC dipole. (2) One can correct the magnetization sextupole and decapole by mounting passive superconducting wires on the inside of the SSC dipole coil bore. In addition, an assessment of the contribution of each conductor in the dipole to the magnetization sextupole and decapole is shown. 38 refs, 25 figs., 15 tabs

  18. Neutral dipole-dipole dimers: A new field in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosower, Edward M.; Borz, Galina

    2018-03-01

    Dimer formation with dipole neutralization produces species such as low polarity water (LPW) compatible with hydrophobic surfaces (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2015, 17, 24895-24900) Dimerization and dipole neutralization occurs for N-methylacetamide on polyethylene, a behavior drastically different from its contortions in acetonitrile on AgBr:AgCl planar crystals (AgX) (ChemPhysChem 2014, 15, 3598-3607). The weak infrared absorption of the amide dimer on polyethylene is shown experimentally. Dimerization of palmitic acid is shown along with some of the many ramifications for intracellular systems. Polyoligomers of water are present on polyethylene surfaces. Some high resolution spectra of three of the polyoligomers of water are shown along with a mechanistic scheme for polyoligomer formation and dissolution. The structures of some of the oligomers are known from spectroscopic studies of water on AgX. The scope of the article begins with PE, generally accepted as hydrophobic. The IR of PE revealed not only that water was present but that it appeared in two forms, oligomers (O) and polyoligomers (PO). How did we recognize what they were? These species had been observed as especially strong "marker" peaks in the spectra1 of water placed on planar AgX, a platform developed by Katzir and his coworkers [6]. But there was a problem: the proximity to PE of oligomers with substantial (calculated) dipole moments and thus polarity, including cyclic hexamers of water (chair and boat forms), the cyclic pentamer, the books I and II, and the cyclic trimer [7a]. Another link was needed, a role perfectly fit by the already cited low polarity water (LPW). The choice was experimentally supported by the detection of low intensity absorption in the bending region.Some important generalities flow from these results. What other dimers might be present in the biological or chemical world? Palmitic acid dimer (PAD) would be a candidate for decreasing the polarity of the acid (PA). Another

  19. Finite temperature effects on monopole and dipole excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Y F; Paar, N; Vretenar, D; Meng, J

    2011-01-01

    The relativistic random phase approximation based on effective Lagrangian with density dependent meson-nucleon couplings has been extended to finite temperature and employed in studies of multipole excitations within the temperature range T = 1 - 2 MeV. The model calculations showed that isoscalar giant monopole and isovector giant dipole resonances are only slightly modified with temperature, but additional transition strength appears at low energies because of thermal unblocking of single-particle orbitals close to the Fermi level. The analysis of low-lying states shows that isoscalar monopole response in 132 Sn results from single particle transitions, while the isovector dipole strength for 60 Ni, located around 10 MeV, is composed of several single particle transitions, accumulating a small degree of collectivity.

  20. Solitary excitations in discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with dispersive dipole-dipole interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Johansson, M.

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of discrete two-dimensional nonlinear Schrodinger models with long-range dispersive interactions is investigated. In particular, we focus on the cases where the dispersion arises from a dipole-dipole interaction, assuming the dipole moments at each lattice site to be aligned either...

  1. Iron saturation control in RHIC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will require 360 dipoles of 80 mm bore. This paper discusses the field perturbations produced by the saturation of the yoke iron. Changes have been made to the yoke to reduce these perturbations, in particular, decapole -4 . Measurements and calculations for 6 series of dipole magnets are presented. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Vutha, Amar C.

    2014-01-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic & molecular physics.

  3. Giant dipole resonance by many levels theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondaini, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    The many levels theory is applied to photonuclear effect, in particular, in giant dipole resonance. A review about photonuclear dipole absorption, comparing with atomic case is done. The derivation of sum rules; their modifications by introduction of the concepts of effective charges and mass and the Siegert theorem. The experimental distributions are compared with results obtained by curve adjustment. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Measurement of the neutron electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dress, W.B.; Perrin, P.; Miller, P.D.; Pendlebury, J.M.; Ramsey, N.F.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments have been performed in view of improving the accuracy in measuring the electric dipole moment of the neutron (EDM). This EDM is written as eD where e is the electron charge and D the dipole length. The analysis of the data indicates that /D/ 24 cm with 90% confidence [fr

  5. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  6. Real-Time Localization of Moving Dipole Sources for Tracking Multiple Free-Swimming Weakly Electric Fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Jaeyoon Jun

    Full Text Available In order to survive, animals must quickly and accurately locate prey, predators, and conspecifics using the signals they generate. The signal source location can be estimated using multiple detectors and the inverse relationship between the received signal intensity (RSI and the distance, but difficulty of the source localization increases if there is an additional dependence on the orientation of a signal source. In such cases, the signal source could be approximated as an ideal dipole for simplification. Based on a theoretical model, the RSI can be directly predicted from a known dipole location; but estimating a dipole location from RSIs has no direct analytical solution. Here, we propose an efficient solution to the dipole localization problem by using a lookup table (LUT to store RSIs predicted by our theoretically derived dipole model at many possible dipole positions and orientations. For a given set of RSIs measured at multiple detectors, our algorithm found a dipole location having the closest matching normalized RSIs from the LUT, and further refined the location at higher resolution. Studying the natural behavior of weakly electric fish (WEF requires efficiently computing their location and the temporal pattern of their electric signals over extended periods. Our dipole localization method was successfully applied to track single or multiple freely swimming WEF in shallow water in real-time, as each fish could be closely approximated by an ideal current dipole in two dimensions. Our optimized search algorithm found the animal's positions, orientations, and tail-bending angles quickly and accurately under various conditions, without the need for calibrating individual-specific parameters. Our dipole localization method is directly applicable to studying the role of active sensing during spatial navigation, or social interactions between multiple WEF. Furthermore, our method could be extended to other application areas involving dipole

  7. Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, Jay [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Mauel, Michael [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2013-03-10

    Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier et al., Physics of Plasmas, 13 (2006) 056111]. High- beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability made LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment operating in the U.S. fusion program. A significant measure of progress in the LDX research program was the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole and the resulting observations of confinement improvement. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements were made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma was created by multi frequency electron cyclotron resonance heating at 2.45 GHz, 6.4 GHz, 10.5 GHz and 28 GHz allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole was levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature was estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities to approach 1e18 m-3. We have found that levitation causes a strong inwards density pinch [Boxer et al., Nature Physics, 6 (2010) 207] and we have observed the central plasma density increase dramatically indicating a significant improvement in the confinement of a thermal plasma species.

  8. High-field dipoles for future accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipf, S.L.

    1984-09-01

    This report presents the concept for building superconducting accelerator dipoles with record high fields. Economic considerations favor the highest possible current density in the windings. Further discussion indicates that there is an optimal range of pinning strength for a superconducting material and that it is not likely for multifilamentary conductors to ever equal the potential performance of tape conductors. A dipole design with a tape-wound, inner high-field winding is suggested. Methods are detailed to avoid degradation caused by flux jumps and to overcome problems with the dipole ends. Concerns for force support structure and field precision are also addressed. An R and D program leading to a prototype 11-T dipole is outlined. Past and future importance of superconductivity to high-energy physics is evident from a short historical survey. Successful dipoles in the 10- to 20-T range will allow interesting options for upgrading present largest accelerators.

  9. Full length prototype SSC dipole test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, J.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented from tests of the first full length prototype SSC dipole magnet. The cryogenic behavior of the magnet during a slow cooldown to 4.5K and a slow warmup to room temperature has been measured. Magnetic field quality was measured at currents up to 2000 A. Averaged over the body field all harmonics with the exception of b 2 and b 8 are at or within the tolerances specified by the SSC Central Design Group. (The values of b 2 and b 8 result from known design and construction defects which will be be corrected in later magnets.) Using an NMR probe the average body field strength is measured to be 10.283 G/A with point to point variations on the order of one part in 1000. Data are presented on quench behavior of the magnet up to 3500 A (approximately 55% of full field) including longitudinal and transverse velocities for the first 250 msec of the quench

  10. Stability of high field superconducting dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allinger, J.; Danby, G.; Foelsche, H.; Jackson, J.; Prodell, A.; Stevens, A.

    1977-01-01

    Superconducting dipole magnets of the window-frame type were constructed and operated successfully at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Examples of this type of magnet are the 6 T ''Model T'' magnet, and the 4 T 8 0 superconducting bending magnet. The latter magnet operated reliably since October 1973 as part of the proton beam transport to the north experimental area at the BNL AGS with intensities of typically 8 x 10 12 protons at 28.5 GeV/c passing through the magnet in a curved trajectory with the proton beam center only 2.0 cm from the beam pipe at both ends and the middle of each of the two units comprising the magnet. The energy in the beam is approximately 40 kJ per 3 μsec pulse. Targets were inserted in the beam at locations 2 m and 5.6 m upstream of the first magnet unit to observe the effects of radiation heating. The 8 0 magnet demonstrated ultrastability, surviving 3 μsec thermal pulses delivering up to 1 kJ into the cold magnet at repetition periods as short as 1.3 sec

  11. Theoretical expectations for the muon's electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Shadmi, Yael

    2001-01-01

    We examine the muon's electric dipole moment d μ from a variety of theoretical perspectives. We point out that the reported deviation in the muon's g-2 can be due partially or even entirely to a new physics contribution to the muon's electric dipole moment. In fact, the recent g-2 measurement provides the most stringent bound on d μ to date. This ambiguity could be definitively resolved by the dedicated search for d μ recently proposed. We then consider both model-independent and supersymmetric frameworks. Under the assumptions of scalar degeneracy, proportionality, and flavor conservation, the theoretical expectations for d μ in supersymmetry fall just below the proposed sensitivity. However, nondegeneracy can give an order of magnitude enhancement, and lepton flavor violation can lead to d μ ∼10 -22 e cm, two orders of magnitude above the sensitivity of the d μ experiment. We present compact expressions for leptonic dipole moments and lepton flavor violating amplitudes. We also derive new limits on the amount of flavor violation allowed and demonstrate that approximations previously used to obtain such limits are highly inaccurate in much of parameter space

  12. Elastic dipoles of point defects from atomistic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvenne, Céline; Clouet, Emmanuel

    2017-12-01

    The interaction of point defects with an external stress field or with other structural defects is usually well described within continuum elasticity by the elastic dipole approximation. Extraction of the elastic dipoles from atomistic simulations is therefore a fundamental step to connect an atomistic description of the defect with continuum models. This can be done either by a fitting of the point-defect displacement field, by a summation of the Kanzaki forces, or by a linking equation to the residual stress. We perform here a detailed comparison of these different available methods to extract elastic dipoles, and show that they all lead to the same values when the supercell of the atomistic simulations is large enough and when the anharmonic region around the point defect is correctly handled. But, for small simulation cells compatible with ab initio calculations, only the definition through the residual stress appears tractable. The approach is illustrated by considering various point defects (vacancy, self-interstitial, and hydrogen solute atom) in zirconium, using both empirical potentials and ab initio calculations.

  13. Low-lying dipole response in stable and unstable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenna, M; Colò, G; Bortignon, P F; Pozzi, G; Roca-Maza, X; Mizuyama, K

    2013-01-01

    The presence of some low-lying (pygmy) strength in the dipole spectrum, at excitation energy well below the isovector giant dipole energy, has been confirmed in several nuclei. The microscopic structure and the nature of these states, in particular the possible collective nature and the isospin character, are currently under strong debate. In addition, a relation with the isovector properties of the equation of state of nuclear matter, such as the symmetry energy or its slope, has been proposed. We present a detailed analysis of Skyrme Hartree–Fock plus random phase approximation (RPA) predictions for both the isoscalar and isovector dipole responses, of different neutron-rich nuclei ( 68 Ni, 132 Sn and 208 Pb). All of them show a low-energy peak that increases in magnitude with increasing values of the slope of the symmetry energy at saturation. Eventually, the collectivity associated with the RPA states contributing to this peak is more pronounced in the isoscalar than in the isovector channel. (paper)

  14. Final Report: Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kesner, Jay; Mauel, Michael

    2013-03-10

    Since the very first experiments with the LDX, research progress was rapid and significant. Initial experiments were conducted with the high-field superconducting coil suspended by three thin rods. These experiments produced long-pulse, quasi-steady-state microwave discharges, lasting more than 10 s, having peak beta values of 20% [Garnier, Phys. Plasmas, v13, p. 056111, 2006]. High-beta, near steady-state discharges have been maintained in LDX for more than 20 seconds, and this capability makes LDX the longest pulse fusion confinement experiment now operating in the U.S. fusion program. In both supported and levitated configurations, detailed measurements are made of discharge evolution, plasma dynamics and instability, and the roles of gas fueling, microwave power deposition profiles, and plasma boundary shape. High-temperature plasma is created by multifrequency electron cyclotron resonance heating allowing control of heating profiles. Depending upon neutral fueling rates, the LDX discharges contain a fraction of energetic electrons, with mean energies above 50 keV. Depending on whether or not the superconducting dipole is levitated or supported, the peak thermal electron temperature is estimated to exceed 500 eV and peak densities reach 1.0E18 (1/m3). Several significant discoveries resulted from the routine investigation of plasma confinement with a magnetically-levitated dipole. For the first time, toroidal plasma with pressure approaching the pressure of the confining magnetic field was well-confined in steady-state without a toroidal magnetic field. Magnetic levitation proved to be reliable and is now routine. The dipole's cryostat allows up to three hours of "float time" between re-cooling with liquid helium and providing scientists unprecedented access to the physics of magnetizd plasma. Levitation eliminates field-aligned particle sources and sinks and results in a toroidal, magnetically-confined plasma where profiles are determined by cross

  15. Full kinetic simulations of plasma flow interactions with meso- and microscale magnetic dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, Y.; Yamakawa, H.; Usui, H.; Miyake, Y.; Shinohara, I.; Funaki, I.; Nakamura, M.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the plasma flow response to meso- and microscale magnetic dipoles by performing three-dimensional full particle-in-cell simulations. We particularly focused on the formation of a magnetosphere and its dependence on the intensity of the magnetic moment. The size of a magnetic dipole immersed in a plasma flow can be characterized by a distance L from the dipole center to the position where the pressure of the local magnetic field becomes equal to the dynamic pressure of the plasma flow under the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) approximation. In this study, we are interested in a magnetic dipole whose L is smaller than the Larmor radius of ions r iL calculated with the unperturbed dipole field at the distance L from the center. In the simulation results, we confirmed the clear formation of a magnetosphere consisting of a magnetopause and a tail region in the density profile, although the spatial scale is much smaller than the MHD scale. One of the important findings in this study is that the spatial profiles of the plasma density as well as the current flows are remarkably affected by the finite Larmor radius effect of the plasma flow, which is different from the Earth's magnetosphere. The magnetopause found in the upstream region is located at a position much closer to the dipole center than L. In the equatorial plane, we also found an asymmetric density profile with respect to the plasma flow direction, which is caused by plasma gyration in the dipole field region. The ion current layers are created in the inner region of the dipole field, and the electron current also flows in the region beyond the ion current layer because ions with a large inertia can closely approach the dipole center. Unlike the ring current structure of the Earth's magnetosphere, the current layers in the microscale dipole fields are not circularly closed around the dipole center. Since the major current is caused by the particle gyrations, the current is independently

  16. Constraints on exotic dipole-dipole couplings between electrons at the micron scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Ozeri, Roee; Jackson Kimball, Derek

    2015-05-01

    Until recently, the magnetic dipole-dipole coupling between electrons had not been directly observed experimentally. This is because at the atomic scale dipole-dipole coupling is dominated by the exchange interaction and at larger distances the dipole-dipole coupling is overwhelmed by ambient magnetic field noise. In spite of these challenges, the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction between two electron spins separated by 2.4 microns was recently measured using the valence electrons of trapped Strontium ions [S. Kotler, N. Akerman, N. Navon, Y. Glickman, and R. Ozeri, Nature 510, 376 (2014)]. We have used this measurement to directly constrain exotic dipole-dipole interactions between electrons at the micron scale. For light bosons (mass 0.1 eV), we find that coupling constants describing pseudoscalar and axial-vector mediated interactions must be | gPegPe/4 πℏc | <= 1 . 5 × 10-3 and | gAegAe/4 πℏc | <= 1 . 2 × 10-17 , respectively, at the 90% confidence level. These bounds significantly improve on previous constraints in this mass range: for example, the constraints on axial-vector interactions are six orders of magnitude stronger than electron-positron constraints based on positronium spectroscopy. Supported by the National Science Foundation, I-Core: the Israeli excellence center, and the European Research Council.

  17. SSC collider dipole magnet end mechanical design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delchamps, S.W.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.; Ewald, K.; Fulton, H.; Kerby, J.; Koska, W.; Strait, J.; Wake, S.M. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Leung, K.K. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (USA))

    1991-05-01

    This paper describes the mechanical design of the ends of Superconducting Super Collider dipole magnets to be constructed and tested at Fermilab. Coil end clamps, end yoke configuration, and end plate design are discussed. Loading of the end plate by axial Lorentz forces is discussed. Relevant data from 40 mm and 50 mm aperture model dipole magnets built and tested at Fermilab are presented. In particular, the apparent influence of end clamp design on the quench behavior of model SSC dipoles is described. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Plasma confinement in a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.; Bromberg, L.; Garnier, D.; Mauel, M.

    2001-01-01

    A dipole fusion confinement device is stable to MHD interchange and ballooning modes when the pressure profile is sufficiently gentle. The plasma can be confined at high beta, is steady state and disruption free. Theory indicates that when the pressure gradient is sufficiently gentle to satisfy MHD requirements drift waves will also be stable. The dipole approach is particularly applicable for advanced fuels. A new experimental facility is presently being built to test the stability and transport properties of a dipole-confined plasma. (author)

  19. Plasma confinement in a magnetic dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.; Bromberg, L.; Garnier, D.; Mauel, M.

    1999-01-01

    A dipole fusion confinement device is stable to MHD interchange and ballooning modes when the pressure profile is sufficiently gentle. The plasma can be confined at high beta, is steady state and disruption free. Theory indicates that when the pressure gradient is sufficiently gentle to satisfy MHD requirements drift waves will also be stable. The dipole approach is particularly applicable for advanced fuels. A new experimental facility is presently being built to test the stability and transport properties of a dipole-confined plasma. (author)

  20. Superconducting Coil of Po Dipole

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    The Po superconducting dipole was built as a prototype beam transport magnet for the SPS extracted proton beam P0. Its main features were: coil aperture 72 mm, length 5 m, room-temperature yoke, NbTi cable conductor impregnated with solder, nominal field 4.2 T at 4.7 K (87% of critical field). It reached its nominal field without any quench.After this successful test up to its nominal field of 4.2 T, the power was not raised to reach a quench. The magnet was not installed in a beam and had no other further use. Nevertheless its construction provided knowledges and experience which became useful in the design and construction of the LHC magnets. The photo shows a detail of the inner layer winding before superposing the outer layer to form the complete coil of a pole. Worth noticing is the interleaved glass-epoxy sheet (white) with grooved channels for the flow of cooling helium. See also 8211532X.

  1. Diophantine approximation and badly approximable sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, S.; Thorn, R.; Velani, S.

    2006-01-01

    Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X. The clas......Let (X,d) be a metric space and (Omega, d) a compact subspace of X which supports a non-atomic finite measure m.  We consider `natural' classes of badly approximable  subsets of Omega. Loosely speaking, these consist of points in Omega which `stay clear' of some given set of points in X....... The classical set Bad of `badly approximable' numbers in the theory of Diophantine approximation falls within our framework as do the sets Bad(i,j) of simultaneously badly approximable numbers. Under various natural conditions we prove that the badly approximable subsets of Omega have full Hausdorff dimension...

  2. Plasmonic functionalities based on detuned electrical dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anders Lambertus; Nielsen, Michael Grøndahl; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce and demonstrate the concept of detuned electrical dipoles (DED) that originates from the plasmonic realization of the dressed-state picture of electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic physics. Numerically and experimentally analyzing DED metamaterials consisting of unit cells...

  3. Residual strain in the Nb3Sn 11 T dipole magnet coils for HL-LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerlein, C.; Di Michiel, M.; Hofmann, M.; Lorentzon, M.; Lackner, F.; Flükiger, R.; Savary, F.; Bottura, L.

    2017-12-01

    Nb3Sn magnets are presently built for the HL-LHC accelerator upgrade and are developed for the Future Circular Collider study. The knowledge of the Nb3Sn strain state distribution in these magnets is required in order to predict their ultimate performance limit. We have measured the Nb3Sn residual strain distribution in an 11 T dipole accelerator magnet coil. Ambient temperature Nb3Sn strain maps across 11 T dipole coil cross sections were acquired by means of fast high energy synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Using complementary neutron diffraction measurements the Nb3Sn residual strain and stress was measured in the four largest conductor blocks of a massive 11 T dipole coil segment.

  4. Various semiclassical limits of torus conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkalaev, Konstantin [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of General and Applied Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutskiy per. 7, Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Geiko, Roman [Mathematics Department, National Research University Higher School of Economics,Usacheva str. 6, Moscow, 119048 (Russian Federation); Rappoport, Vladimir [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, Moscow, 127994 (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-12

    We study four types of one-point torus blocks arising in the large central charge regime. There are the global block, the light block, the heavy-light block, and the linearized classical block, according to different regimes of conformal dimensions. It is shown that the blocks are not independent being connected to each other by various links. We find that the global, light, and heavy-light blocks correspond to three different contractions of the Virasoro algebra. Also, we formulate the c-recursive representation of the one-point torus blocks which is relevant in the semiclassical approximation.

  5. Magnetic dipole interactions in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of magnetic dipole interactions (MDIs) on the magnetic properties of local-moment Heisenberg spin systems is investigated. A general formulation is presented for calculating the eigenvalues λ and eigenvectors μ ̂ of the MDI tensor of the magnetic dipoles in a line (one dimension, 1D), within a circle (2D) or a sphere (3D) of radius r surrounding a given moment μ⃗i for given magnetic propagation vectors k for collinear and coplanar noncollinear magnetic structures on both Bravais and non-Bravais spin lattices. Results are calculated for collinear ordering on 1D chains, 2D square and simple-hexagonal (triangular) Bravais lattices, 2D honeycomb and kagomé non-Bravais lattices, and 3D cubic Bravais lattices. The λ and μ ̂ values are compared with previously reported results. Calculations for collinear ordering on 3D simple tetragonal, body-centered tetragonal, and stacked triangular and honeycomb lattices are presented for c /a ratios from 0.5 to 3 in both graphical and tabular form to facilitate comparison of experimentally determined easy axes of ordering on these Bravais lattices with the predictions for MDIs. Comparisons with the easy axes measured for several illustrative collinear antiferromagnets (AFMs) are given. The calculations are extended to the cycloidal noncollinear 120∘ AFM ordering on the triangular lattice where λ is found to be the same as for collinear AFM ordering with the same k. The angular orientation of the ordered moments in the noncollinear coplanar AFM structure of GdB4 with a distorted stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland spin-lattice geometry is calculated and found to be in disagreement with experimental observations, indicating the presence of another source of anisotropy. Similar calculations for the undistorted 2D and stacked 3D Shastry-Sutherland lattices are reported. The thermodynamics of dipolar magnets are calculated using the Weiss molecular field theory for quantum spins, including the magnetic transition

  6. Dipole Map For Divertor Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh; Boozer, Allen

    2003-01-01

    Heat flux impinging on the collector plates of divertor tokamaks can be prodigious. Therefore, the problem of spreading the heat flux on plates is a crucial issue for divertor tokamaks such as ITER. Here we use method of maps /1,2/ to investigate this problem. Magnetic field lines in non-axisymmetric divertor tokamaks are a one and a half degree of freedom Hamiltonian system /1-3/. We represent the unperturbed magnetic topology by the Symmetric Simple Map (SSM) /4/ given by yn+1 = yn + 2kxn - 2k2yn (1 - yn), xn+1 = xn - kyn (1 - yn) - 2k2yn+1 (1 - yn+1). The effects of a current carrying coil placed externally across from X-point is represented by Dipole Map (DP) /4,5/ given by x n+1 = x n + 2δs 3 x n+1 (y n - y s + s/[x n+1 2 + (y n - y s + s) 2 ] 2 ), y n+1 = y n + δs 3 x n+1 ((y n - y s + s) 2 - x n+1 2 /[x n+1 2 + (y n - y s + s) 2 ] 2 ) δ is amplitude of high MN magnetic perturbation, s is the distance of coil from last good surface across from X point, and is the y coordinate of last good surface where it crosses the axis joining X point and O point across from X point. We fix k=0.3 and s = (1/2)|y s |. We calculate the increase in width of stochastic layer and area of footprint of field lines on divertor plate as δ is increased. We also calculate how connection length, toroidal and poloidal circuits and their fractal structures, the number, location and density of hot spots change with δ. Finally, we make conclusions about how the heat flux can be possibly controlled and reduced by applying external magnetic perturbation in divertor tokamaks

  7. Relics of short distance effects for the neutron electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeg, J.O.

    1982-12-01

    The Feynman diagrams which dominate the estimates of the electric dipole moment of the neutron with Kobayashi-Maskawa CP violation are considered. The extracted long distance contributions and the relics of short distance contributions are shown to be complementary and of the same magnitude, resulting in mod(Dsub(n)/e) approximately = (10 - 31 - 10 - 30 ) cm. (Auth.)

  8. Cooperative behavior of qutrits with dipole-dipole interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Mandilara, A.; Akulin, V. M.

    2006-01-01

    We have identified a class of many body problems with analytic solution beyond the mean-field approximation. This is the case where each body can be considered as an element of an assembly of interacting particles that are translationally frozen multi-level quantum systems and that do not change significantly their initial quantum states during the evolution. In contrast, the entangled collective state of the assembly experiences an appreciable change. We apply this approach to interacting th...

  9. Modulated Pade approximant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsburg, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    In many problems, a desired property A of a function f(x) is determined by the behaviour of f(x) approximately equal to g(x,A) as x→xsup(*). In this letter, a method for resuming the power series in x of f(x) and approximating A (modulated Pade approximant) is presented. This new approximant is an extension of a resumation method for f(x) in terms of rational functions. (author)

  10. Approximate iterative algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Almudevar, Anthony Louis

    2014-01-01

    Iterative algorithms often rely on approximate evaluation techniques, which may include statistical estimation, computer simulation or functional approximation. This volume presents methods for the study of approximate iterative algorithms, providing tools for the derivation of error bounds and convergence rates, and for the optimal design of such algorithms. Techniques of functional analysis are used to derive analytical relationships between approximation methods and convergence properties for general classes of algorithms. This work provides the necessary background in functional analysis a

  11. Dynamic dipole-dipole interactions between excitons in quantum dots of different sizes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsueda, Hideaki; Leosson, Kristjan; Xu, Zhangcheng

    2004-01-01

    A model of the resonance dynamic dipole-dipole interaction between excitons confined in quantum dots (QDs) of different sizes at close enough distance is given in terms of parity inheritance and exchange of virtual photons. Microphotoluminescence spectra of GaAs-AlGaAs coupled QDs are proposed to...

  12. The Röntgen interaction and forces on dipoles in time-modulated optical fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnleitner, Matthias; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2017-12-01

    The Röntgen term is an often neglected contribution to the interaction between an atom and an electromagnetic field in the electric dipole approximation. In this work we discuss how this interaction term leads to a difference between the kinetic and canonical momentum of an atom which, in turn, leads to surprising radiation forces acting on the atom. We use a number of examples to explore the main features of this interaction, namely forces acting against the expected dipole force or accelerations perpendicular to the beam propagation axis.

  13. LHC dipoles: the countdown has begun

    CERN Document Server

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    At the entrance to the fourth floor corridor of the LHC-MMS (Main Magnets and Superconductors) Group in building 30, the Director-General has unveiled an electronic information panel indicating the number of LHC dipoles still to be delivered and the days remaining to the deadline (30 June 2006). The panel was the idea of Lucio Rossi, leader of the MMS Group, which is responsible for the construction of the dipole magnets. The unveiling ceremony took place on the morning of Friday 11 October 2002, at the end of a drink held to celebrate with MMS group and the LHC top management the exceptional performance of the latest dipoles, built by the French consortium Alstom-Jeumont. They are the first dipoles to achieve a magnetic field of 9 tesla in one go without quenching, thus exceeding the nominal operating field of 8.3 tesla. The challenge is now to increase the production rate from 2 to 35 dipoles per month by 2004 in order to meet the deadline, while maintaining this quality. Photo 01: The Director-General Luci...

  14. Sparse approximation with bases

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book systematically presents recent fundamental results on greedy approximation with respect to bases. Motivated by numerous applications, the last decade has seen great successes in studying nonlinear sparse approximation. Recent findings have established that greedy-type algorithms are suitable methods of nonlinear approximation in both sparse approximation with respect to bases and sparse approximation with respect to redundant systems. These insights, combined with some previous fundamental results, form the basis for constructing the theory of greedy approximation. Taking into account the theoretical and practical demand for this kind of theory, the book systematically elaborates a theoretical framework for greedy approximation and its applications.  The book addresses the needs of researchers working in numerical mathematics, harmonic analysis, and functional analysis. It quickly takes the reader from classical results to the latest frontier, but is written at the level of a graduate course and do...

  15. Dipole and quadrupole forces exerted on atoms in laser fields: The nonperturbative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sindelka, Milan; Moiseyev, Nimrod; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2006-01-01

    Manipulation of cold atoms by lasers has so far been studied solely within the framework of the conventional dipole approximation, and the atom-light interaction has been treated using low order perturbation theory. Laser control of atomic motions has been ascribed exclusively to the corresponding light-induced dipole forces. In this work, we present a general theory to derive the potential experienced by an atom in a monochromatic laser field in a context analogous to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation for molecules in the field-free case. The formulation goes beyond the dipole approximation and gives rise to the field-atom coupling potential terms which so far have not been taken into consideration in theoretical or experimental studies. Contrary to conventional approaches, our method is based upon the many electron Floquet theory and remains valid also for high intensity laser fields (i.e., for a strongly nonperturbative atom-light interaction). As an illustration of the developed theory, we investigate the trapping of cold atoms in optical lattices. We find that for some atoms for specific laser parameters, despite the absence of the dipole force, the laser trapping is still possible due to the electric quadrupole forces. Namely, we show that by using realistic laser parameters one can form a quadrupole optical lattice which is sufficiently strong to trap Ca and Na atoms

  16. Dipole moment dark matter at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barger, Vernon [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Keung, Wai-Yee [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Marfatia, Danny, E-mail: marfatia@ku.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66045 (United States); Tseng, Po-Yan [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-22

    Monojet and monophoton final states with large missing transverse energy (E/{sub T}) are important for dark matter (DM) searches at colliders. We present analytic expressions for the differential cross sections for the parton-level processes, qq{sup Macron }(qg){yields}g(q){chi}{chi}{sup Macron} and qq{sup Macron }{yields}{gamma}{chi}{chi}{sup Macron }, for a neutral DM particle with a magnetic dipole moment (MDM) or an electric dipole moment (EDM). We collectively call such DM candidates dipole moment dark matter (DMDM). We also provide monojet cross sections for scalar, vector and axial-vector interactions. We then use ATLAS/CMS monojet+E/{sub T} data and CMS monophoton+E/{sub T} data to constrain DMDM. We find that 7 TeV LHC bounds on the MDM DM-proton scattering cross section are about six orders of magnitude weaker than on the conventional spin-independent cross section.

  17. Perturbative odderon in the dipole model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Szymanowski, Lech; Wallon, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    We show that, in the framework of Mueller's dipole model, the perturbative QCD odderon is described by the dipole model equivalent of the BFKL equation with a C-odd initial condition. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the odderon solution are the same as for the dipole BFKL equation and are given by the functions E n,ν and χ(n,ν) correspondingly, where the C-odd initial condition allows only for odd values of n. The leading high-energy odderon intercept is given by α odd -1=((2α s N c )/(π))χ(n=1,ν=0)=0 in agreement with the solution found by Bartels, Lipatov and Vacca. We proceed by writing down an evolution equation for the odderon including the effects of parton saturation. We argue that saturation makes the odderon solution a decreasing function of energy

  18. What is the dual of a dipole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)]. E-mail: l.f.alday@phys.uu.nl; Boer, Jan de [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: jdeboer@science.uva.nl; Messamah, Ilies [Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Valckenierstraat 65, 1018 XE Amsterdam (Netherlands)]. E-mail: imessama@science.uva.nl

    2006-07-03

    We study gravitational solutions that admit a dual CFT description and carry non-zero dipole charge. We focus on the black ring solution in AdS{sub 3}xS{sup 3} and extract from it the one-point functions of all CFT operators dual to scalar excitations of the six-dimensional metric. In the case of small black rings, characterized by the level N, angular momentum J and dipole charge q{sub 3}, we show how the large N and J dependence of the one-point functions can be reproduced, under certain assumptions, directly from a suitable ensemble in the dual CFT. Finally we present a simple toy model that describes the thermodynamics of the small black ring for arbitrary values of the dipole charge.

  19. Photon scattering by the giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, T.J.; Holt, R.J.; Jackson, H.E.; McKeown, R.D.; Specht, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    Although many features of the giant dipole resonance are well known, the coupling between the basic dipole oscillation and other nuclear collective degrees of freedom such as surface vibrations and rotations is poorly understood. This aspect was investigated by elastic and inelastic bremsstrahlung scattering of tagged photons over the energy range 15 to 22 MeV. Target nuclei were 60 Ni, 52 Cr, 56 Fe, 92 Mo, and 96 Mo. Scattering and absorption cross sections are tabulated, along with parameters obtained from a two-Lorentzian analysis of the scattering cross sections; measured spectra are shown. It was necessary to remove Thomson scattering from the experimental results. It was found that coupling to surface vibrations in the giant dipole resonance is much weaker than the dynamic collective model suggests. The elastic scattering cross section for all targets but 60 Ni showed structure that is not evident in the absorption cross section measurement. 12 figures, 2 tables

  20. Transportation studies: 40-MM collider dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, E.

    1992-01-01

    Several fully functional 40-mm Collider Dipole Magnets (CDM) were instrumented with accelerometers to monitor shock and vibration loads during transport. The magnets were measured with optical tooling telescopes before and after transport. Changes in mechanical alignment due to shipping and handling were determined. The mechanical stability of the cryogen lines were checked using the same method. Field quality and dipole angle were measured warm before and after transport to determine changes in these parameters. Power spectra were calculated for accelerometers located on the cold mass, vacuum vessel, and trailer bed. Where available, plots of field quality and dipole roll both before and after were created. Shipping loads measured were largest in the vertical direction, where most of the structural deformation of the magnet was evident. It was not clear that magnetic performance was affected by the shipping and handling environment

  1. Perturbative odderon in the dipole model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Szymanowski, Lech; Wallon, Samuel

    2004-04-29

    We show that, in the framework of Mueller's dipole model, the perturbative QCD odderon is described by the dipole model equivalent of the BFKL equation with a C-odd initial condition. The eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the odderon solution are the same as for the dipole BFKL equation and are given by the functions E{sup n,{nu}} and {chi}(n,{nu}) correspondingly, where the C-odd initial condition allows only for odd values of n. The leading high-energy odderon intercept is given by {alpha}{sub odd}-1=((2{alpha}{sub s}N{sub c})/({pi})){chi}(n=1,{nu}=0)=0 in agreement with the solution found by Bartels, Lipatov and Vacca. We proceed by writing down an evolution equation for the odderon including the effects of parton saturation. We argue that saturation makes the odderon solution a decreasing function of energy.

