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  1. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE and ACE2 bind integrins and ACE2 regulates integrin signalling.

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    Nicola E Clarke

    Full Text Available The angiotensin converting enzymes (ACEs are the key catalytic components of the renin-angiotensin system, mediating precise regulation of blood pressure by counterbalancing the effects of each other. Inhibition of ACE has been shown to improve pathology in cardiovascular disease, whilst ACE2 is cardioprotective in the failing heart. However, the mechanisms by which ACE2 mediates its cardioprotective functions have yet to be fully elucidated. Here we demonstrate that both ACE and ACE2 bind integrin subunits, in an RGD-independent manner, and that they can act as cell adhesion substrates. We show that cellular expression of ACE2 enhanced cell adhesion. Furthermore, we present evidence that soluble ACE2 (sACE2 is capable of suppressing integrin signalling mediated by FAK. In addition, sACE2 increases the expression of Akt, thereby lowering the proportion of the signalling molecule phosphorylated Akt. These results suggest that ACE2 plays a role in cell-cell interactions, possibly acting to fine-tune integrin signalling. Hence the expression and cleavage of ACE2 at the plasma membrane may influence cell-extracellular matrix interactions and the signalling that mediates cell survival and proliferation. As such, ectodomain shedding of ACE2 may play a role in the process of pathological cardiac remodelling.

  2. Circulating ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development

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    Katalin Úri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It was shown recently that angiotensin-converting enzyme activity is limited by endogenous inhibition in vivo, highlighting the importance of angiotensin II (ACE2 elimination. The potential contribution of the ACE2 to cardiovascular disease progression was addressed. Serum ACE2 activities were measured in different clinical states (healthy, n=45; hypertensive, n=239; heart failure (HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF n=141 and HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF n=47. ACE2 activity was significantly higher in hypertensive patients (24.8±0.8 U/ml than that in healthy volunteers (16.2±0.8 U/ml, p=0.01. ACE2 activity further increased in HFrEF patients (43.9±2.1 U/ml, p=0.001 but not in HFpEF patients (24.6±1.9 U/ml when compared with hypertensive patients. Serum ACE2 activity negatively correlated with left ventricular systolic function in HFrEF, but not in hypertensive, HFpEF or healthy populations. Serum ACE2 activity had a fair diagnostic value to differentiate HFpEF from HFrEF patients in this study. Serum ACE2 activity correlates with cardiovascular disease development: it increases when hypertension develops and further increases when the cardiovascular disease further progresses to systolic dysfunction, suggesting that ACE2 metabolism plays a role in these processes. In contrast, serum ACE2 activity does not change when hypertension progresses to HFpEF, suggesting a different pathomechanism for HFpEF, and proposing a biomarker-based identification of these HF forms.

  3. Heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wang; Patel, Vaibhav B; Parajuli, Nirmal; Fan, Dong; Basu, Ratnadeep; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Kassiri, Zamaneh; Penninger, Josef M; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2014-08-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) metabolizes Ang II into Ang 1-7 thereby negatively regulating the renin-angiotensin system. However, heart disease in humans and in animal models is associated with only a partial loss of ACE2. ACE2 is an X-linked gene; and as such, we tested the clinical relevance of a partial loss of ACE2 by using female ACE2(+/+) (wildtype) and ACE2(+/-) (heterozygote) mice. Pressure overload in ACE2(+/-) mice resulted in greater LV dilation and worsening systolic and diastolic dysfunction. These changes were associated with increased myocardial fibrosis, hypertrophy, and upregulation of pathological gene expression. In response to Ang II infusion, there was increased NADPH oxidase activity and myocardial fibrosis resulting in the worsening of Ang II-induced diastolic dysfunction with a preserved systolic function. Ang II-mediated cellular effects in cultured adult ACE2(+/-) cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts were exacerbated. Ang II-mediated pathological signaling worsened in ACE2(+/-) hearts characterized by an increase in the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2 and STAT-3 pathways. The ACE2(+/-) mice showed an exacerbated pressor response with increased vascular fibrosis and stiffness. Vascular superoxide and nitrotyrosine levels were increased in ACE2(+/-) vessels consistent with increased vascular oxidative stress. These changes occurred with increased renal fibrosis and superoxide production. Partial heterozygote loss of ACE2 is sufficient to increase the susceptibility to heart disease secondary to pressure overload and Ang II infusion. Heart disease in humans with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy is associated with a partial loss of ACE2. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to pressure overload-induced heart disease. Heterozygote female ACE2 mutant mice showed enhanced susceptibility to Ang II-induced heart and vascular diseases. Partial loss of ACE2 is sufficient to enhance the susceptibility to

  4. ACE2 Global Digital Elevation Model : User Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. G.; Berry, P. A. M.; Benveniste, J.

    2013-12-01

    Altimeter Corrected Elevations 2 (ACE2), first released in October 2009, is the Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) created by fusing the high accuracy of over 100 million altimeter retracked height estimates, derived primarily from the ERS-1 Geodetic Mission, with the high frequency content available within the near-global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. This novel ACE2 GDEM is freely available at 3”, 9”, 30” and 5' and has been distributed via the web to over 680 subscribers. This paper presents the results of a detailed analysis of geographical distribution of subscribed users, along with fields of study and potential uses. Investigations have also been performed to determine the most popular spatial resolutions and the impact these have on the scope of data downloaded. The analysis has shown that, even though the majority of users have come from Europe and America, a significant number of website hits have been received from South America, Africa and Asia. Registered users also vary widely, from research institutions and major companies down to individual hobbyists looking at data for single projects.

  5. The ACE2 gene: its potential as a functional candidate for cardiovascular disease.

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    Burrell, Louise M; Harrap, Stephen B; Velkoska, Elena; Patel, Sheila K

    2013-01-01

    The RAS (renin-angiotensin system) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of CVD (cardiovascular disease), and RAS blockade is an important therapeutic strategy in the management of CVD. A new counterbalancing arm of the RAS is now known to exist in which ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 2 degrades Ang (angiotensin) II, the main effector of the classic RAS, and generates Ang-(1-7). Altered ACE2 expression is associated with cardiac and vascular disease in experimental models of CVD, and ACE2 is increased in failing human hearts and atherosclerotic vessels. In man, circulating ACE2 activity increases with coronary heart disease, as well as heart failure, and a large proportion of the variation in plasma ACE2 levels has been attributed to hereditary factors. The ACE2 gene maps to chromosome Xp22 and this paper reviews the evidence associating ACE2 gene variation with CVD and considers clues to potential functional ACE2 variants that may alter gene expression or transcriptional activity. Studies to date have investigated ACE2 gene associations in hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy and coronary artery disease, but the results have been inconsistent. The discrepancies may reflect the sample size of the studies, the gender or ethnicity of subjects, the cardiovascular phenotype or the ACE2 SNP investigated. The frequent observation of apparent sex-dependence might be of special importance, if confirmed. As yet, there are no studies to concurrently assess ACE2 gene polymorphisms and circulating ACE2 activity. Large-scale carefully conducted clinical studies are urgently needed to clarify more precisely the potential role of ACE2 in the CVD continuum.

  6. ACE2 is augmented in dystrophic skeletal muscle and plays a role in decreasing associated fibrosis.

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    Cecilia Riquelme

    Full Text Available Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD is the most common inherited neuromuscular disease and is characterized by absence of the cytoskeletal protein dystrophin, muscle wasting, and fibrosis. We previously demonstrated that systemic infusion or oral administration of angiotensin-(1-7 (Ang-(1-7, a peptide with opposing effects to angiotensin II, normalized skeletal muscle architecture, decreased local fibrosis, and improved muscle function in mdx mice, a dystrophic model for DMD. In this study, we investigated the presence, activity, and localization of ACE2, the enzyme responsible for Ang-(1-7 production, in wild type (wt and mdx skeletal muscle and in a model of induced chronic damage in wt mice. All dystrophic muscles studied showed higher ACE2 activity than wt muscle. Immunolocalization studies indicated that ACE2 was localized mainly at the sarcolemma and, to a lesser extent, associated with interstitial cells. Similar results were observed in the model of chronic damage in the tibialis anterior (TA muscle. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of ACE2 overexpression in mdx TA muscle using an adenovirus containing human ACE2 sequence and showed that expression of ACE2 reduced the fibrosis associated with TA dystrophic muscles. Moreover, we observed fewer inflammatory cells infiltrating the mdx muscle. Finally, mdx gastrocnemius muscles from mice infused with Ang-(1-7, which decreases fibrosis, contain less ACE2 associated with the muscle. This is the first evidence supporting ACE2 as an important therapeutic target to improve the dystrophic skeletal muscle phenotype.

  7. Hydronephrosis alters cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor expression in mice.

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    Zhang, Yanling; Ma, Lulu; Wu, Junyan; Chen, Tingting

    2015-06-01

    Hydronephrosis is characterized by substantial loss of tubules and affects renin secretion in the kidney. However, whether alterations of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart are observed in hydronephrosis is unknown. Thus, we assessed these components in hydronephrotic mice treated with AT1 receptor blockade and ACE inhibitor. Hydronephrosis was induced by left ureteral ligation in Balb/C mice except sham-operated animals. The levels of cardiac ACE, ACE2 and Mas receptor were measured after treatment of losartan or enalapril. Hydronephrosis led to an increase of ACE level and a decrease of ACE2 and Mas receptor in the heart. Losartan decreased cardiac ACE level, but ACE2 and Mas receptor levels significantly increased in hydronephrotic mice (p Hydronephrosis increased cardiac ACE and suppressed ACE2 and Mas receptor levels. AT1 blockade caused sustained activation of cardiac ACE2 and Mas receptor, but ACE inhibitor had the limitation of such activation of Mas receptor in hydronephrotic animals. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Short-term treatment with diminazene aceturate ameliorates the reduction in kidney ACE2 activity in rats with subtotal nephrectomy.

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    Elena Velkoska

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE 2 is an important modulator of the renin angiotensin system (RAS through its role to degrade angiotensin (Ang II. Depletion of kidney ACE2 occurs following kidney injury due to renal mass reduction and may contribute to progressive kidney disease. This study assessed the effect of diminazine aceturate (DIZE, which has been described as an ACE2 activator, on kidney ACE2 mRNA and activity in rats with kidney injury due to subtotal nephrectomy (STNx. Sprague Dawley rats were divided into Control groups or underwent STNx; rats then received vehicle or the DIZE (s.c. 15 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks. STNx led to hypertension (P<0.01, kidney hypertrophy (P<0.001 and impaired kidney function (P<0.001 compared to Control rats. STNx was associated with increased kidney cortical ACE activity, and reduced ACE2 mRNA in the cortex (P<0.01, with reduced cortical and medullary ACE2 activity (P<0.05, and increased urinary ACE2 excretion (P<0.05 compared to Control rats. Urinary ACE2 activity correlated positively with urinary protein excretion (P<0.001, and negatively with creatinine clearance (P=0.04. In STNx rats, DIZE had no effect on blood pressure or kidney function, but was associated with reduced cortical ACE activity (P<0.01, increased cortical ACE2 mRNA (P<0.05 and increased cortical and medullary ACE2 activity (P<0.05. The precise in vivo mechanism of action of DIZE is not clear, and its effects to increase ACE2 activity may be secondary to an increase in ACE2 mRNA abundance. In ex vivo studies, DIZE did not increase ACE2 activity in either Control or STNx kidney cortical membranes. It is not yet known if chronic administration of DIZE has long-term benefits to slow the progression of kidney disease.

  9. Oral delivery of ACE2/Ang-(1-7) bioencapsulated in plant cells protects against experimental uveitis and autoimmune uveoretinitis.

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    Shil, Pollob K; Kwon, Kwang-Chul; Zhu, Ping; Verma, Amrisha; Daniell, Henry; Li, Qiuhong

    2014-12-01

    Hyperactivity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) resulting in elevated Angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to all stages of inflammatory responses including ocular inflammation. The discovery of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) has established a protective axis of RAS involving ACE2/Ang-(1-7)/Mas that counteracts the proinflammatory and hypertrophic effects of the deleterious ACE/AngII/AT1R axis. Here we investigated the hypothesis that enhancing the systemic and local activity of the protective axis of the RAS by oral delivery of ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) bioencapsulated in plant cells would confer protection against ocular inflammation. Both ACE2 and Ang-(1-7), fused with the non-toxic cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) were expressed in plant chloroplasts. Increased levels of ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) were observed in circulation and retina after oral administration of CTB-ACE2 and Ang-(1-7) expressing plant cells. Oral feeding of mice with bioencapsulated ACE2/Ang-(1-7) significantly reduced endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in mice. Treatment with bioencapsulated ACE2/Ang-(1-7) also dramatically decreased cellular infiltration, retinal vasculitis, damage and folding in experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Thus, enhancing the protective axis of RAS by oral delivery of ACE2/Ang-(1-7) bioencapsulated in plant cells provide an innovative, highly efficient and cost-effective therapeutic strategy for ocular inflammatory diseases.

  10. Structural determinants for binding to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 and angiotensin receptors

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    Daniel eClayton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2 is a zinc carboxypeptidase involved in the renin angiotensin system (RAS and inactivates the potent vasopressive peptide angiotensin II (Ang II by removing the C-terminal phenylalanine residue to yield Ang1-7. This conversion inactivates the vasoconstrictive action of Ang II and yields a peptide that acts as a vasodilatory molecule at the Mas receptor and potentially other receptors. Given the growing complexity of RAS and level of cross-talk between ligands and their corresponding enzymes and receptors, the design of molecules with selectivity for the major RAS binding partners to control cardiovascular tone is an on-going challenge. In previous studies we used single β-amino acid substitutions to modulate the structure of Ang II and its selectivity for ACE2, AT1R and angiotensin type 2 (AT2R receptor. We showed that modification at the C-terminus of Ang II generally resulted in more pronounced changes to secondary structure and ligand binding, and here we further explore this region for the potential to modulate ligand specificity. In this study, 1 a library of forty-seven peptides derived from the C-terminal tetra-peptide sequence (-IHPF of Ang II was synthesised and assessed for ACE2 binding, 2 the terminal group requirements for high affinity ACE2 binding were explored by and N- and C-terminal modification, 3 high affinity ACE2 binding chimeric AngII analogues were then synthesized and assessed, 4 the structure of the full-length Ang II analogues were assessed by circular dichroism, and 5 the Ang II analogues were assessed for AT1R/AT2R selectivity by cell-based assays. Studies on the C-terminus of Ang II demonstrated varied specificity at different residue positions for ACE2 binding and four Ang II chimeric peptides were identified as selective ligands for the AT2 receptor. Overall, these results provide insight into the residue and structural requirements for ACE2 binding and angiotensin receptor

  11. Neuroprotective Mechanisms of the ACE2-Angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas Axis in Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennion, Douglas M; Haltigan, Emily; Regenhardt, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings that desc......The discovery of beneficial neuroprotective effects of the angiotensin converting enzyme 2-angiotensin-(1-7)-Mas axis [ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas] in ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke has spurred interest in a more complete characterization of its mechanisms of action. Here, we summarize findings...... that describe the protective role of the ACE2-Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis in stroke, along with a focused discussion on the potential mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of Ang-(1-7) in stroke. The latter incorporates evidence describing the actions of Ang-(1-7) to counter the deleterious effects of angiotensin II...... complete understanding of the mechanisms of action of Ang-(1-7) to elicit neuroprotection will serve as an essential step toward research into potential targeted therapeutics in the clinical setting....

  12. A single nucleotide polymorphism uncovers a novel function for the transcription factor Ace2 during Candida albicans hyphal development.

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    Diana M Calderón-Noreña

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major invasive fungal pathogen in humans. An important virulence factor is its ability to switch between the yeast and hyphal forms, and these filamentous forms are important in tissue penetration and invasion. A common feature for filamentous growth is the ability to inhibit cell separation after cytokinesis, although it is poorly understood how this process is regulated developmentally. In C. albicans, the formation of filaments during hyphal growth requires changes in septin ring dynamics. In this work, we studied the functional relationship between septins and the transcription factor Ace2, which controls the expression of enzymes that catalyze septum degradation. We found that alternative translation initiation produces two Ace2 isoforms. While full-length Ace2, Ace2L, influences septin dynamics in a transcription-independent manner in hyphal cells but not in yeast cells, the use of methionine-55 as the initiation codon gives rise to Ace2S, which functions as the nuclear transcription factor required for the expression of cell separation genes. Genetic evidence indicates that Ace2L influences the incorporation of the Sep7 septin to hyphal septin rings in order to avoid inappropriate activation of cell separation during filamentous growth. Interestingly, a natural single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP present in the C. albicans WO-1 background and other C. albicans commensal and clinical isolates generates a stop codon in the ninth codon of Ace2L that mimics the phenotype of cells lacking Ace2L. Finally, we report that Ace2L and Ace2S interact with the NDR kinase Cbk1 and that impairing activity of this kinase results in a defect in septin dynamics similar to that of hyphal cells lacking Ace2L. Together, our findings identify Ace2L and the NDR kinase Cbk1 as new elements of the signaling system that modify septin ring dynamics in hyphae to allow cell-chain formation, a feature that appears to have evolved in specific C

  13. Activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) attenuates allergic airway inflammation in rat asthma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhawale, Vaibhav Shrirang; Amara, Venkateswara Rao; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Malek, Vajir; Patel, Deep; Tikoo, Kulbhushan

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is positively correlated to asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is highly expressed in lungs. ACE2, the counteracting enzyme of ACE, was proven to be protective in pulmonary, cardiovascular diseases. In the present study we checked the effect of ACE2 activation in animal model of asthma. Asthma was induced in male wistar rats by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin and then treated with ACE2 activator, diminazene aceturate (DIZE) for 2 weeks. 48 h after last allergen challenge, animals were anesthetized, blood, BALF, femoral bone marrow lavage were collected for leucocyte count; trachea for measuring airway responsiveness to carbachol; lungs and heart were isolated for histological studies and western blotting. In our animal model, the characteristic features of asthma such as altered airway responsiveness to carbachol, eosinophilia and neutrophilia were observed. Western blotting revealed the increased pulmonary expression of ACE1, IL-1β, IL-4, NF-κB, BCL2, p-AKT, p-p38 and decreased expression of ACE2 and IκB. DIZE treatment prevented these alterations. Intraalveolar interstitial thickening, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial fibrosis, oxidative stress and right ventricular hypertrophy in asthma control animals were also reversed by DIZE treatment. Activation of ACE2 by DIZE conferred protection against asthma as evident from biochemical, functional, histological and molecular parameters. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time that activation of ACE2 by DIZE prevents asthma progression by altering AKT, p38, NF-κB and other inflammatory markers. - Highlights: • Diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an ACE2 activator prevents ovalbumin-induced asthma. • DIZE acted by upregulating ACE2, downregulating ACE1, MAPKs, markers of inflammation, apoptosis. • DIZE reduced airway inflammation, fibrosis, right ventricular hypertrophy and

  14. Activation of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) attenuates allergic airway inflammation in rat asthma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhawale, Vaibhav Shrirang; Amara, Venkateswara Rao; Karpe, Pinakin Arun; Malek, Vajir; Patel, Deep; Tikoo, Kulbhushan, E-mail: tikoo.k@gmail.com

    2016-09-01

    Angiotensin-I converting enzyme (ACE) is positively correlated to asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and is highly expressed in lungs. ACE2, the counteracting enzyme of ACE, was proven to be protective in pulmonary, cardiovascular diseases. In the present study we checked the effect of ACE2 activation in animal model of asthma. Asthma was induced in male wistar rats by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin and then treated with ACE2 activator, diminazene aceturate (DIZE) for 2 weeks. 48 h after last allergen challenge, animals were anesthetized, blood, BALF, femoral bone marrow lavage were collected for leucocyte count; trachea for measuring airway responsiveness to carbachol; lungs and heart were isolated for histological studies and western blotting. In our animal model, the characteristic features of asthma such as altered airway responsiveness to carbachol, eosinophilia and neutrophilia were observed. Western blotting revealed the increased pulmonary expression of ACE1, IL-1β, IL-4, NF-κB, BCL2, p-AKT, p-p38 and decreased expression of ACE2 and IκB. DIZE treatment prevented these alterations. Intraalveolar interstitial thickening, inflammatory cell infiltration, interstitial fibrosis, oxidative stress and right ventricular hypertrophy in asthma control animals were also reversed by DIZE treatment. Activation of ACE2 by DIZE conferred protection against asthma as evident from biochemical, functional, histological and molecular parameters. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time that activation of ACE2 by DIZE prevents asthma progression by altering AKT, p38, NF-κB and other inflammatory markers. - Highlights: • Diminazene aceturate (DIZE), an ACE2 activator prevents ovalbumin-induced asthma. • DIZE acted by upregulating ACE2, downregulating ACE1, MAPKs, markers of inflammation, apoptosis. • DIZE reduced airway inflammation, fibrosis, right ventricular hypertrophy and

  15. From gene to protein—experimental and clinical studies of ACE2 in blood pressure control and arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Sheila K.; Velkoska, Elena; Freeman, Melanie; Wai, Bryan; Lancefield, Terase F.; Burrell, Louise M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, coronary events, heart and renal failure, and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a major role in its pathogenesis. Within the RAS, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) converts angiotensin (Ang) I into the vasoconstrictor Ang II. An “alternate” arm of the RAS now exists in which ACE2 counterbalances the effects of the classic RAS through degradation of Ang II, and generation of the vasodilator Ang 1-7. ACE2 is highly expressed in the heart,...

  16. North Atlantic Aerosol Properties for Radiative Impact Assessments. Derived from Column Closure Analyses in TARFOX and ACE-2

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    Russell, Philip A.; Bergstrom, Robert A.; Schmid, Beat; Livingston, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that can change the climate in potentially significant ways. This aerosol radiative forcing is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the climate change of the past century and predicting future climate. To help reduce this uncertainty, the 1996 Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the 1997 Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) measured the properties and radiative effects of aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean. Both experiments used remote and in situ measurements from aircraft and the surface, coordinated with overpasses by a variety of satellite radiometers. TARFOX focused on the urban-industrial haze plume flowing from the United States over the western Atlantic, whereas ACE-2 studied aerosols over the eastern Atlantic from both Europe and Africa. These aerosols often have a marked impact on satellite-measured radiances. However, accurate derivation of flux changes, or radiative forcing, from the satellite measured radiances or retrieved aerosol optical depths (AODs) remains a difficult challenge. Here we summarize key initial results from TARFOX and ACE-2, with a focus on closure analyses that yield aerosol microphysical models for use in improved assessments of flux changes. We show how one such model gives computed radiative flux sensitivities (dF/dAOD) that agree with values measured in TARFOX and preliminary values computed for the polluted marine boundary layer in ACE-2. A companion paper uses the model to compute aerosol-induced flux changes over the North Atlantic from AVHRR-derived AOD fields.

  17. Isolation and characterization of a bat SARS-like coronavirus that uses the ACE2 receptor.

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    Ge, Xing-Yi; Li, Jia-Lu; Yang, Xing-Lou; Chmura, Aleksei A; Zhu, Guangjian; Epstein, Jonathan H; Mazet, Jonna K; Hu, Ben; Zhang, Wei; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Yu-Ji; Luo, Chu-Ming; Tan, Bing; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Yan; Crameri, Gary; Zhang, Shu-Yi; Wang, Lin-Fa; Daszak, Peter; Shi, Zheng-Li

    2013-11-28

    The 2002-3 pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) was one of the most significant public health events in recent history. An ongoing outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus suggests that this group of viruses remains a key threat and that their distribution is wider than previously recognized. Although bats have been suggested to be the natural reservoirs of both viruses, attempts to isolate the progenitor virus of SARS-CoV from bats have been unsuccessful. Diverse SARS-like coronaviruses (SL-CoVs) have now been reported from bats in China, Europe and Africa, but none is considered a direct progenitor of SARS-CoV because of their phylogenetic disparity from this virus and the inability of their spike proteins to use the SARS-CoV cellular receptor molecule, the human angiotensin converting enzyme II (ACE2). Here we report whole-genome sequences of two novel bat coronaviruses from Chinese horseshoe bats (family: Rhinolophidae) in Yunnan, China: RsSHC014 and Rs3367. These viruses are far more closely related to SARS-CoV than any previously identified bat coronaviruses, particularly in the receptor binding domain of the spike protein. Most importantly, we report the first recorded isolation of a live SL-CoV (bat SL-CoV-WIV1) from bat faecal samples in Vero E6 cells, which has typical coronavirus morphology, 99.9% sequence identity to Rs3367 and uses ACE2 from humans, civets and Chinese horseshoe bats for cell entry. Preliminary in vitro testing indicates that WIV1 also has a broad species tropism. Our results provide the strongest evidence to date that Chinese horseshoe bats are natural reservoirs of SARS-CoV, and that intermediate hosts may not be necessary for direct human infection by some bat SL-CoVs. They also highlight the importance of pathogen-discovery programs targeting high-risk wildlife groups in emerging disease hotspots as a strategy for pandemic preparedness.

  18. Genome duplication and mutations in ACE2 cause multicellular, fast-sedimenting phenotypes in evolved Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Oud, Bart; Guadalupe-Medina, Victor; Nijkamp, Jurgen F; de Ridder, Dick; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-05

    Laboratory evolution of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae in bioreactor batch cultures yielded variants that grow as multicellular, fast-sedimenting clusters. Knowledge of the molecular basis of this phenomenon may contribute to the understanding of natural evolution of multicellularity and to manipulating cell sedimentation in laboratory and industrial applications of S. cerevisiae. Multicellular, fast-sedimenting lineages obtained from a haploid S. cerevisiae strain in two independent evolution experiments were analyzed by whole genome resequencing. The two evolved cell lines showed different frameshift mutations in a stretch of eight adenosines in ACE2, which encodes a transcriptional regulator involved in cell cycle control and mother-daughter cell separation. Introduction of the two ace2 mutant alleles into the haploid parental strain led to slow-sedimenting cell clusters that consisted of just a few cells, thus representing only a partial reconstruction of the evolved phenotype. In addition to single-nucleotide mutations, a whole-genome duplication event had occurred in both evolved multicellular strains. Construction of a diploid reference strain with two mutant ace2 alleles led to complete reconstruction of the multicellular-fast sedimenting phenotype. This study shows that whole-genome duplication and a frameshift mutation in ACE2 are sufficient to generate a fast-sedimenting, multicellular phenotype in S. cerevisiae. The nature of the ace2 mutations and their occurrence in two independent evolution experiments encompassing fewer than 500 generations of selective growth suggest that switching between unicellular and multicellular phenotypes may be relevant for competitiveness of S. cerevisiae in natural environments.

  19. Characterization and significance of ACE2 and Mas receptor in human colon adenocarcinoma.

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    Bernardi, Stella; Zennaro, Cristina; Palmisano, Silvia; Velkoska, Elena; Sabato, Nicoletta; Toffoli, Barbara; Giacomel, Greta; Buri, Luigi; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Bellini, Giuseppe; Burrell, Louise M; De Manzini, Nicolò; Fabris, Bruno

    2012-03-01

    A new arm of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been recently characterized; this includes angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)2 and angiotensin (Ang)1-7, a heptapeptide acting through the Mas receptor (MasR). Recent studies show that Ang1-7 has an antiproliferative action on lung adenocarcinoma cells. The aim of this study was to characterize RAS expression in human colon adenocarcinoma and to investigate whether Ang1-7 exerts an antiproliferative effect on human colon adenocarcinoma cells. Gene, protein expression and enzymatic activity of the main components of the RAS were determined on non-neoplastic colon mucosa as well as on the tumor mass and the mucosa taken 5 cm distant from it, both collected from patients with colon adenocarcinoma. Two different human colon cancer cell lines were treated with AngII and Ang1-7. The novel finding of this study was that MasR was significantly upregulated in colon adenocarcinoma compared with non-neoplastic colon mucosa, which showed little or no expression of it. ACE gene expression and enzymatic activity were also increased in the tumors. However, AngII and Ang1-7 did not have any pro-/antiproliferative effects in the cell lines studied. The data suggest that upregulation of the MasR could be used as a diagnostic marker of colon adenocarcinoma.

  20. Collectrin, a homologue of ACE2, its transcriptional control and functional perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanling; Wada, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Collectrin is a type I membrane protein and shares significant homology with C-terminal domain of angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). However, collectrin lacks catalytic domain and it suggests the presence of uncharacterized physiological functions of collectrin. Collectrin is transcriptionally regulated by hepatocyte nuclear factor-α and -β and is highly expressed on renal proximal tubules and collecting ducts as well as pancreatic β-cells. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated interesting physiological roles of collectrin related to insulin secretion, formation of primary cilia, renal cyst formation and amino acid transport. The common underlying molecular mechanism may be suggested by the evidence that collectrin binds to SNARE complex by interacting with snapin. Collectrin is involved in the process of vesicle transport and membrane fusion and thus it delivers insulin for exocytosis or various membrane proteins to apical plasmalemma and primary cilia. Collectrin may be the new therapeutic target for various pathological processes such as diabetes, polycystic kidney disease, hypertension and aminoaciduria

  1. Pathological Ace2-to-Ace enzyme switch in the stressed heart is transcriptionally controlled by the endothelial Brg1–FoxM1 complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Feng, Xuhui; Zhou, Qiong; Cheng, Wei; Shang, Ching; Han, Pei; Lin, Chiou-Hong; Chen, Huei-Sheng Vincent; Quertermous, Thomas; Chang, Ching-Pin

    2016-01-01

    Genes encoding angiotensin-converting enzymes (Ace and Ace2) are essential for heart function regulation. Cardiac stress enhances Ace, but suppresses Ace2, expression in the heart, leading to a net production of angiotensin II that promotes cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. The regulatory mechanism that underlies the Ace2-to-Ace pathological switch, however, is unknown. Here we report that the Brahma-related gene-1 (Brg1) chromatin remodeler and forkhead box M1 (FoxM1) transcription factor cooperate within cardiac (coronary) endothelial cells of pathologically stressed hearts to trigger the Ace2-to-Ace enzyme switch, angiotensin I-to-II conversion, and cardiac hypertrophy. In mice, cardiac stress activates the expression of Brg1 and FoxM1 in endothelial cells. Once activated, Brg1 and FoxM1 form a protein complex on Ace and Ace2 promoters to concurrently activate Ace and repress Ace2, tipping the balance to Ace2 expression with enhanced angiotensin II production, leading to cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Disruption of endothelial Brg1 or FoxM1 or chemical inhibition of FoxM1 abolishes the stress-induced Ace2-to-Ace switch and protects the heart from pathological hypertrophy. In human hypertrophic hearts, BRG1 and FOXM1 expression is also activated in endothelial cells; their expression levels correlate strongly with the ACE/ACE2 ratio, suggesting a conserved mechanism. Our studies demonstrate a molecular interaction of Brg1 and FoxM1 and an endothelial mechanism of modulating Ace/Ace2 ratio for heart failure therapy. PMID:27601681

  2. Atrial overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 improves the canine rapid atrial pacing-induced structural and electrical remodeling. Fan, ACE2 improves atrial substrate remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jinqi; Zou, Lili; Cui, Kun; Woo, Kamsang; Du, Huaan; Chen, Shaojie; Ling, Zhiyu; Zhang, Quanjun; Zhang, Bo; Lan, Xianbin; Su, Li; Zrenner, Bernhard; Yin, Yuehui

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether atrial overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) by homogeneous transmural atrial gene transfer can reverse atrial remodeling and its mechanisms in a canine atrial-pacing model. Twenty-eight mongrel dogs were randomly divided into four groups: Sham-operated, AF-control, gene therapy with adenovirus-enhanced green fluorescent protein (Ad-EGFP) and gene therapy with Ad-ACE2 (Ad-ACE2) (n = 7 per subgroup). AF was induced in all dogs except the Sham-operated group by rapid atrial pacing at 450 beats/min for 2 weeks. Ad-EGFP and Ad-ACE2 group then received epicardial gene painting. Three weeks after gene transfer, all animals except the Sham group underwent rapid atrial pacing for another 3 weeks and then invasive electrophysiological, histological and molecular studies. The Ad-ACE2 group showed an increased ACE2 and Angiotensin-(1-7) expression, and decreased Angiotensin II expression in comparison with Ad-EGFP and AF-control group. ACE2 overexpression attenuated rapid atrial pacing-induced increase in activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) levels, and decrease in MAPK phosphatase 1(MKP-1) level, resulting in attenuation of atrial fibrosis collagen protein markers and transforming growth factor-β1. Additionally, ACE2 overexpression also modulated the tachypacing-induced up-regulation of connexin 40, down-regulation of connexin 43 and Kv4.2, and significantly decreased the inducibility and duration of AF. ACE2 overexpression could shift the renin-angiotensin system balance towards the protective axis, attenuate cardiac fibrosis remodeling associated with up-regulation of MKP-1 and reduction of MAPKs activities, modulate tachypacing-induced ion channels and connexin remodeling, and subsequently reduce the inducibility and duration of AF.

  3. Overexpression of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F stimulates renal Ace-2 gene expression and prevents TGF-β1-induced kidney injury in a mouse model of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chao-Sheng; Shi, Yixuan; Chang, Shiao-Ying; Abdo, Shaaban; Chenier, Isabelle; Filep, Janos G; Ingelfinger, Julie R; Zhang, Shao-Ling; Chan, John S D

    2015-10-01

    We investigated whether heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) stimulates renal ACE-2 expression and prevents TGF-β1 signalling, TGF-β1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene expression and induction of tubulo-fibrosis in an Akita mouse model of type 1 diabetes. Adult male Akita transgenic (Tg) mice overexpressing specifically hnRNP F in their renal proximal tubular cells (RPTCs) were studied. Non-Akita littermates and Akita mice served as controls. Immortalised rat RPTCs stably transfected with plasmid containing either rat Hnrnpf cDNA or rat Ace-2 gene promoter were also studied. Overexpression of hnRNP F attenuated systemic hypertension, glomerular filtration rate, albumin/creatinine ratio, urinary angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin (Ang) II levels, renal fibrosis and profibrotic gene (Agt, Tgf-β1, TGF-β receptor II [Tgf-βrII]) expression, stimulated anti-profibrotic gene (Ace-2 and Ang 1-7 receptor [MasR]) expression, and normalised urinary Ang 1-7 level in Akita Hnrnpf-Tg mice as compared with Akita mice. In vitro, hnRNP F overexpression stimulated Ace-2 gene promoter activity, mRNA and protein expression, and attenuated Agt, Tgf-β1 and Tgf-βrII gene expression. Furthermore, hnRNP F overexpression prevented TGF-β1 signalling and TGF-β1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene expression. These data demonstrate that hnRNP F stimulates Ace-2 gene transcription, prevents TGF-β1 inhibition of Ace-2 gene transcription and induction of kidney injury in diabetes. HnRNP F may be a potential target for treating hypertension and renal fibrosis in diabetes.

  4. Controller for the Power Converters of the O/OMOTOR Prototype Switched Reluctance Machine of the ACE2 Project; Controlador de los Convertidores Electronicos de Potencia de la Maquina Variable Prototipo O/OMOTOR del Proyecto ACE2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, C

    2006-12-19

    The ACE2 project deals with the development of a kynetic energy storage (KES) system for power peak shaving in high speed railway substations. This KES system consists in a double power converter which drives a switched reluctance machine (SRM) along with a flywheel operating in a wide speed range. This document presents from a technical point of view the features of the controller of the power converters for the U and UMOTOR SRM prototypes of that project. Hardware and software issues are treated in detail and the guide for the final user managing the KES module is introduced. (Author) 3 refs.

  5. The transcription factor Ace2 and its paralog Swi5 regulate ethanol production during static fermentation through their targets Cts1 and Rps4a in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yao; Du, Jie; Xu, Guoqiang; Jiang, Linghuo

    2016-05-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most widely used fermentation organism for ethanol production. However, the gene expression regulatory networks behind the ethanol fermentation are still not fully understood. Using a static fermentation model, we examined the ethanol yields on biomass of deletion mutants for 77 yeast genes encoding nonessential transcription factors, and found that deletion mutants for ACE2 and SWI5 showed dramatically increased ethanol yields. Overexpression of ACE2 or SWI5 in wild type cells reduced their ethanol yields. Furthermore, among the 34 target genes regulated by Ace2 and Swi5, deletion of CTS1,RPS4a,SIC1,EGT2,DSE2, or SCP160 led to increased ethanol yields, with the former two showing higher effects. Overexpression of CTS1 or RPS4a in both ace2/ace2 and swi5/swi5 mutants reduced their ethanol yields. In contrast, deletion of MCR1 or HO significantly decreased ethanol yields, with the former one showing the highest effect. Therefore, Ace2 and Swi5 are two negative regulators of ethanol yield during static fermentation of yeast cells, and both CTS1 and RPS4a are major effectors mediating these two transcription factors in regulating ethanol production. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. ACE-2/Ang1-7/Mas cascade mediates ACE inhibitor, captopril, protective effects in estrogen-deficient osteoporotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohammed M; Sabry, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Al-Rejaie, Salim S

    2017-08-01

    The local role of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) was documented recently beside its conventional systemic functions. Studies showed that the effector angiotensin II (AngII) alters bone health, while inhibition of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE-1) preserved these effects. The newly identified Ang1-7 exerts numerous beneficial effects opposing the AngII. Thus, the current study examines the role of Ang1-7 in mediating the osteo-preservative effects of ACEI (captopril) through the G-protein coupled Mas receptor using an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. 8 weeks after the surgical procedures, captopril was administered orally (40mgkg -1 d -1 ), while the specific Mas receptor blocker (A-779) was delivered at infusion rate of 400ngkg -1 min -1 for 6 weeks. Bone metabolic markers were measured in serum and urine. Minerals concentrations were quantified in serum, urine and femoral bones by inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Trabecular and cortical morphometry was analyzed in the right distal femurs using micro-CT. Finally, the expressions of RAS peptides, enzymes and receptors along with the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were determined femurs heads. OVX animals markedly showed altered bone metabolism and mineralization along with disturbed bone micro-structure. Captopril significantly restored the metabolic bone bio-markers and corrected Ca 2+ and P values in urine and bones of estrogen deficient rats. Moreover, the trabecular and cortical morphometric features were repaired by captopril in OVX groups. Captopril also improved the expressions of ACE-2, Ang1-7, Mas and OPG, while abolished OVX-induced up-regulation of ACE-1, AngII, Ang type 1 receptor (AT1R) and RANKL. Inhibition of Ang1-7 cascade by A-779 significantly eradicated captopril protective effects on bone metabolism, mineralization and micro-structure. A-779 also restored OVX effects on RANKL expression and ACE-1/AngII/AT1R

  7. Transcription regulation of the alpha-glucanase gene agn1 by cell separation transcription factor Ace2p in fission yeast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Nick; de Haan, Annett; Hochstenbach, Frans

    2006-01-01

    During the final stage of the cell division cycle in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, transcription factor Ace2p activates expression of genes involved in the separation of newly formed daughter cells, such as agn1+, which encodes the alpha-glucanase Agn1p. The agn1 promoter contains

  8. Angiotensin (1-7) ameliorates the structural and biochemical alterations of ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats via activation of ACE-2/Mas receptor axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohammed M; Sabry, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Al-Rejaie, Salim S

    2017-05-23

    The local and systemic renin angiotensin system (RAS) influences the skeletal system micro-structure and metabolism. Studies suggested angiotensin 1-7 (Ang(1-7)) as the beneficial RAS molecule via Mas receptor activation. This study examines the function of Ang(1-7) in bone micro-architecture and metabolism in an ovariectomized (OVX) rodent model of osteoporosis. OVX rats showed structural and bone metabolic degeneration in parallel with suppressed expressions of the angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2)/Ang(1-7)/Mas components. The infusion of Ang(1-7) markedly alleviated the altered bone metabolism and significantly enhanced both trabecular (metaphyseal) and cortical (metaphyseal-diaphyseal) morphometry. Urinary and bones minerals were also improved in OVX rats by Ang(1-7). The infusion of the heptapeptide enhanced ACE-2/Mas receptor expressions, while down-regulated AngII, ACE, and AngII type-1 receptor (AT1R) in OVX animals. Moreover, Ang(1-7) markedly improved osteoprotegerin (OPG) and lowered receptor activator NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expressions. The defensive properties of Ang(1-7) on bone metabolism, structure and minerals were considerably eradicated after blockage of Mas receptor with A-779. Ang(1-7)-induced up-regulated ACE-2/Ang(1-7)/Mas cascade and OPG expressions were abolished and the expressions of ACE/AngII/AT1R and RANKL were provoked by A-779. These findings shows for the first time the novel valuable therapeutic role of Ang(1-7) on bone health and metabolism through the ACE-2/Mas cascade.

  9. A Human Long Non-Coding RNA ALT1 Controls the Cell Cycle of Vascular Endothelial Cells Via ACE2 and Cyclin D1 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: ALT1 is a novel long non-coding RNA derived from the alternatively spliced transcript of the deleted in lymphocytic leukemia 2 (DLEU2. To date, ALT1 biological roles in human vascular endothelial cells have not been reported. Methods: ALT1 was knocked down by siRNAs. Cell proliferation was analyzed by cck-8. The existence and sequence of human ALT1 were identified by 3’ rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The interaction between lncRNA and proteins was analyzed by RNA-Protein pull down assay, RNA immunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry analysis. Results: ALT1 was expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. The expression of ALT1 was significantly downregulated in contact-inhibited HUVECs and in hypoxia-induced, growth-arrested HUVECs. Knocking down of ALT1 inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. We observed that angiotensin converting enzyme Ⅱ(ACE2 was a direct target gene of ALT1. Knocking-down of ALT1 or its target gene ACE2 could efficiently decrease the expression of cyclin D1 via the enhanced ubiquitination and degradation, in which HIF-1α and protein von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL might be involved. Conclusion: The results suggested the human long non-coding RNA ALT1 is a novel regulator for cell cycle of HUVECs via ACE2 and cyclin D1 pathway.

  10. Airborne lidar measurements of aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties over the Atlantic Ocean during a European pollution outbreak of ACE-2[Special issue with manuscripts related to the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2), 16 June-25 July 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flamant, Cyrille; Pelon, Jaques; Trouillet, Vincent; Bruneau, Didier [CNRS-UPMC-UVSQ, Paris (France). Service d' Aeronomie; Chazette, Patrick; Leon, J.F. [CEA-CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Lab. des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environment; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Johnson, James [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Seattle, WA (United States). Pacific Marine Environmental Lab.; Frouin, Robert [Scripps Inst. of Oceanography, La Jolla, CA (United States); Livingston, John [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2000-04-01

    Airborne lidar measurements of the aerosol spatial distribution and optical properties associated with an European pollution outbreak which occurred during the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) are presented. Size distribution spectra measured over the ocean near Sagres (Portugal), on-board the Research Vessel Vodyanitsky and on-board the Avion de Recherche Atmospherique et Teledetection (ARAT) have been used to parameterize the aerosol vertical distribution. This parameterization, which is essential to the analysis of airborne lidar measurements, has been validated via closure experiments on extinction coefficient profiles and aerosol optical depth (AOD). During the studied event, AOD's retrieved from lidar measurements at 0.73 {mu}m range between 0.055 and 0.10. The parameterized aerosol vertical distribution has been used to shift AOD retrievals from 0.73 to 0.55 {mu}m to enable comparison with other remote sensing instruments. At the latter wavelength, AOD's retrieved from lidar measurements range between 0.08 and 0.14. An agreement better than 20% is obtained between AOD's derived from lidar and sunphotometer measurements made at the same time and place over the ocean near the coast. However, large differences are observed with the AOD estimated from Meteosat imagery in the same area. These differences are thought to be caused by large uncertainties associated with the Meteosat sensitivity for small AOD's or by the presence of thin scattered clouds. Lidar-derived particulate extinction profiles and scattering coefficient profiles measured by a nephelometer mounted on the ARAT, in a different part of the plume, were found in good agreement, which could be an indication that absorption by pollution aerosols is small and/or that soot is present in small amounts in the European pollution plume. Lidar measurements have also been used to differentiate the contribution of different aerosol layers to the total AOD. It is shown that

  11. High Q ceramics in the ACe2(MoO4)4 (A = Ba, Sr and Ca) system for LTCC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surjith, A.; Ratheesh, R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solid state synthesis of phase pure ACe 2 (MoO 4 ) 4 (A = Ba, Sr and Ca) ceramics. ► Structural and microstructural evaluation of the synthesized ceramic materials. ► Microwave dielectric property studies of ACe 2 (MoO 4 ) 4 (A = Ba, Sr and Ca) ceramics. ► Structure-property correlation through Laser Raman studies. - Abstract: Novel low temperature sinterable high Q ceramic systems ACe 2 (MoO 4 ) 4 (A = Ba, Sr and Ca) have been prepared through solid state ceramic method. The effect of ionic radii of alkaline earth cations on the structure, microstructure and microwave dielectric properties of these ceramics were studied using powder X-ray diffraction, Laser Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and Vector Network Analyzer. A structural change from monoclinic to tetragonal structure was observed while substituting Sr 2+ and Ca 2+ cations in place of Ba 2+ . The Sr and Ca analogues possess better microwave dielectric properties compared to BaCe 2 (MoO 4 ) 4 . All the ceramics were well sintered below 840 °C with dielectric constant in the range 10.2–12.3 together with good quality factor. The SrCe 2 (MoO 4 ) 4 ceramic exhibits an unloaded quality factor of 6762 at 8.080662 GHz with a temperature coefficient of resonant frequency of −46 ppm/°C while the CaCe 2 (MoO 4 ) 4 ceramic shows an unloaded quality factor of 7549 at 6.928868 GHz and a temperature coefficient of resonant frequency of −44 ppm/°C.

  12. Phthalate SHEDS-HT runs

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Inputs and outputs for SHEDS-HT runs of DiNP, DEHP, DBP. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Moreau, M., J. Leonard, K. Phillips, J. Campbell,...

  13. Egg ovotransferrin-derived ACE inhibitory peptide IRW increases ACE2 but decreases proinflammatory genes expression in mesenteric artery of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Kaustav; Liang, Guanxiang; Chen, Yanhong; Guan, LeLuo; Davidge, Sandra T; Wu, Jianping

    2015-09-01

    Egg ovotransferrin-derived angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptide IRW was previously shown to reduce blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats through reduced vascular inflammation and increased nitric oxide-mediated vasorelaxation. The main objective of the present study was to investigate the molecular mechanism of this peptide through transcriptome analysis by RNAseq technique. Total RNA was extracted from kidney and mesenteric arteries; the RNAseq libraries (from untreated and IRW-treated groups) were constructed and subjected to sequence using HiSeq 2000 system (Illumina) system. A total of 12 764 and 13 352 genes were detected in kidney and mesenteric arteries, respectively. The differentially expressed (DE) genes between untreated and IRW-treated groups were identified and the functional analysis through ingenuity pathway analysis revealed a greater role of DE genes identified from mesenteric arteries than that of kidney in modulating various cardiovascular functions. Subsequent qPCR analysis further confirmed that IRW significantly increased the expression of ACE-2, ABCB-1, IRF-8, and CDH-1 while significantly decreased the expression ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in mesenteric arteries. Our research showed for the first time that ACE inhibitory peptide IRW could contribute to its antihypertensive activity through increased ACE2 and decreased proinflammatory genes expression. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Altered renal expression of angiotensin II receptors, renin receptor, and ACE-2 precede the development of renal fibrosis in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Ivonne Hernandez; Zhou, Ming-Sheng; Treuer, Adriana V; Chadipiralla, Kiranmai; Hare, Joshua M; Raij, Leopoldo

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility to fibrosis and progression of renal disease is mitigated by inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). We hypothesized that activation of the intrarenal RAS predisposes to renal fibrosis in aging. Intrarenal expression of angiotensin II type 1 (AT(1)R), type 2 (AT(2)R), and (pro)renin receptors, ACE and ACE-2, as well as pro- and antioxidant enzymes were measured in 3-month-old (young), 14-month-old (middle-aged), and 24-month-old (old) male Sprague-Dawley rats. Old rats manifested glomerulosclerosis and severe tubulointerstitial fibrosis with increased fibronectin and TGF-β expression (7-fold). AT(1)R /AT(2)R ratios were increased in middle-aged (cortical 1.6-fold, medullary 5-fold) and old rats (cortical 2-fold, medullary 4-fold). Similarly, (pro)renin receptor expression was increased in middle-aged (cortical 2-fold, medullary 3-fold) and old (cortical 5-fold, medullary 3-fold) rats. Cortical ACE was increased (+35%) in old rats, whereas ACE-2 was decreased (-50%) in middle-aged and old rats. NADPH oxidase activity was increased (2-fold), whereas antioxidant capacity and expression of the mitochondrial enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (cortical -40%, medullary -53%) and medullary endothelial nitric oxide synthase (-48%) were decreased in old rats. Age-related intrarenal activation of the RAS preceded the development of severe renal fibrosis, suggesting that it contributes to the increased susceptibility to renal injury observed in the elderly. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The ACE-2/Ang1-7/Mas cascade enhances bone structure and metabolism following angiotensin-II type 1 receptor blockade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohammed M; Sabry, Dina; Khattab, Mahmoud M; Al-Rejaie, Salim S

    2017-07-15

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) regulates numerous systemic functions and is expressed locally in skeletal tissues. Angiotensin1-7 (Ang1-7) is a beneficial member of the RAS, and the therapeutic effects of a large number of angiotensin receptors blockers (ARBs) are mediated by an Ang1-7-dependent cascade. This study examines whether the reported osteo-preservative effects of losartan are mediated through the angiotensin converting enzyme2 (ACE-2)/Ang1-7/Mas pathway in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sham and OVX animals received losartan (10mg/kg/d p.o.) for 6 weeks. A specific Mas receptor blocker (A-779) was delivered via mini-osmotic pumps during the losartan treatment period. Serum and urine bone metabolism biomarker levels were measured. Bone trabecular and cortical morphometry were quantified in distal femurs, whereas mineral contents were estimated in ashed bones, serum and urine. Finally, the expression of RAS components, the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) was determined. Losartan significantly improved the elevated bone metabolism marker levels and altered trabecular and cortical structures in OVX animals, and restored normal urinary and skeletal mineral levels. Mas receptor inhibition significantly abolished all osteo-protective effects of losartan and enhanced the deleterious effects of OVX. Losartan enhanced OVX-induced up-regulation of ACE-1, AngII, angiotensin type 1 (AT 1 ) receptor and RANKL expression, and increased ACE-2, Ang1-7, Mas and OPG expression in OVX animals. However, A-779 significantly eradicated the effects of losartan on RAS components and RANKL/OPG expression. Thus, Ang1-7 are involved in the osteo-preservative effects of losartan via Mas receptor, which may add therapeutic value to this well-known antihypertensive agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nerve Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Nerve Blocks A nerve block is an injection to ... the limitations of Nerve Block? What is a Nerve Block? A nerve block is an anesthetic and/ ...