  2. Installation Strategy for the LHC Main Dipoles

    CERN Multimedia

    Fartoukh, Stephane David

    2004-01-01

    All positions in the LHC machine are not equivalent in terms of beam requirements on the geometry and the field quality of the main dipoles. In the presence of slightly or strongly out-of tolerance magnets, a well-defined installation strategy will therefore contribute to preserve or even optimize the performance of the machine. Based on the present status of the production, we have anticipated a list of potential issues (geometry, transfer function, field direction and random b3) which, combined by order of priority, have been taken into account to define a simple but efficient installation algorithm for the LHC main dipoles. Its output is a prescription for installing the available dipoles in sequence while reducing to an absolute minimum the number of holes required by geometry or FQ issues.

  3. The reversed and normal flux contributions to axial dipole decay for 1880-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metman, M. C.; Livermore, P. W.; Mound, J. E.

    2018-03-01

    The axial dipole component of Earth's internal magnetic field has been weakening since at least 1840, an effect widely believed to be attributed to the evolution of reversed flux patches (RFPs). These are regions on the core-mantle boundary (CMB) where the sign of radial flux deviates from that of the dominant sign of hemispheric radial flux. We study dipole change over the past 135 years using the field models gufm1, COV-OBS.x1 and CHAOS-6; we examine the impact of the choice of magnetic equator on the identification of reversed flux, the contribution of reversed and normal flux to axial dipole decay, and how reversed and normal field evolution has influenced the axial dipole. We show that a magnetic equator defined as a null-flux curve of the magnetic field truncated at spherical harmonic degree 3 allows us to robustly identify reversed flux, which we demonstrate is a feature of at least degree 4 or 5. Additionally, our results indicate that the evolution of reversed flux accounts for approximately two-thirds of the decay of the axial dipole, while one third of the decay is attributed to the evolution of the normal field. We find that the decay of the axial dipole over the 20th century is associated with both the expansion and poleward migration of reversed flux patches. In contrast to this centennial evolution, changes in the structure of secular variation since epoch 2000 indicate that poleward migration currently plays a much reduced role in the ongoing dipole decay.

  4. Amine-hydrogen halide complexes: experimental electric dipole moments and a theoretical decomposition of dipole moments and binding energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Carolyn S; Craddock, Matthew B; Kilian, Jacob; Grumstrup, Erik M; Orilall, M Christopher; Mo, Yirong; Gao, Jiali; Leopold, Kenneth R

    2006-08-24

    The Stark effect has been observed in the rotational spectra of several gas-phase amine-hydrogen halide complexes and the following electric dipole moments have been determined: H(3)(15)N-H(35)Cl (4.05865 +/- 0.00095 D), (CH(3))(3)(15)N-H(35)Cl (7.128 +/- 0.012 D), H(3)(15)N-H(79)Br (4.2577 +/- 0.0022 D), and (CH(3))(3)(15)N-H(79)Br (8.397 +/- 0.014 D). Calculations of the binding energies and electric dipole moments for the full set of complexes R(n)()(CH(3))(3)(-)(n)()N-HX (n = 0-3; X = F, Cl, Br) at the MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ level are also reported. The block localized wave function (BLW) energy decomposition method has been used to partition the binding energies into contributions from electrostatic, exchange, distortion, polarization, and charge-transfer terms. Similarly, the calculated dipole moments have been decomposed into distortion, polarization, and charge-transfer components. The complexes studied range from hydrogen-bonded systems to proton-transferred ion pairs, and the total interaction energies vary from 7 to 17 kcal/mol across the series. The individual energy components show a much wider variation than this, but cancellation of terms accounts for the relatively narrow range of net binding energies. For both the hydrogen-bonded complexes and the proton-transferred ion pairs, the electrostatic and exchange terms have magnitudes that increase with the degree of proton transfer but are of opposite sign, leaving most of the net stabilization to arise from polarization and charge transfer. In all of the systems studied, the polarization terms contribute the most to the induced dipole moment, followed by smaller but still significant contributions from charge transfer. A significant contribution to the induced moment of the ion pairs also arises from distortion of the HX monomer.

  5. Dipole strength distributions from HIGS Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner V.

    2015-01-01

    76Ge and 76Se, in order to investigate their dipole response up to the neutron separation threshold. Gamma-ray beams from bremsstrahlung at the S-DALINAC and from Compton-backscattering at HIGS have been used to measure absolute cross sections and parities of dipole excited states, respectively. The HIGS data allows for indirect measurement of averaged branching ratios, which leads to significant corrections in the observed excitation cross sections. Results are compared to statistical calculations, to test photon strength functions and the Axel-Brink hypothesis

  6. Topological approximations of multisets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed A. Abo-Tabl

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Rough set theory is a powerful mathematical tool for dealing with inexact, uncertain or vague information. The core concept of rough set theory are information systems and approximation operators of approximation spaces. In this paper, we define and investigate three types of lower and upper multiset approximations of any multiset. These types based on the multiset base of multiset topology induced by a multiset relation. Moreover, the relationships between generalized rough msets and mset topologies are given. In addition, an illustrative example is given to illustrate the relationships between different types of generalized definitions of rough multiset approximations.

  7. ALICE Muon Arm Dipole Magnet - Conceptual Design Report

    CERN Document Server

    Swoboda, D; CERN. Geneva

    1998-01-01

    A large Dipole Magnet is required for the Muon Arm spectrometer of the ALICE experiment 1,2[Figure 1]. The main parameters and basic design options of the dipole magnet have been described in 3. The absence of criteria for the necessary symmetry and homogeneity of the magnetic field has lead to a design dominated by economical and feasibility considerations. List of Figures: Figure 1 ALICE Experiment. Figure 2 Dipole Magnet Assembly. Figure 3 Dipole Magnet Yoke. Figure 4 Dipole Magnet Coil System. Figure 5 Schematic of Heat Screen. Figure 6 Dipole Magnet Moving Base.

  8. Calculation of oscillator strengths of dipole transitions by the Coulomb approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Takako.

    1976-02-01

    In plasma physics it is often necessary to know the values of oscillator strengths f and spontaneous transition probabilities A associated with spectral lines. In this paper the oscillator strengths were calculated for some transitions of rather highly ionized ions. The oscillator strengths and spontaneous transition probabilities can be expressed in terms of the line strengths S. The line strengths are shown by using the line factor (sup(R) line) and the multiplet factor (sup(R) mult). For LS coupling and levels without equivalent electrons, the line and multiplet factors can be defined in terms of the Racah coefficients. The radial factor I is also included in the line strengths and is related to the radial transition integral. The values of oscillator strength are listed in a table. (Kato, T.)

  9. Classical theory of the Kumakhov radiation in axial channeling. 1. Dipole approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khokonov, M.K.; Komarov, F.F.; Telegin, V.I.

    1984-05-01

    The paper considers radiation of ultrarelativistic electrons in axial channeling initially predicted by Kumakhov. The consideration is based on the results of solution of the Fokker-Planck equation. The spectral-angular characteristics of the Kumakhov radiation in thick single crystals are calculated. It is shown that in heavy single crystals the energy losses on radiation can amount to a considerable portion of the initial beam energy. The possibility of a sharp increase of radiation due to a decrease of crystal temperature is discussed. It is shown that radiation intensity in axial channeling is weakly dependent on the initial angle of the electron entrance into the channel if this angle changes within the limits of a critical one.

  10. Fractal image coding by an approximation of the collage error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salih, Ismail; Smith, Stanley H.

    1998-12-01

    In fractal image compression an image is coded as a set of contractive transformations, and is guaranteed to generate an approximation to the original image when iteratively applied to any initial image. In this paper we present a method for mapping similar regions within an image by an approximation of the collage error; that is, range blocks can be approximated by a linear combination of domain blocks.

  11. 2-vertex Lorentzian spin foam amplitudes for dipole transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Giorgio; Speziale, Simone; Stagno, Gabriele V.

    2018-04-01

    We compute transition amplitudes between two spin networks with dipole graphs, using the Lorentzian EPRL model with up to two (non-simplicial) vertices. We find power-law decreasing amplitudes in the large spin limit, decreasing faster as the complexity of the foam increases. There are no oscillations nor asymptotic Regge actions at the order considered, nonetheless the amplitudes still induce non-trivial correlations. Spin correlations between the two dipoles appear only when one internal face is present in the foam. We compute them within a mini-superspace description, finding positive correlations, decreasing in value with the Immirzi parameter. The paper also provides an explicit guide to computing Lorentzian amplitudes using the factorisation property of SL(2,C) Clebsch-Gordan coefficients in terms of SU(2) ones. We discuss some of the difficulties of non-simplicial foams, and provide a specific criterion to partially limit the proliferation of diagrams. We systematically compare the results with the simplified EPRLs model, much faster to evaluate, to learn evidence on when it provides reliable approximations of the full amplitudes. Finally, we comment on implications of our results for the physics of non-simplicial spin foams and their resummation.

  12. Expectation Consistent Approximate Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opper, Manfred; Winther, Ole

    2005-01-01

    We propose a novel framework for approximations to intractable probabilistic models which is based on a free energy formulation. The approximation can be understood from replacing an average over the original intractable distribution with a tractable one. It requires two tractable probability...

  13. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries. II. Inverse Estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, which is the sequel to [16], we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for blockwise incoherent dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block...

  14. Nonlinear approximation with dictionaries,.. II: Inverse estimates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gribonval, Rémi; Nielsen, Morten

    In this paper we study inverse estimates of the Bernstein type for nonlinear approximation with structured redundant dictionaries in a Banach space. The main results are for separated decomposable dictionaries in Hilbert spaces, which generalize the notion of joint block-diagonal mutually...

  15. LHC Dipoles: The countdown has begun

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    One of the LHC dipole magnets has just achieved a record magnetic field of 9 Tesla in one go without quenching. The challenge now is to increase the production rate to 35 magnets a month by 2004. As a new information panel in Building 30 shows, the countdown has begun.

  16. Results on Fermilab main injector dipole measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, B.C.; Baiod, R.; DiMarco, J.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.; Mishra, S.; Mokhtarani, A.; Orris, D.F.; russell, O.A.; Tompkins, J.C.; Walbridge, D.G.C.

    1995-06-01

    Measurements of the Productions run of Fermilab Main Injector Dipole magnets is underway. Redundant strength measurements provide a set of data which one can fit to mechanical and magnetic properties of the assembly. Plots of the field contribution from the steel supplement the usual plots of transfer function (B/I) vs. I in providing insight into the measured results

  17. Dipole operator constraints on composite Higgs models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Matthias; Neubert, Matthias; Straub, David M

    Flavour- and CP-violating electromagnetic or chromomagnetic dipole operators in the quark sector are generated in a large class of new physics models and are strongly constrained by measurements of the neutron electric dipole moment and observables sensitive to flavour-changing neutral currents, such as the [Formula: see text] branching ratio and [Formula: see text]. After a model-independent discussion of the relevant constraints, we analyze these effects in models with partial compositeness, where the quarks get their masses by mixing with vector-like composite fermions. These scenarios can be seen as the low-energy limit of composite Higgs or warped extra dimensional models. We study different choices for the electroweak representations of the composite fermions motivated by electroweak precision tests as well as different flavour structures, including flavour anarchy and [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text] flavour symmetries in the strong sector. In models with "wrong-chirality" Yukawa couplings, we find a strong bound from the neutron electric dipole moment, irrespective of the flavour structure. In the case of flavour anarchy, we also find strong bounds from flavour-violating dipoles, while these constraints are mild in the flavour-symmetric models.

  18. Forced flow cooling of ISABELLE dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Aggus, J.; Brown, D.P.; Kassner, D.A.; Sondericker, J.H.; Strobridge, T.R.

    1976-01-01

    The superconducting magnets for ISABELLE will use a forced flow supercritical helium cooling system. In order to evaluate this cooling scheme, two individual dipole magnets were first tested in conventional dewars using pool boiling helium. These magnets were then modified for forced flow cooling and retested with the identical magnet coils. The first evaluation test used a l m-long ISA model dipole magnet whose pool boiling performance had been established. The same magnet was then retested with forced flow cooling, energizing it at various operating temperatures until quench occurred. The magnet performance with forced flow cooling was consistent with data from the previous pool boiling tests. The next step in the program was a full-scale ISABELLE dipole ring magnet, 4.25 m long, whose performance was first evaluated with pool boiling. For the forced flow test the magnet was shrunk-fit into an unsplit laminated core encased in a stainless steel cylinder. The high pressure gas is cooled below 4 K by a helium bath which is pumped below atmospheric pressure with an ejector nozzle. The performance of the full-scale dipole magnet in the new configuration with forced flow cooling, showed a 10 percent increase in the attainable maximum current as compared to the pool boiling data

  19. Installation of the ALICE dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The large dipole magnet is installed on the ALICE detector at CERN. This magnet, which is cooled by demineralised water, will bend the path of muons that leave the huge rectangular solenoid (in the background). These muons are heavy electrons that interact less with matter, allowing them to traverse the main section of the detector.

  20. Fringing field measurement of dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hongyou; Jiang Weisheng; Mao Naifeng; Mao Xingwang

    1985-01-01

    The fringing field of a dipole magnet with a C-type circuit and homogeneous field in the gap has been measured including the distributions of fringing fields with and without magnetic shield. The measured data was analyzed by using the concept of virtual field boundary

  1. Scattering properties of point dipole interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zolotaryuk, Alexander; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Iermakova, S.V.

    2006-01-01

    dipole interactions with a renormalized coupling constant are analysed. Depending on the parameter values, all these interactions being self-adjoint extensions of the one-dimensional Schrodinger operator are shown to be divided into four types: (i) interactions will full transparency, (ii) non...

  2. Toroidal Dipole Moment of a Massless Neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabral-Rosetti, L. G.; Mondragon, M.; Perez, E. Reyes

    2009-01-01

    We obtain the toroidal dipole moment of a massless neutrino τ v l M using the results for the anapole moment of a massless Dirac neutrino a v l D , which was obtained in the context of the Standard Model of the electroweak interactions (SM)SU(2) L x U(1) Y .

  3. Simulation of structure and annihilation of screw dislocation dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben; Vegge, Tejs; Leffers, Torben

    2000-01-01

    Large scale atomistic simulations are used to investigate the properties of screw dislocation dipoles in copper. Spontaneous annihilation is observed for dipole heights less than 1 nm. Equilibrated dipoles of heights larger than 1 nm adopt a skew configuration due to the elastic anisotropy of Cu....... The equilibrium splitting width of the screw dislocations decreases with decreasing dipole height, as expected from elasticity theory. The energy barriers, and corresponding transition states for annihilation of stable dipoles are determined for straight and for flexible dislocations for dipole heights up to 5.......2 nm. In both cases the annihilation is initiated by cross-slip of one of the dislocations. For straight dislocations the activation energy shows a linear dependence on the inverse dipole height, and for flexible dislocations the dependence is roughly linear for the dipoles investigated....

  4. Approximations of Fuzzy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinai K. Singh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A fuzzy system can uniformly approximate any real continuous function on a compact domain to any degree of accuracy. Such results can be viewed as an existence of optimal fuzzy systems. Li-Xin Wang discussed a similar problem using Gaussian membership function and Stone-Weierstrass Theorem. He established that fuzzy systems, with product inference, centroid defuzzification and Gaussian functions are capable of approximating any real continuous function on a compact set to arbitrary accuracy. In this paper we study a similar approximation problem by using exponential membership functions

  5. Fast representation of dipole-dipole geoelectrical data with pseudosections for regional surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Giudici

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available I propose a fast method for constructing pseudosections of apparent resistivity from geoelectrical data collected for deep studies with continuous polar dipole-dipole arrays. Once a vertical section is fixed, each value of apparent resistivity is assigned to a point on the section and finally pseudosections are obtained by interpolation. This allows the geophysicist to represent a large amount of data in a fast and simple way, to perform a qualitative interpretation and to facilitate the quantitative interpretation.

  6. On the electric dipole moments of small sodium clusters from different theoretical approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguado, Andres, E-mail: aguado@metodos.fam.cie.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Largo, Antonio, E-mail: alargo@qf.uva.es [Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Quimica Inorganica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Vega, Andres, E-mail: vega@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain); Balbas, Luis Carlos, E-mail: balbas@fta.uva.es [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Atomica, y Optica, Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    2012-05-03

    Graphical abstract: The dipole moments and polarizabilities of a few isomers of sodium clusters of selected sizes (n = 13, 14, 16) are calculated using density functional theory methods as well as ab initio MP2, CASSCF, and MR-CI methods. Among the density functional approaches, we consider the usual local density and generalized gradient approximations, as well as a recent van der Waals self-consistent functional accounting for non-local dispersion interactions. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dipole moment and polarizability of sodium clusters from DFT and ab initio methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New van der Waals selfconsistent implementation of non-local dispersion interactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New starting isomeric geometries from extensive search of global minimum structures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Good agreement with recent experiments at cryogenic temperatures. - Abstract: The dipole moments of Na{sub n} clusters in the size range 10 < n < 20, recently measured at very low temperature (20 K), are much smaller than predicted by standard density functional methods. On the other hand, the calculated static dipole polarizabilities in that range of sizes deviate non-systematically from the measured ones, depending on the employed first principles approach. In this work we calculate the dipole moments and polarizabilities of a few isomers of Na{sub n} clusters of selected sizes (n = 13, 14, 16), obtained recently through an extensive unbiased search of the global minimum structures, and using density functional theory methods as well as ab initio MP2, CASSCF, and MR-CI methods. Among the density functional approaches, we consider the usual local density and generalized gradient approximations, as well as a recent van der Waals self-consistent functional accounting for non-local dispersion interactions. Both non-local pseudopotentials and all-electron implementations are employed and compared in order to assess the possible

  7. Multichannel microwave interferometer for the levitated dipole experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxer, Alexander C. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Garnier, Darren T.; Mauel, Michael E. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2009-04-15

    A four-channel microwave interferometer (center frequency: 60 GHz) has been constructed to measure plasma density profiles in the levitated dipole experiment (LDX). The LDX interferometer has a unique design owing to the unique geometry of LDX. The main design features of the interferometer are: (1) the transmitted beam traverses the plasma entirely in O-mode; (2) the interferometer is a heterodyne system employing two free-running oscillators; (3) four signals of data are received from just on transmitted beam; (4) phase shifts are detected in quadrature. Calibration tests demonstrate that the interferometer measures phase shifts with an uncertainty of approximately 5 deg. Plasma densities in LDX corresponding to phase shifts of up to 5{pi} are routinely and successfully measured.

  8. The natural line shape of the giant dipole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, E.F.; Pitthan, R.

    1977-01-01

    Investigation of photoabsorption experiments in the spherical nucleus 141 Pr, the quasispherical dynamically deformed 197 Au, and the statically deformed 165 Ho showed that the function which describes best the energy dependence of the reduced transition probability is given by the Breit-Wigner form rather than the Lorentz form. However, the form of the resulting measured cross section is approximately of the Lorentz type. The dependence of the giant resonance width GAMMA on the excitation energy was also investigated, and found to be less than 1% per MeV if one considered the known isovector E2 resonance above the giant dipole resonance. Best fit values of the reduced transition probabilities for the three nuclei are given and compared to (e,e') results. (Auth.)

  9. Maximal Electric Dipole Moments of Nuclei with Enhanced Schiff Moments

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2011-01-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of heavy nuclei, such as 199Hg, 225Ra and 211Rn, can be enhanced by the Schiff moments induced by the presence of nearby parity-doublet states. Working within the framework of the maximally CP-violating and minimally flavour-violating (MCPMFV) version of the MSSM, we discuss the maximal values that such EDMs might attain, given the existing experimental constraints on the Thallium, neutron and Mercury EDMs. The maximal EDM values of the heavy nuclei are obtained with the help of a differential-geometrical approach proposed recently that enables the maxima of new CP-violating observables to be calculated exactly in the linear approximation. In the case of 225Ra, we find that its EDM may be as large as 6 to 50 x 10^{-27} e.cm.

  10. Loose-cluster approximation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Loose-cluster approximation. Continuous curve Our Theory. Dashed curve Our Simulation. Loose cluster approx. not only. captures -the anomalous. qualitative features but is also,. quantitatively, quite accurate. Notes:

  11. Approximation by mediants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Wieb

    1990-01-01

    The distribution is determined of some sequences that measure how well a number is approximated by its mediants (or intermediate continued fraction convergents). The connection with a theorem of Fatou, as well as a new proof of this, is given.

  12. INTOR cost approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knobloch, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    A simplified cost approximation for INTOR parameter sets in a narrow parameter range is shown. Plausible constraints permit the evaluation of the consequences of parameter variations on overall cost. (orig.) [de

  13. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    -based method in terms of asymptotic accuracy of variance estimation and distribution approximation. For stationary time series, the asymptotic validity, and the favorable bias properties of the new bootstrap method are shown in two important cases: smooth functions of means, and M-estimators. The first......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample......In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...

  14. Approximation and Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Gautschi, Walter; Rassias, Themistocles M

    2011-01-01

    Approximation theory and numerical analysis are central to the creation of accurate computer simulations and mathematical models. Research in these areas can influence the computational techniques used in a variety of mathematical and computational sciences. This collection of contributed chapters, dedicated to renowned mathematician Gradimir V. Milovanovia, represent the recent work of experts in the fields of approximation theory and numerical analysis. These invited contributions describe new trends in these important areas of research including theoretic developments, new computational alg

  15. Approximation Behooves Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    da Silva Ribeiro, André Manuel; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009.......Calibration based on an expansion approximation for option prices in the Heston stochastic volatility model gives stable, accurate, and fast results for S&P500-index option data over the period 2005–2009....

  16. The effect of the charge density on the dipole moment of diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, A.; Germano, J.S.E.

    1986-01-01

    The results of the calculation, using the Variational Cellular Method (VCM), of the electric dipole moment of several diatomic molecules are improved. In previous calculations, the electronic charge density was treated like a spherically symmetric function in the inscribed sphere within each cell and as being the same constant value for all intercellular regions. Since the results obtained with such an approximation have not been satisfactory, an improved approximation for the charge density in the intercellular regions is needed. It is considered that the charge density is still constant outside the inscribed sphere but with different values in each intercellular region. A new expression for the dipole moment is obtained, and applied to the diatomic molecules HF, CO, BF and CS. In addition, the corresponding dipole moment curves, potential energy curves and spectroscopic constants are calculated taking into consideration our approximation and the traditional approximation for the charge density. The results of the two models are compared with each other and with experimental results for all the molecules considered. (Author) [pt

  17. Is there a fundamental cosmological dipole?

    CERN Document Server

    Perivolaropoulos, Leandros

    2014-01-01

    Early hints for deviation from the cosmological principle and statistical isotropy are being accumulated. After reviewing these hints, I focus on four cosmologically observed axes which appear to be either marginally consistent or in conflict with the standard ΛCDM isotropic and homogeneous cosmology. These axes are abnormally aligned with each other and include: (a) The Fine Structure Constant α Dipole (b) the Dark Energy Dipole (c) the Dark Velocity Flow and (d) the CMB Maximum Temperature Asymmetry. I also discuss a simple physical model (extended topological quintessence) that has the potential to explain the existence and alignment of these axes. The model is based on the recent formation of a global monopole with Hubble scale core by an O(3) symmetric scalar field, non-minimally coupled to electromagnetism.

  18. Dynamical dipole mode in fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Martin, B.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Cardella, G.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Toro, M.; Inglima, G.; Glodariu, T.; La Commara, M.; Maiolino, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Pagano, A.; Piattelli, P.; Pirrone, S.; Rizzo, C.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Signorini, C.

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the dynamical dipole mode, related with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, in the 40Ar+92Zr and 36Ar+96Zr fusion reactions at Elab = 15.1 A and 16 A MeV, respectively. These reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, a compound nucleus in the A = 126 mass energy region, identical spin distribution at an average excitation energy of about 280 MeV. The compound nucleus average excitation energy and average mass were deduced by the analysis of the light charged particle energy spectra. By studying the γ-ray energy spectra and the γ-ray angular distributions of the considered reactions, the dynamical nature of the prompt radiation related to the dynamical dipole mode was evidenced. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  19. Dynamical dipole mode in fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Romoli, M.; Martin, B.; Inglima, G.; La Commara, M.; Sandoli, M.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Zoppo, A. Del; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Baran, V.; Glodariu, T.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the dynamical dipole mode, related with entrance channel charge asymmetry effects, in the 40 Ar+ 92 Zr and 36 Ar+ 96 Zr fusion reactions at E lab = 15.1 A and 16 A MeV, respectively. These reactions populate, through entrance channels having different charge asymmetries, a compound nucleus in the A = 126 mass energy region, identical spin distribution at an average excitation energy of about 280 MeV. The compound nucleus average excitation energy and average mass were deduced by the analysis of the light charged particle energy spectra. By studying the γ-ray energy spectra and the γ-ray angular distributions of the considered reactions, the dynamical nature of the prompt radiation related to the dynamical dipole mode was evidenced. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  20. Dipole vortices in the Great Australian Bight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cresswell, George R.; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Nielsen, Morten Holtegaard

    2015-01-01

    Shipboard measurements from late 2006 made by the Danish Galathea 3 Expedition and satellite sea surface temperature images revealed a chain of cool and warm mushroom' dipole vortices that mixed warm, salty, oxygen-poor waters on and near the continental shelf of the Great Australian Bight (GAB......) with cooler, fresher, oxygen-rich waters offshore. The alternating jets' flowing into the mushrooms were directed mainly northwards and southwards and differed in temperature by only 1.5 degrees C; however, the salinity difference was as much as 0.5, and therefore quite large. The GAB waters were slightly...... denser than the cooler offshore waters. The field of dipoles evolved and distorted, but appeared to drift westwards at 5km day-1 over two weeks, and one new mushroom carried GAB water southwards at 7km day(-1). Other features encountered between Cape Leeuwin and Tasmania included the Leeuwin Current...

  1. THE SNS RING DIPOLE MAGNETIC FIELD QUALITY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANDERER,P.; JACKSON,J.; JAIN,A.; LEE,Y.Y.; MENG,W.; PAPAPHILIPPOU,I.; SPATARO,C.; TEPIKIAN,S.; TSOUPAS,N.; WEI,J.

    2002-06-03

    The large acceptance and compact size of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ring implies the use of short, large aperture dipole magnets, with significant end field errors. The SNS will contain 32 such dipoles. We report magnetic field measurements of the first 16 magnets. The end field errors have been successfully compensated by the use of iron bumps. For 1.0 GeV protons, the magnets have been shimmed to meet the 0.01% specification for rms variation of the integral field. At 1.3 GeV, the rms variation is 0.036%. The load on the corrector system at 1.3 GeV will be reduced by the use of sorting.

  2. Trapped field internal dipole superconducting motor generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, John R. (Downers Grove, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A motor generator including a high temperature superconductor rotor and an internally disposed coil assembly. The motor generator superconductor rotor is constructed of a plurality of superconductor elements magnetized to produce a dipole field. The coil assembly can be either a conventional conductor or a high temperature superconductor. The superconductor rotor elements include a magnetization direction and c-axis for the crystals of the elements and which is oriented along the magnetization direction.

  3. The LHC AC Dipole system: an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    The LHC AC Dipole is an instrument to study properties of the LHC lattice by inducing large transverse displacements in the beam. These displacements are generated by exciting the beam with an oscillating magnetic field at a frequency close to the tune. This paper presents the system requirements and the technical solution chosen to meet them, based of high-power audio amplifiers and a resonant parallel RLC circuit.

  4. Electric dipole moment of light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, Benjamin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Afnan, I R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    We examine the sensitivity of the deuteron Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) to variation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. In particular, we write the EDM as a sum of two terms, one depends on the target wave function, the second on intermediate multiple scattering states in the {sup 3}P{sub 1} channel. This second contribution is sensitive to off-shell behavior of the {sup 3}P{sub 1} amplitude.

  5. Dipole operator constraints on composite Higgs models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Matthias [Johannes Gutenberg University, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mainz (Germany); Neubert, Matthias [Johannes Gutenberg University, PRISMA Cluster of Excellence and Mainz Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mainz (Germany); Cornell University, Department of Physics, LEPP, Ithaca, NY (United States); Straub, David M. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany)

    2014-07-15

    Flavour- and CP-violating electromagnetic or chromomagnetic dipole operators in the quark sector are generated in a large class of new physics models and are strongly constrained by measurements of the neutron electric dipolemoment and observables sensitive to flavour-changing neutral currents, such as the B→ X{sub s}γ branching ratio and ε'/ε. After a model-independent discussion of the relevant constraints, we analyze these effects in models with partial compositeness, where the quarks get their masses by mixing with vector-like composite fermions. These scenarios can be seen as the low-energy limit of composite Higgs or warped extra dimensional models. We study different choices for the electroweak representations of the composite fermions motivated by electroweak precision tests as well as different flavour structures, including flavour anarchy and U(3){sup 3} or U(2){sup 3} flavour symmetries in the strong sector. In models with ''wrong-chirality'' Yukawa couplings, we find a strong bound from the neutron electric dipole moment, irrespective of the flavour structure. In the case of flavour anarchy, we also find strong bounds from flavour-violating dipoles, while these constraints are mild in the flavour-symmetric models. (orig.)

  6. SPS Dipole Multipactor Test and TEWave Diagnostics

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F; Edwards, P; Federmann, S; Holz, M; Taborelli, M

    2013-01-01

    Electron cloud accumulation in particle accelerators can be mitigated by coating the vacuum beam pipe with thin films of low secondary electron yield (SEY) material. The SEY of small coated samples are usually measured in the laboratory. To further test the properties of different coating materials, RF-induced multipacting in a coaxial waveguide configuration can be performed. The technique is applied to two main bending dipoles of the SPS, where the RF power is fed through a tungsten wire stretched along the vacuum chamber (6.4 m). A dipole with a bare stainless steel chamber shows a clear power threshold initiating an abrupt rise in reflected power and pressure. The effect is enhanced at RF frequencies corresponding to electron cyclotron resonances for given magnetic fields. Preliminary results show that the dipole with a carbon coated vacuum chamber does not exhibit any pressure rise or reflected RF power up to the maximum available input power. In the case of a large scale coating production this techniqu...

  7. Bent Solenoids with Superimposed Dipole Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinke, Rainer, B.; Goodzeit, Carl, L.

    2000-03-21

    A conceptual design and manufacturing technique were developed for a superconducting bent solenoid magnet with a superimposed dipole field that would be used as a dispersion device in the cooling channel of a future Muon Collider. The considered bent solenoid is equivalent to a 180° section of a toroid with a major radius of ~610 mm and a coil aperture of ~416 mm. The required field components of this magnet are 4 tesla for the solenoid field and 1 tesla for the superimposed dipole field. A magnet of this size and shape, operating at these field levels, has to sustain large Lorentz forces resulting in a maximum magnetic pressure of about 2,000 psi. A flexible round mini-cable with 37 strands of Cu-NbTi was selected as the superconductor. Detailed magnetic analysis showed that it is possible to obtain the required superimposed dipole field by tilting the winding planes of the solenoid by ~25°. A complete structural analysis of the coil support system and the helium containment vessel under thermal, pressure, and Lorentz force loads was carried out using 3D finite element models of the structures. The main technical issues were studied and solutions were worked out so that a highly reliable magnet of this type can be produced at an affordable cost.

  8. Direct amplitude detuning measurement with ac dipole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. White

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In circular machines, nonlinear dynamics can impact parameters such as beam lifetime and could result in limitations on the performance reach of the accelerator. Assessing and understanding these effects in experiments is essential to confirm the accuracy of the magnetic model and improve the machine performance. A direct measurement of the machine nonlinearities can be obtained by characterizing the dependency of the tune as a function of the amplitude of oscillations (usually defined as amplitude detuning. The conventional technique is to excite the beam to large amplitudes with a single kick and derive the tune from turn-by-turn data acquired with beam position monitors. Although this provides a very precise tune measurement it has the significant disadvantage of being destructive. An alternative, nondestructive way of exciting large amplitude oscillations is to use an ac dipole. The perturbation Hamiltonian in the presence of an ac dipole excitation shows a distinct behavior compared to the free oscillations which should be correctly taken into account in the interpretation of experimental data. The use of an ac dipole for direct amplitude detuning measurement requires careful data processing allowing one to observe the natural tune of the machine; the feasibility of such a measurement is demonstrated using experimental data from the Large Hadron Collider. An experimental proof of the theoretical derivations based on measurements performed at injection energy is provided as well as an application of this technique at top energy using a large number of excitations on the same beam.

  9. On Convex Quadratic Approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hertog, D.; de Klerk, E.; Roos, J.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we prove the counterintuitive result that the quadratic least squares approximation of a multivariate convex function in a finite set of points is not necessarily convex, even though it is convex for a univariate convex function. This result has many consequences both for the field of

  10. Improved Approximation Algorithm for

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Byrka, Jaroslaw; Li, S.; Rybicki, Bartosz

    2014-01-01

    We study the k-level uncapacitated facility location problem (k-level UFL) in which clients need to be connected with paths crossing open facilities of k types (levels). In this paper we first propose an approximation algorithm that for any constant k, in polynomial time, delivers solutions of

  11. Prestack wavefield approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2013-09-01

    The double-square-root (DSR) relation offers a platform to perform prestack imaging using an extended single wavefield that honors the geometrical configuration between sources, receivers, and the image point, or in other words, prestack wavefields. Extrapolating such wavefields, nevertheless, suffers from limitations. Chief among them is the singularity associated with horizontally propagating waves. I have devised highly accurate approximations free of such singularities which are highly accurate. Specifically, I use Padé expansions with denominators given by a power series that is an order lower than that of the numerator, and thus, introduce a free variable to balance the series order and normalize the singularity. For the higher-order Padé approximation, the errors are negligible. Additional simplifications, like recasting the DSR formula as a function of scattering angle, allow for a singularity free form that is useful for constant-angle-gather imaging. A dynamic form of this DSR formula can be supported by kinematic evaluations of the scattering angle to provide efficient prestack wavefield construction. Applying a similar approximation to the dip angle yields an efficient 1D wave equation with the scattering and dip angles extracted from, for example, DSR ray tracing. Application to the complex Marmousi data set demonstrates that these approximations, although they may provide less than optimal results, allow for efficient and flexible implementations. © 2013 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  12. Generalized Approximate Message Passing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxvig, Christian Schou; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    This tech report details a collection of results related to the Generalised Approximate Message Passing (GAMP) algorithm. It is a summary of the results that the authors have found critical in understanding the GAMP algorithm. In particular, emphasis is on the details that are crucial in implemen...

  13. On Stochastic Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Hans

    This paper deals with a stochastic process for the approximation of the root of a regression equation. This process was first suggested by Robbins and Monro. The main result here is a necessary and sufficient condition on the iteration coefficients for convergence of the process (convergence with probability one and convergence in the quadratic…

  14. Approximating The DCM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Rasmus Elsborg

    2005-01-01

    The Dirichlet compound multinomial (DCM), which has recently been shown to be well suited for modeling for word burstiness in documents, is here investigated. A number of conceptual explanations that account for these recent results, are provided. An exponential family approximation of the DCM...

  15. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2011-01-01

    Most prestack traveltime relations we tend work with are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multi-focusing or double square-root (DSR) and the common reflection stack (CRS) equations. Using the DSR equation, I analyze the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I derive expansion based solutions of this eikonal based on polynomial expansions in terms of the reflection and dip angles in a generally inhomogenous background medium. These approximate solutions are free of singularities and can be used to estimate travetimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. A Marmousi example demonstrates the usefulness of the approach. © 2011 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  16. Topology, calculus and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Komornik, Vilmos

    2017-01-01

    Presenting basic results of topology, calculus of several variables, and approximation theory which are rarely treated in a single volume, this textbook includes several beautiful, but almost forgotten, classical theorems of Descartes, Erdős, Fejér, Stieltjes, and Turán. The exposition style of Topology, Calculus and Approximation follows the Hungarian mathematical tradition of Paul Erdős and others. In the first part, the classical results of Alexandroff, Cantor, Hausdorff, Helly, Peano, Radon, Tietze and Urysohn illustrate the theories of metric, topological and normed spaces. Following this, the general framework of normed spaces and Carathéodory's definition of the derivative are shown to simplify the statement and proof of various theorems in calculus and ordinary differential equations. The third and final part is devoted to interpolation, orthogonal polynomials, numerical integration, asymptotic expansions and the numerical solution of algebraic and differential equations. Students of both pure an...

  17. Fragments of approximate counting

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buss, S.R.; Kolodziejczyk, L. A.; Thapen, Neil

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 496-525 ISSN 0022-4812 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : approximate counting * bounded arithmetic * ordering principle Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2014 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9287274&fileId=S0022481213000376

  18. Optimization and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Pedregal, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a basic, initial resource, introducing science and engineering students to the field of optimization. It covers three main areas: mathematical programming, calculus of variations and optimal control, highlighting the ideas and concepts and offering insights into the importance of optimality conditions in each area. It also systematically presents affordable approximation methods. Exercises at various levels have been included to support the learning process.

  19. Approximate Bayesian recursive estimation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kárný, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 285, č. 1 (2014), s. 100-111 ISSN 0020-0255 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-13502S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Approximate parameter estimation * Bayesian recursive estimation * Kullback–Leibler divergence * Forgetting Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 4.038, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/AS/karny-0425539.pdf

  20. Topics in Metric Approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, William Edward

    This thesis develops effective approximations of certain metrics that occur frequently in pure and applied mathematics. We show that distances that often arise in applications, such as the Earth Mover's Distance between two probability measures, can be approximated by easily computed formulas for a wide variety of ground distances. We develop simple and easily computed characterizations both of norms measuring a function's regularity -- such as the Lipschitz norm -- and of their duals. We are particularly concerned with the tensor product of metric spaces, where the natural notion of regularity is not the Lipschitz condition but the mixed Lipschitz condition. A theme that runs throughout this thesis is that snowflake metrics (metrics raised to a power less than 1) are often better-behaved than ordinary metrics. For example, we show that snowflake metrics on finite spaces can be approximated by the average of tree metrics with a distortion bounded by intrinsic geometric characteristics of the space and not the number of points. Many of the metrics for which we characterize the Lipschitz space and its dual are snowflake metrics. We also present applications of the characterization of certain regularity norms to the problem of recovering a matrix that has been corrupted by noise. We are able to achieve an optimal rate of recovery for certain families of matrices by exploiting the relationship between mixed-variable regularity conditions and the decay of a function's coefficients in a certain orthonormal basis.

  1. Non-dipole angular anisotropy parameters of photoelectrons from semi-filled shell atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M Ya [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Chernysheva, L V [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, St-Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-28

    We present the results of calculations of outer and next to outer shell non-dipole angular anisotropy parameters of photoelectrons for semi-filled shell atoms in the Hartree-Fock (HF) one-electron approximation and in the frame of the spin polarized random phase approximation with exchange (SP RPAE) which takes into account inter-electron correlations. We demonstrate for the first time that this characteristic of the photoionization process is essentially sensitive to whether the photoelectron has the same or opposite spin orientation to that of the semi-filled shell.

  2. Non-dipole angular anisotropy parameters of photoelectrons from semi-filled shell atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M Ya; Chernysheva, L V

    2006-01-01

    We present the results of calculations of outer and next to outer shell non-dipole angular anisotropy parameters of photoelectrons for semi-filled shell atoms in the Hartree-Fock (HF) one-electron approximation and in the frame of the spin polarized random phase approximation with exchange (SP RPAE) which takes into account inter-electron correlations. We demonstrate for the first time that this characteristic of the photoionization process is essentially sensitive to whether the photoelectron has the same or opposite spin orientation to that of the semi-filled shell

  3. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  4. On the WKBJ approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Sawi, M.

    1983-07-01

    A simple approach employing properties of solutions of differential equations is adopted to derive an appropriate extension of the WKBJ method. Some of the earlier techniques that are commonly in use are unified, whereby the general approximate solution to a second-order homogeneous linear differential equation is presented in a standard form that is valid for all orders. In comparison to other methods, the present one is shown to be leading in the order of iteration, and thus possibly has the ability of accelerating the convergence of the solution. The method is also extended for the solution of inhomogeneous equations. (author)

  5. Cyclic approximation to stasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart D. Johnson

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhoods of points in $mathbb{R}^n$ where a positive linear combination of $C^1$ vector fields sum to zero contain, generically, cyclic trajectories that switch between the vector fields. Such points are called stasis points, and the approximating switching cycle can be chosen so that the timing of the switches exactly matches the positive linear weighting. In the case of two vector fields, the stasis points form one-dimensional $C^1$ manifolds containing nearby families of two-cycles. The generic case of two flows in $mathbb{R}^3$ can be diffeomorphed to a standard form with cubic curves as trajectories.

  6. Temperature dependence of giant dipole resonance width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vdovin, A.I.; Storozhenko, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    The quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model extended to finite temperature within the framework of the thermo field dynamics is applied to calculate a temperature dependence of the spreading width Γ d own of a giant dipole resonance. Numerical calculations are made for 12S n and 208 Pb nuclei. It is found that the width Γ d own increases with T. The reason of this effect is discussed as well as a relation of the present approach to other ones existing in the literature

  7. Prototype steel-concrete LEP dipole magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic field needed in the LEP dipole magnets was rather low, of a fraction of tesla. This lead to the conception of a novel yoke structure consisting of stacks of 1.5 mm thick low-carbon steel laminations spaced by 4.1 mm with the spaces filled with concrete. The excitation coils were also very simple: aluminium bars insulated by polyester boxes in this prototype, by glass-epoxy in the final magnets. For details see LEP-Note 118,1978 and LEP-Note 233 1980. See also 8111529,7908528X.

  8. Direct photons and dileptons via color dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B.Z.; Rezaeian, A.H.; Pirner, H.J.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2007-01-01

    Drell-Yan dilepton pair production and inclusive direct photon production can be described within a unified framework in the color dipole approach. The inclusion of non-perturbative primordial transverse momenta and DGLAP evolution is studied. We successfully describe data for dilepton spectra from 800-GeV pp collisions, inclusive direct photon spectra for pp collisions at RHIC energies √(s)=200 GeV, and for pp-bar collisions at tevatron energies √(s)=1.8 TeV, in a formalism that is free from any extra parameters

  9. Effective gluon operators and neutron dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigi, I.; Ural'tsev, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    The role of the purely gluon CP odd six-dimension effective arising in various CP-breaking models is discussed. This operators of most interest in the nonminimal Higgs sector models, the right W models and supersymmetric theories, where it may induce the neutron dipole moment at the level of the experimental restriction. The method for evaluating the magnitude d n is proposed and the reasons are given in favor that the original Weiberg's estimate based on the naive Dimensional Analysis is overdone significantly. The Peccei -Quinn mechanism, impact on the magnitude of d n , which generally may be very essential, is discussed

  10. Electric dipole moment of 3He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avishai, Y.; Fabre de la Ripelle, M.

    1986-01-01

    The contribution of a CP-nonconserving nucleon-nucleon interaction to the electric dipole moment of 3 He is evaluated in view of a recent proposal for its experimental detection. We use two models of CP-nonconserving interactions in combination with a Reid soft-core strong nucleon-nucleon interaction. In the Kobayashi-Maskawa model of CP nonconservation the order of magnitude is 10 -30 eX while the presence of the theta term in the QCD Langrangian contributes an order of magnitude 10 -16 theta-bar e cm

  11. Prompt dipole radiation in fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Cardella, G.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Toro, M.; Inglima, G.; Glodariu, T.; La Commara, M.; Maiolino, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Pagano, A.; Piattelli, P.; Pirrone, S.

    2008-01-01

    The prompt γ-ray emission is investigated in the 16A MeV energy region by means of the 36,40 Ar + 96,92 Zr fusion reactions leading to a compound nucleus in the vicinity of 132 Ce. The dynamical nature of this radiation is confirmed. We show that the prompt γ radiation has an angular distribution pattern consistent with a dipole oscillation along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics

  12. Prompt dipole radiation in fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, B. [Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Pierroutsakou, D. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy)], E-mail: pierroutsakou@na.infn.it; Agodi, C.; Alba, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Baran, V. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); University of Bucharest (Romania); NIPNE-HH, 077125 Magurele (Romania); Boiano, A. [INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Cardella, G. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Colonna, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Coniglione, R. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); De Filippo, E. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Del Zoppo, A. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Di Toro, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipt. di Fisica, Universita di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Inglima, G. [Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Glodariu, T. [NIPNE-HH, 077125 Magurele (Romania); La Commara, M. [Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche, Univ. di Napoli ' Federico II' , via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Maiolino, C. [INFN, Lab. Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Mazzocco, M. [Dipt. di Fisica and INFN, Sezione di Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy); Pagano, A. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy); Piattelli, P. [INFN, Lab. Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia, 95123 Catania (Italy); Pirrone, S. [INFN, Sezione di Catania, 95123 Catania (Italy)] (and others)

    2008-06-12

    The prompt {gamma}-ray emission is investigated in the 16A MeV energy region by means of the {sup 36,40}Ar + {sup 96,92}Zr fusion reactions leading to a compound nucleus in the vicinity of {sup 132}Ce. The dynamical nature of this radiation is confirmed. We show that the prompt {gamma} radiation has an angular distribution pattern consistent with a dipole oscillation along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  13. Prompt dipole radiation in fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, B.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Baran, V.; Boiano, A.; Cardella, G.; Colonna, M.; Coniglione, R.; De Filippo, E.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Toro, M.; Inglima, G.; Glodariu, T.; La Commara, M.; Maiolino, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Pagano, A.; Piattelli, P.; Pirrone, S.; Rizzo, C.; Romoli, M.; Sandoli, M.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Signorini, C.

    2008-06-01

    The prompt γ-ray emission is investigated in the 16 A MeV energy region by means of the 36,40Ar + 96,92Zr fusion reactions leading to a compound nucleus in the vicinity of 132Ce. The dynamical nature of this radiation is confirmed. We show that the prompt γ radiation has an angular distribution pattern consistent with a dipole oscillation along the symmetry axis of the dinuclear system. The data are compared with calculations based on a collective bremsstrahlung analysis of the reaction dynamics.

  14. Neutron Electric Dipole Moment on the Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Boram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the neutron to have an electric dipole moment (EDM, the theory of nature must have T, or equivalently CP, violation. Neutron EDM is a very good probe of novel CP violation in beyond the standard model physics. To leverage the connection between measured neutron EDM and novel mechanism of CP violation, one requires the calculation of matrix elements for CP violating operators, for which lattice QCD provides a first principle method. In this paper, we review the status of recent lattice QCD calculations of the contributions of the QCD Θ-term, the quark EDM term, and the quark chromo-EDM term to the neutron EDM.

  15. Neutron Electric Dipole Moment on the Lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Boram; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Gupta, Rajan

    2018-03-01

    For the neutron to have an electric dipole moment (EDM), the theory of nature must have T, or equivalently CP, violation. Neutron EDM is a very good probe of novel CP violation in beyond the standard model physics. To leverage the connection between measured neutron EDM and novel mechanism of CP violation, one requires the calculation of matrix elements for CP violating operators, for which lattice QCD provides a first principle method. In this paper, we review the status of recent lattice QCD calculations of the contributions of the QCD Θ-term, the quark EDM term, and the quark chromo-EDM term to the neutron EDM.

  16. Electric dipole moment: theory and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinds, E.

    2002-01-01

    There are 2 motivations for studying electric dipole moments (EDM): 1) EDM is deeply connected to CP violation (since it violates T symmetry) and to the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe, and 2) EDM is effectively zero in standard model but big enough to measure in non-standard models and serves as a direct test of physics beyond the standard model. In this series of slides the author reviews various experiments concerning EDM: the mercury EDM experiment, the neutron EDM experiment, the thallium EDM experiment and the ytterbium EDM experiment, and considers the implications of their results on supersymmetry

  17. EDM: Neutron electric dipole moment measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fierlinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available An electric dipole moment (EDM of the neutron would be a clear sign of new physics beyond the standard model of particle physics. The search for this phenomenon is considered one of the most important experiments in fundamental physics and could provide key information on the excess of matter versus antimatter in the universe. With high measurement precision, this experiment aims to ultimately achieve a sensitivity of 10-28 ecm, a 100-fold improvement in the sensitivity compared to the state-of-the-art. The EDM instrument is operated by an international collaboration based at the Technische Universität München.

  18. Giant dipole resonance in hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mau, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    Giant resonances built on an excited state of the nucleus at a finite temperature T are studied. The following questions are investigated: how long such collective effects occur in a nucleus when T increases. How the properties of the giant resonances vary when the temperature increases. How the study of giant resonances in hot nuclei can give information on the structure of the nucleus in a highly excited state. The special case of the giant dipole resonance is studied. Some of the experimental results are reviewed and in their theoretical interpretation is discussed. (K.A.). 56 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Dipole Magnetization Effect to Kerosene Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Chalid; Nelson Saksono; Adiwar Adiwar; Nono Darsono

    2010-01-01

    Investigation of kerosene characteristics has been done by ex-situ dipole magnetization. The results  show that magnetization technique can be able to influence kerosene characteristics. Polarity and viscosity of the kerosene are observed by measuring refractive index and viscosity. An hour of 4330 Gauss flux magnetic will increase refractive index from 1.447 to 1.449 and decrease the viscosity from 1.278 to 1.256. Those changing support de-clustering occurrence and polarity increment of...

  20. Novel Electrically Small Spherical Electric Dipole Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel electrically small spherical meander antenna. Horizontal sections of the meander are composed of wire loops, radii of which are chosen so that the whole structure is conformal to a sphere of radius a. To form the meander the loops are connected by wires at a meridian...... plane. The antenna operates as an electric dipole, i.e. it radiates the TM10 spherical mode. The antenna is self-resonant and can be matched to a wide range of input feed lines without an external matching network. In this paper, a spherical meander antenna of the size ka = 0.27 and the input impedance...

  1. Approximate Euclidean Ramsey theorems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Dumitrescu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available According to a classical result of Szemerédi, every dense subset of 1,2,…,N contains an arbitrary long arithmetic progression, if N is large enough. Its analogue in higher dimensions due to Fürstenberg and Katznelson says that every dense subset of {1,2,…,N}d contains an arbitrary large grid, if N is large enough. Here we generalize these results for separated point sets on the line and respectively in the Euclidean space: (i every dense separated set of points in some interval [0,L] on the line contains an arbitrary long approximate arithmetic progression, if L is large enough. (ii every dense separated set of points in the d-dimensional cube [0,L]d in Rd contains an arbitrary large approximate grid, if L is large enough. A further generalization for any finite pattern in Rd is also established. The separation condition is shown to be necessary for such results to hold. In the end we show that every sufficiently large point set in Rd contains an arbitrarily large subset of almost collinear points. No separation condition is needed in this case.

  2. Approximate Bayesian computation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Sunnåker

    Full Text Available Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC constitutes a class of computational methods rooted in Bayesian statistics. In all model-based statistical inference, the likelihood function is of central importance, since it expresses the probability of the observed data under a particular statistical model, and thus quantifies the support data lend to particular values of parameters and to choices among different models. For simple models, an analytical formula for the likelihood function can typically be derived. However, for more complex models, an analytical formula might be elusive or the likelihood function might be computationally very costly to evaluate. ABC methods bypass the evaluation of the likelihood function. In this way, ABC methods widen the realm of models for which statistical inference can be considered. ABC methods are mathematically well-founded, but they inevitably make assumptions and approximations whose impact needs to be carefully assessed. Furthermore, the wider application domain of ABC exacerbates the challenges of parameter estimation and model selection. ABC has rapidly gained popularity over the last years and in particular for the analysis of complex problems arising in biological sciences (e.g., in population genetics, ecology, epidemiology, and systems biology.

  3. Spontaneous dipole-dipole interactions in many-body, driven, dissipative Rydberg systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslek, James; Boulier, Thomas; Magnan, Eric; Bracamontes, Carlos; Young, Jeremy; Gorshkov, Alexey; Rolston, Steve; Porto, Trey

    We observe unexpected dipole-dipole interactions leading to the violation of a forbidden transition to the 18s manifold of ultra-cold 87 Rb atoms in a 3D optical lattice, as well as an increase in the linewidth of the allowed two photon rydberg transition. At increasing two photon Rabi frequency, a new resonance appears 10 MHz detuned from the main rydberg transition. Due to the selection rules of the circularly-polarized 2-photon excitation, the | F = 1 , mF = - 1 > state, which lies roughly 10 MHz away, should be inaccessible, and is not present at rabi frequencies less than 60kHz. We interpret this as a mixing of both the accessible and forbidden 18s states, which comes from the dipole-dipole interaction between these states and the populations of nearby p states, which are induced from blackbody decay from the. | 18 s , F = 2 , mF = - 2 > state. These p states are created faster than the timescales of the experiment, making their effect instant. We observe that the pumping rates of these resonances tend to the same value as the rabi frequency gets large enough, showing a complete mixing of the states. This phenomenon occurs due to the finite lifetimes of rydberg atoms and occurs in highly excited many-body systems. It is relevant for a wide array of proposals, including rydberg dressing

  4. Iron ore deposits model using geoelectrical resistivity method with dipole-dipole array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octova Adree

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mining industry is an industry with very high risk (losses. In order that mining activities can be run well, then the potential of the Earth’s resources must be known for sure. one of the Earth’s resources of high economic value is the iron ore. Iron ore is rarely found in a free state in nature, it is usually associated with other minerals and exposed randomly. With these properties, iron ore needs to be modeled before doing mining activities in order to avoid large losses. Iron ore deposits can be modeled with geoelectrical resistivity method. Dipole-dipole array will produce good imaging both vertically and laterally. From the measurement results of geoelectrical resistivity with dipole-dipole array will be obtained the value of measuring the current and potential difference. This value will generate into 2D and 3D model of the cross section of the iron ore deposits. One of the areas in West Sumatra has the potential for iron ore. Five lines were applied in this area. The result of cross section got the iron minerals associated with quartzite at 30 meters depth below the surface.

  5. Emitter-Wrap-Through Photovoltaic Dipole Antenna with Solar Concentrator

    OpenAIRE

    Roo Ons, Maria; Shynu, S.; Ammann, Max; McCormack, Sarah; Norton, Brian

    2009-01-01

    A novel photovoltaic dipole antenna employing a solar concentrator as a reflector is proposed. Four identical emitter-wrap-through rear contact solar cells connected in series as a folded dipole are simultaneously used for power generation and as the antenna radiating element, which is located in the focal line of a parabolic solar concentrator. The parabolic structure acts as a solar concentrator for the photovoltaic cells as well as a reflector for the folded dipole antenna. Full-wave elect...

  6. Electric Dipole Antenna: A Source of Gravitational Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the gravitational scalar potential due to an oscillating electric dipole antenna placed in empty space is derived. The gravitational potential obtained propagates as a wave. The gravitational waves have phase velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum (c at the equatorial plane of the electric dipole antenna, unlike electromagnetic waves from the dipole antenna that cancel out at the equatorial plane due to charge symmetry.

  7. SSC superconducting dipole magnet cryostat model style B construction experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, N.H.; Bossert, R.C.; Carson, J.A.; Gonczy, J.D.; Larson, E.T.; Nicol, T.H.; Niemann, R.C.; Sorensen, D.; Zink, R.

    1989-03-01

    A program to upgrade the full scale SSC dipole magnet cryostat model function and assembly methods has resulted in a series of dipole magnets designated as style B construction. New design features and assembly techniques have produced a magnet and cryostat assembly that is the basis for Phase 1 of the SSC dipole magnet industrialization program. Details of the assembly program, assembly experience, and comparison to previous assembly experiences are presented. Improvements in magnet assembly techniques are also evaluated. 6 refs., 5 figs

  8. Giant dipole resonance in very hot nuclei of mass A≅115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suomijaervi, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Piattelli, P.; Le Faou, J.H.; Agodi, C.; Alamanos, N.; Alba, R.; Auger, F.; Bellia, G.; Chomaz, P.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Gaardho/je, J.J.; Garron, J.P.; Gillibert, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Russo, G.; Roynette, J.C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Smerzi, A.

    1996-01-01

    Gamma rays, light charged particles, and evaporation residues emitted from hot nuclei formed in the 36 Ar+ 90 Zr reaction at 27 MeV/nucleon have been measured at the GANIL facility with the 4π barium fluoride multidetector MEDEA. The combination of the residue and particle measurements shows that nuclei with masses around 115 and excitation energies between 350 and 550 MeV are produced. The γ spectra measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues exhibit three components: a low-energy statistical component, a high-energy contribution due to nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung during the initial stages of the collision, and a contribution from the decay of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states. The characteristics of the bremsstrahlung component are in agreement with previously published systematics. The γ yield from the decay of the giant dipole resonance remains constant over the excitation energy range studied. A comparison with other experiments shows that the N/Z asymmetry in the entrance channel does not affect the γ yield. Statistical calculations performed using the code CASCADE and supposing a fixed width and full sum rule strength for the dipole resonance strongly overpredict the data. The hypothesis of a continuously increasing width of the resonance with temperature gives a better agreement with experiment near the centroid of the resonance but overpredicts the γ spectra at higher energies. The best account of the data is given by assuming a cutoff of γ emission from the resonance above an excitation energy of approximately 250 MeV. This cutoff is discussed in terms of the time necessary to equilibrate the dipole oscillations with the hot compound nucleus. Finally, some evidence is given for a possible new low-energy component of the dipole strength at very high temperatures. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  9. Giant dipole resonance in very hot nuclei of mass A~=115

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomijärvi, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Piattelli, P.; Le Faou, J. H.; Agodi, C.; Alamanos, N.; Alba, R.; Auger, F.; Bellia, G.; Chomaz, Ph.; Coniglione, R.; del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Gaardhøje, J. J.; Garron, J. P.; Gillibert, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Russo, G.; Roynette, J. C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J. A.; Smerzi, A.

    1996-05-01

    Gamma rays, light charged particles, and evaporation residues emitted from hot nuclei formed in the 36Ar+90Zr reaction at 27 MeV/nucleon have been measured at the GANIL facility with the 4π barium fluoride multidetector MEDEA. The combination of the residue and particle measurements shows that nuclei with masses around 115 and excitation energies between 350 and 550 MeV are produced. The γ spectra measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues exhibit three components: a low-energy statistical component, a high-energy contribution due to nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung during the initial stages of the collision, and a contribution from the decay of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states. The characteristics of the bremsstrahlung component are in agreement with previously published systematics. The γ yield from the decay of the giant dipole resonance remains constant over the excitation energy range studied. A comparison with other experiments shows that the N/Z asymmetry in the entrance channel does not affect the γ yield. Statistical calculations performed using the code CASCADE and supposing a fixed width and full sum rule strength for the dipole resonance strongly overpredict the data. The hypothesis of a continuously increasing width of the resonance with temperature gives a better agreement with experiment near the centroid of the resonance but overpredicts the γ spectra at higher energies. The best account of the data is given by assuming a cutoff of γ emission from the resonance above an excitation energy of approximately 250 MeV. This cutoff is discussed in terms of the time necessary to equilibrate the dipole oscillations with the hot compound nucleus. Finally, some evidence is given for a possible new low-energy component of the dipole strength at very high temperatures.

  10. Giant dipole resonance in very hot nuclei of mass {ital A}{approx_equal}115

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suomijaervi, T.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Piattelli, P.; Le Faou, J.H.; Agodi, C.; Alamanos, N.; Alba, R.; Auger, F.; Bellia, G.; Chomaz, P.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Frascaria, N.; Gaardho/je, J.J.; Garron, J.P.; Gillibert, A.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Liguori-Neto, R.; Maiolino, C.; Migneco, E.; Russo, G.; Roynette, J.C.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Smerzi, A. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91406 Orsay, France INFN-Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud, Via S. Sofia 44, 95123, Catania, Italy SPhN, DAPNIA, CEN Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette, France GANIL, BP 5027, 14021 Caen, France The Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, DK-2100 O/ (Denmark)

    1996-05-01

    Gamma rays, light charged particles, and evaporation residues emitted from hot nuclei formed in the {sup 36}Ar+{sup 90}Zr reaction at 27 MeV/nucleon have been measured at the GANIL facility with the 4{pi} barium fluoride multidetector MEDEA. The combination of the residue and particle measurements shows that nuclei with masses around 115 and excitation energies between 350 and 550 MeV are produced. The {gamma} spectra measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues exhibit three components: a low-energy statistical component, a high-energy contribution due to nucleon-nucleon bremsstrahlung during the initial stages of the collision, and a contribution from the decay of the giant dipole resonance built on highly excited states. The characteristics of the bremsstrahlung component are in agreement with previously published systematics. The {gamma} yield from the decay of the giant dipole resonance remains constant over the excitation energy range studied. A comparison with other experiments shows that the {ital N}/{ital Z} asymmetry in the entrance channel does not affect the {gamma} yield. Statistical calculations performed using the code CASCADE and supposing a fixed width and full sum rule strength for the dipole resonance strongly overpredict the data. The hypothesis of a continuously increasing width of the resonance with temperature gives a better agreement with experiment near the centroid of the resonance but overpredicts the {gamma} spectra at higher energies. The best account of the data is given by assuming a cutoff of {gamma} emission from the resonance above an excitation energy of approximately 250 MeV. This cutoff is discussed in terms of the time necessary to equilibrate the dipole oscillations with the hot compound nucleus. Finally, some evidence is given for a possible new low-energy component of the dipole strength at very high temperatures. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  11. Design of the EuCARD high field model dipole magnet FRESCA2

    CERN Document Server

    Milanese, A; Durante, M; Manil, P; Perez, J-C; Rifflet, J-M; de Rijk, G; Rondeaux, F

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on the design of FRESCA2, a dipole magnet model wound with Nb3Sn Rutherford cable. This magnet is one of the deliverables of the High Field Magnets work package of the European FP7-EuCARD project. The nominal magnetic flux density of 13 Tesla in a 100 mm bore will make it suitable for upgrading the FRESCA cable test facility at CERN. The magnetic layout is based on a block coil, with four layers per pole. The mechanical structure is designed to provide adequate pre-stress, through the use of bladders, keys and an aluminum alloy shrinking cylinder.

  12. Quench Performance and Field Quality of the LHC Preseries Superconducting Dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Siemko, A; Bottura, L; Buzio, M; Chohan, V; Le Floc'h, E; Granata, V; Pojer, M; Pugnat, P; Rossi, L; Sanfilippo, S; Smirnov, N; Vlogaert, J; Walckiers, L

    2004-01-01

    The preseries production of the LHC main superconducting dipoles is presently being tested at CERN. The foremost features of these magnets are: twin structure, six block two layer coils wound from 15.1 mm wide graded NbTi cables, 56 mm aperture, polyimide insulation and stainless steel collars. This paper reviews the main test results of magnets tested to day in both normal and superfluid helium. The results of the training performance, magnet protection, electrical integrity and the field quality are presented in terms of the specifications and expected performance of these magnets in the future accelerator.

  13. Nanoscale freestanding gratings for ultraviolet blocking filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Beek, J.T.; Fleming, R.C.; Hindle, P.S.; Prentiss, J.D.; Schattenburg, M.L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ritzau, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    1998-11-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) blocking filters are needed for atomic flux imaging in environments where high levels of ultraviolet radiation are present. Freestanding gratings are a promising candidate for UV filtering. They have a high aspect ratio ({approximately}13), narrow ({approximately}40 nm) slots, and effectively block UV radiation. The grating fabrication process makes use of several etching, electroplating, and lithographic steps and includes an optional step to plug pinholes induced by particles during processing. Gratings were successfully manufactured and tested. Measured UV transmissions of {approximately}10{sup {minus}5} and particle transmissions of {approximately}10{percent} are in agreement with theoretical predictions. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Vacuum Society.}

  14. Measurement of the b hadron lifetime with the dipole method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Mattison, T.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Martinez, M.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Badaud, F.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; El Fellous, R.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Prulhière, F.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Fouque, G.; Orteu, S.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Ikeda, M.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Baldini, R.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; D'Ettorre-Piazzoli, B.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Picchi, P.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Greene, A. M.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Zimmermann, A.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Papalexiou, S.; Payre, P.; Roos, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; St. Denis, R.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Jaffe, D. E.; Janot, P.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zhang, Z.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Valassi, A.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; March, P. V.; Mir, Ll. M.; Medcalf, T.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; West, L. R.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Ashman, J. G.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barbeiro, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Sau Lan Wu; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1993-09-01

    A measurement of the average lifetime of b hadrons has been performed with dipole method on a sample of 260 000 hadronic Z decays recorded with the ALEPH detector during 1991. The dipole is the distance between the vertices built in the opposite hemispheres. The mean dipole is extracted from all the events without attempting b enrichment. Comparing the average of the data dipole distribution with a Monte Carlo calibration curve obtained with different b lifetimes, an average b hadron lifetime of 1.51±0.08 ps is extracted.

  15. Enhanced terahertz magnetic dipole response by subwavelength fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atakaramians, Shaghik; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.

    2018-01-01

    Dielectric sub-wavelength particles have opened up a new platform for realization of magnetic light. Recently, we have demonstrated that a dipole emitter by a sub-wavelength fiber leads to an enhanced magnetic response. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an enhanced magnetic dipole source......-fiber system excited by a magnetic source. This coupled magnetic dipole and optical fiber system can be considered a unit cell of metasurfaces for manipulation of terahertz radiation and is a proof-of-concept of a possibility to achieve enhanced radiation of a dipole source in proximity of a sub...

  16. The quasilocalized charge approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalman, G J; Golden, K I; Donko, Z; Hartmann, P

    2005-01-01

    The quasilocalized charge approximation (QLCA) has been used for some time as a formalism for the calculation of the dielectric response and for determining the collective mode dispersion in strongly coupled Coulomb and Yukawa liquids. The approach is based on a microscopic model in which the charges are quasilocalized on a short-time scale in local potential fluctuations. We review the conceptual basis and theoretical structure of the QLC approach and together with recent results from molecular dynamics simulations that corroborate and quantify the theoretical concepts. We also summarize the major applications of the QLCA to various physical systems, combined with the corresponding results of the molecular dynamics simulations and point out the general agreement and instances of disagreement between the two

  17. Effects of dipole-dipole interaction between cigar-shaped BECs of cold alkali atoms: towards inverse-squared interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yue; Luo, Zhuxi; Wang, Ziqiang

    2014-07-01

    We show that the dipole-dipole coupling between Wannier modes in cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) is significantly enhanced while the short-range coupling is strongly suppressed. As a result, the dipole-dipole interaction can become the dominant interaction between ultracold alkali Bose atoms. In the long length limit of a cigar-shaped BEC, the resulting effective one-dimensional models possess an effective inverse squared interacting potential, the Calogero-Sutherland potential, which plays a fundamental role in many fields of contemporary physics; but its direct experimental realization has been a challenge for a long time. We propose to realize the Calogero-Sutherland model in ultracold alkali Bose atoms and study the effects of the dipole-dipole interaction.

  18. The Development of the Inner Triplet Dipole Corrector (MCBX) for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Karppinen, M; Hauge, N; Nielsen, B R

    1999-01-01

    A prototype of the MCBX correction dipole magnet is being built in industry. It features a horizontal dipole nested inside a vertical dipole The coils of the 0.6 m long single-bore magnet are wound with 7 or 9 rectangular superconducting wires pre-assembled as flat cables. As the end fields contribute for more than 50 % to the field integral an optimisation in 3D was required. The impregnated coils containing CNC-machined end spacers are pre-compressed with an aluminium shrinking cylinder. The yoke consists of scissor-laminations to back up the coil rigidity and to centre the coil assembly. These laminations move inward during the cooldown and the movement is blocked at a pre-defined temperature building-up a circumferential stress in the stainless steel outer shell. This paper describes the magnetic and mechanical design of this magnet. The expected performance from the calculations is presented. The assembly procedure is reviewed and the experience with the 250 mm long mechanical model is reported.

  19. Dipole response in neutron-rich nuclei within self-consistent approaches using realistic potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Iudice N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A nucleon-nucleon chiral potential with a corrective density dependent term simulating a three-body force is used in a self-consistent calculation of the dipole strength distribution in neutron-rich nuclei, with special attention to the low-lying spectra associated to the pygmy resonance. A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov basis is generated and adopted in Tamm-Dancoff and random-phase approximations and, then, in an equation of motion approach which includes a basis of two-phonon states. The direct use of the mentioned chiral potential improves the description of both giant and pygmy dipole modes with respect to other realistic interactions. Moreover, the inclusion of the two-phonon states induces a pronounced fragmentation of the giant resonance and enhances the density of the low-lying levels in the pygmy region in agreement with recent experiments.

  20. Coupling of Surface and Volume Dipole Oscillations in C60 Molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brack, M.; Winkler, P.; Murthy, M. V. N.