  17. Activation pattern of ACE2/Ang-(1-7) and ACE/Ang II pathway in course of heart failure assessed by multiparametric MRI in vivo in Tgαq*44 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrankiewicz, Urszula; Olkowicz, Mariola; Skórka, Tomasz; Jablonska, Magdalena; Orzylowska, Anna; Bar, Anna; Gonet, Michal; Berkowicz, Piotr; Jasinski, Krzysztof; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Here, we analyzed systemic (plasma) and local (heart/aorta) changes in ACE/ACE-2 balance in Tgαq*44 mice in course of heart failure (HF). Tgαq*44 mice with cardiomyocyte-specific Gαq overexpression and late onset of HF were analyzed at different age for angiotensin pattern in plasma, heart, and aorta using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, for progression of HF by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging under isoflurane anesthesia, and for physical activity by voluntary wheel running. Six-month-old Tgαq*44 mice displayed decreased ventricle radial strains and impaired left atrial function. At 8-10 mo, Tgαq*44 mice showed impaired systolic performance and reduced voluntary wheel running but exhibited preserved inotropic reserve. At 12 mo, Tgαq*44 mice demonstrated a severe impairment of basal cardiac performance and modestly compromised inotropic reserve with reduced voluntary wheel running. Angiotensin analysis in plasma revealed an increase in concentration of angiotensin-(1-7) in 6- to 10-mo-old Tgαq*44 mice. However, in 12- to 14-mo-old Tgαq*44 mice, increased angiotensin II was noted with a concomitant increase in Ang III, Ang IV, angiotensin A, and angiotensin-(1-10). The pattern of changes in the heart and aorta was also compatible with activation of ACE2, followed by activation of the ACE pathway. In conclusion, mice with cardiomyocyte Gαq protein overexpression develop HF that is associated with activation of the systemic and the local ACE/Ang II pathway. However, it is counterbalanced by a prominent ACE2/Ang-(1-7) activation, possibly allowing to delay decompensation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Changes in ACE/ACE-2 balance were analyzed based on measurements of a panel of nine angiotensins in plasma, heart, and aorta of Tgαq*44 mice in relation to progression of heart failure (HF) characterized by multiparametric MRI and exercise performance. The early stage of HF was associated with upregulation of the ACE2/angiotensin-(1-7) pathway, whereas the end

  18. Attenuation of myocardial fibrosis with curcumin is mediated by modulating expression of angiotensin II AT1/AT2 receptors and ACE2 in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang XF

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Xue-Fen Pang,1 Li-Hui Zhang,2 Feng Bai,1 Ning-Ping Wang,3 Ron E Garner,3 Robert J McKallip,4 Zhi-Qing Zhao1,3 1Department of Physiology, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Cardiology, Shanxi Academy of Medical Sciences and Shanxi Dayi Hospital, Shanxi Medical University, Taiyuan, Shanxi, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, Savannah, GA, USA; 4Division of Basic Biomedical Sciences, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA, USA Abstract: Curcumin is known to improve cardiac function by balancing degradation and synthesis of collagens after myocardial infarction. This study tested the hypothesis that inhibition of myocardial fibrosis by curcumin is associated with modulating expression of angiotensin II (Ang II receptors and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to Ang II infusion (500 ng/kg/min using osmotic minipumps for 2 and 4 weeks, respectively, and curcumin (150 mg/kg/day was fed by gastric gavage during Ang II infusion. Compared to the animals with Ang II infusion, curcumin significantly decreased the mean arterial blood pressure during the course of the observation. The protein level of the Ang II type 1 (AT1 receptor was reduced, and the Ang II type 2 (AT2 receptor was up-regulated, evidenced by an increased ratio of the AT2 receptor over the AT1 receptor in the curcumin group (1.2±0.02% vs in the Ang II group (0.7±0.03%, P<0.05. These changes were coincident with less locally expressed AT1 receptor and enhanced AT2 receptor in the intracardiac vessels and intermyocardium. Along with these modulations, curcumin significantly decreased the populations of macrophages and alpha smooth muscle actin-expressing myofibroblasts, which were accompanied by reduced expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 and phosphorylated-Smad2/3. Collagen I synthesis was

  19. Expression and evolutionary analyses of three acetylcholinesterase genes (Mi-ace-1, Mi-ace-2, Mi-ace-3) in the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Ruqiang; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Yuyan; Huang, Wenkun; Fan, Chengming; Wu, Qingsong; Peng, Deliang; da Silva, Washington; Sun, Xiaotang

    2017-05-01

    The full cDNA of Mi-ace-3 encoding an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in Meloidogyne incognita was cloned and characterized. Mi-ace-3 had an open reading frame of 1875 bp encoding 624 amino acid residues. Key residues essential to AChE structure and function were conserved. The deduced Mi-ACE-3 protein sequence had 72% amino acid similarity with that of Ditylenchus destructor Dd-AChE-3. Phylogenetic analyses using 41 AChEs from 24 species showed that Mi-ACE-3 formed a cluster with 4 other nematode AChEs. Our results revealed that the Mi-ace-3 cloned in this study, which is orthologous to Caenorhabditis elegans AChE, belongs to the nematode ACE-3/4 subgroup. There was a significant reduction in the number of galls in transgenic tobacco roots when Mi-ace-1, Mi-ace-2, and Mi-ace-3 were knocked down simultaneously, whereas little or no effect were observed when only one or two of these genes were knocked down. This is an indication that the functions of these three genes are redundant. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. High, but not low, exercise volume shifts the balance of renin-angiotensin system toward ACE2/Mas receptor axis in skeletal muscle in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Eliete Dalla Corte; Giori, Isabele Gomes; Machado, Marcus Vinícius; Magliano, D'Angelo Carlo; Freitas, Fernanda Marques; Andrade, Mariana Sodré Boêta; Vieira, Aline Bomfim; Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Tibiriçá, Eduardo

    2017-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors that is linked to central obesity, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance (IR), and dyslipidemia, where the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may provide a link among them. This study aimed to evaluate volume exercise effects comparing low vs. high volume of chronic aerobic exercise on RAS axes in skeletal muscle in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) rat model. For this, male Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed a standard chow (SC) diet or a high-fat (HF) diet for 32 wk. Animals receiving the HF diet were randomly divided into low exercise volume (LEV, 150 min/wk) and high exercise volume (HEV, 300 min/wk) at the 20th week. After 12 wk of aerobic treadmill training, the body mass and composition, blood pressure, glucose and lipid metabolism, RAS axes, insulin signaling, and inflammatory pathway were performed. HEV slowed the body mass gain, reduced intra-abdominal fat pad and leptin levels, improved total and peripheral body composition and inflammatory cytokine, reduced angiotensin II type 1 receptor expression, and increased Mas receptor protein expression compared with the HF animals. Sedentary groups (SC and HF) presented lower time to exhaustion and maximal velocity compared with the LEV and HEV groups. Both exercise training groups showed reduced resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate, improved glucose tolerance, IR, insulin signaling, and lipid profile. We conclude that the HEV, but not LEV, shifted the balance of RAS toward the ACE2/Mas receptor axis in skeletal muscle, presenting protective effects against the DIO model. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Coxiella burnetii shedding by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guatteo, Raphaël; Beaudeau, François; Joly, Alain; Seegers, Henri

    2007-01-01

    While shedding routes of Coxiella burnetii are identified, the characteristics of Coxiella shedding are still widely unknown, especially in dairy cattle. However, this information is crucial to assess the natural course of Coxiella burnetii infection within a herd and then to elaborate strategies to limit the risks of transmission between animals and to humans. The present study aimed at (i) describing the characteristics of Coxiella burnetii shedding by dairy cows (in milk, vaginal mucus, faeces) in five infected dairy herds, and at (ii) investigating the possible relationships between shedding patterns and serological responses. A total of 145 cows were included in a follow-up consisting of seven concomitant samplings of milk, vaginal mucus, faeces and blood (Day 0, D7, D14, D21, D28, D63, D90). Detection and quantification of Coxiella burnetii titres were performed in milk, vaginal mucus and faeces samples using real-time PCR assay, while antibodies against Coxiella were detected using an ELISA technique. For a given shedding route, and a given periodicity (weekly or monthly), cows were gathered into different shedding kinetic patterns according to the sequence of PCR responses. Distribution of estimated titres in Coxiella burnetii was described according to shedding kinetic patterns. Coxiella burnetii shedding was found scarcely and sporadically in faeces. Vaginal mucus shedding concerned almost 50% of the cows studied and was found intermittently or sporadically, depending on the periodicity considered. Almost 40% of cows were detected as milk shedders, with two predominant shedding patterns: persistent and sporadic, regardless of the sampling periodicity. Significantly higher estimated titres in Coxiella burnetii were observed in cows with persistent shedding patterns suggesting the existence of heavy shedder cows. These latter cows were mostly, persistently highly-seropositive, suggesting that repeated serological testings could be a reliable tool to screen

  2. Improved Load Shedding Scheme considering Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Nitsas, Antonios; Altin, Müfit

    2017-01-01

    With high penetration of distributed generation (DG), the conventional under-frequency load shedding (UFLS) face many challenges and may not perform as expected. This article proposes new UFLS schemes, which are designed to overcome the shortcomings of traditional load shedding scheme...

  3. Goodbye, solar shed; Pfiat di, Solarstadl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diermann, Ralph

    2012-07-01

    In southern Germany, farmers and conservationalists are fighting over new sheds equipped with photovoltaic roofs. The impending amendment of the EEG is expected to solve the conflict. The losers of the game will be the farmers as reimbursement for solar roofs on sheds will be lowered.

  4. 77 FR 53884 - Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-04

    ... Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards; Notice of Compliance Filing Take notice that on August 9, 2012, North American Electric Reliability Corporation submitted a compliance... Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards, 139 FERC ] 61,098, (Order No. 763) (2012). Any person...

  5. Epidural block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000484.htm Epidural block - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An epidural block is a numbing medicine given by injection (shot) ...

  6. Population Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  7. Vortex Shedding Inside a Baffled Air Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip; Kenny, R. Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Common in the operation of both segmented and un-segmented large solid rocket motors is the occurrence of vortex shedding within the motor chamber. A portion of the energy within a shed vortex is converted to acoustic energy, potentially driving the longitudinal acoustic modes of the motor in a quasi-discrete fashion. This vortex shedding-acoustic mode excitation event occurs for every Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) operation, giving rise to subsequent axial thrust oscillations. In order to better understand this vortex shedding/acoustic mode excitation phenomena, unsteady CFD simulations were run for both a test geometry and the full scale RSRM geometry. This paper covers the results from the subscale geometry runs, which were based on work focusing on the RSRM hydrodynamics. Unsteady CFD simulation parameters, including boundary conditions and post-processing returns, are reviewed. The results were further post-processed to identify active acoustic modes and vortex shedding characteristics. Probable locations for acoustic energy generation, and subsequent acoustic mode excitation, are discussed.

  8. Detection block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezak, A.

    1987-01-01

    A diagram is given of a detection block used for monitoring burnup of nuclear reactor fuel. A shielding block is an important part of the detection block. It stabilizes the fuel assembly in the fixing hole in front of a collimator where a suitable gamma beam is defined for gamma spectrometry determination of fuel burnup. The detector case and a neutron source case are placed on opposite sides of the fixing hole. For neutron measurement for which the water in the tank is used as a moderator, the neutron detector-fuel assembly configuration is selected such that neutrons from spontaneous fission and neutrons induced with the neutron source can both be measured. The patented design of the detection block permits longitudinal travel and rotation of the fuel assembly to any position, and thus more reliable determination of nuclear fuel burnup. (E.S.). 1 fig

  9. Wake shed by an accelerating carangiform fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Shang-Chieh; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2008-11-01

    We reveal an important fact that momentum change observed in the wake of an accelerating carangiform fish does not necessarily elucidate orientations of propulsive forces produced. An accelerating Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus) was found to shed a wake with net forward fluid momentum, which seemed drag-producing. Based on Newton's law, however, an accelerating fish is expected to shed a thrust wake with net rearward fluid momentum, rather than a drag wake. The unusual wake pattern observed is considered to be resulted primarily from the effect of pressure gradient created by accelerating movements of the fish. Ambient fluids tend to be sucked into low pressure zones behind an accelerating fish, resulting in forward orientations of jets recognizable in the wake. Accordingly, as to an accelerating fish, identifying force orientations from the wake requires considering also the effect of pressure gradient.

  10. CAD Instructor Designs Eco-Friendly Shed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendau, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Dissatisfied with the options offered by big box stores--and wanting to save some money and go as green as possible--the author puts his design and construction skills to good use. In this article, he shares how he designed and built an eco-friendly shed. He says he is very pleased with the results of working with his own design, reducing waste,…

  11. Hjemløshed i Danmark 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Heidi Hesselberg; Boje-Kovacs, Bence; Benjaminsen, Lars

    Rapporten fremlægger resultaterne af den tredje nationale kortlægning af hjemløshed i Danmark og giver et ajourført billede af omfanget og karakteren af hjemløsheden. Ligesom i de to forrige optællinger blev der i kortlægningsugen (uge 6) registreret ca. 5.000 hjemløse. Sammensætningen af gruppen...

  12. Periodic cavitation shedding in a cylindrical orifice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, C.; Barber, T.; Milton, B.; Rosengarten, G. [University of New South Wales, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Sydney (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Cavitation structures in a large-scale (D = 8.25 mm), plain orifice style nozzle within a unique experimental rig are investigated using high-speed visualisation and digital image processing techniques. Refractive index matching with an acrylic nozzle is achieved using aqueous sodium iodide for the test fluid. Cavitation collapse length, unsteady shedding frequency and spray angles are measured for cavitation conditions from incipient to supercavitation for a range of Reynolds numbers, for a fixed L/D ratio of 4.85. Periodic cavitation shedding was shown to occur with frequencies between 500 and 2,000 Hz for conditions in which cavitation occupied less than 30% of the nozzle length. A discontinuity in collapse length was shown to occur once the cavitation exceeded this length, coinciding with a loss of periodic shedding. A mechanism for this behaviour is discussed. Peak spray angles of approximately {theta} {approx} 14 were recorded for supercavitation conditions indicating the positive influence of cavitation bubble collapse on the jet atomisation process. (orig.)

  13. Suppression of vortex shedding around a square cylinder using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    control of vortex shedding of square cylinders using blowing or suction. ... also showed complete suppression of vortex shedding if suction velocity falls between 0.40 .... equations such that mass balance (continuity) is satisfied simultaneously.

  14. Juxtamembrane shedding of Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 is sequence independent and essential, and helps evade invasion-inhibitory antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olivieri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The malarial life cycle involves repeated rounds of intraerythrocytic replication interspersed by host cell rupture which releases merozoites that rapidly invade fresh erythrocytes. Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1 is a merozoite protein that plays a critical role in invasion. Antibodies against AMA1 prevent invasion and can protect against malaria in vivo, so AMA1 is of interest as a malaria vaccine candidate. AMA1 is efficiently shed from the invading parasite surface, predominantly through juxtamembrane cleavage by a membrane-bound protease called SUB2, but also by limited intramembrane cleavage. We have investigated the structural requirements for shedding of Plasmodium falciparum AMA1 (PfAMA1, and the consequences of its inhibition. Mutagenesis of the intramembrane cleavage site by targeted homologous recombination abolished intramembrane cleavage with no effect on parasite viability in vitro. Examination of PfSUB2-mediated shedding of episomally-expressed PfAMA1 revealed that the position of cleavage is determined primarily by its distance from the parasite membrane. Certain mutations at the PfSUB2 cleavage site block shedding, and parasites expressing these non-cleavable forms of PfAMA1 on a background of expression of the wild type gene invade and replicate normally in vitro. The non-cleavable PfAMA1 is also functional in invasion. However - in contrast to the intramembrane cleavage site - mutations that block PfSUB2-mediated shedding could not be stably introduced into the genomic pfama1 locus, indicating that some shedding of PfAMA1 by PfSUB2 is essential. Remarkably, parasites expressing shedding-resistant forms of PfAMA1 exhibit enhanced sensitivity to antibody-mediated inhibition of invasion. Drugs that inhibit PfSUB2 activity should block parasite replication and may also enhance the efficacy of vaccines based on AMA1 and other merozoite surface proteins.

  15. 76 FR 66220 - Automatic Underfrequency Load Shedding and Load Shedding Plans Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    .... I. Background A. Underfrequency Load Shedding 4. An interconnected electric power system must... generation and load within an interconnected electric power system is shown in the frequency of the system.\\4... Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 31,242, order on reh'g...

  16. Veje ind og ud af hjemløshed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Enemark, Morten Holm

    Hjemløsheden i Danmark har været stigende i de seneste år. Denne rapport beskriver forløbene op mod hjemløshed, vejene gennem hjemløshed og chancerne for at komme ud af hjemløshed igen. På baggrund af data fra hjemløsetællingerne og fra landets herberger (§ 110-boformer) i perioden 2009-2015 anal...

  17. Load shedding scheme in the south/southeastern interconnected system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira Filho, Xisto; Couri, J J.G.; Gomes, P; Almeida, P C [ELETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1988-12-31

    This paper presents some characteristics of the Brazilian interconnected system and discusses the load shedding scheme in its different stages considering the beginning of operation of the Itaipu power plant. The present situation of the South and Southeastern load shedding scheme combination is also commented. Finally, the interconnected system evolution and the effects on the load shedding schemes are discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. An efficient, block-by-block algorithm for inverting a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuter, Matthew G; Hill, Judith C

    2012-01-01

    We present an algorithm for computing any block of the inverse of a block tridiagonal, nearly block Toeplitz matrix (defined as a block tridiagonal matrix with a small number of deviations from the purely block Toeplitz structure). By exploiting both the block tridiagonal and the nearly block Toeplitz structures, this method scales independently of the total number of blocks in the matrix and linearly with the number of deviations. Numerical studies demonstrate this scaling and the advantages of our method over alternatives.

  19. Analysis of Block OMP using Block RIP

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jun; Li, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Wang, Xiqin

    2011-01-01

    Orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) is a canonical greedy algorithm for sparse signal reconstruction. When the signal of interest is block sparse, i.e., it has nonzero coefficients occurring in clusters, the block version of OMP algorithm (i.e., Block OMP) outperforms the conventional OMP. In this paper, we demonstrate that a new notion of block restricted isometry property (Block RIP), which is less stringent than standard restricted isometry property (RIP), can be used for a very straightforw...

  20. An implementation of particle swarm optimization to evaluate optimal under-voltage load shedding in competitive electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini-Bioki, M. M.; Rashidinejad, M.; Abdollahi, A.

    2013-11-01

    Load shedding is a crucial issue in power systems especially under restructured electricity environment. Market-driven load shedding in reregulated power systems associated with security as well as reliability is investigated in this paper. A technoeconomic multi-objective function is introduced to reveal an optimal load shedding scheme considering maximum social welfare. The proposed optimization problem includes maximum GENCOs and loads' profits as well as maximum loadability limit under normal and contingency conditions. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) as a heuristic optimization technique, is utilized to find an optimal load shedding scheme. In a market-driven structure, generators offer their bidding blocks while the dispatchable loads will bid their price-responsive demands. An independent system operator (ISO) derives a market clearing price (MCP) while rescheduling the amount of generating power in both pre-contingency and post-contingency conditions. The proposed methodology is developed on a 3-bus system and then is applied to a modified IEEE 30-bus test system. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed methodology in implementing the optimal load shedding satisfying social welfare by maintaining voltage stability margin (VSM) through technoeconomic analyses.

  1. Numerical Simulations of Vortex Shedding in Hydraulic Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Daniel; Marcu, Bogdan

    2004-01-01

    Turbomachines for rocket propulsion applications operate with many different working fluids and flow conditions. Oxidizer boost turbines often operate in liquid oxygen, resulting in an incompressible flow field. Vortex shedding from airfoils in this flow environment can have adverse effects on both turbine performance and durability. In this study the effects of vortex shedding in a low-pressure oxidizer turbine are investigated. Benchmark results are also presented for vortex shedding behind a circular cylinder. The predicted results are compared with available experimental data.

  2. Root cause analysis of oxide scale forming and shedding in high temperature reheater of a 200MW super high pressure boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bo, Jiang; Hao, Weidong; Hu, Zhihong; Liu, Fuguo

    2015-12-01

    In order to solve the problem of over temperature tube-burst caused by oxide scale shedding and blocking tubes of high temperature reheater of a 200MW super high pressure power plant boiler, this paper expounds the mechanism of scale forming and shedding, and analyzes the probable causes of the tube-burst failure. The results show that the root cause of scale forming is that greater steam extraction flow after reforming of the second extraction leads to less steam flow into reheater, which causes over temperature to some of the heated tubes; and the root cause of scale shedding is that long term operation in AGC-R mode brings about great fluctuations of unit load, steam temperature and pressure, accelerating scale shedding. In conclusion, preventive measures are drawn up considering the operation mode of the unit.

  3. Ultrasound guided supraclavicular block.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hanumanthaiah, Deepak

    2013-09-01

    Ultrasound guided regional anaesthesia is becoming increasingly popular. The supraclavicular block has been transformed by ultrasound guidance into a potentially safe superficial block. We reviewed the techniques of performing supraclavicular block with special focus on ultrasound guidance.

  4. Reinfusion of Shed Blood Following Pediatric Orthopaedic Surgery

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blevins, Field

    1991-01-01

    .... The use of a system for salvage and reinfusion of nonwashed shed blood postoperatively is recommended as a safe method to minimize the need for homologous transfusion, especially when there is...

  5. Nanoscale interfacial defect shedding in a growing nematic droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Sebastian; Provatas, Nikolas; Rey, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    Interfacial defect shedding is the most recent known mechanism for defect formation in a thermally driven isotropic-to-nematic phase transition. It manifests in nematic-isotropic interfaces going through an anchoring switch. Numerical computations in planar geometry established that a growing nematic droplet can undergo interfacial defect shedding, nucleating interfacial defect structures that shed into the bulk as +1/2 point defects. By extending the study of interfacial defect shedding in a growing nematic droplet to larger length and time scales, and to three dimensions, we unveil an oscillatory growth mode involving shape and anchoring transitions that results in a controllable regular distributions of point defects in planar geometry, and complex structures of disclination lines in three dimensions.

  6. Counter and Complicit Masculine Discourse Among Men's Shed Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Corey S; Roger, Kerstin; Robertson, Steve; Oliffe, John L; Nurmi, Mary Anne; Urquhart, James

    2017-07-01

    Men's Sheds is a growing international movement aimed at providing men with places and activities that facilitate social connectedness. Despite Men's Sheds' focus on males, little attention has been paid to masculinities within the specific context of these settings. The current study used a gender relations framework to explore the ways in which attendees discussed Men's Sheds, with particular attention to discussions that were complicit and counter to traditional, hegemonic views of masculinity, and diverse positions in between these binaries. The data consisted of transcripts and field notes from four focus groups comprising mostly older, White, retired male members of a Canadian shed ( N = 22). The analysis revealed three overall themes: (1) focus on work, (2) independence, and (3) need for male-focused spaces. These themes and associated subthemes suggest that shed members ascribe to dominant masculine values and ideals, but also support more fluid and flexible views of masculinity. Implications are discussed for how working with an array of masculinities within the Men's Sheds movement will be helpful with respect to their future growth in Canada and internationally.

  7. Capacity building in indigenous men's groups and sheds across Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southcombe, Amie; Cavanagh, Jillian; Bartram, Timothy

    2015-09-01

    This article presents an investigation into capacity building, at the community level, in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Men's Groups and Sheds. As safe men's spaces, Men's Groups and Sheds represent an ever-growing social, and health and well-being community service across Australia. The study is qualitative and employs 'yarning circles' (focus groups), semi-structured interviews and observations to gather data from 15 Groups/Sheds involving 45 men from urban, regional and remote communities. We found that capacity building is primarily about securing relationships between Group Leaders/Shed Co-ordinators and Government services. Capacity building establishes links to services such as Centrelink, Medicare, Department of Housing, Probation and Control, and positive outcomes such as Indigenous men securing housing and Centrelink payments. Capacity building results in better health outcomes and, educates and empowers men to improve their social, cultural, emotional and economic well-being. It helps men to better connect with family and community. The current research paves the way for countries worldwide to explore the conceptual and empirical approach of capacity building applicable to other Indigenous [and non-Indigenous] Men's Groups/Sheds. We recommend feasibilities studies, on approaches to capacity building in Indigenous Groups/Sheds, be carried out within urban, regional and remote regions across the country. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Circadian disc shedding in Xenopus retina in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flannery, J.G.; Fisher, S.K.

    1984-01-01

    To further examine the endogenous rhythm of disc shedding and phagocytosis observed in several species, adult Xenopus were entrained to a 12 hr light/12 hr dark cycle and then placed in constant darkness. At various times during a 3-day period of constant darkness, eyes were explanted and placed into culture medium, then processed for light and electron microscopy. A clear rhythmicity of disc shedding was observed, with pronounced peaks at the times light onset occurred in the original entrainment cycle. Modification of the HCO 3 - ion concentration in the medium was found to raise the amplitude of the peak of endogenous disc shedding. Explants maintained in culture medium containing deuterium oxide (a compound known to perturb circadian oscillators) were found to shed with a longer interval between peaks. The addition of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin, to this preparation suppressed the shedding rhythm. The action of anisomycin was investigated by autoradiographic examination of the pattern of 3 H-leucine uptake and protein synthesis by the explant. The findings suggest the presence of a circadian oscillator for rhythmic disc shedding within the amphibian eye

  9. Chronic Treatment with Ang-(1-7 Reverses Abnormal Reactivity in the Corpus Cavernosum and Normalizes Diabetes-Induced Changes in the Protein Levels of ACE, ACE2, ROCK1, ROCK2 and Omega-Hydroxylase in a Rat Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam H. M. Yousif

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiotensin-(1-7 [Ang-(1-7] may have beneficial effects in diabetes mellitus-induced erectile dysfunction (DMIED but its molecular actions in the diabetic corpus cavernosum (CC are not known. We characterized the effects of diabetes and/or chronic in vivo administration of Ang-(1-7 on vascular reactivity in the rat corpus cavernosum (CC and on protein expression levels of potential downstream effectors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, ACE2, Rho kinases 1 and 2 (ROCK1 and ROCK2, and omega-hydroxylase, the cytochrome-P450 enzyme that metabolizes arachidonic acid to form the vasoconstrictor, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid. Streptozotocin-treated rats were chronicically administered Ang-(1-7 with or without A779, a Mas receptor antagonist, during weeks 4 to 6 of diabetes. Ang-(1-7 reversed diabetes-induced abnormal reactivity to vasoactive agents (endothelin-1, phenylepherine, and carbachol in the CC without correcting hyperglycemia. Six weeks of diabetes led to elevated ACE, ROCK1, ROCK 2, and omega-hydroxylase and a concomitant decrease in ACE2 protein expression levels that were normalized by Ang-(1-7 treatment but not upon coadministration of A779. These data are supportive of the notion that the beneficial effects of Ang-(1-7 in DMIED involve counterregulation of diabetes-induced changes in ACE, ACE2, Rho kinases, and omega-hydroxylase proteins in the diabetic CC via a Mas receptor-dependent mechanism.

  10. Experimental Investigation of Vortex Shedding in High Reynolds Number Flow Over Compressor Blades in Cascade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lim, Choon

    2003-01-01

    .... Vortex shedding was determined to be a leading edge phenomenon as periodic shedding was only detected on the pressure side of the wake, The relationship between vortex shedding frequency and Reynolds...

  11. Homogeneous bilateral block shifts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Douglas class were classified in [3]; they are unilateral block shifts of arbitrary block size (i.e. dim H(n) can be anything). However, no examples of irreducible homogeneous bilateral block shifts of block size larger than 1 were known until now.

  12. ACE-2 HILLCLOUD. An overview of the ACE-2 ground-based cloud experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bower, B.K.N.; Choularton, T.W.; Gallagher, M.W.

    2000-01-01

    the dependence of the cloud microphysics and chemistry on the characteristics of the aerosols and trace gases entering cloud, and to simultaneously study the influence of the physical and chemical processes occurring within the cloud on the size distribution, chemical and hygroscopic properties of the aerosol......) and higher aerosol mass loadings. Cloud droplet number concentrations N, increased from 50 cm-3 in background maritime air to >2500 cm-3 in aged polluted continental air, a concentration much higher than had previously been detected. Surprisingly, N was seen to vary almost linearly with aerosol number across...... were around 0.3 ppbv even in air originating over the ocean, another unexpected but important result for the region. NO2 was present in background concentrations of typically 15 pptv to 100 pptv and NO3. (the nitrate radical) was observed at night throughout. Calculations suggest NO3. losses were...

  13. CRISP. Intelligent load shedding. Deliverable 1.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gajic, Z.; Karlsson, D.; Ullah, N.R.; Okuboye, S.; Andrieu, C.; Carlsson, P.

    2005-08-01

    Load shedding has been used to mitigate the consequences of large disturbances in electric power systems, since the beginning of the electrification era. The way to execute the load shedding, i.e. open a circuit breaker, has hardly developed at all for a 100-year period. The modern society dependence on reliable electricity supply is continuously increasing. This means that the consequences of traditional load shedding are not acceptable. In the meantime computer and communication technology has developed tremendously. There is also a trend to use more and more intelligent control and less hardware, such as lines and generators, to provide the required level of reliability for the electric supply. Especially in power systems, and parts of power systems, comprising distributed generation, there seems to be a great potential to improve the overall cost/benefit-ratio for the desired level of reliability, by the use of intelligent load shedding. Intelligent load shedding is a means to improve power system stability, by providing an adapted load control along the distribution network, in situations where the power system otherwise would go unstable. The work with intelligent load shedding in this work package results in various technical principles of dedicated algorithms. These algorithms intend to bring a support tool for the operating system during critical situations. The main aspects are evaluating the right amount and location of power response for a given disturbance, and evaluating the right time response expected in order to comply with an acceptable stability recover. This time response is a main object in order to define appropriate ICT network enabling such a reliable implementation. A main problem of the intelligent load shedding is how to choose load to shed conveniently and quickly. There is a technical problem of finding the right level and location of the load to shed, and also an economical problem of giving incentives in order to have enough remote

  14. Influence of particle shedding from silicone tubing on antibody stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Verena; Hediger, Constanze; Matilainen, Julia; Grauschopf, Ulla; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2018-05-01

    Peristaltic pumps are increasingly employed during fill & finish operations of a biopharmaceutical drug, due to sensitivity of many biological products to rotary piston pump-related stresses. Yet, possibly also unit operations using peristaltic pumps may shed particulates into the final product due to abrasion from the employed tubing. It was the aim of this study to elucidate the potential influence of particles shed from peristaltic pump tubing on the stability of a drug product. Spiking solutions containing shed silicone particles were prepared via peristaltic pumping of placebo under recirculating conditions and subsequently characterized. Two formulated antibodies were spiked with two realistic, but worst-case levels of particles and a 6-month accelerated stability study with storage at 2-8, 25 and 40°C were conducted. Regarding the formation of aggregates and fragments, both mAbs degraded at their typically expected rates and no additional impact of spiked particles was observed. No changes were discerned however in turbidity, subvisible and visible particle assessments. Flow imaging data for one of the mAb formulations with spiked particles suggested limited colloidal stability of shed particles as indicated by a similar increase in spiked placebo. Shed silicone particles from peristaltic pump tubing are assumed to not impair drug product stability. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Testing block subdivision algorithms on block designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Natalie; Patterson, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Integrated land use-transportation models predict future transportation demand taking into account how households and firms arrange themselves partly as a function of the transportation system. Recent integrated models require parcels as inputs and produce household and employment predictions at the parcel scale. Block subdivision algorithms automatically generate parcel patterns within blocks. Evaluating block subdivision algorithms is done by way of generating parcels and comparing them to those in a parcel database. Three block subdivision algorithms are evaluated on how closely they reproduce parcels of different block types found in a parcel database from Montreal, Canada. While the authors who developed each of the algorithms have evaluated them, they have used their own metrics and block types to evaluate their own algorithms. This makes it difficult to compare their strengths and weaknesses. The contribution of this paper is in resolving this difficulty with the aim of finding a better algorithm suited to subdividing each block type. The proposed hypothesis is that given the different approaches that block subdivision algorithms take, it's likely that different algorithms are better adapted to subdividing different block types. To test this, a standardized block type classification is used that consists of mutually exclusive and comprehensive categories. A statistical method is used for finding a better algorithm and the probability it will perform well for a given block type. Results suggest the oriented bounding box algorithm performs better for warped non-uniform sites, as well as gridiron and fragmented uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel areas and widths. The Generalized Parcel Divider 1 algorithm performs better for gridiron non-uniform sites. The Straight Skeleton algorithm performs better for loop and lollipop networks as well as fragmented non-uniform and warped uniform sites. It also produces more similar parcel shapes and patterns.

  16. Stochastic oscillations induced by vortex shedding in wind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Claus

    1997-01-01

    As a fluid flows past a circular cylinder,vortices are shed alternately from each side at most values of the Reynolds number. Over a certain range of windspeeds, the periodicity in the wake is synchronized or captured by the mechanical system. The shedding abruptly deviates from the linear Strouhal...... dependence and stays constant at the mechanical natural frequency. This coupling between the velocity field and the motion of the mechanical system is referred to as the lock-in phenomenon. The lock-in phenomenon has importance in structural engineering for slightly damped slender structures exposed to wind...... in the wake is synchronized or captured by the mechanical system. The shedding abruptly deviates from the linear Strouhal dependence and stays constant at the mechanical natural frequency. This coupling between the velocity field and the motion of the mechanical system is referred to as the lock-in phenomenon...

  17. Protoearth mass shedding and the origin of the moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    Darwin's (1980) theory of lunar formation from the earth by means of a rotationally driven dynamic fission instability is presently considered in view of viscous shear's maintenance of solid body rotation throughout the protoearth's accretion phase. Assuming the appropriateness of a polytropic account of the protoearth, it is unlikely that dynamic fission could have occurred; instantaneous spin-up following a giant impact would instead have led to mass shedding. The dynamical phenomenon of mass shedding is here explored on the basis of numerical models for a self-gravitating, axisymmetric, polytropic and dissipative protoearth. It is concluded that mass shedding from the protoearth mantle after a giant impact and explosion could have contributed substantial matter to a lunar disk.

  18. Men's re-placement: Social practices in a Men's Shed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstiss, David; Hodgetts, Darrin; Stolte, Ottilie

    2018-05-06

    Transitions into retirement can be difficult at the best of times. Many men find themselves having to reflect on who they are and what their lives are about. Their access to social supports and material resources are often disrupted. Men's Sheds offer a space where retired men can actively pursue wellbeing, and respond to disruption and loneliness through emplaced community practices. This paper draws on ethnographic research in a Men's Shed in Auckland, New Zealand in order to explore the social practices through which men create a shared space for themselves in which they can engage in meaningful relationships with each other. We document how participants work in concert to create a space in which they can be together through collective labour. Their emplacement in the shed affords opportunities for supported transitions into retirement and for engaging healthy lives beyond paid employment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Poly(ferrocenylsilane)-block-Polylactide Block Copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, M.; van Zanten, Thomas S.; Hempenius, Mark A.; Zhong, Zhiyuan; Feijen, Jan; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2007-01-01

    A PFS/PLA block copolymer was studied to probe the effect of strong surface interactions on pattern formation in PFS block copolymer thin films. Successful synthesis of PFS-b-PLA was demonstrated. Thin films of these polymers show phase separation to form PFS microdomains in a PLA matrix, and

  20. HydroSHEDS: A global comprehensive hydrographic dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickel, B. A.; Lehner, B.; Sindorf, N.

    2007-12-01

    The Hydrological data and maps based on SHuttle Elevation Derivatives at multiple Scales (HydroSHEDS) is an innovative product that, for the first time, provides hydrographic information in a consistent and comprehensive format for regional and global-scale applications. HydroSHEDS offers a suite of geo-referenced data sets, including stream networks, watershed boundaries, drainage directions, and ancillary data layers such as flow accumulations, distances, and river topology information. The goal of developing HydroSHEDS was to generate key data layers to support regional and global watershed analyses, hydrological modeling, and freshwater conservation planning at a quality, resolution and extent that had previously been unachievable. Available resolutions range from 3 arc-second (approx. 90 meters at the equator) to 5 minute (approx. 10 km at the equator) with seamless near-global extent. HydroSHEDS is derived from elevation data of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) at 3 arc-second resolution. The original SRTM data have been hydrologically conditioned using a sequence of automated procedures. Existing methods of data improvement and newly developed algorithms have been applied, including void filling, filtering, stream burning, and upscaling techniques. Manual corrections were made where necessary. Preliminary quality assessments indicate that the accuracy of HydroSHEDS significantly exceeds that of existing global watershed and river maps. HydroSHEDS was developed by the Conservation Science Program of the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in partnership with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), The Nature Conservancy (TNC), and the Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR) of the University of Kassel, Germany.

  1. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Developing of the EV charging and parking shed of BIPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Shaobo; Wei Chuanchuan; Yu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) is an important application way of solar photovoltaic power. The electric vehicle (EV) charging and parking shed of BIPV is the regeneration energy intellectual integration demonstration application system collection of photovoltaic (PV) grid power,PV off-grid power,EV charging and parking shed,and any part of the functions and their combination will be engaged in practical application on demand. The paper describes the PV shed system structure and design in detail with the present of its actual photos. The shed is 50 m long and 5.5 m wide and capable of parking 18 cars. Under the control of system intellectual con-troller,the power produced by PV from sunlight will charge the parking EV car prior to charging the storage bat-tery,charging the storage battery prior to grid power,grid power at last,and charge the EV by utility grid when it is a cloudy or rainy day.

  3. Circulation shedding in viscous starting flow past a flat plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitsche, Monika; Xu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of viscous flow past a flat plate moving in the direction normal to itself reveal details of the vortical structure of the flow. At early times, most of the vorticity is attached to the plate. This paper introduces a definition of the shed circulation at all times and shows that it indeed represents vorticity that separates and remains separated from the plate. During a large initial time period, the shed circulation satisfies the scaling laws predicted for self-similar inviscid separation. Various contributions to the circulation shedding rate are presented. The results show that during this initial time period, viscous diffusion of vorticity out of the vortex is significant but appears to be independent of the value of the Reynolds number. At later times, the departure of the shed circulation from its large Reynolds number behaviour is significantly affected by diffusive loss of vorticity through the symmetry axis. A timescale is proposed that describes when the viscous loss through the axis becomes relevant. The simulations provide benchmark results to evaluate simpler separation models such as point vortex and vortex sheet models. A comparison with vortex sheet results is included. (paper)

  4. Replication, pathogenicity, shedding, and transmission of Zaire ebolavirus in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobinger, Gary P; Leung, Anders; Neufeld, James; Richardson, Jason S; Falzarano, Darryl; Smith, Greg; Tierney, Kevin; Patel, Ami; Weingartl, Hana M

    2011-07-15

    (See the editorial commentary by Bausch, on pages 179-81.) Reston ebolavirus was recently detected in pigs in the Philippines. Specific antibodies were found in pig farmers, indicating exposure to the virus. This important observation raises the possibility that pigs may be susceptible to Ebola virus infection, including from other species, such as Zaire ebolavirus (ZEBOV), and can transmit to other susceptible hosts. This study investigated whether ZEBOV, a species commonly reemerging in central Africa, can replicate and induce disease in pigs and can be transmitted to naive animals. Domesticated Landrace pigs were challenged through mucosal exposure with a total of 1 ×10(6) plaque-forming units of ZEBOV and monitored for virus replication, shedding, and pathogenesis. Using similar conditions, virus transmission from infected to naive animals was evaluated in a second set of pigs. Following mucosal exposure, pigs replicated ZEBOV to high titers (reaching 10(7) median tissue culture infective doses/mL), mainly in the respiratory tract, and developed severe lung pathology. Shedding from the oronasal mucosa was detected for up to 14 days after infection, and transmission was confirmed in all naive pigs cohabiting with inoculated animals. These results shed light on the susceptibility of pigs to ZEBOV infection and identify an unexpected site of virus amplification and shedding linked to transmission of infectious virus.

  5. Block That Pain!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Block That Pain! Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of ... contrast, most pain relievers used for surgical procedures block activity in all types of neurons. This can ...

  6. Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... known cause. Causes can include: Left bundle branch block Heart attacks (myocardial infarction) Thickened, stiffened or weakened ... myocarditis) High blood pressure (hypertension) Right bundle branch block A heart abnormality that's present at birth (congenital) — ...

  7. Zika Virus Shedding in Semen of Symptomatic Infected Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Paul S; Duggal, Nisha K; Hook, Sarah A; Delorey, Mark; Fischer, Marc; Olzenak McGuire, Dana; Becksted, Heidi; Max, Ryan J; Anishchenko, Michael; Schwartz, Amy M; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Nelson, Christina A; McDonald, Erin M; Brooks, John T; Brault, Aaron C; Hinckley, Alison F

    2018-04-12

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus that has been linked to adverse birth outcomes. Previous reports have shown that person-to-person transmission can occur by means of sexual contact. We conducted a prospective study involving men with symptomatic ZIKV infection to determine the frequency and duration of ZIKV shedding in semen and urine and to identify risk factors for prolonged shedding in these fluids. Specimens were obtained twice per month for 6 months after illness onset and were tested by real-time reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay for ZIKV RNA and by Vero cell culture and plaque assay for infectious ZIKV. A total of 1327 semen samples from 184 men and 1038 urine samples from 183 men were obtained 14 to 304 days after illness onset. ZIKV RNA was detected in the urine of 7 men (4%) and in the semen of 60 (33%), including in semen samples from 22 of 36 men (61%) who were tested within 30 days after illness onset. ZIKV RNA shedding in semen decreased substantially during the 3 months after illness onset but continued for 281 days in 1 man (1%). Factors that were independently associated with prolonged RNA shedding included older age, less frequent ejaculation, and the presence of certain symptoms at the time of initial illness. Infectious ZIKV was isolated from 3 of 78 semen samples with detectable ZIKV RNA, all obtained within 30 days after illness onset and all with at least 7.0 log 10 ZIKV RNA copies per milliliter of semen. ZIKV RNA was commonly present in the semen of men with symptomatic ZIKV infection and persisted in some men for more than 6 months. In contrast, shedding of infectious ZIKV appeared to be much less common and was limited to the first few weeks after illness onset. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  8. Generalized Block Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Block tearing is considered in several codes as a pure block tension or a pure block shear failure mechanism. However in many situations the load acts eccentrically and involves the transfer of a substantial moment in combination with the shear force and perhaps a normal force. A literature study...... shows that no readily available tests with a well-defined substantial eccentricity have been performed. This paper presents theoretical and experimental work leading towards generalized block failure capacity methods. Simple combination of normal force, shear force and moment stress distributions along...... yield lines around the block leads to simple interaction formulas similar to other interaction formulas in the codes....

  9. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  10. 31 CFR 595.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 595.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and blocked...

  11. Hepatocyte growth factor inhibitor-2 prevents shedding of matritpase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Brian R; Steffensen, Simon D; Nielsen, Nis V L

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-2 (HAI-2) is an inhibitor of many proteases in vitro, including the membrane-bound serine protease, matriptase. Studies of knock-out mice have shown that HAI-2 is essential for placental development only in mice expressing matriptase, suggesting that HAI......-2 is important for regulation of matriptase. Previous studies have shown that recombinant expression of matriptase was unsuccessful unless co-expressed with another HAI, HAI-1. In the present study we show that when human matriptase is recombinantly expressed alone in the canine cell line MDCK......, then human matriptase mRNA can be detected and the human matriptase ectodomain is shed to the media, suggesting that matriptase expressed alone is rapidly transported through the secretory pathway and shed. Whereas matriptase expressed together with HAI-1 or HAI-2 accumulates on the plasma membrane where...

  12. Syndecan-4 shedding impairs macrovascular angiogenesis in diabetes mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ran; Xie, Jun; Wu, Han; Li, Guannan; Chen, Jianzhou; Chen, Qinhua; Wang, Lian; Xu, Biao, E-mail: xubiao@medmail.com.cn

    2016-05-20

    Purpose: Syndecan-4 (synd4) is a ubiquitous heparan sulfate proteoglycan cell surface receptor that modulates cell proliferation, migration, mechanotransduction, and endocytosis. The extracellular domain of synd4 sheds heavily in acute inflammation, but the shedding of synd4 in chronic inflammation, such as diabetes mellitus (DM), is still undefined. We investigated the alterations of synd4 endothelial expression in DM and the influence of impaired synd4 signaling on angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), diabetic rats, synd4 null mice, and db/db mice. Material and methods: HUVECs were incubated with advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Western blot analysis was used to determine synd4 protein expression and ELISA was used to detect soluble synd4 fragments. The concentration of synd4 in the aortic endothelia of diabetic rats was detected by immunohistochemical staining. Aortic ring assays were performed to study the process of angiogenesis in the diabetic rats and in synd4 null and db/db mice. Recombinant adenoviruses containing the synd4 gene or null were constructed to enhance synd4 aortic expression in db/db mice. Results: Western blot analysis showed decreased expression of the synd4 extracellular domain in HUVECs, and ELISA detected increased soluble fragments of synd4 in the media. Synd4 endothelial expression in the aortas of diabetic rats was decreased. Aortic ring assay indicated impaired angiogenesis in synd4 null and db/db mice, which was partially reversed by synd4 overexpression in db/db mice. Conclusion: Synd4 shedding from vascular endothelial cells played an important role in the diabetes-related impairment of angiogenesis. -- Highlights: •Synd4 shedding from endothelial cells is accelerated under the stimulation of AGEs. •Extracellular domain of synd4 is diminished in the endothelium of DM rats. •Aortic rings of synd4 null mice showed impaired angiogenesis. •Overexpression of synd4 partly rescues macrovascular

  13. Vortex Shedding from Tapered Cylinders at high Reynolds Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Jens; Andersen, Michael Styrk; Christensen, Silas Sverre

    2015-01-01

    percent for strakes of circular cross section. The present paper argues that this height can be reduced for structures where the critical wind velocity for vortex shedding is in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime. The present investigations are aimed for suppressing VIV on offshore wind turbine......^5 (Supercritical). Results indicate that circular strakes with a diameter corresponding to 3 percent of the structures mean diameter can be used to efficiently reduce VIV in the Supercritical Reynolds number regime....

  14. Birds shed RNA-viruses according to the pareto principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Mark D; Williams, Christopher J; Fair, Jeanne M; Owen, Jennifer C

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge in disease ecology is to understand the role of individual variation of infection load on disease transmission dynamics and how this influences the evolution of resistance or tolerance mechanisms. Such information will improve our capacity to understand, predict, and mitigate pathogen-associated disease in all organisms. In many host-pathogen systems, particularly macroparasites and sexually transmitted diseases, it has been found that approximately 20% of the population is responsible for approximately 80% of the transmission events. Although host contact rates can account for some of this pattern, pathogen transmission dynamics also depend upon host infectiousness, an area that has received relatively little attention. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of pathogen shedding rates of 24 host (avian) - pathogen (RNA-virus) studies, including 17 bird species and five important zoonotic viruses. We determined that viral count data followed the Weibull distribution, the mean Gini coefficient (an index of inequality) was 0.687 (0.036 SEM), and that 22.0% (0.90 SEM) of the birds shed 80% of the virus across all studies, suggesting an adherence of viral shedding counts to the Pareto Principle. The relative position of a bird in a distribution of viral counts was affected by factors extrinsic to the host, such as exposure to corticosterone and to a lesser extent reduced food availability, but not to intrinsic host factors including age, sex, and migratory status. These data provide a quantitative view of heterogeneous virus shedding in birds that may be used to better parameterize epidemiological models and understand transmission dynamics.

  15. Birds shed RNA-viruses according to the pareto principle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Jankowski

    Full Text Available A major challenge in disease ecology is to understand the role of individual variation of infection load on disease transmission dynamics and how this influences the evolution of resistance or tolerance mechanisms. Such information will improve our capacity to understand, predict, and mitigate pathogen-associated disease in all organisms. In many host-pathogen systems, particularly macroparasites and sexually transmitted diseases, it has been found that approximately 20% of the population is responsible for approximately 80% of the transmission events. Although host contact rates can account for some of this pattern, pathogen transmission dynamics also depend upon host infectiousness, an area that has received relatively little attention. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis of pathogen shedding rates of 24 host (avian - pathogen (RNA-virus studies, including 17 bird species and five important zoonotic viruses. We determined that viral count data followed the Weibull distribution, the mean Gini coefficient (an index of inequality was 0.687 (0.036 SEM, and that 22.0% (0.90 SEM of the birds shed 80% of the virus across all studies, suggesting an adherence of viral shedding counts to the Pareto Principle. The relative position of a bird in a distribution of viral counts was affected by factors extrinsic to the host, such as exposure to corticosterone and to a lesser extent reduced food availability, but not to intrinsic host factors including age, sex, and migratory status. These data provide a quantitative view of heterogeneous virus shedding in birds that may be used to better parameterize epidemiological models and understand transmission dynamics.

  16. Laminar vortex shedding behind a cooled circular cylinder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Wang, A. B.; Tu, W.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2014), s. 1-12 ISSN 0723-4864 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : vortex shedding * cooled circular cylinder * thermal effect Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts Impact factor: 1.670, year: 2014 http://link.springer.com/journal/348/55/2/page/1

  17. Reliability Constrained Priority Load Shedding for Aerospace Power System Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Zhu, Jizhong; Kaddah, Sahar S.; Dolce, James L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The need for improving load shedding on board the space station is one of the goals of aerospace power system automation. To accelerate the optimum load-shedding functions, several constraints must be involved. These constraints include congestion margin determined by weighted probability contingency, component/system reliability index, generation rescheduling. The impact of different faults and indices for computing reliability were defined before optimization. The optimum load schedule is done based on priority, value and location of loads. An optimization strategy capable of handling discrete decision making, such as Everett optimization, is proposed. We extended Everett method to handle expected congestion margin and reliability index as constraints. To make it effective for real time load dispatch process, a rule-based scheme is presented in the optimization method. It assists in selecting which feeder load to be shed, the location of the load, the value, priority of the load and cost benefit analysis of the load profile is included in the scheme. The scheme is tested using a benchmark NASA system consisting of generators, loads and network.

  18. Genital HSV Shedding among Kenyan Women Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffins O Manguro

    Full Text Available Genital ulcer disease (GUD prevalence increases in the first month of antiretroviral treatment (ART, followed by a return to baseline prevalence by month 3. Since most GUD is caused by herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, we hypothesized that genital HSV detection would follow a similar pattern after treatment initiation.We conducted a prospective cohort study of 122 HSV-2 and HIV-1 co-infected women with advanced HIV disease who initiated ART and were followed closely with collection of genital swab specimens for the first three months of treatment.At baseline, the HSV detection rate was 32%, without significant increase in genital HSV detection noted during the first month or the third month of ART. HIV-1 shedding declined during this period; no association was also noted between HSV and HIV-1 shedding during this period.Because other studies have reported increased HSV detection in women initiating ART and we have previously reported an increase in GUD during early ART, it may be prudent to counsel HIV-1 infected women initiating ART that HSV shedding in the genital tract may continue after ART initiation.

  19. Block Cipher Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miolane, Charlotte Vikkelsø

    ensurethat no attack violatesthe securitybounds specifiedbygeneric attack namely exhaustivekey search and table lookup attacks. This thesis contains a general introduction to cryptography with focus on block ciphers and important block cipher designs, in particular the Advanced Encryption Standard(AES...... on small scale variants of AES. In the final part of the thesis we present a new block cipher proposal Present and examine its security against algebraic and differential cryptanalysis in particular....

  20. TGF{beta} induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebi, Masahide [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Kataoka, Hiromi, E-mail: hkataoka@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan); Higashiyama, Shigeki [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime (Japan); Joh, Takashi [Department of Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya (Japan)

    2010-11-19

    Research highlights: {yields} TGF{beta} induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. {yields} TGF{beta} induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. {yields} TGF{beta} enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. {yields} Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGF{beta}. {yields} ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGF{beta}-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF{beta}) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGF{beta} inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGF{beta} and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGF{beta}. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGF{beta} was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGF{beta} was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGF{beta}-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGF{beta} induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to

  1. TGFβ induces proHB-EGF shedding and EGFR transactivation through ADAM activation in gastric cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebi, Masahide; Kataoka, Hiromi; Shimura, Takaya; Kubota, Eiji; Hirata, Yoshikazu; Mizushima, Takashi; Mizoshita, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Mamoru; Mabuchi, Motoshi; Tsukamoto, Hironobu; Tanida, Satoshi; Kamiya, Takeshi; Higashiyama, Shigeki; Joh, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → TGFβ induces EGFR transactivation through proHB-EGF shedding by activated ADAM members in gastric cancer cells. → TGFβ induces nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF cleaved by ADAM members. → TGFβ enhances cell growth by EGFR transactivation and HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and ADAM inhibitors block these effects. → Silencing of ADAM17 also blocks EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation and cancer cell growth by TGFβ. → ADAM17 may play a crucial role in this TGFβ-HB-EGF signal transduction. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) is known to potently inhibit cell growth. Loss of responsiveness to TGFβ inhibition on cell growth is a hallmark of many types of cancer, yet its mechanism is not fully understood. Membrane-anchored heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor (proHB-EGF) ectodomain is cleaved by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) members and is implicated in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation. Recently, nuclear translocation of the C-terminal fragment (CTF) of pro-HB-EGF was found to induce cell growth. We investigated the association between TGFβ and HB-EGF signal transduction via ADAM activation. Materials and methods: The CCK-8 assay in two gastric cancer cell lines was used to determine the effect for cell growth by TGFβ. The effect of two ADAM inhibitors was also evaluated. Induction of EGFR phosphorylation by TGFβ was analyzed and the effect of the ADAM inhibitors was also examined. Nuclear translocation of HB-EGF-CTF by shedding through ADAM activated by TGFβ was also analyzed. EGFR transactivation, HB-EGF-CTF nuclear translocation, and cell growth were examined under the condition of ADAM17 knockdown. Result: TGFβ-induced EGFR phosphorylation of which ADAM inhibitors were able to inhibit. TGFβ induced shedding of proHB-EGF allowing HB-EGF-CTF to translocate to the nucleus. ADAM inhibitors blocked this nuclear translocation. TGF

  2. Related Drupal Nodes Block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Vegt, Wim

    2010-01-01

    Related Drupal Nodes Block This module exposes a block that uses Latent Semantic Analysis (Lsa) internally to suggest three nodes that are relevant to the node a user is viewing. This module performs three tasks. 1) It periodically indexes a Drupal site and generates a Lsa Term Document Matrix.

  3. Designers Block 2002

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickson, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Artiklen indleder med: ved siden aaf Londons etablerede designmesse '100% Design', er der vokset et undergrundsmiljø af designudstillinger op. Det dominerende og mest kendte initiativ er Designers Block, der i år udstillede to steder i byen. Designers Block er et mere uformelt udstillingsforum...

  4. Predictability of blocking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, E.; Ruti, P.; Tibaldi, S.; D'Andrea, F.

    1994-01-01

    Tibaldi and Molteni (1990, hereafter referred to as TM) had previously investigated operational blocking predictability by the ECMWF model and the possible relationships between model systematic error and blocking in the winter season of the Northern Hemisphere, using seven years of ECMWF operational archives of analyses and day 1 to 10 forecasts. They showed that fewer blocking episodes than in the real atmosphere were generally simulated by the model, and that this deficiency increased with increasing forecast time. As a consequence of this, a major contribution to the systematic error in the winter season was shown to derive from the inability of the model to properly forecast blocking. In this study, the analysis performed in TM for the first seven winter seasons of the ECMWF operational model is extended to the subsequent five winters, during which model development, reflecting both resolution increases and parametrisation modifications, continued unabated. In addition the objective blocking index developed by TM has been applied to the observed data to study the natural low frequency variability of blocking. The ability to simulate blocking of some climate models has also been tested

  5. Men's Sheds function and philosophy: towards a framework for future research and men's health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie; Doma, Kenji; Misan, Gary; Vaz, Sharmila

    2015-08-01

    The Men's Shed movement supports a range of men's health promotion initiatives. This paper examines whether a Men's Shed typology could inform future research and enable more efficient and targeted health promotion activities through Men's Sheds. The International Men's Shed Survey consisted of a cross-sectional exploration of sheds, their members, and health and social activities. Survey data about shed 'function' and 'philosophy' were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. A framework of Men's Sheds based on function and philosophy demonstrated that most sheds serve a primary utility function, a secondary social function, but most importantly a primary social opportunity philosophy. Sheds with a primary health philosophy participated in fewer health promotion activities when compared with sheds without a primary health philosophy. In addition to the uniform health promotion resources distributed by the Men's Shed associations, specific health promotion activities, such as prostate education, are being initiated from an individual shed level. This framework can potentially be used to enable future research and health promotion activities to be more efficiently and effectively targeted. SO WHAT? Men experience poorer health and well being outcomes than women. This framework offers a novel approach to providing targeted health promotion activities to men in an environment where it is okay to talk about men's health.

  6. Longitudinal prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia pecorum in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rongchang; Jacobson, Caroline; Gardner, Graham; Carmichael, Ian; Campbell, Angus J D; Ryan, Una

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia spp. in sheep in Australia has not been well described. Two species-specific quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) targeting the chlamydial outer membrane protein cell surface antigen gene (ompA) were validated and used to determine the prevalence and faecal shedding of C. abortus and C. pecorum from faecal samples of lambs at three sampling times (weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter) from eight farms in South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Western Australia. A total of 3412 faecal samples were collected and screened from approximately 1189 lambs across the four states. C. abortus was not detected in any of the samples screened. The overall prevalence of C. pecorum was 1027/3412 (30.1%) and median bacterial concentrations at weaning, post-weaning and pre-slaughter were 1.8 × 10(7), 1.2 × 10(7) and 9.6 × 10(5)/g faeces, respectively. A subset of C. pecorum positive samples from each farm, (n = 48) was sequenced to confirm their identity. The present study demonstrates that C. pecorum is prevalent in Australian sheep, highlighting a need for further research on the impact of this bacterium on production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement on the cavitating vortex shedding behind rectangular obstacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegedus, F; Hos, C; Pandula, Z; Kullmann, L

    2010-01-01

    Measurement results on the cavitating vortex shedding behind sharp-edged rectangular bodies are presented, intended to provide benchmark cases for the validation of unsteady cavitation models of CFD codes. Rectangular bodies of increasing aspect ratio (1, 2, 3 and 4) were used with a constant 25mm height (12.5% blockage ratio). The water velocity in the 0.2x0.05m test section of the channel was varied between 1 and 12 m/s resulting in a Reynolds number in the range of (0.4-3.5)x105. Pressure signals were measured at several locations, notably in the wake. Dominant frequencies and Strouhal numbers are reported from cavitation-free flow (classic von Karman vortex shedding) up to supercavitation as a function of the free-stream Reynolds number. The results are in good agreement with the literature in case of the square cylinder. We experienced a slight increase of the dominant Strouhal number with increasing aspect ratio. This result is somewhat inconsistent with the literature, in which a fall of the Strouhal number can be observed at side ratio 2. This may be the consequence of the different ranges of Reynolds numbers. It was also found that between the inception of cavitation and the formation of supercavitation the Strouhal number is not affected by cavitation.