    We first give a short review of the "local-current approximation" (LCA), derived from a general variation principle, which serves as a semiclassical description of strongly collective excitations in finite fermion systems starting from their quantum-mechanical mean-field ground state. We illustrate it for the example of coupled translational and compressional dipole excitations in metal clusters. We then discuss collective electronic dipole excitations in C60 molecules (Buckminster fullerenes). We show that the coupling of the pure translational mode ("surface plasmon") with compressional volume modes in the semiclasscial LCA yields semi-quantitative agreement with microscopic time-dependent density functional (TDLDA) calculations, while both theories yield qualitative agreement with the recent experimental observation of a "volume plasmon".

  1. Coupling of surface and volume dipole oscillations in C60 molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brack, M.; Winkler, P.; Murthy, M.V.N.

    2008-01-01

    We first give a short review of the "local-current approximation" (LCA), derived from a general variation principle, which serves as a semiclassical description of strongly collective excitations in finite fermion systems starting from their quantum-mechanical mean-field ground state. We illustrate it for the example of coupled translational and compressional dipole excitations in metal clusters. We then discuss collective electronic dipole excitations in C 60 molecules (Buckminster fullerenes). We show that the coupling of the pure translational mode ("surface plasmon") with compressional volume modes in the semiclasscial LCA yields semi-quantitative agreement with microscopic time-dependent density functional (TDLDA) calculations, while both theories yield qualitative agreement with the recent experimental observation of a "volume plasmon". (author)

  2. The Influence of Train Leakage Currents on the LEP Dipole Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, Enrico; Dehning, Bernd; Drees, A; Galbraith, Peter; Geitz, M A; Henrichsen, K N; Koratzinos, M; Mugnai, G

    1998-01-01

    The determination of the mass and the width of the Z boson at CERN's LEP accelerator, an e+e- storage ring with a circumference of approximately 27 kilometres, imposes heavy demands on the knowledge of the LEP counter-rotating electron and positron beam energies. The precision required is of the order of 1 MeV or »20 ppm frequency. Due to its size the LEP collider is influenced by various macroscopic and regional factors such as the position of the moon or seasonal changes of the rainfall in the area, as reported earlier. A new and not less surprising effect of the LEP energy was observed in 1995: railroad trains in the Geneva region perturb the dipole field. A parasitic flow of electricity, originating from the trains, travels along the LEP ground cable and the vacuum chamber, interacting with the dipole field. An account of the phenomenon with its explanation substantiated by dedicated measurements is presented.

  3. Tests of the discretized-continuum method in three-body dipole strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinilla, E.C., E-mail: epinilla@ulb.ac.be [Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, C.P. 229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Baye, D., E-mail: dbaye@ulb.ac.be [Physique Quantique, C.P. 165/82, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, C.P. 229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Descouvemont, P., E-mail: pdesc@ulb.ac.be [Physique Nucleaire Theorique et Physique Mathematique, C.P. 229, Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), B 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Horiuchi, W., E-mail: whoriuchi@riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako 351-0918 (Japan); Suzuki, Y., E-mail: suzuki@nt.sc.niigata-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Niigata University, Niigata 950-2181 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, Wako 351-0918 (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    We investigate the {sup 6}He dipole distribution in a three-body {alpha}+n+n model. Two approaches are used to describe the three-body 1{sup -} continuum: the discretized-continuum method, where the scattering wave functions are approximated by square-integrable functions, and the R-matrix formalism, where their asymptotic behaviour is taken into account. We show that some ambiguity exists in the pseudostate method, owing to the smoothing technique, necessary to derive continuous distributions. We show evidence for the important role of the halo structure in the E1 dipole strength. We also address the treatment of Pauli forbidden states in the three-body wave functions.

  4. Minimal entropy approximation for cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukś, Henryk

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for the construction of approximate orbits of measures under the action of cellular automata which is complementary to the local structure theory. The local structure theory is based on the idea of Bayesian extension, that is, construction of a probability measure consistent with given block probabilities and maximizing entropy. If instead of maximizing entropy one minimizes it, one can develop another method for the construction of approximate orbits, at the heart of which is the iteration of finite-dimensional maps, called minimal entropy maps. We present numerical evidence that the minimal entropy approximation sometimes outperforms the local structure theory in characterizing the properties of cellular automata. The density response curve for elementary CA rule 26 is used to illustrate this claim. (paper)

  5. Approximate quantum Markov chains

    CERN Document Server

    Sutter, David

    2018-01-01

    This book is an introduction to quantum Markov chains and explains how this concept is connected to the question of how well a lost quantum mechanical system can be recovered from a correlated subsystem. To achieve this goal, we strengthen the data-processing inequality such that it reveals a statement about the reconstruction of lost information. The main difficulty in order to understand the behavior of quantum Markov chains arises from the fact that quantum mechanical operators do not commute in general. As a result we start by explaining two techniques of how to deal with non-commuting matrices: the spectral pinching method and complex interpolation theory. Once the reader is familiar with these techniques a novel inequality is presented that extends the celebrated Golden-Thompson inequality to arbitrarily many matrices. This inequality is the key ingredient in understanding approximate quantum Markov chains and it answers a question from matrix analysis that was open since 1973, i.e., if Lieb's triple ma...

  6. Prestack traveltime approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-05-01

    Many of the explicit prestack traveltime relations used in practice are based on homogeneous (or semi-homogenous, possibly effective) media approximations. This includes the multifocusing, based on the double square-root (DSR) equation, and the common reflection stack (CRS) approaches. Using the DSR equation, I constructed the associated eikonal form in the general source-receiver domain. Like its wave-equation counterpart, it suffers from a critical singularity for horizontally traveling waves. As a result, I recasted the eikonal in terms of the reflection angle, and thus, derived expansion based solutions of this eikonal in terms of the difference between the source and receiver velocities in a generally inhomogenous background medium. The zero-order term solution, corresponding to ignoring the lateral velocity variation in estimating the prestack part, is free of singularities and can be used to estimate traveltimes for small to moderate offsets (or reflection angles) in a generally inhomogeneous medium. The higher-order terms include limitations for horizontally traveling waves, however, we can readily enforce stability constraints to avoid such singularities. In fact, another expansion over reflection angle can help us avoid these singularities by requiring the source and receiver velocities to be different. On the other hand, expansions in terms of reflection angles result in singularity free equations. For a homogenous background medium, as a test, the solutions are reasonably accurate to large reflection and dip angles. A Marmousi example demonstrated the usefulness and versatility of the formulation. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.

  7. Carbon coating of the SPS dipole chambers

    CERN Document Server

    Costa Pinto, P.; Chiggiato, P.; Edwards, P.; Mensi, M.; Neupert, H.; Taborelli, M.; Yin-Vallgren, C.

    2013-04-22

    The Electron Multipacting (EM) phenomenon is a limiting factor for the achievement of high luminosity in accelerators for positively charged particles and for the performance of RF devices. At CERN, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) must be upgraded in order to feed the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) with 25 ns bunch spaced beams. At such small bunch spacing, EM may limit the performance of the SPS and consequently that of the LHC. To mitigate this phenomenon CERN is developing a carbon thin film coating with low Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) to coat the internal walls of the SPS dipoles beam pipes. This paper presents the progresses in the coating technology, the performance of the carbon coatings and the strategy for a large scale production.

  8. Exotic fermions and electric dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshipura, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The contributions of mirror fermions to the electric dipole moments (EDM's) of leptons and neutrons are studied using the available limits on the mixing of the relevant fermions to their mirror partners. These limits imply EDM's several orders of magnitude larger than the current experimental bounds in the case of the electron and the neutron if the relevant CP-violating phases are not unnaturally small. If these phases are large, then the bounds on the EDM's can be used to improve upon the limits on mixing between the ordinary (f) and the mirror (F) fermions. In the specific case of the latter mixing angle being given by (m f /M F ) 1/2 , one can obtain the electron and the neutron EDM's close to experimental bounds

  9. Directional Dipole Model for Subsurface Scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Hachisuka, Toshiya; Kjeldsen, Thomas Kim

    2014-01-01

    Rendering translucent materials using Monte Carlo ray tracing is computationally expensive due to a large number of subsurface scattering events. Faster approaches are based on analytical models derived from diffusion theory. While such analytical models are efficient, they miss out on some...... translucency effects in the rendered result. We present an improved analytical model for subsurface scattering that captures translucency effects present in the reference solutions but remaining absent with existing models. The key difference is that our model is based on ray source diffusion, rather than...... similar to that of the standard dipole model, but we now have positive and negative ray sources with a mirrored pair of directions. Our model is as computationally efficient as existing models while it includes single scattering without relying on a separate Monte Carlo simulation, and the rendered images...

  10. Concentric Titled Double-Helix Dipole Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainer Meinke, Ph.D; Carl Goodzeit; Millicent Ball, Ph.D

    2003-01-01

    The high magnetic fields required for future accelerator magnets can only be achieved with Nb3Sn, other A15 or HTS type conductors, which are brittle and sensitive to mechanical strain. The traditional ''cosine-theta'' dipole configuration has intrinsic drawbacks that make it difficult and expensive to employ such conductors in these designs. Some of these problems involve (1) difficulty in applying enough pre-stress to counteract Lorentz forces without compromising conductor performance; (2) small minimum bend radii of the conductor necessitating the intricate wind-and-react coil fabrication; (3) complex spacers in particular for coil ends and expensive tooling for coil fabrication; (4) typically only 2/3 of the coil aperture can be used with achievable field uniformity

  11. Dipole power supply for National Synchrotron Light Source Booster upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, R.; Dabrowski, J.; Murray, J.

    1992-01-01

    The booster at the NSLS is being upgraded from .75 to 2 pulses per second. To accomplish this, new power supplies for the dipole, quadrupole, and sextupole magnets have been designed and are being constructed. This paper will outline the design of the dipole power supply and control system, and will present results obtained thus far

  12. Quantum calculation of dipole excitation in fusion reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenel, C.; Chomaz, Ph.; De France, G.

    2000-01-01

    The excitation of the giant dipole resonance by fusion is studied with N/Z asymmetry in the entrance channel. The TDHF solution exhibits a strong dipole vibration which can be associated with a giant vibration along the main axis of a fluctuating prolate shape. The consequences on the gamma-ray emission from hot compound nuclei are discussed. (author)

  13. Neutrino structure functions in the QCD dipole picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay Ducati, M.B.; Machado, M.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica. High Energy Physics Phenomenology Group - GFPAE; Machado, M.V.T. [Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bage, RS (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    In this contribution we present an exploratory QCD analysis of the neutrino structure functions in charged current DIS using the color dipole formalism. The corresponding dipole cross sections are taken from recent phenomenological and theoretical studies in deep inelastic inclusive production, including nuclear shadowing corrections. The theoretical predictions are compared to the available experimental results in the small-x region. (author)

  14. Helical dipole magnets for polarized protons in RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syphers, M.; Courant, E.; Fischer, W.

    1997-01-01

    Superconducting helical dipole magnets will be used in the Brookhaven Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to maintain polarization of proton beams and to perform localized spin rotations at the two major experimental detector regions. Requirements for the helical dipole system are discussed, and magnet prototype work is reported

  15. The status of the electric dipole moment of the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.

    1990-01-01

    The electric dipole moment of particles in quantum mechanics and quantum field theory is discussed. Furthermore, calculations of the neutron electric dipole moment in the standard model and several of its low-energy extensions are reviewed. 47 refs., 7 figs. (Author)

  16. Understanding hydrogen bonding and determination of in-crystal dipol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    asparaginium ion and the picrate in the other complex. We have additionally performed theoretical calcu- lations at the density functional theory (DFT) level to understand the origin of enhancement of the dipole moments in the two systems. Keywords. X-ray diffraction; experimental charge density; hydrogen bonding; dipole ...

  17. A summary of SSC dipole magnet field quality measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Jain, A.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thomas, R.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E.; Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Nah, W.; Ogitsu, T.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H.; Bleadon, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koska, W.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.; Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports results of field quality measurements of the initial 15 m-long, 50 mm- aperture SSC Collider dipoles tested at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermi National Laboratory. These data include multipole coefficients and the dipole angle at room temperature and 4.35 K, 4.35 K integral field measurements, and time-dependent effects. Systematic uncertainties are also discussed

  18. Diagnostics of the Fermilab Tevatron using an AC dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Ryoichi

    The Fermilab Tevatron is currently the world's highest energy colliding beam facility. Its counter-rotating proton and antiproton beams collide at 2 TeV center-of-mass. Delivery of such intense beam fluxes to experiments has required improved knowledge of the Tevatron's beam optical lattice. An oscillating dipole magnet, referred to as an AC dipole, is one of such a tool to non-destructively assess the optical properties of the synchrotron. We discusses development of an AC dipole system for the Tevatron, a fast-oscillating (f˜20 kHz) dipole magnet which can be adiabatically turned on and off to establish sustained coherent oscillations of the beam particles without affecting the transverse emittance. By utilizing an existing magnet and a higher power audio amplifier, the cost of the Tevatron AC dipole system became relatively inexpensive. We discuss corrections which must be applied to the driven oscillation measurements to obtain the proper interpretation of beam optical parameters from AC dipole studies. After successful operations of the Tevatron AC dipole system, AC dipole systems, similar to that in the Tevatron, will be build for the CERN LHC. We present several measurements of linear optical parameters (beta function and phase advance) for the Tevatron, as well as studies of non-linear perturbations from sextupole and octupole elements.

  19. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H; van Gemert, Martin J C; Faber, Dirk J; van Leeuwen, Ton G; Aalders, Maurice C G

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20  mm-1 at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5  mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys.19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt.38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime

  20. Diffuse reflectance relations based on diffusion dipole theory for large absorption and reduced scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremmer, Rolf H.; van Gemert, Martin J. C.; Faber, Dirk J.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.

    2013-08-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectra are used to determine the optical properties of biological samples. In medicine and forensic science, the turbid objects under study often possess large absorption and/or scattering properties. However, data analysis is frequently based on the diffusion approximation to the radiative transfer equation, implying that it is limited to tissues where the reduced scattering coefficient dominates over the absorption coefficient. Nevertheless, up to absorption coefficients of 20 m at reduced scattering coefficients of 1 and 11.5 mm-1, we observed excellent agreement (r2=0.994) between reflectance measurements of phantoms and the diffuse reflectance equation proposed by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999)], derived as an approximation to one of the diffusion dipole equations of Farrell et al. [Med. Phys. 19, 879-888 (1992)]. However, two parameters were fitted to all phantom experiments, including strongly absorbing samples, implying that the reflectance equation differs from diffusion theory. Yet, the exact diffusion dipole approximation at high reduced scattering and absorption also showed agreement with the phantom measurements. The mathematical structure of the diffuse reflectance relation used, derived by Zonios et al. [Appl. Opt. 38, 6628-6637 (1999)], explains this observation. In conclusion, diffuse reflectance relations derived as an approximation to the diffusion dipole theory of Farrell et al. can analyze reflectance ratios accurately, even for much larger absorption than reduced scattering coefficients. This allows calibration of fiber-probe set-ups so that the object's diffuse reflectance can be related to its absorption even when large. These findings will greatly expand the application of diffuse reflection spectroscopy. In medicine, it may allow the use of blue/green wavelengths and measurements on whole blood, and in forensic science, it may allow inclusion of objects such as blood stains and cloth at crime scenes.

  1. Quantum transfer energy in the framework of time-dependent dipole-dipole interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shishtawy, Reda M.; Haddon, Robert C.; Al-Heniti, Saleh H.; Raffah, Bahaaudin M.; Berrada, K.; Abdel-Khalek, S.; Al-Hadeethi, Yas F.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we examine the process of the quantum transfer of energy considering time-dependent dipole-dipole interaction in a dimer system characterized by two-level atom systems. By taking into account the effect of the acceleration and speed of the atoms in the dimer coupling, we demonstrate that the improvement of the probability for a single-excitation transfer energy extremely benefits from the incorporation of atomic motion effectiveness and the energy detuning. We explore the relevance between the population and entanglement during the time-evolution and show that this kind of nonlocal correlation may be generated during the process of the transfer of energy. Our work may provide optimal conditions to implement realistic experimental scenario in the transfer of the quantum energy.

  2. Applicability of the dipole-dipole method for structural studies: examples from the Northern Apennines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Alfano

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available We present some results of a geoelectrical investigation program conducted in the Northern Apennines, namely in the Val d'Aveto and Bobbio window and surrounding areas. Field activity included the execution of more than 50 vertical electrical soundings with continuous polar dipole-dipole spread. We image the geometries of some deep geological structures; in particular we found a resistive background, whose resistivity is different along the geoelectrical profiles. In our interpretation the resistive background consists of subligurid and tuscan units underlying the alloctone Ligurid units in the area surrounding the Val d'Aveto and Bobbio window. The resistive background was not found, at least at the same depths, toward north-east. Therefore, the geoelectrical survey revealed the position of the front of the subligurid and Tuscan nappes toward the plain for a depth of about one kilometer.

  3. Identifikasi Daerah Patahan dengan Metode Geolistrik Konfigurasi Dipole-Dipole di Desa Renokenongo Porong Sidoarjo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Cahyo Wahyono

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Fault is already occurred in Renokenongo, Porong - Sidoarjo. These fault’s have destroyed some building and public facilities. Existence of these fault’s have been detected by using 2D resistivity method. In this research, measurement of 2D resistivity is conducted by using Dipole-Dipole configuration. Configuration has been done in two lines. The first line is length of measurement 200 meters and direction E 98° S and second line the path lenght of 120 meters and direction N 50 E. From the resistivity section, position of fault is founded. For first line, position of fault stays at point 25; 43; 57; 97,5; 110 and 136 m. While for second line position of fault stays at point 33; 50 and 100 m.

  4. On the state space of the dipole ghost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binegar, B.

    1984-01-01

    A particular representation of SO(4, 2) is identified with the state space of the free dipole ghost. This representation is then given an explicit realization as the solution space of a 4th-order wave equation on a spacetime locally isomorphic to Minkowski space. A discrete basis for this solution space is given, as well as an explicit expression for its SO(4, 2) invariant inner product. The connection between the modes of dipole field and those of the massless scalar field is clarified, and a recent conjecture concerning the restriction of the dipole representation to the Poincare subgroup is confirmed. A particular coordinate transformation then reveals the theory of the dipole ghost in Minkowski space. Finally, it is shown that the solution space of the dipole equation is not unitarizable in a Poincare invariant manner. (orig.)

  5. Effects of dipole magnet inhomogeneities on the beam ellipsoid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoupas, N.; Colman, J.; Levine, M.; McKenzie-Wilson, R.; Ward, T.; Grand, P.

    1986-01-01

    The RAYTRACE computer code has been modified to accept magnetic fields measured in the median plane of a dipole magnet. This modification allows one to study the effects of a non-ideal dipole magnet on the beam ellipsoid (as defined by the TRANSPORT code manual). The effects on the beam ellipsoid are due to: field inhomogeneities in the interior region of the dipole, and discrepancies from design conditions of the magnetic field values in the fringe field region. The results of the RAYTRACE code calculations based on experimentally measured fields will be compared with the results derived using both an ideal (no inhomogeneities) dipole with SCOFF boundaries and an ideal dipole with perfect (according to design) fringe fields

  6. The dipole anisotropy of AllWISE galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameez, M.; Mohayaee, R.; Sarkar, S.; Colin, J.

    2018-03-01

    We determine the dipole in the WISE galaxy catalogue. After reducing star contamination to reduces but stabilises at ˜0.012, corresponding to a velocity >1000 km/s if it is solely of kinematic origin. However, previous studies have shown that only ˜70% of the velocity of the Local Group as inferred from the CMB dipole is due to sources at z 240 km/s extending to z > 0.03) that we do. We construct mock catalogues in the neighbourhood of such peculiar observers in order to mimic our final galaxy selection and quantify the residual clustering dipole. After subtracting this the remaining dipole is 0.0048 ± 0.0022, corresponding to a velocity of 420 ± 213 km/s which is consistent with the CMB. However the sources (at z > 0.03) of such a large clustering dipole remain to be identified.

  7. Model dependence of the 2H electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afnan, I. R.; Gibson, B. F.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Direct measurement of the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron is in the future; measurement of a nuclear EDM may well come first. The deuteron is one nucleus for which exact model calculations are feasible. Purpose: We explore the model dependence of deuteron EDM calculations. Methods: Using a separable potential formulation of the Hamiltonian, we examine the sensitivity of the deuteron EDM to variation in the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We write the EDM as the sum of two terms, the first depending on the target wave function with plane-wave intermediate states, and the second depending on intermediate multiple scattering in the 3 P 1 channel, the latter being sensitive to the off-shell behavior of the 3 P 1 amplitude. Results: We compare the full calculation with the plane-wave approximation result, examine the tensor force contribution to the model results, and explore the effect of short-range repulsion found in realistic, contemporary potential models of the deuteron. Conclusions: Because one-pion exchange dominates the EDM calculation, separable potential model calculations will provide an adequate description of the 2 H EDM until such time as a measurement better than 10% is obtained.

  8. DIPOLE COLLAPSE AND DYNAMO WAVES IN GLOBAL DIRECT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrinner, Martin; Dormy, Emmanuel [MAG (ENS/IPGP), LRA, Ecole Normale Superieure, 24 Rue Lhomond, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Petitdemange, Ludovic, E-mail: martin@schrinner.eu [Previously at Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, Koenigstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany. (Germany)

    2012-06-20

    Magnetic fields of low-mass stars and planets are thought to originate from self-excited dynamo action in their convective interiors. Observations reveal a variety of field topologies ranging from large-scale, axial dipoles to more structured magnetic fields. In this article, we investigate more than 70 three-dimensional, self-consistent dynamo models in the Boussinesq approximation obtained by direct numerical simulations. The control parameters, the aspect ratio, and the mechanical boundary conditions have been varied to build up this sample of models. Both strongly dipolar and multipolar models have been obtained. We show that these dynamo regimes in general can be distinguished by the ratio of a typical convective length scale to the Rossby radius. Models with a predominantly dipolar magnetic field were obtained, if the convective length scale is at least an order of magnitude larger than the Rossby radius. Moreover, we highlight the role of the strong shear associated with the geostrophic zonal flow for models with stress-free boundary conditions. In this case the above transition disappears and is replaced by a region of bistability for which dipolar and multipolar dynamos coexist. We interpret our results in terms of dynamo eigenmodes using the so-called test-field method. We can thus show that models in the dipolar regime are characterized by an isolated 'single mode'. Competing overtones become significant as the boundary to multipolar dynamos is approached. We discuss how these findings relate to previous models and to observations.

  9. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  10. Relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation in deformed nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena Arteaga, D.

    2007-06-25

    Covariant density functional theory is used to study the influence of electromagnetic radiation on deformed superfluid nuclei. The relativistic Hartree-Bogolyubov equations and the resulting diagonalization problem of the quasiparticle random phase approximation are solved for axially symmetric systems in a fully self-consistent way by a newly developed parallel code. Three different kinds of high precision energy functionals are investigated and special care is taken for the decoupling of the Goldstone modes. This allows the microscopic investigation of Pygmy and scissor resonances in electric and magnetic dipole fields. Excellent agreement with recent experiments is found and new types of modes are predicted for deformed systems with large neutron excess. (orig.)

  11. Finite dipole model for extreme near-field thermal radiation between a tip and planar SiC substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarzembski, Amun; Park, Keunhan

    2017-04-01

    Recent experimental studies have measured the infrared (IR) spectrum of tip-scattered near-field thermal radiation for a SiC substrate and observed up to a 50cm-1 redshift of the surface phonon polariton (SPhP) resonance peak [1,2]. However, the observed spectral redshift cannot be explained by the conventional near-field thermal radiation model based on the point dipole approximation. In the present work, a heated tip is modeled as randomly fluctuating point charges (or fluctuating finite dipoles) aligned along the primary axis of a prolate spheroid, and quasistatic tip-substrate charge interactions are considered to formulate the effective polarizability and self-interaction Green's function. The finite dipole model (FDM), combined with fluctuational electrodynamics, allows the computation of tip-plane thermal radiation in the extreme near-field (i.e., H / R ≲ 1 , where H is the tip-substrate gap distance and R is the tip radius), which cannot be calculated with the point dipole approximation. The FDM provides the underlying physics on the spectral redshift of tip-scattered near-field thermal radiation as observed in experiments. In addition, the SPhP peak in the near-field thermal radiation spectrum may split into two peaks as the gap distance decreases into the extreme near-field regime. This observation suggests that scattering-type spectroscopic measurements may not convey the full spectral features of tip-plane extreme near-field thermal radiation.

  12. Dipole-magnet field models based on a conformal map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. L. Walstrom

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In general, generation of charged-particle transfer maps for conventional iron-pole-piece dipole magnets to third and higher order requires a model for the midplane field profile and its transverse derivatives (soft-edge model to high order and numerical integration of map coefficients. An exact treatment of the problem for a particular magnet requires use of measured magnetic data. However, in initial design of beam transport systems, users of charged-particle optics codes generally rely on magnet models built into the codes. Indeed, if maps to third order are adequate for the problem, an approximate analytic field model together with numerical map coefficient integration can capture the important features of the transfer map. The model described in this paper is based on the fact that, except at very large distances from the magnet, the magnetic field for parallel pole-face magnets with constant pole gap height and wide pole faces is basically two dimensional (2D. The field for all space outside of the pole pieces is given by a single (complex analytic expression and includes a parameter that controls the rate of falloff of the fringe field. Since the field function is analytic in the complex plane outside of the pole pieces, it satisfies two basic requirements of a field model for higher-order map codes: it is infinitely differentiable at the midplane and also a solution of the Laplace equation. It is apparently the only simple model available that combines an exponential approach to the central field with an inverse cubic falloff of field at large distances from the magnet in a single expression. The model is not intended for detailed fitting of magnetic field data, but for use in numerical map-generating codes for studying the effect of extended fringe fields on higher-order transfer maps. It is based on conformally mapping the area between the pole pieces to the upper half plane, and placing current filaments on the pole faces. An

  13. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E.

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  14. Coastal protection using topological interlocking blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    The coastal protection systems mainly rely on the self-weight of armour blocks to ensure its stability. We propose a system of interlocking armour blocks, which form plate-shape assemblies. The shape and the position of the blocks are chosen in such a way as to impose kinematic constraints that prevent the blocks from being removed from the assembly. The topological interlocking shapes include simple convex blocks such as platonic solids, the most practical being tetrahedra, cubes and octahedra. Another class of topological interlocking blocks is so-called osteomorphic blocks, which form plate-like assemblies tolerant to random block removal (almost 25% of blocks need to be removed for the assembly to loose integrity). Both classes require peripheral constraint, which can be provided either by the weight of the blocks or post-tensioned internal cables. The interlocking assemblies provide increased stability because lifting one block involves lifting (and bending) the whole assembly. We model the effect of interlocking by introducing an equivalent additional self-weight of the armour blocks. This additional self-weight is proportional to the critical pressure needed to cause bending of the interlocking assembly when it loses stability. Using beam approximation we find an equivalent stability coefficient for interlocking. It is found to be greater than the stability coefficient of a structure with similar blocks without interlocking. In the case when the peripheral constraint is provided by the weight of the blocks and for the slope angle of 45o, the effective stability coefficient for a structure of 100 blocks is 33% higher than the one for a similar structure without interlocking. Further increase in the stability coefficient can be reached by a specially constructed peripheral constraint system, for instance by using post-tension cables.

  15. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  16. On one approximation in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A.I.; Bajkov, V.A.; Boos, Eh.Eh.

    1982-01-01

    Form of a complete fermion propagator near the mass shell is investigated. Considered is a nodel of quantum chromodynamics (MQC) where in the fermion section the Block-Nordsic approximation has been made, i. e. u-numbers are substituted for ν matrices. The model was investigated by means of the Schwinger-Dyson equation for a quark propagator in the infrared region. The Schwinger-Dyson equation was managed to reduce to a differential equation which is easily solved. At that, the Green function is suitable to represent as integral transformation

  17. International Conference Approximation Theory XV

    CERN Document Server

    Schumaker, Larry

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings are based on papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XV, which was held May 22–25, 2016 in San Antonio, Texas. The conference was the fifteenth in a series of meetings in Approximation Theory held at various locations in the United States, and was attended by 146 participants. The book contains longer survey papers by some of the invited speakers covering topics such as compressive sensing, isogeometric analysis, and scaling limits of polynomials and entire functions of exponential type. The book also includes papers on a variety of current topics in Approximation Theory drawn from areas such as advances in kernel approximation with applications, approximation theory and algebraic geometry, multivariate splines for applications, practical function approximation, approximation of PDEs, wavelets and framelets with applications, approximation theory in signal processing, compressive sensing, rational interpolation, spline approximation in isogeometric analysis, a...

  18. Ab initio calculation of vibrational dipole moment matrix elements. Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantarella, E.; Culot, F.; Lievin, J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a series devoted to the ab initio calculation of some vibrational properties helpful in the interpretation of high resolution spectroscopy, atmospherical and astrophysical data. An ab initio method of calculation of the vibrational transition energies and dipole moment matrix elements is described and analyzed. The main features of this method are the resolution of both electronic and vibrational problems by analytical variational techniques and the representation of the potential energy and dipole moment hypersurfaces as Taylor's series expansions in normal coordinates up to the fourth order. The dipole moment matrix elements are then evaluated by simple analytical formulae. In this first paper, some of the approximations inherent to the methodology are systematically analyzed on the basis of results obtained for diatomic molecules (BeH, HF, NH and NO) with a comparison to experimental and other theoretical results found in the literature. The dependence on the results of the effects of electrical and mechanical anharmonicities, electron correlation and basis set dependencies are investigated. The applicability of the method to small polyatomic systems is discussed in the second paper of this series, on the basis of test calculations on the water molecule

  19. Incomplete Sparse Approximate Inverses for Parallel Preconditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzt, Hartwig; University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; Huckle, Thomas K.; Bräckle, Jürgen; Dongarra, Jack

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we propose a new preconditioning method that can be seen as a generalization of block-Jacobi methods, or as a simplification of the sparse approximate inverse (SAI) preconditioners. The “Incomplete Sparse Approximate Inverses” (ISAI) is in particular efficient in the solution of sparse triangular linear systems of equations. Those arise, for example, in the context of incomplete factorization preconditioning. ISAI preconditioners can be generated via an algorithm providing fine-grained parallelism, which makes them attractive for hardware with a high concurrency level. Finally, in a study covering a large number of matrices, we identify the ISAI preconditioner as an attractive alternative to exact triangular solves in the context of incomplete factorization preconditioning.

  20. Hierarchical low-rank approximation for high dimensional approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Nouy, Anthony

    2016-01-07

    Tensor methods are among the most prominent tools for the numerical solution of high-dimensional problems where functions of multiple variables have to be approximated. Such high-dimensional approximation problems naturally arise in stochastic analysis and uncertainty quantification. In many practical situations, the approximation of high-dimensional functions is made computationally tractable by using rank-structured approximations. In this talk, we present algorithms for the approximation in hierarchical tensor format using statistical methods. Sparse representations in a given tensor format are obtained with adaptive or convex relaxation methods, with a selection of parameters using crossvalidation methods.

  1. γ*γ* total cross-section in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, M.; Royon, C.; Wallon, S.; Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 75 - Paris

    1999-01-01

    The total γ * γ * cross-section is derived in the Leading Order QCD dipole picture of BFKL dynamics, and compared with the one from 2-gluon exchange. The Double Leading Logarithm approximation of the DGLAP cross-section is found to be small in the phase space studied. Cross sections are calculated for realistic data samples at the e + e - collider LEP and a future high energy linear collider. Next to Leading order corrections to the BFKL evolution have been determined phenomenologically, and are found to give very large corrections to the BFKL cross-section, leading to a reduced sensitivity for observing BFKL. (author)

  2. $\\gamma^{*}\\gamma^{*}$ total cross-section in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Boonekamp, M; Royon, C; Wallon, S

    1999-01-01

    The total $\\gamma^*\\gamma^*$ cross-section is derived in the Leading Order QCD dipole picture of BFKL dynamics, and compared with the one from 2-gluon exchange. The Double Leading Logarithm approximation of the DGLAP cross-section is found to be small in the phase space studied. Cross sections are calculated for realistic data samples at the $e^+e^-$ collider LEP and a future high energy linear collider. Next to Leading order corrections to the BFKL evolution have been determined phenomenologically, and are found to give very large corrections to the BFKL cross-section, leading to a reduced sensitivity for observing BFKL.

  3. γ*γ* total cross section in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boonekamp, Maarten; De Roeck, Albert; Royon, Christophe; Wallon, Samuel

    1999-01-01

    The total γ * γ * cross section is derived in the leading order QCD dipole picture of BFKL dynamics, and compared with the one from two-gluon exchange. The double leading logarithm approximation of the DGLAP cross section is found to be small in the phase space studied. Cross sections are calculated for realistic data samples at the e + e - collider LEP and a future high energy linear collider. Next to leading order corrections to the BFKL evolution have been determined phenomenologically, and are found to give very large corrections to the BFKL cross section, leading to a reduced sensitivity for observing BFKL effects

  4. Performance of initial full-length RHIC [Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider] dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahl, P.; Cottingham, J.; Garber, M.

    1987-01-01

    The first four full-length (9.7 m) R and D dipoles for the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have been successfully tested. The magnets reached a quench plateau of approximately 4.5 T with very reasonable training - a field level comfortably above the design field of 3.45 T required for operation with beams of 100 GeV/amu gold nuclei. Measured field multipoles are considered to be quite acceptable for this series of R and D magnets

  5. Microscopic calculation of the enhancement factor in the electric dipole sum rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrocini, A.; Lagaris, I.E.; Viviani, M.; Fantoni, S.

    1985-01-01

    Correlated basis function perturbation theory with state-dependent correlations is used to calculate the nuclear photoabsorption enhancement factor K in the electric dipole sum rule for some realistic models of nuclear matter. The contribution due to 2p-2h admixtures in the ground state wave function turns out to be only a few percent of the unperturbed value. The values obtained for K are about 1.8 at experimental equilibrium density and increase almost linearly with density. We also give estimates of K for finite nuclei, obtained within the local density approximation framework. The surface effects give a contribution which is proportional 20% of the volume term. (orig.)

  6. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  7. Design, construction, and field mapping of the HISTRAP prototype dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatum, B.A.; Dowling, D.T.; Lord, R.S.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    HISTRAP is a proposed 2.67 T-m synchrotron-cooler-storage ring having eight 45/degree/, C-design dipole magnets. A prototype dipole has been designed, fabricated, and mapped. The magnet design utilizes curved and angled coil ends to compensate for end effects in the field. Construction of the prototype dipole has been completed by the FNAL magnet factory. The magnetic field has been mapped using a Hall-effect probe afixed to a newly constructed, PC-based, horizontal positioning system. Results of the field mapping are presented. 6 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs

  8. Analysis and design of short, iron-free dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, A.R.

    1981-01-01

    Iron-free, dipole magnets are used extensively as steering magnets to correct for the bending, induced by extraneous magnetic fields, of particle beams that are being transported in vacuum. Generally, the dipoles are long enough that the space occupied by the end conductors is small compared to the overall magnet length. In a recent application, however, this criteria did not apply. This has motivated a reanalysis of the characteristics of a system of small aspect ratio (length/diameter) dipoles that are spaced at relatively large axial distances

  9. Ocular dominance affects magnitude of dipole moment: An MEG study

    OpenAIRE

    Shima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nomura, Motohiro; Yamashita, Junkoh; Ozaki, Yuzo; Kawai, Jun; Higuchi, Masanori; Kado, Hisashi

    2010-01-01

    To investigate whether the ocular dominance affects laterality in the activity of the primary visual cortex, we examined the relationship between the ocular dominance and latency or dipole moment measured by checkerboard-pattern and magnetoencephalography in 11 right-handed healthy male participants. Participants with left-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 21.5±6.1 nAm with left-eye stimulation and 16.1±3.6 nAm with right, whereas those with right-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of...

  10. Initial results from 50mm short SSC dipoles at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Carson, J.A.; Coulter, K.; Delchamps, S.; Ewald, K.D.; Fulton, H.; Gonczy, I.; Gourlay, S.A.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Koska, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Strait, J.B.; Wake, M.; Gordon, M.; Hassan, N.; Sims, R.; Winters, M.

    1991-03-01

    Several short model SSC 50 mm bore dipoles are being built and tested at Fermilab. Mechanical design of these magnets has been determined from experience involved in the construction and testing of 40 mm dipoles. Construction experience includes coil winding, curing and measuring, coil end part design and fabrication, ground insulation, instrumentation, collaring and yoke assembly. Fabrication techniques are explained and construction problems are discussed. Similarities and differences from the 40 mm dipole tooling and management components are outlined. Test results from the first models are presented. 19 refs., 12 figs

  11. Electric Dipole Moments in the MSSM Reloaded

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Pilaftsis, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the Thallium, neutron, Mercury and deuteron electric dipole moments (EDMs) in the CP-violating Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). We take into account the complete set of one-loop graphs, the dominant Higgs-mediated two-loop diagrams, the complete CP-odd dimension-six Weinberg operator and the Higgs-mediated four-fermion operators. We improve upon earlier calculations by including the resummation effects due to CP-violating Higgs-boson mixing and to threshold corrections to the Yukawa couplings of all up- and down-type quarks and charged leptons. As an application of our study, we analyse the EDM constraints on the CPX, trimixing and Maximally CP- and Minimally Flavour-Violating (MCPMFV) scenarios. Cancellations may occur among the CP-violating contributions to the three measured EDMs arising from the 6 CP-violating phases in the MCPMFV scenario, leaving open the possibility of relatively large contributions to other CP-violating observables. The anal...

  12. Dipole localization using simulated intracerebral EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nathalie; Gulrajani, Ramesh; Gotman, Jean

    2005-11-01

    In the clinical interpretation of intracerebral EEGs, epileptic foci are commonly identified by visually analyzing the amplitude of the potentials. This is potentially misleading since electrodes record activity from several sources, but the nearest ones generate large amplitudes that can overpower distant sources. Our objective was to improve foci detection in intracerebral recordings by applying source localization methods. Data were simulated by placing 3 sources in a semi-infinite medium near 3 intracerebral electrodes. Potentials were generated and contaminated with white and correlated noise. Two inverse problem algorithms, beamforming and RAP-MUSIC, were used to calculate equivalent dipoles. Simulations for each noise types showed that the two methods detected the source locations accurately, with RAP-MUSIC reporting lower orientation errors. With correlated noise, beamforming reconstructed original source waveforms poorly. A spatial resolution analysis was performed, in which beamforming adequately distinguished sources separated by 1.2 cm, whereas RAP-MUSIC separated sources as close as 0.4-0.6 cm. Both source localization methods proved useful in detecting the location of dipolar sources based on simulated intracerebral potentials. For all simulations, RAP-MUSIC was more accurate than beamforming. It is possible to use source localization methods traditionally applied to scalp recordings for improving source detection from intracerebral recordings.

  13. Electric dipole moment of 13C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Nodoka; Yamada, Taiichi; Hiyama, Emiko; Funaki, Yasuro

    2017-06-01

    We calculate for the first time the electric dipole moment (EDM) of 13C generated by the isovector charge conjugation-parity (CP)-odd pion exchange nuclear force in the α -cluster model, which describes well the structures of low-lying states of the 13C nucleus. The linear dependence of the EDM of 13C on the neutron EDM and the isovector CP-odd nuclear coupling is found to be d13C=-0.33 dn-0.0020 G¯π(1 ) . The linear enhancement factor of the CP-odd nuclear coupling is smaller than that of the deuteron, due to the difference of the structure between the 1 /21- state and the opposite-parity (1 /2+ ) states. We clarify the role of the structure played in the enhancement of the EDM. This result provides good guiding principles to search for other nuclei with large enhancement factor. We also mention the role of the EDM of 13C in determining the new physics beyond the standard model.

  14. Experimental constraint on quark electric dipole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianbo; Zhao, Zhiwen; Gao, Haiyan

    2018-04-01

    The electric dipole moments (EDMs) of nucleons are sensitive probes of additional C P violation sources beyond the standard model to account for the baryon number asymmetry of the universe. As a fundamental quantity of the nucleon structure, tensor charge is also a bridge that relates nucleon EDMs to quark EDMs. With a combination of nucleon EDM measurements and tensor charge extractions, we investigate the experimental constraint on quark EDMs, and its sensitivity to C P violation sources from new physics beyond the electroweak scale. We obtain the current limits on quark EDMs as 1.27 ×10-24 e .cm for the up quark and 1.17 ×10-24 e .cm for the down quark at the scale of 4 GeV2 . We also study the impact of future nucleon EDM and tensor charge measurements, and show that upcoming new experiments will improve the constraint on quark EDMs by about 3 orders of magnitude leading to a much more sensitive probe of new physics models.

  15. Looking for permanent electric dipole moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakemi, Yasuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Exploration of the permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) is one of the important ways to promote the research of fundamental symmetries and interactions. In this paper the progress of the exploration up to the present is overviewed and then the present status and expectation in future of the experiment using cooled unstable atoms which is the hopeful method to measure electron EDM is presented. At first the physical meaning of the CPT symmetry breaking is introduced and the upper limit of EDM of electron, muon, tau, proton, neutron, Λ hyperon and 199 Hg are tabulated. It is explained how EDM appears in the theory beyond the standard model, the supersymmetry model e.g. The on-going experiments of EDM exploration of neutrons, nuclei, electrons, molecules and charged particles are briefly reviewed. Finally the experiment to use the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) to produce ultra low temperature of nK range by using the laser to cool down radioactive element is presented. Since the amplification of EDM is expected to be large in heavy unstable atoms, francium isotopes which are obtained by heavy ion fusion of 197 Au target bombarded with 18 O beam are chosen in this experiment. It has been confirmed that Rb can be kept in the instrument for 20 minutes up to the present. Progress toward trapping Fr is under way by optimizing numbers of experimental parameters. Experiments by the groups in foreign countries are overviewed briefly. (S. Funahashi)

  16. Electric dipole moments of light nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereghetti, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Electric dipole moments (EDMs) are extremely sensitive probes of physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). A vibrant experimental program is in place, with the goal to improve the existing neutron EDM bound by one/two orders of magnitude, and to test new ideas for the measurement of EDMs of light ions, such as deuteron and helium, at a comparable level. The success of this program, and its implications for physics beyond the SM, relies on the precise calculation of the EDMs in terms of the couplings of CP-violating operators. In light of the non-perturbative nature both of QCD at low energy and of the nuclear interactions, these calculations have proven difficult, and are affected by large theoretical uncertainties. In this talk I will review the progress that in recent years has been achieved on different aspects of the calculation of hadronic and nuclear EDMs. In particular, I will discuss how the interplay between lattice QCD and Chiral Effective Field Theory (EFT) has allowed to reduce a set of hadronic uncertainties. Finally, I will discuss how the measurements of th EDMs of one, two and three nucleon systems can be used to discriminate between various possible mechanisms of time-reversal violation at high energy.

  17. Comparative Study of Approximate Multipliers

    OpenAIRE

    Masadeh, Mahmoud; Hasan, Osman; Tahar, Sofiene

    2018-01-01

    Approximate multipliers are widely being advocated for energy-efficient computing in applications that exhibit an inherent tolerance to inaccuracy. However, the inclusion of accuracy as a key design parameter, besides the performance, area and power, makes the identification of the most suitable approximate multiplier quite challenging. In this paper, we identify three major decision making factors for the selection of an approximate multipliers circuit: (1) the type of approximate full adder...

  18. Forms of Approximate Radiation Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, G

    2002-01-01

    Photon radiation transport is described by the Boltzmann equation. Because this equation is difficult to solve, many different approximate forms have been implemented in computer codes. Several of the most common approximations are reviewed, and test problems illustrate the characteristics of each of the approximations. This document is designed as a tutorial so that code users can make an educated choice about which form of approximate radiation transport to use for their particular simulation.

  19. Higher order mode spectra and the dependence of localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position in third harmonic superconducting cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Pei [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, Nicoleta [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jones, Roger M. [The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    An electron beam entering an accelerating cavity excites a wakefield. This wakefield can be decomposed into a series of multi-poles or modes. The dominant component of the transverse wakefield is dipole. This report summarizes the higher order mode (HOM) signals of the third harmonic cavities of FLASH measured at various stages: transmission measurements in the single cavity test stand at Fermilab, at CMTB (Cryo- Module Test Bench) and at FLASH, and beam-excited measurements at FLASH. Modes in the first two dipole bands and the fifth dipole band have been identified using a global Lorentzian fit technique. The beam-pipe modes at approximately 4 GHz and some modes in the fifth dipole band have been observed as localized modes, while the first two dipole bands, containing some strong coupling cavity modes, propagate. This report also presents the dependence of the localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position. Linear dependence for various modes has been observed. This makes them suitable for beam position diagnostics. These modes, together with some propagating, strong coupling modes, have been considered in the design of a dedicated electronics for beam diagnostics with HOMs for the third harmonic cavities.

  20. Higher order mode spectra and the dependence of localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position in third harmonic superconducting cavities at FLASH

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, P; Jones, R M

    2012-01-01

    An electron beam entering an accelerating cavity excites a wakefield. This wakefield can be decomposed into a series of multi-poles or modes. The dominant component of the transverse wakefield is dipole. This report summarizes the higher order mode (HOM) signals of the third harmonic cavities of FLASH measured at various stages: transmission measurements in the single cavity test stand at Fermilab, at CMTB (Cryo-Module Test Bench) and at FLASH, and beam-excited measurements at FLASH. Modes in the first two dipole bands and the fifth dipole band have been identified using a global Lorentzian fit technique. The beam-pipe modes at approximately 4 GHz and some modes in the fifth dipole band have been observed as localized modes, while the first two dipole bands, containing some strong coupling cavity modes, propagate. This report also presents the dependence of the localized dipole modes on the transverse beam position. Linear dependence for various modes has been observed. This makes them suitable for beam posit...

  1. International Conference Approximation Theory XIV

    CERN Document Server

    Schumaker, Larry

    2014-01-01

    This volume developed from papers presented at the international conference Approximation Theory XIV,  held April 7–10, 2013 in San Antonio, Texas. The proceedings contains surveys by invited speakers, covering topics such as splines on non-tensor-product meshes, Wachspress and mean value coordinates, curvelets and shearlets, barycentric interpolation, and polynomial approximation on spheres and balls. Other contributed papers address a variety of current topics in approximation theory, including eigenvalue sequences of positive integral operators, image registration, and support vector machines. This book will be of interest to mathematicians, engineers, and computer scientists working in approximation theory, computer-aided geometric design, numerical analysis, and related approximation areas.

  2. Exact constants in approximation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Korneichuk, N

    1991-01-01

    This book is intended as a self-contained introduction for non-specialists, or as a reference work for experts, to the particular area of approximation theory that is concerned with exact constants. The results apply mainly to extremal problems in approximation theory, which in turn are closely related to numerical analysis and optimization. The book encompasses a wide range of questions and problems: best approximation by polynomials and splines; linear approximation methods, such as spline-approximation; optimal reconstruction of functions and linear functionals. Many of the results are base

  3. Initial tests of an AC dipole for the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, R.; /Texas U.; Jansson, A.; /Fermilab; Kopp, S.; /Texas U.; Syphers, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-06-01

    The AC dipole is a device to diagnose transverse motions of a beam. It can achieve large-amplitude oscillations without two inevitable problems of conventional kicker/pinger magnets: decoherence and emittance growth. While not the first synchrotron to operate with an AC dipole, the Tevatron can now make use of its recently upgraded BPM system, providing unprecedented resolution for use with an AC dipole, to measure both linear and nonlinear properties of the accelerator. Plans are to provide AC dipole systems for both transverse degrees of freedom. Preliminary tests have been done using an audio power amplifier with an existing vertical pinger magnet, producing oscillation amplitudes up to 2{sigma} at 150 GeV. In this paper, we will present the configuration of this system. We also show the analysis of a first few data sets, including the direct measurement of beta functions at BPM locations.

  4. Ocular dominance affects magnitude of dipole moment: an MEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Tachibana, Osamu; Nomura, Motohiro; Yamashita, Junkoh; Ozaki, Yuzo; Kawai, Jun; Higuchi, Masanori; Kado, Hisashi

    2010-08-23

    To investigate whether the ocular dominance affects laterality in the activity of the primary visual cortex, we examined the relationship between the ocular dominance and latency or dipole moment measured by checkerboard-pattern and magnetoencephalography in 11 right-handed healthy male participants. Participants with left-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 21.5+/-6.1 nAm with left-eye stimulation and 16.1+/-3.6 nAm with right, whereas those with right-eye dominance showed a dipole moment of 18.0+/-5.2 and 21.5+/-2.7 nAm with left-eye and right-eye stimulation of the infero-medial quadrant visual field, respectively. Thus, the dipole moment was higher when the dominant eye was stimulated, which implies that ocular dominance is regulated by the ipsilateral occipital lobe.

  5. Detection of Cavities Using Pole-Dipole Resistivity Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Elawadi, Eslam; El-Qady, Gad; Salem, Ahmed; Ushijima, Keisuke

    2001-01-01

    Using pole-dipole array, electrical resistivity survey was conducted to investigate the subsurface under a subsiding building located in Kita Kyushu area, Japan. The resistivity measurements were acquired along two traverse lines and interpreted using a g

  6. A Green's function approach to giant-dipole systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stielow, Thomas; Scheel, Stefan; Kurz, Markus

    2018-01-01

    In this work we perform a Green’s function analysis of giant-dipole systems. First, we derive the Green’s functions of different magnetically field-dressed systems, in particular of electronically highly excited atomic species in crossed electric and magnetic fields—so-called giant-dipole states. We determine the dynamical polarizability of atomic giant-dipole states as well as the adiabatic potential energy surfaces of giant-dipole molecules in the framework of the Green’s function approach. Furthermore, we perform an comparative analysis of the latter to an exact diagonalization scheme and show the general divergence behavior of the widely applied Fermi-pseudopotential approach. Finally, we derive the giant-dipole’s regularized Green’s function representation.

  7. On the functioning of folded dipole antennas on conducting masts

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mcnamara, DA

    1993-11-01

    Full Text Available The radiation properties of individual folded dipole antennas mounted at various radial distances from the centre of conducting masts of different diameters are described in compact fashion....

  8. Fourier-positivity constraints on QCD dipole models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertrand G. Giraud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fourier-positivity (F-positivity, i.e. the mathematical property that a function has a positive Fourier transform, can be used as a constraint on the parametrization of QCD dipole-target cross-sections or Wilson line correlators in transverse position space r. They are Bessel transforms of positive transverse momentum dependent gluon distributions. Using mathematical F-positivity constraints on the limit r→0 behavior of the dipole amplitudes, we identify the common origin of the violation of F-positivity for various, however phenomenologically convenient, dipole models. It is due to the behavior r2+ϵ, ϵ>0 softer, even slightly, than color transparency. F-positivity seems thus to conflict with the present dipole formalism when it includes a QCD running coupling constant α(r.

  9. Test results of HD2, a high field Nb$_{3}$Sn dipole with a 36 mm bore

    CERN Document Server

    Ferracin, P

    2009-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Program at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed the 1 m long Nb3Sn dipole magnet HD2. With tilted (flared) ends to avoid obstructing a 36 mm clear bore, HD2 represents a step towards the use of block-type coils in high-field accelerator magnets. The coil design has been optimized to minimize geometric harmonics and reduce the conductor peak field in the end region, resulting in an expected short sample dipole field of 15 T. The support structure is composed by an external aluminum shell pretensioned with pressurized bladders and interference keys, and by two stainless steel end plates compressing the coil ends through four aluminum axial rods. We report on magnet design, assembly, and test results, including training performance, quench locations, and strain gauge measurements

  10. Proton structure functions in the dipole picture of BFKL dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navelet, H.; Peschanski, R.; Wallon, S.; Royon, Ch.

    1996-06-01

    The proton structure functions are derived in the QCD dipole picture. Assuming k T and renormalization-group factorization, deep-inelastic proton scattering is related to deep-inelastic onium scattering. A three parameter fit of the 1994 H1 data in the low-x, moderate Q 2 range has been obtained. The dipole picture of BFKL dynamics is shown to provide a relevant model for quantitatively describing the proton structure functions at HERA. (author)

  11. Effect of scalar nonlinearity on the dipole vortex solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, X; Horton, W.; Morrison, P.J.; Pavlenko, V.P.

    1988-07-01

    The dipole vortex solutions of the Hasegawa-Mima drift wave or equivalently, the quasi-geostrophic Rossby wave equation are shown to be split up into long-lived monopole vortices (cyclones and anticyclones) in the presence of a small scalar, i.e. KdV type, nonlinearity. The lifetime of the dipole vortex varies inversely with the strength of the scalar nonlinearity. 12 refs., 4 figs

  12. Measurements of ground motion and SSC dipole vibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhomchuk, V.V.; Shiltsev, V.D.; Weaver, H.J.

    1993-06-01

    The results of seismic ground measurements at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) site and investigations of vibrational properties of superconducting dipoles for the SSC are presented. Spectral analysis of the data obtained in the large frequency band from 0.05 Hz to 2000 Hz is done. Resonant behavior and the dipole-to-ground transform ratio are investigated. The influence of measured vibrations on SSC operations is considered

  13. A summary of SSC dipole magnet field quality measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Jain, A.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thomas, R.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Nah, W.; Ogitsu, T.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Tompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Yu, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Zheng, H. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Bleadon, M.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Hanft, R.; Koska, W.; Kuchnir, M.; Lamm, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Wake, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1992-03-01

    This paper reports results of field quality measurements of the initial 15 m-long, 50 mm-aperture SSC Collider dipoles tested at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermi National Laboratory. These data include multipole coefficients and the dipole angle at room temperature and 4.35 K, 4.35 K integral field measurements, and time-dependent effects. Systematic uncertainties are also discussed.

  14. Magnetic dipole moments of the heavy tensor mesons in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, T.M.; Barakat, T.; Savci, M.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic dipole moments of the D 2 , and D S 2 , B 2 , and B S 2 heavy tensor mesons are estimated in framework of the light cone QCD sum rules. It is observed that the magnetic dipole moments for the charged mesons are larger than that of its neutral counterpart. It is found that the SU(3) flavor symmetry violation is about 10 % in both b and c sectors. (orig.)

  15. Lack of screening in the continuous dipole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.M.; Princeton Univ., NJ

    1979-01-01

    We study continuos statistical systems interacting via a regularized dipole potential in the grand canonical ensemble. In the explicity given region of high temperature (or low density) we show that the effective potential between two parallel dipoles is not absolutely integrable (it is, however, square integrable), which implies that the effective potential does not fall faster than /x/ -3 in some directions. (orig.) 891 HJ/orig. 892 MKO

  16. Formation and temporal evolution of the Lamb-dipole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A.H.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The formation and dynamics of dipolar vortex structures in two-dimensional flows are studied. Localized initial structures possessing a finite linear momentum are found to develop into dipoles by direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. The detailed structure......, is well described by an adiabatic theory. During the expansion the dipole is found to trap fluid as it evolves. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics....

  17. The BFKL pomeron calculus in the dipole approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, M.; Levin, E.; Prygarin, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we continue to pursue a goal of finding an effective theory for high energy interaction in QCD based on the colour dipole approach, for which the BFKL pomeron calculus gives a low energy limit. The key problem, that we try to solve in this paper is the probabilistic interpretation of the BFKL pomeron calculus in terms of the colourless dipoles and their interactions. We demonstrate that the BFKL pomeron calculus has two equivalent descriptions: (i) one is the generating functional which gives a clear probabilistic interpretation of the processes of high energy scattering and also provides a Hamiltonian-like description of the system of interacting dipoles; (ii) the second is the Langevin equation with a specific noise term which is rather complicated. We found that at high energies this Langevin equation can be reduced to the Langevin equation for directed percolation in the momentum space if the impact parameter is large, namely, b1/k, where k is the transverse momentum of a dipole. Unfortunately, this simplified form of Langevin equation is not applicable for summation of pomeron loops, where one integrates over all possible values of impact parameter. We show that the BFKL pomeron calculus with two vertices (splitting P->P+P and merging P+P->P of pomerons) can be interpreted as a system of colourless dipoles with two processes: the decay of one dipole into two and the merging of two dipoles into one dipole. However, a number of assumptions we have to make on the way to simplify the noise term in the Langevin equation and/or to apply the probabilistic interpretation, therefore, we can consider both of these approaches in the present form only as the QCD motivated models

  18. Electric dipole moments of highly excited molecular vibrational states

    OpenAIRE

    Theulé, Patrice; Rizzo, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In this work, new spectroscopic techniques have been developed to measure electric dipole moments of highly excited rovibrational states of small polyatomic molecules in the gas phase. These techniques make use of lasers arid of microwave synthesizers. They enable one to measure the change on a molecular system caused by applying an external electric field, which is called Stark effect and from this, extract the dipole moment. The first technique, called microwave Stark spectroscopy, makes us...

  19. Electric dipole polarizability: from few- to many-body systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miorelli Mirko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We review the Lorentz integral transform coupled-cluster method for the calculation of the electric dipole polarizability. We benchmark our results with exact hyperspherical harmonics calculations for 4He and then we move to a heavier nucleus studying 16O. We observe that the implemented chiral nucleon-nucleon interaction at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order underestimates the electric dipole polarizability.

  20. Technology transfer considerations for the collider dipole magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodzeit, C.; Fischer, R.

    1991-03-01

    The R ampersand D program at the national laboratories has resulted in significant advances in design and fabrication methods for the Collider Dipole Magnets. The status of the transfer of the technology developed by the laboratories is reviewed. The continuation of the technology transfer program is discussed with a description of: (1) the relation of technology transfer activities to collider dipole product development; (2) content of the program relating to key magnet performance issues; and (3) methods to implement the program. 5 refs

  1. Many particle magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions in magnetizable stent assisted magnetic drug targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cregg, P.J.; Murphy, Kieran; Mardinoglu, Adil; Prina-Mello, Adriele

    2010-01-01

    The implant assisted magnetic targeted drug delivery system of Aviles, Ebner and Ritter is considered both experimentally (in vitro) and theoretically. The results of a 2D mathematical model are compared with 3D experimental results for a magnetizable wire stent. In this experiment a ferromagnetic, coiled wire stent is implanted to aid collection of particles which consist of single domain magnetic nanoparticles (radius ∼10nm). In order to model the agglomeration of particles known to occur in this system, the magnetic dipole-dipole and hydrodynamic interactions for multiple particles are included. Simulations based on this mathematical model were performed using open source C++ code. Different initial positions are considered and the system performance is assessed in terms of collection efficiency. The results of this model show closer agreement with the measured in vitro experimental results and with the literature. The implications in nanotechnology and nanomedicine are based on the prediction of the particle efficiency, in conjunction with the magnetizable stent, for targeted drug delivery.

  2. Constraints on Exotic Dipole-Dipole Couplings between Electrons at the Micrometer Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Ozeri, Roee; Kimball, Derek F Jackson

    2015-08-21

    New constraints on exotic dipole-dipole interactions between electrons at the micrometer scale are established, based on a recent measurement of the magnetic interaction between two trapped 88Sr(+) ions. For light bosons (mass≤0.1  eV) we obtain a 90% confidence interval for an axial-vector-mediated interaction strength of |g(A)(e)g(A)(e)/4πℏc|≤1.2×10(-17). Assuming CPT invariance, this constraint is compared to that on anomalous electron-positron interactions, derived from positronium hyperfine spectroscopy. We find that the electron-electron constraint is 6 orders of magnitude more stringent than the electron-positron counterpart. Bounds on pseudoscalar-mediated interaction as well as on torsion gravity are also derived and compared with previous work performed at different length scales. Our constraints benefit from the high controllability of the experimental system which contained only two trapped particles. It therefore suggests a useful new platform for exotic particle searches, complementing other experimental efforts.

  3. Ion-dipole interactions in concentrated organic electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagnes, Alexandre; Nicolis, Stamatios; Carré, Bernard; Willmann, Patrick; Lemordant, Daniel

    2003-06-16

    An algorithm is proposed for calculating the energy of ion-dipole interactions in concentrated organic electrolytes. The ion-dipole interactions increase with increasing salt concentration and must be taken into account when the activation energy for the conductivity is calculated. In this case, the contribution of ion-dipole interactions to the activation energy for this transport process is of the same order of magnitude as the contribution of ion-ion interactions. The ion-dipole interaction energy was calculated for a cell of eight ions, alternatingly anions and cations, placed on the vertices of an expanded cubic lattice whose parameter is related to the mean interionic distance (pseudolattice theory). The solvent dipoles were introduced randomly into the cell by assuming a randomness compacity of 0.58. The energy of the dipole assembly in the cell was minimized by using a Newton-Raphson numerical method. The dielectric field gradient around ions was taken into account by a distance parameter and a dielectric constant of epsilon = 3 at the surfaces of the ions. A fair agreement between experimental and calculated activation energy has been found for systems composed of gamma-butyrolactone (BL) as solvent and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4), lithium tetrafluoroborate (LiBF4), lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6), lithium hexafluoroarsenate (LiAsF6), and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) as salts.

  4. Diffractive open charm production from the dipole model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luszczak, A.; Golec-Biernat, K.

    2009-01-01

    The most promising QCD based approach to DIS diffraction is formulated in terms of dipole models. In this analysis, we consider two important parameterizations of the dipole scattering amplitude, called GBW and CGC in which parton saturation results are built in. We present a precise comparison of the results of the dipole models using these two parameterizations with the newest data from HERA. The comparison we performed prompt us to discuss some subtle points of the dipole models, mostly related to the qqg component, and connect them to the approach based on the diffractive parton distributions evolved with the Dokshitzer-Gribov-Lipatov-Altarelli-Parisi (DGLAP) equations. Within the latter approach, the diffractive open charm production, which is the main goal of this analysis, is particularly interesting since it is sensitive to a diffractive gluon distribution. Thus, we extracted the diffractive gluon distribution from the dipole model formulae to use it for the computation of the charm contribution to F 2 D . We found good agreement with the HERA data on the diffractive open charm production both for the the gluon distributions from the considered dipole models and the DGLAP fits to HERA data from our earlier analysis for diffractive parton distributions with higher twist. (authors)

  5. Comparison of electric dipole and magnetic dipole models for electromagnetic pulse generated by nuclear detonation in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Meng; Zhou Hui; Cheng Yinhui; Li Baozhong; Wu Wei; Li Jinxi; Ma Liang; Zhao Mo

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetic pulse can be generated by the nuclear detonation in space via two radiation mechanisms. The electric dipole and magnetic dipole models were analyzed. The electric radiation in the far field generated by two models was calculated as well. Investigations show that in the case of one hundred TNT yield detonations, when electrons are emitted according to the Gaussian shape, two radiation models can give rise to the electric field in great distances with amplitudes of kV/m and tens of V/m, independently. Because the geomagnetic field in space is not strong and the electrons' angular motion is much weaker than the motion in the original direction, radiations from the magnetic dipole model are much weaker than those from the electric dipole model. (authors)

  6. Long-range Order in One-dimensional Spinless Fermi Gas with Attractive Dipole-Dipole Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Zhongbo; Chen, Liang; Wan, Shaolong

    2013-01-01

    One-dimensional spinless Fermi gas with attractive dipole-dipole interaction is investigated. Results obtained show when the interaction is weak, the excitation spectrum is linear and the superconducting correlation function decays as power law, indicating the validity of the Tomonaga-Luttinger (TL) liquid picture. However, when the interaction reaches a critical value, the excitation spectrum is nonlinear and the superconducting correlation function keeps finite for infinity separation, indi...

  7. Transitions landau-zener de paires d'atomes de Rydberg froids en interaction dipole-dipole

    OpenAIRE

    Cournol, Anne

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with the study of dipole-dipole interaction between Rydberg atoms, in particular of Landau-Zener transitions around a Förster resonance for Rydberg atoms pairs. The adiabaticity of the transition depends of the interatomic distance and is controlled by a time-dependant electric field. The adiabatic transition efficiency is the control knob to probe the nearest neighbour distribution. We infer a new and original method to measure the density of a gas very accurately by probin...

  8. Interaction of counter-streaming plasma flows in dipole magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikhislamov, I F; Posukh, V G; Melekhov, A V; Prokopov, P A; Boyarintsev, E L; Zakharov, Yu P; Ponomarenko, A G

    2017-01-01

    Transient interaction of counter-streaming super-sonic plasma flows in dipole magnetic dipole is studied in laboratory experiment. First quasi-stationary flow is produced by teta-pinch and forms a magnetosphere around the magnetic dipole while laser beams focused at the surface of the dipole cover launch second explosive plasma expanding from inner dipole region outward. Laser plasma is energetic enough to disrupt magnetic field and to sweep through the background plasma for large distances. ...

  9. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A new 3-parameter family of homogeneous 2-by-2 block shifts is described. These are the first examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1. Author Affiliations. Adam Korányi1. Department of Mathematics, The Graduate Center, City University of New York, New York, NY 10016, USA ...

  10. Considerations on a Cost Model for High-Field Dipole Arc Magnets for FCC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078700; Durante, Maria; Lorin, Clement; Martinez, Teresa; Ruuskanen, Janne; Salmi, Tiina; Sorbi, Massimo; Tommasini, Davide; Toral, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    In the frame of the European Circular Collider (EuroCirCol), a conceptual design study for a post-Large Hadron Collider (LHC) research infrastructure based on an energy-frontier 100 TeV circular hadron collider [1]–[3], a cost model for the high-field dipole arc magnets is being developed. The aim of the cost model in the initial design phase is to provide the basis for sound strategic decisions towards cost effective designs, in particular: (A) the technological choice of superconducting material and its cost, (B) the target performance of Nb3Sn superconductor, (C) the choice of operating temperature (D) the relevant design margins and their importance for cost, (E) the nature and extent of grading, and (F) the aperture’s influence on cost. Within the EuroCirCol study three design options for the high field dipole arc magnets are under study: cos − θ [4], block [5], and common-coil [6]. Here, in the advanced design phase, a cost model helps to (1) identify the cost drivers and feed-back this informati...

  11. Test results from Fermilab 1.5 m model SSC collider dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koska, W.; Bossert, R.; Carson, J.; Coulter, K.J.; Delchamps, S.; Gourlay, S.; Jaffery, T.S.; Kinney, W.; Lamm, M.J.; Ozelis, J.P.; Strait, J.; Wake, M.

    1991-09-01

    We will present results from tests of 1.5 m model SSC collider dipole magnets. These R ampersand D magnets are identical to the 15 m full length dipoles currently being assembled at Fermilab in all important aspects except length. Because of their small size they can be built faster and tested more extensively than the long magnets. The model magnets are used to optimize design parameters for, and to indicate the performance which can be expected from, the 15 m magnets. The are instrumented with voltage taps over the first two current blocks for quench localization and with several arrays of strain gauge transducers for the study of mechanical behavior. The stress at the poles of the inner and outer coils is monitored during construction and, along with end force and shell strain, during excitation. Magnetic measurements are made several times during each magnet's lifetime, including at operating temperature and field. We will report on studies of the quench performance, mechanical behavior and magnetic field of these magnets

  12. Approximation by planar elastic curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge

    2016-01-01

    We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient-driven...

  13. Anytime classification by ontology approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlobach, S.; Blaauw, E.; El Kebir, M.; Ten Teije, A.; Van Harmelen, F.; Bortoli, S.; Hobbelman, M.C.; Millian, K.; Ren, Y.; Stam, S.; Thomassen, P.; Van Het Schip, R.; Van Willigem, W.

    2007-01-01

    Reasoning with large or complex ontologies is one of the bottle-necks of the Semantic Web. In this paper we present an anytime algorithm for classification based on approximate subsumption. We give the formal definitions for approximate subsumption, and show its monotonicity and soundness; we show

  14. Some results in Diophantine approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Steffen Højris

    This thesis consists of three papers in Diophantine approximation, a subbranch of number theory. Preceding these papers is an introduction to various aspects of Diophantine approximation and formal Laurent series over Fq and a summary of each of the three papers. The introduction introduces...... the basic concepts on which the papers build. Among other it introduces metric Diophantine approximation, Mahler’s approach on algebraic approximation, the Hausdorff measure, and properties of the formal Laurent series over Fq. The introduction ends with a discussion on Mahler’s problem when considered...... in the formal Laurent series over F3. The first paper is on intrinsic Diophantine approximation in the Cantor set in the formal Laurent series over F3. The summary contains a short motivation, the results of the paper and sketches of the proofs, mainly focusing on the ideas involved. The details of the proofs...

  15. Approximate circuits for increased reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlet, Jason R.; Mayo, Jackson R.

    2015-08-18

    Embodiments of the invention describe a Boolean circuit having a voter circuit and a plurality of approximate circuits each based, at least in part, on a reference circuit. The approximate circuits are each to generate one or more output signals based on values of received input signals. The voter circuit is to receive the one or more output signals generated by each of the approximate circuits, and is to output one or more signals corresponding to a majority value of the received signals. At least some of the approximate circuits are to generate an output value different than the reference circuit for one or more input signal values; however, for each possible input signal value, the majority values of the one or more output signals generated by the approximate circuits and received by the voter circuit correspond to output signal result values of the reference circuit.

  16. LHC dipoles flood into CERN : the dipole nr 154 crowns the efforts of the LHC teams for increasing the fabrication rate of the magnets.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    On 3 December the "tableau" on the 4th floor in building 30 indicated 1078 dipoles to completion - or in other words, 154 dipoles had by this day been delivered to CERN, enough to complete the first octant of the machine. CERN has also now received enough superconducting cable - the "heart" of the magnets - for 600 dipoles, nearly half the total number of 1232.