  8. Measurement on the cavitating vortex shedding behind rectangular obstacles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegedus, F; Hos, C; Pandula, Z; Kullmann, L, E-mail: hegedusf@hds.bme.h [Department of Hydrodynamic Systems, Budapest University of Technology and Economics Muegyetem rkp. 1, Budapest 1111 (Hungary)

    2010-08-15

    Measurement results on the cavitating vortex shedding behind sharp-edged rectangular bodies are presented, intended to provide benchmark cases for the validation of unsteady cavitation models of CFD codes. Rectangular bodies of increasing aspect ratio (1, 2, 3 and 4) were used with a constant 25mm height (12.5% blockage ratio). The water velocity in the 0.2x0.05m test section of the channel was varied between 1 and 12 m/s resulting in a Reynolds number in the range of (0.4-3.5)x105. Pressure signals were measured at several locations, notably in the wake. Dominant frequencies and Strouhal numbers are reported from cavitation-free flow (classic von Karman vortex shedding) up to supercavitation as a function of the free-stream Reynolds number. The results are in good agreement with the literature in case of the square cylinder. We experienced a slight increase of the dominant Strouhal number with increasing aspect ratio. This result is somewhat inconsistent with the literature, in which a fall of the Strouhal number can be observed at side ratio 2. This may be the consequence of the different ranges of Reynolds numbers. It was also found that between the inception of cavitation and the formation of supercavitation the Strouhal number is not affected by cavitation.

  9. 31 CFR 594.301 - Blocked account; blocked property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GLOBAL TERRORISM SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 594.301 Blocked account; blocked property. The terms blocked account and...

  10. RX for Writer's Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Gail E.; Camp, Donna J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes four prewriting techniques that elementary and middle grade students can use to gather and organize ideas for writing, and by so doing, cure writer's block. Techniques discussed are: (1) brainstorming; (2) clustering; (3) freewriting; and (4) cubing.

  11. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  12. Blocking in Category Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Bott, Lewis; Hoffman, Aaron B.; Murphy, Gregory L.

    2007-01-01

    Many theories of category learning assume that learning is driven by a need to minimize classification error. When there is no classification error, therefore, learning of individual features should be negligible. We tested this hypothesis by conducting three category learning experiments adapted from an associative learning blocking paradigm. Contrary to an error-driven account of learning, participants learned a wide range of information when they learned about categories, and blocking effe...

  13. Two-Stage Load Shedding for Secondary Control in Hierarchical Operation of Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Quan; Li, Zhiyi; Wu, Qiuwei

    2018-01-01

    A two-stage load shedding scheme is presented to cope with the severe power deficit caused by microgrid islanding. Coordinated with the fast response of inverter-based distributed energy resources (DERs), load shedding at each stage and the resulting power flow redistribution are estimated....... The first stage of load shedding will cease rapid frequency decline in which the measured frequency deviation is employed to guide the load shedding level and process. Once a new steady-state is reached, the second stage is activated, which performs load shedding according to the priorities of loads...

  14. The Role of Collaborative Learning on Training and Development Practices within the Australian Men's Shed Movement: A Study of Five Men's Sheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Jillian; Southcombe, Amie; Bartram, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the role and impact of collaborative learning on training and development practices in Australian Men's Sheds. We use a case study approach, underpinned by Peters and Armstrong's theoretical framework of collaborative learning in adult education, to investigate five Men's Sheds. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with…

  15. Leading-edge vortex shedding from rotating wings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolomenskiy, Dmitry [Centre de Recherches Mathématiques (CRM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University, 805 Sherbrooke W., Montreal, QC H3A 0B9 (Canada); Elimelech, Yossef [Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Schneider, Kai, E-mail: dkolom@gmail.com [M2P2–CNRS, Université d' Aix-Marseille, 39, rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie, F-13453 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-06-01

    This paper presents a numerical investigation of the leading-edge vortices generated by rotating triangular wings at Reynolds number Re = 250. A series of three-dimensional numerical simulations have been carried out using a Fourier pseudo-spectral method with volume penalization. The transition from stable attachment of the leading-edge vortex to periodic vortex shedding is explored, as a function of the wing aspect ratio and the angle of attack. It is found that, in a stable configuration, the spanwise flow in the recirculation bubble past the wing is due to the centrifugal force, incompressibility and viscous stresses. For the flow outside of the bubble, an inviscid model of spanwise flow is presented. (papers)

  16. Shedding light on restoring respiratory function after spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren J Alilain

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Loss of respiratory function is one of the leading causes of death following spinal cord injury. Because of this, much work has been done in studying ways to restore respiratory function following SCI - including pharmacological and regeneration strategies. With the emergence of new and powerful tools from molecular neuroscience, new therapeutically relevant alternatives to these approaches have become available, including expression of light sensitive proteins called channelrhodopsins. In this article we briefly review the history of various attempts to restore breathing after C2 hemisection, and focus on our recent work using the activation of light sensitive channels to restore respiratory function after experimental spinal cord injury. We also discuss how such light induced activity can help shed light on the inner workings of the central nervous system respiratory circuitry that controls diaphragmatic function.

  17. Hjemløshed i Grønland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Knud Erik; Andersen, Hans Thor

    Rapporten giver en beskrivelse af karakteren af hjemløsheden i Grønland. Den beskriver forholdene for tre måder at være ude i hjemløshed på i Grønland, hvordan husstande når dertil og hvilke muligheder de har for at komme ud af hjemløsheden. I rapporten indgår beskrivelser af en række personers liv...... households get homeless and their options to get out of homelessness. The report contains descriptions of how a number of people live in homelessness. The three types are: Homeless with no fixed accommodation, resettled living in resettlement housing and homeless who are long-time living with family, friends...

  18. Epstein-Barr virus shedding by astronauts during space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, D. L.; Stowe, R. P.; Phillips, T. M.; Lugg, D. J.; Mehta, S. K.

    2005-01-01

    Patterns of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in 32 astronauts and 18 healthy age-matched control subjects were characterized by quantifying EBV shedding. Saliva samples were collected from astronauts before, during, and after 10 space shuttle missions of 5-14 days duration. At one time point or another, EBV was detected in saliva from each of the astronauts. Of 1398 saliva specimens from 32 astronauts, polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that 314 (23%) were positive for EBV DNA. Examination by flight phase showed that 29% of the saliva specimens collected from 28 astronauts before flight were positive for EBV DNA, as were 16% of those collected from 25 astronauts during flight and 16% of those collected after flight from 23 astronauts. The mean number of EBV copies from samples taken during the flights was 417 per mL, significantly greater (p<.05) than the number of viral copies from the preflight (40) and postflight (44) phases. In contrast, the control subjects shed EBV DNA with a frequency of 3.7% and mean number of EBV copies of 40 per mL of saliva. Ten days before flight and on landing day, titers of antibody to EBV viral capsid antigen were significantly (p<.05) greater than baseline levels. On landing day, urinary levels of cortisol and catecholamines were greater than their preflight values. In a limited study (n=5), plasma levels of substance P and other neuropeptides were also greater on landing day. Increases in the number of viral copies and in the amount of EBV-specific antibody were consistent with EBV reactivation before, during, and after space flight.

  19. Nocturnal drainage wind characteristics in two converging air sheds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gedayloo, T.; Clements, W.E.; Barr, S.; Archuleta, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    During the short experimental period in the Grants Basin of Northeastern New Mexico a survey was conducted on the complex meteorology of this area. Emphasis was placed on the nocturnal drainage flow because of the potential hazards to the populated areas of Milan and Grants from the effluents of the uranium mining and milling operation in this area. This investigation has shown that the nocturnal drainage flow patterns agree with the winds predicted on the basis of the complex terrain of the area. Because of the surface cooling at night (over 25 0 C during summer and about 20 0 C during winter), air from elevated surrounding areas flows to the low lying regions consequently setting up a nocturnal drainage flow. This regime exists over 60% of the time during summer months and over 65% of the time during winter months with a depth generally less than 200 m. In the San Mateo air shed the drainage flow is east northeast, and in the Ambrosia Lake air shed it is from northwest. The confluence of these two air flows contributes mainly to the drainage flow through the channel formed by La Ja Mesa and Mesa Montanosa. The analysis of data collected by the recording Flats Station confirms the prediction that although the area south of the channel region broadens considerably causing a reduction in flow speed, contributions from the southside of La Jara Mesa and Mesa Montanosa partly compensate for this reduction. The position of this recording station is 15 to 20 km from the populated towns of Milan and Grants. A drainage flow speed of approximately 2.2 m s -1 and the duration of over 11 hours as recorded by this station indicates that air from the San Mateo and Ambrosia Lake regions may be transported southwards to these population centers during a nocturnal period. In order to test this prediction, a series of multi-atmospheric tracer experiments were conducted in the Grants Basin

  20. HIV shedding in cervico-vaginal secretions in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardella, Barbara; Roccio, Marianna; Maccabruni, Anna; Mariani, Bianca; Panzeri, Lucia; Zara, Francesca; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of HIV-1 in cervico-vaginal secretions of pregnant as compared to non-pregnant HIV-seropositive women. We compared 43 known HIV seropositive pregnant patients versus 241 age-matched (± 2 years) control non-pregnant HIV-seropositive subjects. In pregnant patients blood and cervico-vaginal samples were obtained during each trimester of pregnancy. In control subjects the same samples were obtained at enrolment. HIV-1 RNA was measured in plasma; proviral HIV-1 DNA, cell-associated and cell-free HIV-1 RNA in cervico-vaginal secretion by competitive polymerase chain reaction (cRT-PCR) and reverse transcriptase PCR. The genital shedding of HIV-DNA (22/43 as compared to 79/241, p = 0.02), and cell-free HIV-RNA detection (26/43 as compared to 72/241, p pregnant than in non pregnant women. Pregnancy correlated with a significant positive trend in the cervico-vaginal load of HIV-DNA (Spearman Rho= 0.149, p= 0.012), and cell-free HIV-RNA (Spearman Rho= 0.253, p HIV-RNA transcripts (Spearman Rho = 0.06, p= 0.31). After correction for potential confounders, first trimester pregnant women had increased rates of genital HIV- DNA (odds ratio = 1.94, 95% confidence interval = 1.01 3.78) and cell-free HIV-RNA (odds ratio = 4.07, 95% confidence interval = 1.97 8.41) detection compared to nonpregnant controls. The shedding of genital HIV was increased in pregnant compared to non pregnant subjects, even in patients with undetectable viremia. In this low-risk HIV-positive population the risks of vertical or horizontal transmissions should not be underestimated.

  1. Uniaxial backfill block compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskinen, V.

    2012-05-01

    The main parts of the project were: to make a literature survey of the previous uniaxial compaction experiments; do uniaxial compaction tests in laboratory scale; and do industrial scale production tests. Object of the project was to sort out the different factors affecting the quality assurance chain of the backfill block uniaxial production and solve a material sticking to mould problem which appeared during manufacturing the blocks of bentonite and cruched rock mixture. The effect of mineralogical and chemical composition on the long term functionality of the backfill was excluded from the project. However, the used smectite-rich clays have been tested for mineralogical consistency. These tests were done in B and Tech OY according their SOPs. The objective of the Laboratory scale tests was to find right material- and compaction parameters for the industrial scale tests. Direct comparison between the laboratory scale tests and industrial scale tests is not possible because the mould geometry and compaction speed has a big influence for the compaction process. For this reason the selected material parameters were also affected by the previous compaction experiments. The industrial scale tests were done in summer of 2010 in southern Sweden. Blocks were done with uniaxial compaction. A 40 tons of the mixture of bentonite and crushed rock blocks and almost 50 tons of Friedland-clay blocks were compacted. (orig.)

  2. Impression block with orientator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brilin, V I; Ulyanova, O S

    2015-01-01

    Tool review, namely the impression block, applied to check the shape and size of the top of fish as well as to determine the appropriate tool for fishing operation was realized. For multiple application and obtaining of the impress depth of 3 cm and more, the standard volumetric impression blocks with fix rods are used. However, the registered impress of fish is not oriented in space and the rods during fishing are in the extended position. This leads to rods deformation and sinking due to accidental impacts of impression block over the borehole irregularity and finally results in faulty detection of the top end of fishing object in hole. The impression blocks with copy rods and fixed magnetic needle allow estimating the object configuration and fix the position of magnetic needle determining the position of the top end of object in hole. However, the magnetic needle fixation is realized in staged and the rods are in extended position during fishing operations as well as it is in standard design. The most efficient tool is the impression block with copy rods which directs the examined object in the borehole during readings of magnetic needles data from azimuth plate and averaging of readings. This significantly increases the accuracy of fishing toll direction. The rods during fishing are located in the body and extended only when they reach the top of fishing object

  3. Integral-fuel blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, C.; Simpkin, S.D.

    1975-01-01

    A prismatic moderator block is described which has fuel-containing channels and coolant channels disposed parallel to each other and to edge faces of the block. The coolant channels are arranged in rows on an equilateral triangular lattice pattern and the fuel-containing channels are disposed in a regular lattice pattern with one fuel-containing channel between and equidistant from each of the coolant channels in each group of three mutually adjacent coolant channels. The edge faces of the block are parallel to the rows of coolant channels and the channels nearest to each edge face are disposed in two rows parallel thereto, with one of the rows containing only coolant channels and the other row containing only fuel-containing channels. (Official Gazette)

  4. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included...... in the Copenhagen City Heart Study examined in 1976-2003 free from previous myocardial infarction (MI), chronic heart failure, and left bundle branch block through registry linkage until 2009 for all-cause mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. The prevalence of RBBB/IRBBB was higher in men (1.4%/4.7% in men vs. 0.......5%/2.3% in women, P block was associated with significantly...

  5. ["Habitual" left branch block alternating with 2 "disguised" bracnch block].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, S; Jullien, G; Mathieu, P; Mostefa, S; Gérard, R

    1976-10-01

    Two cases of alternating left bundle branch block and "masquerading block" (with left bundle branch morphology in the stnadard leads and right bundle branch block morphology in the precordial leads) were studied by serial tracings and his bundle electrocardiography. In case 1 "the masquerading" block was associated with a first degree AV block related to a prolongation of HV interval. This case is to our knowledge the first cas of alternating bundle branch block in which his bundle activity was recorded in man. In case 2, the patient had atrial fibrilation and His bundle recordings were performed while differents degrees of left bundle branch block were present: The mechanism of the alternation and the concept of "masquerading" block are discussed. It is suggested that this type of block represents a right bundle branch block associated with severe lesions of the "left system".

  6. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Danli Wang; Yang Zhang; Shengyong Chen

    2013-01-01

    This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transfer...

  7. Subclinical Shed of Infectious Varicella zoster Virus in Astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohrs, Randall J.; Mehta, Satish K.; Schmid, D. Scott; Gilden, Donald H.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Aerosol borne varicella zoster virus (VZV) enters the nasopharynx and replicates in tonsillar T-cells, resulting in viremia and varicella (chickenpox). Virus then becomes latent in cranial nerve, dorsal root and autonomic nervous system ganglia along the entire neuraxis (1). Decades later, as cell-mediated immunity to VZV declines (4), latent VZV can reactivate to produce zoster (shingles). Infectious VZV is present in patients with varicella or zoster, but shed of infectious virus in the absence of disease has not been shown. We previously detected VZV DNA in saliva of astronauts during and shortly after spaceflight, suggesting stress induced subclinical virus reactivation (3). We show here that VZV DNA as well as infectious virus in present in astronaut saliva. VZV DNA was detected in saliva during and after a 13-day spaceflight in 2 of 3 astronauts (Fig. panel A). Ten days before liftoff, there was a rise in serum anti-VZV antibody in subjects 1 and 2, consistent with virus reactivation. In subject 3, VZV DNA was not detected in saliva, and there was no rise in anti-VZV antibody titer. Subject 3 may have been protected from virus reactivation by having zoster DNA was detected in astronaut saliva months before spaceflight, or in saliva of 10 age/sex-matched healthy control subjects sampled on alternate days for 3 weeks (88 saliva samples). Saliva taken 2-6 days after landing from all 3 subjects was cultured on human fetal lung cells (Fig. panel B). Infectious VZV was recovered from saliva of subjects 1 and 2 on the second day after landing. Virus specificity was confirmed by antibody staining and DNA analysis which showed it to be VZV of European descent, common in the US (5). Further, both antibody staining and DNA PCR demonstrated that no HSV-1 was detected in any infected culture. This is the first report of infectious VZV shedding in the absence of clinical disease. Spaceflight presents a uniquely stressful environment which includes physical isolation and

  8. Cell shedding from X-irradiated multicellular spheroids of human lung carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, K.; Okada, S.; Suzuki, N.; Majima, H.

    1991-01-01

    We studied the effect of radiation on cell shedding from the surface of multicellular spheroids. Spheroids were produced from two human lung cell lines, one adenocarcinoma (LCT1) and the other small cell carcinoma (LCT2), by using a liquid overlay culture technique. The number of cells shed from both kinds of spheroids did not change significantly when they were irradiated. The number of clonogenic cells shed from both kinds of irradiated spheroids decreased sharply as the dose of irradiation increases. There were no significant differences in clonogenic cell shedding per spheroid between LCT1 and LCT2 spheroids. 400 μm spheroids were more radioresistant to inhibition of clonogenic cell shedding than 250 μm spheroids. Shed cells were more radiosensitive than speroid cells. In these experiments, we did not obtain any results indicating that radiation enchances metastasis. (orig.) [de

  9. Linoleum Block Printing Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetelat, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    The author discusses practical considerations of teaching linoleum block printing in the elementary grades (tool use, materials, motivation) and outlines a sequence of design concepts in this area for the primary, intermediate and junior high grades. A short list of books and audiovisual aids is appended. (SJL)

  10. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  11. Contaminated soil concrete blocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos; Limbachiya, Mukesh C.; Kew, Hsein Y.

    2009-01-01

    According to Dutch law the contaminated soil needs to be remediated or immobilised. The main focus in this article is the design of concrete blocks, containing contaminated soil, that are suitable for large production, financial feasible and meets all technical and environmental requirements. In

  12. Large-Eddy Simulation of turbulent vortex shedding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archambeau, F.

    1995-06-01

    This thesis documents the development and application of a computational algorithm for Large-Eddy Simulation. Unusually, the method adopts a fully collocated variable storage arrangement and is applicable to complex, non-rectilinear geometries. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes algorithm has formed the starting point of the development, but has been modified substantially: the spatial approximation of convection is effected by an energy-conserving central-differencing scheme; a second-order time-marching Adams-Bashforth scheme has been introduced; the pressure field is determined by solving the pressure-Poisson equation; this equation is solved either by use of preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient methods or with the Generalised Minimum Residual method; two types of sub-grid scale models have been introduced and examined. The algorithm has been validated by reference to a hierarchy of unsteady flows of increasing complexity starting with unsteady lid-driven cavity flows and ending with 3-D turbulent vortex shedding behind a square prism. In the latter case, for which extensive experimental data are available, special emphasis has been put on examining the dependence of the results on mesh density, near-wall treatment and the nature of the sub-grid-scale model, one of which is an advanced dynamic model. The LES scheme is shown to return time-average and phase-averaged results which agree well with experimental data and which support the view that LES is a promising approach for unsteady flows dominated by large periodic structures. (author)

  13. Fabrication of Micromixers Utilizing Shedding Effect Induced by Electrokinetic Instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, L-M; Tai, C-H; Tsai, C-H; Lin, C-H; Lee, C-Y

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a T-shaped micromixer featuring 45 deg. parallelogram barriers within the mixing channel. The proposed device obtains a rapid mixing of two sample fluids by means of the electrokinetic instability induced by shedding effect which is produced as an appropriate intensity of DC electric field of is applied. The proposed device uses a single high-voltage power source to simultaneously drive and mix the sample fluids. The effectiveness of the mixer is characterized experimentally as a function of the applied electrical field intensity and the extent to which the parallelogram barriers obstruct the mixing channel. The experimental results indicate that the mixing performance reaches 91.2% at a cross-section located 2.3 mm downstream of the T-junction when the barriers obstruct four-fifths of the channel width and an electrical field of 300V/cm is applied. The micromixing method presented in this study provides a simple low-cost solution to mixing problems in lab-on-a-chip systems

  14. Cryogenic transmission electron microscopy nanostructural study of shed microparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liron Issman

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are sub-micron membrane vesicles (100-1000 nm shed from normal and pathologic cells due to stimulation or apoptosis. MPs can be found in the peripheral blood circulation of healthy individuals, whereas elevated concentrations are found in pregnancy and in a variety of diseases. Also, MPs participate in physiological processes, e.g., coagulation, inflammation, and angiogenesis. Since their clinical properties are important, we have developed a new methodology based on nano-imaging that provides significant new data on MPs nanostructure, their composition and function. We are among the first to characterize by direct-imaging cryogenic transmitting electron microscopy (cryo-TEM the near-to-native nanostructure of MP systems isolated from different cell types and stimulation procedures. We found that there are no major differences between the MP systems we have studied, as most particles were spherical, with diameters from 200 to 400 nm. However, each MP population is very heterogeneous, showing diverse morphologies. We investigated by cryo-TEM the effects of standard techniques used to isolate and store MPs, and found that either high-g centrifugation of MPs for isolation purposes, or slow freezing to -80 °C for storage introduce morphological artifacts, which can influence MP nanostructure, and thus affect the efficiency of these particles as future diagnostic tools.

  15. CFTR Modulators: Shedding Light on Precision Medicine for Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Pacheco, Miquéias

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most common life-threatening monogenic disease afflicting Caucasian people. It affects the respiratory, gastrointestinal, glandular and reproductive systems. The major cause of morbidity and mortality in CF is the respiratory disorder caused by a vicious cycle of obstruction of the airways, inflammation and infection that leads to epithelial damage, tissue remodeling and end-stage lung disease. Over the past decades, life expectancy of CF patients has increased due to early diagnosis and improved treatments; however, these patients still present limited quality of life. Many attempts have been made to rescue CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) expression, function and stability, thereby overcoming the molecular basis of CF. Gene and protein variances caused by CFTR mutants lead to different CF phenotypes, which then require different treatments to quell the patients’ debilitating symptoms. In order to seek better approaches to treat CF patients and maximize therapeutic effects, CFTR mutants have been stratified into six groups (although several of these mutations present pleiotropic defects). The research with CFTR modulators (read-through agents, correctors, potentiators, stabilizers and amplifiers) has achieved remarkable progress, and these drugs are translating into pharmaceuticals and personalized treatments for CF patients. This review summarizes the main molecular and clinical features of CF, emphasizes the latest clinical trials using CFTR modulators, sheds light on the molecular mechanisms underlying these new and emerging treatments, and discusses the major breakthroughs and challenges to treating all CF patients. PMID:27656143

  16. Ebola Virus Shedding and Transmission: Review of Current Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Pauline; Fischer, William A; Schibler, Manuel; Jacobs, Michael; Bausch, Daniel G; Kaiser, Laurent

    2016-10-15

     The magnitude of the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa was unprecedented, with >28 500 reported cases and >11 000 deaths. Understanding the key elements of Ebola virus transmission is necessary to implement adequate infection prevention and control measures to protect healthcare workers and halt transmission in the community.  We performed an extensive PubMed literature review encompassing the period from discovery of Ebola virus, in 1976, until 1 June 2016 to evaluate the evidence on modes of Ebola virus shedding and transmission.  Ebola virus has been isolated by cell culture from blood, saliva, urine, aqueous humor, semen, and breast milk from infected or convalescent patients. Ebola virus RNA has been noted in the following body fluids days or months after onset of illness: saliva (22 days), conjunctiva/tears (28 days), stool (29 days), vaginal fluid (33 days), sweat (44 days), urine (64 days), amniotic fluid (38 days), aqueous humor (101 days), cerebrospinal fluid (9 months), breast milk (16 months [preliminary data]), and semen (18 months). Nevertheless, the only documented cases of secondary transmission from recovered patients have been through sexual transmission. We did not find strong evidence supporting respiratory or fomite-associated transmission. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A vortex-shedding flowmeter based on IPMCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasquale, Giovanna Di; Pollicino, Antonino; Graziani, Salvatore; Strazzeri, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Ionic polymer–metal composites (IPMCs) are electroactive polymers that can be used both as sensors and actuators. They have been demonstrated for many potential applications, in wet and underwater environments. Applications in fields such as biomimetics, robotics, and aerospace, just to mention a few, have been proposed. In this paper, the sensing nature of IPMCs is used to develop a flowmeter based on the vortex shedding phenomenon. The system is described, and a model is proposed and verified. A setup has been realized, and data have been acquired for many working conditions. The performance of the sensing system has been investigated by using acquired experimental data. Water flux velocities in the range [0.38, 2.83] m s −1 have been investigated. This working range is comparable with ranges claimed for established technologies. Results show the suitability of the proposed system to work as a flowmeter. The proposed transducer is suitable for envisaged post-silicon applications, where the use of IPMCs gives the opportunity to realize a new generating polymeric flowmeter. This has potential applications in fields where properties of IPMCs such as low cost, usability, and disposability are relevant. (paper)

  18. Correlates of HIV-1 genital shedding in Tanzanian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Tanton

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the correlates of HIV shedding is important to inform strategies to reduce HIV infectiousness. We examined correlates of genital HIV-1 RNA in women who were seropositive for both herpes simplex virus (HSV-2 and HIV-1 and who were enrolled in a randomised controlled trial of HSV suppressive therapy (aciclovir 400 mg b.i.d vs. placebo in Tanzania.Samples, including a cervico-vaginal lavage, were collected and tested for genital HIV-1 and HSV and reproductive tract infections (RTIs at randomisation and 6, 12 and 24 months follow-up. Data from all women at randomisation and women in the placebo arm during follow-up were analysed using generalised estimating equations to determine the correlates of cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA detection and load.Cervico-vaginal HIV-1 RNA was detected at 52.0% of 971 visits among 482 women, and was independently associated with plasma viral load, presence of genital ulcers, pregnancy, bloody cervical or vaginal discharge, abnormal vaginal discharge, cervical ectopy, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis, an intermediate bacterial vaginosis score and HSV DNA detection. Similar factors were associated with genital HIV-1 RNA load.RTIs were associated with increased presence and quantity of genital HIV-1 RNA in this population. These results highlight the importance of integrating effective RTI treatment into HIV care services.

  19. Community-based Men's Sheds: promoting male health, wellbeing and social inclusion in an international context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Wilson, Nathan J

    2014-09-01

    Males experience greater mortality and morbidity than females in most Western countries. The Australian and Irish National Male Health Policies aim to develop a framework to address this gendered health disparity. Men's Sheds have a distinct community development philosophy and are thus identified in both policies as an ideal location to address social isolation and positively impact the health and wellbeing of males who attend. The aim of this international cross-sectional survey was to gather information about Men's Sheds, the people who attend Men's Sheds, the activities at Men's Sheds, and the social and health dimensions of Men's Sheds. Results demonstrate that Men's Sheds are contributing a dual health and social role for a range of male subgroups. In particular, Men's Sheds have an outward social focus, supporting the social and mental health needs of men; health promotion and health literacy are key features of Men's Sheds. Men's Sheds have an important role to play in addressing the gendered health disparity that males face. They serve as an exemplar to health promotion professionals of a community development context where the aims of male health policy can be actualized as one part of a wider suite of global initiatives to reduce the gendered health disparity. © The Author (2013). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Effect of antigen shedding on targeted delivery of immunotoxins in solid tumors from a mathematical model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshang Pak

    Full Text Available Most cancer-specific antigens used as targets of antibody-drug conjugates and immunotoxins are shed from the cell surface (Zhang & Pastan (2008 Clin. Cancer Res. 14: 7981-7986, although at widely varying rates and by different mechanisms (Dello Sbarba & Rovida (2002 Biol. Chem. 383: 69-83. Why many cancer-specific antigens are shed and how the shedding affects delivery efficiency of antibody-based protein drugs are poorly understood questions at present. Before a detailed numerical study, it was assumed that antigen shedding would reduce the efficacy of antibody-drug conjugates and immunotoxins. However, our previous study using a comprehensive mathematical model showed that antigen shedding can significantly improve the efficacy of the mesothelin-binding immunotoxin, SS1P (anti-mesothelin-Fv-PE38, and suggested that receptor shedding can be a general mechanism for enhancing the effect of inter-cellular signaling molecules. Here, we improved this model and applied it to both SS1P and another recombinant immunotoxin, LMB-2, which targets CD25. We show that the effect of antigen shedding is influenced by a number of factors including the number of antigen molecules on the cell surface and the endocytosis rate. The high shedding rate of mesothelin is beneficial for SS1P, for which the antigen is large in number and endocytosed rapidly. On the other hand, the slow shedding of CD25 is beneficial for LMB-2, for which the antigen is small in number and endocytosed slowly.

  1. El aumento de la expresión del ARNm de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina I homóloga (ECA-2 inducido por atorvastatina se asocia a menor fibrosis e hipertrofia ventricular izquierda en un modelo de cardiomiopatía diabética Atorvastatin induced increase in homologous angiotensin i converting enzyme (ACE2 mRNA is associated to decreased fibrosis and decreased left ventricular hypertrophy in a rat model of diabetic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Aguilar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Evaluar el efecto de atorvastatina sobre la progresión del remodelado cardiaco y la expresión de ECA-2 en el miocardio de ratas diabéticas. Materiales y métodos. La diabetes fue inducida en ratas Holtzman con una inyección intraperitoneal de estreptozotocina. Los animales fueron divididos en tres grupos: (1 ratas control, (2 ratas diabéticas y (3 ratas diabéticas tratadas con atorvastatina (50 mg/kg/día. Después de ocho semanas de tratamiento, los corazones fueron extraídos para el análisis morfométrico, la cuantificación de colágeno y la determinación de los niveles de ARNm de ECA y ECA-2. Resultados. El índice de hipertrofia ventricular y el depósito de colágeno se incrementaron significativamente en las ratas diabéticas. La administración de atorvastatina previno estos cambios sin modificar los niveles de colesterol. La hiperglicemia produjo un incremento significativo en los niveles del ARNm de ECA y una marcada disminución en la expresión de ECA-2 en el miocardio de ratas diabéticas. La administración de atorvastatina indujo la expresión del ARNm de ECA-2 e inhibió la sobreexpresión del ARNm de ECA en el miocardio de las ratas diabéticas. Conclusiones. Nuestros resultados indican que la atorvastatina, independientemente de su capacidad para disminuir el colesterol, normaliza la relación de la expresión de ECA/ECA-2 y atenúa el desarrollo del remodelado adverso en el corazón diabético.Objectives. This study has investigated the effect of atorvastatin on the progression of cardiac remodelling and ACE- 2 expression in diabetic myocardium in rats. Materials and Methods. Diabetes was induced in Holtzman rats with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. The animals were divided into 3 groups: (1 normal control rats, (2 diabetic rats and (3 diabetic rats treated orally with atorvastatin (50 mg/kg/day. After eight weeks of treatment, the hearts were removed for morphometric studies, collagen

  2. Abdominal wall blocks in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børglum, Jens; Gögenür, Ismail; Bendtsen, Thomas F

    2016-01-01

    been introduced with success. Future research should also investigate the effect of specific abdominal wall blocks on neuroendocrine and inflammatory stress response after surgery.  Summary USG abdominal wall blocks in adults are commonplace techniques today. Most abdominal wall blocks are assigned......Purpose of review Abdominal wall blocks in adults have evolved much during the last decade; that is, particularly with the introduction of ultrasound-guided (USG) blocks. This review highlights recent advances of block techniques within this field and proposes directions for future research.......  Recent findings Ultrasound guidance is now considered the golden standard for abdominal wall blocks in adults, even though some landmark-based blocks are still being investigated. The efficiency of USG transversus abdominis plane blocks in relation to many surgical procedures involving the abdominal wall...

  3. SNUPPS power block engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, C A [Bechtel Power Corp., San Francisco, Calif. (USA)

    1975-11-01

    The Standard Power Block is based on a modular concept and consists of the following: turbine building, auxiliary building, fuel building, control building, radwaste building, diesel generators building, and outside storage tanks and transformers. Each power block unit includes a Westinghouse pressurized water reactor and has a thermal power rating of 3425 MW(t). The corresponding General Electric turbine generator net electrical output is 1188 MW(e). This standardization approach results in not only a reduction in the costs of engineering, licensing, procurement, and project planning, but should also result in additional savings by the application of experience gained in the construction of the first unit to the following units and early input of construction data to design.

  4. Large-Eddy Simulation of turbulent vortex shedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambeau, F

    1995-06-01

    This thesis documents the development and application of a computational algorithm for Large-Eddy Simulation. Unusually, the method adopts a fully collocated variable storage arrangement and is applicable to complex, non-rectilinear geometries. A Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes algorithm has formed the starting point of the development, but has been modified substantially: the spatial approximation of convection is effected by an energy-conserving central-differencing scheme; a second-order time-marching Adams-Bashforth scheme has been introduced; the pressure field is determined by solving the pressure-Poisson equation; this equation is solved either by use of preconditioned Conjugate-Gradient methods or with the Generalised Minimum Residual method; two types of sub-grid scale models have been introduced and examined. The algorithm has been validated by reference to a hierarchy of unsteady flows of increasing complexity starting with unsteady lid-driven cavity flows and ending with 3-D turbulent vortex shedding behind a square prism. In the latter case, for which extensive experimental data are available, special emphasis has been put on examining the dependence of the results on mesh density, near-wall treatment and the nature of the sub-grid-scale model, one of which is an advanced dynamic model. The LES scheme is shown to return time-average and phase-averaged results which agree well with experimental data and which support the view that LES is a promising approach for unsteady flows dominated by large periodic structures. (author) 87 refs.

  5. A study on the frictional response of reptilian shed skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, H A; Vargiolu, R; Zahouani, H; Mansori, M El

    2011-01-01

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined tribological response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its tribological behaviour according to the evolution of sliding conditions. In seeking inspirations for such designs, many engineers are turning toward the biological world to study the construction and behaviour of bio-analogues, and to probe the role surface topography assumes in conditioning of frictional response. That is how a bio-analogue can self-adjust its tribological response to adapt to habitat constraints. From a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a snake (Python regius). The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional response of snakes. The coefficient of friction depends on the direction of sliding: the value in forward motion is lower than that in the backward direction. Diagonal and side winding motion induces a different value of the friction coefficient. We discuss the origin of such a phenomenon in relation to surface texturing and study the energy constraints, implied by anisotropic friction, on the motion of the reptile.

  6. A study on the frictional response of reptilian shed skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Aal, H A [Arts et Metier ParisTech, Rue Saint Dominique BP 508, 51006 Chalons-en-Champagne (France); Vargiolu, R; Zahouani, H [Laboratoire de Tribology et Dynamique des Systemes, UMR CNRS 5513, ENI Saint Etienne - Ecole Centrale de Lyon -36 Avenue Guy de Collongue, 69131 Ecully cedex. France (France); Mansori, M El, E-mail: Hisham.abdel-aal@ensam.eu [Ecole Nationale Superieure d' Arts et Metiers, 2, cours des Arts et Metiers - 13617 Aix en Provence cedex 1 (France)

    2011-08-19

    Deterministic surfaces are constructs of which profile, topography and textures are integral to the function of the system they enclose. They are designed to yield a predetermined tribological response. Developing such entities relies on controlling the structure of the rubbing interface so that, not only the surface is of optimized topography, but also is able to self-adjust its tribological behaviour according to the evolution of sliding conditions. In seeking inspirations for such designs, many engineers are turning toward the biological world to study the construction and behaviour of bio-analogues, and to probe the role surface topography assumes in conditioning of frictional response. That is how a bio-analogue can self-adjust its tribological response to adapt to habitat constraints. From a tribological point of view, Squamate Reptiles, offer diverse examples where surface texturing, submicron and nano-scale features, achieves frictional regulation. In this paper, we study the frictional response of shed skin obtained from a snake (Python regius). The study employed a specially designed tribo-acoustic probe capable of measuring the coefficient of friction and detecting the acoustical behavior of the skin in vivo. The results confirm the anisotropy of the frictional response of snakes. The coefficient of friction depends on the direction of sliding: the value in forward motion is lower than that in the backward direction. Diagonal and side winding motion induces a different value of the friction coefficient. We discuss the origin of such a phenomenon in relation to surface texturing and study the energy constraints, implied by anisotropic friction, on the motion of the reptile.

  7. Replication and shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in juvenile rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Scott, Robert J.; Kerr, Benjamin; Kurath, Gael

    2017-01-01

    Viral replication and shedding are key components of transmission and fitness, the kinetics of which are heavily dependent on virus, host, and environmental factors. To date, no studies have quantified the shedding kinetics of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), or how they are associated with replication, making it difficult to ascertain the transmission dynamics of this pathogen of high agricultural and conservation importance. Here, the replication and shedding kinetics of two M genogroup IHNV genotypes were examined in their naturally co-evolved rainbow trout host. Within host virus replication began rapidly, approaching maximum values by day 3 post-infection, after which viral load was maintained or gradually dropped through day 7. Host innate immune response measured as stimulation of Mx-1 gene expression generally followed within host viral loads. Shedding also began very quickly and peaked within 2 days, defining a generally uniform early peak period of shedding from 1 to 4 days after exposure to virus. This was followed by a post-peak period where shedding declined, such that the majority of fish were no longer shedding by day 12 post-infection. Despite similar kinetics, the average shedding rate over the course of infection was significantly lower in mixed compared to single genotype infections, suggesting a competition effect, however, this did not significantly impact the total amount of virus shed. The data also indicated that the duration of shedding, rather than peak amount of virus shed, was correlated with fish mortality. Generally, the majority of virus produced during infection appeared to be shed into the environment rather than maintained in the host, although there was more retention of within host virus during the post-peak period. Viral virulence was correlated with shedding, such that the more virulent of the two genotypes shed more total virus. This fundamental understanding of IHNV

  8. Systemic Immune Activation and HIV Shedding in the Female Genital Tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, LaShonda Y; Christiansen, Shawna; Wang, Chia-Hao H; Mack, Wendy J; Young, Mary; Strickler, Howard D; Anastos, Kathryn; Minkoff, Howard; Cohen, Mardge; Geenblatt, Ruth M; Karim, Roksana; Operskalski, Eva; Frederick, Toni; Homans, James D; Landay, Alan; Kovacs, Andrea

    2016-02-01

    Plasma HIV RNA is the most significant determinant of cervical HIV shedding. However, shedding is also associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and cervical inflammation. The mechanism by which this occurs is poorly understood. There is evidence that systemic immune activation promotes viral entry, replication, and HIV disease progression. We hypothesized that systemic immune activation would be associated with an increase in HIV genital shedding. Clinical assessments, HIV RNA in plasma and genital secretions, and markers of immune activation (CD38(+)DR(+) and CD38(-)DR(-)) on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in blood were evaluated in 226 HIV+ women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. There were 569 genital evaluations of which 159 (28%) exhibited HIV RNA shedding, defined as HIV viral load >80 copies per milliliter. We tested associations between immune activation and shedding using generalized estimating equations with logit link function. In the univariate model, higher levels of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell activation in blood were significantly associated with genital tract shedding. However, in the multivariate model adjusting for plasma HIV RNA, STIs, and genital tract infections, only higher levels of resting CD8(+) T cells (CD38(-)DR(-)) were significantly inversely associated with HIV shedding in the genital tract (odds ratios = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.21 to 0.9, P = 0.02). The association of systemic immune activation with genital HIV shedding is multifactorial. Systemic T-cell activation is associated with genital tract shedding in univariate analysis but not when adjusting for plasma HIV RNA, STIs, and genital tract infections. In addition, women with high percentage of resting T cells are less likely to have HIV shedding compared with those with lower percentages. These findings suggest that a higher percentage of resting cells, as a result of maximal viral suppression with treatment, may decrease local genital activation, HIV

  9. Comparison of three nonlinear models to describe long-term tag shedding by lake trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Mary C.; Swanson, Bruce L.; Schram, Stephen T.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    We estimated long-term tag-shedding rates for lake trout Salvelinus namaycush using two existing models and a model we developed to account for the observed permanence of some tags. Because tag design changed over the course of the study, we examined tag-shedding rates for three types of numbered anchor tags (Floy tags FD-67, FD-67C, and FD-68BC) and an unprinted anchor tag (FD-67F). Lake trout from the Gull Island Shoal region, Lake Superior, were double-tagged, and subsequent recaptures were monitored in annual surveys conducted from 1974 to 1992. We modeled tag-shedding rates, using time at liberty and probabilities of tag shedding estimated from fish released in 1974 and 1978–1983 and later recaptured. Long-term shedding of numbered anchor tags in lake trout was best described by a nonlinear model with two parameters: an instantaneous tag-shedding rate and a constant representing the proportion of tags that were never shed. Although our estimates of annual shedding rates varied with tag type (0.300 for FD-67, 0.441 for FD-67C, and 0.656 for FD-68BC), differences were not significant. About 36% of tags remained permanently affixed to the fish. Of the numbered tags that were shed (about 64%), two mechanisms contributed to tag loss: disintegration and dislodgment. Tags from about 11% of recaptured fish had disintegrated, but most tags were dislodged. Unprinted tags were shed at a significant but low rate immediately after release, but the long-term, annual shedding rate of these tags was only 0.013. Compared with unprinted tags, numbered tags dislodged at higher annual rates; we hypothesized that this was due to the greater frictional drag associated with the larger cross-sectional area of numbered tags.

  10. Change Around the Block?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Joey

    2017-04-01

    Proponents of a block grant or per-capita cap trumpet them as vehicles for the federal government to give the states a capped amount of funding for Medicaid that legislatures would effectively distribute how they see fit. Questions abound as to what capped Medicaid funding would look like, and what effect it would have on the current Medicaid-eligible population, covered services, and physician payments.

  11. SUPERFICIAL CERVICAL PLEXUS BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komang Mega Puspadisari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superficial cervical plexus block is one of the regional anesthesia in  neck were limited to thesuperficial fascia. Anesthesia is used to relieve pain caused either during or after the surgery iscompleted. This technique can be done by landmark or with ultrasound guiding. The midpointof posterior border of the Sternocleidomastoid was identified and the prosedure done on thatplace or on the level of cartilage cricoid.

  12. E-Block: A Tangible Programming Tool with Graphical Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danli Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper designs a tangible programming tool, E-Block, for children aged 5 to 9 to experience the preliminary understanding of programming by building blocks. With embedded artificial intelligence, the tool defines the programming blocks with the sensors as the input and enables children to write programs to complete the tasks in the computer. The symbol on the programming block's surface is used to help children understanding the function of each block. The sequence information is transferred to computer by microcomputers and then translated into semantic information. The system applies wireless and infrared technologies and provides user with feedbacks on both screen and programming blocks. Preliminary user studies using observation and user interview methods are shown for E-Block's prototype. The test results prove that E-Block is attractive to children and easy to learn and use. The project also highlights potential advantages of using single chip microcomputer (SCM technology to develop tangible programming tools for children.

  13. Block and sub-block boundary strengthening in lath martensite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Du, C.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Vaes, R.; Geers, M.G.D.

    2016-01-01

    Well-defined uniaxial micro-tensile tests were performed on lath martensite single block specimens and multi-block specimens with different number of block boundaries parallel to the loading direction. Detailed slip trace analyses consistently revealed that in the {110}<111> slip system with the

  14. Genetic relationship between wool shedding in ewe-lambs and ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in reducing labor costs related to shearing has led to the development of breeds that naturally shed their wool annually. This goal has been achieved by introducing hair-sheep genetics. These developments are relatively recent and thus the genetic underpinnings of wool shedding (WS) are not...

  15. Strongyle egg shedding consistency in horses on farms using selective therapy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Haaning, Niels; Olsen, Susanne Nautrup

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of horses that shed the same number of strongyle eggs over time can lead to the optimization of parasite control strategies. This study evaluated shedding of strongyle eggs in 424 horses on 10 farms whan a selective anthelmintic treatment regime was used over a 3-year period....

  16. Prolonged Shedding of Human Parechovirus in Feces of Young Children after Symptomatic Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wildenbeest, Joanne G; Benschop, Kimberley S M; Bouma-de Jongh, Saskia; Wolthers, Katja C; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2016-01-01

    After symptomatic human parechovirus (HPeV) infection in infants, the duration of (mostly asymptomatic) shedding in feces was 2-24 weeks (median 58 days). HPeV cycle threshold value could neither differentiate between symptomatic disease and asymptomatic shedding nor between severe and mild disease

  17. Application of computational intelligence techniques for load shedding in power systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, J.A.; Mokhlis, H.; Bakar, A.H.A.; Mohamad, Hasmaini

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The power system blackout history of last two decades is presented. • Conventional load shedding techniques, their types and limitations are presented. • Applications of intelligent techniques in load shedding are presented. • Intelligent techniques include ANN, fuzzy logic, ANFIS, genetic algorithm and PSO. • The discussion and comparison between these techniques are provided. - Abstract: Recent blackouts around the world question the reliability of conventional and adaptive load shedding techniques in avoiding such power outages. To address this issue, reliable techniques are required to provide fast and accurate load shedding to prevent collapse in the power system. Computational intelligence techniques, due to their robustness and flexibility in dealing with complex non-linear systems, could be an option in addressing this problem. Computational intelligence includes techniques like artificial neural networks, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic control, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system, and particle swarm optimization. Research in these techniques is being undertaken in order to discover means for more efficient and reliable load shedding. This paper provides an overview of these techniques as applied to load shedding in a power system. This paper also compares the advantages of computational intelligence techniques over conventional load shedding techniques. Finally, this paper discusses the limitation of computational intelligence techniques, which restricts their usage in load shedding in real time

  18. Under-Frequency Load Shedding Technique Considering Event-Based for an Islanded Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasmaini Mohamad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenge for an islanding operation is to sustain the frequency stability. A large power imbalance following islanding would cause under-frequency, hence an appropriate control is required to shed certain amount of load. The main objective of this research is to develop an adaptive under-frequency load shedding (UFLS technique for an islanding system. The technique is designed considering an event-based which includes the moment system is islanded and a tripping of any DG unit during islanding operation. A disturbance magnitude is calculated to determine the amount of load to be shed. The technique is modeled by using PSCAD simulation tool. A simulation studies on a distribution network with mini hydro generation is carried out to evaluate the UFLS model. It is performed under different load condition: peak and base load. Results show that the load shedding technique have successfully shed certain amount of load and stabilized the system frequency.

  19. Habitat Blocks and Wildlife Corridors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Habitat blocks are areas of contiguous forest and other natural habitats that are unfragmented by roads, development, or agriculture. Vermonts habitat blocks are...

  20. Atrioventricular block, ECG tracing (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an abnormal rhythm (arrhythmia) called an atrioventricular (AV) block. P waves show that the top of the ... wave (and heart contraction), there is an atrioventricular block, and a very slow pulse (bradycardia).

  1. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-13

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  2. Experimental investigation on cavitating flow shedding over an axisymmetric blunt body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changli; Wang, Guoyu; Huang, Biao

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, most researchers focus on the cavity shedding mechanisms of unsteady cavitating flows over different objects, such as 2D/3D hydrofoils, venturi-type section, axisymmetric bodies with different headforms, and so on. But few of them pay attention to the differences of cavity shedding modality under different cavitation numbers in unsteady cavitating flows over the same object. In the present study, two kinds of shedding patterns are investigated experimentally. A high speed camera system is used to observe the cavitating flows over an axisymmetric blunt body and the velocity fields are measured by a particle image velocimetry (PIV) technique in a water tunnel for different cavitation conditions. The U-type cavitating vortex shedding is observed in unsteady cavitating flows. When the cavitation number is 0.7, there is a large scale cavity rolling up and shedding, which cause the instability and dramatic fluctuation of the flows, while at cavitation number of 0.6, the detached cavities can be conjunct with the attached part to induce the break-off behavior again at the tail of the attached cavity, as a result, the final shedding is in the form of small scale cavity and keeps a relatively steady flow field. It is also found that the interaction between the re-entrant flow and the attached cavity plays an important role in the unsteady cavity shedding modality. When the attached cavity scale is insufficient to overcome the re-entrant flow, it deserves the large cavity rolling up and shedding just as that at cavitation number of 0.7. Otherwise, the re-entrant flow is defeated by large enough cavity to induce the cavity-combined process and small scale cavity vortexes shedding just as that of the cavitation number of 0.6. This research shows the details of two different cavity shedding modalities which is worthful and meaningful for the further study of unsteady cavitation.

  3. Powder wastes confinement block and manufacturing process of this block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagot, L.; Brunel, G.

    1996-01-01

    This invention concerns a powder wastes containment block and a manufacturing process of this block. In this block, the waste powder is encapsulated in a thermo hardening polymer as for example an epoxy resin, the encapsulated resin being spread into cement. This block can contain between 45 and 55% in mass of wastes, between 18 and 36% in mass of polymer and between 14 and 32% in mass of cement. Such a containment block can be used for the radioactive wastes storage. (O.M.). 4 refs

  4. Building Curriculum during Block Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Blocks are not just for play! In this article, Nicole Andrews describes observing the interactions of three young boys enthusiastically engaged in the kindergarten block center of their classroom, using blocks in a building project that displayed their ability to use critical thinking skills, physics exploration, and the development of language…

  5. Isotope heating block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenk, E.

    1976-01-01

    A suggestion is made not to lead the separated nuclear 'waste' from spent nuclear fuel elements directly to end storage, but to make use of the heat produced from the remaining radiation, e.g. for seawater desalination. According to the invention, the activated fission products are to be processed, e.g. by calcination or vitrification, so that one can handle them. They should then be arranged in layers alternately with plate-shaped heat conducting pipes to form a homogeneous block; the heat absorbed by the thermal plates should be further passed on to evaporators or heat exchangers. (UWI) [de

  6. Blocking the Hawking radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autzen, M.; Kouvaris, C.

    2014-01-01

    grows after its formation (and eventually destroys the star) instead of evaporating. The fate of the black hole is dictated by the two opposite mechanics, i.e., accretion of nuclear matter from the center of the star and Hawking radiation that tends to decrease the mass of the black hole. We study how...... the assumptions for the accretion rate can in fact affect the critical mass beyond which a black hole always grows. We also study to what extent degenerate nuclear matter can impede Hawking radiation due to the fact that emitted particles can be Pauli blocked at the core of the star....

  7. Salmonella fecal shedding and immune responses are dose- and serotype- dependent in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ivanek

    Full Text Available Despite the public health importance of Salmonella infection in pigs, little is known about the associated dynamics of fecal shedding and immunity. In this study, we investigated the transitions of pigs through the states of Salmonella fecal shedding and immune response post-Salmonella inoculation as affected by the challenge dose and serotype. Continuous-time multistate Markov models were developed using published experimental data. The model for shedding had four transient states, of which two were shedding (continuous and intermittent shedding and two non-shedding (latency and intermittent non-shedding, and one absorbing state representing permanent cessation of shedding. The immune response model had two transient states representing responses below and above the seroconversion level. The effects of two doses [low (0.65×10(6 CFU/pig and high (0.65×10(9 CFU/pig] and four serotypes (Salmonella Yoruba, Salmonella Cubana, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Salmonella Derby on the models' transition intensities were evaluated using a proportional intensities model. Results indicated statistically significant effects of the challenge dose and serotype on the dynamics of shedding and immune response. The time spent in the specific states was also estimated. Continuous shedding was on average 10-26 days longer, while intermittent non-shedding was 2-4 days shorter, in pigs challenged with the high compared to low dose. Interestingly, among pigs challenged with the high dose, the continuous and intermittent shedding states were on average up to 10-17 and 3-4 days longer, respectively, in pigs infected with S. Cubana compared to the other three serotypes. Pigs challenged with the high dose of S. Typhimurium or S. Derby seroconverted on average up to 8-11 days faster compared to the low dose. These findings highlight that Salmonella fecal shedding and immune response following Salmonella challenge are dose- and serotype-dependent and that the detection of

  8. A standard graphite block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivkovic, M; Zdravkovic, Z; Sotic, O [Department of Reactor Physics and Dynamics, Boris Kidric Institute of nuclear sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1966-04-15

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 {+-}3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm{sup 3}; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb.

  9. A standard graphite block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivkovic, M.; Zdravkovic, Z.; Sotic, O.

    1966-04-01

    A graphite block was calibrated for the thermal neutron flux of the Ra-Be source using indium foils as detectors. Experimental values of the thermal neutron flux along the central vertical axis of the system were corrected for the self-shielding effect and depression of flux in the detector. The experimental values obtained were compared with the values calculated on the basis of solving the conservation neutron equation by the continuous slowing-down theory. In this theoretical calculation of the flux the Ra-Be source was divided into three resonance energy regions. The measurement of the thermal neutron diffusion length in the standard graphite block is described. The measurements were performed in the thermal neutron region of the system. The experimental results were interpreted by the diffusion theory for point thermal neutron source in the finite system. The thermal neutron diffusion length was calculated to be L= 50.9 ±3.1 cm for the following graphite characteristics: density = 1.7 g/cm 3 ; boron content = 0.1 ppm; absorption cross section = 3.7 mb

  10. Engineering Extreme Hydrophobic and Super Slippery Water Shedding Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Glen

    2017-04-01

    The intrinsic water repellency of a material is fundamentally determined by its surface chemistry, but alone this does not determine the ability of a surface to shed water. Physical factors such as the surface texture/topography, rigidity/flexibility, granularity/porosity combined with the intrinsic wetting properties of the liquid with the surface and whether it is infused by a lubricating liquid are equally important. In this talk I will outline fundamental, but simple, ideas on the topographic enhancement of surface chemistry to create superhydrophobicity, the adhesion of particles to liquid-air interfaces to create liquid marbles, elastocapillarity to create droplet wrapping, and lubricant impregnated surfaces to create completely mobile droplets [1-3]. I will discuss how these ideas have their origins in natural systems and surfaces, such as Lotus leaves, galling aphids and the Nepenthes pitcher plant. I will show how we have applied these concepts to study the wetting of granular systems, such as sand, to understand extreme soil water repellency. I will argue that relaxing the assumption that a solid substrate is fixed in shape and arrangement, can lead to the formation of liquid marbles, whereby a droplet self-coats in a hydrophobic powder/grains. I will show that the concepts of wetting and porosity blur as liquids penetrate into a porous or granular substrate. I will also discuss how lubricant impregnated super slippery surfaces can be used to study a pure constant contact angle mode of droplet evaporation [4]. Finally, I will show dewetting of a surface is not simply a video reversal of wetting [5], and I will give an example of the use of perfect hydrophobicity using the Leidenfrost effect to create a new type of low friction mechanical and hear engine [6]. References: [1] Shirtcliffe, N. J., et al., An introduction to superhydrophobicity. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 161, pp.124-138 (2010). [2] McHale, G. & Newton, M. I. Liquid

  11. The wild tapered block bootstrap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hounyo, Ulrich

    In this paper, a new resampling procedure, called the wild tapered block bootstrap, is introduced as a means of calculating standard errors of estimators and constructing confidence regions for parameters based on dependent heterogeneous data. The method consists in tapering each overlapping block...... of the series first, the applying the standard wild bootstrap for independent and heteroscedastic distrbuted observations to overlapping tapered blocks in an appropriate way. Its perserves the favorable bias and mean squared error properties of the tapered block bootstrap, which is the state-of-the-art block......-order asymptotic validity of the tapered block bootstrap as well as the wild tapered block bootstrap approximation to the actual distribution of the sample mean is also established when data are assumed to satisfy a near epoch dependent condition. The consistency of the bootstrap variance estimator for the sample...