  17. HD1: Design and Fabrication of a 16 Tesla Nb3Sn Dipole Magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafalia, A.R.; Bartlett, S.E.; Capsi, S.; Chiesa, L.; Dietderich, D.R.; Ferracin, P.; Goli, M.; Gourlay, S.A.; Hannaford, C.R.; Highley, H.; Lietzke, A.F.; Liggins, N.; Mattafirri, S.; McInturff, A.D.; Nyman, M.; Sabbi, G.L.; Scanlan, R.M.; Swanson, J.

    2003-01-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Superconducting Magnet Group has completed the design, fabrication and test of HD1, a 16 T block-coil dipole magnet. State of the art Nb 3 Sn conductor was wound in double-layer racetrack coils and supported by an iron yoke and a tensioned aluminum shell. In order to prevent conductor movement under magnetic forces up to the design field, a coil pre-stress of 150 MPa was required. To achieve this level without damaging the brittle conductor, the target stress was generated during cool-down to 4.2 K by exploiting the thermal contraction differentials between yoke and shell. Accurate control of the shell tension during assembly was obtained using pressurized bladders and interference load keys. An integrated 3D CAD model was used to optimize magnetic and mechanical design and analysis

  18. The dipoles reach the half-way mark

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    With the positioning of the 616th magnet, installation of the LHC dipoles has reached the half-way mark. Only half the dipoles remain to be installed! The 616th dipole out of a total of 1232 was installed at 3 a.m on Wednesday 12 July. Night and day, the tunnel is the setting for a never-ending series of carefully choreographed installation operations. At a rate of around twenty per week, there has been a steady underground flow of dipole magnets, each measuring 15 metres in length and weighing 34 tonnes. 'In order to recover the accumulated delays, installation is proceeding three times faster than planned', confides Claude Hauviller, who is supervising LHC installation. Four dipoles can be transported underground at the same time. It is a real challenge, which the 65-man team responsible for this difficult task faces on a daily basis. This is because there is very little space in the tunnel and there are no passing places for the magnet transport vehicles. The room for manoeuvre can sometimes be measured ...

  19. Valence Topological Charge-Transfer Indices for Dipole Moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Torrens

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available New valence topological charge-transfer indices are applied to the calculation of dipole moments. The algebraic and vector semisum charge-transfer indices are defined. The combination of the charge-transfer indices allows the estimation of the dipole moments. The model is generalized for molecules with heteroatoms. The ability of the indices for the description of the molecular charge distribution is established by comparing them with the dipole moments of a homologous series of phenyl alcohols. Linear and non-linear correlation models are obtained. The new charge-transfer indices improve the multivariable non-linear regression equations for the dipole moment. When comparing with previous results, the variance decreases 92%. No superposition of the corresponding Gk–Jk and GkV – JkV pairs is observed. This diminishes the risk of co-linearity. Inclusion of the oxygen atom in the p-electron system is beneficial for the description of the dipole moment, owing to either the role of the additional p orbitals provided by the heteroatom or the role of steric factors in the p-electron conjugation. Linear and non-linear correlations between the fractal dimension and various descriptors point not only to a homogeneous molecular structure but also to the ability to predict and tailor drug properties.

  20. Magnetic field measurements of model SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassenzahl, W.V.; Gilbert, W.S.; Green, M.I.; Barale, P.J.

    1986-10-01

    To qualify for use in the Superconducting Super Collider, the 8000 or so 16 m long dipole magnets must pass a series of tests. One of these will be a set of warm measurements of field quality, which must be precise to about 0.001% of the 100 G field produced by 10 A, the maximum current the coils are allowed to carry for an extended period at room temperature. Field measurements of better than this accuracy have already been carried out on 1 m long model dipoles. These measurements have included determinations of the dipole fields and the higher harmonics in the central or two dimensional region and in the total magnet. In addition, axial scans of the dipole and higher harmonic magnetic fields have been made to determine the local variations, which might reflect fabrication and assembly tolerances. This paper describes the equipment developed for these measurements, the results of a representative set of measurements of the central and integral fields and axial scans, and a comparison between warm and cold measurements. Reproducibility, accuracy and precision will be described for some of the measurements. The significance of the warm measurements as a part of the certification process for the SSC dipoles will be discussed

  1. Applying a volume dipole distribution model to next-generation sensor data for multi-object data inversion and discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubitidze, Fridon; Karkashadze, David; Fernández, Juan Pablo; Barrowes, Benjamin E.; O'Neill, Kevin; Grzegorczyk, Tomasz M.; Shamatava, Irma

    2010-04-01

    Discrimination between UXO and harmless objects is particularly difficult in highly contaminated sites where two or more objects are simultaneously present in the field of view of the sensor and produce overlapping signals. The first step in overcoming this problem is estimating the number of targets. In this work an orthonormalized volume magnetic source (ONVMS) approach is introduced for estimating the number of targets, along with their locations and orientations. The technique is based on the discrete dipole approximation, which distributes dipoles inside the computational volume. First, a set of orthogonal functions are constructed using fundamental solutions of the Helmholtz equations (i.e., Green's functions). Then, the scattered magnetic field is approximated as a series of these orthogonal functions. The magnitudes of the expansion coefficients are determined directly from the measurement data without solving an ill-posed inverse-scattering problem. The expansion coefficients are then used to determine the amplitudes of the responding volume magnetic dipoles. The algorithm's superior performance and applicability to live UXO sites are illustrated by applying it to the bi-static TEMTADS multi-target data sets collected by NRL personnel at the Aberdeen Proving Ground UXO teststand site.

  2. Spontaneous transition rates for electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions for He-like calcium and sulfur ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, A.E.; Norrington, P.H.; Boone, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    The spontaneous decay rates for the electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions between all of the 1s 2 , 1s2 l and 1s3 l states have been obtained for helium-like calcium and sulfur ions. To assess the accuracy of the calculations, the transition probabilities were calculated using two sets of configuration interaction wavefunctions. One set of wavefunctions was generated using the fully relativistic GRASP code and the other was obtained using CIV3, in which relativistic effects are introduced using the Breit-Pauli approximation. The transition rates, A values, oscillator strengths and line strengths from our two calculations are found to be similar and to compare very well with other recent results for Δn=1 or 2 transitions. For Δn=0 transitions the agreement is much less good; this is mainly due to differences in the calculated excitation energies. (author)

  3. Pair Approximation for Polarization Interaction and Adiabatic Nuclear and Electronic Sampling Method for Fluids with Dipole Polarizability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Předota, Milan; Cummings, P. T.; Chialvo, A. A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 16 (2002), s. 2703-2717 ISSN 0026-8976 Grant - others:DE(US) AC05-00OR22725 Keywords : polarization interaction * Monte Carlo Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.617, year: 2002

  4. Approximate Implicitization Using Linear Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver J. D. Barrowclough

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a family of algorithms for approximate implicitization of rational parametric curves and surfaces. The main approximation tool in all of the approaches is the singular value decomposition, and they are therefore well suited to floating-point implementation in computer-aided geometric design (CAGD systems. We unify the approaches under the names of commonly known polynomial basis functions and consider various theoretical and practical aspects of the algorithms. We offer new methods for a least squares approach to approximate implicitization using orthogonal polynomials, which tend to be faster and more numerically stable than some existing algorithms. We propose several simple propositions relating the properties of the polynomial bases to their implicit approximation properties.

  5. Rollout sampling approximate policy iteration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrakakis, C.; Lagoudakis, M.G.

    2008-01-01

    Several researchers have recently investigated the connection between reinforcement learning and classification. We are motivated by proposals of approximate policy iteration schemes without value functions, which focus on policy representation using classifiers and address policy learning as a

  6. Shearlets and Optimally Sparse Approximations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kutyniok, Gitta; Lemvig, Jakob; Lim, Wang-Q

    2012-01-01

    of such functions. Recently, cartoon-like images were introduced in 2D and 3D as a suitable model class, and approximation properties were measured by considering the decay rate of the $L^2$ error of the best $N$-term approximation. Shearlet systems are to date the only representation system, which provide...... optimally sparse approximations of this model class in 2D as well as 3D. Even more, in contrast to all other directional representation systems, a theory for compactly supported shearlet frames was derived which moreover also satisfy this optimality benchmark. This chapter shall serve as an introduction...... to and a survey about sparse approximations of cartoon-like images by band-limited and also compactly supported shearlet frames as well as a reference for the state-of-the-art of this research field....

  7. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  8. Mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, John H.; Chay, Seung C.; Downs, Mary M.

    1988-01-01

    Most state of the art expert system environments contain a single and often ad hoc strategy for approximate reasoning. Some environments provide facilities to program the approximate reasoning algorithms. However, the next generation of expert systems should have an environment which contain a choice of several mathematical algorithms for approximate reasoning. To meet the need for validatable and verifiable coding, the expert system environment must no longer depend upon ad hoc reasoning techniques but instead must include mathematically rigorous techniques for approximate reasoning. Popular approximate reasoning techniques are reviewed, including: certainty factors, belief measures, Bayesian probabilities, fuzzy logic, and Shafer-Dempster techniques for reasoning. A group of mathematically rigorous algorithms for approximate reasoning are focused on that could form the basis of a next generation expert system environment. These algorithms are based upon the axioms of set theory and probability theory. To separate these algorithms for approximate reasoning various conditions of mutual exclusivity and independence are imposed upon the assertions. Approximate reasoning algorithms presented include: reasoning with statistically independent assertions, reasoning with mutually exclusive assertions, reasoning with assertions that exhibit minimum overlay within the state space, reasoning with assertions that exhibit maximum overlay within the state space (i.e. fuzzy logic), pessimistic reasoning (i.e. worst case analysis), optimistic reasoning (i.e. best case analysis), and reasoning with assertions with absolutely no knowledge of the possible dependency among the assertions. A robust environment for expert system construction should include the two modes of inference: modus ponens and modus tollens. Modus ponens inference is based upon reasoning towards the conclusion in a statement of logical implication, whereas modus tollens inference is based upon reasoning away

  9. Theory of hot and rotating nuclei within the static path approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.

    1995-01-01

    For the description of hot and rotating nuclei the static path approximation to the path integral representation of the partition function is at present the best practicable approach incorporating rigorously the statistical fluctuations in nuclear shape degrees of freedom. The paper briefly discusses the method and present a few of the recent results on level densities and GDR (giant dipole resonance) γ-absorption cross sections. (author). 22 refs., 2 figs

  10. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  11. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  12. Theoretical Expectations for the Muon's Electric Dipole Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, J L; Shadmi, Y; Feng, Jonathan L; Matchev, Konstantin T.; Shadmi, Yael

    2001-01-01

    We examine the muon's electric dipole moment $\\dmu$ from a variety of theoretical perspectives. We point out that the reported deviation in the muon's g-2 can be due partially or even entirely to a new physics contribution to the muon's {\\em electric} dipole moment. In fact, the recent g-2 measurement provides the most stringent bound on $\\dmu$ to date. This ambiguity could be definitively resolved by the dedicated search for $\\dmu$ recently proposed. We then consider both model-independent and supersymmetric frameworks. Under the assumptions of scalar degeneracy, proportionality, and flavor conservation, the theoretical expectations for $\\dmu$ in supersymmetry fall just below the proposed sensitivity. However, non-degeneracy can give an order of magnitude enhancement, and lepton flavor violation can lead to $\\dmu$ of order $10^{-22}$ e cm, two orders of magnitude above the sensitivity of the $\\dmu$ experiment. We present compact expressions for leptonic dipole moments and lepton flavor violating amplitudes. ...

  13. Deeply virtual compton scattering in color dipole formalism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Magno V.T. [Universidade Federal do Pampa (UNIPAMPA), Bage, RS (Brazil)

    2007-06-15

    In this contribution we summarize recent investigations on the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) within the color dipole approach. The color dipole cross section is implemented through the phenomenological saturation model. The role played by its QCD evolution and skewedness effects in the DVCS cross section are discussed. The results are compared with the recent H1 and ZEUS Collaborations data. The skewing factor, defined as the ratio of the imaginary parts of the amplitudes Im A({gamma}* p {yields} {gamma}* p)/ Im A({gamma}* p {yields} {gamma} p) can be extracted from the data using recent DVCS and the inclusive inelastic cross section measurements at DESY-HERA. We report on this experimental extraction and compare the results to the theoretical predictions for NLO QCD and the color dipole approach. (author)

  14. Status of the LHC Short Dipole Model Programme

    CERN Document Server

    Tommasini, D; Sanfilippo, S; Siemko, A; Vanenkov, I; Wyss, C

    2000-01-01

    The 1-m model program for the main LHC dipoles is now mainly focussed on double-aperture magnets. In the past years an intensive program based on single-aperture dipoles allowed to select the series-design features among several variants for the coil cross section, the material of the collars and of the coil end spacers, the coil pre-stress and the cable insulation. The recent double-aperture models are dedicated to the fine-tuning of the baseline design and the manufacture of the coil ends. This paper reports about the fabrication and testing of these magnets and the results relevant for the series production of the 15-m long full-size dipole cold masses.

  15. Overview and Status of the Levitated Dipole Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, D. T.; Hansen, A. K.; Mauel, M. E.; Ortiz, E.; Sunn-Pedersen, T.; Dagen, S.; Ellsworth, J.; Karim, I.; Kesner, J.; Minervini, J.; Michael, P.; Zhukovsky, A.

    2002-11-01

    The Levitated Dipole Experiment (LDX) is the first experiment designed to study high-β plasmas confined by a magnetic dipole with near classical energy confinement. The primary goal of the initial phase of LDX operation is the study of plasma behavior near marginal stability for interchange modes at high-β. Other areas of investigation include dipole confinement characteristics, the formation of convective cells within the closed field line geometry and the possibility of non-local transport. LDX consists of three superconducting magnets and highlights the role of innovative magnetic technology that makes possible explorations of entirely new confinement concepts. We describe the LDX machine design and detail the fabrication status of the superconducting floating-coil, charging-coil, and levitation-coil as LDX nears plasma operations. An overview of the project goals, overall program plan, and current status of the experiment will also be presented.

  16. State of the Short Dipole Model Program for the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, N I; Kurtyka, T; Oberli, L R; Perini, D; Russenschuck, Stephan; Siegel, N; Siemko, A; Tommasini, D; Vanenkov, I; Walckiers, L

    1998-01-01

    Superconducting single and twin aperture 1-m long dipole magnets are currently being fabricated at CERN at a rate of about one per month in the framework of the short dipole model program for the LHC. The program allows to study performance improvements coming from refinements in design, components and assembly options and to accumulate statistics based on a small-scale production. The experience thus gained provides in turn feedback into the long magnet program in industry. In recent models initial quenching fields above 9 T have been obtained and after a short training the conductor limit at 2 K is reached, resulting in a central bore field exceeding 10 T. The paper describes the features of recent single aperture models, the results obtained during cold tests and the plans to ensure the continuation of a vigorous model program providing input for the fabrication of the main LHC dipoles.

  17. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked...

  18. Experimental mapping of the absolute magnitude of the transition dipole moment function μe(R) of the Na2 AΣ1u+-XΣ1g+ transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, E. H.; Qi, P.; Beser, B.; Bai, J.; Field, R. W.; Huennekens, J. P.; Lyyra, A. M.

    2008-05-01

    The absolute magnitude of the transition dipole moment function μe(R) of the AΣ1u+-XΣ1g+ band system of Na2 was mapped experimentally over a relatively large range of internuclear distance R . The transition dipole moment matrix element of a set of rovibrational transitions between the AΣ1u+ and XΣ1g+ states was measured using the Autler-Townes effect. By employing the R -centroid approximation, or a fit to a polynomial function involving higher order R centroids, μe as a function of the internuclear distance was obtained. These Autler-Townes effect based measurements yield the absolute magnitude of μe , which can be used to test ab initio theoretical transition dipole moment functions or to “normalize” experimental transition moment functions obtained from intensity measurements, which in general give only the relative behavior of μe(R) .

  19. Report on the analysis of the large propagation velocities observed in the full-length SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresner, L.; Lue, J.W.; Lubell, M.

    1990-09-01

    Very large propagation velocities have been observed in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) 17-m dipoles: from 75 m/s to 225 m/s, depending on the current. These velocities are much larger than those predicted by the classical conduction theory of normal zone propagation. A plausible explanation for such rapid propagation is hydrodynamic mechanism called thermal hydraulic quenchback (THQ) that has been proposed by Luongo et al. This report supplies an approximate analytic theory of THQ, which is used to analyze the data taken on the SSC 17-m dipoles. It is concluded that THQ in the helium in the interstices of the cable can explain the large propagation velocities observed. Additional experiments are proposed to test the hydrodynamic explanation. 17 refs., 5 figs

  20. Isospin character of low-lying pygmy dipole states in 208Pb via inelastic scattering of 17O ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, F C L; Bracco, A; Nicolini, R; Mengoni, D; Pellegri, L; Lanza, E G; Leoni, S; Maj, A; Kmiecik, M; Avigo, R; Benzoni, G; Blasi, N; Boiano, C; Bottoni, S; Brambilla, S; Camera, F; Ceruti, S; Giaz, A; Million, B; Morales, A I; Vandone, V; Wieland, O; Bednarczyk, P; Ciemała, M; Grebosz, J; Krzysiek, M; Mazurek, K; Zieblinski, M; Bazzacco, D; Bellato, M; Birkenbach, B; Bortolato, D; Calore, E; Cederwall, B; Charles, L; de Angelis, G; Désesquelles, P; Eberth, J; Farnea, E; Gadea, A; Görgen, A; Gottardo, A; Isocrate, R; Jolie, J; Jungclaus, A; Karkour, N; Korten, W; Menegazzo, R; Michelagnoli, C; Molini, P; Napoli, D R; Pullia, A; Recchia, F; Reiter, P; Rosso, D; Sahin, E; Salsac, M D; Siebeck, B; Siem, S; Simpson, J; Söderström, P-A; Stezowski, O; Theisen, Ch; Ur, C; Valiente-Dobón, J J

    2014-07-04

    The properties of pygmy dipole states in 208Pb were investigated using the 208Pb(17O, 17O'γ) reaction at 340 MeV and measuring the γ decay with high resolution with the AGATA demonstrator array. Cross sections and angular distributions of the emitted γ rays and of the scattered particles were measured. The results are compared with (γ, γ') and (p, p') data. The data analysis with the distorted wave Born approximation approach gives a good description of the elastic scattering and of the inelastic excitation of the 2+ and 3- states. For the dipole transitions a form factor obtained by folding a microscopically calculated transition density was used for the first time. This has allowed us to extract the isoscalar component of the 1- excited states from 4 to 8 MeV.

  1. Investigations of dipole localization accuracy in MEG using the bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvas, F; Rautiainen, M; Pantazis, D; Baillet, S; Benali, H; Mosher, J C; Garnero, L; Leahy, R M

    2005-04-01

    We describe the use of the nonparametric bootstrap to investigate the accuracy of current dipole localization from magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies of event-related neural activity. The bootstrap is well suited to the analysis of event-related MEG data since the experiments are repeated tens or even hundreds of times and averaged to achieve acceptable signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The set of repetitions or epochs can be viewed as a set of independent realizations of the brain's response to the experiment. Bootstrap resamples can be generated by sampling with replacement from these epochs and averaging. In this study, we applied the bootstrap resampling technique to MEG data from somatotopic experimental and simulated data. Four fingers of the right and left hand of a healthy subject were electrically stimulated, and about 400 trials per stimulation were recorded and averaged in order to measure the somatotopic mapping of the fingers in the S1 area of the brain. Based on single-trial recordings for each finger we performed 5000 bootstrap resamples. We reconstructed dipoles from these resampled averages using the Recursively Applied and Projected (RAP)-MUSIC source localization algorithm. We also performed a simulation for two dipolar sources with overlapping time courses embedded in realistic background brain activity generated using the prestimulus segments of the somatotopic data. To find correspondences between multiple sources in each bootstrap, sample dipoles with similar time series and forward fields were assumed to represent the same source. These dipoles were then clustered by a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) clustering algorithm using their combined normalized time series and topographies as feature vectors. The mean and standard deviation of the dipole position and the dipole time series in each cluster were computed to provide estimates of the accuracy of the reconstructed source locations and time series.

  2. Spontaneous Interfacial Dipole Orientation Effect of Acetic Acid Solubilized PFN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Luo, Yinqi; Zheng, Jieming; Liu, Linlin; Xie, Zengqi; Huang, Fei; Yang, Bing; Ma, Yuguang

    2018-03-28

    Poly[(9,9-dioctyl-2,7-fluorene)- alt-(9,9-bis(3'-( N, N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)] (PFN) is a very important interfacial modifier in organic photovoltaic and organic light-emitting diodes to improve device performance, where their molecular dipole has been regarded to play a key role. In this work, we have reported a spontaneous interfacial dipole orientation effect in acetic acid dissolved PFN, which is strongly related to the interfacial dipole and the corresponding device performance. In direct spin-coating, the interfacial dipole is 1.08 Debye with interfacial contact angle 84.8°, whereas after self-assembly of 10 min, the interfacial dipole is balanced at 4.21 Debye, with the interfacial contact angle decreasing to 76.8°. Without strong interaction with the substrate, the energy of upward amine groups is much lower than that of downward ones in theoretical simulation, which would be the driving force of this spontaneous process. The preferred conformations of PFN molecules on hydroxylated substrates have over 99% amine groups outward, and the theoretical average dipole calculated from the weight of these conformations is 4.48 Debye, which is close to the experimental result and indicates a high ratio of upward amine groups in self-assembled films. This effect obviously changes the device performance, such as an obvious positive threshold voltage shift in transistors and a distinct increase of the short-circuit current/open-circuit voltage in organic solar cells. This effect provides a deeper understanding of the PFN interlayer mechanism and has potential application in optoelectronic devices.

  3. An examination of dipole moment variations for 0-2 Ma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, L. B.; Constable, C.

    2009-12-01

    Large numbers of Relative Paleomagnetic field Intensity (RPI) and Absolute Paleointensity (API) data have been used to study variations in Earth's magnetic field strength on million year timescales. We examine the behavior of the geomagnetic field and its time derivative in the PADM2M global model of Paleomagnetic Axial Dipole Moment variations for the past 2 Myr, and in a suite of increasingly smoothed time-varying models that are effectively low-pass filtered versions of the original. PADM2M is constructed using a maximum likelihood (ML) estimation technique that efficiently uses almost 5000 individual API data and 89 sedimentary RPI records of variable lengths and sedimentation rates to produce a calibrated, continuous, time-varying model of PADM. Time variations in PADM2M are parametrized by cubic B-splines. The regularized model robustly resolves features at timescales longer than 10 kyr and shows the expected paleointensity lows at field reversals and excursions. Asymmetries in dipole moment growth and decay rates have been previously noted around reversals in individual records and in the SINT2000 VADM model. The spline temporal parameterization in PADM2M combined with our modeling strategy readily allows derivative calculations at various temporal resolutions, so that we can quantify these effects. For versions in which periods shorter than 40kyr are heavily damped there is a clear asymmetry in the statistical distributions for growth versus decay of the dipole field: average growth rate is about 20% larger than the decay rate, and peak growth values are approximately twice as large. These differences are not limited to times when the field is reversing, suggesting that the asymmetry may reflect fundamental physical processes underlying the paleosecular variation. The longer decay cycle might suggest episodic periods of subcritical dynamo activity, followed by transient episodes of strong convection as envisaged in Backus's (1958) early demonstration of a

  4. Nuclear DVCS at small x using color-dipole phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Magno V.T. [Universidade Federal do Pampa Campus de Bage, Centro de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas, Bage, RS (Brazil)

    2009-02-15

    Using the high-energy color-dipole formalism, we study the coherent and incoherent nuclear DVCS process, {gamma}{sup *}A{yields}{gamma}X, in the small-x regime. We consider simple models for the elementary dipole-hadron scattering amplitude that capture the main features of the dependence on atomic number A, on energy and on momentum transfer t. Using the amplitudes obtained we make predictions for the nuclear DVCS cross section at the photon level in collider kinematics. (orig.)

  5. SSC [Superconducting Super Collider] dipole coil production tooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.A.; Barczak, E.J.; Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Smith, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider dipole coils must be produced to high precision to ensure uniform prestress and even conductor distribution within the collared coil assembly. Tooling is being prepared at Fermilab for the production of high precision 1M and 16.6M SSC dipole coils suitable for mass production. The design and construction methods builds on the Tevatron tooling and production experience. Details of the design and construction methods and measured coil uniformity of 1M coils will be presented. 4 refs., 10 figs

  6. Dynamical dipole mode in heavy-ion fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parascandolo, C., E-mail: concetta.parascandolo@na.infn.i [Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Pierroutsakou, D. [INFN - Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Martin, B. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Agodi, C.; Alba, R. [INFN - LNS, via Santa Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Boiano, A. [INFN - Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Coniglione, R. [INFN - LNS, via Santa Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); De Filippo, E. [INFN - Sezione di Catania, 95123, Catania (Italy); Del Zoppo, A. [INFN - LNS, via Santa Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Emanuele, U. [INFN, Gruppo Collegato di Messina and Dip. di Fisica, Universita di Messina, Messina (Italy); Farinon, F. [GSI, Planckstrasse 1, D-64291, Darmstadt (Germany); Guglielmetti, A. [Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Inglima, G.; La Commara, M. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Maiolino, C. [INFN - LNS, via Santa Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Mazzocchi, C. [Universita degli Studi di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Mazzocco, M. [Dip. di Fisica and INFN, Universita di Padova, via F. Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Romoli, M. [INFN - Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Sandoli, M. [Universita degli Studi di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Santonocito, D. [INFN - LNS, via Santa Sofia 62, I-95125 Catania (Italy)

    2010-03-01

    The dynamical dipole mode, excited in charge asymmetric heavy-ion collisions, was investigated in the mass region of the {sup 192}Pb compound nucleus, formed by using the {sup 40,48}Ca + {sup 152,144}Sm reactions at approx11 MeV/nucleon. Preliminary results of this measurement, concerning both fusion-evaporation and fission events are presented. As a fast cooling mechanism on the fusion path, the dynamical dipole mode could be useful for the synthesis of super heavy elements through 'hot' fusion reactions.

  7. Double dipole antenna SIS receivers at 100 and 400 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalare, A.; Vandestadt, H.; Degraauw, T.; Panhuyzen, R. A.; Dierichs, M. M. T. M.

    1992-01-01

    Antenna patterns were measured between 95 and 120 GHz for a double dipole antenna / ellipsoidal lens combination. The structure produces a non-astigmatic beam with low side lobe levels over that whole band. A heterodyne SIS receiver based on this concept gave a best noise temperature of 145 K DSB at 98 GHz. Measurements were also made with a 400 GHz heterodyne SIS receiver, using a double dipole antenna in conjunction with a hyperhemispherical lens. The best noise temperature was 220 K DSB at 402 GHz. On-chip stubs were used to tune out the SIS junction capacitance.

  8. SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) dipole coil production tooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J.A.; Barczak, E.J.; Bossert, R.C.; Brandt, J.S.; Smith, G.A.

    1989-03-01

    Superconducting Super Collider dipole coils must be produced to high precision to ensure uniform prestress and even conductor distribution within the collared coil assembly. Tooling is being prepared at Fermilab for the production of high precision 1M and 16.6M SSC dipole coils suitable for mass production. The design and construction methods builds on the Tevatron tooling and production experience. Details of the design and construction methods and measured coil uniformity of 1M coils will be presented. 4 refs., 10 figs.

  9. Sound pressure around dipole source above porous surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prezelj, Jurij; Steblaj, Peter; Cudina, Mirko

    2014-06-01

    A technique for in situ measurements of acoustic properties of a fibrous porous material is proposed in this paper. Proposed technique exploits a directivity pattern of a dipole source in its very near field. Theoretical analysis for the proposed technique is based on the Rayleigh integral with a complex reflection included. Results are compared with results of FEM analysis and show that flow resistivity of a porous material placed in the very near field of the dipole source has significant influence on the sound pressure at its ring. Results provide an excellent starting point for the design of the sensor for sound absorption.

  10. Dipole moment of metallocene precatalyst in ground and excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukova, G.V.; Vasil'ev, V.P.; Smirnov, V.A.; Milov, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Electric dipole momenta of high-emitting metallocene precatalyst, i.e. π-complex of Zr IV (ras-C 6 H 10 (IndH 4 ) 2 ZrCl 2 ) in basic and triplet states in series of diluents have been estimated by the method of spectral shifts and quantum-chemical calculations using the DFT method. The absorption spectra characteristic of charge transfer from the ligand to metal and of zirconocene luminescence depend on the aprotic diluent nature. It is shown that transition from S 0 state to emitting T 1 state entails essential increase in the electric dipole momentum [ru

  11. Dipole showers and automated NLO matching in Herwig++

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaetzer, Simon; Gieseke, Stefan

    2011-09-01

    We report on the implementation of a coherent dipole shower algorithm along with an automated implementation for dipole subtraction and for performing POWHEG- and MC rate at NLO-type matching to next-to-leading order (NLO) calculations. Both programs are implemented as add-on modules to the event generator HERWIG++. A preliminary tune of parameters to data acquired at LEP, HERA and Drell-Yan pair production at the Tevatron has been performed, and we find an overall very good description which is slightly improved by the NLO matching. (orig.)

  12. Dipole location using SQUID based measurements: Application to magnetocardiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariyappa, N.; Parasakthi, C.; Sengottuvel, S.; Gireesan, K.; Patel, Rajesh; Janawadkar, M. P.; Sundar, C. S.; Radhakrishnan, T. S.

    2012-07-01

    We report a method of inferring the dipole location using iterative nonlinear least square optimization based on Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, wherein, we use different sets of pseudo-random numbers as initial parameter values. The method has been applied to (i) the simulated data representing the calculated magnetic field distribution produced by a point dipole placed at a known position, (ii) the experimental data from SQUID based measurements of the magnetic field distribution produced by a source coil carrying current, and (iii) the actual experimentally measured magnetocardiograms of human subjects using a SQUID based system.

  13. Resonances and dipole moments in dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirksen, A.; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2011-01-01

    An eigenfunction solution to the problem of plane wave scattering by dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders is used for a systematic investigation of their resonances. An overview of the resonances with electric and magnetic dipole moments, needed in, e.g., the synthesis of metamat......An eigenfunction solution to the problem of plane wave scattering by dielectric, magnetic, and magnetodielectric cylinders is used for a systematic investigation of their resonances. An overview of the resonances with electric and magnetic dipole moments, needed in, e.g., the synthesis...

  14. Layers of Cold Dipolar Molecules in the Harmonic Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the N-body problem in a layered geometry containing cold polar molecules with dipole moments that are polarized perpendicular to the layers. A harmonic approximation is used to simplify the hamiltonian and bound state properties of the two-body inter-layer dipolar potential are used...... to adjust this effective interaction. To model the intra-layer repulsion of the polar molecules, we introduce a repulsive inter-molecule potential that can be parametrically varied. Single chains containing one molecule in each layer, as well as multi-chain structures in many layers are discussed...... and their energies and radii determined. We extract the normal modes of the various systems as measures of their volatility and eventually of instability, and compare our findings to the excitations in crystals. We find modes that can be classified as either chains vibrating in phase or as layers vibrating against...

  15. Microscopic mean field approximation and beyond with the Gogny force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peru, S.; Martini, M.

    2014-01-01

    We review the main results of several works using the finite range Gogny interaction within mean field-based approaches. Starting from static mean field description, a GCM-like method including rotational degrees of freedom, namely the five-dimension collective Hamiltonian, is applied. The theoretical results are used to interpret the shell evolution along the N = 16 isotonic chain. The quasiparticle random-phase-approximation formalism is introduced and used to simultaneously describe high- and low-energy spectroscopy as well as collective and individual excitations. After a discussion on the role of the intrinsic deformation in giant resonances, the appearance of low-energy dipole resonances in light nuclei is analysed. Finally, a comparison of the low-energy spectroscopy obtained with these two extensions of static mean field is performed for 2 + states of N = 16 isotopes. (authors)

  16. Approximate number sense theory or approximate theory of magnitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Content, Alain; Velde, Michael Vande; Adriano, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Leibovich et al. argue that the evidence in favor of a perceptual mechanism devoted to the extraction of numerosity from visual collections is unsatisfactory and propose to replace it with an unspecific mechanism capturing approximate magnitudes from continuous dimensions. We argue that their representation of the evidence is incomplete and that their theoretical proposal is too vague to be useful.

  17. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along...

  18. A Study of Beam Position Diagnostics with Beam-excited Dipole Higher Order Modes using a Downconverter Test Electronics in Third Harmonic 3.9 GHz Superconducting Accelerating Cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P. [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Baboi, N. [DESY; Eddy, N. [Fermilab; Fellenz, B. [Fermilab; Jones, R. M. [Cockcroft Inst. Accel. Sci. Tech.; Lorbeer, B. [DESY; Wamsat, T. [DESY; Wendt, M. [Fermilab

    2012-08-01

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to define a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 {\\mu}m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 {\\mu}m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.

  19. A study of beam position diagnostics with beam-excited dipole higher order modes using a downconverter test electronics in third harmonic 3.9 GHz superconducting accelerating cavities at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, P. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Baboi, N.; Lorbeer, B.; Wamsat, T. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Eddy, N.; Fellenz, B.; Wendt, M. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Jones, R.M. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom); The Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    Beam-excited higher order modes (HOM) in accelerating cavities contain transverse beam position information. Previous studies have narrowed down three modal options for beam position diagnostics in the third harmonic 3.9 GHz cavities at FLASH. Localized modes in the beam pipes at approximately 4.1 GHz and in the fifth cavity dipole band at approximately 9 GHz were found, that can provide a local measurement of the beam position. In contrast, propagating modes in the first and second dipole bands between 4.2 and 5.5 GHz can reach a better resolution. All the options were assessed with a specially designed test electronics built by Fermilab. The aim is to de ne a mode or spectral region suitable for the HOM electronics. Two data analysis techniques are used and compared in extracting beam position information from the dipole HOMs: direct linear regression and singular value decomposition. Current experiments suggest a resolution of 50 m accuracy in predicting local beam position using modes in the fifth dipole band, and a global resolution of 20 m over the complete module. Based on these results we decided to build a HOM electronics for the second dipole band and the fifth dipole band, so that we will have both high resolution measurements for the whole module, and localized measurements for individual cavity. The prototype electronics is being built by Fermilab and planned to be tested in FLASH by the end of 2012.

  20. Approximate Matching of Hierarchial Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Augsten, Nikolaus

    The goal of this thesis is to design, develop, and evaluate new methods for the approximate matching of hierarchical data represented as labeled trees. In approximate matching scenarios two items should be matched if they are similar. Computing the similarity between labeled trees is hard...... formally proof that the pq-gram index can be incrementally updated based on the log of edit operations without reconstructing intermediate tree versions. The incremental update is independent of the data size and scales to a large number of changes in the data. We introduce windowed pq...... as in addition to the data values also the structure must be considered. A well-known measure for comparing trees is the tree edit distance. It is computationally expensive and leads to a prohibitively high run time. Our solution for the approximate matching of hierarchical data are pq-grams. The pq...