  12. Kinetics of viral shedding provide insights into the epidemiology of viral hemorrhagic septicemia in Pacific herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Paul K.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Winton, James R.; Grady, Courtney; Collins, Rachael

    2010-01-01

    Losses from infectious diseases are an important component of natural mortality among marine fish species, but factors controlling the ecology of these diseases and their potential responses to anthropogenic changes are poorly understood. We used viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) and a laboratory stock of Pacific herring Clupea pallasii to investigate the kinetics of viral shedding and its effect on disease transmission and host mortality. Outbreaks of acute disease, accompanied by mortality and viral shedding, were initiated after waterborne exposure of herring to concentrations of VHSV as low as 101 plaque-forming units (pfu) ml–1. Shed virus in flow-through tanks was first detected 4 to 5 d post-exposure, peaked after 6 to 10 d, and was no longer detected after 16 d. Shedding rates, calculated from density, flow and waterborne virus titer reached 1.8 to 5.0 × 108 pfu fish–1 d–1. Onset of viral shedding was dose-dependent and preceded initial mortality by 2 d. At 21 d, cumulative mortality in treatment groups ranged from 81 to 100% and was dependent not on challenge dose, but on the kinetics and level of viral shedding by infected fish in the tank. Possible consequences of the viral shedding and disease kinetics are discussed in the context of epizootic initiation and perpetuation among populations of wild Pacific herring.

  13. The Transition from Thick to Thin Plate Wake Physics: Whither Vortex Shedding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a flat plate with a circular trailing edge is investigated with data from direct numerical simulations. Computations were performed for six different combinations of the Reynolds numbers based on plate thickness (D) and boundary layer momentum thickness upstream of the trailing edge (theta). Unlike the case of the cylinder, these Reynolds numbers are independent parameters for the flat plate. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in all the cases investigated. One objective of the study is to understand the changes in the wake vortex shedding process as the plate thickness is reduced (increasing theta/D). The value of D varies by a factor of 16 and that of theta by approximately 5 in the computations. Vortex shedding is vigorous in the low theta/D cases with a substantial decrease in shedding intensity in the large theta/D cases. Other shedding characteristics are also significantly altered with increasing theta/D. A visualization of the shedding process in the different cases is provided and discussed. The basic shedding mechanism is explored in depth. The effect of changing theta/D on the time-averaged, near-wake velocity statistics is also discussed. A functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers mentioned above is obtained.

  14. Persistent genital herpes simplex virus-2 shedding years following the first clinical episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Warren; Saracino, Misty; Magaret, Amalia; Selke, Stacy; Remington, Mike; Huang, Meei-Li; Warren, Terri; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2011-01-15

    Patients with newly acquired genital herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) infection have virus frequently detected at the genital mucosa. Rates of genital shedding initially decrease over time after infection, but data on long-term viral shedding are lacking. For this study, 377 healthy adults with history of symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection collected anogenital swabs for HSV-2 DNA polymerase chain reaction for at least 30 consecutive days. Time since first genital herpes episode was significantly associated with reduced genital shedding. Total HSV shedding occurred on 33.6% of days in participants <1 year, 20.6% in those 1-9 years, and 16.7% in those ≥10 years from first episode. Subclinical HSV shedding occurred on 26.2% of days among participants <1 year, 13.1% in those 1-9 years, and 9.3% in those ≥10 years from first episode. On days with HSV detection, mean quantity was 4.9 log₁₀ copies/mL for those <1 year, 4.7 log₁₀ copies/mL among those 1-9 years, and 4.6 log₁₀ copies/mL among those ≥10 years since first episode. Rates of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding decrease after the first year following the initial clinical episode. However, viral shedding persists at high rates and copy numbers years after infection, and therefore may pose continued risk of HSV-2 transmission to sexual partners.

  15. Hot-Wire Calibration at Low Velocities: Revisiting the Vortex Shedding Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohrab S. Sattarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The necessity to calibrate hot-wire probes against a known velocity causes problems at low velocities, due to the inherent inaccuracy of pressure transducers at low differential pressures. The vortex shedding calibration method is in this respect a recommended technique to obtain calibration data at low velocities, due to its simplicity and accuracy. However, it has mainly been applied in a low and narrow Reynolds number range known as the laminar vortex shedding regime. Here, on the other hand, we propose to utilize the irregular vortex shedding regime and show where the probe needs to be placed with respect to the cylinder in order to obtain unambiguous calibration data.

  16. The N domain of somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme negatively regulates ectodomain shedding and catalytic activity

    OpenAIRE

    Woodman, Zenda L.; Schwager, Sylva L. U.; Redelinghuys, Pierre; Carmona, Adriana K.; Ehlers, Mario R. W.; Sturrock, Edward D.

    2005-01-01

    sACE (somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme) consists of two homologous, N and C domains, whereas the testis isoenzyme [tACE (testis ACE)] consists of a single C domain. Both isoenzymes are shed from the cell surface by a sheddase activity, although sACE is shed much less efficiently than tACE. We hypothesize that the N domain of sACE plays a regulatory role, by occluding a recognition motif on the C domain required for ectodomain shedding and by influencing the catalytic efficiency. To test ...

  17. Photovoltaic building blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanberg, Peter Jesper; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2014-01-01

    efficiency of about 15% for commercial Silicon solar cells there is still much to gain. DTU Danchip provides research facilities, equipment and expertise for the building blocks that comprises fabricating the efficient solar cell. In order to get more of the sun light into the device we provide thin film......Photovoltaics (PV), better known as solar cells, are now a common day sight on many rooftops in Denmark.The installed capacity of PV systems worldwide is growing exponentially1 and is the third most importantrenewable energy source today. The cost of PV is decreasing fast with ~10%/year but to make...... it directcompetitive with fossil energy sources a further reduction is needed. By increasing the efficiency of the solar cells one gain an advantage through the whole chain of cost. So that per produced Watt of power less material is spent, installation costs are lower, less area is used etc. With an average...

  18. Celiac ganglia block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinci, Devrim; Akhan, Okan

    2005-01-01

    Pain occurs frequently in patients with advanced cancers. Tumors originating from upper abdominal viscera such as pancreas, stomach, duodenum, proximal small bowel, liver and biliary tract and from compressing enlarged lymph nodes can cause severe abdominal pain, which do not respond satisfactorily to medical treatment or radiotherapy. Percutaneous celiac ganglia block (CGB) can be performed with high success and low complication rates under imaging guidance to obtain pain relief in patients with upper abdominal malignancies. A significant relationship between pain relief and degree of tumoral celiac ganglia invasion according to CT features was described in the literature. Performing the procedure in the early grades of celiac ganglia invasion on CT can increase the effectiveness of the CGB, which is contrary to World Health Organization criteria stating that CGB must be performed in patients with advanced stage cancer. CGB may also be effectively performed in patients with chronic pancreatitis for pain palliation

  19. Atomic Basic Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheler, Fabian; Mitzlaff, Martin; Schröder-Preikschat, Wolfgang

    Die Entscheidung, einen zeit- bzw. ereignisgesteuerten Ansatz für ein Echtzeitsystem zu verwenden, ist schwierig und sehr weitreichend. Weitreichend vor allem deshalb, weil diese beiden Ansätze mit äußerst unterschiedlichen Kontrollflussabstraktionen verknüpft sind, die eine spätere Migration zum anderen Paradigma sehr schwer oder gar unmöglich machen. Wir schlagen daher die Verwendung einer Zwischendarstellung vor, die unabhängig von der jeweils verwendeten Kontrollflussabstraktion ist. Für diesen Zweck verwenden wir auf Basisblöcken basierende Atomic Basic Blocks (ABB) und bauen darauf ein Werkzeug, den Real-Time Systems Compiler (RTSC) auf, der die Migration zwischen zeit- und ereignisgesteuerten Systemen unterstützt.

  20. Some Blocks from Heliopolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Nageh Omar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available These group of Architectural Fragments have been discovered during Excavations at Souq el – Khamees Site at the end of Mostorod Street in el – Matarya Area by the Supreme Council of Antiquities Mission Season 2003 and none published before . The Site of Excavations is Situated about 500 metres to the west Obelisk of the King Senusert I According to the inscriptions on the block (pl.1.a,fig.1 represents the coronation name of the king Senusret III, the fifth king of the twelfth dynasty within the cartouche .Through This recent discover and his Sphinx statue we Suggest that the king Senusret III built a shrine or Temple at Heliopols which was possibly a part of the great Temple of the universal God of Heliopolis . For block dating to the king Akhenaten and many monuments are discovered in Heliopolis at the same period emphasized that the king Akhenaten built temple for the god Aten in Heliopolis and through Studies about the king Akhenaten, we suggest that the king Akhenaten take his new principles from Heliopolis . The king Ramesses II mentioned from stela which discovered at Manshyt el- Sader, in the second horizontal line that he erected oblesk and some statues at the great Temple in Heliopolis , this recent Discover about Statue of the king Ramesses II emphasized site of excavations perhaps a shrine or open court from temple of the king Ramesses II at the great Temple in Heliopolis For nbt – htpt, we could show that the goddess Hathor take a forward position in Heliopolis and become the Lady of Hetepet in Heliopolis since Eighteenth dynasty at least

  1. Once Daily Valacyclovir for Reducing Viral Shedding in Subjects Newly Diagnosed with Genital Herpes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G. Martens

    2009-01-01

    Results. 52 subjects had at least one PCR measurement in both treatment periods and comprised the primary efficacy population. Valacyclovir significantly reduced HSV-2 shedding during all days compared to placebo (mean 2.9% versus 13.5% of all days (P<.01, a 78% reduction. Valacyclovir significantly reduced subclinical HSV-2 shedding during all days compared to placebo (mean 2.4% versus 11.0% of all days (P<.01, a 78% reduction. However, 79% of subjects had no GH recurrences while receiving valacyclovir compared to 52% of subjects receiving placebo (P<.01. Conclusion. In this study, the frequency of total and subclinical HSV-2 shedding was greater than reported in earlier studies involving subjects with a history of symptomatic genital recurrences. Our study is the first to demonstrate a significant reduction in viral shedding with valacyclovir 1 g daily compared to placebo in a population of subjects newly diagnosed with HSV-2 infection.

  2. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrPres Detection, Shedding and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lewis, Randolph V

    2005-01-01

    .... The specific goals of these studies are to develop sensitive assays for PrP(exp res) as a marker for infectivity, and use these techniques to monitor the dynamics and modes of shedding of PrP(exp res...

  3. Effects of ethanol on plasma protein shedding in the human stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brassinne, A.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma protein shedding in the stomach was measured in 23 normal individuals before and after intragastric administration of a 30% solution of ethyl alcohol. Two different methods were used to assess plasma protein shedding. The first technique utilizes [ 131 I] albumin and requires neutralization of the gastric juice. It was used in 12 subjects and failed to demonstrate any increase of plasma protein shedding under the influence of ethanol. The second technique which utilizes [ 51 Cr] chloride was used in 11 subjects. It demonstrated a significant increase of the gastric clearance of plasma protein which reached 2.5 times the control values. The [ 51 Cr] chloride technique does not require prior neutralization of gastric acidity. It is concluded that, in normal man, ethanol administration increases plasma protein shedding in the stomach when it is given in the presence of an acid gastric juice. The effect is not observed when the gastric acidity is neutralized

  4. Identifying the nature of surface chemical modification for directed self-assembly of block copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Evangelio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, block copolymer lithography has emerged as a viable alternative technology for advanced lithography. In chemical-epitaxy-directed self-assembly, the interfacial energy between the substrate and each block copolymer domain plays a key role on the final ordering. Here, we focus on the experimental characterization of the chemical interactions that occur at the interface built between different chemical guiding patterns and the domains of the block copolymers. We have chosen hard X-ray high kinetic energy photoelectron spectroscopy as an exploration technique because it provides information on the electronic structure of buried interfaces. The outcome of the characterization sheds light onto key aspects of directed self-assembly: grafted brush layer, chemical pattern creation and brush/block co-polymer interface.

  5. Reduction of Salmonella Shedding by Sows during Gestation in Relation to Its Fecal Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Larivière-Gauthier

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pork meat is estimated to be responsible for 10–20% of human salmonellosis cases in Europe. Control strategies at the farm could reduce contamination at the slaughterhouse. One of the targeted sectors of production is maternity, where sows could be Salmonella reservoirs. The aim of this study was to assess the dynamics of shedding of Salmonella in terms of variation in both shedding prevalence and strains excreted during gestation in Quebec’s maternity sector. The evolution of the fecal microbiota of these sows during gestation was also assessed to detect bacterial populations associated with these variations. A total of 73 sows both at the beginning and the end of the gestation were randomly selected and their fecal matter was analyzed. Salmonella detection was conducted using a method that includes two selective enrichment media (MSRV and TBG. Nine isolates per positive samples were collected. Among the 73 sows tested, 27 were shedding Salmonella. Sows in the first third of their gestation shed Salmonella significantly more frequently (21/27 than those in the last third (6/46 (χ2P < 0.05. The shedding status of 19 of the sows that were previously sampled in the first third of their gestation was followed, this time in the last third of their gestation, which confirmed reduction of shedding. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and qPCR, significant differences between the fecal flora of sows at the beginning and the end of the gestation, shedding Salmonella or not and with different parity number were detected. Using MaAsLin, multiple OTUs were found to be associated with the time of gestation, the status of Salmonella excretion and parity number. Some of the identified taxa could be linked to the reduction of the shedding of Salmonella at the end of gestation. In this study, we showed that the level of Salmonella shedding was variable during gestation with significantly higher shedding at the beginning rather than at the end of gestation. We

  6. Shedding of the immunodominant P20 surface antigen of Eimeria bovis sporozoites.

    OpenAIRE

    Speer, C A; Whitmire, W M

    1989-01-01

    P20 is an immunodominant surface antigen of Eimeria bovis sporozoites. As parasites underwent merogony within cultured bovine monocytes and Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, P20 appeared to be shed gradually by meronts and was absent in type 1 and 2 first-generation merozoites. Meronts of E. bovis appeared to shed P20 into the parasitophorous vacuole of bovine monocytes, whereas MDBK cells evidently released P20 into the culture medium or destroyed its antigenic determinant.

  7. Modulation of statin-activated shedding of Alzheimer APP ectodomain by ROCK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Pedrini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are widely used cholesterol-lowering drugs that act by inhibiting HMGCoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Recent evidence suggests that statin use may be associated with a decreased risk for Alzheimer disease, although the mechanisms underlying this apparent risk reduction are poorly understood. One popular hypothesis for statin action is related to the drugs' ability to activate alpha-secretase-type shedding of the alpha-secretase-cleaved soluble Alzheimer amyloid precursor protein ectodomain (sAPP(alpha. Statins also inhibit the isoprenoid pathway, thereby modulating the activities of the Rho family of small GTPases-Rho A, B, and C-as well as the activities of Rac and cdc42. Rho proteins, in turn, exert many of their effects via Rho-associated protein kinases (ROCKs. Several cell-surface molecules are substrates for activated alpha-secretase-type ectodomain shedding, and regulation of shedding typically occurs via activation of protein kinase C or extracellular-signal-regulated protein kinases, or via inactivation of protein phosphatase 1 or 2A. However, the possibility that these enzymes play a role in statin-stimulated shedding has been excluded, leading us to investigate whether the Rho/ROCK1 protein phosphorylation pathway might be involved.We found that both atorvastatin and simvastatin stimulated sAPP(alpha shedding from a neuroblastoma cell line via a subcellular mechanism apparently located upstream of endocytosis. A farnesyl transferase inhibitor also increased sAPP(alpha shedding, as did a dominant negative form of ROCK1. Most conclusively, a constitutively active ROCK1 molecule inhibited statin-stimulated sAPP(alpha shedding.Together, these data suggest that statins exert their effects on shedding of sAPP(alpha from cultured cells, at least in part, by modulation of the isoprenoid pathway and ROCK1.

  8. A Bankruptcy Problem Approach to Load-shedding in Multiagent-based Microgrid Operation

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs), distributed energy storage devices (DSs), and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement,  the control of DGs’ output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, whi...

  9. Identification of shed or plucked origin of Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) tail feathers: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahajpal, Vivek; Goyal, S P

    2008-06-01

    Indian Peafowl (Pavo cristatus) tail covert feathers were studied to investigate the difference between shed and plucked feathers in the context of wildlife offence cases involving the killing of the Indian national bird for the purpose of plucking feathers. Plucked feathers were distinguished from shed feathers by examining their roots under low magnification of a stereoscopic microscope. A chemical test to show the presence of blood on the roots of plucked feathers was used to corroborate the plucked origin of feathers.

  10. Vortex Shedding Characteristics of the Wake of a Thin Flat Plate with a Circular Trailing Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2018-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a thin flat plate with a circular trailing edge are investigated with direct numerical simulations (DNS). Data obtained for two different Reynolds numbers (based on plate thickness, D) are the main focus of this study. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in both cases. An earlier investigation of one of the cases (Case F) showed shed vortices in the wake that were about 1.0 D to 4.0 D in spanwise length. Considerable variation in both the strength and frequency of these shed vortices was observed. One objective of the present investigation is to determine the important contributors to this variability in strength and frequency of shed vortices and their finite spanwise extent. Analysis of the data shows that streamwise vortices in the separating boundary layer play an important role in strengthening/weakening of the shed vortices and that high/low-speed streaks in the boundary layer are important contributors to variability in shedding frequency. Both these features of the boundary layer contribute to the finite extent of the vortices in the spanwise direction. The second plate DNS (Case G, with 40 percent of the plate thickness of Case F) shows that while shedding intensity is weaker than obtained in Case F, many of the wake features are similar to that of Case F. This is important in understanding the path to the wake of the thin plate with a sharp trailing edge where shedding is absent. Here we also test the efficacy of a functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers based on the boundary layer momentum thickness (Re (sub theta) and D (Re (sub D)); data for developing this behavioral model is from Cases F & G and five earlier DNSs of the flat plate wake.

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Leptospira interrogans Shed in Urine of Chronically Infected Hosts▿

    OpenAIRE

    Monahan, Avril M.; Callanan, John J.; Nally, Jarlath E.

    2008-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a global zoonotic disease. The causative agent, pathogenic Leptospira species, survives in the renal tubules of chronically infected hosts, from where leptospires are shed via urine into the environment. Infection of new hosts can present as an array of acute and chronic disease processes reflecting variations in host-pathogen interactions. The present study was designed to reproduce the carrier phase of infection in Rattus norvegicus, thus facilitating shedding of leptospire...

  12. Subclinical herpesvirus shedding among HIV-1-infected men on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo-Hernandez, Arcadio; Chen, Yue; Bullotta, Arlene; Buchanan, William G; Klamar-Blain, Cynthia R; Borowski, Luann; Riddler, Sharon A; Rinaldo, Charles R; Macatangay, Bernard J C

    2017-09-24

    We evaluated the subclinical shedding of six different herpesviruses in antiretroviral drug-treated HIV-positive [HIV(+)] MSM, and determined how this is associated with markers of inflammation and immune activation. We obtained blood, semen, throat washing, urine, and stool from 15 antiretroviral-treated HIV-1-infected MSM with CD4 T-cell reconstitution, and 12 age-matched HIV-negative [HIV (-)] MSM from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study at four timepoints over 24 weeks to measure DNA levels of cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV6), and HHV8. T-cell activation and plasma levels of soluble markers of inflammation and activation were also measured at the corresponding timepoints. HIV(+) participants had a trend for higher total herpesvirus shedding rate. HIV(+) participants also had a significantly higher rate of shedding EBV and CMV compared with the HIV(-) group. Herpesvirus shedding was mostly seen in throat washings. In the HIV(+) group, herpesvirus shedding rate inversely correlated with plasma levels of interferon γ-induced protein 10 and soluble CD163. CMV DNA levels negatively correlated with levels of T-cell activation. There was a trend for a positive correlation between EBV shedding rate and plasma soluble CD14. HHV6 shedding rate negatively correlated with plasma levels of interleukin-6, soluble CD163, and interferon gamma-induced protein 10. Correlations were not observed among HIV(-) individuals. Among treated HIV-infected MSM, there are higher subclinical shedding rates of some herpesviruses that occur in different body compartments and negatively correlate with levels of inflammation and immune activation.

  13. Common blocks for ASQS(12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Milazzo

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available An ASQS(v is a particular Steiner system featuring a set of v vertices and two separate families of blocks, B and G, whose elements have a respective cardinality of 4 and 6. It has the property that any three vertices of X belong either to a B-block or to a G-block. The parameter cb is the number of common blocks in two separate ASQSs, both defined on the same set of vertices X . In this paper it is shown that cb ≤ 29 for any pair of ASQSs(12.

  14. ADAM15 is involved in MICB shedding and mediates the effects of gemcitabine on MICB shedding in PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaohui; Mao, Xianhai; Sun, Weijia

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ADAM15 in MHC class I polypeptide-related sequence B (MICB) protein ectodomain shedding and observe whether or not gemcitabine affects MICB shedding from PANC-1 cells. In this study, immunohistochemistry of MICB and ADAM15 were performed on tumor samples obtained from 93 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The expression of MICB and ADAM15 in the PDAC tissues was significantly higher compared with that in the normal tissues of the pancreas. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the expression of MICB and certain classic clinicopathological characteristics (i.e., histological grade and TNM stage). ADAM15 expression was found to correlate with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage. The Spearman's rank test suggested that the expression of MICB was inversely correlated with that of ADAM15 in PDAC tissues. Knockdown of ADAM15 in PANC-1 cells clearly upregulated MICB expression on the cellular surface and downregulated soluble MICB (sMICB) levels in the culture supernatants. A non-toxic dose of 0.5 µmol/l gemcitabine suppresses ADAM15 expression leading, at the same time, to an increase in MICB expression and a decrease in sMICB production in PANC-1 cells. The mRNA levels of MICB did not change following PANC-1 exposure to gemcitabine. Further study suggests that the suppressive effect of gemcitabine on MICB shedding in PANC-1 cells is mediated by ADAM15 downregulation. In conclusion, the results of the present study support the hypothesis that ADAM15 is involved in MICB shedding of PANC-1 cells and that gemcitabine inhibits MICB ectodomain shedding through the suppression of ADAM15.

  15. Secretome analysis to elucidate metalloprotease-dependent ectodomain shedding of glycoproteins during neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumagari, Kazuya; Shirakabe, Kyoko; Ogura, Mayu; Sato, Fuminori; Ishihama, Yasushi; Sehara-Fujisawa, Atsuko

    2017-02-01

    Many membrane proteins are subjected to limited proteolyses at their juxtamembrane regions, processes referred to as ectodomain shedding. Shedding ectodomains of membrane-bound ligands results in activation of downstream signaling pathways, whereas shedding those of cell adhesion molecules causes loss of cell-cell contacts. Secreted proteomics (secretomics) using high-resolution mass spectrometry would be strong tools for both comprehensive identification and quantitative measurement of membrane proteins that undergo ectodomain shedding. In this study, to elucidate the ectodomain shedding events that occur during neuronal differentiation, we establish a strategy for quantitative secretomics of glycoproteins released from differentiating neuroblastoma cells into culture medium with or without GM6001, a broad-spectrum metalloprotease inhibitor. Considering that most of transmembrane and secreted proteins are N-glycosylated, we include a process of N-glycosylated peptides enrichment as well as isotope tagging in our secretomics workflow. Our results show that differentiating N1E-115 neurons secrete numerous glycosylated polypeptides in metalloprotease-dependent manners. They are derived from cell adhesion molecules such as NCAM1, CADM1, L1CAM, various transporters and receptor proteins. These results show the landscape of ectodomain shedding and other secretory events in differentiating neurons and/or during axon elongation, which should help elucidate the mechanism of neurogenesis and the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Quantifying shedding of synthetic fibers from textiles; a source of microplastics released into the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney Almroth, Bethanie M; Åström, Linn; Roslund, Sofia; Petersson, Hanna; Johansson, Mats; Persson, Nils-Krister

    2018-01-01

    Microplastics in the environment are a subject of intense research as they pose a potential threat to marine organisms. Plastic fibers from textiles have been indicated as a major source of this type of contaminant, entering the oceans via wastewater and diverse non-point sources. Their presence is also documented in terrestrial samples. In this study, the amount of microfibers shedding from synthetic textiles was measured for three materials (acrylic, nylon, polyester), knit using different gauges and techniques. All textiles were found to shed, but polyester fleece fabrics shed the greatest amounts, averaging 7360 fibers/m -2 /L -1 in one wash, compared with polyester fabrics which shed 87 fibers/m -2 /L -1 . We found that loose textile constructions shed more, as did worn fabrics, and high twist yarns are to be preferred for shed reduction. Since fiber from clothing is a potentially important source of microplastics, we suggest that smarter textile construction, prewashing and vacuum exhaustion at production sites, and use of more efficient filters in household washing machines could help mitigate this problem.

  17. Adductor Canal Block versus Femoral Nerve Block and Quadriceps Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Pia Therese; Nielsen, Zbigniew Jerzy Koscielniak; Henningsen, Lene Marianne

    2013-01-01

    : The authors hypothesized that the adductor canal block (ACB), a predominant sensory blockade, reduces quadriceps strength compared with placebo (primary endpoint, area under the curve, 0.5-6 h), but less than the femoral nerve block (FNB; secondary endpoint). Other secondary endpoints were...

  18. The block transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradish, G.J. III; Reid, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The central instrumentation control and data acquisition (CICADA) computer system is comprised of a functionally distributed hierarchical network of thirteen (13) 32-bit mini-computers that are the heart of the control, monitoring, data collection and data analysis for the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). The CICADA system was designed with the goal of providing complete control, monitoring, and data acquisition for TFTR, which includes the acquisition and storage of 20M points of data within a five-minute shot cycle. It was realized early in the system design that in order to meet this goal an ancillary system would have to be provided to supplement the subsystem CAMAC systems that, due to the relatively slow throughput of the serial highways and the overhead of relaying data to the central facilities within a star network, would not provide the necessary throughput. The authors discuss how the block transfer system provided a means of moving data directly from the CAMAC crate to the application running on the central facility computers

  19. OPAL Various Lead Glass Blocks

    CERN Multimedia

    These lead glass blocks were part of a CERN detector called OPAL (one of the four experiments at the LEP particle detector). OPAL uses some 12 000 blocks of glass like this to measure particle energies in the electromagnetic calorimeter. This detector measured the energy deposited when electrons and photons were slowed down and stopped.

  20. Writing Blocks and Tacit Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    1993-01-01

    A review of the literature on writing block looks at two kinds: inability to write in a timely, fluent fashion, and reluctance by academicians to assist others in writing. Obstacles to fluent writing are outlined, four historical trends in treating blocks are discussed, and implications are examined. (MSE)

  1. Block storage subsystem performance analysis

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    You feel that your service is slow because of the storage subsystem? But there are too many abstraction layers between your software and the raw block device for you to debug all this pile... Let's dive on the platters and check out how the block storage sees your I/Os! We can even figure out what those patterns are meaning.

  2. Region 9 Census Block 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geography:The TIGER Line Files are feature classes and related database files (.) that are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master Address File / Topologically Integrated Geographic Encoding and Referencing (MAF/TIGER) Database (MTDB). The MTDB represents a seamless national file with no overlaps or gaps between parts, however, each TIGER Line File is designed to stand alone as an independent data set, or they can be combined to cover the entire nation. Census Blocks are statistical areas bounded on all sides by visible features, such as streets, roads, streams, and railroad tracks, and/or by non visible boundaries such as city, town, township, and county limits, and short line-of-sight extensions of streets and roads. Census blocks are relatively small in area; for example, a block in a city bounded by streets. However, census blocks in remote areas are often large and irregular and may even be many square miles in area. A common misunderstanding is that data users think census blocks are used geographically to build all other census geographic areas, rather all other census geographic areas are updated and then used as the primary constraints, along with roads and water features, to delineate the tabulation blocks. As a result, all 2010 Census blocks nest within every other 2010 Census geographic area, so that Census Bureau statistical data can be tabulated at the block level and aggregated up t

  3. Comparison of Coxiella burnetii shedding in milk of dairy bovine, caprine, and ovine herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolakis, A; Berri, M; Héchard, C; Caudron, C; Souriau, A; Bodier, C C; Blanchard, B; Camuset, P; Devillechaise, P; Natorp, J C; Vadet, J P; Arricau-Bouvery, N

    2007-12-01

    The shedding of Coxiella burnetii in bovine, caprine, and ovine milk was measured using PCR, in 3 herds for each species, the bulk tank milk samples of which were positive at the time of their selection. Milk samples of 95 cows, 120 goats, and 90 ewes were sampled over 16 wk, as was the bulk tank milk. The shedding of C. burnetii in vaginal mucus and feces was checked at the beginning of the experiment and 2 mo later. The clinical signs in the selected herds as well as the duration and the shedding routes differed among the 3 species. The cows were asymptomatic and shed C. burnetii almost exclusively in milk. In one of the caprine herds, abortions due to C. burnetii were reported. The goats excreted the bacteria mainly in milk. In contrast, the ewes, which came from flocks with abortions due to Q fever (C. burnetii infection), shed the bacteria mostly in feces and in vaginal mucus. This could explain why human outbreaks of Q fever are more often related to ovine flocks than to bovine herds. These excretions did not seem more frequent when the samples were taken close to parturition. The samples were taken from 0 to 421 d after parturition in bovine herds and from 5 to 119 d and 11 to 238 d after parturition in the caprine and ovine herds, respectively. The shedding in milk was sometimes intermittent, and several animals shed the bacteria but were negative by ELISA: 80% of the ewes were seronegative, underscoring the lack of sensitivity of the ELISA tests available for veterinary diagnosis. The detection of antibodies in milk seems more sensitive than it is in serum.

  4. Co-occurrence of Trichomonas vaginalis and bacterial vaginosis and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastring, Danielle R; Amedee, Angela; Gatski, Megan; Clark, Rebecca A; Mena, Leandro A; Levison, Judy; Schmidt, Norine; Rice, Janet; Gustat, Jeanette; Kissinger, Patricia

    2014-03-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and bacterial vaginosis (BV) are independently associated with increased risk of vaginal shedding in HIV-positive women. Because these 2 conditions commonly co-occur, this study was undertaken to examine the association between TV/BV co-occurrence and vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. HIV-positive women attending outpatient HIV clinics in 3 urban US cities underwent a clinical examination; were screened for TV, BV, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, and vulvovaginal candidiasis; and completed a behavioral survey. Women shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally (≥50 copies/mL) were compared with women who had an undetectable (women who were TV positive and BV positive or had co-occurrence of TV/BV had higher odds of shedding vaginally when compared with women who did not have these conditions. In this sample of 373 HIV-positive women, 43.1% (n = 161) had co-occurrence of TV/BV and 33.2% (n = 124) were shedding HIV-1 RNA vaginally. The odds of shedding HIV vaginally in the presence of TV alone or BV alone and when TV/BV co-occurred were 4.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.78-9.37), 5.65 (95% CI, 2.64-12.01), and 18.63 (95% CI, 6.71-51.72), respectively, when compared with women with no diagnosis of TV or BV, and after adjusting for age, antiretroviral therapy status, and plasma viral load. T. vaginalis and BV were independently and synergistically related to vaginal shedding of HIV-1 RNA. Screening and prompt treatment of these 2 conditions among HIV-positive women are important not only clinically but for HIV prevention, as well.

  5. Oral immunization of BALB/c mice with Giardia duodenalis recombinant cyst wall protein inhibits shedding of cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larocque, R; Nakagaki, K; Lee, P; Abdul-Wahid, A; Faubert, G M

    2003-10-01

    The process of encystation is a key step in the Giardia duodenalis life cycle that allows this intestinal protozoan to survive between hosts during person-to-person, animal-to-person, waterborne, or food-borne transmission. The release of cysts from infected persons and animals is the main contributing factor to contamination of the environment. Genes coding for cyst wall proteins (CWPs), which could be used for developing a transmission-blocking vaccine, have been cloned. Since the immunogenicity of recombinant Giardia CWP is unknown, we have investigated the immunogenicity of recombinant CWP2 (rCWP2) and its efficacy in interfering with the phenomenon of encystation taking place in the small bowels of BALB/c mice vaccinated with the recombinant protein. Here we report that the immunization of BALB/c mice with rCWP2 stimulated the immune system in a manner comparable to that for a live infection with Giardia muris cysts. Fecal and serum anti-rCWP2 immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies were detected in the immunized mice. In addition, anti-rCWP2 IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were detected in the serum. mRNAs coding for Th1 and Th2 types of cytokines were detected in spleen and Peyer's patch cells from immunized mice. When the vaccinated mice were challenged with live cysts, the animals shed fewer cysts. We conclude that rCWP2 is a possible candidate antigen for the development of a transmission-blocking vaccine.

  6. Blocked vs. interleaved presentation and proactive interference in episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Missier, Fabio; Sassano, Alessia; Coni, Valentina; Salomonsson, Martina; Mäntylä, Timo

    2018-05-01

    Although a number of theoretical accounts of proactive interference (PI) in episodic memory have been proposed, existing empirical evidence does not support conclusively a single view yet. In two experiments we tested the predictions of the temporal discrimination theory of PI against alternative accounts by manipulating the presentation schedule of study materials (lists blocked by category vs. interleaved). In line with the temporal discrimination theory, we observed a clear buildup of (and release from) PI in the blocked condition, in which all the lists of the same category were presented sequentially. In the interleaved condition, with alternating lists of different categories, a more gradual and smoother buildup of PI was observed. When participants were left free to choose their presentation schedule, they spontaneously adopted an interleaved schedule, resulting again in more gradual PI. After longer delays, we observed recency effects at the list level in overall recall and, in the blocked condition, PI-related effects. The overall pattern of findings agrees with the predictions of the temporal discrimination theory of PI, complemented with categorical processing of list items, but not with alternative accounts, shedding light on the dynamics and underpinnings of PI under diverse presentation schedules and over different time scales.

  7. Bovine coronavirus in naturally and experimentally exposed calves; viral shedding and the potential for transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oma, Veslemøy Sunniva; Tråvén, Madeleine; Alenius, Stefan; Myrmel, Mette; Stokstad, Maria

    2016-06-13

    Bovine coronavirus (BCoV) is a widely distributed pathogen, causing disease and economic losses in the cattle industry worldwide. Prevention of virus spread is impeded by a lack of basic knowledge concerning viral shedding and transmission potential in individual animals. The aims of the study were to investigate the duration and quantity of BCoV shedding in feces and nasal secretions related to clinical signs, the presence of virus in blood and tissues and to test the hypothesis that seropositive calves are not infectious to naïve in-contact calves three weeks after BCoV infection. A live animal experiment was conducted, with direct contact between animal groups for 24 h as challenge procedure. Four naïve calves were commingled with a group of six naturally infected calves and sequentially euthanized. Two naïve sentinel calves were commingled with the experimentally exposed group three weeks after exposure. Nasal swabs, feces, blood and tissue samples were analyzed for viral RNA by RT-qPCR, and virus isolation was performed on nasal swabs. Serum was analyzed for BCoV antibodies. The calves showed mild general signs, and the most prominent signs were from the respiratory system. The overall clinical score corresponded well with the shedding of viral RNA the first three weeks after challenge. General depression and cough were the signs that correlated best with shedding of BCoV RNA, while peak respiratory rate and peak rectal temperature appeared more than a week later than the peak shedding. Nasal shedding preceded fecal shedding, and the calves had detectable amounts of viral RNA intermittently in feces through day 35 and in nasal secretions through day 28, however virus isolation was unsuccessful from day six and day 18 from the two calves investigated. Viral RNA was not detected in blood, but was found in lymphatic tissue through day 42 after challenge. Although the calves were shedding BCoV RNA 21 days after infection the sentinel animals were not infected

  8. The effect of structural motifs on the ectodomain shedding of human angiotensin-converting enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Nailah; Schwager, Sylva L U; Carmona, Adriana K; Sturrock, Edward D

    2016-12-02

    Somatic angiotensin converting enzyme (sACE) is comprised of two homologous domains (N and C domains), whereas the smaller germinal isoform (tACE) is identical to the C domain. Both isozymes share an identical stalk, transmembrane and cytoplasmic domain, and undergo ectodomain shedding by an as yet unknown protease. Here we present evidence for the role of regions distal and proximal to the cleavage site in human ACE shedding. First, because of intrinsic differences between the N and C domains, discrete secondary structures (α-helix 7 and 8) on the surface of tACE were replaced with their N domain counterparts. Surprisingly, neither α-helix 7 nor α-helix 8 proved to be an absolute requirement for shedding. In the proximal ectodomain of tACE residues H 610 -L 614 were mutated to alanines and this resulted in a decrease in ACE shedding. An N-terminal extension of this mutation caused a reduction in cellular ACE activity. More importantly, it affected the processing of the protein to the membrane, resulting in expression of an underglycosylated form of ACE. When E 608 -H 614 was mutated to the homologous region of the N domain, processing was normal and shedding only moderately decreased suggesting that this region is more crucial for the processing of ACE than it is for regulating shedding. Finally, to determine whether glycosylation of the asparagine proximal to the Pro1199-Leu polymorphism in sACE affected shedding, the equivalent P 623 L mutation in tACE was investigated. The P 623 L tACE mutant showed an increase in shedding and MALDI MS analysis of a tryptic digest indicated that N 620 WT was glycosylated. The absence of an N-linked glycan at N 620 , resulted in an even greater increase in shedding. Thus, the conformational flexibility that the leucine confers to the stalk, is increased by the lack of glycosylation reducing access of the sheddase to the cleavage site. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the shedding of Sarcocystis falcatula sporocysts in experimentally infected Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, R A; Ginn, P E; Dame, J B; Greiner, E C

    2001-02-26

    Five Virginia opossums (Didelphis virginiana) were fed muscles of brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) containing sarcocysts of Sarcocystis falcatula. Shedding of sporocysts was confirmed in all five opossums by fecal flotation. Counts were conducted daily for 2 weeks and then biweekly until the animals were euthanized and necropsied. The average prepatent period was 9.8 (7-16) days. The number of sporocysts shed varied greatly between the opossums with maximum mean shedding occurring at 71.6 (26-112) days post-infection (DPI). Average sporocyst production was 1480 sporocysts/gram of feces (SPG). Maximum output was 37,000 SPG. Average fecal yield in captivity was 17.5g of feces/day. Opossums shed 25,900 sporocysts/day (average) and a maximum of 647,500 sporocysts/day. All opossums shed sporocysts until time of euthanasia (46-200 DPI). Histologically, numerous sporocysts were present in the lamina propria at necropsy, primarily in the proximal half of the small intestine. Sporocysts were generally in clusters within the lamina propria of the luminal two-thirds of the villi. Sporocysts were found less frequently in the epithelium. No evidence of ongoing gametogony or other development was evident.

  10. Avian bornavirus in free-ranging waterfowl: prevalence of antibodies and cloacal shedding of viral RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnatte, Pauline; Nagy, Éva; Ojkic, Davor; Leishman, David; Crawshaw, Graham; Elias, Kyle; Smith, Dale A

    2014-07-01

    We surveyed free-ranging Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator), Mute Swans (Cygnus olor), and Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to avian bornavirus (ABV) and of cloacal shedding of ABV RNA in southern Ontario, Canada. Blood samples and cloacal swabs were collected from 206 free-ranging Canada Geese, 135 Trumpeter Swans, 75 Mute Swans, and 208 Mallards at 10 main capture sites between October 2010 and May 2012. Sera were assessed for antibodies against ABV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and swabs were evaluated for ABV RNA using real-time reverse-transcription PCR. Serum antibodies were detected in birds from all four species and at each sampling site. Thirteen percent of the geese caught on the Toronto Zoo site shed ABV RNA in feces compared with 0% in geese sampled at three other locations. The proportions of shedders among Mute Swans, Trumpeter Swans, and Mallards were 9%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Birds that were shedding viral RNA were more likely to have antibodies against ABV and to have higher antibody levels than those that were not, although many birds with antibodies were not shedding. We confirmed that exposure to, or infection with, ABV is widespread in asymptomatic free-ranging waterfowl in Canada; however, the correlation between cloacal shedding, presence of antibodies, and presence of disease is not fully understood.

  11. Counter and Complicit Masculine Discourse Among Men’s Shed Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Corey S.; Roger, Kerstin; Robertson, Steve; Oliffe, John L.; Nurmi, Mary Anne; Urquhart, James

    2017-01-01

    Men’s Sheds is a growing international movement aimed at providing men with places and activities that facilitate social connectedness. Despite Men’s Sheds’ focus on males, little attention has been paid to masculinities within the specific context of these settings. The current study used a gender relations framework to explore the ways in which attendees discussed Men’s Sheds, with particular attention to discussions that were complicit and counter to traditional, hegemonic views of masculinity, and diverse positions in between these binaries. The data consisted of transcripts and field notes from four focus groups comprising mostly older, White, retired male members of a Canadian shed (N = 22). The analysis revealed three overall themes: (1) focus on work, (2) independence, and (3) need for male-focused spaces. These themes and associated subthemes suggest that shed members ascribe to dominant masculine values and ideals, but also support more fluid and flexible views of masculinity. Implications are discussed for how working with an array of masculinities within the Men’s Sheds movement will be helpful with respect to their future growth in Canada and internationally. PMID:28068851

  12. A Bankruptcy Problem Approach to Load-shedding in Multiagent-based Microgrid Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujin Lim

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs, distributed energy storage devices (DSs, and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement,  the control of DGs’ output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, which is intentional reduction of electricity use, is a critical problem in islanded microgrid operation based on the multiagent system. Therefore, effective schemes for load-shedding are required. Meanwhile, the bankruptcy problem deals with dividing short resources among multiple agents. In order to solve the bankruptcy problem, division rules, such as the constrained equal awards rule (CEA, the constrained equal losses rule (CEL, and the random arrival rule (RA, have been used. In this paper, we approach load-shedding as a bankruptcy problem. We compare load-shedding results by above-mentioned rules in islanded microgrid operation based on wireless sensor network (WSN as the communication link for an agent’s interactions.

  13. Shedding and serological patterns of dairy cows following abortions associated with Coxiella burnetii DNA detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guatteo, R; Joly, A; Beaudeau, F

    2012-03-23

    To describe both shedding and serological patterns following abortions detected as being associated with Coxiella burnetii (Cb), 24 cows experiencing an abortion due to Cb were followed over a one month period. Samples taken on the day of abortion (D0) were followed 3-fold by weekly samplings from day 14 (D14) to D28 after the abortion. Milk and vaginal mucus were collected at each weekly sampling and tested using real-time PCR while blood samples were collected 2-fold on D21 and D28 and tested using ELISA. We found a very short duration of C. burnetii shedding in vaginal mucus after abortion, highlighting the need to collect samples as rapidly as possible following an abortion to avoid false negative results. In contrast with previous results, concomitancy of vaginal and mucus shedding was frequent, especially for cows shedding a high bacterial load on DO leading to the hypothesis that the clinical onset of the infection influences the modalities of Cb shedding. Lastly, serological results indicating a lack of sensitivity to detect Cb shedder cows (especially for cows for which Ct values were high) suggest that ELISA is not a useful tool to diagnose abortions at the individual level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. In Vitro Evaluation and Mechanism Analysis of the Fiber Shedding Property of Textile Pile Debridement Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yijun Fu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiber shedding is a critical problem in biomedical textile debridement materials, which leads to infection and impairs wound healing. In this work, single fiber pull-out test was proposed as an in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of a textile pile debridement material. Samples with different structural design (pile densities, numbers of ground yarns and coating times were prepared and estimated under this testing method. Results show that single fiber pull-out test offers an appropriate in vitro evaluation for the fiber shedding property of textile pile debridement materials. Pull-out force for samples without back-coating exhibited a slight escalating trend with the supplement in pile density and number of ground yarn plies, while back-coating process significantly raised the single fiber pull-out force. For fiber shedding mechanism analysis, typical pull-out behavior and failure modes of the single fiber pull-out test were analyzed in detail. Three failure modes were found in this study, i.e., fiber slippage, coating point rupture and fiber breakage. In summary, to obtain samples with desirable fiber shedding property, fabric structural design, preparation process and raw materials selection should be taken into full consideration.

  15. The Influence of Load Shedding on the Productivity of Hotel Staff in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriëtte STEENKAMP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, ESCOM is the country’s main electricity supplier. Since 2008, Eskom has implemented load shedding on an ongoing basis as a result of insufficient electricity supply to meet the demands of all its customers. Owing to the fact that many organisations across South Africa are depended on electricity in order to function, previous research studies show that the wide-spread impact of load shedding has had an adverse on the sustainability of many of these organisations. Among these organisations are those based in the hospitality industry – imperative in relation to the stimulation of the national economy; directly related to tourism. Albeit the aforementioned, the sustainability of organisations in the hospitality industry is also heavily dependent on the productivity of their employees. For this research study the influence of load shedding on the productivity of the staff in the hospitality industry was investigated within one particular hotel (Hotel X based in Cape Town. Empirical research was deployed, making use of a mixed methods approach to obtain both quantitative data and qualitative data from respondents. Stemming from the findings it was found that load shedding did have an adverse influence on the productivity of staff in Hotel X, despite the fact that affordable measures were put in place to mitigate the disruptions caused by load shedding. Moreover, the latter dispensation was found to have an inadvertently adverse influence on the overall sustainability of Hotel X on the long run.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of Avian Rotaviruses Group A and D shed by different bird species in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Maude; Oni, Oluwole O; Sausy, Aurélie; Owoade, Ademola A; Adeyefa, Christopher A O; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M; Snoeck, Chantal J

    2017-06-12

    Avian rotaviruses (RVs) cause gastrointestinal diseases of birds worldwide. However, prevalence, diversity, epidemiology and phylogeny of RVs remain largely under-investigated in Africa. Fecal samples from 349 birds (158 symptomatic, 107 asymptomatic and 84 birds without recorded health status) were screened by reverse transcription PCR to detect RV groups A and D (RVA and RVD). Partial gene sequences of VP4, VP6, VP7 and NSP4 for RVA, and of VP6 and VP7 for RVD were obtained and analyzed to infer phylogenetic relationship. Fisher's exact test and logistic regression were applied to identify factors potentially influencing virus shedding in chickens. A high prevalence of RVA (36.1%; 126/349) and RVD (31.8%; 111/349) shedding was revealed in birds. In chickens, RV shedding was age-dependent and highest RVD shedding rates were found in commercial farms. No negative health effect could be shown, and RVA and RVD shedding was significantly more likely in asymptomatic chickens: RVA/RVD were detected in 51.9/48.1% of the asymptomatic chickens, compared to 18.9/29.7% of the symptomatic chickens (p epidemiology, diversity and classification of avian RVA and RVD in Nigeria. We show that cross-species transmission of host permissive RV strains occurs when different bird species are mixed.

  17. A bankruptcy problem approach to load-shedding in multiagent-based microgrid operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Man; Kinoshita, Tetsuo; Lim, Yujin; Kim, Tai-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    A microgrid is composed of distributed power generation systems (DGs), distributed energy storage devices (DSs), and loads. To maintain a specific frequency in the islanded mode as an important requirement, the control of DGs' output and charge action of DSs are used in supply surplus conditions and load-shedding and discharge action of DSs are used in supply shortage conditions. Recently, multiagent systems for autonomous microgrid operation have been studied. Especially, load-shedding, which is intentional reduction of electricity use, is a critical problem in islanded microgrid operation based on the multiagent system. Therefore, effective schemes for load-shedding are required. Meanwhile, the bankruptcy problem deals with dividing short resources among multiple agents. In order to solve the bankruptcy problem, division rules, such as the constrained equal awards rule (CEA), the constrained equal losses rule (CEL), and the random arrival rule (RA), have been used. In this paper, we approach load-shedding as a bankruptcy problem. We compare load-shedding results by above-mentioned rules in islanded microgrid operation based on wireless sensor network (WSN) as the communication link for an agent's interactions.

  18. Review of the Phenomenon of Ice Shedding from Wind Turbine Blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Xue

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind power is a sustainable source of energy. However, there are certain challenges to be  overcome. One of the operational challenges is the phenomenon of ice shedding. Icing happens on wind turbine blades in cold regions. When ice grows to a certain size, it separates from the wind turbine blades resulting in the phenomenon of ice shedding. This phenomenon is of significantly dangerous for equipment and personnel in the region. Ice shedding may happen either because of vibrations or bending in blades. However, it was noticed by operators at Nygårdsfjell wind park, Narvik, Norway that ice shedding is more probable to happen when blades are stopped and turned back on. This observation reveals the fact that bending of blades (from loaded to unloaded positions allows the ice to separate and hence result in ice shedding. This can be linked to the phenomenon of icing, mechanical and adhesive properties of ice. This paper reviews above in detail.

  19. [Blood conservation effect and safety of shed mediastinal blood autotransfusion after cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiya, T; Ban, K; Yamazaki, K; Date, O; Nakamura, T; Kanzaki, Y

    1998-10-01

    Autotransfusion of shed mediastinal blood after cardiac surgery has been used to reduce risks related to homologous blood transfusions. To document the efficacy and safety of autotransfusion, we compared clinical findings of 80 patients receiving shed mediastinal blood (autotransfusion group) with those of the control group of 52 patients. The amount of the autotransfusion was limited to 800 ml, given the potentially harmful effects of shed blood transfusion. The mean transfused shed volume was 314 +/- 236 ml (S.D.). The serum levels of FDP-E, D-dimer and TAT after autotransfusion were higher in the autotransfusion group than in the control group (p = 0.01, p = 0.0004, p = 0.001, respectively). However, postoperative blood loss and the rate of reexploration for bleeding were similar in the two groups. The patients receiving blood products were fewer in the autotransfusion group than those in the control group (21% vs 44%; p = 0.005). Autotransfusion did not increase postoperative complications, including infection. Thus, although autotransfusion of mediastinal shed blood has the potential to affect hemostasis, unless the amount of autotransfusion exceeds 800 ml, it appears that this method is clinically safe and effective as a mean of blood conservation.

  20. Conformal Nets II: Conformal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Arthur; Douglas, Christopher L.; Henriques, André

    2017-08-01

    Conformal nets provide a mathematical formalism for conformal field theory. Associated to a conformal net with finite index, we give a construction of the `bundle of conformal blocks', a representation of the mapping class groupoid of closed topological surfaces into the category of finite-dimensional projective Hilbert spaces. We also construct infinite-dimensional spaces of conformal blocks for topological surfaces with smooth boundary. We prove that the conformal blocks satisfy a factorization formula for gluing surfaces along circles, and an analogous formula for gluing surfaces along intervals. We use this interval factorization property to give a new proof of the modularity of the category of representations of a conformal net.

  1. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Volker [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Sobko, Evgeny [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Nordita, Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astrophysics

    2016-12-07

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  2. Harmony of spinning conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schomerus, Volker [DESY Hamburg, Theory Group,Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Sobko, Evgeny [Nordita and Stockholm University,Roslagstullsbacken 23, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Isachenkov, Mikhail [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 7610001 (Israel)

    2017-03-15

    Conformal blocks for correlation functions of tensor operators play an increasingly important role for the conformal bootstrap programme. We develop a universal approach to such spinning blocks through the harmonic analysis of certain bundles over a coset of the conformal group. The resulting Casimir equations are given by a matrix version of the Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian that describes the scattering of interacting spinning particles in a 1-dimensional external potential. The approach is illustrated in several examples including fermionic seed blocks in 3D CFT where they take a very simple form.

  3. Voltage Stability Control of Electrical Network Using Intelligent Load Shedding Strategy Based on Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Jouini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a perspective to ensure the power system stability and to avoid the vulnerability leading to the blackouts, several preventive and curative means are adopted. In order to avoid the voltage collapse, load shedding schemes represent a suitable action to maintain the power system service quality and to control its vulnerability. In this paper, we try to propose an intelligent load shedding strategy as a new approach based on fuzzy controllers. This strategy was founded on the calculation of generated power sensitivity degree related to those injected at different network buses. During the fault phase, fuzzy controller algorithms generate monitor vectors ensuring a precalculated load shedding ratio in the purpose to reestablish the power balance and conduct the network to a new steady state.

  4. Emergency Load Shedding Strategy Based on Sensitivity Analysis of Relay Operation Margin against Cascading Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou; Chen, Zhe; Sun, Haishun Sun

    2012-01-01

    the runtime emergent states of related system component. Based on sensitivity analysis between the relay operation margin and power system state variables, an optimal load shedding strategy is applied to adjust the emergent states timely before the unwanted relay operation. Load dynamics is also taken...... into account to compensate load shedding amount calculation. And the multi-agent technology is applied for the whole strategy implementation. A test system is built in real time digital simulator (RTDS) and has demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed strategy.......In order to prevent long term voltage instability and induced cascading events, a load shedding strategy based on the sensitivity of relay operation margin to load powers is discussed and proposed in this paper. The operation margin of critical impedance backup relay is defined to identify...

  5. Factors associated with Salmonella shedding among equine colic patients at a veterinary teaching hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, L M; Morley, P S; Traub-Dargatz, J L; Salman, M D; Gentry-Weeks, C

    2001-03-01

    To evaluate factors potentially associated with fecal Salmonella shedding among equine patients hospitalized for colic at a veterinary teaching hospital and to determine the effects of probiotic treatment on fecal Salmonella shedding and clinical signs. Longitudinal study and controlled trial. 246 equine colic patients. History and medical information were obtained from patient records. Fecal and environmental samples were submitted for aerobic bacterial culture for Salmonella enterica. Fifty-one patients were treated with a commercially available probiotic; 46 were treated with a placebo. Logistic regression was used to evaluate data. Salmonella organisms were detected in feces from 23 (9%) patients at least once during hospitalization. Patients were more likely to shed Salmonella organisms if diarrhea was evident equine patients hospitalized at a veterinary teaching hospital because of colic and that pathogen monitoring in patients and the hospital environment and use of barrier nursing precautions for equine colic patients are beneficial.

  6. Neural net based determination of generator-shedding requirements in electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djukanovic, M [Electrical Engineering Inst. ' Nikola Tesla' , Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Sobajic, D J; Pao, Y -H [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Applied Physics Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Computer Engineering and Science AI WARE Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1992-09-01

    This paper presents an application of artificial neural networks (ANN) in support of a decision-making process by power system operators directed towards the fast stabilisation of multi-machine systems. The proposed approach considers generator shedding as the most effective discrete supplementary control for improving the dynamic performance of faulted power systems and preventing instabilities. The sensitivity of the transient energy function (TEF) with respect to changes in the amount of dropped generation is used during the training phase of ANNs to assess the critical amount of generator shedding required to prevent the loss of synchronism. The learning capabilities of neural nets are used to establish complex mappings between fault information and the amount of generation to be shed, suggesting it as the control signal to the power system operator. (author)

  7. Prolonged Shedding of Human Coronavirus in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients: Risk Factors and Viral Genome Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogimi, Chikara; Greninger, Alexander L; Waghmare, Alpana A; Kuypers, Jane M; Shean, Ryan C; Xie, Hu; Leisenring, Wendy M; Stevens-Ayers, Terry L; Jerome, Keith R; Englund, Janet A; Boeckh, Michael

    2017-07-15

    Recent data suggest that human coronavirus (HCoV) pneumonia is associated with significant mortality in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients. Investigation of risk factors for prolonged shedding and intrahost genome evolution may provide critical information for development of novel therapeutics. We retrospectively reviewed HCT recipients with HCoV detected in nasal samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HCoV strains were identified using strain-specific PCR. Shedding duration was defined as time between first positive and first negative sample. Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate factors for prolonged shedding (≥21 days). Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) was conducted when ≥4 samples with cycle threshold values of Genome changes were consistent with the expected molecular clock of HCoV. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Virus and host-specific differences in oral human herpesvirus shedding kinetics among Ugandan women and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrajt, Laura; Gantt, Soren; Mayer, Bryan T; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Orem, Jackson; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence; Schiffer, Joshua T; Casper, Corey

    2017-10-12

    Human herpesviruses (HHV) establish lifelong latent infection and are transmitted primarily via shedding at mucosal surfaces. Each HHV causes a unique spectrum of disease depending on the infected individual's age and immunity. We collected weekly oral swabs from young children and mothers in 32 Ugandan households for a median of one year. We characterized kinetics of oral shedding during primary and chronic infection for each virus. Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and HHV-6 were shed at high rates following primary infection. The rate of oral herpes simplex virus (HSV) shedding was lower overall, and children and mothers with chronic HSV infection had lower shedding rates than children with primary infection. CMV shedding rate and viral load were higher in children with primary infection compared to children with chronic infection, and even lower in mothers with chronic infection. HHV-6 shedding rate and viral load were similar between children with primary or chronic infection, but lower in mothers. EBV shedding rate and quantity decreased less dramatically in mothers versus children, with HIV-positive mothers shedding at a higher rate than HIV-negative mothers. Each HHV has a distinct pattern of oral shedding which depends partially on the age and immune status of the host.

  9. Men with disabilities - A cross sectional survey of health promotion, social inclusion and participation at community Men's Sheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Nathan J; Cordier, Reinie; Parsons, Richard; Vaz, Sharmila; Buchanan, Angus

    2016-01-01

    The intersections between chronicity, disability and social inequality are well understood. Novel ways to counter the social determinants of health and disability are needed. Men's Sheds are a community space where men can participate in a range of shared activities and potentially experience a health and social benefits. This cross-sectional survey was conducted to inform future research by determining who attended Men's Sheds and the range of health, social, community, and educational activities undertaken there. This paper explores the membership of people with disabilities (PWD) at Men's Sheds and the factors that predict their membership. An online survey link was sent to all known Men's Sheds internationally in 2012. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential (univariate and multivariate) statistics. 32.2% of international sheds and 29% of Australian sheds specifically targeted the inclusion of PWD. 80% of these sheds have significantly more members with disabilities than sheds who do no target PWD. Factors associated with greater membership of PWD included the provision of transport, social outings and promoting occupational skills. PWD are being encouraged to join and are joining Men's Sheds. This is significant as the value of participation and inclusion toward better health and wellbeing is well known. Men's Sheds offer a community space where the social determinants of chronicity and disability can potentially be countered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Shedding Among Adults With and Without HIV Infection in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Warren; Nakku-Joloba, Edith; Krantz, Elizabeth M; Selke, Stacy; Huang, Meei-Li; Kambugu, Fred; Orem, Jackson; Casper, Corey; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in sub-Saharan Africa, the natural history of infection among Africans is not well characterized. We evaluated the frequency of genital HSV shedding in HIV-seropositive and HIV-seronegative men and women in Uganda. Ninety-three HSV-2-seropositive Ugandan adults collected anogenital swab specimens for HSV DNA quantification by polymerase chain reaction 3 times daily for 6 weeks. HSV-2 was detected from 2484 of 11 283 swab specimens collected (22%), with a median quantity of 4.3 log10 HSV copies/mL (range, 2.2-8.9 log10 HSV copies/mL). Genital lesions were reported on 749 of 3875 days (19%), and subclinical HSV shedding was detected from 1480 of 9113 swab specimens (16%) collected on days without lesions. Men had higher rates of total HSV shedding (relative risk [RR], 2.0 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.3-2.9]; P genital lesions (RR, 2.1 [95% CI, 1.2-3.4]; P = .005), compared with women. No differences in shedding rates or lesion frequency were observed based on HIV serostatus. HSV-2 shedding frequency and quantity are high among HSV-2-seropositive adults in sub-Saharan Africa, including persons with and those without HIV infection. Shedding rates were particularly high among men, which may contribute to the high prevalence of HSV-2 and early acquisition among African women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Rolling block mazes are PSPACE-complete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchin, K.; Buchin, M.

    2012-01-01

    In a rolling block maze, one or more blocks lie on a rectangular board with square cells. In most mazes, the blocks have size k × m × n where k, m, n are integers that determine the size of the block in terms of units of the size of the board cells. The task of a rolling block maze is to roll a

  12. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  13. Recursion Relations for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Penedones, João; Yamazaki, Masahito

    2016-09-12

    In the context of conformal field theories in general space-time dimension, we find all the possible singularities of the conformal blocks as functions of the scaling dimension $\\Delta$ of the exchanged operator. In particular, we argue, using representation theory of parabolic Verma modules, that in odd spacetime dimension the singularities are only simple poles. We discuss how to use this information to write recursion relations that determine the conformal blocks. We first recover the recursion relation introduced in 1307.6856 for conformal blocks of external scalar operators. We then generalize this recursion relation for the conformal blocks associated to the four point function of three scalar and one vector operator. Finally we specialize to the case in which the vector operator is a conserved current.

  14. Defying gravity using Jenga™ blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yin-Soo; Yap, Kueh-Chin

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes how Jenga™ blocks can be used to demonstrate the physics of an overhanging tower that appears to defy gravity. We also propose ideas for how this demonstration can be adapted for the A-level physics curriculum.

  15. Flavobacterium psychrophilum, invasion into and shedding by rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madetoja, J.; Nyman, P.; Wiklund, T.

    2000-01-01

    The infection route of Flavobacterium psychrophilum into rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was studied using bath and cohabitation challenges as well as oral challenge with live feed as a vector. Additionally, the number of bacterial cells shed by infected fish into the surrounding water...... is discussed as an important invasion route for F. psychrophilum into the fish. The shedding rate of F. psychrophiIlun by infected fish was associated with water temperature and the mortality of the infected fish. High numbers of F. psychrophilum cells were released into the water by dead rainbow trout during...

  16. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Borer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  17. Risking Aggression: Reply to Block

    OpenAIRE

    Kris Borer

    2010-01-01

    In his paper, “Is There an ‘Anomalous’ Section of the Laffer Curve?”, Walter Block describes some situations in which it appears that a libertarian should violate the non-aggression principle. To rectify this, Block proposes a different perspective on libertarianism which he calls punishment theory. This paper argues that no new theory is needed, as the non-aggression principle can be used to resolve theapparent conundrums.

  18. A Novel Tetrathiafulvalene Building Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jan Oskar; Takimiya, Kazuo; Thorup, Niels

    1999-01-01

    Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported.......Efficient synthesis of a novel tetrathiafulvalene building block. 2,3-bis(2-cyanoethylthio)-6,7-bis(thiocyanato-methyl)tetrathiafulv alene (7) useful for stepwise and asymmetrical bis-function-alization is reported....

  19. Comparative study between ultrasound guided TAP block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya M Elsayed Goda

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transverses abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transverses abdominis block.

  20. Coxiella burnetii Shedding Routes and Antibody Response after Outbreaks of Q Fever-Induced Abortion in Dairy Goat Herds▿

    OpenAIRE

    Rousset, Elodie; Berri, Mustapha; Durand, Benoit; Dufour, Philippe; Prigent, Myriam; Delcroix, Thibault; Touratier, Anne; Rodolakis, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium largely carried by ruminants and shed into milk, vaginal mucus, and feces. The main potential hazard to humans and animals is due to shedding of bacteria that can then persist in the environment and be aerosolized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shedding after an outbreak of Q fever abortion in goat herds and to assess the relationship with the occurrence of abortions and antibody responses. Aborting and nonaborting goa...

  1. Vortex Shedding in the Wake Induced by a Real Elephant Seal Whisker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Jodi; Omilion, Alexis; Zhang, Wei; Kim, Jeong-Jae; Kim, Jeong-Ju; Choi, Woo-Rak; Lee, Sang-Joon

    2017-11-01

    Biomimicry has been adopted to create innovative solutions in a vast range of applications. One such application is the design of seal-whisker-inspired flow sensors for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In dark, cramped, and unstable terrain AUVs are not able to maneuver using visual and sonar-based navigation. Hence, it is critical to use underwater flow sensors to accurately detect minute disturbances in the surroundings. Certain seal whiskers exhibit a unique undulating three-dimensional morphology that can reduce vortex induced vibrations (VIVs) if the major axis of the whisker cross-section is aligned to the inflow. This allows the seal to precisely track prey fish upstream using solely their whiskers. The current study aims to understand the effect of a real seal whisker's morphology on the vortex shedding behavior. Despite extensive studies of wake induced by scaled whisker-like models, the vortex shedding in the wake of a real seal whisker is not well understood. A series of experiments are conducted with a high-speed Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) system in a water channel to examine the vortex shedding downstream from a smooth whisker and an undulating whisker at a Reynolds number of a few hundred. Results of the vortex shedding induced by real seal whiskers can provide insights on developing high-sensitivity underwater flow sensors for AUVs and other whisker-inspired structures.

  2. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF ASTEROIDS HAVING SURFACE SHEDDING DUE TO ROTATIONAL INSTABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi [Research Associate, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder (United States); Sánchez, Diego Paul [Senior Research Associate, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder (United States); Scheeres, Daniel J., E-mail: masatoshi.hirabayashi@colorado.edu [Richard Seebass Chair, Professor, Colorado Center for Astrodynamics Research, Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder (United States)

    2015-07-20

    Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this paper we show the consistency of both approaches. Additionally, the SSDEM simulations show that the initial failure always occurs locally and not globally. In addition, as the core becomes larger, the size of lofted components becomes smaller. These results imply that if there is a strong core in a progenitor body, surface shedding is the most likely failure mode.

  3. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF ASTEROIDS HAVING SURFACE SHEDDING DUE TO ROTATIONAL INSTABILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirabayashi, Masatoshi; Sánchez, Diego Paul; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Surface shedding of an asteroid is a failure mode where surface materials fly off due to strong centrifugal forces beyond the critical spin period, while the internal structure does not deform significantly. This paper proposes a possible structure of an asteroid interior that leads to surface shedding due to rapid rotation rates. A rubble pile asteroid is modeled as a spheroid composed of a surface shell and a concentric internal core, the entire assembly called the test body. The test body is assumed to be uniformly rotating around a constant rotation axis. We also assume that while the bulk density and the friction angle are constant, the cohesion of the surface shell is different from that of the internal core. First, developing an analytical model based on limit analysis, we provide the upper and lower bounds for the actual surface shedding condition. Second, we use a Soft-sphere Discrete Element Method (SSDEM) to study dynamical deformation of the test body due to a quasi-static spin-up. In this paper we show the consistency of both approaches. Additionally, the SSDEM simulations show that the initial failure always occurs locally and not globally. In addition, as the core becomes larger, the size of lofted components becomes smaller. These results imply that if there is a strong core in a progenitor body, surface shedding is the most likely failure mode

  4. 40 CFR 63.305 - Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alternative standards for coke oven doors equipped with sheds. 63.305 Section 63.305 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... SOURCE CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Coke Oven Batteries § 63.305 Alternative standards for...

  5. Epidemiology of Chronic Wasting Disease: PrP(res) Detection, Shedding, and Environmental Contamination

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Elizabeth S; Miller, Michael W; Lewis, Randolf V; Raisbeck, Merl F; Cook, Walter W

    2004-01-01

    .... The specific goals of these studies are to develop sensitive as says for PrP(exp res) as a marker for infectivity, and use these techniques to monitor the dynamics and modes of shedding of PrP(exp res...

  6. Control of a coupled map lattice model for vortex shedding in the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The DNL method was found to be the most efficient controller of the low-order CML model. The .... these techniques to the vortex shedding process using CML models is an additional moti- ..... near the cable vibration nodes (figure 3a). Vortex ...

  7. Particle shedding from peristaltic pump tubing in biopharmaceutical drug product manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saller, Verena; Matilainen, Julia; Grauschopf, Ulla; Bechtold-Peters, Karoline; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Friess, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    In a typical manufacturing setup for biopharmaceutical drug products, the fill and dosing pump is placed after the final sterile filtration unit in order to ensure adequate dispensing accuracy and avoid backpressure peaks. Given the sensitivity of protein molecules, peristaltic pumps are often preferred over piston pumps. However, particles may be shed from the silicone tubing employed. In this study, particle shedding and a potential turbidity increase during peristaltic pumping of water and buffer were investigated using three types of commercially available silicone tubing. In the recirculates, mainly particles of around 200 nm next to a very small fraction of particles in the lower micrometer range were found. Using 3D laser scanning microscopy, surface roughness of the inner tubing surface was found to be a determining factor for particle shedding from silicone tubing. As the propensity toward particle shedding varied between tubing types and also cannot be concluded from manufacturer's specifications, individual testing with the presented methods is recommended during tubing qualification. Choosing low abrasive tubing can help to further minimize the very low particle counts to be expected in pharmaceutical drug products. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  8. The Gamma-Ray Burst ToolSHED is Open for Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Timothy W.; Hakkila, Jon; Haglin, David J.; Roiger, Richard J.

    2004-09-01

    The GRB ToolSHED, a Gamma-Ray Burst SHell for Expeditions in Data-Mining, is now online and available via a web browser to all in the scientific community. The ToolSHED is an online web utility that contains pre-processed burst attributes of the BATSE catalog and a suite of induction-based machine learning and statistical tools for classification and cluster analysis. Users create their own login account and study burst properties within user-defined multi-dimensional parameter spaces. Although new GRB attributes are periodically added to the database for user selection, the ToolSHED has a feature that allows users to upload their own burst attributes (e.g. spectral parameters, etc.) so that additional parameter spaces can be explored. A data visualization feature using GNUplot and web-based IDL has also been implemented to provide interactive plotting of user-selected session output. In an era in which GRB observations and attributes are becoming increasingly more complex, a utility such as the GRB ToolSHED may play an important role in deciphering GRB classes and understanding intrinsic burst properties.

  9. Cell kinetics of the marine sponge Halisarca caerulea reveal rapid cell turnover and shedding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goeij, de J.M.; Kluijver, de A.; Duyl, van F.C.; Vacelet, J.; Wijffels, R.H.; Goeij, de A.F.P.M.; Cleutjens, J.P.M.; Schutte, B.

    2009-01-01

    This study reveals the peculiar in vivo cell kinetics and cell turnover of the marine sponge Halisarca caerulea under steady-state conditions. The tropical coral reef sponge shows an extremely high proliferation activity, a short cell cycle duration and massive cell shedding. Cell turnover is

  10. Relational Human Rights: Shed-DNA and the Identification of the Living Disappeared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaisman, Noa

    2014-01-01

    forcibly abducted by the last military dictatorship in Argentina. They were raised by the perpetrators of the crime or their accomplices and kept unaware of their birth origins. TheCourt's deliberations focused on Guillermo's appeal of a lower-court decision to carry out an identity test based on his shed...

  11. EPA's SHEDS-multimedia model: children's cumulative pyrethroid exposure estimates and evaluation against NHANES biomarker data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. EPA's SHEDS-Multimedia model was applied to enhance the understanding of children's exposures and doses to multiple pyrethroid pesticides, including major contributing chemicals and pathways. This paper presents combined dietary and residential exposure estimates and cum...

  12. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Christine; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Viral shedding and emission of airborne infectious bursal disease virus from a broiler room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y.; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Cambra-Lopez, M.; Fabri, T.

    2013-01-01

    1. The significance of airborne transmission in epidemics of infectious diseases in the livestock production industry remains unclear. The study therefore investigated the shedding route (faeces vs. exhaled air) of a vaccine strain of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) by broilers and the

  14. Current Concepts for Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infection: Diagnostics and Pathogenesis of Genital Tract Shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, Lawrence

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a DNA virus that is efficiently transmitted through intimate genital tract contact and causes persistent infection that cannot be eliminated. HSV-2 may cause frequent, symptomatic self-limited genital ulcers, but in most persons infection is subclinical. However, recent studies have demonstrated that the virus is frequently shed from genital surfaces even in the absence of signs or symptoms of clinical disease and that the virus can be transmitted during these periods of shedding. Furthermore, HSV-2 shedding is detected throughout the genital tract and may be associated with genital tract inflammation, which likely contributes to increased risk of HIV acquisition. This review focuses on HSV diagnostics, as well as what we have learned about the importance of frequent genital HSV shedding for (i) HSV transmission and (ii) genital tract inflammation, as well as (iii) the impact of HSV-2 infection on HIV acquisition and transmission. We conclude with discussion of future areas of research to push the field forward. PMID:26561565

  15. Prolonged Leptospira Urinary Shedding in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Chow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of leptospirosis in a previously healthy girl following a trip to Costa Rica. While she was clinically asymptomatic, she had spirochetes cultured from her urine six weeks following her trip. Prolonged urinary shedding following infection with Leptospira is possible in humans and often has subtle manifestations in children.

  16. Power System Stability Using Decentralized Under Frequency and Voltage Load Shedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Faria Da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2014-01-01

    information to shed the loads with higher voltage decay first. Therefore, this approach deals with coordination of voltage and frequency information instead of independent methods. Numerical simulations which are carried out in DigSilent PowerFactory software confirm the efficiency of proposed methodology...

  17. Lysophosphatidic acid stimulates thrombomodulin lectin-like domain shedding in human endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Hualin; Lin ChiIou; Huang Yuanli; Chen, Pin-Shern; Kuo, Cheng-Hsiang; Chen, Mei-Shing; Wu, G.C.-C.; Shi, G.-Y.; Yang, H.-Y.; Lee Hsinyu

    2008-01-01

    Thrombomodulin (TM) is an anticoagulant glycoprotein highly expressed on endothelial cell surfaces. Increased levels of soluble TM in circulation have been widely accepted as an indicator of endothelial damage or dysfunction. Previous studies indicated that various proinflammatory factors stimulate TM shedding in various cell types such as smooth muscle cells and epithelial cells. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive lipid mediator present in biological fluids during endothelial damage or injury. In the present study, we first observed that LPA triggered TM shedding in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By Cyflow analysis, we showed that the LPA-induced accessibility of antibodies to the endothelial growth factor (EGF)-like domain of TM is independent of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), while LPA-induced TM lectin-like domain shedding is MMP-dependent. Furthermore, a stable cell line expressing TM without its lectin-like domain exhibited a higher cell proliferation rate than a stable cell line expressing full-length TM. These results imply that LPA induces TM lectin-like domain shedding, which might contribute to the exposure of its EGF-like domain for EGF receptor (EGFR) binding, thereby stimulating subsequent cell proliferation. Based on our findings, we propose a novel mechanism for the exposure of TM EGF-like domain, which possibly mediates LPA-induced EGFR transactivation

  18. Various semiclassical limits of torus conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkalaev, Konstantin [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of General and Applied Physics, Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology,Institutskiy per. 7, Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow region, 141700 (Russian Federation); Geiko, Roman [Mathematics Department, National Research University Higher School of Economics,Usacheva str. 6, Moscow, 119048 (Russian Federation); Rappoport, Vladimir [I.E. Tamm Department of Theoretical Physics, P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute,Leninsky ave. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Department of Quantum Physics, Institute for Information Transmission Problems,Bolshoy Karetny per. 19, Moscow, 127994 (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-12

    We study four types of one-point torus blocks arising in the large central charge regime. There are the global block, the light block, the heavy-light block, and the linearized classical block, according to different regimes of conformal dimensions. It is shown that the blocks are not independent being connected to each other by various links. We find that the global, light, and heavy-light blocks correspond to three different contractions of the Virasoro algebra. Also, we formulate the c-recursive representation of the one-point torus blocks which is relevant in the semiclassical approximation.

  19. Fuzzy Load-Shedding Strategy Considering Photovoltaic Output Fluctuation Characteristics and Static Voltage Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the equilibrium point equations of a classic three-node system integrated with a large-scale photovoltaic cell (PV power plant, the impact of PV output fluctuation on the saddle-node bifurcation (SNB was derived and analyzed. When PV runs in a unity power factor and the PV output active power Ppv is not too large (several hundred MW and below, the PV output fluctuation has little effect on the SNB point position and load margin index, so that the load margin index can be calculated online using the SNB point at Ppv = 0 pu. On the other hand, the local reactive power compensation in the load center can effectively raise the load bus voltage and make the voltage stability problem become more concealed; the traditional under-voltage load-shedding (UVLS strategy only carries out load shedding when the bus voltage amplitude is below the specified value and cannot effectively maintain the system static voltage stability in some occasions. In this paper, a fuzzy load-shedding strategy considering the impact of PV output fluctuations for the large-scale PV grid-connected system was designed, taking the load bus voltage amplitude and load margin index as fuzzy input variables, and the load-shedding command as a fuzzy output variable. Nine fuzzy IF-THEN rules were extracted for the fuzzy controller and the corresponding practical calculation method of load-shedding quantity was put forward. The simulation results of the classic three-node system and IEEE 14-bus system, both with a 100 MW PV power plant, verified the effectiveness of the fuzzy load-shedding controller whose input variable load margin index was calculated using the SNB point when the PV active power output was 0. The designed fuzzy load-shedding strategy can compensate for the defect—that the traditional UVLS strategy cannot effectively guarantee the system static voltage stability—and it can be widely used in power grids integrated with PV power plants whose scales are at a

  20. The Role of Shed PrPc in the Neuropathogenesis of HIV Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megra, Bezawit W; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Berman, Joan W

    2017-07-01

    HIV-1 enters the CNS soon after peripheral infection and causes chronic neuroinflammation and neuronal damage that leads to cognitive impairment in 40-70% of HIV-infected people. The nonpathogenic cellular isoform of the human prion protein (PrP c ) is an adhesion molecule constitutively expressed in the CNS. Previously, our laboratory showed that shed PrP c (sPrP c ) is increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected people with cognitive deficits as compared with infected people with no impairment. In this article, we demonstrate that CCL2 and TNF-α, inflammatory mediators that are elevated in the CNS of HIV-infected people, increase shedding of PrP c from human astrocytes by increasing the active form of the metalloprotease ADAM10. We show that the consequence of this shedding can be the production of inflammatory mediators, because treatment of astrocytes with rPrP c increased secretion of CCL2, CXCL-12, and IL-8. Supernatants from rPrP c -treated astrocytes containing factors produced in response to this treatment, but not rPrP c by itself, cause increased chemotaxis of both uninfected and HIV-infected human monocytes, suggesting a role for sPrP c in monocyte recruitment into the brain. Furthermore, we examined whether PrP c participates in glutamate uptake and found that rPrP c decreased uptake of this metabolite in astrocytes, which could lead to neurotoxicity and neuronal loss. Collectively, our data characterize mediators involved in PrP c shedding and the effect of this sPrP c on monocyte chemotaxis and glutamate uptake from astrocytes. We propose that shedding of PrP c could be a potential target for therapeutics to limit the cognitive impairment characteristic of neuroAIDS. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Suades, Rosa; Crespo, Javier; Peña, Esther; Padró, Teresa; Jiménez-Xarrié, Elena; Martí-Fàbregas, Joan; Badimon, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke. Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3-7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells) were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls. Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions. Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process after stroke. Larger cerebral lesions

  2. Microparticle Shedding from Neural Progenitor Cells and Vascular Compartment Cells Is Increased in Ischemic Stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Chiva-Blanch

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke has shown to induce platelet and endothelial microparticle shedding, but whether stroke induces microparticle shedding from additional blood and vascular compartment cells is unclear. Neural precursor cells have been shown to replace dying neurons at sites of brain injury; however, if neural precursor cell activation is associated to microparticle shedding, and whether this activation is maintained at long term and associates to stroke type and severity remains unknown. We analyzed neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells microparticle shedding after an acute ischemic stroke.Forty-four patients were included in the study within the first 48h after the onset of stroke. The cerebral lesion size was evaluated at 3-7 days of the stroke. Circulating microparticles from neural precursor cells and blood and vascular compartment cells (platelets, endothelial cells, erythrocytes, leukocytes, lymphocytes, monocytes and smooth muscle cells were analyzed by flow cytometry at the onset of stroke and at 7 and 90 days. Forty-four age-matched high cardiovascular risk subjects without documented vascular disease were used as controls.Compared to high cardiovascular risk controls, patients showed higher number of neural precursor cell- and all blood and vascular compartment cell-derived microparticles at the onset of stroke, and after 7 and 90 days. At 90 days, neural precursor cell-derived microparticles decreased and smooth muscle cell-derived microparticles increased compared to levels at the onset of stroke, but only in those patients with the highest stroke-induced cerebral lesions.Stroke increases blood and vascular compartment cell and neural precursor cell microparticle shedding, an effect that is chronically maintained up to 90 days after the ischemic event. These results show that stroke induces a generalized blood and vascular cell activation and the initiation of neuronal cell repair process after stroke. Larger

  3. Extended viral shedding of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus by striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeffrey Root

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis are susceptible to infection with some influenza A viruses. However, the viral shedding capability of this peri-domestic mammal and its potential role in influenza A virus ecology are largely undetermined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Striped skunks were experimentally infected with a low pathogenic (LP H4N6 avian influenza virus (AIV and monitored for 20 days post infection (DPI. All of the skunks exposed to H4N6 AIV shed large quantities of viral RNA, as detected by real-time RT-PCR and confirmed for live virus with virus isolation, from nasal washes and oral swabs (maximum ≤ 10(6.02 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL and ≤ 10(5.19 PCR EID50 equivalent/mL, respectively. Some evidence of potential fecal shedding was also noted. Following necropsy on 20 DPI, viral RNA was detected in the nasal turbinates of one individual. All treatment animals yielded evidence of a serological response by 20 DPI. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that striped skunks have the potential to shed large quantities of viral RNA through the oral and nasal routes following exposure to a LP AIV. Considering the peri-domestic nature of these animals, along with the duration of shedding observed in this species, their presence on poultry and waterfowl operations could influence influenza A virus epidemiology. For example, this species could introduce a virus to a naive poultry flock or act as a trafficking mechanism of AIV to and from an infected poultry flock to naive flocks or wild bird populations.

  4. Faecal shedding of canine parvovirus after modified-live vaccination in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisl, M; Speck, S; Truyen, U; Reese, S; Proksch, A-L; Hartmann, K

    2017-01-01

    Since little is known about the persistence and faecal shedding of canine parvovirus (CPV) in dogs after modified-live vaccination, diagnostic tests for CPV can be difficult to interpret in the post-vaccination period. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence, duration and extent of CPV vaccine virus shedding in adult dogs and to investigate related factors, including the presence of protective antibodies, increase in anti-CPV antibody titres and development of any gastrointestinal side-effects. A secondary objective was to assess prevalence of CPV field virus shedding in clinically healthy dogs due to subclinical infections. One hundred adult, healthy privately owned dogs were vaccinated with a commercial CPV-2 modified-live vaccine (MLV). Faeces were tested for the presence of CPV DNA on days 0 (prior to vaccination), 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 by quantitative real-time PCR. Pre- and post-vaccination serum titres were determined by haemagglutination inhibition on days 0, 7 and 28. Transient excretion of CPV DNA was detected in 2.0% of dogs before vaccination. About one quarter of dogs (23.0%) shed CPV DNA during the post-vaccination period, but field and vaccine virus differentiation by VP2 gene sequencing was only successful in few samples. Faecal CPV excretion occurred despite protective serum antibody titres. Post-vaccination CPV shedding was not related to adequate antibody response after vaccination or to the occurrence of gastrointestinal side-effects. Despite individual differences, CPV DNA was detectable for up to 28 days after vaccination, although the faecal CPV DNA load in these clinically healthy dogs was very low. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Avian influenza shedding patterns in waterfowl: implications for surveillance, environmental transmission, and disease spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henaux, Viviane; Samuel, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the recognized importance of fecal/oral transmission of low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) via contaminated wetlands, little is known about the length, quantity, or route of AI virus shed by wild waterfowl. We used published laboratory challenge studies to evaluate the length and quantity of low pathogenic (LP) and highly pathogenic (HP) virus shed via oral and cloacal routes by AI-infected ducks and geese, and how these factors might influence AI epidemiology and virus detection. We used survival analysis to estimate the duration of infection (from virus inoculation to the last day virus was shed) and nonlinear models to evaluate temporal patterns in virus shedding. We found higher mean virus titer and longer median infectious period for LPAI-infected ducks (10–11.5 days in oral and cloacal swabs) than HPAI-infected ducks (5 days) and geese (7.5 days). Based on the median bird infectious dose, we found that environmental contamination is two times higher for LPAI- than HPAI-infectious ducks, which implies that susceptible birds may have a higher probability of infection during LPAI than HPAI outbreaks. Less environmental contamination during the course of infection and previously documented shorter environmental persistence for HPAI than LPAI suggest that the environment is a less favorable reservoir for HPAI. The longer infectious period, higher virus titers, and subclinical infections with LPAI viruses favor the spread of these viruses by migratory birds in comparison to HPAI. Given the lack of detection of HPAI viruses through worldwide surveillance, we suggest monitoring for AI should aim at improving our understanding of AI dynamics (in particular, the role of the environment and immunity) using long-term comprehensive live bird, serologic, and environmental sampling at targeted areas. Our findings on LPAI and HPAI shedding patterns over time provide essential information to parameterize environmental transmission and virus spread in predictive

  6. Genital Shedding of Herpes Simplex Virus Among Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Persons with HSV-2 Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronstein, Elizabeth; Johnston, Christine; Huang, Meei-Li; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Warren, Terri; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Context Since HSV-2 antibody tests have become commercially available, an increasing number of persons learn that they have genital herpes through serologic testing. The course of natural history of HSV-2 in asymptomatic, seropositive persons is uncertain. Objective To evaluate the virologic and clinical course of HSV genital shedding among participants with symptomatic and asymptomatic HSV-2 infection. Design, Setting and Participants Cohort of 498 immunocompetent HSV-2 seropositive persons enrolled in prospective studies of genital HSV shedding at the University of Washington Virology Research Clinic, Seattle, Washington, and Westover Heights Clinic in Portland, Oregon, between 1992 and 2008. Each participant obtained daily self-collected swabs of genital secretions for ≥ 30 days. Main Outcome Measurement The rate of viral shedding measured by quantitative real-time fluorescence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for HSV DNA from genital swabs. Results HSV was detected on 4,753 of 23,683 days (20.1%; 95% CI, 18.3 to 22.0) in persons with symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection compared with 519 of 5,070 days (10.2%; 95% CI, 7.7 to 13.6) in persons with asymptomatic infection, pgenital viral shedding among persons with symptomatic genital HSV-2 infection compared with 85 of 519 days (16.4%; 95% CI, 11.2 to 23.9) among persons with asymptomatic infection, pgenital tract less frequently than persons with symptomatic infection, but much of the difference is attributable to less frequent genital lesions, as lesions are accompanied by frequent viral shedding. PMID:21486977

  7. The dynamics of EBV shedding implicate a central role for epithelial cells in amplifying viral output.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vey Hadinoto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available To develop more detailed models of EBV persistence we have studied the dynamics of virus shedding in healthy carriers. We demonstrate that EBV shedding into saliva is continuous and rapid such that the virus level is replaced in < or =2 minutes, the average time that a normal individual swallows. Thus, the mouth is not a reservoir of virus but a conduit through which a continuous flow stream of virus passes in saliva. Consequently, virus is being shed at a much higher rate than previously thought, a level too high to be accounted for by replication in B cells in Waldeyer's ring alone. Virus shedding is relatively stable over short periods (hours-days but varies through 3.5 to 5.5 logs over longer periods, a degree of variation that also cannot be accounted for solely by replication in B cells. This variation means, contrary to what is generally believed, that the definition of high and low shedder is not so much a function of variation between individuals but within individuals over time. The dynamics of shedding describe a process governing virus production that is occurring independently < or =3 times at any moment. This process grows exponentially and is then randomly terminated. We propose that these dynamics are best explained by a model where single B cells sporadically release virus that infects anywhere from 1 to 5 epithelial cells. This infection spreads at a constant exponential rate and is terminated randomly, resulting in infected plaques of epithelial cells ranging in size from 1 to 10(5 cells. At any one time there are a very small number (< or =3 of plaques. We suggest that the final size of these plaques is a function of the rate of infectious spread within the lymphoepithelium which may be governed by the structural complexity of the tissue but is ultimately limited by the immune response.

  8. The N domain of somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme negatively regulates ectodomain shedding and catalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Zenda L; Schwager, Sylva L U; Redelinghuys, Pierre; Carmona, Adriana K; Ehlers, Mario R W; Sturrock, Edward D

    2005-08-01

    sACE (somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme) consists of two homologous, N and C domains, whereas the testis isoenzyme [tACE (testis ACE)] consists of a single C domain. Both isoenzymes are shed from the cell surface by a sheddase activity, although sACE is shed much less efficiently than tACE. We hypothesize that the N domain of sACE plays a regulatory role, by occluding a recognition motif on the C domain required for ectodomain shedding and by influencing the catalytic efficiency. To test this, we constructed two mutants: CNdom-ACE and CCdom-ACE. CNdom-ACE was shed less efficiently than sACE, whereas CCdom-ACE was shed as efficiently as tACE. Notably, cleavage occurred both within the stalk and the interdomain bridge in both mutants, suggesting that a sheddase recognition motif resides within the C domain and is capable of directly cleaving at both positions. Analysis of the catalytic properties of the mutants and comparison with sACE and tACE revealed that the k(cat) for sACE and CNdom-ACE was less than or equal to the sum of the kcat values for tACE and the N-domain, suggesting negative co-operativity, whereas the kcat value for the CCdom-ACE suggested positive co-operativity between the two domains. Taken together, the results provide support for (i) the existence of a sheddase recognition motif in the C domain and (ii) molecular flexibility of the N and C domains in sACE, resulting in occlusion of the C-domain recognition motif by the N domain as well as close contact of the two domains during hydrolysis of peptide substrates.

  9. Climatological features of blocking anticyclones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupo, A.R.; Smith, P.J.; Oglesby, R.J.

    1994-01-01

    Several climatological studies have been previously performed using large observational data sets (i.e., 10 years or longer) in order to determine the predominant characteristics of blocking anticyclones, including favored development regions, duration, preferred seasonal occurrence, and frequency of occurrence. These studies have shown that blocking anticyclones occur most frequently from October to April over the eastern Atlantic and Pacific oceans downstream from both the North American and Asian continental regions and the storm track regions to the east of these continents. Some studies have also revealed the presence of a third region block formation in western Russia near 40 degrees E which is associated with another storm track region over the Mediterranean and western Asia

  10. Block ground interaction of rockfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkwein, Axel; Gerber, Werner; Kummer, Peter

    2016-04-01

    During a rockfall the interaction of the falling block with the ground is one of the most important factors that define the evolution of a rockfall trajectory. It steers the rebound, the rotational movement, possibly brake effects, friction losses and damping effects. Therefore, if most reliable rockfall /trajectory simulation software is sought a good understanding of the block ground interaction is necessary. Today's rockfall codes enable the simulation of a fully 3D modelled block within a full 3D surface . However, the details during the contact, i.e. the contact duration, the penetration depth or the dimension of the marks in the ground are usually not part of the simulation. Recent field tests with rocks between 20 and 80 kg have been conducted on a grassy slope in 2014 [1]. A special rockfall sensor [2] within the blocks measured the rotational velocity and the acting accelerations during the tests. External video records and a so-called LocalPositioningSystem deliver information on the travel velocity. With these data not only the flight phases of the trajectories but also the contacts with the ground can be analysed. During the single jumps of a block the flight time, jump length, the velocity, and the rotation are known. During the single impacts their duration and the acting accelerations are visible. Further, the changes of rotational and translational velocity influence the next jump of the block. The change of the rotational velocity over the whole trajectory nicely visualizes the different phases of a rockfall regarding general acceleration and deceleration in respect to the inclination and the topography of the field. References: [1] Volkwein A, Krummenacher B, Gerber W, Lardon J, Gees F, Brügger L, Ott T (2015) Repeated controlled rockfall trajectory testing. [Abstract] Geophys. Res. Abstr. 17: EGU2015-9779. [2] Volkwein A, Klette J (2014) Semi-Automatic Determination of Rockfall Trajectories. Sensors 14: 18187-18210.

  11. Cryptanalysis of Selected Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkhzaimi, Hoda A.

    , pseudorandom number generators, and authenticated encryption designs. For this reason a multitude of initiatives over the years has been established to provide a secure and sound designs for block ciphers as in the calls for Data Encryption Standard (DES) and Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), lightweight...... ciphers initiatives, and the Competition for Authenticated Encryption: Security, Applicability, and Robustness (CAESAR). In this thesis, we first present cryptanalytic results on different ciphers. We propose attack named the Invariant Subspace Attack. It is utilized to break the full block cipher...

  12. Coxiella burnetii shedding routes and antibody response after outbreaks of Q fever-induced abortion in dairy goat herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, Elodie; Berri, Mustapha; Durand, Benoit; Dufour, Philippe; Prigent, Myriam; Delcroix, Thibault; Touratier, Anne; Rodolakis, Annie

    2009-01-01

    Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, a bacterium largely carried by ruminants and shed into milk, vaginal mucus, and feces. The main potential hazard to humans and animals is due to shedding of bacteria that can then persist in the environment and be aerosolized. The purpose of this study was to evaluate shedding after an outbreak of Q fever abortion in goat herds and to assess the relationship with the occurrence of abortions and antibody responses. Aborting and nonaborting goats were monitored by PCR for C. burnetii shedding 15 and 30 days after the abortion episodes. PCR analysis of all samples showed that 70% (n = 50) of the aborting and 53% (n = 70) of the nonaborting goats were positive. C. burnetii was shed into vaginal mucus, feces, and milk of 44%, 21%, and 38%, respectively, of goats that aborted and 27%, 20%, and 31%, respectively, of goats that delivered normally. Statistical comparison of these shedding results did not reveal any difference between these two groups. PCR results obtained for the vaginal and fecal routes were concordant in 81% of cases, whereas those for milk correlated with only 49% of cases with either vaginal or fecal shedding status. Serological analysis, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and complement fixation tests, showed that at least 24% of the seronegative goats shed bacteria. Positive vaginal and fecal shedding, unlike positive milk shedding, was observed more often in animals that were weakly positive or negative by ELISA or IFA. Two opposite shedding trends were thus apparent for the milk and vaginal-fecal routes. Moreover, this study showed that a nonnegligible proportion of seronegative animals that delivered normally could excrete C. burnetii.

  13. Synthetic sex pheromone attracts the leishmaniasis vector Lutzomyia longipalpis to experimental chicken sheds treated with insecticide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brazil Reginaldo P

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current strategies for controlling American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL have been unable to prevent the spread of the disease across Brazil. With no effective vaccine and culling of infected dogs an unpopular and unsuccessful alternative, new tools are urgently needed to manage populations of the sand fly vector, Lutzomyia longipalpis Lutz and Neiva (Diptera: Psychodidae. Here, we test two potential strategies for improving L. longipalpis control using the synthetic sand fly pheromone (±-9-methylgermacrene-B: the first in conjunction with spraying of animal houses with insecticide, the second using coloured sticky traps. Results Addition of synthetic pheromone resulted in greater numbers of male and female sand flies being caught and killed at experimental chicken sheds sprayed with insecticide, compared to pheromone-less controls. Furthermore, a ten-fold increase in the amount of sex pheromone released from test sheds increased the number of females attracted and subsequently killed. Treating sheds with insecticide alone resulted in a significant decrease in numbers of males attracted to sheds (compared to pre-spraying levels, and a near significant decrease in numbers of females. However, this effect was reversed through addition of synthetic pheromone at the time of insecticide spraying, leading to an increase in number of flies attracted post-treatment. In field trials of commercially available different coloured sticky traps, yellow traps caught more males than blue traps when placed in chicken sheds. In addition, yellow traps fitted with 10 pheromone lures caught significantly more males than pheromone-less controls. However, while female sand flies showed a preference for both blue and yellow pheromone traps sticky traps over white traps in the laboratory, neither colour caught significant numbers of females in chicken sheds, either with or without pheromone. Conclusions We conclude that synthetic pheromone could

  14. Influence of On-farm pig Salmonella status on Salmonella Shedding at Slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova-Higes, A; Andrés-Barranco, S; Mainar-Jaime, R C

    2017-08-01

    The risk of Salmonella shedding among pigs at slaughter with regard to their previous on-farm Salmonella status was assessed in a group of pigs from a farm from NE of Spain. A total of 202 pigs that had been serologically monitored monthly during the fattening period and from which mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and faecal (SFEC) samples were collected at slaughter for Salmonella isolation were included. A repeated-measures anova was used to assess the relationship between mean OD% values during the fattening period and sampling time and bacteriology on MLN and SFEC. Pigs were also grouped into four groups, that is pigs seronegative during the fattening period and Salmonella negative in MLN (group A; n = 69); pigs seronegative during the fattening period but Salmonella positive in MLN (B; n = 36); pigs seropositive at least once and Salmonella positive in MLN (C; n = 50); and pigs seropositive at least once but Salmonella negative in (D; n = 47). Pigs shedding at slaughter seroconverted much earlier and showed much higher mean OD% values than non-shedders pigs. The proportion of Salmonella shedders in groups A and D was high and similar (26.1% and 29.8%, respectively), but significantly lower than that for groups B and C. The odds of shedding Salmonella for groups B and C were 4.8 (95% CI = 1.5-15.5) and 20.9 (3.7-118) times higher, respectively, when compared to A. It was concluded that a large proportion of Salmonella seronegative pigs may shed Salmonella at slaughter, which would be likely associated to previous exposure with contaminated environments (i.e. transport and lairage). For pigs already infected at farm, the likelihood of shedding Salmonella was much higher and may depend on whether the bacterium has colonized the MLN or not. The odds of shedding Salmonella spp. were always much higher for pigs in which Salmonella was isolated from MLN. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Dynamics of Salmonella Shedding and Welfare of Hens in Free-Range Egg Production Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C.; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Caraguel, Charles; Moyle, Talia; Rault, Jean-Loup; Sexton, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (i.e., weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free-range production systems and the correlations with behavioral and physiological measures (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free-range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free-range farms and in different seasons. There was no significant effect of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation. In this study, the combined Salmonella most probable number (MPN) counts in environmental (including feces, egg belt, dust, nest box, and ramp) samples were highest in samples collected during the summer season (4th sampling, performed in February). The predominant serovars isolated during this study were Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types 135 and 135a. These two phage types were involved in several egg product-related Salmonella outbreaks in humans. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results indicated that MLVA types detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited MLVA patterns similar to the strains isolated during this study. All Salmonella isolates (n = 209) were tested for 15 different genes involved in adhesion, invasion, and survival of Salmonella spp. We also observed variations for sopA, ironA, and misL. There were no positive correlations between fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) and Salmonella prevalence and/or shedding in feces. Also, there were no positive correlations between Salmonella prevalence and Salmonella count (log MPN) and any of the other welfare parameters. IMPORTANCE In this study, the welfare of laying hens and Salmonella shedding were compared over a prolonged period of time in field conditions. This study investigated the long-term shedding of Salmonella

  16. Dynamics of Salmonella Shedding and Welfare of Hens in Free-Range Egg Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Caraguel, Charles; Moyle, Talia; Rault, Jean-Loup; Sexton, Margaret; Chousalkar, Kapil

    2017-03-01

    The current study investigated the effect of environmental stressors (i.e., weather changes) on Salmonella shedding in free-range production systems and the correlations with behavioral and physiological measures (i.e., fecal glucocorticoid metabolites). This involved longitudinal and point-in-time surveys of Salmonella shedding and environmental contamination on four commercial free-range layer farms. The shedding of Salmonella was variable across free-range farms and in different seasons. There was no significant effect of season on the Salmonella prevalence during this investigation. In this study, the combined Salmonella most probable number (MPN) counts in environmental (including feces, egg belt, dust, nest box, and ramp) samples were highest in samples collected during the summer season (4th sampling, performed in February). The predominant serovars isolated during this study were Salmonella enterica serovar Mbandaka and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage types 135 and 135a. These two phage types were involved in several egg product-related Salmonella outbreaks in humans. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) results indicated that MLVA types detected from human food poisoning cases exhibited MLVA patterns similar to the strains isolated during this study. All Salmonella isolates ( n = 209) were tested for 15 different genes involved in adhesion, invasion, and survival of Salmonella spp. We also observed variations for sopA , ironA , and misL There were no positive correlations between fecal corticosterone metabolite (FCM) and Salmonella prevalence and/or shedding in feces. Also, there were no positive correlations between Salmonella prevalence and Salmonella count (log MPN) and any of the other welfare parameters. IMPORTANCE In this study, the welfare of laying hens and Salmonella shedding were compared over a prolonged period of time in field conditions. This study investigated the long-term shedding of Salmonella serovars in

  17. Toxoplasma gondii: A study of oocyst re-shedding in domestic cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulpo, Dauton Luiz; Sammi, Ana Sue; Dos Santos, Joeleni Rosa; Sasse, João Pedro; Martins, Thais Agostinho; Minutti, Ana Flávia; Cardim, Sérgio Tosi; de Barros, Luiz Daniel; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Garcia, João Luis

    2018-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the re-shedding of T. gondii oocysts in cats fed tissue cysts of homologous and heterologous strains 12, 24 and 36 months after the first infection. Thirteen cats were used in the present study and were divided into four groups: G1 (n=2), G2 (n=3), G3 (n=5), and G4 (n=3). G1, G3 and G4 cats were infected with brain cysts of ME49 and G2 with TgDoveBr8, both genotype II strains of T. gondii. The G1 and G2 cats were re-infected after twelve months with brain cysts of VEG strain (genotype III), and G3 cats were re-infected with TgDoveBr1 (genotype II). The G3 cats were re-infected a third time after 24 months from the second infection, and the G4 cats were re-infected 36 months after the initial infection with cysts of the VEG strain. The cats' feces were evaluated using fecal flotation and genotyped with PCR-RFLP. The serological responses for IgM, IgA and IgG were determined by ELISA. All cats shed oocysts after the initial infection. Only one G1 cat shed oocysts when re-infected after twelve months with the VEG strain. No G2 cats excreted oocysts after the second infection with VEG. G3 cats, when re-infected after twelve months with the TgDoveBr1 strain, did not shed oocysts. However, when challenged after a third time with the VEG strain, three out of four cats shed oocysts. In the G4 group, when re-infected after thirty-six months with the VEG strain, two out of three cats shed oocysts. All oocyst samples were genotyped and characterized as the same genotype from the inoculum. Protection against oocyst re-excretion occurred in 90%, 25%, and 33.4% of cats after 12, 24, and 36 months from the initial infection, respectively. Therefore, the environmental contamination by oocysts from re-infected adult cats is only 30% lower than from kittens. In conclusion, the excretion of T. gondii oocysts was higher in experimentally re-infected cats throughout the years, especially when a heterologous strain was used. Copyright © 2017

  18. Velocity measurement by vortex shedding. Contribution to the mass-flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez Piquer, T.

    1988-01-01

    The phenomenon of vortex shedding has been known for centuries and has been the subject of scientific studies for about one hundred years. It is only in the ten last years that is has been applied to the measurement of fluids velocity. In 1878 F. Strouhal observed the vortex shedding phenomenon and shown that the shedding frequency of a wire vibrating in the wind was related to the wire diameter and the wind velocity. Rayleigh, who introduced the non-dimensional Strouhal number, von Karman and Rohsko, carried out extensive work or the subject which indicated that vortex shedding could form the basis for a new type of flowmeter. The thesis describes two parallel lines of investigation which study in depth the practical applications of vortex shedding. The first one deals with the measure of velocity and it presents the novelty of a bluff body with a cross-section which has not been used until this day. This body is a circular cylinder with a two-dimensional slit along the diameter and situated in crossdirection to the fluid's stream. It possesses excellent characteristics and it is the most stable as a vortex shedder, which gives it great advantage to the rest of the shapes used until now. The detection of the vortex has been performed by measuring the pressure changes generated by the vortex on two posts situated just beside the slit. To calculate the frequency of the vortex shedding, we obtain the difference of the mentioned signals, which are the same and 180 out of phase. Finding out the period of the autocorrelation function of this signal we can estimate the velocity of the fluid. A logical equipment based on a microprocessor has been designed for the calculation using a zero-crossing time algorithm implemented in assembler language. The second line of research refers to a new method of measure mass flow. The pressure signal generated by the vortex has an intensity which is proportional to the density and to the square of the velocity. Since we have already

  19. Rotavirus shedding following administration of RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Daniel; Boniface, Karen; Bogdanovic-Sakran, Nada; Kirkwood, Carl D; Bines, Julie E

    2017-08-03

    The RV3-BB human neonatal rotavirus vaccine aims to provide protection from severe rotavirus disease from birth. A phase IIa safety and immunogenicity trial was undertaken in Dunedin, New Zealand between January 2012 and April 2014. Healthy, full-term (≥ 36 weeks gestation) babies, who were 0-5 d old were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive 3 doses of oral RV3-BB vaccine with the first dose given at 0-5 d after birth (neonatal schedule), or the first dose given at about 8 weeks after birth (infant schedule), or to receive placebo (placebo schedule). Vaccine take (serum immune response or stool shedding of vaccine virus after any dose) was detected after 3 doses of RV3-BB vaccine in >90% of participants when the first dose was administered in the neonatal and infant schedules. The aim of the current study was to characterize RV3-BB shedding and virus replication following administration of RV3-BB in a neonatal and infant vaccination schedule. Shedding was defined as detection of rotavirus by VP6 reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in stool on days 3-7 after administration of RV3-BB. Shedding of rotavirus was highest following vaccination at 8 weeks of age in both neonatal and infant schedules (19/30 and 17/27, respectively). Rotavirus was detected in stool on days 3-7, after at least one dose of RV3-BB, in 70% (21/30) of neonate, 78% (21/27) of infant and 3% (1/32) placebo participants. In participants who shed RV3-BB, rotavirus was detectable in stool on day 1 following RV3-BB administration and remained positive until day 4-5 after administration. The distinct pattern of RV3-BB stool viral load demonstrated using a NSP3 quantitative qRT-PCR in participants who shed RV3-BB, suggests that detection of RV3-BB at day 3-7 was the result of replication rather than passage through the gastrointestinal tract.

  20. Asymmetric PS-block-(PS-co-PB)-block-PS block copolymers: morphology formation and deformation behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Rameshwar; Huy, Trinh An; Buschnakowski, Matthias; Michler, Goerg H; Knoll, Konrad

    2004-01-01

    Morphology formation and deformation behaviour of asymmetric styrene/butadiene triblock copolymers (total polystyrene (PS) content ∼70%) consisting of PS outer blocks held apart by a styrene-co-butadiene random copolymer block (PS-co-PB) each were investigated. The techniques used were differential scanning calorimetry, transmission electron microscopy, uniaxial tensile testing and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. A significant shift of the phase behaviour relative to that of a neat symmetric triblock copolymer was observed, which can be attributed to the asymmetric architecture and the presence of PS-co-PB as a soft block. The mechanical properties and the microdeformation phenomena were mainly controlled by the nature of their solid-state morphology. Independent of morphology type, the soft phase was found to deform to a significantly higher degree of orientation when compared with the hard phase

  1. Main-chain supramolecular block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Si Kyung; Ambade, Ashootosh V; Weck, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Block copolymers are key building blocks for a variety of applications ranging from electronic devices to drug delivery. The material properties of block copolymers can be tuned and potentially improved by introducing noncovalent interactions in place of covalent linkages between polymeric blocks resulting in the formation of supramolecular block copolymers. Such materials combine the microphase separation behavior inherent to block copolymers with the responsiveness of supramolecular materials thereby affording dynamic and reversible materials. This tutorial review covers recent advances in main-chain supramolecular block copolymers and describes the design principles, synthetic approaches, advantages, and potential applications.

  2. Smart ampholytic ABC block copolypeptide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schlaad, H.; Sun, J.; Černoch, Peter; Ruokolainen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 254, 20 August (2017), s. 79 ISSN 0065-7727. [ACS National Meeting & Exposition /254./. 20.08.2017-24.08.2017, Washington] Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : block copolypeptide * smart ampholytic Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science

  3. First Degree Pacemaker Exit Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Francis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Usually atrial and ventricular depolarizations follow soon after the pacemaker stimulus (spike on the ECG. But there can be an exit block due to fibrosis at the electrode - tissue interface at the lead tip. This can increase the delay between the spike and atrial or ventricular depolarization.

  4. Building Blocks for Personal Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the four essential building blocks for personal brands: (1) name; (2) message; (3) channels; and (4) bridges. However, outstanding building materials can only take a person so far. The author emphasizes that vision, determination, faith, a sense of humor, and humility are also required.

  5. Thermo-responsive block copolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mocan Cetintas, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Block copolymers (BCPs) are remarkable materials because of their self-assembly behavior into nano-sized regular structures and high tunable properties. BCPs are in used various applications such as surfactants, nanolithography, biomedicine and nanoporous membranes. In these thesis, we aimed to

  6. Cervical plexus block for thyroidectomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    RESEARCH. Southern African Journal of Anaesthesia & Analgesia - November 2003 ... Cervical plexus block has also been found useful for thy- .... lar, transverse cervical and supraclavicular nerves. ... administration of midazolam and pentazocine as required. ... find out if there were postoperative complications specific to.

  7. Blocking sets in Desarguesian planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, A.; Miklós, D.; Sós, V.T.; Szönyi, T.

    1996-01-01

    We survey recent results concerning the size of blocking sets in desarguesian projective and affine planes, and implications of these results and the technique to prove them, to related problemis, such as the size of maximal partial spreads, small complete arcs, small strong representative systems

  8. Acoustically levitated dancing drops: Self-excited oscillation to chaotic shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Po-Cheng; I, Lin

    2016-02-01

    We experimentally demonstrate self-excited oscillation and shedding of millimeter-sized water drops, acoustically levitated in a single-node standing waves cavity, by decreasing the steady acoustic wave intensity below a threshold. The perturbation of the acoustic field by drop motion is a possible source for providing an effective negative damping for sustaining the growing amplitude of the self-excited motion. Its further interplay with surface tension, drop inertia, gravity and acoustic intensities, select various self-excited modes for different size of drops and acoustic intensity. The large drop exhibits quasiperiodic motion from a vertical mode and a zonal mode with growing coupling, as oscillation amplitudes grow, until falling on the floor. For small drops, chaotic oscillations constituted by several broadened sectorial modes and corresponding zonal modes are self-excited. The growing oscillation amplitude leads to droplet shedding from the edges of highly stretched lobes, where surface tension no longer holds the rapid expanding flow.

  9. A Lagrangian analysis of a two-dimensional airfoil with vortex shedding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipinski, Doug; Cardwell, Blake; Mohseni, Kamran [Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0429 (United States)], E-mail: Mohseni@colorado.edu

    2008-08-29

    Using invariant material manifolds and flow topology, the flow behavior and structure of flow around a two-dimensional Eppler 387 airfoil is examined with an emphasis on vortex shedding and the time-dependent reattachment profile. The examination focuses on low Reynolds number (Re = 60 000) flow at several angles of attack. Using specialized software, we identify invariant manifolds in the flow and use these structures to illuminate the process of vortex formation and the periodic behavior of the reattachment profile. Our analysis concludes with a topological view of the flow, including fixed points and a discussion of phase plots and the frequency spectrum of several key points in the flow. The behavior of invariant manifolds directly relates to the flow topology and illuminates some aspects seen in phase space during vortex shedding. Furthermore, it highlights the reattachment behavior in ways not seen before.