  1. Approximations to camera sensor noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xiaodan; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2013-02-01

    Noise is present in all image sensor data. Poisson distribution is said to model the stochastic nature of the photon arrival process, while it is common to approximate readout/thermal noise by additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN). Other sources of signal-dependent noise such as Fano and quantization also contribute to the overall noise profile. Question remains, however, about how best to model the combined sensor noise. Though additive Gaussian noise with signal-dependent noise variance (SD-AWGN) and Poisson corruption are two widely used models to approximate the actual sensor noise distribution, the justification given to these types of models are based on limited evidence. The goal of this paper is to provide a more comprehensive characterization of random noise. We concluded by presenting concrete evidence that Poisson model is a better approximation to real camera model than SD-AWGN. We suggest further modification to Poisson that may improve the noise model.

  2. Face Recognition using Approximate Arithmetic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marso, Karol

    Face recognition is image processing technique which aims to identify human faces and found its use in various different fields for example in security. Throughout the years this field evolved and there are many approaches and many different algorithms which aim to make the face recognition as effective...... as possible. The use of different approaches such as neural networks and machine learning can lead to fast and efficient solutions however, these solutions are expensive in terms of hardware resources and power consumption. A possible solution to this problem can be use of approximate arithmetic. In many image...... processing applications the results do not need to be completely precise and use of the approximate arithmetic can lead to reduction in terms of delay, space and power consumption. In this paper we examine possible use of approximate arithmetic in face recognition using Eigenfaces algorithm....

  3. Diophantine approximation and Dirichlet series

    CERN Document Server

    Queffélec, Hervé

    2013-01-01

    This self-contained book will benefit beginners as well as researchers. It is devoted to Diophantine approximation, the analytic theory of Dirichlet series, and some connections between these two domains, which often occur through the Kronecker approximation theorem. Accordingly, the book is divided into seven chapters, the first three of which present tools from commutative harmonic analysis, including a sharp form of the uncertainty principle, ergodic theory and Diophantine approximation to be used in the sequel. A presentation of continued fraction expansions, including the mixing property of the Gauss map, is given. Chapters four and five present the general theory of Dirichlet series, with classes of examples connected to continued fractions, the famous Bohr point of view, and then the use of random Dirichlet series to produce non-trivial extremal examples, including sharp forms of the Bohnenblust-Hille theorem. Chapter six deals with Hardy-Dirichlet spaces, which are new and useful Banach spaces of anal...

  4. Precision measurement of the electromagnetic dipole strengths in {sup 11}Be

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, E., E-mail: kwan@nscl.msu.edu [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Wu, C.Y., E-mail: wu24@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Summers, N.C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hackman, G. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Drake, T.E. [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 1A7 (Canada); Andreoiu, C.; Ashley, R. [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Ball, G.C.; Bender, P.C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Chester, A. [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Close, A. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Cline, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 14627 (United States); Cross, D.S. [Department of Chemistry, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia, V5A 1S6 (Canada); Dunlop, R.; Finlay, A. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Garnsworthy, A.B. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hayes, A.B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY, 14627 (United States); Laffoley, A.T. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); and others

    2014-05-01

    The electromagnetic dipole strength in {sup 11}Be between the bound states has been measured using low-energy projectile Coulomb excitation at bombarding energies of 1.73 and 2.09 MeV/nucleon on a {sup 196}Pt target. An electric dipole transition probability B(E1;1/2{sup −}→1/2{sup +})=0.102(2) e{sup 2}fm{sup 2} was determined using the semi-classical code Gosia, and a value of 0.098(4) e{sup 2}fm{sup 2} was determined using the Extended Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels method with the quantum mechanical code FRESCO. These extracted B(E1) values are consistent with the average value determined by a model-dependent analysis of intermediate energy Coulomb excitation measurements and are approximately 14% lower than that determined by a lifetime measurement. The much-improved precisions of 2% and 4% in the measured B(E1) values between the bound states deduced using Gosia and the Extended Continuum Discretized Coupled Channels method, respectively, compared to the previous accuracy of ∼10% will help in our understanding of and better improve the realistic inter-nucleon interactions.

  5. Proposal for a cryogenic magnetic field measurement system for SSC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.I.; Hansen, L.

    1991-03-01

    This proposal describes the research and development required, and the subsequent fabrication of, a system capable of making integrated magnetic multipole measurements of cryogenic 40-mm-bore SSC dipole magnets utilizing a cryogenic probe. Our experience and some preliminary studies indicate that it is highly unlikely that a 16-meter-long probe can be fabricated that will have a twist below several milliradians at cryogenic temperatures. We would anticipate a twist of several milliradians just as a result of cooldown stresses. Consequently, this proposal describes a segmented 16-meter-long probe, for which we intend to calibrate the phase of each segment to within 0.1 milliradians. The data for all segments will be acquired simultaneously, and integrated data will be generated from the vector sums of the individual segments. The calibration techniques and instrumentation required to implement this system will be described. The duration of an integral measurement at one current is expected to be under 10 seconds. The system is based on an extrapolation of the techniques used at LBL to measure cryogenic 1-meter models of SSC magnets with a cryogenic probe. It should be noted that the expansion of the dipole bore from 40 to 50 mm may make a warm-finger device practical at a cost of approximately one quarter of the cryogenic probe. A warm quadrupole measurement system can be based upon the same principles. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  6. Dissipation-induced dipole blockade and antiblockade in driven Rydberg systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeremy T.; Boulier, Thomas; Magnan, Eric; Goldschmidt, Elizabeth A.; Wilson, Ryan M.; Rolston, Steven L.; Porto, James V.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2018-02-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the competing blockade and antiblockade effects induced by spontaneously generated contaminant Rydberg atoms in driven Rydberg systems. These contaminant atoms provide a source of strong dipole-dipole interactions and play a crucial role in the system's behavior. We study this problem theoretically using two different approaches. The first is a cumulant expansion approximation, in which we ignore third-order and higher connected correlations. Using this approach for the case of resonant drive, a many-body blockade radius picture arises, and we find qualitative agreement with previous experimental results. We further predict that as the atomic density is increased, the Rydberg population's dependence on Rabi frequency will transition from quadratic to linear dependence at lower Rabi frequencies. We study this behavior experimentally by observing this crossover at two different atomic densities. We confirm that the larger density system has a smaller crossover Rabi frequency than the smaller density system. The second theoretical approach is a set of phenomenological inhomogeneous rate equations. We compare the results of our rate-equation model to the experimental observations [E. A. Goldschmidt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 113001 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.113001] and find that these rate equations provide quantitatively good scaling behavior of the steady-state Rydberg population for both resonant and off-resonant drives.

  7. Approximate reasoning in physical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutihac, R.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of fuzzy sets provides excellent ground to deal with fuzzy observations (uncertain or imprecise signals, wavelengths, temperatures,etc.) fuzzy functions (spectra and depth profiles) and fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning. First, the basic ideas of fuzzy set theory are briefly presented. Secondly, stress is put on application of simple fuzzy set operations for matching candidate reference spectra of a spectral library to an unknown sample spectrum (e.g. IR spectroscopy). Thirdly, approximate reasoning is applied to infer an unknown property from information available in a database (e.g. crystal systems). Finally, multi-dimensional fuzzy reasoning techniques are suggested. (Author)

  8. Product-State Approximations to Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Fernando G. S. L.; Harrow, Aram W.

    2016-02-01

    We show that for any many-body quantum state there exists an unentangled quantum state such that most of the two-body reduced density matrices are close to those of the original state. This is a statement about the monogamy of entanglement, which cannot be shared without limit in the same way as classical correlation. Our main application is to Hamiltonians that are sums of two-body terms. For such Hamiltonians we show that there exist product states with energy that is close to the ground-state energy whenever the interaction graph of the Hamiltonian has high degree. This proves the validity of mean-field theory and gives an explicitly bounded approximation error. If we allow states that are entangled within small clusters of systems but product across clusters then good approximations exist when the Hamiltonian satisfies one or more of the following properties: (1) high degree, (2) small expansion, or (3) a ground state where the blocks in the partition have sublinear entanglement. Previously this was known only in the case of small expansion or in the regime where the entanglement was close to zero. Our approximations allow an extensive error in energy, which is the scale considered by the quantum PCP (probabilistically checkable proof) and NLTS (no low-energy trivial-state) conjectures. Thus our results put restrictions on the possible Hamiltonians that could be used for a possible proof of the qPCP or NLTS conjectures. By contrast the classical PCP constructions are often based on constraint graphs with high degree. Likewise we show that the parallel repetition that is possible with classical constraint satisfaction problems cannot also be possible for quantum Hamiltonians, unless qPCP is false. The main technical tool behind our results is a collection of new classical and quantum de Finetti theorems which do not make any symmetry assumptions on the underlying states.

  9. Scanning Performance of Wide Band Connected Arrays of Dipoles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavallo, D; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.; Toso, G.

    2009-01-01

    A prototype array of dual polarized connected dipoles has been manufactured. The feed structure is composed by two orthogonal 8×8 elements for each polarization (128). The operational frequency ranges from 6 to 9 Ghz (40% relative bandwidth). Preliminary measurement results are presented. The

  10. Vibrationally averaged dipole moments of methane and benzene isotopologues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arapiraca, A. F. C. [Laboratório de Átomos e Moléculas Especiais, Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P. O. Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, Coordenação de Ciências, CEFET-MG, Campus I, 30.421-169 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mohallem, J. R., E-mail: rachid@fisica.ufmg.br [Laboratório de Átomos e Moléculas Especiais, Departamento de Física, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, P. O. Box 702, 30123-970 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2016-04-14

    DFT-B3LYP post-Born-Oppenheimer (finite-nuclear-mass-correction (FNMC)) calculations of vibrationally averaged isotopic dipole moments of methane and benzene, which compare well with experimental values, are reported. For methane, in addition to the principal vibrational contribution to the molecular asymmetry, FNMC accounts for the surprisingly large Born-Oppenheimer error of about 34% to the dipole moments. This unexpected result is explained in terms of concurrent electronic and vibrational contributions. The calculated dipole moment of C{sub 6}H{sub 3}D{sub 3} is about twice as large as the measured dipole moment of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}D. Computational progress is advanced concerning applications to larger systems and the choice of appropriate basis sets. The simpler procedure of performing vibrational averaging on the Born-Oppenheimer level and then adding the FNMC contribution evaluated at the equilibrium distance is shown to be appropriate. Also, the basis set choice is made by heuristic analysis of the physical behavior of the systems, instead of by comparison with experiments.

  11. Partial lifetime test of an SSC Collider dipole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Ganetis, G.

    1993-01-01

    Over a period of ten months, a 15 m-long, 50 mm-aperture superconducting SSC Collider dipole was taken through a series of thermal and power cycles to check for changes in performance. One quench below operating current was experienced during this period. Small changes in the coil preload and certain harmonics were observed

  12. On the Dipole Picture in the Nonforward Direction

    CERN Document Server

    Bartels, J; Golec-Biernat, K

    2003-01-01

    We calculate, for nonzero momentum transfer, the dipole formula for the high energy behaviour of elastic and quasielastic scattering of a virtual photon. We obtain an expression of the nonforward photon impact factor and of the nonforward photon wave function, and we give a physical interpretation.

  13. Electromagnetic fields of ionospheric point dipoles in the earthionosphere waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybachek, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of excitation of the spherical earth-anisotropic ionosphere waveguide by ionospheric dipole sources. The solution obtained is based on a generalized reciprocity theorem which provides a relationship to the problem of finding electromagnetic fields in the ionosphere created by sources located in the waveguide. Some results of the calculations are presented

  14. Heavy triplets: electric dipole moments vs. proton decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masina, Isabella; Savoy, Carlos A

    2004-01-15

    The experimental limit on the electron electric dipole moment constrains the pattern of supersymmetric grand unified theories with right-handed neutrinos. We show that such constraints are already competing with the well known ones derived by the limit on proton lifetime.

  15. Black rings with fourth dipole cause less hair loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chowdhury, B.D.

    2012-01-01

    An example of entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual was recently studied in [1]. The enigmatic bulk configurations, considered within the STU model, can be mapped under spectral flow into black rings with three monopole and dipole charges. Even though the bulk and CFT configurations existed in

  16. Resonant Dipole Nanoantenna Arrays for Enhanced Terahertz Spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Toma, A.

    2015-08-04

    Our recent studies on dipole nanoantenna arrays resonating in the terahertz frequency range (0.1 – 10 THz) will be presented. The main near- and far-field properties of these nanostructures will be shown and their application in enhanced terahertz spectroscopy of tiny quantities of nanomaterials will be discussed.

  17. Superconducting dipole magnet for the UTSI MHD facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.; Turner, L.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Argonne National Laboratory is designing and will build a large superconducting dipole magnet system for use in the Coal Fired Flow MHD Research Facility at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Presented in detail are the conceptual design of the magnet geometry, conductor design, cryostability evaluation, magnetic pressure computation, structural design, cryostat design, the cryogenics system design, and magnet instrumentations and control

  18. An active dipole for cosmic ray radiodetection with CODALEMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardouin, D. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Belletoile, A. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Charrier, D. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France)]. E-mail: didier.charrier@subatech.in2p3.fr; Dallier, R. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Denis, L. [Station de Radioastronomie de Nancay, Nancay (France); Gousset, T. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Haddad, F. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Lamblin, J. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Lautridou, P. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Lecacheux, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, Meudon (France); Ravel, O. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Saugrin, T. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France); Valcares, S. [SUBATECH, Ecole des Mines de Nantes/CNRS-IN2P3/Universite de Nantes, Nantes (France)

    2007-03-01

    The CODALEMA experiment detects the electromagnetic pulses radiated during the development of Extensive Air Showers (EAS). Since 2005, in addition to spiral log-periodic antennas, ultra broad bandwidth active dipoles have been designed to detect the full electric pulse shape of these signals. A few performances of these new detectors are presented.

  19. Decay Properties Of The Dipole Isobaric Analog Resonances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gorelik, M. L.; Safonov, I. V.; Urin, M. H.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract: A continuum-RPA-based approach is applied to describe the decay properties of isolated dipole isobaric analog resonances in nuclei having not-too-large neutron excess. Calculated for a few resonances in 90Zr the elastic E1-radiative width and partial proton widths for decay into one-hole

  20. Test Results for LHC Insertion Region Dipole Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Muratore, Joseph F; Cozzolino, John P; Ganetis, George; Ghosh, Arup; Gupta, Ramesh C; Harrison, Michael; Kumar-Jain, Animesh; Marone, Andrew; Richard-Plate, Stephen; Schmalzle, Jesse D; Thomas, Richard A; Wanderer, Peter; Willen, Erich; Wu, Kuo-Chen

    2005-01-01

    The Superconducting Magnet Division at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has made 20 insertion region dipoles for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. These 9.45 m-long, 8 cm aperture magnets have the same coil design as the arc dipoles now operating in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL and are of single aperture, twin aperture, and double cold mass configurations. They produce fields up to 3.8 T for operation at 7.56 TeV. Eighteen of these magnets have been tested at 4.5 K using either forced flow supercritical helium or liquid helium. The testing was especially important for the twin aperture models, which have the most challenging design. In these, the dipole fields in both apertures point in the same direction, unlike LHC arc dipoles. This paper reports on the results of these tests, including spontaneous quench performance, verification of quench protection heater operation, and magnetic field quality. Magnetic field measurements were done at 4.5K and at room temperature, and warm-...

  1. Isospin properties of electric dipole excitations in Ca-48

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derya, V.; Savran, D.; Endres, J.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hergert, H.; Kelley, J. H.; Papakonstantinou, P.; Pietralla, N.; Ponomarev, V. Yu.; Roth, R.; Rusev, G.; Tonchev, A. P.; Tornow, W.; Wortche, H. J.; Zilges, A.

    2014-01-01

    Two different experimental approaches were combined to study the electric dipole strength in the doubly-magic nucleus Ca-48 below the neutron threshold. Real-photon scattering experiments using bremsstrahlung up to 9.9 MeV and nearly mono-energetic linearly polarized photons with energies between

  2. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Liang; Xu, Bobby; He, Bin

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.

  3. FOHI-D: An iterative Hirshfeld procedure including atomic dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldof, D.; Krishtal, A.; Blockhuys, F.; Van Alsenoy, C.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, a new partitioning method based on the FOHI method (fractional occupation Hirshfeld-I method) will be discussed. The new FOHI-D method uses an iterative scheme in which both the atomic charge and atomic dipole are calculated self-consistently. In order to induce the dipole moment on the atom, an electric field is applied during the atomic SCF calculations. Based on two sets of molecules, the atomic charge and intrinsic atomic dipole moment of hydrogen and chlorine atoms are compared using the iterative Hirshfeld (HI) method, the iterative Stockholder atoms (ISA) method, the FOHI method, and the FOHI-D method. The results obtained are further analyzed as a function of the group electronegativity of Boyd et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 4182 (1988); Boyd et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 1652 (1992)] and De Proft et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 97, 1826 (1993)]. The molecular electrostatic potential (ESP) based on the HI, ISA, FOHI, and FOHI-D charges is compared with the ab initio ESP. Finally, the effect of adding HI, ISA, FOHI, and FOHI-D atomic dipoles to the multipole expansion as a function of the precision of the ESP is analyzed.

  4. FOHI-D: An iterative Hirshfeld procedure including atomic dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldof, D.; Blockhuys, F.; Van Alsenoy, C.; Krishtal, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a new partitioning method based on the FOHI method (fractional occupation Hirshfeld-I method) will be discussed. The new FOHI-D method uses an iterative scheme in which both the atomic charge and atomic dipole are calculated self-consistently. In order to induce the dipole moment on the atom, an electric field is applied during the atomic SCF calculations. Based on two sets of molecules, the atomic charge and intrinsic atomic dipole moment of hydrogen and chlorine atoms are compared using the iterative Hirshfeld (HI) method, the iterative Stockholder atoms (ISA) method, the FOHI method, and the FOHI-D method. The results obtained are further analyzed as a function of the group electronegativity of Boyd et al. [J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 4182 (1988); Boyd et al., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 114, 1652 (1992)] and De Proft et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 97, 1826 (1993)]. The molecular electrostatic potential (ESP) based on the HI, ISA, FOHI, and FOHI-D charges is compared with the ab initio ESP. Finally, the effect of adding HI, ISA, FOHI, and FOHI-D atomic dipoles to the multipole expansion as a function of the precision of the ESP is analyzed

  5. The influence of Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) on biogeochemistry of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nature can be clearly seen in the subsurface due to the large heat capacity of the oceans. This subsur- face dipole can also affect surface CHLA through its influence on nutrients entrainment into the mixed layer. The CHLA showed large spatial vari- ability with low in boxes 2 and 3 compared to the other boxes (figure 4).

  6. Current searches for the electric dipole moment of the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The two most sensitive experiments currently searching for a neutron electric dipole moment (ILL, France and LNPI. USSR) ared described. The present upper limit on the neutron EDM is /dsub(n)/ -25 e.cm at the 90% confidence level. An improvement on this limit by about one order of magnitude is expected in the near future. 5 refs.

  7. The neutron electric dipole moment in the cloudy bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, M.A.; Miller, G.A.

    1986-01-01

    An evaluation of the neutron electric dipole moment (NEDM), using the cloudy bag model (CBM) shows that two CP-violating effects (a quark mass term and a pion-quark interaction) have contributions that are about equal in magnitude, but opposite in sign. This cancellation allows the upper limit on the θ parameter to increase by about an order of magnitude. (orig.)

  8. Working on an LHC dipole end-cap

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A metal worker constructs an end-cap for an LHC dipole magnet. These magnets will be used to bend the proton beams around the LHC, which is due to start up in 2008. The handmade prototype seen here will be used to make a mold from which the final set of components will be made for the accelerator.

  9. Planar Dipole Input Resistance vs. Trace Thickness for Different Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    the perfect electrical conductor (PEC) condition (Fig. 7) over the frequency band. The real impedance simulated under the PEC condition is just the...using the conductivities of the following materials: copper trace, copper paint, silver -loaded ink, indium tin oxide (ITO), poly...Baseline, silver ink, copper paint, and ITO .........................................................................9 Fig. 10 Dipole efficiency at

  10. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Xiaoliang [KC Science and Technologies Inc., Naperville, IL 60565 (United States); Xu, Bobby [Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy, Aurora, IL 60506 (United States); He Bin [Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States)

    2004-01-21

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist.

  11. Electrically Small Magnetic Dipole Antennas with Magnetic Core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2010-01-01

    This work extends the theory of a spherical magnetic dipole antenna with magnetic core by numerical results for practical antenna configurations that excite higher-order modes besides the main TE10 spherical mode. The multiarm spherical helix (MSH) and the spherical split ring (SSR) antennas...

  12. About the mechanics of SSC dipole magnet prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Spigo, G.; Thompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H. (Magnet Systems Division, Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory, 2550 Beckleymede Ave., Dallas, TX (United States)); Ogitsu, T. (Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory and KEK, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)); Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E. (Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)); Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J. (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States)); Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.

    1992-03-11

    During the last two years, nine 4-cm aperture, 17-m-long dipole magnet prototypes were produced by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under contact with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. These prototypes are the last phase of a half-decade-long R D program, carried out in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of the SSC main-ring dipole magnets. They also lay the groundwork for the 5-cm-aperture dipole magnet program now underway. After reviewing the design features of the BNL 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long dipole magnets, we describe in detail the various steps of their fabrication. For each step, we discuss the paramaters that need to be mastered, and we compare the values that were achieved for the nine most recent prototypes. The data appear coherent and reproducible, demonstrating that the assembly process is under control. We then analyze the mechanical behavior of these magnets during cooldown and excitation, and we attempt to relate this behavior to the magnet features. The data reveal that the mechanical behavior is sensitive to the collar-yoke interference and that the magnets exhibit somewhat erratic changes in coil end-loading during cooldown.

  13. About the mechanics of SSC dipole magnet prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Spigo, G.; Tompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)); Ogitsu, T. (Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States) National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)); Anerella,

    1991-11-01

    During the last two years, nine 4-cm-aperature, 17-m-long dipole magnet prototypes were produced by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under contract with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. These prototypes are the last phase of a half-decade-long R D program, carried out in collaboration the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of the SSC main-ring dipole magnets. They also lay the groundwork for the 5-cm-aperture dipole magnet program now underway. After reviewing the design features of the BNL 4-cm-aperature, 17-m-long dipole magnets, we describe in detail the various steps of their fabrication. For each step, we discuss the parameters that need to be mastered, and we compare the values that were achieved for the nine most recent prototypes. The data appear coherent and reproducible, demonstrating that the assembly process is under control. We then analyze the mechanical behavior of these magnets during cooldown and excitation, and we attempt to relate this behavior to the magnet features. The data reveal that the mechanical behavior is sensitive to the collar-yoke interference and that the magnets exhibit somewhat erratic changes in coil end-loading during cooldown.

  14. About the mechanics of SSC dipole magnet prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Spigo, G.; Tompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States); Ogitsu, T. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)]|[National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-11-01

    During the last two years, nine 4-cm-aperature, 17-m-long dipole magnet prototypes were produced by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under contract with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. These prototypes are the last phase of a half-decade-long R&D program, carried out in collaboration the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of the SSC main-ring dipole magnets. They also lay the groundwork for the 5-cm-aperture dipole magnet program now underway. After reviewing the design features of the BNL 4-cm-aperature, 17-m-long dipole magnets, we describe in detail the various steps of their fabrication. For each step, we discuss the parameters that need to be mastered, and we compare the values that were achieved for the nine most recent prototypes. The data appear coherent and reproducible, demonstrating that the assembly process is under control. We then analyze the mechanical behavior of these magnets during cooldown and excitation, and we attempt to relate this behavior to the magnet features. The data reveal that the mechanical behavior is sensitive to the collar-yoke interference and that the magnets exhibit somewhat erratic changes in coil end-loading during cooldown.

  15. An alternative subspace approach to EEG dipole source localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiaoliang; Xu, Bobby; He Bin

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, we investigate a new approach to electroencephalography (EEG) three-dimensional (3D) dipole source localization by using a non-recursive subspace algorithm called FINES. In estimating source dipole locations, the present approach employs projections onto a subspace spanned by a small set of particular vectors (FINES vector set) in the estimated noise-only subspace instead of the entire estimated noise-only subspace in the case of classic MUSIC. The subspace spanned by this vector set is, in the sense of principal angle, closest to the subspace spanned by the array manifold associated with a particular brain region. By incorporating knowledge of the array manifold in identifying FINES vector sets in the estimated noise-only subspace for different brain regions, the present approach is able to estimate sources with enhanced accuracy and spatial resolution, thus enhancing the capability of resolving closely spaced sources and reducing estimation errors. The present computer simulations show, in EEG 3D dipole source localization, that compared to classic MUSIC, FINES has (1) better resolvability of two closely spaced dipolar sources and (2) better estimation accuracy of source locations. In comparison with RAP-MUSIC, FINES' performance is also better for the cases studied when the noise level is high and/or correlations among dipole sources exist

  16. The Electromagnetic Dipole Radiation Field through the Hamiltonian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likar, A.; Razpet, N.

    2009-01-01

    The dipole radiation from an oscillating charge is treated using the Hamiltonian approach to electrodynamics where the concept of cavity modes plays a central role. We show that the calculation of the radiation field can be obtained in a closed form within this approach by emphasizing the role of coherence between the cavity modes, which is…

  17. Simulation of Light Collection for Neutron Electrical Dipole Moment measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Pan; nEDM Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    nEDM (Neutron Electrical Dipole moment) measurement addresses a critical topic in particle physics and Standard Model, that is CPT violation in neutron electrical dipole moment if detected in which the Time reversal violation is connected to the matter/antimatter imparity of the universe. The neutron electric dipole moment was first measured in 1950 by Smith, Purcell, and Ramsey at the Oak Ridge Reactor - the first intense neutron source. This measurement showed that the neutron was very nearly round (to better than one part in a million). The goal of the nEDM experiment is to further improve the precision of this measurement by another factor of 100. The signal from the experiment is detected by collecting the photons generated when neutron beams were captured by liquid helium 3. The Geant4 simulation project that I participate simulates the process of light collection to improve the design for higher capture efficiency. The simulated geometry includes light source, reflector, wavelength shifting fibers, wavelength shifting TPB and acrylic as in real experiment. The UV photons exiting from Helium go through two wavelength-shifting processes in TPB and fibers to be finally captured. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Neutron Electric Dipole Moment measurement project.

  18. Electric dipole moments of the nucleon and light nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirzba, Andreas

    2014-08-15

    The electric dipole moments of the nucleon and light ions are discussed and strategies for disentangling the underlying sources of CP violation beyond the Kobayashi–Maskawa quark-mixing mechanism of the Standard Model are indicated. Contribution to “45 years of nuclear theory at Stony Brook: a tribute to Gerald E. Brown”.

  19. Permanent Electric Dipole Moment Search in 129Xe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasdijk, Jan; Bluemler, P.; Almendinger, F.; Heil, Werner; Jungmann, Klaus-Peter; Karpuk, S.; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Offenhaeuser, Andreas; Repetto, M.; Schmidt, Ulrich; Sobolev, Y.; Willmann, Lorenz; Zimmer, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    A permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) implies breakdown of P (parity) and T (time reversal) symmetries. Provided CPT holds, this implies CP violation. Observation of an EDM at achievable experimental sensitivity would provide unambiguous evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model and limits

  20. Tolerable systematic errors in Really Large Hadron Collider dipoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, S.; Dell, F.

    1996-01-01

    Maximum allowable systematic harmonics for arc dipoles in a Really Large Hadron Collider are derived. The possibility of half cell lengths much greater than 100 meters is justified. A convenient analytical model evaluating horizontal tune shifts is developed, and tested against a sample high field collider

  1. About the mechanics of SSC dipole magnet prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Spigo, G.; Tompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H.; Ogitsu, T.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.

    1991-11-01

    During the last two years, nine 4-cm-aperature, 17-m-long dipole magnet prototypes were produced by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under contract with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. These prototypes are the last phase of a half-decade-long R ampersand D program, carried out in collaboration the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of the SSC main-ring dipole magnets. They also lay the groundwork for the 5-cm-aperture dipole magnet program now underway. After reviewing the design features of the BNL 4-cm-aperature, 17-m-long dipole magnets, we describe in detail the various steps of their fabrication. For each step, we discuss the parameters that need to be mastered, and we compare the values that were achieved for the nine most recent prototypes. The data appear coherent and reproducible, demonstrating that the assembly process is under control. We then analyze the mechanical behavior of these magnets during cooldown and excitation, and we attempt to relate this behavior to the magnet features. The data reveal that the mechanical behavior is sensitive to the collar-yoke interference and that the magnets exhibit somewhat erratic changes in coil end-loading during cooldown

  2. About the mechanics of SSC dipole magnet prototypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.; Bush, T.; Coombes, R.; DiMarco, J.; Goodzeit, C.; Kuzminski, J.; Puglisi, M.; Radusewicz, P.; Sanger, P.; Schermer, R.; Spigo, G.; Thompkins, J.; Turner, J.; Wolf, Z.; Yu, Y.; Zheng, H.; Ogitsu, T.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bleadon, M.; Hanft, R.; Kuchnir, M.; Mantsch, P.; Mazur, P.O.; Orris, D.; Peterson, T.; Strait, J.; Royet, J.; Scanlan, R.; Taylor, C.

    1992-01-01

    During the last two years, nine 4-cm aperture, 17-m-long dipole magnet prototypes were produced by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under contact with the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory. These prototypes are the last phase of a half-decade-long R ampersand D program, carried out in collaboration with Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, and aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of the SSC main-ring dipole magnets. They also lay the groundwork for the 5-cm-aperture dipole magnet program now underway. After reviewing the design features of the BNL 4-cm-aperture, 17-m-long dipole magnets, we describe in detail the various steps of their fabrication. For each step, we discuss the paramaters that need to be mastered, and we compare the values that were achieved for the nine most recent prototypes. The data appear coherent and reproducible, demonstrating that the assembly process is under control. We then analyze the mechanical behavior of these magnets during cooldown and excitation, and we attempt to relate this behavior to the magnet features. The data reveal that the mechanical behavior is sensitive to the collar-yoke interference and that the magnets exhibit somewhat erratic changes in coil end-loading during cooldown

  3. Hanle-Zeeman Scattering Matrix for Magnetic Dipole Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megha, A.; Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Sankarasubramanian, K., E-mail: megha@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sankar@iiap.res.in [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560 034 (India)

    2017-06-01

    The polarization of the light that is scattered by the coronal ions is influenced by the anisotropic illumination from the photosphere and the magnetic field structuring in the solar corona. The properties of the coronal magnetic fields can be well studied by understanding the polarization properties of coronal forbidden emission lines that arise from magnetic dipole ( M 1) transitions in the highly ionized atoms that are present in the corona. We present the classical scattering theory of the forbidden lines for a more general case of arbitrary-strength magnetic fields. We derive the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions using the classical magnetic dipole model of Casini and Lin and applying the scattering matrix approach of Stenflo. We consider a two-level atom model and neglect collisional effects. The scattering matrix so derived is used to study the Stokes profiles formed in coronal conditions in those regions where the radiative excitations dominate collisional excitations. To this end, we take into account the integration over a cone of an unpolarized radiation from the solar disk incident on the scattering atoms. Furthermore, we also integrate along the line of sight to calculate the emerging polarized line profiles. We consider radial and dipole magnetic field configurations and spherically symmetric density distributions. For our studies we adopt the atomic parameters corresponding to the [Fe xiii] 10747 Å coronal forbidden line. We also discuss the nature of the scattering matrix for M 1 transitions and compare it with that for the electric dipole ( E 1) transitions.

  4. Approximations to the Newton potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warburton, A.E.A.; Hatfield, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    Explicit expressions are obtained for Newton's (Newton, R.G., J. Math. Phys., 3:75-82 (1962)) solution to the inverse scattering problem in the approximations where up to two phase shifts are treated exactly and the rest to first order. (author)

  5. Approximation properties of haplotype tagging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dreiseitl Stephan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs are locations at which the genomic sequences of population members differ. Since these differences are known to follow patterns, disease association studies are facilitated by identifying SNPs that allow the unique identification of such patterns. This process, known as haplotype tagging, is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem and analyzed in terms of complexity and approximation properties. Results It is shown that the tagging problem is NP-hard but approximable within 1 + ln((n2 - n/2 for n haplotypes but not approximable within (1 - ε ln(n/2 for any ε > 0 unless NP ⊂ DTIME(nlog log n. A simple, very easily implementable algorithm that exhibits the above upper bound on solution quality is presented. This algorithm has running time O((2m - p + 1 ≤ O(m(n2 - n/2 where p ≤ min(n, m for n haplotypes of size m. As we show that the approximation bound is asymptotically tight, the algorithm presented is optimal with respect to this asymptotic bound. Conclusion The haplotype tagging problem is hard, but approachable with a fast, practical, and surprisingly simple algorithm that cannot be significantly improved upon on a single processor machine. Hence, significant improvement in computatational efforts expended can only be expected if the computational effort is distributed and done in parallel.

  6. Approximate Reanalysis in Topology Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amir, Oded; Bendsøe, Martin P.; Sigmund, Ole

    2009-01-01

    In the nested approach to structural optimization, most of the computational effort is invested in the solution of the finite element analysis equations. In this study, the integration of an approximate reanalysis procedure into the framework of topology optimization of continuum structures...

  7. Ultrafast Approximation for Phylogenetic Bootstrap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bui Quang Minh, [No Value; Nguyen, Thi; von Haeseler, Arndt

    Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and

  8. APPROXIMATE MODELS FOR FLOOD ROUTING

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kinematic model and a nonlinear convection-diffusion model are extracted from a normalized form of the St. Venant equations, and applied to ... normal flow condition is moderate. Keywords: approximate models, nonlinear kinematic ... The concern here is with the movement of an abnormal amount of water along a river or ...

  9. On badly approximable complex numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.

    We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...

  10. Rational approximation of vertical segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar Celis, Oliver; Cuyt, Annie; Verdonk, Brigitte

    2007-08-01

    In many applications, observations are prone to imprecise measurements. When constructing a model based on such data, an approximation rather than an interpolation approach is needed. Very often a least squares approximation is used. Here we follow a different approach. A natural way for dealing with uncertainty in the data is by means of an uncertainty interval. We assume that the uncertainty in the independent variables is negligible and that for each observation an uncertainty interval can be given which contains the (unknown) exact value. To approximate such data we look for functions which intersect all uncertainty intervals. In the past this problem has been studied for polynomials, or more generally for functions which are linear in the unknown coefficients. Here we study the problem for a particular class of functions which are nonlinear in the unknown coefficients, namely rational functions. We show how to reduce the problem to a quadratic programming problem with a strictly convex objective function, yielding a unique rational function which intersects all uncertainty intervals and satisfies some additional properties. Compared to rational least squares approximation which reduces to a nonlinear optimization problem where the objective function may have many local minima, this makes the new approach attractive.