  10. A Lagrangian analysis of a two-dimensional airfoil with vortex shedding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, Doug; Cardwell, Blake; Mohseni, Kamran

    2008-01-01

    Using invariant material manifolds and flow topology, the flow behavior and structure of flow around a two-dimensional Eppler 387 airfoil is examined with an emphasis on vortex shedding and the time-dependent reattachment profile. The examination focuses on low Reynolds number (Re = 60 000) flow at several angles of attack. Using specialized software, we identify invariant manifolds in the flow and use these structures to illuminate the process of vortex formation and the periodic behavior of the reattachment profile. Our analysis concludes with a topological view of the flow, including fixed points and a discussion of phase plots and the frequency spectrum of several key points in the flow. The behavior of invariant manifolds directly relates to the flow topology and illuminates some aspects seen in phase space during vortex shedding. Furthermore, it highlights the reattachment behavior in ways not seen before

  11. Cutaneous Sensory Block Area, Muscle-Relaxing Effect, and Block Duration of the Transversus Abdominis Plane Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støving, Kion; Rothe, Christian; Rosenstock, Charlotte V

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is a widely used nerve block. However, basic block characteristics are poorly described. The purpose of this study was to assess the cutaneous sensory block area, muscle-relaxing effect, and block duration. METHODS: Sixteen...... healthy volunteers were randomized to receive an ultrasound-guided unilateral TAP block with 20 mL 7.5 mg/mL ropivacaine and placebo on the contralateral side. Measurements were performed at baseline and 90 minutes after performing the block. Cutaneous sensory block area was mapped and separated...... into a medial and lateral part by a vertical line through the anterior superior iliac spine. We measured muscle thickness of the 3 lateral abdominal muscle layers with ultrasound in the relaxed state and during maximal voluntary muscle contraction. The volunteers reported the duration of the sensory block...

  12. PV working with industry, Second Quarter, 1999: Shedding light on the matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S.; Poole, L.

    1999-09-13

    NREL PV Working With Industry is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the research, development, and deployment performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. The Second Quarter, 1999 issue, titled ''Shedding Light on the Matter,'' focuses on the PV-related research activities of NREL's Basic Sciences Center. The editorialist is Satyen Deb, in his role as Director of the Basic Sciences Center.

  13. Simulated browsing affects leaf shedding phenology and litter quality of oak and birch saplings

    OpenAIRE

    Palacio, Sara; Hester, A. J.; Maestro Martínez, Melchor; Millard, P.

    2013-01-01

    Herbivore effects on leaf litter can have a strong impact on ecosystem nutrient cycling. Although such effects are well described for insect herbivory, research on the impacts of browsing by mammalian herbivores on leaf litter dynamics and nutrient cycling has been more limited, particularly at the level of the individual plant. Clipping treatments (66% shoot removal twice, plus unclipped) were applied to analyse the effect of browsing on the phenology (start date and pattern of leaf shedding...

  14. Inhibition of TGF-β Signaling in SHED Enhances Endothelial Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J G; Gong, T; Wang, Y Y; Zou, T; Heng, B C; Yang, Y Q; Zhang, C F

    2018-02-01

    Low efficiency of deriving endothelial cells (ECs) from adult stem cells hampers their utilization in tissue engineering studies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether suppression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling could enhance the differentiation efficiency of dental pulp-derived stem cells into ECs. We initially used vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) to stimulate 2 dental pulp-derived stem cells (dental pulp stem cells and stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth [SHED]) and compared their differentiation capacity into ECs. We further evaluated whether the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor I (VEGF-RI)-specific ligand placental growth factor-1 (PlGF-1) could mediate endothelial differentiation. Finally, we investigated whether the TGF-β signaling inhibitor SB-431542 could enhance the inductive effect of VEGF-A on endothelial differentiation, as well as the underlying mechanisms involved. ECs differentiated from dental pulp-derived stem cells exhibited the typical phenotypes of primary ECs, with SHED possessing a higher endothelial differentiation potential than dental pulp stem cells. VEGFR1-specific ligand-PLGF exerted a negligible effect on SHED-ECs differentiation. Compared with VEGF-A alone, the combination of VEGF-A and SB-431542 significantly enhanced the endothelial differentiation of SHED. The presence of SB-431542 inhibited the phosphorylation of Suppressor of Mothers Against Decapentaplegic 2/3 (SMAD2/3), allowing for VEGF-A-dependent phosphorylation and upregulation of VEGFR2. Our results indicate that the combination of VEGF-A and SB-431542 could enhance the differentiation of dental pulp-derived stem cells into endothelial cells, and this process is mediated through enhancement of VEGF-A-VEGFR2 signaling and concomitant inhibition of TGF-β-SMAD2/3 signaling.

  15. PV working with industry, Second Quarter, 1999: Shedding light on the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S.; Poole, L.

    1999-01-01

    NREL PV Working With Industry is a quarterly newsletter devoted to the research, development, and deployment performed by NREL staff in concert with their industry and university partners. The Second Quarter, 1999 issue, titled ''Shedding Light on the Matter,'' focuses on the PV-related research activities of NREL's Basic Sciences Center. The editorialist is Satyen Deb, in his role as Director of the Basic Sciences Center

  16. An investigation of the shedding of macromolecules from the Ehrlich mouse ascites tumor cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, E.H.

    1984-01-01

    The spontaneous release, or shedding, of cell surface components into the extracellular medium may be important in the determination of several features of the cancer cell phenotype. The release of macromolecules from the Erhlich mouse ascites tumor cell was studied under a variety of experimental conditions to elucidate the origin and the underlying mechanisms of release. The extrinsic macromolecules are a diverse group with apparent molecular weights ranging from 13,500 to 400,000 daltons. External labeling of the cell surface with tritiated 4,4'-diisothiocyano-1,2-diphenylethane-2,2-disulfonic acid ([ 3 H]H 2 DIDS) reveals a slow loss of labeled components at 4 degrees C, while at 21 degrees C and 37 degrees C an initial rapid loss is followed by a slower release. In vitro metabolic labeling with [1- 14 C]-D-glucosamine hydrochloride, D-[2- 3 H]-mannose and various [ 3 H]-L-amino acids results in the appearance of labeled macromolecules in the medium suggesting tumor, not mouse, origin. These data suggest that the extrinsic macromolecules originate from the cell surface. Macromolecules are shed by a temperature and pH sensitive process. These results suggest that a limited proteolytic digestion, or sublethal autolysis, of the cell surface may occur in this system. The macromolecules shed by the Ehrlich cell originate from the surface and are probably released by sublethal autolysis, direct secretion and a passive process

  17. The shedding activity of ADAM17 is sequestered in lipid rafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tellier, Edwige; Canault, Matthias; Rebsomen, Laure; Bonardo, Bernadette; Juhan-Vague, Irene; Nalbone, Gilles; Peiretti, Franck

    2006-01-01

    The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) converting enzyme (ADAM17) is a metalloprotease-disintegrin responsible for the cleavage of several biologically active transmembrane proteins. However, the substrate specificity of ADAM17 and the regulation of its shedding activity are still poorly understood. Here, we report that during its transport through the Golgi apparatus, ADAM17 is included in cholesterol-rich membrane microdomains (lipid rafts) where its prodomain is cleaved by furin. Consequently, ADAM17 shedding activity is sequestered in lipid rafts, which is confirmed by the fact that metalloproteinase inhibition increases the proportion of ADAM17 substrates (TNF and its receptors TNFR1 and TNFR2) in lipid rafts. Membrane cholesterol depletion increases the ADAM17-dependent shedding of these substrates demonstrating the importance of lipid rafts in the control of this process. Furthermore, ADAM17 substrates are present in different proportions in lipid rafts, suggesting that the entry of each of these substrates in these particular membrane microdomains is specifically regulated. Our data support the idea that one of the mechanisms regulating ADAM17 substrate cleavage involves protein partitioning in lipid rafts

  18. Prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas and potential public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnham, B R; Atchley, D H; DeFusco, R P; Ferris, K E; Zicarelli, J C; Lee, J H; Angulo, F J

    1998-07-01

    To determine prevalence of fecal shedding of Salmonella organisms among captive green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Cohort study. 12 captive green iguanas. Iguanas were isolated in an environmental chamber, and fecal samples were collected weekly for 10 consecutive weeks. Samples were incubated aerobically in tetrathionate broth for 18 to 24 hours. Aliquots were then transferred to Hektoen and Salmonella-Shigella agar plates and incubated for an additional 18 to 24 hours. Isolated colonies were subcultured on nutrient agar slants, and Salmonella isolates were serogrouped and serotyped. All 12 iguanas were found to be shedding Salmonella organisms at least once during the study, and multiple serotypes were isolated from 7 of the 12. Salmonella organisms were isolated from 88 of 106 (83%) fecal samples; 21 samples contained multiple Salmonella serotypes. Overall, 11 Salmonella serotypes were identified. In 74 of 100 instances, when a particular Salmonella serotype was isolated from an individual iguana, the same serotype was also isolated from a subsequent fecal sample from that iguana. Results suggested that most iguanas have a stable mixture of Salmonella serotypes in their intestinal tracts and intermittently or continuously shed Salmonella organisms in their feces. Veterinarians should advise their clients on precautions for reducing the risk of acquiring these organisms from their pets. Public health officials trying to determine whether an iguana is the source of a specific Salmonella serotype that caused infection in human patients should submit at least 3 fecal samples collected from the iguana 1 week apart for bacterial culture.

  19. Shedding of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Oral Fluid of Infected Swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Amy C; Huang, Yan-Jang S; Park, So Lee; Ayers, Victoria B; Hettenbach, Susan M; Higgs, Stephen; McVey, D Scott; Noronha, Leela; Hsu, Wei-Wen; Vanlandingham, Dana L

    2018-05-09

    Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus endemic in the Asia-Pacific region. Maintenance of JEV in nature involves enzootic transmission by competent Culex mosquitoes among susceptible avian and swine species. Historically, JEV has been regarded as one of the most important arthropod-borne viruses in Southeast Asia. Oronasal shedding of JEV from infected amplification hosts was not recognized until the recent discovery of vector-free transmission of JEV among domestic pigs. In this study, oral shedding of JEV was characterized in domestic pigs and miniature swine representing the feral phenotype. A rope-based sampling method followed by the detection of viral RNA using RT-qPCR allowed the collection and detection of JEV in oral fluid samples collected from intradermally challenged animals. The results suggest that the shedding of JEV in oral fluid can be readily detected by molecular diagnostic assays at the acute phase of infection. It also demonstrates the feasibility of this technique for the diagnosis and surveillance of JEV in swine species.

  20. EVIDENCE OF PSEUDORABIES VIRUS SHEDDING IN FERAL SWINE ( SUS SCROFA) POPULATIONS OF FLORIDA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Felipe A; Sayler, Katherine A; Bounds, Courtney; Milleson, Michael P; Carr, Amanda N; Wisely, Samantha M

    2018-01-01

    :  Feral swine ( Sus scrofa) are a pathogen reservoir for pseudorabies virus (PrV). The virus can be fatal to wildlife and contributes to economic losses in the swine industry worldwide. National surveillance efforts in the US use serology to detect PrV-specific antibodies in feral swine populations, but PrV exposure is not a direct indicator of pathogen transmission among conspecifics or to non-suid wildlife species. We measured antibody production and the presence of PrV DNA in four tissue types from feral swine populations of Florida, US. We sampled blood, nasal, oral, and genital swabs from 551 individuals at 39 sites during 2014-16. Of the animals tested for antibody production, 224 of 436 (51%) feral swine were antibody positive while 38 of 549 feral swine (7%) tested for viral shedding were quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-positive for PrV. The detection of PrV DNA across all the collected sample types (blood, nasal, oral, and genital [vaginal] swabs) suggested viral shedding via direct (oronasal or venereal), and potentially indirect (through carcass consumption), routes of transmission among infected and susceptible animals. Fourteen of 212 seronegative feral swine were qPCR-positive, indicating 7% false negatives in the serologic assay. Our findings suggest that serology may underestimate the actual infection risk posed by feral swine to other species and that feral swine populations in Florida are capable of shedding the virus through multiple routes.

  1. Vortex shedding induced by a solitary wave propagating over a submerged vertical plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Chang; Ho, T.-C.; Chang, S.-C.; Hsieh, S.-C.; Chang, K.-A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental study was conducted on the vortex shedding process induced by the interaction between a solitary wave and a submerged vertical plate. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used for quantitative velocity measurement while a particle tracing technique was used for qualitative flow visualization. Vortices are generated at the tip of each side of the plate. The largest vortices at each side of the plate eventually grow to the size of the water depth. Although the fluid motion under the solitary wave is only translatory, vortices are shed in both the upstream and downstream directions due to the interaction of the generated vortices as well as the vortices with the plate and the bottom. The process can be divided into four phases: the formation of a separated shear layer, the generation and shedding of vortices, the formation of a vertical jet, and the impingement of the jet onto the free surface. Similarity velocity profiles were found both in the separated shear layer and in the vertical jet

  2. Long-term viremia and fecal shedding in pups after modified-live canine parvovirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Crescenzo, Giuseppe; Desario, Costantina; Cavalli, Alessandra; Losurdo, Michele; Colaianni, Maria Loredana; Ventrella, Gianpiero; Rizzi, Stefania; Aulicino, Stefano; Lucente, Maria Stella; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2014-06-24

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) modified live virus vaccines are able to infect vaccinated dogs replicating in the bloodstream and enteric mucosa. However, the exact duration and extent of CPV vaccine-induced viremia and fecal shedding are not known. With the aim to fill this gap, 26 dogs were administered two commercial vaccines containing a CPV-2 or CPV-2b strain and monitored for 28 days after vaccination. By using real-time PCR, vaccine-induced viremia and shedding were found to be long lasting for both vaccinal strains. Vaccinal CPV-2b shedding was detected for a shorter period than CPV-2 (12 against 19 mean days) but with greater viral loads, whereas viremia occurred for a longer period (22 against 19 mean days) and with higher titers for CPV-2b. Seroconversion appeared as early as 7 and 14 days post-vaccination for CPV-2b and CPV-2 vaccines, respectively. With no vaccine there was any diagnostic interference using in-clinic or hemagglutination test, since positive results were obtained only by fecal real-time PCR testing. The present study adds new insights into the CPV vaccine persistence in the organism and possible interference with diagnostic tests. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. A garment for use in the operating theatre: the effect upon bacterial shedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankert, J; Zijlstra, J B; Lubberding, H

    1979-02-01

    In operating theatres the air is mainly contaminated with bacteria shed from the human skin. The emission of bacteria can be prevented by wearing clothing of impervious material, while normal cotton clothing does not decrease the shedding of bacteria. In this study shedding of viable bacteria from 20 test-persons wearing an operating theatre suit, composed of 65% polyester and 35% cotton (Diolen), was investigated in a test-chamber and compared with that when normal clothing was worn. The use of this operating-theatre suit resulted in a significant reduction (50--75%) in the number of bacteria-carrying particles in the air of the test-chamber and in an operating room when everyone present wore this suit. A combination of the suit with knee-high boots showed a further reduction in the dispersal of colony forming units. The dispersion from female subjects wearing an operating-theatre frock was significantly higher than when wearing an operating-theatre suit.

  4. Faecal shedding of antimicrobial-resistant Clostridium difficile strains by dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Pérez, S; Blanco, J L; Peláez, T; Lanzarot, M P; Harmanus, C; Kuijper, E; García, M E

    2015-03-01

    To longitudinally assess the shedding of antimicrobial resistant Clostridium difficile strains by clinically healthy dogs raised at breeding facilities. 18 puppies from three different litters (#1, 2 and 3) were sampled weekly from parturition to day 20-55 postpartum. Faecal samples from the mothers of litters #2 and 3 were also available for analysis. Bacterial isolates were ribotyped, tested for in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and further characterised. C. difficile was recovered from all sampled animals of litters #1 and 2, and a third of puppies from litter #3, but marked differences in C. difficile recovery were detected in different age groups (0-100%). Recovered PCR ribotypes included 056 (22 isolates), 010 (6 isolates), 078 and 213 (2 isolates each), and 009 and 020 (1 isolate each). Different ribotypes were shed by four individual animals. Regardless of their origin and ribotype, all isolates demonstrated full resistance to levofloxacin. Additionally, all but one isolate (belonging to ribotype 078) were resistant to ertapenem, and all ribotype 010 isolates displayed high-level resistance to clindamycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin. A single ribotype 078 isolate showed metronidazole heteroresistance. Healthy dogs can shed antimicrobial-resistant C. difficile strains. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  5. On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  6. Fly proof net shed for livestock: A novel concept of physical barrier for integrated management of Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. W. Narladkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An age old and time tested technique of mosquito net requiring no energy, used by humans since prehistoric period was the inspiration behind this novel technique of fly proof net shed for livestock. With the aim to develop similar type of net shed for animals, which will protect them at night from biting of range of insects from Culicoides midges to mosquitoes, research was undertaken. Materials and Methods: Net shed with pitch roof (gable type was erected for use of livestock. The open inlet area was covered with 40 mesh size wire net. The roof at attic level was fitted with hurricane type of ventilator. Shed was used for animals at night hours only. vane anemometer was used for estimation of temperature and wind related parameters. Thermal humidity index (THI and air changes were calculated as per the standard formulas. Based on these parameters suitability of shed was judged. Results: It was observed that, due to netting of the shed population of Culicoides and other flies and incidences of their bites at night hours were considerably lowered. As a result, animals were found comfortable, and their body movements undertaken for wiping off these flies were significantly reduced from 196.50 to 22.16. All it accrued to increased milk yield to the tune of 18.97% in the net shed buffaloes as against control shed. Studies on suitability and comfort to animals were tested by estimating THI and air changes per hour in the net shed, which also revealed the estimates in comfortable regimen and ventilation, remained not much affected despite of netting. Other parameters studied for testing its more accuracy by taking other species of animals as kids, for them also, shed was found suitable through estimation of various physiological and behavioral parameters. Finally, the efficacy of shed was judged on the basis of cost effectiveness. Highly encouraging results on the above said parameters endorsed the effectiveness of the technique. Conclusion: A

  7. Emplacement of small and large buffer blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saari, H.; Nikula, M.; Suikki, M.

    2010-05-01

    The report describes emplacement of a buffer structure encircling a spent fuel canister to be deposited in a vertical hole. The report deals with installability of various size blocks and with an emplacement gear, as well as evaluates the achieved quality of emplacement and the time needed for installing the buffer. Two block assembly of unequal size were chosen for examination. A first option involved small blocks, the use of which resulted in a buffer structure consisting of small sector blocks 200 mm in height. A second option involved large blocks, resulting in a buffer structure which consists of eight blocks. In these tests, the material chosen for both block options was concrete instead of bentonite. The emplacement test was a three-phase process. A first phase included stacking a two meter high buffer structure with small blocks for ensuring the operation of test equipment and blocks. A second phase included installing buffer structures with both block options to a height matching that of a canister-encircling cylindrical component. A third phase included testing also the installability of blocks to be placed above the canister by using small blocks. In emplacement tests, special attention was paid to the installability of blocks as well as to the time required for emplacement. Lifters for both blocks worked well. Due to the mass to be lifted, the lifter for large blocks had a more heavy-duty frame structure (and other lifting gear). The employed lifters were suspended in the tests on a single steel wire rope. Stacking was managed with both block sizes at adequate precision and stacked-up towers were steady. The stacking of large blocks was considerably faster. Therefore it is probably that the overall handling of the large blocks will be more convenient at a final disposal site. From the standpoint of reliability in lifting, the small blocks were safer to install above the canister. In large blocks, there are strict shape-related requirements which are

  8. Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Cornuelle, Bruce D.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    Adjoint model sensitivity analyses were applied for the loop current (LC) and its eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The circulation in the GoM is mainly driven by the energetic LC and subsequent LC eddy separation. In order to understand which ocean regions and features control the evolution of the LC, including anticyclonic warm-core eddy shedding in the GoM, forward and adjoint sensitivities with respect to previous model state and atmospheric forcing were computed using the MITgcm and its adjoint. Since the validity of the adjoint model sensitivities depends on the capability of the forward model to simulate the real LC system and the eddy shedding processes, a 5 year (2004–2008) forward model simulation was performed for the GoM using realistic atmospheric forcing, initial, and boundary conditions. This forward model simulation was compared to satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and sea-surface temperature (SST), and observed transport variability. Despite realistic mean state, standard deviations, and LC eddy shedding period, the simulated LC extension shows less variability and more regularity than the observations. However, the model is suitable for studying the LC system and can be utilized for examining the ocean influences leading to a simple, and hopefully generic LC eddy separation in the GoM. The adjoint sensitivities of the LC show influences from the Yucatan Channel (YC) flow and Loop Current Frontal Eddy (LCFE) on both LC extension and eddy separation, as suggested by earlier work. Some of the processes that control LC extension after eddy separation differ from those controlling eddy shedding, but include YC through-flow. The sensitivity remains stable for more than 30 days and moves generally upstream, entering the Caribbean Sea. The sensitivities of the LC for SST generally remain closer to the surface and move at speeds consistent with advection by the high-speed core of

  9. Adjoint sensitivity studies of loop current and eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico

    KAUST Repository

    Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh

    2013-07-01

    Adjoint model sensitivity analyses were applied for the loop current (LC) and its eddy shedding in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using the MIT general circulation model (MITgcm). The circulation in the GoM is mainly driven by the energetic LC and subsequent LC eddy separation. In order to understand which ocean regions and features control the evolution of the LC, including anticyclonic warm-core eddy shedding in the GoM, forward and adjoint sensitivities with respect to previous model state and atmospheric forcing were computed using the MITgcm and its adjoint. Since the validity of the adjoint model sensitivities depends on the capability of the forward model to simulate the real LC system and the eddy shedding processes, a 5 year (2004–2008) forward model simulation was performed for the GoM using realistic atmospheric forcing, initial, and boundary conditions. This forward model simulation was compared to satellite measurements of sea-surface height (SSH) and sea-surface temperature (SST), and observed transport variability. Despite realistic mean state, standard deviations, and LC eddy shedding period, the simulated LC extension shows less variability and more regularity than the observations. However, the model is suitable for studying the LC system and can be utilized for examining the ocean influences leading to a simple, and hopefully generic LC eddy separation in the GoM. The adjoint sensitivities of the LC show influences from the Yucatan Channel (YC) flow and Loop Current Frontal Eddy (LCFE) on both LC extension and eddy separation, as suggested by earlier work. Some of the processes that control LC extension after eddy separation differ from those controlling eddy shedding, but include YC through-flow. The sensitivity remains stable for more than 30 days and moves generally upstream, entering the Caribbean Sea. The sensitivities of the LC for SST generally remain closer to the surface and move at speeds consistent with advection by the high-speed core of

  10. UAV PHOTOGRAMMETRY: BLOCK TRIANGULATION COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available UAVs systems represent a flexible technology able to collect a big amount of high resolution information, both for metric and interpretation uses. In the frame of experimental tests carried out at Dept. ICA of Politecnico di Milano to validate vector-sensor systems and to assess metric accuracies of images acquired by UAVs, a block of photos taken by a fixed wing system is triangulated with several software. The test field is a rural area included in an Italian Park ("Parco Adda Nord", useful to study flight and imagery performances on buildings, roads, cultivated and uncultivated vegetation. The UAV SenseFly, equipped with a camera Canon Ixus 220HS, flew autonomously over the area at a height of 130 m yielding a block of 49 images divided in 5 strips. Sixteen pre-signalized Ground Control Points, surveyed in the area through GPS (NRTK survey, allowed the referencing of the block and accuracy analyses. Approximate values for exterior orientation parameters (positions and attitudes were recorded by the flight control system. The block was processed with several software: Erdas-LPS, EyeDEA (Univ. of Parma, Agisoft Photoscan, Pix4UAV, in assisted or automatic way. Results comparisons are given in terms of differences among digital surface models, differences in orientation parameters and accuracies, when available. Moreover, image and ground point coordinates obtained by the various software were independently used as initial values in a comparative adjustment made by scientific in-house software, which can apply constraints to evaluate the effectiveness of different methods of point extraction and accuracies on ground check points.

  11. [THE TECHNOLOGY "CELL BLOCK" IN CYTOLOGICAL PRACTICE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volchenko, N N; Borisova, O V; Baranova, I B

    2015-08-01

    The article presents summary information concerning application of "cell block" technology in cytological practice. The possibilities of implementation of various modern techniques (immune cytochemnical analysis. FISH, CISH, polymerase chain reaction) with application of "cell block" method are demonstrated. The original results of study of "cell block" technology made with gelatin, AgarCyto and Shadon Cyoblock set are presented. The diagnostic effectiveness of "cell block" technology and common cytological smear and also immune cytochemical analysis on samples of "cell block" technology and fluid cytology were compared. Actually application of "cell block" technology is necessary for ensuring preservation of cell elements for subsequent immune cytochemical and molecular genetic analysis.

  12. Shedding of a low pathogenic avian influenza virus in a common synanthropic mammal--the cottontail rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jeffrey Root

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cottontails (Sylvilagus spp. are common mammals throughout much of the U.S. and are often found in peridomestic settings, potentially interacting with livestock and poultry operations. If these animals are susceptible to avian influenza virus (AIV infections and shed the virus in sufficient quantities they may pose a risk for movement of avian influenza viruses between wildlife and domestic animals in certain situations. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the viral shedding potential of AIV in cottontails, we nasally inoculated fourteen cottontails with a low pathogenic AIV (H4N6. All inoculated cottontails shed relatively large quantities of viral RNA both nasally (≤ 10(6.94 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL and orally (≤ 10(5.09 PCR EID50 equivalents/mL. However, oral shedding tended to decline more quickly than did nasal shedding. No animals showed any obvious signs of disease throughout the study. Evidence of a serological response was found in all infected rabbits at 22 days post infection in convalescent sera. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, cottontails have not been previously assessed for AIV shedding. However, it was obvious that they shed AIV RNA extensively via the nasal and oral routes. This is significant, as cottontails are widely distributed throughout the U.S. and elsewhere. These mammals are often found in highly peridomestic situations, such as farms, parks, and suburban neighborhoods, often becoming habituated to human activities. Thus, if infected these mammals could easily transport AIVs short distances.

  13. Cervical Shedding of HIV-1 RNA Among Women With Low Levels of Viremia While Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Michael N.; Benning, Lorie; Xu, Jiaao; Strickler, Howard D.; Greenblatt, Ruth M.; Minkoff, Howard; Young, Mary; Bremer, James; Levine, Alexandra M.; Kovacs, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background Among women with low o r undetectable quantities of HIV-1 RNA in plasma, factors associated with genital HIV-1 RNA shedding, including choice of treatment regimen, are poorly characterized. Methods We measured HIV-1 RNA in cervical swab specimens obtained from participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study who had concurrent plasma viral RNA levels <500 copies/mL, and we assessed factors associated with genital HIV shedding. The study was powered to determine the relative effects of antiretroviral protease inhibitors (PIs) versus nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) on viral RNA shedding. Results Overall, 44 (15%) of 290 women had detectable HIV-1 RNA in cervical specimens. In the final multivariate model, shedding was independently associated with NNRTI (vs. PI) use (odds ratio [OR], 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.24, 1.13 to 4.45) and illicit drug use (OR, 95% CI: 2.41, 0.96 to 5.69). Conclusions This is the largest study to define risks for genital HIV-1 RNA shedding in women with low/undetectable plasma virus. Shedding in this population was common, and NNRTI-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (vs. PI-based HAART) was associated with genital HIV shedding. Further study is required to determine the impact of these findings on transmission of HIV from mother to child or to sexual partners. PMID:17106279

  14. Effect of perforation on flow past a conic cylinder at Re = 100: vortex-shedding pattern and force history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, L. M.; Zhong, X. F.; Wu, Y. X.

    2017-09-01

    The flow past a circular-section cylinder with a conic shroud perforated with four holes at the peak was simulated numerically at Re=100 , considering two factors, viz. the angle of attack and the diameter of the holes. The effects of the perforated conic shroud on the vortex shedding pattern in the near wake was mainly investigated, as well as the time history of the drag and lift forces. In the investigated parameter space, three flow regimes were generally identified, corresponding to weak, moderate, and strong disturbance effects. In regime I, the wake can mainly be described by alternately shedding Kármán or Kármán-like vortices. In regime II, the spanwise vortices are obviously disturbed along the span due to the appearance of additional vorticity components and their interactions with the spanwise vortices, but still shed in synchronization along the spanwise direction. In regime III, the typical Kármán vortices partially or totally disappear, and some new vortex shedding patterns appear, such as Ω -type, obliquely shedding, and crossed spanwise vortices with opposite sign. Corresponding to these complex vortex shedding patterns in the near wake, the fluid forces no longer oscillate regularly at a single vortex shedding frequency, but rather with a lower modulation frequency and multiple amplitudes. An overview of these flow regimes is presented.

  15. Minimum description length block finder, a method to identify haplotype blocks and to compare the strength of block boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, H; Koivisto, M; Perola, M; Varilo, T; Hennah, W; Ekelund, J; Lukk, M; Peltonen, L; Ukkonen, E

    2003-07-01

    We describe a new probabilistic method for finding haplotype blocks that is based on the use of the minimum description length (MDL) principle. We give a rigorous definition of the quality of a segmentation of a genomic region into blocks and describe a dynamic programming algorithm for finding the optimal segmentation with respect to this measure. We also describe a method for finding the probability of a block boundary for each pair of adjacent markers: this gives a tool for evaluating the significance of each block boundary. We have applied the method to the published data of Daly and colleagues. The results expose some problems that exist in the current methods for the evaluation of the significance of predicted block boundaries. Our method, MDL block finder, can be used to compare block borders in different sample sets, and we demonstrate this by applying the MDL-based method to define the block structure in chromosomes from population isolates.

  16. Adductor canal block versus femoral nerve block for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Pia; Zaric, Dusanka; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm

    2013-01-01

    Femoral nerve block (FNB), a commonly used postoperative pain treatment after total knee arthroplasty (TKA), reduces quadriceps muscle strength essential for mobilization. In contrast, adductor canal block (ACB) is predominately a sensory nerve block. We hypothesized that ACB preserves quadriceps...

  17. Systematic review of mucosal immunity induced by oral and inactivated poliovirus vaccines against virus shedding following oral poliovirus challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Hird

    Full Text Available Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV may be used in mass vaccination campaigns during the final stages of polio eradication. It is also likely to be adopted by many countries following the coordinated global cessation of vaccination with oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV after eradication. The success of IPV in the control of poliomyelitis outbreaks will depend on the degree of nasopharyngeal and intestinal mucosal immunity induced against poliovirus infection. We performed a systematic review of studies published through May 2011 that recorded the prevalence of poliovirus shedding in stool samples or nasopharyngeal secretions collected 5-30 days after a "challenge" dose of OPV. Studies were combined in a meta-analysis of the odds of shedding among children vaccinated according to IPV, OPV, and combination schedules. We identified 31 studies of shedding in stool and four in nasopharyngeal samples that met the inclusion criteria. Individuals vaccinated with OPV were protected against infection and shedding of poliovirus in stool samples collected after challenge compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary odds ratio [OR] for shedding 0.13 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.24. In contrast, IPV provided no protection against shedding compared with unvaccinated individuals (summary OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.59-1.11] or when given in addition to OPV, compared with individuals given OPV alone (summary OR 1.14 [95% CI 0.82-1.58]. There were insufficient studies of nasopharyngeal shedding to draw a conclusion. IPV does not induce sufficient intestinal mucosal immunity to reduce the prevalence of fecal poliovirus shedding after challenge, although there was some evidence that it can reduce the quantity of virus shed. The impact of IPV on poliovirus transmission in countries where fecal-oral spread is common is unknown but is likely to be limited compared with OPV.

  18. A dynamical systems analysis of the kinematics of time-periodic vortex shedding past a circular cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottino, Julio M.

    1991-01-01

    Computer flow simulation aided by dynamical systems analysis is used to investigate the kinematics of time-periodic vortex shedding past a two-dimensional circular cylinder in the context of the following general questions: (1) Is a dynamical systems viewpoint useful in the understanding of this and similar problems involving time-periodic shedding behind bluff bodies; and (2) Is it indeed possible, by adopting such a point of view, to complement previous analyses or to understand kinematical aspects of the vortex shedding process that somehow remained hidden in previous approaches. We argue that the answers to these questions are positive. Results are described.

  19. Effect of a probiotic on prevention of diarrhea and Clostridium difficile and Clostridium perfringens shedding in foals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoster, Angelika; Staempfli, H R; Abrahams, M

    2015-01-01

    of incidence and duration of diarrhea and fecal shedding of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium difficile between treatment and age groups. RESULTS: The overall incidence of diarrhea was 41 of 72 (59%) and did not differ (P = 0.37) between treatment groups. Foals treated with probiotics were more likely...... of C. perfringens shedding was 55% with no difference between treatment groups (P = 0.23). The prevalence of C. difficile shedding was 11%. CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: There was no benefit of administering a 3-week course of probiotics, but potential adverse effects were noted. Whether...

  20. Blocking device especially for circulating pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susil, J.; Vychodil, V.; Lorenc, P.

    1976-01-01

    The claim of the invention is a blocking device which blocks reverse flow occurring after the shutdown of circulating pumps, namely in the operation of nuclear power plants or in pumps with a high delivery head. (F.M.)

  1. Reversible chronic acquired complete atrioventricular block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakovec, P; Milcinski, G; Voga, G; Korsic, L

    1982-01-01

    The return of atrioventricular conduction is reported in a case after nearly four years of complete acquired heart block. After recovery from atrioventricular block, right bundle branch block persisted, but P-R interval and H-V interval were normal. Three months later a relapse of second degree infranodal atrioventricular block was noted. A short review of similar cases from the literature is given.

  2. Semen Bacterial Concentrations and HIV-1 RNA Shedding Among HIV-1–Seropositive Kenyan Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Huang, Dandi; Ko, Daisy L.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Peshu, Norbert M.; Krieger, John N.; Muller, Charles H.; Coombs, Robert W.; Fredricks, David N.; Graham, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: HIV-1 is transmitted through semen from men to their sexual partners. Genital infections can increase HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen, but shedding also occurs in the absence of typical pathogens. We hypothesized that higher bacterial concentrations in semen would be associated with higher HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods: We analyzed semen samples from 42 HIV-1–seropositive Kenyan men using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess bacterial concentrations and real-time PCR to measure HIV-1 RNA levels. Generalized estimation equations were used to evaluate associations between these 2 measures. Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR with pyrosequencing was performed on a subset of 13 samples to assess bacterial community composition. Results: Bacteria were detected in 96.6% of 88 samples by quantitative PCR. Semen bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA levels were correlated 0.30 (P = 0.01). The association between bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA detection was not significant after adjustment for antiretroviral therapy (ART) (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.91). Factors associated with semen bacterial concentration included insertive anal sex (adjusted beta 0.92, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.73) and ART use (adjusted beta: −0.77, 95% CI: −1.50 to 0.04). Among 13 samples with pyrosequencing data, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. were most frequently detected. Conclusion: Most of these HIV-1–infected men had bacteria in their semen. ART use was associated with undetectable semen HIV-1 RNA and lower semen bacterial concentrations, whereas insertive anal sex was associated with higher bacterial concentrations. Additional studies evaluating the relationship between semen bacteria, inflammation, mucosal immunity, and HIV-1 shedding are needed to understand implications for HIV-1 transmission. PMID:27861240

  3. Semen Bacterial Concentrations and HIV-1 RNA Shedding Among HIV-1-Seropositive Kenyan Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Christine J; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Huang, Dandi; Ko, Daisy L; Sanders, Eduard J; Peshu, Norbert M; Krieger, John N; Muller, Charles H; Coombs, Robert W; Fredricks, David N; Graham, Susan M

    2017-03-01

    HIV-1 is transmitted through semen from men to their sexual partners. Genital infections can increase HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen, but shedding also occurs in the absence of typical pathogens. We hypothesized that higher bacterial concentrations in semen would be associated with higher HIV-1 RNA levels. We analyzed semen samples from 42 HIV-1-seropositive Kenyan men using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess bacterial concentrations and real-time PCR to measure HIV-1 RNA levels. Generalized estimation equations were used to evaluate associations between these 2 measures. Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR with pyrosequencing was performed on a subset of 13 samples to assess bacterial community composition. Bacteria were detected in 96.6% of 88 samples by quantitative PCR. Semen bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA levels were correlated 0.30 (P = 0.01). The association between bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA detection was not significant after adjustment for antiretroviral therapy (ART) (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.91). Factors associated with semen bacterial concentration included insertive anal sex (adjusted beta 0.92, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.73) and ART use (adjusted beta: -0.77, 95% CI: -1.50 to 0.04). Among 13 samples with pyrosequencing data, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. were most frequently detected. Most of these HIV-1-infected men had bacteria in their semen. ART use was associated with undetectable semen HIV-1 RNA and lower semen bacterial concentrations, whereas insertive anal sex was associated with higher bacterial concentrations. Additional studies evaluating the relationship between semen bacteria, inflammation, mucosal immunity, and HIV-1 shedding are needed to understand implications for HIV-1 transmission.

  4. On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Karl Henning

    1998-12-31

    In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.

  5. Impact of Shed/Soluble targets on the PK/PD of approved therapeutic monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samineni, Divya; Girish, Sandhya; Li, Chunze

    2016-12-01

    Suboptimal treatment for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against endogenous circulating soluble targets and the shed extracellular domains (ECD) of the membrane-bound targets is an important clinical concern due to the potential impact of mAbs on the in vivo efficacy and safety. Consequently, there are considerable challenges in the determination of an optimal dose and/or dosing regimen. Areas covered: This review outlines the impact of shed antigen targets from membrane-bound proteins and soluble targets on the PK and/or PD of therapeutic mAbs that have been approved in the last decade. We discuss various bioanalytical techniques that have facilitated the interpretation of the PK/PD properties of therapeutic mAbs and also considered the factors that may impact such measurements. Quantitative approaches include target-mediated PK models and bi- or tri-molecular interaction PK/PD models that describe the relationships between the antibody PK and the ensuing effects on PD biomarkers, to facilitate the mAb PK/PD characterization. Expert commentary: The proper interpretation of PK/PD relationships through the integrated PK/PD modeling and bioanalytical strategy facilitates a mechanistic understanding of the disease processes and dosing regimen optimization, thereby offering insights into developing effective therapeutic regimens. This review provides an overview of the impact of soluble targets or shed ECD on mAb PK/PD properties. We provide examples of quantitative approaches that facilitate the characterization of mAb PK/PD characteristics and their corresponding bioanalytical strategies.

  6. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A.; Johnson, Christine K.; Fritz, Heather M.; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E.; Melli, Ann C.; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M.; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  7. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A; Johnson, Christine K; Fritz, Heather M; Shapiro, Karen; Packham, Andrea E; Melli, Ann C; Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Gulland, Frances M; Rejmanek, Daniel; Conrad, Patricia A

    2016-04-01

    Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris). California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi) diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA). Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near-shore marine

  8. On vortex shedding and prediction of vortex-induced vibrations of circular cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Karl Henning

    1997-12-31

    In offshore installations, many crucial components can be classified as slender marine structures: risers, mooring lines, umbilicals and cables, pipelines. This thesis studies the vortex shedding phenomenon and the problem of predicting vortex-induced vibrations of such structures. As the development of hydrocarbons move to deeper waters, the importance of accurately predicting the vortex-induced response has increased and so the need for proper response prediction methods is large. This work presents an extensive review of existing research publications about vortex shedding from circular cylinders and the vortex-induced vibrations of cylinders and the different numerical approaches to modelling the fluid flow. The response predictions from different methods are found to disagree, both in response shapes and in vibration amplitudes. This work presents a prediction method that uses a fully three-dimensional structural finite element model integrated with a laminar two-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution modelling the fluid flow. This solution is used to study the flow both around a fixed cylinder and in a flexibly mounted one-degree-of-freedom system. It is found that the vortex-shedding process (in the low Reynolds number regime) is well described by the computer program, and that the vortex-induced vibration of the flexibly mounted section do reflect the typical dynamic characteristics of lock-in oscillations. However, the exact behaviour of the experimental results found in the literature was not reproduced. The response of the three-dimensional structural model is larger than the expected difference between a mode shape and a flexibly mounted section. This is due to the use of independent hydrodynamic sections along the cylinder. The predicted response is not unrealistic, and the method is considered a powerful tool. 221 refs., 138 figs., 36 tabs.

  9. Detection and characterization of diverse coccidian protozoa shed by California sea lions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A. Girard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-cyst forming coccidia in the family Sarcocystidae are etiologic agents of protozoal encephalitis in marine mammals including the federally listed Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus, whose coastal habitat overlaps with sea otters, are definitive hosts for coccidian protozoa provisionally named Coccidia A, B and C. While Coccidia A and B have unknown clinical effects on aquatic wildlife hosts, Coccidia C is associated with severe protozoal disease in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina. In this study, we conducted surveillance for protozoal infection and fecal shedding in hospitalized and free-ranging California sea lions on the Pacific Coast and examined oocyst morphology and phenotypic characteristics of isolates via mouse bioassay and cell culture. Coccidia A and B were shed in similar frequency, particularly by yearlings. Oocysts shed by one free-ranging sea lion sampled at Año Nuevo State Park in California were previously unidentified in sea lions and were most similar to coccidia infecting Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi diagnosed with protozoal disease in Oregon (USA. Sporulated Coccidia A and B oocysts did not replicate in three strains of mice or in African green monkey kidney cells. However, cultivation experiments revealed that the inoculum of fecally-derived Coccidia A and B oocysts additionally contained organisms with genetic and antigenic similarity to Sarcocystis neurona; despite the absence of detectable free sporocysts in fecal samples by microscopic examination. In addition to the further characterization of Coccidia A and B in free-ranging and hospitalized sea lions, these results provide evidence of a new role for sea lions as putative mechanical vectors of S. neurona, or S. neurona-like species. Future work is needed to clarify the distribution, taxonomical status, and pathogenesis of these parasites in sea lions and other marine mammals that share their the near

  10. Housing a Raspberry Pi Connected AS-1 Seismometer in a Solar-Paneled Shed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, F.; Tokman, T. L.; Echreshzadeh, M.; Palaric, K. D.; Filippone, N. V.; Sivo, J.

    2016-12-01

    Last year, students working on the SeismoSTEM project at Bergen Community College successfully manufactured and assembled an AS-1 seismometer1. However, issues students encountered were not knowing where to place the TC-1 and AS-1 seismometers, nor how to configure the instruments with a computer for monitoring and measuring earthquakes. Our solution was to purchase a Raspberry Pi 3 model B, which has four USB ports and a Wi-Fi adapter. We then installed the Raspbian operating system that can run jAmaSeis, which allows for the collection and analysis of seismic data. In terms of the shed that was constructed last summer2, we installed roof shingles, as well as a ventilation system to prevent overheating. The seismometers will then be placed on a concrete slab. In the future, we plan on applying a wood varnish around the exterior of the shed, as well as gravel around the shed for water drainage as well as to make it more visually appealing. Moreover, we plan on mounting a 170-W solar panel on the roof to charge a 12-V deep cycle marine battery, which will provide electricity to the system. References: 1Tokman, T.L. et al., What's shaking? Manufacturing & assembling an AS-1 educational seismometer for undergraduate stem research, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015. 2Palaric, K.D., et al., Constructing a solar-powered seismic station for educational seismometers, Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs. Vol. 47, No. 7, p.524, 2015.

  11. Association between nasal shedding and fever that influenza A (H3N2) induces in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Daesub; Moon, Hyoungjoon; Jung, Kwonil; Yeom, Minjoo; Kim, Hyekwon; Han, Sangyoon; An, Dongjun; Oh, Jinsik; Kim, Jongman; Park, Bongkyun; Kang, Bokyu

    2011-01-05

    Avian origin canine influenza virus was reported in Korea. The dog to dog contact transmission of the avian origin canine influenza virus (CIV) H3N2 and CIV H3N8 was shown by experimental contact transmission. This study was focused on viral excretion and fever in order to elucidate the epidemiological associations which might be helpful to control the disease transmissions in CIV outbreak in dogs. An influenza seronegative 10-week-old Beagle dog was experimentally inoculated with the canine influenza virus A/canine/01/2007, subtype H3N2. Eight hours after inoculation, the infected dog was cohoused with seven uninfected Beagle dogs. Clinical signs including fever were recorded for 14 days post inoculation. The infected dog and four of seven contact dogs in the study showed clinical signs (sneezing, nasal discharge and coughing) during the study. Viral shedding occurred in all of the animals tested and began on 1 to 6 DPI in dogs with clinical signs. Elevated body temperatures above 39.5 °C (geometric mean temperature of 39.86 °C ± 0.49) were observed in all symptomatic dogs. The mean viral titer during fever was 2.99 log EID₅₀/ml, which was significantly higher than the viral titer detected in the non fever. The data show that contact dogs with a canine influenza infected dog shed different levels of virus in their nasal excretions and demonstrate that clinical signs, including fever, significantly correlate with the viral shedding.

  12. Association between nasal shedding and fever that influenza A (H3N2 induces in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jinsik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avian origin canine influenza virus was reported in Korea. The dog to dog contact transmission of the avian origin canine influenza virus (CIV H3N2 and CIV H3N8 was shown by experimental contact transmission. This study was focused on viral excretion and fever in order to elucidate the epidemiological associations which might be helpful to control the disease transmissions in CIV outbreak in dogs. Methods An influenza seronegative 10-week-old Beagle dog was experimentally inoculated with the canine influenza virus A/canine/01/2007, subtype H3N2. Eight hours after inoculation, the infected dog was cohoused with seven uninfected Beagle dogs. Clinical signs including fever were recorded for 14 days post inoculation. Results The infected dog and four of seven contact dogs in the study showed clinical signs (sneezing, nasal discharge and coughing during the study. Viral shedding occurred in all of the animals tested and began on 1 to 6 DPI in dogs with clinical signs. Elevated body temperatures above 39.5°C (geometric mean temperature of 39.86°C±0.49 were observed in all symptomatic dogs. The mean viral titer during fever was 2.99 log EID50/ml, which was significantly higher than the viral titer detected in the non fever. Conclusions The data show that contact dogs with a canine influenza infected dog shed different levels of virus in their nasal excretions and demonstrate that clinical signs, including fever, significantly correlate with the viral shedding.

  13. Boundary layer effects on the vortex shedding in a Donaldson- type hydrofoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontanals, A; Guardo, A; Egusquiza, E; Zobeiri, A; Farhat, M; Avellan, F

    2014-01-01

    Fluid - Structure Interaction (FSI) phenomena is becoming a relevant study field for the design or revamping of hydropower plants. The generalized trend of increasing flow rates and reducing rotor blades/stay vanes thickness in order to improve the efficiency of the machine together with a major push from plant owners/operators for production flexibility (partial load operation is more common nowadays) make the FSI between the vortex shedding phenomenon and the vanes/blades of the machine an area of interest. From a design point of view, the machine structure has to resist all the hydrodynamic forces generated and maintain tension stresses under the fatigue limit to ensure a machine lifetime of several decades. To accomplish that goal, designers have to assure there is no presence of strong coupling phenomena (lock-in) between the vortex shedding frequency and the eigenfrequencies of the structure. As the vortex street is directly related to the state of the boundary layer along the hydrofoil, in this paper the effect of the boundary layer on the vortex shedding in a Donaldson-type hydrofoil is studied using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The development of the boundary layer along the Donaldson trailing edge hydrofoil chord is presented under lock-off conditions. The results are validated against previously obtained experimental results. Since the Donaldson trailing edge is non-symmetric, the boundary layer velocity profiles are reported for the suction and pressure side of the hydrofoil. In addition, the effect of the Donaldson trailing edge on laminar-to-turbulent transition on both sides of the hydrofoil is studied

  14. A prospective study of vaginal trichomoniasis and HIV-1 shedding in women on antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masese Linnet N

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trichomonas vaginalis has been associated with increased vaginal HIV-1 RNA shedding in antiretroviral therapy (ART-naïve women. The effect of trichomoniasis on vaginal HIV-1 shedding in ART-treated women has not been characterized. We tested the hypothesis that T. vaginalis infection would increase vaginal HIV-1 RNA shedding in women on ART, and that successful treatment would reduce vaginal HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study including monthly follow-up of 147 women receiving ART in Mombasa, Kenya. Those with T. vaginalis infection, defined by the presence of motile trichomonads on vaginal saline wet mount, received treatment with single dose metronidazole (2 g. Test of cure was performed at the next monthly visit. Using the pre-infection visit as the reference category, we compared detection of vaginal HIV-1 RNA before versus during and after infection using generalized estimating equations. A cut-off of 100 HIV-1 RNA copies/swab was used as the lower limit for linear quantitation. Results Among 31 women treated for trichomoniasis, the concentration of vaginal HIV-1 RNA was above the limit for quantitation before, during, and after T. vaginalis infection in 4 (13% [95% CI 4% - 30%], 4 (13% [95% CI 4% - 30%], and 5 (16% [95% confidence interval {CI} 5% - 34%] women respectively. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, we could detect no difference in the likelihood of detecting vaginal HIV-1 RNA before versus during infection (odds ratio [OR] 1.41, 95% CI 0.23 - 8.79, p = 0.7. In addition, detection of HIV-1 RNA was similar before infection versus after successful treatment (OR 0.68, 95% CI (0.13 - 3.45, p = 0.6. Conclusion Detection of vaginal HIV-1 RNA during ART was uncommon at visits before, during and after T. vaginalis infection.

  15. MARINE BOTTOM COMMUNITIES OF BLOCK ISLAND WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sea has long been an integral part of Block Island's natural history, beginning when the rising sea surrounded the high spot on a Pleistocene terminal moraine that became Block Island. The southern New England continental shelf, which lies around Block Island, and the Great S...

  16. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Abbasfar, Aliazam (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Thorpe, Jeremy C. (Inventor); Andrews, Kenneth S. (Inventor); Yao, Kung (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus to encode message input symbols in accordance with an accumulate-repeat-accumulate code with repetition three or four are disclosed. Block circulant matrices are used. A first method and apparatus make use of the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. A second method and apparatus use block-circulant generator matrices.

  17. Bullet-Block Science Video Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakur, Asif

    2015-01-01

    A science video blog, which has gone viral, shows a wooden block shot by a vertically aimed rifle. The video shows that the block hit dead center goes exactly as high as the one shot off-center. (Fig. 1). The puzzle is that the block shot off-center carries rotational kinetic energy in addition to the gravitational potential energy. This leads a…

  18. 49 CFR 236.708 - Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Block. 236.708 Section 236.708 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.708 Block. A length of track of defined limits, the use of which by trains is governed by block signals, cab signals, or both. ...

  19. 49 CFR 236.804 - Signal, block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal, block. 236.804 Section 236.804 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Signal, block. A roadway signal operated either automatically or manually at the entrance to a block. ...

  20. Block Play: Practical Suggestions for Common Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunks, Karyn Wellhousen

    2009-01-01

    Learning materials and teaching methods used in early childhood classrooms have fluctuated greatly over the past century. However, one learning tool has stood the test of time: Wood building blocks, often called unit blocks, continue to be a source of pleasure and learning for young children at play. Wood blocks have the unique capacity to engage…

  1. Naming Block Structures: A Multimodal Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lynn; Uhry, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    This study describes symbolic representation in block play in a culturally diverse suburban preschool classroom. Block play is "multimodal" and can allow children to experiment with materials to represent the world in many forms of literacy. Combined qualitative and quantitative data from seventy-seven block structures were collected and analyzed.…

  2. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Therapeutic Devices § 882.5070 Bite block. (a) Identification. A bite block...

  3. Large block test status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilder, D.G.; Lin, W.; Blair, S.C.

    1997-01-01

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved

  4. Block-conjugate-gradient method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that by using the block-conjugate-gradient method several, say s, columns of the inverse Kogut-Susskind fermion matrix can be found simultaneously, in less time than it would take to run the standard conjugate-gradient algorithm s times. The method improves in efficiency relative to the standard conjugate-gradient algorithm as the fermion mass is decreased and as the value of the coupling is pushed to its limit before the finite-size effects become important. Thus it is potentially useful for measuring propagators in large lattice-gauge-theory calculations of the particle spectrum

  5. Adaptive Tuning of Frequency Thresholds Using Voltage Drop Data in Decentralized Load Shedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Faria Da Silva, Filipe Miguel; Bak, Claus Leth

    2015-01-01

    Load shedding (LS) is the last firewall and the most expensive control action against power system blackout. In the conventional under frequency LS (UFLS) schemes, the load drop locations are already determined independently of the event location. Furthermore, the frequency thresholds of LS relays...... are prespecified and constant values which may not be a comprehensive solution for widespread range of possible events. This paper addresses the decentralized LS in which the instantaneous voltage deviation of load buses is used to determine the frequency thresholds of LS relays. The higher frequency thresholds...

  6. A review of Sarcocystis spp. shed by opossums (Didelphis spp. in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco Valadas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available South American opossums are the definitive hosts of Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Sarcocystis speeri and Sarcocystis lindsayi. The sporocysts of these species of Sarcocystis are morphologically similar and methods like infectivity and pathogenicity for intermediate hosts (immunodeficient mice and psittacine birds and molecular tools are used for identification. Opossums are synanthropic wild animals, and widely distributed in Brazilian territory. Previous studies have shown high environmental contamination with S. neurona sporocysts in several Brazilian regions. This paper reviews information on Sarcocystis spp. shed by various opossum species and its occurrence in Brazil.

  7. Role of Protein Kinase C in Endothelin Converting Enzyme-1 trafficking and shedding from endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuruppu, Sanjaya, E-mail: Sanjaya.Kuruppu@med.monash.edu.au [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia); Tochon-Danguy, Natalie; Ian Smith, A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, Vic. 3800 (Australia)

    2010-07-23

    Research highlights: {yields} PKC activation increases the trafficking of ECE-1 to the cell surface. {yields} This in turn leads to an increase in the amount of ECE-1 shed. {yields} Only the catalytically active C-terminal region is shed from the cell surface. -- Abstract: This study aimed to determine the consequences of Protein Kinase C (PKC) mediated Endothelin Converting Enzyme-1 (ECE-1) phosphorylation and its relationship to ECE-1 expression and shedding. The proteins on the surface of EA.hy926 cells were labelled with EZ-Link NHS-SS-Biotin both prior to (control) and following stimulation by 2 {mu}M phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) which activates PKC. The biotinylated proteins were isolated using neutravidin beads, resolved by gel electrophoresis and analysed by western blotting using anti-ECE-1 antibodies. Significant increase in ECE-1 expression at the cell surface was observed following stimulation by PMA, compared to unstimulated control cells (170 {+-} 32.3% of control, n = 5). The ECE-1 activity (expressed as {mu}M substrate cleaved/min) was determined by monitoring the cleavage of a quenched fluorescent substrate. The specificity of cleavage was confirmed using the ECE-1 inhibitor (CGS35066). The stimulation of cells by PMA (1 {mu}M, 6 h) significantly increased the ECE-1 activity (0.28 {+-} 0.02; n = 3) compared to the control (0.07 {+-} 0.02; n = 3). This increase was prevented by prior incubation with the PKC inhibitor bisindolymaleimide (BIM; 2 {mu}M for 1 h; 0.10 {+-} 0.01; n = 3). Treatment with PMA also increased the activity of ECE-1 in the media (0.18 {+-} 0.01; n = 3) compared to control (0.08 {+-} 0.01; n = 3). In addition, this study confirmed by western immunoblotting that only the extracellular region of ECE-1 is released from the cell surface. These data indicate for the first time that PKC activation induces the trafficking and shedding of ECE to and from the cell surface, respectively.

  8. Deposit Shedding in Biomass-fired Boilers: Shear Adhesion Strength Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared...... on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, deposit composition, sintering duration, and steel type...... on the adhesion strength....

  9. Shedding and seroprevalence of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in sheep and cattle at a New Zealand Abattoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, F; Collins-Emerson, J M; Cullum, A; Heuer, C; Wilson, P R; Benschop, J

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out on sheep and cattle slaughtered at a New Zealand abattoir from September to November 2010 to investigate the supplier-specific shedding rate, renal carriage rate and seroprevalence of leptospires. In the 2008/2009 season, this abattoir experienced three human leptospirosis cases from 20 staff, of which two were hospitalized. Urine, kidney and blood samples were collected from carcasses of 399 sheep (six suppliers, 17 slaughter lines) and 146 cattle (three suppliers, 22 slaughter lines). The urine and kidney samples were tested by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), while serum samples (from coagulated blood samples) were tested by microscopic agglutination test (MAT). In total, 27% (73/274; 95% CI: 18-37) of urine samples tested positive by qPCR. Species-specific shedding rates (prevalence of positive urine qPCR) were 31% (95% CI: 17-48) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 14-30) for cattle. For 545 kidney samples tested, 145 were qPCR positive (27%; 95% CI: 17-39). The average prevalence of kidney qPCR positivity was 29% (95% CI: 17-45) for sheep and 21% (95% CI: 15-28) for cattle. Three hundred and thirty of 542 sampled sheep and cattle had antibodies against Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjobovis (Hardjobovis) and/or Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona (Pomona), based on reciprocal MAT titre ≥1 : 48 (overall seroprevalence of 61%; 95% CI: 48-73). Seroprevalence was 57% (95% CI: 40-72) for sheep and 73% (95% CI: 59-83) for cattle. Among the seropositive animals, 41% (70/170; 95% CI: 30-54) were shedding (tested positive by urine qPCR) and 42% (137/330; 95% CI: 30-54) had renal carriage (tested positive by kidney qPCR). Some risk management options for abattoirs or farms to prevent human leptospirosis infections include vaccination of maintenance hosts, the use of personal protective equipment, and the application of urine qPCR to detect shedding status of stock as surveillance and as an alert. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag

  10. Information report published in application of the article 145 of the rule by the Commission on economic affairs on stakes and impacts of distributed load shedding. Nr 3690

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battistel, Marie-Noelle

    2016-01-01

    Distributed load shedding is a complex issue with actual stakes for public policy: a constrained context for public finances, and necessity to use public money in an optimal and efficient way. Even though load shedding has a positive impact on the environment, its business model presents important weaknesses and cannot survive without public subsidy. This report addresses these issues, and first defines load shedding, states the reasons for supporting distributed load shedding, discusses how the French arrangement for the valorisation of load shedding is ambitious and innovative. It also outlines and discusses the present difficulties faced by load shedding, that it could become in the future an actual lever for energy transition. The authors then examine what public authorities could do regarding the payment of load shedding by the operator to the provider, regarding returns on experience and other solutions on the short term, and regarding the promotion of innovative means of distributed load shedding which would be focused on consumers

  11. Experimental Investigation of Vortex Shedding in Flow Over Second-Generation, Controlled-Diffusion, Compressor Blades in Cascade

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Peter

    2002-01-01

    An investigation of vortex shedding downstream of a cascade of second-generation, controlled-diffusion, compressor stator blades, at off-design inlet-flow angles of 31, 33 and 35 degrees and Reynolds...

  12. Bifidobacterium breve reduces apoptotic epithelial cell shedding in an exopolysaccharide and MyD88-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, K R; Harnisch, L C; Alcon-Giner, C; Mitra, S; Wright, C J; Ketskemety, J; van Sinderen, D; Watson, A J M; Hall, L J

    2017-01-01

    Certain members of the microbiota genus Bifidobacterium are known to positively influence host well-being. Importantly, reduced bifidobacterial levels are associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, who also have impaired epithelial barrier function, including elevated rates of apoptotic extrusion of small intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) from villi-a process termed 'cell shedding'. Using a mouse model of pathological cell shedding, we show that mice receiving Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 exhibit significantly reduced rates of small IEC shedding. Bifidobacterial-induced protection appears to be mediated by a specific bifidobacterial surface exopolysaccharide and interactions with host MyD88 resulting in downregulation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic responses to protect epithelial cells under highly inflammatory conditions. Our results reveal an important and previously undescribed role for B. breve, in positively modulating epithelial cell shedding outcomes via bacterial- and host-dependent factors, supporting the notion that manipulation of the microbiota affects intestinal disease outcomes. © 2017 The Authors.

  13. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E.

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  14. Isostatic compression of buffer blocks. Middle scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritola, J.; Pyy, E. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    Manufacturing of buffer components using isostatic compression method has been studied in small scale in 2008 (Laaksonen 2010). These tests included manufacturing of buffer blocks using different bentonite materials and different compression pressures. Isostatic mould technology was also tested, along with different methods to fill the mould, such as vibration and partial vacuum, as well as a stepwise compression of the blocks. The development of manufacturing techniques has continued with small-scale (30 %) blocks (diameter 600 mm) in 2009. This was done in a separate project: Isostatic compression, manufacturing and testing of small scale (D = 600 mm) buffer blocks. The research on the isostatic compression method continued in 2010 in a project aimed to test and examine the isostatic manufacturing process of buffer blocks at 70 % scale (block diameter 1200 to 1300 mm), and the aim was to continue in 2011 with full-scale blocks (diameter 1700 mm). A total of nine bentonite blocks were manufactured at 70 % scale, of which four were ring-shaped and the rest were cylindrical. It is currently not possible to manufacture full-scale blocks, because there is no sufficiently large isostatic press available. However, such a compression unit is expected to be possible to use in the near future. The test results of bentonite blocks, produced with an isostatic pressing method at different presses and at different sizes, suggest that the technical characteristics, for example bulk density and strength values, are somewhat independent of the size of the block, and that the blocks have fairly homogenous characteristics. Water content and compression pressure are the two most important properties determining the characteristics of the compressed blocks. By adjusting these two properties it is fairly easy to produce blocks at a desired density. The commonly used compression pressure in the manufacturing of bentonite blocks is 100 MPa, which compresses bentonite to approximately

  15. Coastal protection using topological interlocking blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasternak, Elena; Dyskin, Arcady; Pattiaratchi, Charitha; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2013-04-01

    The coastal protection systems mainly rely on the self-weight of armour blocks to ensure its stability. We propose a system of interlocking armour blocks, which form plate-shape assemblies. The shape and the position of the blocks are chosen in such a way as to impose kinematic constraints that prevent the blocks from being removed from the assembly. The topological interlocking shapes include simple convex blocks such as platonic solids, the most practical being tetrahedra, cubes and octahedra. Another class of topological interlocking blocks is so-called osteomorphic blocks, which form plate-like assemblies tolerant to random block removal (almost 25% of blocks need to be removed for the assembly to loose integrity). Both classes require peripheral constraint, which can be provided either by the weight of the blocks or post-tensioned internal cables. The interlocking assemblies provide increased stability because lifting one block involves lifting (and bending) the whole assembly. We model the effect of interlocking by introducing an equivalent additional self-weight of the armour blocks. This additional self-weight is proportional to the critical pressure needed to cause bending of the interlocking assembly when it loses stability. Using beam approximation we find an equivalent stability coefficient for interlocking. It is found to be greater than the stability coefficient of a structure with similar blocks without interlocking. In the case when the peripheral constraint is provided by the weight of the blocks and for the slope angle of 45o, the effective stability coefficient for a structure of 100 blocks is 33% higher than the one for a similar structure without interlocking. Further increase in the stability coefficient can be reached by a specially constructed peripheral constraint system, for instance by using post-tension cables.

  16. Ganglion block. When and how?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, R.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing understanding of the anatomy and physiology of neural structures has led to the development of surgical and percutaneous neurodestructive methods in order to target and destroy various components of afferent nociceptive pathways. The dorsal root ganglia and in particular the ganglia of the autonomous nervous system are targets for radiological interventions. The autonomous nervous system is responsible for the regulation of organ functions, sweating, visceral and blood vessel-associated pain. Ganglia of the sympathetic chain and non-myelinized autonomous nerves can be irreversibly destroyed by chemical and thermal ablation. Computed tomography (CT)-guided sympathetic nerve blocks are well established interventional radiological procedures which lead to vasodilatation, reduction of sweating and reduction of pain associated with the autonomous nervous system. Sympathetic blocks are applied for the treatment of various vascular diseases including critical limb ischemia. Other indications for thoracic and lumbar sympathectomy include complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), chronic tumor associated pain and hyperhidrosis. Neurolysis of the celiac plexus is an effective palliative pain treatment particularly in patients suffering from pancreatic cancer. Percutaneous dorsal root ganglion rhizotomy can be performed in selected patients with radicular pain that is resistant to conventional pharmacological and interventional treatment. (orig.) [de

  17. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    KAUST Repository

    Doikov, Nikita; Richtarik, Peter

    2018-01-01

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\cal O}(1/\\epsilon)$, ${\\cal O}(1/\\sqrt{\\epsilon})$ and ${\\cal O}(\\log (1/\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  18. Randomized Block Cubic Newton Method

    KAUST Repository

    Doikov, Nikita

    2018-02-12

    We study the problem of minimizing the sum of three convex functions: a differentiable, twice-differentiable and a non-smooth term in a high dimensional setting. To this effect we propose and analyze a randomized block cubic Newton (RBCN) method, which in each iteration builds a model of the objective function formed as the sum of the natural models of its three components: a linear model with a quadratic regularizer for the differentiable term, a quadratic model with a cubic regularizer for the twice differentiable term, and perfect (proximal) model for the nonsmooth term. Our method in each iteration minimizes the model over a random subset of blocks of the search variable. RBCN is the first algorithm with these properties, generalizing several existing methods, matching the best known bounds in all special cases. We establish ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\epsilon)$, ${\\\\cal O}(1/\\\\sqrt{\\\\epsilon})$ and ${\\\\cal O}(\\\\log (1/\\\\epsilon))$ rates under different assumptions on the component functions. Lastly, we show numerically that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art on a variety of machine learning problems, including cubically regularized least-squares, logistic regression with constraints, and Poisson regression.

  19. Thyroid blocking after nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rendl, J.; Reiners, C.

    1999-01-01

    Following the Chernobyl accident a marked increase in thyroid cancer incidence among the children in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia has been detected, strongly suggesting a causal relationship to the large amounts of radioactive iodine isotopes in the resulting fallout. Taking into account the Chernobyl experience the German Committee on Radiation Protection decided to reduce the intervention levels on the basis of the 1989 WHO recommendations and adopted a new concept concerning thyroid blocking in response to nuclear power plant accidents. Experimental animal studies and theoretical considerations show that thyroid blocking with potassium iodide (KI) in a dose of about 1.4 mg per kg body weight is most effective in reducing irradiation to the thyroid from the intake of radioiodine nuclides, provided KI is given within 2 hours after exposure. According to the new concept, persons over 45 years of age should not take iodine tablets because the drug could cause a greater health risk due to prevalent functional thyroid autonomy in this age group than the radioactive iodine averted by KI. On the basis of accident analysis and the new philosophy suitable distribution strategies and logistics are proposed and discussed. (orig.) [de

  20. [Complete atrioventricular block in Duchenne muscular dystrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru, Satoshi; Tanahashi, Tamotsu; Matsumoto, Shinjirou; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Konagaya, Masaaki

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of complete atrioventricular (AV) block in a 40-year-old patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). While he was bed-ridden and required mechanical ventilation, his cardiac involvement was mild. He had the deletion of exon 45-52 in the dystrophin gene. He underwent transient complete AV block and came to require pacemaker implantation due to recurrence of complete AV block ten days after the first attack. Electrophysiological study revealed mild prolonged AH and HV interval. Although DMD patients with AV block have been rarely reported so far, attention should be paid to AV block for patients who prolonged their lives.

  1. ALS insertion device block measurement and inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Carrieri, J.; Cook, C.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Hoyer, E.; Plate, D.

    1991-05-01

    The performance specifications for ALS insertion devices require detailed knowledge and strict control of the Nd-Fe-B permanent magnet blocks incorporated in these devices. This paper describes the measurement and inspection apparatus and the procedures designed to qualify and characterize these blocks. A detailed description of a new, automated Helmholtz coil facility for measurement of the three components of magnetic moment is included. Physical block inspection and magnetic moment measurement procedures are described. Together they provide a basis for qualifying blocks and for specifying placement of blocks within an insertion devices' magnetic structures. 1 ref., 4 figs

  2. How to block and tackle the face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zide, B M; Swift, R

    1998-03-01

    Regional blocking techniques as noted in dentistry, anesthesia, and anatomy texts may result in inconsistent and imperfect analgesia when needed for facial aesthetic surgery. The advent of laser facial surgery and more complicated aesthetic facial procedures has thus increased the demand for anesthesia support. Surgeons should know a fail-safe method of nerve blocks. Fresh cadaver dissections are used to demonstrate a series of eight regional nerve-blocking routes. This sequence of bilateral blocks will routinely provide profound full facial anesthesia. Certain groupings of blocks are effective for perioral or periorbital laser surgery.

  3. A High-Resolution Proteomic Landscaping of Primary Human Dental Stem Cells: Identification of SHED- and PDLSC-Specific Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Taraslia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental stem cells (DSCs have emerged as a promising tool for basic research and clinical practice. A variety of adult stem cell (ASC populations can be isolated from different areas within the dental tissue, which, due to their cellular and molecular characteristics, could give rise to different outcomes when used in potential applications. In this study, we performed a high-throughput molecular comparison of two primary human adult dental stem cell (hADSC sub-populations: Stem Cells from Human Exfoliated Deciduous Teeth (SHEDs and Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells (PDLSCs. A detailed proteomic mapping of SHEDs and PDLSCs, via employment of nano-LC tandem-mass spectrometry (MS/MS revealed 2032 identified proteins in SHEDs and 3235 in PDLSCs. In total, 1516 proteins were expressed in both populations, while 517 were unique for SHEDs and 1721 were exclusively expressed in PDLSCs. Further analysis of the recorded proteins suggested that SHEDs predominantly expressed molecules that are involved in organizing the cytoskeletal network, cellular migration and adhesion, whereas PDLSCs are highly energy-producing cells, vastly expressing proteins that are implicated in various aspects of cell metabolism and proliferation. Applying the Rho-GDI signaling pathway as a paradigm, we propose potential biomarkers for SHEDs and for PDLSCs, reflecting their unique features, properties and engaged molecular pathways.

  4. Influence of anchor block size on the thickness of adsorbed block copolymer layers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belder, G.F; ten Brinke, G.; Hadziioannou, G

    1997-01-01

    We present surface force data on three different polystyrene/poly(2-vinylpyridine) block copolymers (PS/P2VP) with a fixed size of the nonadsorbing PS block but widely varying sizes of the adsorbing P2VP block. With respect to the sizes of the two blocks, they range from moderately to highly

  5. Effect of essential oil compound on shedding and colonization of Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alali, W Q; Hofacre, C L; Mathis, G F; Faltys, G

    2013-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of an essential oil blend (EO; carvacrol, thymol, eucalyptol, lemon) administered in drinking water on the performance, mortality, water consumption, pH of crop and ceca, and Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg fecal shedding and colonization in broiler birds following Salmonella Heidelberg challenge and feed withdrawal. Chicks were randomly assigned to water treatments containing 0.05, 0.025, or 0.0125% EO or untreated controls. Treatments were administered in drinking water on 0 to 7 and 35 to 42 d. One-half of the chicks were challenged with Salmonella Heidelberg and placed in pens with unchallenged chicks on d 1. Performance, mortality, water consumption, and pH were determined during the 42-d study. Prevalence of Salmonella Heidelberg was determined on drag swabs (0, 14, and 42 d) and in the ceca and crops (42 d). The 0.05% EO administered in drinking water significantly (P water significantly lowered the feed conversion ratio and increased weight gain compared with controls, but did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in the crops. The EO in drinking water did not significantly reduce Salmonella Heidelberg colonization in ceca or fecal shedding in broilers. The EO used in the study may control Salmonella Heidelberg contamination in crops of broilers when administered in drinking water and therefore may reduce the potential for cross-contamination of the carcass when the birds are processed.

  6. Evaluation of a menstrual cup to collect shed endometrium for in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koks, C A; Dunselman, G A; de Goeij, A F; Arends, J W; Evers, J L

    1997-09-01

    To evaluate whether a menstrual cup is a suitable instrument to collect antegradely shed endometrium for in vitro studies. A prospective, descriptive, cell biological and immunohistochemical study. Tertiary care university medical center. Nine female volunteers with regular cycles. Menstrual effluent was collected with a menstrual cup. Experience with the menstrual cup was described. Cytospin specimens, frozen sections, and cultures were prepared from the obtained menstrual tissue. The acceptability of the menstrual cup. The presence and viability of endometrial tissue was evaluated using immunohistochemical staining and culture outcome. All women except one described the menstrual cup as acceptable. Menstrual effluent contained single cells, clumps of cells, and glandlike structures. After 5 days of culture, the endometrial tissue appeared to be viable. Immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for vimentin in most cytospin specimens, in all cryostat specimens, and in 10 of 17 cultures. Cytokeratin 18 stained most cytospin specimens, all cryostat specimens, and 10 of 17 cultures. Positive staining for BW495/36 was observed in most cytospin specimens, all cryostat specimens, and 11 of 17 cultures. A menstrual cup in an acceptable instrument to collect antegradely shed menstrual tissue. Menstruum contains viable endometrial tissue that can be used for in vitro studies of endometrium and endometriosis.

  7. Identification of two novel coccidian species shed by California sea lions (Zalophus californianus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson-Bremer, Daphne; Johnson, Christine K; Miller, Robin H; Gulland, Frances M D; Conrad, Patricia A; Wasmuth, James D; Colegrove, Kathleen M; Grigg, Michael E

    2012-04-01

    Routine fecal examination revealed novel coccidian oocysts in asymptomatic California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) in a rehabilitation facility. Coccidian oocysts were observed in fecal samples collected from 15 of 410 California sea lions admitted to The Marine Mammal Center between April 2007 and October 2009. Phylogenetic analysis using the full ITS-1 region, partial small subunit 18S rDNA sequence, and the Apicomplexa rpoB region identified 2 distinct sequence clades, referred to as Coccidia A and Coccidia B, and placed them in the Sarcocystidae, grouped with the tissue-cyst-forming coccidia. Both sequence clades resolved as individual taxa at ITS-1 and rpoB and were most closely related to Neospora caninum. Coccidia A was identified in 11 and Coccidia B in 4 of 12 sea lion oocyst samples successfully sequenced (3 of those sea lions were co-infected with both parasites). Shedding of Coccidia A oocysts was not associated with age class, sex, or stranding location, but yearlings represented the majority of shedders (8/15). This is the first study to use molecular phylogenetics to identify and describe coccidian parasites shed by a marine mammal.

  8. Factors associated with fecal-shedding of Salmonella spp by horses on US operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Losinger W.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In a cross-sectional national study that included 972 operations with > 3 horses on 1/1/98 in 28 states in the USA, 8,417 fecal specimens were collected from horses and cultured to test for the presence of Salmonella spp. Operations were characterized as Salmonella spp-positive if at least one fecal specimen tested positive for Salmonella spp. Percentages of Salmonella spp-positive operations were computed by management and other factors (collected from operation-level questionnaires that were hypothesized to be related to fecal shedding of Salmonella spp. A logistic-regression model was constructed to identify factors associated with horses? shedding Salmonella spp in feces on an operation. The odds of an operation being Salmonella spp positive increased as the number of resident horses increased. In addition, the following factors were found to be associated with increased odds of an operation being Salmonella spp positive: horses were used primarily for breeding; operation cleanliness was characterized as poor by the data collector; and new resident equids had been added to the operation without routine quarantine.

  9. Lysozyme and bilirubin bind to ACE and regulate its conformation and shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, Sergei M.; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Akinbi, Henry T.; Nesterovitch, Andrew B.; Epshtein, Yuliya; Letsiou, Eleftheria; Kryukova, Olga V.; Piegeler, Tobias; Golukhova, Elena Z.; Schwartz, David E.; Dull, Randal O.; Minshall, Richard D.; Kost, Olga A.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2016-01-01

    Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) hydrolyzes numerous peptides and is a critical participant in blood pressure regulation and vascular remodeling. Elevated tissue ACE levels are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. Blood ACE concentrations are determined by proteolytic cleavage of ACE from the endothelial cell surface, a process that remains incompletely understood. In this study, we identified a novel ACE gene mutation (Arg532Trp substitution in the N domain of somatic ACE) that increases blood ACE activity 7-fold and interrogated the mechanism by which this mutation significantly increases blood ACE levels. We hypothesized that this ACE mutation disrupts the binding site for blood components which may stabilize ACE conformation and diminish ACE shedding. We identified the ACE-binding protein in the blood as lysozyme and also a Low Molecular Weight (LMW) ACE effector, bilirubin, which act in concert to regulate ACE conformation and thereby influence ACE shedding. These results provide mechanistic insight into the elevated blood level of ACE observed in patients on ACE inhibitor therapy and elevated blood lysozyme and ACE levels in sarcoidosis patients. PMID:27734897

  10. A pressure-gradient mechanism for vortex shedding in constricted channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, M. E.; Cassel, K. W.

    2013-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the unsteady, two-dimensional, incompressible Navier–Stokes equations are performed for a Newtonian fluid in a channel having a symmetric constriction modeled by a two-parameter Gaussian distribution on both channel walls. The Reynolds number based on inlet half-channel height and mean inlet velocity ranges from 1 to 3000. Constriction ratios based on the half-channel height of 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 are considered. The results show that both the Reynolds number and constriction geometry have a significant effect on the behavior of the post-constriction flow field. The Navier–Stokes solutions are observed to experience a number of bifurcations: steady attached flow, steady separated flow (symmetric and asymmetric), and unsteady vortex shedding downstream of the constriction depending on the Reynolds number and constriction ratio. A sequence of events is described showing how a sustained spatially growing flow instability, reminiscent of a convective instability, leads to the vortex shedding phenomenon via a proposed streamwise pressure-gradient mechanism. PMID:24399860

  11. A comparative analysis on the shed vortices from the wake of finned, foam-wrapped cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khashehchi, Morteza [Department of Agro-Technology, College of Aburaihan, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ashtiani Abdi, Iman; Hooman, Kamel, E-mail: m.khashehchi@ut.ac.ir [School of Mechanical and mining Engineering, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2017-08-15

    The wake characteristics behind a finned and a foam-wrapped circular cylinder has been compared in a study (Khashehchi et al 2014 Exp. Therm. Fluid Sci. 52 328–38) done by the Authors. In this paper, the shed vortices from the wake of the same cylinders have been studied. Shedding in a bluff body has an important effect on increasing the pressure drop downstream of the object. Here, we have used particle image velocimetry to investigate the detached vortices from the wake behind a foam-wrapped and a finned cylinder. The standard case of cross-flow over a bare cylinder, i.e. no surface extension, has also been tested as a benchmark. The experiments have been performed for Reynolds numbers 2000 based on the mean air velocity and the cylinder’s outer diameter. To identify the features of each aforementioned case, linear stochastic estimation has been applied to the velocity fields. Results show that unlike the fin, adding foam to the cylinder surface increases the size of detached vortices and amplifies the core strength. Moreover, foam-wrapped cylinder in contrast to the finned one produces strong three-dimensionality. Interestingly, finned cylinder’s results show less three-dimensionality compared to the bare cylinder. (paper)

  12. Wind Forced Variability in Eddy Formation, Eddy Shedding, and the Separation of the East Australian Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Christopher Y. S.; Kiss, Andrew E.; Jourdain, Nicolas C.; England, Matthew H.; van Sebille, Erik

    2017-12-01

    The East Australian Current (EAC), like many other subtropical western boundary currents, is believed to be penetrating further poleward in recent decades. Previous observational and model studies have used steady state dynamics to relate changes in the westerly winds to changes in the separation behavior of the EAC. As yet, little work has been undertaken on the impact of forcing variability on the EAC and Tasman Sea circulation. Here using an eddy-permitting regional ocean model, we present a suite of simulations forced by the same time-mean fields, but with different atmospheric and remote ocean variability. These eddy-permitting results demonstrate the nonlinear response of the EAC to variable, nonstationary inhomogeneous forcing. These simulations show an EAC with high intrinsic variability and stochastic eddy shedding. We show that wind stress variability on time scales shorter than 56 days leads to increases in eddy shedding rates and southward eddy propagation, producing an increased transport and southward reach of the mean EAC extension. We adopt an energetics framework that shows the EAC extension changes to be coincident with an increase in offshore, upstream eddy variance (via increased barotropic instability) and increase in subsurface mean kinetic energy along the length of the EAC. The response of EAC separation to regional variable wind stress has important implications for both past and future climate change studies.

  13. Phosphorylation of iRhom2 Controls Stimulated Proteolytic Shedding by the Metalloprotease ADAM17/TACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Cavadas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cell surface metalloproteases coordinate signaling during development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. TACE (TNF-α-converting enzyme, is responsible for cleavage (“shedding” of membrane-tethered signaling molecules, including the cytokine TNF, and activating ligands of the EGFR. The trafficking of TACE within the secretory pathway requires its binding to iRhom2, which mediates the exit of TACE from the endoplasmic reticulum. An important, but mechanistically unclear, feature of TACE biology is its ability to be stimulated rapidly on the cell surface by numerous inflammatory and growth-promoting agents. Here, we report a role for iRhom2 in TACE stimulation on the cell surface. TACE shedding stimuli trigger MAP kinase-dependent phosphorylation of iRhom2 N-terminal cytoplasmic tail. This recruits 14-3-3 proteins, enforcing the dissociation of TACE from complexes with iRhom2, promoting the cleavage of TACE substrates. Our data reveal that iRhom2 controls multiple aspects of TACE biology, including stimulated shedding on the cell surface.

  14. Cardiorespiratory effects of venous lipid micro embolization in an experimental model of mediastinal shed blood reinfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dencker Magnus

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Retransfusion of the patient's own blood during surgery is used to reduce the need for allogenic blood transfusion. It has however been found that this blood contains lipid particles, which form emboli in different organs if the blood is retransfused on the arterial side. In this study, we tested whether retransfusion of blood containing lipid micro-particles on the venous side in a porcine model will give hemodynamic effects. Methods Seven adult pigs were used. A shed blood surrogate containing 400 ml diluted blood and 5 ml radioactive triolein was produced to generate a lipid embolic load. The shed blood surrogate was rapidly ( Results A more than 30-fold increase in pulmonary vascular resistance was observed, with subsequent increase in pulmonary artery pressure, and decrease in cardiac output and arterial pressure. This response was transient, but was followed by a smaller, persistent increase in pulmonary vascular resistance. Only a small portion of the infused triolein passed the lungs, and only a small fraction could be recirculated by increasing cardiac output and pulmonary pressure. Conclusion Infusion of blood containing lipid micro-emboli on the venous side leads to acute, severe hemodynamic responses that can be life threatening. Lipid particles will be trapped in the lungs, leading to persistent effects on the pulmonary vascular resistance.

  15. Backfilling of deposition tunnels, block alternative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keto, P.; Roennqvist, P.-E.

    2007-03-01

    This report presents a preliminary process description of backfilling the deposition tunnels with pre-compacted blocks consisting of a mixture of bentonite and ballast (30:70). The process was modified for the Finnish KBS-3V type repository assuming that the amount of spent fuel canisters disposed of yearly is 40. Backfilling blocks (400 x 300 x 300 mm) are prepared in a block production plant with a hydraulic press with an estimated production capacity of 840 blocks per day. Some of the blocks are modified further to fit the profile of the tunnel roof. Prior to the installation of the blocks, the deposition tunnel floor is levelled with a mixture of bentonite and ballast (15:85). The blocks are placed in the tunnel with a modified reach truck. Centrifugal pellet throwing equipment is used to fill the gap between the blocks and the rock surface with bentonite pellets. Based on a preliminary assessment, the average dry density achieved with block backfill is sufficient to fulfil the criteria set for the backfill in order to ensure long-term safety and radiation protection. However, there are uncertainties concerning saturation, homogenisation, erosion, piping and self-healing of the block backfill that need to be studied further with laboratory and field tests. In addition, development efforts and testing concerning block manufacturing and installation are required to verify the technical feasibility of the concept. (orig.)

  16. Shedding of soluble glycoprotein 1 detected during acute Lassa virus infection in human subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momoh Mambu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF is a neglected tropical disease with significant impact on the health care system, society, and economy of Western and Central African nations where it is endemic. With a high rate of infection that may lead to morbidity and mortality, understanding how the virus interacts with the host's immune system is of great importance for generating vaccines and therapeutics. Previous work by our group identified a soluble isoform of the Lassa virus (LASV GP1 (sGP1 in vitro resulting from the expression of the glycoprotein complex (GPC gene 12. Though no work has directly been done to demonstrate the function of this soluble isoform in arenaviral infections, evidence points to immunomodulatory effects against the host's immune system mediated by a secreted glycoprotein component in filoviruses, another class of hemorrhagic fever-causing viruses. A significant fraction of shed glycoprotein isoforms during viral infection and biogenesis may attenuate the host's inflammatory response, thereby enhancing viral replication and tissue damage. Such shed glycoprotein mediated effects were previously reported for Ebola virus (EBOV, a filovirus that also causes hemorrhagic fever with nearly 90% fatality rates 345. The identification of an analogous phenomenon in vivo could establish a new correlate of LHF infection leading to the development of sensitive diagnostics targeting the earliest molecular events of the disease. Additionally, the reversal of potentially untoward immunomodulatory functions mediated by sGP1 could potentiate the development of novel therapeutic intervention. To this end, we investigated the presence of sGP1 in the serum of suspected LASV patients admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH Lassa Fever Ward (LFW, in Kenema, Sierra Leone that tested positive for viral antigen or displayed classical signs of Lassa fever. Results It is reasonable to expect that a narrow window exists for

  17. Shedding of soluble glycoprotein 1 detected during acute Lassa virus infection in human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Luis M; Grove, Jessica N; Moses, Lina M; Goba, Augustine; Fullah, Mohammed; Momoh, Mambu; Schoepp, Randal J; Bausch, Daniel G; Garry, Robert F

    2010-11-09

    Lassa hemorrhagic fever (LHF) is a neglected tropical disease with significant impact on the health care system, society, and economy of Western and Central African nations where it is endemic. With a high rate of infection that may lead to morbidity and mortality, understanding how the virus interacts with the host's immune system is of great importance for generating vaccines and therapeutics. Previous work by our group identified a soluble isoform of the Lassa virus (LASV) GP1 (sGP1) in vitro resulting from the expression of the glycoprotein complex (GPC) gene [1, 2]. Though no work has directly been done to demonstrate the function of this soluble isoform in arenaviral infections, evidence points to immunomodulatory effects against the host's immune system mediated by a secreted glycoprotein component in filoviruses, another class of hemorrhagic fever-causing viruses. A significant fraction of shed glycoprotein isoforms during viral infection and biogenesis may attenuate the host's inflammatory response, thereby enhancing viral replication and tissue damage. Such shed glycoprotein mediated effects were previously reported for Ebola virus (EBOV), a filovirus that also causes hemorrhagic fever with nearly 90 percent fatality rates [3 - 5]. The identification of an analogous phenomenon in vivo could establish a new correlate of LHF infection leading to the development of sensitive diagnostics targeting the earliest molecular events of the disease. Additionally, the reversal of potentially untoward immunomodulatory functions mediated by sGP1 could potentiate the development of novel therapeutic intervention. To this end, we investigated the presence of sGP1 in the serum of suspected LASV patients admitted to the Kenema Government Hospital (KGH) Lassa Fever Ward (LFW), in Kenema, Sierra Leone that tested positive for viral antigen or displayed classical signs of Lassa fever. It is reasonable to expect that a narrow window exists for detection of sGP1 as the sole

  18. Exercising with blocked muscle glycogenolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tue L; Pinós, Tomàs; Brull, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease type V) is an inborn error of skeletal muscle metabolism, which affects glycogen phosphorylase (myophosphorylase) activity leading to an inability to break down glycogen. Patients with McArdle disease are exercise intolerant, as muscle glycogen......-derived glucose is unavailable during exercise. Metabolic adaptation to blocked muscle glycogenolysis occurs at rest in the McArdle mouse model, but only in highly glycolytic muscle. However, it is unknown what compensatory metabolic adaptations occur during exercise in McArdle disease. METHODS: In this study, 8......-week old McArdle and wild-type mice were exercised on a treadmill until exhausted. Dissected muscles were compared with non-exercised, age-matched McArdle and wild-type mice for histology and activation and expression of proteins involved in glucose uptake and glycogenolysis. RESULTS: Investigation...

  19. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs data from a large-scale survey (InnoS&T) of inventors in Europe, the USA, and Japan who were listed in patent applications filed at the European Patent Office with priority years between 2003 and 2005. We provide evidence regarding the reasons for patenting and the ways in which...... patents are being utilized. A substantial share of patents is neither used internally nor for market transactions, which confirms the importance of strategic patenting and inefficiency in the management of intellectual property. We investigate different types of unused patents—unused blocking patents...... and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  20. LARGE BLOCK TEST STATUS REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.G. WILDER, W. LIN, S.C. BLAIR, T. BUSCHECK, R.C. CARLSON, K. LEE, A. MEIKE, A.L. RAMIREZ, J.L. WAGONER, AND J. WANG

    1997-01-01

    This report is intended to serve as a status report, which essentially transmits the data that have been collected to date on the Large Block Test (LBT). The analyses of data will be performed during FY98, and then a complete report will be prepared. This status report includes introductory material that is not needed merely to transmit data but is available at this time and therefore included. As such, this status report will serve as the template for the future report, and the information is thus preserved. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is investigatinq the suitability of Yucca Mountain (YM) as a potential site for the nation's first high-level nuclear waste repository. As shown in Fig. 1-1, the site is located about 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in an area of uninhabited desert

  1. Vagal Blocking for Obesity Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Helene; Revesz, David; Kodama, Yosuke

    2017-01-01

    : VBLOC reduced body weight and food intake, which was associated with increased satiety but not with decreased hunger. Brain activities in response to VBLOC included increased gene expression of leptin and CCKb receptors, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor, and transforming growth factor β1......BACKGROUND: Recently, the US FDA has approved "vagal blocking therapy or vBLoc® therapy" as a new treatment for obesity. The aim of the present study was to study the mechanism-of-action of "VBLOC" in rat models. METHODS: Rats were implanted with VBLOC, an intra-abdominal electrical device...... with leads placed around gastric vagal trunks through an abdominal incision and controlled by wireless device. Body weight, food intake, hunger/satiety, and metabolic parameters were monitored by a comprehensive laboratory animal monitoring system. Brain-gut responses were analyzed physiologically. RESULTS...

  2. Investigating Block-Copolymer Micelle Dynamics for Tunable Cargo Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuli; Kidd, Bryce; Cooksey, Tyler; Robertson, Megan; Madsen, Louis

    Block-copolymer micelles (BCPMs) can carry molecular cargo in a nanoscopic package that is tunable using polymer structure in combination with cargo properties, as well as with external stimuli such as temperature or pH. For example, BCPMs can be used in targeted anticancer drug delivery due to their biocompatibility, in vivo degradability and prolonged circulation time. We are using NMR spectroscopy and diffusometry as well as SANS to investigate BCPMs. Here we study a diblock poly(ethylene oxide)-b-(caprolactone) (PEO-PCL) that forms spherical micelles at 1% (w/v) in the mixed solvent D2O/THF-d8. We quantify the populations and diffusion coefficients of coexisting micelles and free unimers over a range of temperatures and solvent compositions. We use temperature as a stimulus to enhance unimer exchange and hence trigger cargo release, in some cases at a few degrees above body temperature. We present evidence for dominance of the insertion-expulsion mechanism of unimer exchange in these systems, and we map phase diagrams versus temperature and solvent composition. This study sheds light on how intermolecular interactions fundamentally affect cargo release, unimer exchange, and overall micelle tunability.

  3. Minimum Description Length Block Finder, a Method to Identify Haplotype Blocks and to Compare the Strength of Block Boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Mannila, H.; Koivisto, M.; Perola, M.; Varilo, T.; Hennah, W.; Ekelund, J.; Lukk, M.; Peltonen, L.; Ukkonen, E.

    2003-01-01

    We describe a new probabilistic method for finding haplotype blocks that is based on the use of the minimum description length (MDL) principle. We give a rigorous definition of the quality of a segmentation of a genomic region into blocks and describe a dynamic programming algorithm for finding the optimal segmentation with respect to this measure. We also describe a method for finding the probability of a block boundary for each pair of adjacent markers: this gives a tool for evaluating the ...

  4. Falling, flapping, flying, swimming,...: High-Re fluid-solid interactions with vortex shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelin, Sebastien Honore Roland

    The coupling between the motion of a solid body and the dynamics of the surrounding flow is essential to the understanding of a large number of engineering and physical problems, from the stability of a slender structure exposed to the wind to the locomotion of insects, birds and fishes. Because of the strong coupling on a moving boundary of the equations for the solid and fluid, the simulation of such problems is computationally challenging and expensive. This justifies the development of simplified models for the fluid-solid interactions to study their physical properties and behavior. This dissertation proposes a reduced-order model for the interaction of a sharp-edged solid body with a strongly unsteady high Reynolds number flow. In such a case, viscous forces in the fluid are often negligible compared to the fluid inertia or the pressure forces, and the thin boundary layers separate from the solid at the edges, leading to the shedding of large and persistent vortices in the solid's wake. A general two-dimensional framework is presented based on complex potential flow theory. The formation of the solid's vortical wake is accounted for by the shedding of point vortices with unsteady intensity from the solid's sharp edges, and the fluid-solid problem is reformulated exclusively as a solid-vortex interaction problem. In the case of a rigid solid body, the coupled problem is shown to reduce to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations. This model is used to study the effect of vortex shedding on the stability of falling objects. The solid-vortex model is then generalized to study the fluttering instability and non-linear flapping dynamics of flexible plates or flags. The uttering instability and resulting flapping motion result from the competing effects of the fluid forcing and of the solid's flexural rigidity and inertia. Finally, the solid-vortex model is applied to the study of the fundamental effect of bending rigidity on the flapping performance of

  5. Sanitation and Microbiological Quality in Production Field and Fruit-Packing Shed of Persimmon and Satsuma Mandarin in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemi Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sanitation treatments including chlorination (ca 10 ppm available chlorine of agricultural water and ethyl alcohol (70% spraying on packing shed equipment on microbial contamination on fruits and the environment were determined and compared with those in conventionally managed field and packing shed in persimmon and satsuma mandarin orchards. Chlorinated water reduced the microbial counts to levels below the lower limit of detection (1.4 log CFU/ml for bacteria and 2.0 log CFU/ml for fungi in most agricultural water samples. Microbial counts of pesticide solution, which contained the agricultural water or chlorinated water for the mixture, were lower in sanitary field than in control field in both fruit orchards. The number of bacterial and mold species detected in agricultural water, chlorinated water, and pesticide solution were almost proportional to microbial counts in each sample throughout the year. The chlorination treatment of agricultural water tended to reduce the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit during production season. The ethyl alcohol spray treatment on packing shed equipment resulted in a substantial microbial reduction on plastic harvest basket and container in persimmon orchard and plastic harvest basket and container, gloves, scissors, and size sorter in satsuma mandarin orchard. The spray application on packing shed equipment reduced the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit by >1 log CFU/g. The number of satsuma mandarin packing shed equipment containing the species found on fruit peel was higher in control than in sanitary packing shed. No human pathogens such as verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella were detected in any of the fruit and environmental samples. These results indicate that uses of sanitizers such as chlorine for agricultural water and ethyl alcohol for packing shed equipment would be useful in a good agricultural practices

  6. Sanitation and Microbiological Quality in Production Field and Fruit-Packing Shed of Persimmon and Satsuma Mandarin in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemi Izumi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of sanitation treatments including chlorination (ca 10 ppm available chlorine of agricultural water and ethyl alcohol (70% spraying on packing shed equipment on microbial contamination on fruits and the environment were determined and compared with those in conventionally managed field and packing shed in persimmon and satsuma mandarin orchards. Chlorinated water reduced the microbial counts to levels below the lower limit of detection (1.4 log CFU/ml for bacteria and 2.0 log CFU/ml for fungi in most agricultural water samples. Microbial counts of pesticide solution, which contained the agricultural water or chlorinated water for the mixture, were lower in sanitary field than in control field in both fruit orchards. The number of bacterial and mold species detected in agricultural water, chlorinated water, and pesticide solution were almost proportional to microbial counts in each sample throughout the year. The chlorination treatment of agricultural water tended to reduce the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit during production season. The ethyl alcohol spray treatment on packing shed equipment resulted in a substantial microbial reduction on plastic harvest basket and container in persimmon orchard and plastic harvest basket and container, gloves, scissors, and size sorter in satsuma mandarin orchard. The spray application on packing shed equipment reduced the counts of mesophiles and fungi on the peel of persimmon fruit by 1 log CFU/g. The number of satsuma mandarin packing shed equipment containing the species found on fruit peel was higher in control than in sanitary packing shed. No human pathogens such as verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella were detected in any of the fruit and environmental samples. These results indicate that uses of sanitizers such as chlorine for agricultural water and ethyl alcohol for packing shed equipment would be useful in a good agricultural practices

  7. Prospective cohort study showing persistent HSV-2 shedding in women with genital herpes 2 years after acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramchandani, Meena; Selke, Stacy; Magaret, Amalia; Barnum, Gail; Huang, Meei-Li Wu; Corey, Lawrence; Wald, Anna

    2017-11-25

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is a prevalent infection with great variability in clinical and virological manifestations among individuals. This prospective cohort study aims to evaluate the natural history of HSV-2 reactivation in the genital area in the same group of women over time. Eighteen immunocompetent HSV-2 seropositive women were evaluated for viral shedding for 70 consecutive days within a median of 8 months (range 1-24 months) of HSV-2 acquisition and again approximately 2.5 years later from the original study. Participants obtained daily swabs of genital secretions for HSV PCR and recorded genital symptoms. The viral shedding rate was 29% during the initial study and 19% in the follow-up study (32% reduction, P=0.019). Subclinical shedding rate also decreased from 24% to 13% (37% reduction, P=0.032), as did the rate of days with genital lesions from 22% to 15% (33% reduction, P=0.24). The mean copy number during viral shedding remained unchanged over time at 4.8 log 10 c/mL (SD=2.0 and 1.6 during each study, respectively, P=0.33). Women with high viral shedding rates in the past were likely to continue to have high shedding rates (r=0.63, P=0.005). Despite some reduction, high viral shedding rates persist in women with genital HSV-2 greater than 2 years after acquisition. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. A Crystallographic Study of the Role of Sequence Context in Thymine Glycol Bypass by a Replicative DNA Polymerase Serendipitously Sheds Light on the Exonuclease Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aller, Pierre; Duclos, Stéphanie; Wallace, Susan S.; Doublié, Sylvie (Vermont)

    2012-06-27

    Thymine glycol (Tg) is the most common oxidation product of thymine and is known to be a strong block to replicative DNA polymerases. A previously solved structure of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase (RB69 gp43) in complex with Tg in the sequence context 5'-G-Tg-G shed light on how Tg blocks primer elongation: The protruding methyl group of the oxidized thymine displaces the adjacent 5'-G, which can no longer serve as a template for primer elongation [Aller, P., Rould, M. A., Hogg, M, Wallace, S. S. and Doublie S. (2007). A structural rationale for stalling of a replicative DNA polymerase at the most common oxidative thymine lesion, thymine glycol. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 814-818.]. Several studies showed that in the sequence context 5'-C-Tg-purine, Tg is more likely to be bypassed by Klenow fragment, an A-family DNA polymerase. We set out to investigate the role of sequence context in Tg bypass in a B-family polymerase and to solve the crystal structures of the bacteriophage RB69 DNA polymerase in complex with Tg-containing DNA in the three remaining sequence contexts: 5'-A-Tg-G, 5'-T-Tg-G, and 5'-C-Tg-G. A combination of several factors - including the associated exonuclease activity, the nature of the 3' and 5' bases surrounding Tg, and the cis-trans interconversion of Tg - influences Tg bypass. We also visualized for the first time the structure of a well-ordered exonuclease complex, allowing us to identify and confirm the role of key residues (Phe123, Met256, and Tyr257) in strand separation and in the stabilization of the primer strand in the exonuclease site.

  9. Zika virus shedding in human milk during lactation: an unlikely source of infection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta G. Cavalcanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV transmission through non-mosquito-dependent routes has become increasingly important since reports of sexual transmission. Breastfeeding is a potential means of ZIKV transmission, but data on this remain limited. The cases of four mothers with laboratory-proven infections are reported. No disease evolved in three of the breastfed babies despite detectable maternal viremia and viruria, the presence of viral RNA shedding, and the isolation of infective particles in one milk sample. Fever and rash in one infant of a ZIKV-infected mother proved to be related to chikungunya virus infection. The results suggest that the presence of infective particles in breast milk may not be sufficient for the efficient perinatal transmission of ZIKV.

  10. Selective decentralized underfrequency protection. Load shedding depending on underfrequency; Selektiver dezentraler Unterfrequenzschutz. Unterfrequenzabhaengiger Lastabwurf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worgull, Alexander; Horenkamp, Willi; Kaliwoda, Michael; Rehtanz, Christian [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiesysteme, Energieeffizienz und Energiewirtschaft

    2013-03-11

    In the case of major disruptions, the underfrequency depending load shedding serves to restore the performance balance between generation and consumption. If a switching off of electrical consumers due to an actual underfrequency event is required, individual grid areas are separated from the residual power grid by means of a frequency relay. Normally, the disconnection from the mains takes place at the medium voltage level of the 110 kV transformer. In addition to consumers, also decentralized energy transformation plants are disconnected. Thus, the performance deficit will be enhanced, if necessary. Thus, a procedure considering the actual load situation and feed-in situation is absolutely essential in the future. The Institute of Energy Systems, Energy Efficiency and Energy Economics at the Dortmund Technical University (Dortmund, Federal Republic of Germany) develops which realizes a future-oriented selective underfrequency protection by means of smart metering systems.

  11. Decentralized Coordination of Load Shedding and Plant Protection Considering High Share of RESs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth

    2016-01-01

    variable using voltage drop data coordinated with plant protection scheme. A frequency anti stalling scheme is developed to interrupt more load feeders in case of frequency stall between consecutive set points. This time-based approach adjusts the time delay of the relay stages to disconnect the feeders...... with more voltage drop first, in order to bring the frequency back to the permissible range before the tolerable time period of plant protection relays is over. The load curtailment is stopped to avoid over LS, if the proposed algorithm recognizes that the frequency reaches the safe region in time based......This paper estimates the average Rate of Change of Frequency (ROCOF) following islanding and/or cascading event/s using inflection points of frequency profile. Moreover, a frequency collapse barrier scheme is set up by tuning the frequency set points of Load Shedding (LS) relays as a dynamic...

  12. Shedding Light on Eco-Innovation in Tourism: A Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria-del-Mar Alonso-Almeida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent global increase in the competitiveness of tourism has made the implementation of eco-innovations a differentiating element among both the destinations and companies in the sector, with quality management and contribution to sustainable development being increasingly valued. However, the eco-innovations that have been developed and implemented in tourist industries have rarely been studied. In this study, the eco-innovations that have been developed and implemented by 57 tourism businesses worldwide are analysed. The identified eco-innovations are classified by using different qualitative methodologies. The obtained results shed light on the limited development of eco-innovations in the tourism industry and the industry focuses mainly on product eco-innovations. Several examples by the tourist sub-industry and types of eco-innovation are analysed. Furthermore, this study provides practical information about measures that both businesses and governmental organisations can adopt to promote eco-innovation in the sector.

  13. Analogies between oscillation and rotation of bodies induced or influenced by vortex shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugt, H. J.

    Vortex-induced or vortex-influenced rotation and oscillation of bodies in a parallel flow are discussed. A steady flow occurs if the body axis is parallel to the flow or if the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the flow. Flows around an oscillating body are quasi-steady only if the Strougal number is much smaller than unity. The connection between rotation and oscillation is demonstrated in terms of the autorotation of a Lanchester propeller, and conditions for stable autorotation are defined. The Riabouchinsky curve is shown to be typical of forces and torques on bodies with vortical wakes, including situations with fixed body axes perpendicular to the flow. A differential equation is formulated for rotational and oscillating bodies that shed vortices by extending the pendulum equation to include vortical effects expressed as a fifth-order polynomial.

  14. Wide-range vortex shedding flowmeter for high-temperature helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.P.; Herndon, P.G.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The existing design of a commercially available vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was modified and optimized to produce three 4-in. and one 6-in. high-performance VSFMs for measuring helium flow in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) test loop. The project was undertaken because of the significant economic and performance advantages to be realized by using a single flowmeter capable of covering the 166:1 flow range (at 350/sup 0/C and 45:1 pressure range) of the tests. A detailed calibration in air and helium at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station showed an accuracy of +-1% of reading for a 100:1 helium flow range and +-1.75% of reading for a 288:1 flow range in both helium and air. At an extended gas temperature of 450/sup 0/C, water cooling was necessary for reliable flowmeter operation.

  15. Development of a wide range vortex shedding flowmeter for high temperature helium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, S.P.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.; Herndon, P.G.

    1981-07-01

    A flowmeter was required to measure recirculating helium gas flow over a wide range of conditions in a gas-cooled fast reactor (GCFR) core flow simulator, the ORNL Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL). The flow measurement requirements of the CFTL exceeded the proven performance of any single conventional flowmeter. Therefore, a special purpose vortex shedding flowmeter (VSFM) was developed. A single flowmeter capable of meeting all the CFTL requirements would provide significant economic and performance advantages in the operation of the loop. The development, conceptual design, and final design of a modified VSFM are described. The results of extensive flow calibration of the flowmeter at the Colorado Engineering Experiment Station (CEES) are presented. The report closes with recommendations for application of the VSFM to the CFTL and for future development work.

  16. Enhancement of Voltage Stability of DC Smart Grid During Islanded Mode by Load Shedding Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassor, Thabit Salim; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Yona, Atsushi

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the voltage stability of a DC smart grid based on renewable energy resources during grid connected and isolated modes. During the islanded mode the load shedding, based on the state of charge of the battery and distribution line voltage, was proposed for voltage stability and reservation of critical load power. The analyzed power system comprises a wind turbine, a photovoltaic generator, storage battery as controllable load, DC loads, and power converters. A fuzzy logic control strategy was applied for power consumption control of controllable loads and the grid-connected dual active bridge series resonant converters. The proposed DC Smart Grid operation has been verified by simulation using MATLAB® and PLECS® Blockset. The obtained results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. The value of Autoimmune Syndrome Induced by Adjuvant (ASIA) - Shedding light on orphan diseases in autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Yahel; Dahan, Shani; Sharif, Kassem; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Watad, Abdulla; Amital, Howard

    2018-05-01

    Autoimmune Syndrome Induced by Adjuvant (ASIA) is a definition aimed to describe the common etiological process at the root of five clinical entities sharing similar symptomatology: macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome (MMF), Gulf War Syndrome (GWS), sick building syndrome (SBS), siliconosis, and post vaccination autoimmune phenomena. ASIA illustrates the role of environmental immune stimulating agents, or adjuvants, in the instigation of complex autoimmune reactions among individuals bearing a genetic preponderance for autoimmunity. The value of ASIA lies first in the acknowledgment it provides for patients suffering from these as yet ill-defined medical conditions. Equally important is the spotlight it sheds for further research of these poorly understood conditions sharing a common pathogenesis. In this article we elaborate on the significance of ASIA, review the current evidence in support of the syndrome, and address recent reservations raised regarding its validity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Endothelial glycocalyx shedding and vascular permeability in severely injured trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbar, Elaheh; Cardenas, Jessica C; Baimukanova, Gyulnar

    2015-01-01

    of trauma patients. METHODS: Plasma samples were collected from 5 healthy consented volunteers and 22 severely injured trauma patients upon admission to the emergency department. ELISA assays were performed to quantify shed HA, HS, CS and syndecan-1 in plasma. A colloid osmometer and Electric Cell......-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) system were used to measure plasma colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and cell permeability, respectively. Thrombin generation was measured using a calibrated automated thrombogram (CAT). Initial vital signs, routine laboratory values, and injury severity scores (ISS) were recorded. Non......COP (≤16 mmHg) had significantly increased syndecan-1 and HA compared to those with normal COP, which corresponded to increased cell permeability via ECIS. CS and HS did not vary between COP groups. Lastly, patients with low COP displayed reduced peak thrombin...

  19. Deposit Shedding in Biomass-Fired Boilers: Shear Adhesion Strength Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2017-01-01

    Ash deposition on boiler surfaces is a major problem encountered in biomass combustion. Timely removal of ash deposits is essentialfor optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the adhesion strength of biomass ash from...... off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The effect of sintering temperature, sintering time, deposit composition, thermal shocks on the deposit, and steel type was investigated. The results reveal that the adhesion strength of ash deposits...... is dependent on two factors: ash melt fraction, and corrosion occurring at the deposit–tube interface. Adhesion strength increases with increasing sintering temperature, sharply increasing at the ash deformation temperature. However, sintering time, as well as the type of steel used, does not have...

  20. Unsteady separation and vortex shedding from a laminar separation bubble over a bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. P.; Srinivasan, U.; Arakeri, J. H.

    2013-07-01

    Boundary layers are subject to favorable and adverse pressure gradients because of both the temporal and spatial components of the pressure gradient. The adverse pressure gradient may cause the flow to separate. In a closed loop unsteady tunnel we have studied the initiation of separation in unsteady flow past a constriction (bluff body) in a channel. We have proposed two important scalings for the time when boundary layer separates. One is based on the local pressure gradient and the other is a convective time scale based on boundary layer parameters. The flow visualization using a dye injection technique shows the flow structure past the body. Nondimensional shedding frequency (Strouhal number) is calculated based on boundary layer and momentum thicknesses. Strouhal number based on the momentum thickness shows a close agreement with that for flat plate and circular cylinder.

  1. Clausius’ Disgregation: A Conceptual Relic that Sheds Light on the Second Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Marco Pellegrino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes the cognitive process that led Clausius towards the translation of the Second Law of Thermodynamics into mathematical expressions. We show that Clausius’ original formal expression of the Second Law was achieved by making extensive use of the concept of disgregation, a quantity which has subsequently disappeared from the thermodynamic language. Our analysis demonstrates that disgregation stands as a crucial logical step of such process and sheds light on the comprehension of such fundamental relation. The introduction of entropy—which occurred three years after the first formalization of the Second Law—was aimed at making the Second Law exploitable in practical contexts. The reasons for the disappearance of disgregation, as well as of other “pre-modern” quantities, from the thermodynamics language are discussed.