  11. All-Norm Approximation Algorithms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azar, Yossi; Epstein, Leah; Richter, Yossi; Woeginger, Gerhard J.; Penttonen, Martti; Meineche Schmidt, Erik

    2002-01-01

    A major drawback in optimization problems and in particular in scheduling problems is that for every measure there may be a different optimal solution. In many cases the various measures are different ℓ p norms. We address this problem by introducing the concept of an All-norm ρ-approximation

  12. Approximate Reasoning with Fuzzy Booleans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.; Noppen, J.A.R.

    This paper introduces, in analogy to the concept of fuzzy numbers, the concept of fuzzy booleans, and examines approximate reasoning with the compositional rule of inference using fuzzy booleans. It is shown that each set of fuzzy rules is equivalent to a set of fuzzy rules with singleton crisp

  13. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  14. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Homogeneous bilateral block shifts. ADAM KORÁNYI. Department of Mathematics, The Graduate Center, City University of New York,. New York, NY 10016, USA. E-mail: Adam.Koranyi@lehman.cuny.edu. MS received 18 January 2013. Abstract. A new 3-parameter family of homogeneous 2-by-2 block shifts is described.

  15. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  16. Connecticut Statewide LiDAR 2016 - Blocks 1-7

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the Classified Point Cloud (LAS) for the 2016 Connecticut LiDAR project covering approximately 5240 square miles in seven blocks. The...

  17. Control rod blocking monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Shigeru.

    1993-01-01

    The number of times for setting up a control rod blocking monitor of a BWR type power plant is remarkably reduced to mitigate operator's burden. In the control rod blocking monitor, trip levels, as a judging standard upon outputting control rod blocking inhibition signals, are set up stepwise depending on the power level around control rods put to blocking control. The present invention comprises an allowance judging means capable of setting up trip levels for each of power levels corresponding to a plurality of control rods at once if the power levels are within the set up allowable range. With such a constitution, the set up allowable range is determined previously in the allowance judging means. Accordingly, when a gang blocking is conducted to control rods, if power levels around the control rods are increased at once into the set up allowable range, the trip levels for each of the control rods are set up at once. (I.S.)

  18. Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Córsico, A.H.; Althaus, L.G.; Bertolami, M.M. Miller; Kepler, S.O.; García-Berro, E.

    2014-01-01

    Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (μ ν ) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pidot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pidot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of μ ν  ∼< 10 -11  μ B . This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound

  19. Do bacteria have an electric permanent dipole moment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoylov, S P; Gyurova, A; Georgieva, R; Danova, S

    2008-07-15

    In the scientific literature in the last 40 years, some data for the permanent dipole moment and the electric polarizability of Escherichia coli can be found [S.P. Stoylov, Colloid Electro-Optics - Theory, Techniques and Application, Academic Press, London, 1991]. In this paper the data based mainly on electro-optic investigation is considered as much as some dipolophoretic (most often called dielectrophoretic) studies. Serious grounds are found to doubt the conclusions made for the electric dipole moments of bacteria by one of the authors of this paper (SPS) and by some other researchers. This concerns both the permanent dipole moment and the electric charge dependent polarizabilities of E. coli. Here, along with the discussion of the old experimental data, new experimental data are shown for a strain of E. coli HB101. The conclusions from the analysis of the old and the new experimental data is that they do not provide correct evidence for the presence of a permanent dipole moment. It seems that all statements for the existence of electric permanent dipole moment in bacteria [S.P. Stoylov, Colloid Electro-Optics - Theory, Techniques and Application, Academic Press, London, 1991; S.P. Stoylov, S. Sokerov, I. Petkanchin, N. Ibroshev, Dokl. AN URSS 180 (1968) 1165; N.A. Tolstoy, A.A. Spartakov, A.A. Trusov, S.A. Schelkunova, Biofizika 11 (1966) 453; V. Morris, B. Jennings, J. Chem. Soc. Faraday Trans. II 71 (1975) 1948; V. Morris, B. Jennings, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 55 (1978) 313; S.P. Stoylov, V.N. Shilov, S.S. Dukhin, S. Sokerov, I. Petkanchin, in: S.S. Dukhin (Ed.), Electro-optics of Colloids, Naukova Dumka, Kiev, 1977 (in Russian).] based on electro-optic studies are result of incorrect interpretation. Therefore, they should be further ignored.

  20. Constraining the neutrino magnetic dipole moment from white dwarf pulsations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Córsico, A.H.; Althaus, L.G. [Grupo de Evolución Estelar y Pulsaciones, Facultad de Ciencias Astronómicas y Geofísicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque s/n, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Bertolami, M.M. Miller [Instituto de Astrofísica La Plata, CONICET-UNLP, Paseo del Bosque s/n, (1900) La Plata (Argentina); Kepler, S.O. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves 9500, Porto Alegre 91501-970, RS (Brazil); García-Berro, E., E-mail: acorsico@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: althaus@fcaglp.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: marcelo@MPA-Garching.MPG.DE, E-mail: kepler@if.ufrgs.br, E-mail: enrique.garcia-berro@upc.edu [Departament de Física Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, c/Esteve Terrades 5, 08860, Castelldefels (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Pulsating white dwarf stars can be used as astrophysical laboratories to constrain the properties of weakly interacting particles. Comparing the cooling rates of these stars with the expected values from theoretical models allows us to search for additional sources of cooling due to the emission of axions, neutralinos, or neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. In this work, we derive an upper bound to the neutrino magnetic dipole moment (μ{sub ν}) using an estimate of the rate of period change of the pulsating DB white dwarf star PG 1351+489. We employ state-of-the-art evolutionary and pulsational codes which allow us to perform a detailed asteroseismological period fit based on fully DB white dwarf evolutionary sequences. Plasmon neutrino emission is the dominant cooling mechanism for this class of hot pulsating white dwarfs, and so it is the main contributor to the rate of change of period with time (Pidot) for the DBV class. Thus, the inclusion of an anomalous neutrino emission through a non-vanishing magnetic dipole moment in these sequences notably influences the evolutionary timescales, and also the expected pulsational properties of the DBV stars. By comparing the theoretical Pidot value with the rate of change of period with time of PG 1351+489, we assess the possible existence of additional cooling by neutrinos with magnetic dipole moment. Our models suggest the existence of some additional cooling in this pulsating DB white dwarf, consistent with a non-zero magnetic dipole moment with an upper limit of μ{sub ν} ∼< 10{sup -11} μ{sub B}. This bound is somewhat less restrictive than, but still compatible with, other limits inferred from the white dwarf luminosity function or from the color-magnitude diagram of the Globular cluster M5. Further improvements of the measurement of the rate of period change of the dominant pulsation mode of PG 1351+489 will be necessary to confirm our bound.

  1. A class of difference schemes with flexible local approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukerman, Igor

    2006-01-01

    Solutions of many physical problems have salient local features that are qualitatively known a priori (for example, singularities at point sources, edge and corners; boundary layers; derivative jumps at material interfaces; strong dipole field components near polarized spherical particles; cusps of electronic wavefunctions at the nuclei; electrostatic double layers around colloidal particles, etc.) The known methods capable of providing flexible local approximation of such features include the generalized finite element - partition of unity method, special variational-difference schemes in broken Sobolev spaces, and a few other specialized techniques. In the proposed new class of Flexible Local Approximation MEthods (FLAME), a desirable set of local approximating functions (such as cylindrical or spherical harmonics, plane waves, harmonic polynomials, etc.) defines a finite difference scheme on a chosen grid stencil. One motivation is to minimize the notorious 'staircase' effect at curved and slanted interface boundaries. However, the new approach has much broader applications. As illustrative examples, the paper presents arbitrarily high order 3-point schemes for the 1D Schroedinger equation and a 1D singular equation, schemes for electrostatic interactions of colloidal particles, electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, plasmon resonances. Moreover, many classical finite difference schemes, including the Collatz 'Mehrstellen' schemes, are direct particular cases of FLAME

  2. An Insightful Problem Involving the Electromagnetic Radiation from a Pair of Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2010-01-01

    The time-average power radiated by a pair of infinitesimal dipoles is examined as their spacing is varied. The results elucidate the effect of the interaction of the dipoles on their radiation. (Contains 4 figures.)

  3. Promising Strategy To Improve Charge Separation in Organic Photovoltaics : Installing Permanent Dipoles in PCBM Analogues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gier, Hilde D.; Jahani, Fatemeh; Broer, Ria; Hummelen, Jan C.; Havenith, Remco W. A.

    2016-01-01

    A multidisciplinary approach involving organic synthesis and theoretical chemistry was applied to investigate a promising strategy to improve charge separation in organic photovoltaics: installing permanent dipoles in fullerene derivatives. First, a PCBM analogue with a permanent dipole in the side

  4. Numbers of center points appropriate to blocked response surface experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holms, A. G.

    1979-01-01

    Tables are given for the numbers of center points to be used with blocked sequential designs of composite response surface experiments as used in empirical optimum seeking. The tables also give the star point radii for exact orthogonal blocking. The center point options vary from a lower limit of one to an upper limit equal to the numbers proposed by Box and Hunter for approximate rotatability and uniform variance, and exact orthogonal blocking. Some operating characteristics of the proposed options are described.

  5. Annihilation of vortex dipoles in an Oblate Bose-Einstein Condensate

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhakar, Shashi; Singh, R. P.; Gautam, S.; Angom, D.

    2011-01-01

    We theoretically explore the annihilation of vortex dipoles, generated when an obstacle moves through an oblate Bose-Einstein condensate, and examine the energetics of the annihilation event. We show that the gray soliton, which results from the vortex dipole annihilation, is lower in energy than the vortex dipole. We also investigate the annihilation events numerically and observe that the annihilation occurs only when the vortex dipole overtakes the obstacle and comes closer than the cohere...

  6. Nuclear dipole polarizability from mean-field modeling constrained by chiral effective field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Lim, Yeunhwan; Holt, Jeremy W.; Ko, Che Ming

    2018-02-01

    We construct a new Skyrme interaction Skχm* by fitting the equation of state and nucleon effective masses in asymmetric nuclear matter from chiral two- and three-body forces as well as the binding energies of finite nuclei. Employing this interaction to study the electric dipole polarizabilities of 48Ca, 68Ni, 120Sn, and 208Pb in the random-phase approximation, we find that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with experimentally measured values without additional fine tuning of the Skyrme interaction, thus confirming the usefulness of the new Skyrme interaction in studying the properties of nuclei. We further use this interaction to study the neutron skin thicknesses of 48Ca and 208Pb, and they are found to be consistent with the experimental data.

  7. Electron electric dipole moment experiment using electric-fieldquantized slow cesium atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amini, Jason M.; Munger Jr., Charles T.; Gould, Harvey.

    2007-04-05

    A proof-of-principle electron electric dipole moment (e-EDM)experiment using slow cesium atoms, nulled magnetic fields, and electricfield quantization has been performed. With the ambient magnetic fieldsseen by the atoms reduced to less than 200 pT, an electric field of 6MV/m lifts the degeneracy between states of unequal lbar mF rbar and,along with the low (approximately 3 m/s) velocity, suppresses thesystematic effect from the motional magnetic field. The low velocity andsmall residual magnetic field have made it possible to induce transitionsbetween states and to perform state preparation, analysis, and detectionin regions free of applied static magnetic and electric fields. Thisexperiment demonstrates techniques that may be used to improve the e-EDMlimit by two orders of magnitude, but it is not in itself a sensitivee-EDM search, mostly due to limitations of the laser system.

  8. Study of a Flexible Low Profile Tunable Dipole Antenna Using Barium Strontium Titanate Varactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, David; Weller, Thomas; Miranda, Felix A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a flexible low profile dipole antenna using a frequency selective surface (FSS) with interdigital barium strontium titanate (BST) varactor-tuned unit cells is presented. The varactor chips were placed only along one dimension of the FSS to avoid the use of vias and simplify the DC bias network. The antenna uses overlapping metallic plates that resemble fish scales as a ground plane to improve the flexibility of the multi-material stack structure. The measured data of the antenna demonstrate tunability from 2.42 GHz to 2.66 GHz and 1.3 dB gain drop when using overlapping metallic plates instead of continuous ground plane. The total antenna thickness is approximately lambda/24.

  9. The 2H Electric Dipole Moment in a Separable Potential Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afnan I.R.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the electric dipole moment (EDM of 2H or of 3He may well come prior to the coveted measurement of the neutron EDM. Exact model calculations for the deuteron are feasible, and we explore here the model dependence of such deuteron EDM calculations. We investigate in a separable potential approach the relationship of the full model calculation to the plane wave approximation, correct an error in an early potential model result, and examine the tensor force aspects of the model results as well as the effect of the short range repulsion found in the realistic, contemporary potential model calculations of Liu and Timmermans. We conclude that, because one-pion exchange dominates the EDM calculation, separable potential model calculations should provide an adequate picture of the 2H EDM until better than 10% measurements are achieved.

  10. Neutron electric dipole moment in the instanton vacuum: Quenched versus unquenched simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faccioli, P.; Guadagnoli, D.; Simula, S.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the role played by the fermionic determinant in the evaluation of the CP-violating neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) adopting the Instanton Liquid Model. Significant differences between quenched and unquenched calculations are found. In the case of unquenched simulations the neutron EDM decreases linearly with the quark mass and is expected to vanish in the chiral limit. On the contrary, within the quenched approximation, the neutron EDM increases as the quark mass decreases and is expected to diverge as 1/m N f in the chiral limit. We argue that such a qualitatively different behavior is a parameter-free, semiclassical prediction and occurs because the neutron EDM is sensitive to the topological structure of the vacuum. The present analysis suggests that quenched and unquenched lattice QCD simulations of the neutron EDM as well as of other observables governed by topology might show up important differences in the quark mass dependence for m q QCD

  11. Effect of transition dipole phase on high-order-harmonic generation in solid materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shicheng; Wei, Hui; Chen, Jigen; Yu, Chao; Lu, Ruifeng; Lin, C. D.

    2017-11-01

    High-order harmonic spectra from solid materials driven by single-color multicycle laser fields sometimes contain even harmonics. In this work we attribute the appearance of even harmonics to the nonzero transition dipole phase (TDP) when the solid system has broken symmetry. By calculating the harmonic efficiency from graphene and gapped graphene by using the semiconductor Bloch equations under the tight-binding approximation, we demonstrate the role of the TDP, which has been ignored for a long time. When the crystal has inversion symmetry, or reflection symmetry with the symmetry plane perpendicular to the laser polarization direction, the TDP can be neglected. Without such symmetry, however, the TDP will lead to the appearance of even harmonics. We further show that the TDP is sensitive to the crystal geometry. To extract the structure information from the harmonic spectra of a solid the TDP cannot be ignored.

  12. Correlation of superconductor strand, cable, and dipole critical currents in CBA magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tannenbaum, M.J.; Garber, M.; Sampson, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    A calibration between vendor critical current data for 0.0268'' diameter superconductor strand supplied to Fermilab, and the BNL 10 -12 Ωcm critical current specification is presented. Vendor critical current data for over 400 Fermilab type billets are shown, both as supplied by the vendor and converted to BNL units. Predictions of cable critical current are made using the sum of the critical currents of the 23 strands, where all strands from the same half billet are assigned the same critical current. The measured critical current shows excellent correlation to the predicted value and is approximately 14 +- 2 percent below it. Colliding Beam Accelerator (CBA) full length dipoles reach the conductor critical current limit, essentially without training. Magnet performance is predictable from the measured critical current of a short sample of cable to within 2%

  13. Investigation of the dipole response of nickel isotopes in the presence of a high-frequency electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, Dominic M.

    2010-01-01

    The electric dipole response of neutron-rich nickel isotopes has been investigated using the LAND setup at GSI in Darmstadt (Germany). Relativistic secondary beams of 56-57 Ni and 67-72 Ni at approximately 500 AMeV have been generated using projectile fragmentation of stable ions on a 4 g/cm 2 Be target and subsequent separation in the magnetic dipole fields of the FRagment Separator (FRS). After reaching the LAND setup in Cave C, the radioactive ions were excited electromagnetically in the electric field of a Pb target. The decay products have been measured in inverse kinematics using various detectors. Neutron-rich 67-69 Ni isotopes decay by the emission of neutrons, which are detected in the LAND detector. The present analysis concentrates on the (γ,n) and (γ,2n) channels in these nuclei, since the proton and three-neutron thresholds are unlikely to be reached considering the virtual photon spectrum for nickel ions at 500 AMeV. A measurement of the stable 58 Ni isotope is used as a benchmark to check the accuracy of the present results with previously published data. The measured (γ,n) and (γ,np) channels are compared with an inclusive photoneutron measurement by Fultz and coworkers, which are consistent within the respective errors. The measured excitation energy distributions of 67-69 Ni contain a large portion of the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) strength predicted by the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn energy-weighted sum rule, as well as a significant amount of low-lying E1 strength, that cannot be attributed to the GDR alone. The GDR distribution parameters are calculated using well-established semi-empirical systematic models, providing the peak energies and widths. The GDR strength is extracted from the χ 2 minimization of the model GDR to the measured data of the (γ,2n) channel, thereby excluding any influence of eventual low-lying strength. The subtraction of the obtained GDR distribution from the total measured E1 strength provides the low-lying E1 strength

  14. Hydrogen: Beyond the Classic Approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scivetti, Ivan

    2003-01-01

    The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position

  15. Hydrogen Beyond the Classic Approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Scivetti, I

    2003-01-01

    The classical nucleus approximation is the most frequently used approach for the resolution of problems in condensed matter physics.However, there are systems in nature where it is necessary to introduce the nuclear degrees of freedom to obtain a correct description of the properties.Examples of this, are the systems with containing hydrogen.In this work, we have studied the resolution of the quantum nuclear problem for the particular case of the water molecule.The Hartree approximation has been used, i.e. we have considered that the nuclei are distinguishable particles.In addition, we have proposed a model to solve the tunneling process, which involves the resolution of the nuclear problem for configurations of the system away from its equilibrium position

  16. Good points for diophantine approximation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    n=1 of real numbers in the interval [0, 1) and a sequence. (δn)∞ n=1 of positive numbers tending to zero, we consider the size of the set of numbers in [0, 1] which can be 'well approximated' by terms of the first sequence, namely, those y ∈ [0, 1] for which the inequality |y − xn| < δn holds for infinitely many positive integers n ...

  17. Dimensionality Reduction with Adaptive Approximation

    OpenAIRE

    Kokiopoulou, Effrosyni; Frossard, Pascal

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose the use of (adaptive) nonlinear approximation for dimensionality reduction. In particular, we propose a dimensionality reduction method for learning a parts based representation of signals using redundant dictionaries. A redundant dictionary is an overcomplete set of basis vectors that spans the signal space. The signals are jointly represented in a common subspace extracted from the redundant dictionary, using greedy pursuit algorithms for simultaneous sparse approx...

  18. Bound dipole solitary solutions in anisotropic nonlocal self-focusing media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Zozulya, A.A.; Mezentsev, V.K.

    1997-01-01

    We find and analyze bound dipole solitary solutions in media with anisotropic nonlocal photorefractive material response. The dipole solutions consist of two elliptically shaped Gaussian-type beams separated by several diameters, and with a pi phase shift between their fields. Spatial evolution...... of two initially round Gaussian beams and their convergence to the above dipole solution is demonstrated experimentally....

  19. The fractionated dipole antenna : A new antenna for body imaging at 7 Tesla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raaijmakers, AJE; Italiaander, Michel; Voogt, Ingmar J; Luijten, Peter R; Hoogduin, JM; Klomp, DWJ; van den Berg, CAT

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Dipole antennas in ultrahigh field MRI have demonstrated advantages over more conventional designs. In this study, the fractionated dipole antenna is presented: a dipole where the legs are split into segments that are interconnected by capacitors or inductors. METHODS: A parameter study has

  20. Visualizing Special Relativity: The Field of An Electric Dipole Moving at Relativistic Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2011-01-01

    The electromagnetic field is determined for a time-varying electric dipole moving with a constant velocity that is parallel to its moment. Graphics are used to visualize this field in the rest frame of the dipole and in the laboratory frame when the dipole is moving at relativistic speed. Various phenomena from special relativity are clearly…

  1. Self-consistent electric field-induced dipole interaction of colloidal spheres, cubes, rods, and dumbbells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwaadgras, Bas W.; Van Roij, René; Dijkstra, Marjolein

    2014-01-01

    When calculating the interaction between electric field-induced dipoles, the dipole moments are often taken to be equal to their polarizability multiplied by the external electric field. However, this approach is not exact, since it does not take into account the fact that particles with a dipole

  2. Bound states of a light atom and two heavy dipoles in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosa, D. S.; Bellotti, F. F.; Jensen, Aksel Stenholm

    2016-01-01

    and the degeneracies related to radial nodes and angular momentum quantum numbers. We include a repulsive dipole-dipole interaction and investigate the three-body solutions as functions of strength and dipole direction. Avoided crossings occur between levels localized in the emerging small and large-distance minima...

  3. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, E.; Ruti, P.; Tibaldi, S.; D'Andrea, F.

    1994-01-01

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  4. Halo-induced large enhancement of soft dipole excitation of 11Li observed via proton inelastic scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tanaka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Proton inelastic scattering off a neutron halo nucleus, 11Li, has been studied in inverse kinematics at the IRIS facility at TRIUMF. The aim was to establish a soft dipole resonance and to obtain its dipole strength. Using a high quality 66 MeV 11Li beam, a strongly populated excited state in 11Li was observed at Ex=0.80±0.02 MeV with a width of Γ=1.15±0.06 MeV. A DWBA (distorted-wave Born approximation analysis of the measured differential cross section with isoscalar macroscopic form factors leads us to conclude that this observed state is excited in an electric dipole (E1 transition. Under the assumption of isoscalar E1 transitions, the strength is evaluated to be extremely large amounting to 30∼296 Weisskopf units, exhausting 2.2%∼21% of the isoscalar E1 energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR value. The large observed strength originates from the halo and is consistent with the simple di-neutron model of 11Li halo.

  5. Bayesian multi-dipole modelling of a single topography in MEG by adaptive sequential Monte Carlo samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorrentino, Alberto; Luria, Gianvittorio; Aramini, Riccardo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a novel Bayesian approach to the problem of estimating neural currents in the brain from a fixed distribution of magnetic field (called topography), measured by magnetoencephalography. Differently from recent studies that describe inversion techniques, such as spatio-temporal regularization/filtering, in which neural dynamics always plays a role, we face here a purely static inverse problem. Neural currents are modelled as an unknown number of current dipoles, whose state space is described in terms of a variable-dimension model. Within the resulting Bayesian framework, we set up a sequential Monte Carlo sampler to explore the posterior distribution. An adaptation technique is employed in order to effectively balance the computational cost and the quality of the sample approximation. Then, both the number and the parameters of the unknown current dipoles are simultaneously estimated. The performance of the method is assessed by means of synthetic data, generated by source configurations containing up to four dipoles. Eventually, we describe the results obtained by analysing data from a real experiment, involving somatosensory evoked fields, and compare them to those provided by three other methods. (paper)

  6. The Field Radiated by a Ring Quasi-Array of an Infinite Number of Tangential or Radial Dipoles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, H. L.

    1953-01-01

    A homogeneous ring array of axial dipoles will radiate a vertically polarized field that concentrates to an increasing degree around the horizontal plane with increasing increment of the current phase per revolution. There is reason to believe that by using a corresponding antenna system with tan......A homogeneous ring array of axial dipoles will radiate a vertically polarized field that concentrates to an increasing degree around the horizontal plane with increasing increment of the current phase per revolution. There is reason to believe that by using a corresponding antenna system...... with tangential or radial dipoles, a field may be obtained that has a similar useful structure as the above-mentioned ring array, but which in contrast to the latter is essentially horizontally polarized. In this paper a systematic investigation has been made of the field from such an antenna system...... of the antenna systems treated here converges towards infinity, too, i.e. supergain occurs. Based on the theory of supergain an approximate expression has been derived for the minimum value of the radius of the antenna system, which it is possible to use in practice....

  7. Ultrafast approximation for phylogenetic bootstrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Bui Quang; Nguyen, Minh Anh Thi; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2013-05-01

    Nonparametric bootstrap has been a widely used tool in phylogenetic analysis to assess the clade support of phylogenetic trees. However, with the rapidly growing amount of data, this task remains a computational bottleneck. Recently, approximation methods such as the RAxML rapid bootstrap (RBS) and the Shimodaira-Hasegawa-like approximate likelihood ratio test have been introduced to speed up the bootstrap. Here, we suggest an ultrafast bootstrap approximation approach (UFBoot) to compute the support of phylogenetic groups in maximum likelihood (ML) based trees. To achieve this, we combine the resampling estimated log-likelihood method with a simple but effective collection scheme of candidate trees. We also propose a stopping rule that assesses the convergence of branch support values to automatically determine when to stop collecting candidate trees. UFBoot achieves a median speed up of 3.1 (range: 0.66-33.3) to 10.2 (range: 1.32-41.4) compared with RAxML RBS for real DNA and amino acid alignments, respectively. Moreover, our extensive simulations show that UFBoot is robust against moderate model violations and the support values obtained appear to be relatively unbiased compared with the conservative standard bootstrap. This provides a more direct interpretation of the bootstrap support. We offer an efficient and easy-to-use software (available at http://www.cibiv.at/software/iqtree) to perform the UFBoot analysis with ML tree inference.

  8. Initially Approximated Quasi Equilibrium Manifold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, M.; Arif, H.; Gulistan, M.; Sajid, M.

    2015-01-01

    Most commonly, kinetics model reduction techniques are based on exploiting time scale separation into fast and slow reaction processes. Then, a researcher approximates the system dynamically with dimension reduction for slow ones eliminating the fast modes. The main idea behind the construction of the lower dimension manifold is based on finding its initial approximation using Quasi Equilibrium Manifold (QEM). Here, we provide an efficient numerical method, which allow us to calculate low dimensional manifolds of chemical reaction systems. This computation technique is not restricted to our specific complex problem, but it can also be applied to other reacting flows or dynamic systems provided with the condition that a large number of extra (decaying) components can be eliminated from the system. Through computational approach, we approximate low dimensional manifold for a mechanism of six chemical species to simplify complex chemical kinetics. A reduced descriptive form of slow invariant manifold is obtained from dissipative system. This method is applicable for higher dimensions and is applied over an oxidation of CO/Pt. (author)

  9. Polarization and dipole effects in hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novak, M. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Pauly, N., E-mail: nipauly@ulb.ac.be [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Dubus, A. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Service de Metrologie Nucleaire (CP 165/84), 50 av. F. D. Roosevelt, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2012-03-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer X-rays are unpolarized or linearly polarized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A difference of polarization implies a variation in path travelled by the photoelectrons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the influence of the polarization on the partial intensity distributions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We also point out the influence of the dipole approximation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use Monte Carlo simulations. - Abstract: Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HXPS) using X-rays in the 1.5-15 keV energy range generated by synchrotron sources becomes an increasingly important analysis technique due to its potential for bulk sensitive measurements. However, besides their high energy, another characteristic of photons generated by synchrotron sources is their linear polarization while X-rays from Al K{alpha} or Mg K{alpha} for instance are unpolarized. This difference implies a possible variation in total path travelled by the photoelectrons generated by the X-rays inside the medium and consequently a modification of the resulting spectrum shape. We show the influence of the polarization on the partial intensity distributions, namely the number of electrons escaping after n inelastic scattering events, for photoelectron with energies of 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 keV and originating from Si 1s{sub 1/2}, Cu 1s{sub 1/2}, Cu 2p{sub 3/2}, Au 4d{sub 3/2} and Au 4f{sub 7/2} subshells. Moreover, we point out the influence of the dipole approximation leading to an underestimation of the partial intensity distributions due to the neglect of the forward-backward asymmetry of the angular photoelectron distribution.

  10. The influence of dipole-dipole interaction on entanglement of two superconducting qubits in the framework of double Jaynes-Cummins model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evseev, M. M.; Bashkirov, E. K.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we investigated the entanglement dynamics between two superconducting qubits interacting with two microwave modes of independent coplanar cavities taking into account the direct dipole-dipole interaction. The model with different qubit-field couplings and detunings is under consideration. Using the dressed-states representation technique we derived the exact solution for considered model with qubits prepared initially in entangled states and vacuum field modes. We have carried out the dependence of the atom-atom entanglement on the strength of the dipole-dipole interaction and other parameters of the considered system such as different coupling constants and detunings. The results showed that the presence of a sufficiently large dipole-dipole interaction leads to stabilization of entanglement.

  11. A Rotating-Bears Optical Dipole Trap for Cold Aatoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, N.; Ozeri, R.; Khaykovich, L.; Davidson, N.

    1999-01-01

    In the last few years, several optical dipole traps for cold atoms were demonstrated and used to study cold atomic collisions, long atomic coherence times and quantum collective effects. Blue-detuned dipole traps, where repulsive light forces confines atoms mostly in dark, offer long storage, and photon-scattering times, combined with strong confinement forces. Unfortunately, such blue-detuned dipole traps involve complicated light intensity distributions that require either multiple laser beams or complicated phase elements. Here, we propose and demonstrate a novel configuration for a single-beam blue-detuned dipole trap, which enables larger trapping volume, and fast temporal changes in the trap size and shape. Our trap consists of a tightly-focused laser beam which is rapidly rotated (with rotation frequency up to 400 khz) with two orthogonal acousto optical scanners. For very high rotation frequencies the atoms feel a time-averaged static dipole potential. Therefore, when the radius of rotation is larger than the beam size, a dark volume which is completely surrounded by light is obtained around the focal region. By changing the rotation radius and the trapping laser intensity and detuning, the trap dimensions and oscillation frequency could be changed over a large parameter range. In particular trap diameters were changed between 50 to 220 microns and trap length was changed between 3.5 to 16 mm. ∼10 6 atoms were loaded into the rotating-beam dipole trap from a magneto optical trap. The density of the trapped atoms was 4x10 10 atoms/cm 3 ,their temperature was -6 pK. and the trap (1/e) lifetime was 0.65 sec, limited by collisions with background atoms. When the rotation frequency was decreased below the oscillation frequency of the atoms in the trap, the trap became unstable, and a sharp reduction of the trap lifetime was observed, in agreement with our theoretical analysis. Finally, we demonstrated adiabatic compression of atoms in the trap by decreasing

  12. Microwave spectrum, dipole moment, and internal dynamics of the methyl fluoride-carbonyl sulfide weakly bound complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafin, Michal M; Peebles, Sean A

    2008-02-21

    Rotational spectra for the normal and four isotopically substituted species of the 1:1 complex between methyl fluoride (H3CF) and carbonyl sulfide (OCS) have been measured using Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy in the 5-16 GHz frequency region. The observed spectra fit well to a semirigid Watson Hamiltonian, and an analysis of the rotational constants has allowed a structure to be determined for this complex. The dipole moment vectors of the H3CF and OCS monomers are aligned approximately antiparallel with a C...C separation of 3.75(3) A and with an ab plane of symmetry. The values of the Pcc planar moments were found to be considerably different from the expected rigid values for all isotopologues. An estimate of approximately 14.5(50) cm-1 for the internal rotation barrier of the CH3 group with respect to the framework of the complex has been made using the Pcc values for the H3CF-OCS and D3CF-OCS isotopic species. Two structures, very close in energy and approximately related by a 60 degrees rotation about the C3 axis of the methyl fluoride, were identified by ab initio calculations at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,2p) level and provide reasonable agreement with the experimental rotational constants and dipole moment components.

  13. Methods and results of modeling and transmission-line calculations of the superconducting dipole chains of CERN's LHC collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgeois, F

    2001-01-01

    Electrical modeling and simulation of the LHC magnet strings are being used to determine the key parameters that are needed for the design of the powering and energy extraction equipment. Poles and zeros of the Laplace expression approximating the Bode plot of the measured coil impedance are used to synthesize an R/L/C model of the magnet. Subsequently, this model is used to simulate the behavior of the LHC main dipole magnet string. Lumped transmission line behavior, impedance, resonance, propagation of the power supply ripple, ramping errors, energy extraction transients and their damping are presented in this paper. (3 refs).

  14. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  15. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2015. Bundle branch block Symptoms & causes Diagnosis & treatment Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  16. Blocked Urethral Valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the penis. Rarely, small membranes form across the urethra in boys early in pregnancy, and they can block the flow of urine out of the bladder. These membranes are called posterior urethral valves and can have life-threatening consequences ...

  17. Optoelectronics using block copolymers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botiz, I.; Darling, S. B.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2010-05-01

    Block copolymers, either as semiconductors themselves or as structure directors, are emerging as a promising class of materials for understanding and controlling processes associated with both photovoltaic energy conversion and light emitting devices.

  18. Approximate Inference for Wireless Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten

    to the optimal one, which usually requires an unacceptable high complexity. Some of the treated approximate methods are based on QL-factorization of the channel matrix. In the work presented in this thesis it is proven how the QL-factorization of frequency-selective channels asymptotically provides the minimum......-phase and all-pass filters. This enables us to view Sphere Detection (SD) as an adaptive variant of minimum-phase prefiltered reduced-state sequence estimation. Thus, a novel way of computing the minimum-phase filter and its associated all-pass filter using the numerically stable QL-factorization is suggested...

  19. Generalized Gradient Approximation Made Simple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdew, J.P.; Burke, K.; Ernzerhof, M.

    1996-01-01

    Generalized gradient approximations (GGA close-quote s) for the exchange-correlation energy improve upon the local spin density (LSD) description of atoms, molecules, and solids. We present a simple derivation of a simple GGA, in which all parameters (other than those in LSD) are fundamental constants. Only general features of the detailed construction underlying the Perdew-Wang 1991 (PW91) GGA are invoked. Improvements over PW91 include an accurate description of the linear response of the uniform electron gas, correct behavior under uniform scaling, and a smoother potential. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Quench Performance of the First Twin-aperture 11 T Dipole for LHC upgrades

    CERN Document Server

    Zlobin, A V; Apollinari, G; Barzi, E; Chlachidze, G; Nobrega, A; Novitski, I; Stoynev, S; Turrioni, D; Auchmann, B; Izquierdo Bermudez, S; Karppinen, M; Rossi, L; Savary, F; Smekens, D

    2015-01-01

    FNAL and CERN are developing a twin-aperture 11 T $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole suitable for installation in the LHC. A single-aperture 2-m long dipole demonstrator and two 1-m long dipole models have been fabricated and tested at FNAL in 2012-2014. The two 1 m long collared coils were then assembled into the first twin-aperture $Nb_{3}Sn$ demonstrator dipole and tested. Test results of this twin-aperture $Nb_{3}Sn$ dipole model are reported and discussed.