  2. Dissipative flow and vortex shedding in the Painleve boundary layer of a Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aftalion, Amandine; Du Qiang; Pomeau, Yves

    2003-01-01

    This paper addresses the drag force and formation of vortices in the boundary layer of a Bose-Einstein condensate stirred by a laser beam following the experiments of C. Raman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 2502 (1999)10.1103/PhysRevLett.83.2502. We make our analysis in the frame moving at constant speed where the beam is fixed. We find that there is always a drag around the laser beam. We also analyze the mechanism of vortex nucleation. At low velocity, there are no vortices and the drag has its origin in a wakelike phenomenon: This is a particularity of trapped systems since the density gets small in an extended region. The shedding of vortices starts only at a threshold velocity and is responsible for a large increase in drag. This critical velocity for vortex nucleation is lower than the critical velocity computed for the corresponding 2D problem at the center of the cloud

  3. Model Tests of Under Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS for Connected Systems of Continental Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Głaz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The task force set up by working group System Protection and Dynamics within ENTSO-E model tests of Under Frequency Load Shedding (UFLS for connected systems of continental Europe were carried out. Over 360 simulation scenarios were performed including 16 strategies UFLS, 2 variants of load, 6 types of contingency, with and without considering the impact of dispersed generation. On the basis of calculation results conditions for improving the effectiveness of the UFLS were specified,, including recommended changes of UFLS settings, necessary to achieve this aim. The following report contains a summary description of the test method together with the presentation of selected results of summary calculations and conclusions of the study.

  4. Quantitative assessment of faecal shedding of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gongora, Carmen Espinosa; Shah, Syed Qaswar Ali; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative data on faecal shedding of antimicrobial resistant bacteria are crucial to assess the risk of transmission from dogs to other animals as well as humans. In this study we investigated prevalence and concentrations of β-lactam-resistant Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces...... of 108 dogs presenting at a veterinary hospital in Denmark. The dogs had not been treated with antimicrobials for 4 weeks prior to the study. Total E. coli and enterococci were quantified by counts on MacConkey and Slanetz-Bartley, respectively. Resistant E. coli and enterococci were counted on the same...... media containing relevant antibiotic concentrations, followed by species identification using MALDI-TOF. Ampicillin- and cefotaxime-resistant E. coli were detected in 40% and 8% of the dogs, respectively, whereas approximately 15% carried ampicillin-resistant enterococci, mainly Enterococcus faecium...

  5. A PMT-Block test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adragna, P.; Antonaki, A.

    2006-01-01

    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (Tile Cal) is housed in a unit, called PMT-Block. The PMT-Block is a compact instrument comprising a light mixer, a PMT together with its divider and a 3-in-1 card, which provides shaping, amplification and integration for the signals. This instrument needs to be qualified before being assembled on the detector. A PMT-Block test bench has been developed for this purpose. This test bench is a system which allows fast, albeit accurate enough, measurements of the main properties of a complete PMT-Block. The system, both hardware and software, and the protocol used for the PMT-Blocks characterization are described in detail in this report. The results obtained in the test of about 10 000 PMT-Blocks needed for the instrumentation of the ATLAS (LHC-CERN) hadronic Tile Calorimeter are also reported

  6. A PMT-Block test bench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adragna, P [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Fermi' , Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Universita degli studi di Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Antonaki, A [Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications, P.O. Box 17214, Athens 10024 (Greece); National Capodistrian University of Athens, 30 Panepistimiou st., Athens 10679 (Greece)] (and others)

    2006-08-01

    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (Tile Cal) is housed in a unit, called PMT-Block. The PMT-Block is a compact instrument comprising a light mixer, a PMT together with its divider and a 3-in-1 card, which provides shaping, amplification and integration for the signals. This instrument needs to be qualified before being assembled on the detector. A PMT-Block test bench has been developed for this purpose. This test bench is a system which allows fast, albeit accurate enough, measurements of the main properties of a complete PMT-Block. The system, both hardware and software, and the protocol used for the PMT-Blocks characterization are described in detail in this report. The results obtained in the test of about 10 000 PMT-Blocks needed for the instrumentation of the ATLAS (LHC-CERN) hadronic Tile Calorimeter are also reported.

  7. Duration of growth depression and pathogen shedding in experimentally reproduced poult enteritis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jindal, Naresh; Patnayak, Devi P; Ziegler, Andre F; Lago, Alfonso; Goyal, Sagar M

    2009-12-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the duration of growth depression and virus shedding in turkey poults after oral inoculation with intestinal contents from birds affected with poult enteritis syndrome (PES). Poults at day 14 of age were divided into four groups (groups A, B, C, and D) of 40 poults each and inoculated orally with unfiltered supernatant, filtered supernatant, sediment suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), or PBS alone (control), respectively. The poults were observed daily for clinical signs, and their growth response, pathology, and pathogen shedding were examined at 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 days postinoculation (DPI). Body weights of eight poults in each group were recorded at each of these intervals followed by euthanasia. Dullness, depression, and diarrhea were observed in birds inoculated with supernatant or sediment suspension. All three treatments significantly reduced body weight gain of poults compared with the control group; average weight loss was 14%. Gross pathologic changes consisted of pale distended intestines with watery contents and distended ceca with frothy and watery contents. Astrovirus and rotavirus were detected in the inoculum by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, whereas Salmonella was identified on bacterial isolation. Both viruses were detected in treated poults by RT-PCR for up to 10 and 40 DPI, respectively. Of the three treatments, sediment suspension caused maximal decrease in weight gain as well as greatest pathologic lesions followed by unfiltered supernatant and filtered supernatant. These findings suggest a role for bacteria in increasing the severity of PES. Lower weight gain in treated poults (compared with controls) at 9 wk of age also indicates that PES-affected poults may not reach normal weight at marketing, leading to economic losses for the producer.

  8. Multi-frequency response of a cylinder subjected to vortex shedding and support motions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vikestad, Kyrre

    1998-12-31

    This thesis deals with an experimental investigation of vortex induced vibrations of a circular cylinder. The purpose of the experiment was to identify the influence from a controlled disturbance of the cylinder motions on the response caused by vortex shedding. The cylinder investigated is 2 m long and the diameter is 10 cm. The cylinder is elastically mounted in an apparatus using springs, where the foundation of one of the springs can have a harmonic motion. The apparatus is placed on a carriage in a 25 m long towing tank. Towing velocities are varied between 0.140 m/s and 0.655 m/s corresponding to reduced velocity range from 2.8 to 13.2. The still water natural frequency is 0.497 Hz, and the natural frequency in air is 0.634 Hz. The cylinder is only able to oscillate in the cross-flow direction. The support motion frequency was varied between 0.26 Hz and 1.01 Hz, and the force motion amplitude was varied using 2, 4 and 6 cm support amplitudes. Three sets of experiments were carried out: (1) Still water oscillations due to harmonic support motion excitation, support amplitude and frequencies varied, (2) Towing tests with no support motion, the velocity is varied, (3) Combined excitation: Towing tests with support motion. All possible combinations of experiments (1) and (2) are carried out. The two first experiments provide reference values for the combined excitation experiments and for verification purposes. The results reveal the ability of the external disturbance to influence the vortex shedding process both regarding frequency and the resulting response amplitudes. Results for added mass, in-line drag and damping are also obtained. The work may be of use in deep water floating petroleum production. 81 refs., 73 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Epstein-Barr virus in oral shedding of children with multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yea, Carmen; Tellier, Raymond; Chong, Patrick; Westmacott, Garrett; Marrie, Ruth Ann; Bar-Or, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) oral shedding frequency and EBV genetic diversity in pediatric patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: This was a prospective case-control study. We used PCR-based assays to detect viral DNA in the monthly mouth swabs of 22 pediatric patients with MS and 77 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. EBV-positive samples were further analyzed for sequence variation in the EBV BCRF1 (ebvIL-10) gene using direct DNA sequencing methods, and in the EBV LMP1 gene by mass spectrometry. Results: Nineteen of the 22 (86.4%) children with MS were seropositive for remote EBV infection compared to 35 out of 77 (45.5%) healthy controls (p = 0.008). Baseline analysis of mouth swabs revealed a higher proportion of EBV-positive samples from EBV-seropositive patients with MS compared to EBV-seropositive healthy controls (52.6% vs 20%, p = 0.007). Longitudinal analysis of monthly swabs revealed average EBV detection rates of 50.6% in patients with MS and 20.4% in controls (p = 0.01). The oral shedding frequencies of Herpesviruses herpes simplex virus–1, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus (HHV)-6, and HHV-7 did not differ between groups. Changes in the predominant EBV genetic variants were detected more frequently in patients with MS; however, no specific EBV genetic variant was preferentially associated with MS. Conclusion: Children with MS demonstrate abnormally increased rates of EBV viral reactivation and a broader range of genetic variants, suggesting a selective impairment in their immunologic control of EBV. PMID:24014504

  10. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique

    OpenAIRE

    Thangavelu, K.; Kannan, R.; Kumar, N. Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple techni...

  11. Experimental feline enteric coronavirus infection reveals an aberrant infection pattern and shedding of mutants with impaired infectivity in enterocyte cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarets, Lowiese M. B.; Vermeulen, Ben L.; Theuns, Sebastiaan; Conceição-Neto, Nádia; Zeller, Mark; Roukaerts, Inge D. M.; Acar, Delphine D.; Olyslaegers, Dominique A. J.; Van Ranst, Marc; Matthijnssens, Jelle; Nauwynck, Hans J.

    2016-01-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) results from mutations in the viral genome during a common feline enteric coronavirus (FECV) infection. Since many virological and immunological data on FECV infections are lacking, the present study investigated these missing links during experimental infection of three SPF cats with FECV strain UCD. Two cats showed mild clinical signs, faecal shedding of infectious virus from 4 dpi, a cell-associated viraemia at inconsistent time points from 5 dpi, a highly neutralising antibody response from 9 dpi, and no major abnormalities in leukocyte numbers. Faecal shedding lasted for 28–56 days, but virus shed during this stage was less infectious in enterocyte cultures and affected by mutations. Remarkably, in the other cat neither clinical signs nor acute shedding were seen, but virus was detected in blood cells from 3 dpi, and shedding of non-enterotropic, mutated viruses suddenly occurred from 14 dpi onwards. Neutralising antibodies arose from 21 dpi. Leukocyte numbers were not different compared to the other cats, except for the CD8+ regulatory T cells. These data indicate that FECV can infect immune cells even in the absence of intestinal replication and raise the hypothesis that the gradual adaptation to these cells can allow non-enterotropic mutants to arise. PMID:26822958

  12. Herpes simplex virus-2 genital tract shedding is not predictable over months or years in infected persons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Dhankani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2 is a chronic reactivating infection that leads to recurrent shedding episodes in the genital tract. A minority of episodes are prolonged, and associated with development of painful ulcers. However, currently, available tools poorly predict viral trajectories and timing of reactivations in infected individuals. We employed principal components analysis (PCA and singular value decomposition (SVD to interpret HSV-2 genital tract shedding time series data, as well as simulation output from a stochastic spatial mathematical model. Empirical and model-derived, time-series data gathered over >30 days consists of multiple complex episodes that could not be reduced to a manageable number of descriptive features with PCA and SVD. However, single HSV-2 shedding episodes, even those with prolonged duration and complex morphologies consisting of multiple erratic peaks, were consistently described using a maximum of four dominant features. Modeled and clinical episodes had equivalent distributions of dominant features, implying similar dynamics in real and simulated episodes. We applied linear discriminant analysis (LDA to simulation output and identified that local immune cell density at the viral reactivation site had a predictive effect on episode duration, though longer term shedding suggested chaotic dynamics and could not be predicted based on spatial patterns of immune cell density. These findings suggest that HSV-2 shedding patterns within an individual are impossible to predict over weeks or months, and that even highly complex single HSV-2 episodes can only be partially predicted based on spatial distribution of immune cell density.

  13. A MAC Mode for Lightweight Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luykx, Atul; Preneel, Bart; Tischhauser, Elmar Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight cryptography strives to protect communication in constrained environments without sacrificing security. However, security often conflicts with efficiency, shown by the fact that many new lightweight block cipher designs have block sizes as low as 64 or 32 bits. Such low block sizes lead...... no effect on the security bound, allowing an order of magnitude more data to be processed per key. Furthermore, LightMAC is incredibly simple, has almost no overhead over the block cipher, and is parallelizable. As a result, LightMAC not only offers compact authentication for resource-constrained platforms...

  14. Using Interference to Block RFID Tags

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag.......We propose a novel method to block RFID tags from responding, using intentional interference. We focus on the experimental evaluation, where we impose interference on the download and uplink, respectively. The results are positive, where modulated CCI shows most effective to block a tag....

  15. CAPTURING REALITY AT CENTRE BLOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Boulanger

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Centre Block of Canada’s Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  16. Capturing Reality at Centre Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, C.; Ouimet, C.; Yeomans, N.

    2017-08-01

    The Centre Block of Canada's Parliament buildings, National Historic Site of Canada is set to undergo a major rehabilitation project that will take approximately 10 years to complete. In preparation for this work, Heritage Conservation Services (HCS) of Public Services and Procurement Canada has been completing heritage documentation of the entire site which includes laser scanning of all interior rooms and accessible confined spaces such as attics and other similar areas. Other documentation completed includes detailed photogrammetric documentation of rooms and areas of high heritage value. Some of these high heritage value spaces present certain challenges such as accessibility due to the height and the size of the spaces. Another challenge is the poor lighting conditions, requiring the use of flash or strobe lighting to either compliment or completely eliminate the available ambient lighting. All the spaces captured at this higher level of detail were also captured with laser scanning. This allowed the team to validate the information and conduct a quality review of the photogrammetric data. As a result of this exercise, the team realized that in most, if not all cases, the photogrammetric data was more detailed and at a higher quality then the terrestrial laser scanning data. The purpose and motivation of this paper is to present these findings, as well provide the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods and data sets.

  17. Building blocks of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malamud, E.; O'Connor, C.; Cooper, A.

    1990-01-01

    COSI [Ohio's Center for Science and Industry], a well established science center, and SciTech, an emerging one, have formed a collaboration to develop a group of original interactive exhibits conveying to a wide audience the nature of the most fundamental features of the Universe, as revealed in the fascinating world of nuclear and particle science. These new exhibits will add to, and be supported by, the basic science exhibits which have already attracted large numbers of visitors to both centers. The new project, called Building Blocks of the Universe, aims to foster an appreciation of the way all features of the Universe arise from simple, basic rules and to lead the visitor from the perceived complexities of our surroundings, to the unperceived, but simpler features of the sub-nuclear world. It has already become apparent from individual prototypes that these simple but immensely far-reaching ideas can indeed be conveyed by hands-on exhibits. These exhibits will be linked and enhanced by an effective museum environment, using pictorial diagrams, accurate non-technical text, and artistic displays to create an atmosphere in which visitors can learn about phenomena beyond the range of direct perception. This paper describes the goals, content and organization of the exhibition. The authors also outline their experience with prototype exhibits, and thereby invite additional input into the development process

  18. Comparative study between ultrasound guided tap block and paravertebral block in upper abdominal surgeries. Randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqaya M. Elsayed

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block and thoracic paravertebral block were safe and effective anesthetic technique for upper abdominal surgery with longer and potent postoperative analgesia in thoracic paravertebral block than transversus abdominis block.

  19. Ionization of amphiphilic acidic block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombani, Olivier; Lejeune, Elise; Charbonneau, Céline; Chassenieux, Christophe; Nicolai, Taco

    2012-06-28

    The ionization behavior of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer poly(n-butyl acrylate(50%)-stat-acrylic acid(50%))(100)-block-poly(acrylic acid)(100) (P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(100), DH50) and of its equivalent triblock copolymer P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100)-b-PAA(200)-b-P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) (TH50) were studied by potentiometric titration either in pure water or in 0.5 M NaCl. These polymers consist of a hydrophilic acidic block (PAA) connected to a hydrophobic block, P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100), whose hydrophobic character has been mitigated by copolymerization with hydrophilic units. We show that all AA units, even those in the hydrophobic block could be ionized. However, the AA units within the hydrophobic block were less acidic than those in the hydrophilic block, resulting in the preferential ionization of the latter block. The preferential ionization of PAA over that of P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) was stronger at higher ionic strength. Remarkably, the covalent bonds between the PAA and P(nBA(50%)-stat-AA(50%))(100) blocks in the diblock or the triblock did not affect the ionization of each block, although the self-association of the block copolymers into spherical aggregates modified the environment of the PAA blocks compared to when PAA was molecularly dispersed.

  20. Resveratrol Improves Tube Formation in AGE-Induced Late Endothelial Progenitor Cells by Suppressing Syndecan-4 Shedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs contributes to cardiovascular complications in diabetes, and resveratrol has been shown to improve EPC functions. Syndecan-4 (Synd4, a cell surface heparin sulfate proteoglycan, has been shown to promote neovascularization. Thus, the present study was performed to determine whether resveratrol promoted angiogenesis of EPCs by regulating Synd4. Late EPCs were isolated from human peripheral blood and stimulated with AGEs. Western blot showed that AGEs induced Synd4 shedding in a dose- and time-dependent manner. AGE-induced Synd4 shedding was partly reversed by NAC or resveratrol, along with normalized ROS production. Overexpression of Synd4 or pretreatment of resveratrol reversed AGE-impaired tube formation of EPCs and regulated the Akt/eNOS pathway. Furthermore, resveratrol suppressed Synd4 shedding via the inhibition of oxidative stress and improved tube formation of late EPCs via the regulation of the Synd4/Akt/eNOS pathway.

  1. Effect of genital herpes on cervicovaginal HIV shedding in women co-infected with HIV AND HSV-2 in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Todd

    Full Text Available To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV.Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1 57 women at 70 clinic visits with clinical genital herpes; (2 39 of the same women at 46 clinic visits when asymptomatic; (3 55 HSV-2 seropositive women at 60 clinic visits who were never observed with herpetic lesions; (4 18 HSV-2 seronegative women at 45 clinic visits. Associations of genital HIV shedding with HIV plasma viral load (PVL, herpetic lesions, HSV shedding and other factors were examined.Prevalence of detectable genital HIV RNA varied from 73% in HSV-2 seronegative women to 94% in women with herpetic lesions (geometric means 1634 vs 3339 copies/ml, p = 0.03. In paired specimens from HSV-2 positive women, genital HIV viral shedding was similar during symptomatic and asymptomatic visits. On multivariate regression, genital HIV RNA (log10 copies/mL was closely associated with HIV PVL (β = 0.51 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95%CI:0.41-0.60, p<0.001 and HSV shedding (β = 0.24 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95% CI:0.16-0.32, p<0.001 but not the presence of herpetic lesions (β = -0.10, 95%CI:-0.28-0.08, p = 0.27.HIV PVL and HSV shedding were more important determinants of genital HIV than the presence of herpetic lesions. These data support a role of HSV-2 infection in enhancing HIV transmissibility.

  2. Micellar aggregates of amylose-block-polystyrene rod-coil block copolymers in water and THF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, Katja; Böker, Alexander; Zettl, Heiko; Zhang, Mingfu; Krausch, Georg; Müller, Axel H.E.; Boker, A.; Zhang, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    Amylose-block-polystyrenes with various block copolymer compositions were investigated in water and in THF solution. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, dynamic light, scattering (DLS), and asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation with multiangle light scattering detection indicate the presence

  3. Approximate design theory for a simple block design with random block effects

    OpenAIRE

    Christof, Karin

    1985-01-01

    Approximate design theory for a simple block design with random block effects / K. Christof ; F. Pukelsheim. - In: Linear statistical inference / ed. by T. Calinski ... - Berlin u. a. : Springer, 1985. - S. 20-28. - (Lecture notes in statistics ; 35)

  4. Distribution of short block copolymer chains in Binary Blends of Block Copolymers Having Hydrogen Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Jongheon; Han, Sunghyun; Kim, Jin Kon

    2014-03-01

    A binary mixture of two block copolymers whose blocks are capable of forming the hydrogen bonding allows one to obtain various microdomains that could not be expected for neat block copolymer. For instance, the binary blend of symmetric polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) copolymer (PS-b-P2VP) and polystyrene-block-polyhydroxystyrene copolymer (PS-b-PHS) blends where the hydrogen bonding occurred between P2VP and PHS showed hexagonally packed (HEX) cylindrical and body centered cubic (BCC) spherical microdomains. To know the exact location of short block copolymer chains at the interface, we synthesized deuterated polystyrene-block-polyhydroxystyrene copolymer (dPS-b-PHS) and prepared a binary mixture with PS-b-P2VP. We investigate, via small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and neutron reflectivity (NR), the exact location of shorter dPS block chain near the interface of the microdomains.

  5. SHEDS-HT: an integrated probabilistic exposure model for prioritizing exposures to chemicals with near-field and dietary sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Kristin K; Glen, W Graham; Egeghy, Peter; Goldsmith, Michael-Rock; Smith, Luther; Vallero, Daniel; Brooks, Raina; Grulke, Christopher M; Özkaynak, Halûk

    2014-11-04

    United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) researchers are developing a strategy for high-throughput (HT) exposure-based prioritization of chemicals under the ExpoCast program. These novel modeling approaches for evaluating chemicals based on their potential for biologically relevant human exposures will inform toxicity testing and prioritization for chemical risk assessment. Based on probabilistic methods and algorithms developed for The Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model for Multimedia, Multipathway Chemicals (SHEDS-MM), a new mechanistic modeling approach has been developed to accommodate high-throughput (HT) assessment of exposure potential. In this SHEDS-HT model, the residential and dietary modules of SHEDS-MM have been operationally modified to reduce the user burden, input data demands, and run times of the higher-tier model, while maintaining critical features and inputs that influence exposure. The model has been implemented in R; the modeling framework links chemicals to consumer product categories or food groups (and thus exposure scenarios) to predict HT exposures and intake doses. Initially, SHEDS-HT has been applied to 2507 organic chemicals associated with consumer products and agricultural pesticides. These evaluations employ data from recent USEPA efforts to characterize usage (prevalence, frequency, and magnitude), chemical composition, and exposure scenarios for a wide range of consumer products. In modeling indirect exposures from near-field sources, SHEDS-HT employs a fugacity-based module to estimate concentrations in indoor environmental media. The concentration estimates, along with relevant exposure factors and human activity data, are then used by the model to rapidly generate probabilistic population distributions of near-field indirect exposures via dermal, nondietary ingestion, and inhalation pathways. Pathway-specific estimates of near-field direct exposures from consumer products are also modeled

  6. Block Gas Sol Unit in Haderslev

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark.......Investigation of a SDHW system based on a Block Gas Sol Unit from Baxi A/S installed by a consumer i Haderslev, Denmark....

  7. Ground reaction curve based upon block theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yow, J.L. Jr.; Goodman, R.E.

    1985-09-01

    Discontinuities in a rock mass can intersect an excavation surface to form discrete blocks (keyblocks) which can be unstable. Once a potentially unstable block is identified, the forces affecting it can be calculated to assess its stability. The normal and shear stresses on each block face before displacement are calculated using elastic theory and are modified in a nonlinear way by discontinuity deformations as the keyblock displaces. The stresses are summed into resultant forces to evaluate block stability. Since the resultant forces change with displacement, successive increments of block movement are examined to see whether the block ultimately becomes stable or fails. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analytic models for the stability of simple pyramidal keyblocks were evaluated. Calculated stability is greater for 3D analyses than for 2D analyses. Calculated keyblock stability increases with larger in situ stress magnitudes, larger lateral stress ratios, and larger shear strengths. Discontinuity stiffness controls blocks displacement more strongly than it does stability itself. Large keyblocks are less stable than small ones, and stability increases as blocks become more slender

  8. Light extraction block with curved surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  9. On multiple blocking sets in Galois planes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, A.; Lovász, L.; Storme, L.; Szönyi, T.

    2007-01-01

    This article continues the study of multiple blocking sets in PG(2, q). In [A. Blokhuis, L. Storme, T. Szonyi, Lacunary polynomials, multiple blocking sets and Baer subplanes. J. London Math. Soc. (2) 60 (1999), 321–332. MR1724814 (2000j:05025) Zbl 0940.51007], using lacunary polynomials, it was

  10. CONJUGATED BLOCK-COPOLYMERS FOR ELECTROLUMINESCENT DIODES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberer, A; Gill, R.E; Herrema, J.K; Malliaras, G.G; Wildeman, J.; Hadziioannou, G

    In this article we review results obtained in our laboratory on the design and study of new light-emitting polymers. We are interested in the synthesis and characterisation of block copolymers with regularly alternating conjugated and non conjugated sequences. The blocks giving rise to luminescence

  11. Programs for the calculi of blocks permeabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Hernandez, J.J.; Sovero Sovero, H.F.

    1993-01-01

    This report studies the stochastic analysis of radionuclide transport. The permeability values of blocks are necessary to do a numeric model for the flux and transport problems in ground soils. The determination of block value by function on grill value is the objective of this program

  12. Substrate tolerant direct block copolymer nanolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Tao; Wang, Zhongli; Schulte, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Block copolymer (BC) self-assembly constitutes a powerful platform for nanolithography. However, there is a need for a general approach to BC lithography that critically considers all the steps from substrate preparation to the final pattern transfer. We present a procedure that significantly sim...... plasma treatment enables formation of the oxidized PDMS hard mask, PS block removal and polymer or graphene substrate patterning....

  13. Benchmarking Block Ciphers for Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Law, Y.W.; Doumen, J.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    2004-01-01

    Choosing the most storage- and energy-efficient block cipher specifically for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is not as straightforward as it seems. To our knowledge so far, there is no systematic evaluation framework for the purpose. We have identified the candidates of block ciphers suitable for

  14. Block Study: Learning About Your Local Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckbreth, Catherine

    Designed for 7th- and 8th-grade students, five lessons using a block of houses in an urban neighborhood help students learn about the history of a neighborhood, the owners of the houses, and the style and architectural features of the homes. Although this unit has been developed for a specific neighborhood, a similar block study could be conducted…

  15. Metallo-supramolecular block copolymer micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gohy, J.M.W.

    2009-01-01

    Supramolecular copolymers have become of increasing interest in recent years in the search for new materials with tunable properties. In particular, metallo-supramolecular block copolymers in which metal-ligand complexes are introduced in block copolymer architectures, have known important progress,

  16. Renewable energy the best remedy for electrical load shedding in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhutta, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Average 33% time of daily electrical load shedding in Pakistan is most serious as it has affected all activities. Industries are crippled, commercial, official activities and daily life is being deteriorated Total loss to Export is 1.3 and oil import bill is $ 9 Billion. If appropriate actions are not taken immediately; the situation is going to get worse when people will fight for every watt of electricity. The impounding crises are not foreseen and its gravity is not yet properly realized by the decision makers. Politics and several lobbies work against construction of major projects of hydel power and baseless controversies have been created. Pakistan is blessed with abundant renewable energy i.e. 2.9 million MW solar, tidal, wind 346,000 MW and 59,000 MW potentials of hydro electricity. Analysis of the reasons for the slow and no growth of these vital renewable potentials in Pakistan indicate that there are barriers which need to be mitigated to take immediate benefits to overcome menace of load shedding. Local R and D, Design, manufacturing, installation and feasibility study capabilities are negligible. Institutional capabilities in most of the organizations can at best be ranked as average or weak. Other impediments and barriers that continue to hamper the load shedding are losses, attitude in the promotion of renewable and hydro power projects include: lack of serious attempts to mitigate the barriers, integrate the programs with profitability; inadequate evaluation of resources; non availability of reliable baseline data; and lack of coordination among the relevant agencies; weak institutional arrangements for renewable energy promotion; absence of fiscal and financing mechanisms; lack of understanding, awareness, information and outreach; uneven allocation of resources; lack of appropriate quality management, monitoring and evaluation programs; and need of attractive policy framework and legislative support, building consensus among people and provinces

  17. The undesirable effects of neuromuscular blocking drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claudius, C; Garvey, L H; Viby-Mogensen, J

    2009-01-01

    Neuromuscular blocking drugs are designed to bind to the nicotinic receptor at the neuromuscular junction. However, they also interact with other acetylcholine receptors in the body. Binding to these receptors causes adverse effects that vary with the specificity for the cholinergic receptor...... in question. Moreover, all neuromuscular blocking drugs may cause hypersensitivity reactions. Often the symptoms are mild and self-limiting but massive histamine release can cause systematic reactions with circulatory and respiratory symptoms and signs. At the end of anaesthesia, no residual effect...... of a neuromuscular blocking drug should be present. However, the huge variability in response to neuromuscular blocking drugs makes it impossible to predict which patient will suffer postoperative residual curarization. This article discusses the undesirable effects of the currently available neuromuscular blocking...

  18. Functional Nanoporous Polymers from Block Copolymer Precursors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao

    Abstract Self-assembly of block copolymers provides well-defined morphologies with characteristic length scales in the nanometer range. Nanoporous polymers prepared by selective removal of one block from self-assembled block copolymers offer great technological promise due to their many potential...... functionalities remains a great challenge due to the limitation of available polymer synthesis and the nanoscale confinement of the porous cavities. The main topic of this thesis is to develop methods for fabrication of functional nanoporous polymers from block copolymer precursors. A method has been developed......, where living anionic polymerization and atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) are combined to synthesize a polydimethylsiloxane-b-poly(tert-butyl acrylate)-b-polystyrene (PDMS-b-PtBA-b-PS) triblock copolymer precursor. By using either anhydrous hydrogen fluoride or trifluoroacetic acid, PtBA block...

  19. Thinking Outside the Block: An Innovative Alternative to 4X4 Block Scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Myra

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a 4x1 block scheduling method that was developed as an alternative to 4x4 block scheduling. Schedules Fridays for summer school, test preparation, and enrichment and elective courses. Includes suggestions on how to alleviate drawbacks of the 4x1 block schedule. (YDS)

  20. Microparticles shed from multidrug resistant breast cancer cells provide a parallel survival pathway through immune evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Ritu; Johnson, Michael S; Pokharel, Deep; Krishnan, S Rajeev; Bebawy, Mary

    2017-02-06

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women. Resident macrophages at distant sites provide a highly responsive and immunologically dynamic innate immune response against foreign infiltrates. Despite extensive characterization of the role of macrophages and other immune cells in malignant tissues, there is very little known about the mechanisms which facilitate metastatic breast cancer spread to distant sites of immunological integrity. The mechanisms by which a key healthy defense mechanism fails to protect distant sites from infiltration by metastatic cells in cancer patients remain undefined. Breast tumors, typical of many tumor types, shed membrane vesicles called microparticles (MPs), ranging in size from 0.1-1 μm in diameter. MPs serve as vectors in the intercellular transfer of functional proteins and nucleic acids and in drug sequestration. In addition, MPs are also emerging to be important players in the evasion of cancer cell immune surveillance. A comparative analysis of effects of MPs isolated from human breast cancer cells and non-malignant human brain endothelial cells were examined on THP-1 derived macrophages in vitro. MP-mediated effects on cell phenotype and functionality was assessed by cytokine analysis, cell chemotaxis and phagocytosis, immunolabelling, flow cytometry and confocal imaging. Student's t-test or a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparison and statistical analysis. In this paper we report on the discovery of a new cellular basis for immune evasion, which is mediated by breast cancer derived MPs. MPs shed from multidrug resistant (MDR) cells were shown to selectively polarize macrophage cells to a functionally incapacitated state and facilitate their engulfment by foreign cells. We propose this mechanism may serve to physically disrupt the inherent immune response prior to cancer cell colonization whilst releasing mediators required for the recruitment of distant immune cells. These findings

  1. Investigating Ammonia Emission Sources in a Coastal Urban Air Shed Using Stable Isotope Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, A.; Felix, J. D. D.

    2017-12-01

    For nearly 100 years, mankind has met the food demands of a growing population by commercially producing and consuming reactive nitrogen fertilizers. So much so, that now 40-60% of the population relies on them. This increase has drastically altered the global nitrogen (N) cycle. Specifically, ammonia (NH3) emissions to the atmosphere have increased, resulting in wet and dry NHx (NH3 + NH4+) deposition products that can be substantial sources of N to sensitive ecosystems. Excess N can wreak havoc on these environments, causing soil acidification, water body eutrophication, and decreases in biodiversity. Despite these effects, NH3 remains generally unregulated in the U.S. Should policymakers elect to regulate NH3, quantification of NH3 emission sources and transport is essential. This has proven to be particularly difficult in urban regions, where ambient NH3 may result from local urban sources and/or NH3 transport from rural agricultural sources. The presented work investigates potential NH3 emission sources within a South Texas coastal urban air shed, Corpus Christi, TX, U.S.A. Previous work has shown an increasing fine particulate matter (PM2.5) trend within the region, which may be attributable to NH3 emissions from a variety of local sources, including vehicle traffic, shipping traffic, the petrochemical industry, and/or surrounding agricultural cropland and livestock. NH3 was collected monthly at a set of 8 sites within the Corpus Christi air shed, analyzed for NH3 concentration and N isotopic composition (d15N-NH3), and compared to known isotopic compositions of NH3 sources. Low and seasonally variable d15N-NH3 values are associated with varying agricultural sources (fertilizer, livestock waste, etc.), while higher and more seasonally constant d15N-NH3 values are associated with non-agricultural sources (vehicles, industry, etc.). Several other physical and chemical atmospheric components (e.g. SO2, NO2, O3, PM2.5, temperature, relative humidity) were also

  2. Optimal Load Shedding and Generation Rescheduling for Overload Suppression in Large Power Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Young-Hyun

    Ever-increasing size, complexity and operation costs in modern power systems have stimulated the intensive study of an optimal Load Shedding and Generator Rescheduling (LSGR) strategy in the sense of a secure and economic system operation. The conventional approach to LSGR has been based on the application of LP (Linear Programming) with the use of an approximately linearized model, and the LP algorithm is currently considered to be the most powerful tool for solving the LSGR problem. However, all of the LP algorithms presented in the literature essentially lead to the following disadvantages: (i) piecewise linearization involved in the LP algorithms requires the introduction of a number of new inequalities and slack variables, which creates significant burden to the computing facilities, and (ii) objective functions are not formulated in terms of the state variables of the adopted models, resulting in considerable numerical inefficiency in the process of computing the optimal solution. A new approach is presented, based on the development of a new linearized model and on the application of QP (Quadratic Programming). The changes in line flows as a result of changes to bus injection power are taken into account in the proposed model by the introduction of sensitivity coefficients, which avoids the mentioned second disadvantages. A precise method to calculate these sensitivity coefficients is given. A comprehensive review of the theory of optimization is included, in which results of the development of QP algorithms for LSGR as based on Wolfe's method and Kuhn -Tucker theory are evaluated in detail. The validity of the proposed model and QP algorithms has been verified and tested on practical power systems, showing the significant reduction of both computation time and memory requirements as well as the expected lower generation costs of the optimal solution as compared with those obtained from computing the optimal solution with LP. Finally, it is noted that an

  3. Effect of shed rooftype and babassu pie on the productive characteristics of meat quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordane de Oliveira Borges

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the effects of shed roof(SR typeand the inclusion of babassu pie (BP in rations on the productive characteristics ofmeat quailsfrom days 14 to 28 and days14 to 40. We studied 896 meatquails. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 4x4 factorial arrangement, using four types of shedroofs (fiber cement, ceramic, straw, and painted fiber cement and four rations (with 0, 5, 10, and 15% inclusion of babassu pie. The performance variables evaluated from 14 to 28 and 14 to 40 days included food intake (FI, g/bird, mean weight gain (WG, g/bird, food conversion (FC, g/g, mean live weight on day 28 (MW28, g/bird, mean live weight on day 40 (MW40, g/bird, and energy efficiency (EF; g Mcal. After slautherthe birds on day 40, we measured the carcass weight (CW and the carcass yield (CY, %, obtained for the breast (BY, legs (LGY, and wings (WINGY. We also obtained the relative weight of the heart (HRW, liver (LRW, gizzard (GRW, and intestine (IRW. To compare the economic efficiency between the experimental rations, we analyzed the cost of ration per kg of carcass (CC and determined the gross margin (GM. Between day 14 and day 28, we found that the use of SR influenced the FI28, WG28, and the MW28 of the quails (p 0.05, but it linearly improved WG28, FC28, MW28, and EF28. Between days 14 and 40, we found that SR influenced the WG40, FC40, MW40, and EF40 of the quails (p < 0.05 and that a BP increased the FI40, WG40, and MW40 in a quadratic manner. SR and BP did not affect the CW, BY, WINGY, LGY, HRW, LRW,or IRW. However, BP influenced MGRW, which increased linearly with the inclusion of BP. We concluded that a ceramic roof provides better environmental conditions than do other shed roofs. The inclusion of BP improved the performance characteristics, and it was technically feasible to include up to 15% BP in the rations of meat quails. Based on the current cost analysis, however, the inclusion of BP is economically

  4. Paravertebral Block Plus Thoracic Wall Block versus Paravertebral Block Alone for Analgesia of Modified Radical Mastectomy: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Liang Li

    Full Text Available Paravertebral block placement was the main anesthetic technique for modified radical mastectomy in our hospital until February 2014, when its combination with blocks targeting the pectoral musculature was initiated. We compared the analgesic effects of paravertebral blocks with or without blocks targeting the pectoral musculature for modified radical mastectomy.We retrospectively collected data from a single surgeon and anesthesiologist from June 1, 2012, to May 31, 2015. Intraoperative sedatives and analgesic requirements, time to the first analgesic request, postoperative analgesic doses, patient satisfaction, and complications were compared.Fifty-four patients received a paravertebral block alone (PECS 0, and 46 received a paravertebral block combined with blocks targeting the pectoral musculature (PECS 1. The highest intraoperative effect-site concentration of propofol was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group than in the PECS 0 group [2.3 (1.5, 2.8 vs 2.5 (1.5, 4 μg/mL, p = 0.0014]. The intraoperative rescue analgesic dose was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group [0 (0, 25 vs 0 (0, 75 mg of ketamine, p = 0.0384]. Furthermore, the PECS 1 group had a significantly longer time to the first analgesic request [636.5 (15, 720 vs 182.5 (14, 720 min, p = 0.0001]. After further adjustment for age, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status classification, chronic pain history, incidence of a superficial cervical plexus block placement, and operation duration, blocks targeting the pectoral musculature were determined to be the only significant factor (hazard ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.58; p < 0.0001. Very few patients used potent analgesics including morphine and ketorolac; the cumulative use of morphine or ketorolac was similar in the study groups. However, the incidence of all analgesic use, namely morphine, ketorolac, acetaminophen, and celecoxib, was significantly lower in the PECS 1 group [3

  5. Block Copolymers: Synthesis and Applications in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qin

    This study is focused on the synthesis and study of (block) copolymers using reversible deactivation radical polymerizations (RDRPs), including atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. In particular, two primary areas of study are undertaken: (1) a proof-of-concept application of lithographic block copolymers, and (2) the mechanistic study of the deposition of titania into block copolymer templates for the production of well-ordered titania nanostructures. Block copolymers have the ability to undergo microphase separation, with an average size of each microphase ranging from tens to hundreds of nanometers. As such, block copolymers have been widely considered for nanotechnological applications over the past two decades. The development of materials for various nanotechnologies has become an increasingly studied area as improvements in many applications, such as those found in the semiconductor and photovoltaic industries are constantly being sought. Significant growth in developments of new synthetic methods ( i.e. RDRPs) has allowed the production of block copolymers with molecular (and sometimes atomic) definition. In turn, this has greatly expanded the use of block copolymers in nanotechnology. Herein, we describe the synthesis of statistical and block copolymers of 193 nm photolithography methacrylate and acrylate resist monomers with norbornyl and adamantyl moieties using RAFT polymerization.. For these resist (block) copolymers, the phase separation behaviors were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). End groups were removed from the polymers to avoid complications during the photolithography since RAFT end groups absorb visible light. Poly(glycidyl methacrylate-block-polystyrene) (PGMA-b-PS) was synthesize by ATRP and demonstrated that this block copolymer acts as both a lithographic UV (365 nm) photoresist and a self-assembly material. The PGMA segments can undergo cationic

  6. Block-accelerated aggregation multigrid for Markov chains with application to PageRank problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhao-Li; Huang, Ting-Zhu; Carpentieri, Bruno; Wen, Chun; Gu, Xian-Ming

    2018-06-01

    Recently, the adaptive algebraic aggregation multigrid method has been proposed for computing stationary distributions of Markov chains. This method updates aggregates on every iterative cycle to keep high accuracies of coarse-level corrections. Accordingly, its fast convergence rate is well guaranteed, but often a large proportion of time is cost by aggregation processes. In this paper, we show that the aggregates on each level in this method can be utilized to transfer the probability equation of that level into a block linear system. Then we propose a Block-Jacobi relaxation that deals with the block system on each level to smooth error. Some theoretical analysis of this technique is presented, meanwhile it is also adapted to solve PageRank problems. The purpose of this technique is to accelerate the adaptive aggregation multigrid method and its variants for solving Markov chains and PageRank problems. It also attempts to shed some light on new solutions for making aggregation processes more cost-effective for aggregation multigrid methods. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this technique.

  7. Masquerading bundle branch block as a presenting manifestation of complete atrioventricular block that caused syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhenyu; Tian, Ying; Yang, Xinchun; Liu, Xingpeng

    2017-10-01

    A 59-year-old male patient was admitted with the main complaints of stuffiness and shortness of breath. An ECG from precordial leads on admission showed masquerading bundle branch block. Syncope frequently occurred after admission. During syncope episodes, ECG telemetry showed that the syncope was caused by intermittent complete atrioventricular block, with the longest RR interval lasting for 4.36 s. At the gap of syncope, ECG showed complete right bundle branch block accompanied by alternation of left anterior fascicular block and left posterior fascicular block. The patient was implanted with a dual-chamber permanent pacemaker. Follow-up of 9 months showed no reoccurrence of syncope.

  8. Application of a vortex shedding flowmeter to the wide range measurement of high temperature gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, S.P.; Ennis, R.M. Jr.; Herndon, P.G.

    1981-01-01

    A single flowmeter was required for helium gas measurement in a Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor loss of coolant simulator. Volumetric flow accuracy of +-1.0% of reading was required over the Reynolds Number range 6 x 10 3 to 1 x 10 6 at flowing pressures from 0.2 to 9 MPa (29 to 1305 psia) at 350 0 C (660 0 F) flowing temperature. Because of its inherent accuracy and rangeability, a vortex shedding flowmeter was selected and specially modified to provide for a remoted thermal sensor. Experiments were conducted to determine the relationship between signal attenuation and sensor remoting geometry, as well as the relationship between gas flow parameters and remoted thermal sensor signal for both compressed air and helium gas. Based upon the results of these experiments, the sensor remoting geometry was optimized for this application. The resultant volumetric flow rangeability was 155:1. The associated temperature increase at the sensor position was 9 0 C above ambient (25 0 F) at a flowing temperature of 350 0 C. The volumetric flow accuracy was measured over the entire 155:1 flow range at parametric values of flowing density. A volumetric flow accuracy of +- % of reading was demonstrated

  9. Sporocyst size of isolates of Sarcocystis shed by the Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheadle, M A; Dame, J B; Greiner, E C

    2001-02-26

    The Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) is a definitive host for multiple Sarcocystis species including Sarcocystis neurona, one of the causative agents of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM), a severe, neuromuscular disease of horses. Size and morphologic characteristics of isolates of Sarcocystis shed by the opossum were examined to determine if differences were useful in discriminating between the isolates and/or species. Collections of sporocysts from 17 opossums were molecularly characterized and measured using an ocular micrometer. The mean sporocyst size of isolates of S. neurona was 10.7 microm x 7.0 microm, Sarcocystis falcatula 11.0 microm x 7.1 microm, Sarcocystis speeri 12.2 microm x 8.8 microm, 1085-like isolate 10.9 microm x 6.8 microm, and 3344-like isolate 19.4 microm x 10.5 microm. The length and width of S. speeri were statistically different (p < 0.05) from the sporocysts of other types. The length of S. neurona and S. falcatula sporocysts were statistically different (p < 0.05) from each other and the width of S. falcatula and 1085 differed (p < 0.05). The fifth sporocyst type (3344) was observed, but due to pronounced morphological characteristics, statistical analysis was not performed. There was no consistent difference between the taxa based on internal structure of the sporocyst.

  10. Zika Virus Infection in Mice Causes Panuveitis with Shedding of Virus in Tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J. Miner

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging flavivirus that causes congenital abnormalities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. ZIKV infection also results in severe eye disease characterized by optic neuritis, chorioretinal atrophy, and blindness in newborns and conjunctivitis and uveitis in adults. We evaluated ZIKV infection of the eye by using recently developed mouse models of pathogenesis. ZIKV-inoculated mice developed conjunctivitis, panuveitis, and infection of the cornea, iris, optic nerve, and ganglion and bipolar cells in the retina. This phenotype was independent of the entry receptors Axl or Mertk, given that Axl−/−, Mertk−/−, and Axl−/−Mertk−/− double knockout mice sustained levels of infection similar to those of control animals. We also detected abundant viral RNA in tears, suggesting that virus might be secreted from lacrimal glands or shed from the cornea. This model provides a foundation for studying ZIKV-induced ocular disease, defining mechanisms of viral persistence, and developing therapeutic approaches for viral infections of the eye.

  11. Combustion heat release effects on asymmetric vortex shedding from bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Caleb Nathaniel

    2011-07-01

    This thesis describes an investigation of oscillatory combustion processes due to vortex shedding from bluff body flame holders. The primary objective of this study was to elucidate the influence of combustion process heat release upon the Benard-von Karman (BVK) instability in reacting bluff body wakes. For this purpose, spatial and temporal heat release distributions in bluff body-stabilized combustion of liquid Jet-A fuel with high-temperature, vitiated air were characterized over a wide range of operating conditions. Two methods of fuel injection were investigated. In the first method, referred to as close-coupled fuel injection, the fuel was supplied via discrete liquid jets injected perpendicular to the cross-flowing air stream just upstream of the bluff body trailing edge, thereby limiting fuel and air mixing prior to burning. The fuel was introduced well upstream (˜0.5 m) of the bluff body in the second fuel injection mode, resulting in a well-evaporated and mixed reactants stream. The resulting BVK heat release dynamics were compared between these fuel injection modes in order to investigate their dependence upon the spatial distributions of fuel-air ratio and heat release in the reacting wake. When close-coupled fuel injection was used, the BVK heat release dynamics increased in amplitude with increasing global equivalence ratio, reaching a maximum just before globally rich blow out of the combustion process occurred. This was due to a decrease in fuel entrainment into the near-wake as the fuel spray penetrated further into the cross-flow, which reduced the local heat release and equivalence ratio (indicated by CH* and C2*/CH* chemiluminescence, respectively). As a result, the density gradient across the near-wake reaction zone decreased, resulting in less damping of vorticity due to dilatation. In addition, unburned reactants were entrained into the recirculation zone due to the injection of discrete liquid fuel jets in close proximity to the wake. This

  12. Zika Virus Infection in Mice Causes Panuveitis with Shedding of Virus in Tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Jonathan J; Sene, Abdoulaye; Richner, Justin M; Smith, Amber M; Santeford, Andrea; Ban, Norimitsu; Weger-Lucarelli, James; Manzella, Francesca; Rückert, Claudia; Govero, Jennifer; Noguchi, Kevin K; Ebel, Gregory D; Diamond, Michael S; Apte, Rajendra S

    2016-09-20

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging flavivirus that causes congenital abnormalities and Guillain-Barré syndrome. ZIKV infection also results in severe eye disease characterized by optic neuritis, chorioretinal atrophy, and blindness in newborns and conjunctivitis and uveitis in adults. We evaluated ZIKV infection of the eye by using recently developed mouse models of pathogenesis. ZIKV-inoculated mice developed conjunctivitis, panuveitis, and infection of the cornea, iris, optic nerve, and ganglion and bipolar cells in the retina. This phenotype was independent of the entry receptors Axl or Mertk, given that Axl(-/-), Mertk(-/-), and Axl(-/-)Mertk(-/-) double knockout mice sustained levels of infection similar to those of control animals. We also detected abundant viral RNA in tears, suggesting that virus might be secreted from lacrimal glands or shed from the cornea. This model provides a foundation for studying ZIKV-induced ocular disease, defining mechanisms of viral persistence, and developing therapeutic approaches for viral infections of the eye. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Potential Noncutaneous Sites of Chelonid Herpesvirus 5 Persistence and Shedding in Green Sea Turtles Chelonia mydas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Karjian, Annie; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Whitfield, Jordyn; Herbst, Lawrence; Norton, Terry M; Ritchie, Branson

    2017-09-01

    Chelonid herpesvirus 5 (ChHV5), the likely etiologic agent of sea turtle fibropapillomatosis (FP), is predicted to be unevenly distributed within an infected turtle, in which productive virus replication and virion shedding occurs in cutaneous tumor keratinocytes. In this study, we measured and compared ChHV5 DNA quantities in tumors, skin, urine, major organs, and nervous tissue samples from green turtles Chelonia mydas. These samples were taken from the carcasses of 10 juvenile green turtles with and without clinical signs of FP that stranded in Florida during 2014. Quantitative PCR for ChHV5 UL30 was used to identify ChHV5 DNA in tumors, skin, heart, kidney, nerves, and urine sampled from five out of five FP-positive and three out of five FP-free turtles. The most frequently co-occurring sites were cutaneous tumor and kidney (n = 4). Novel data presented here include the identification of ChHV5 DNA in kidney, heart, and nerve samples from three FP-free turtles. These data support candidate nontumored anatomic sites of ChHV5 DNA localization and mobilization during two different disease states that may be involved in the ChHV5 infection cycle. Received September 8, 2016; accepted April 17, 2017.

  14. Flowering, nectar secretion, pollen shed and insect foraging on Aquilegia vulgaris L. (Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study on blooming biology, nectar secretion, pollen production and insect visitation of Aquilegia vulgaris L. was carried out in 2009 and 2011 in Lublin. The peak of flower opening during the day was between 5.00 and 7.00 (GMT +2. The flowers are protandrous with the female phase beginning approx. on the 3rd day of anthesis. The dynamics of nectar secretion and pollen shed from anthers (progressing from the central part of the androecium outwards support the reproductive system. The amount of nectar accumulated in the spurs increased from the bud stage and was the highest in the phase with approx. ¾ of dehisced anthers, usually on the 3rd day of flower life. Then, towards the end of anthesis, the amount of secreted and accumulated nectar decreased. The number of anthers developed per flower varied from 41 to 61 (mean = 49.1. The mass of pollen per 100 anthers averaged 6.7 mg. Pollen production per flower (mean = 3.28 mg slightly varied between years and was mainly correlated with the number of developed anthers. Estimated pollen yield was 1.69 g per m2 and sugar yield 1.22 g per m2. Species from the genus Bombus were the main flower visitors, with B. terrestris being the most frequent forager.

  15. Prolonged influenza virus shedding and emergence of antiviral resistance in immunocompromised patients and ferrets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhard van der Vries

    Full Text Available Immunocompromised individuals tend to suffer from influenza longer with more serious complications than otherwise healthy patients. Little is known about the impact of prolonged infection and the efficacy of antiviral therapy in these patients. Among all 189 influenza A virus infected immunocompromised patients admitted to ErasmusMC, 71 were hospitalized, since the start of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. We identified 11 (15% cases with prolonged 2009 pandemic virus replication (longer than 14 days, despite antiviral therapy. In 5 out of these 11 (45% cases oseltamivir resistant H275Y viruses emerged. Given the inherent difficulties in studying antiviral efficacy in immunocompromised patients, we have infected immunocompromised ferrets with either wild-type, or oseltamivir-resistant (H275Y 2009 pandemic virus. All ferrets showed prolonged virus shedding. In wild-type virus infected animals treated with oseltamivir, H275Y resistant variants emerged within a week after infection. Unexpectedly, oseltamivir therapy still proved to be partially protective in animals infected with resistant virus. Immunocompromised ferrets offer an attractive alternative to study efficacy of novel antiviral therapies.

  16. Navigating the gender minefield: An IPV prevention campaign sheds light on the gender gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Sarah N; Honea, Joy C

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how differences in male and female views about intimate partner violence (IPV) contributed to divergent responses to a prevention campaign conducted in the western USA. The study examines focus groups (n = 22) and in-depth interview data (n = 13) collected during campaign development to shed light on quantitative results indicating that women (but not men) increased their perceived severity of domestic violence and awareness of services from pre-test to post-test, while male attitudes moved in the opposite direction. Results of the qualitative study provide the basis for the authors' conclusions about why reactions differed: (1) men's unwillingness to view abuse within a gender context limits men's ability to accept the inequity in statistically demonstrated male and female roles as perpetrators and victims; (2) male resentment of existing gender stereotypes contributed to a rejection of campaign messages that utilised gender prevalence statistics to depict images showing men as perpetrators and women as victims; and (3) victim blaming attitudes contributed to resistance to empathy for victims depicted in the campaign. The authors offer suggestions for future campaigns that foster agency among both perpetrators and survivors while confronting the structural barriers to enacting change.

  17. Shedding of CD9 antigen into cerebrospinal fluid by acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Y; Ochiai, H; Shimizu, K; Azuma, E; Kamiya, H; Sakurai, M

    1990-07-01

    The accurate identification of small numbers of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) presents a diagnostic problem in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We demonstrated that soluble CD9 antigen was shed into CSF obtained from children with ALL, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), which used the activity of CD9 antigen to bind the Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) and a monoclonal antibody, SJ-9A4, simultaneously. Using RCA1/SJ-9A4 ELISA, CD9 antigen was detectable in CSF but not in plasma from 12 cases of CD9+ ALL in central nervous system (CNS) relapse. However, CD9 antigen was not released into CSF from 11 cases of CD9- ALL with CNS involvement, 136 cases of CD9+ ALL in complete remission (CR), 29 cases of CD9- ALL in CR, or 21 cases of aseptic meningitis. Interestingly, the levels of CD9 antigen were elevated in CSF from 7 of 10 CD9+ ALL patients without cytologically proven CNS involvement at diagnosis, with subsequent return to undetectable levels after initial induction chemotherapy was begun. In addition, sequential analysis of CSF from a 5-year-old boy with CD9+ ALL in CNS relapse showed that levels of CD9 antigen correlated well with the number of leukemic cells in CSF. Serial quantitative analysis of CD9 antigen in CSF could be useful to detect the proliferation of residual leukemic cells before the clinical manifestation.

  18. Impact response of RC rock-shed girder with sand cushion under falling load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatti, Abdul Qadir; Kishi, Norimitsu

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → An applicability of FE model of RC girders with sand cushion has been investigated. → Experimental and numerical results of Impact force, reaction force and displacement have been performed. → Cracks obtained from numerical models are in good agreement with the experimental ones. → Reaction force-displacement loops agree well between numerical and experimental results. → The configuration of the hysteretic loop at failure of RC girders can be approximated by a parallelogram. - Abstract: In order to establish a proper finite element model of prototype RC girder with sand element for impact response analysis, dynamic response analysis of RC girders with sand cushion subjected to impact force due to weight falling from the height of H = 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 m was performed to improve the state of the art of protective design for real scale rock-sheds by using LS-DYNA code. An applicability of proposed model was discussed comparing with experimental results (e.g. impact force, reaction force and displacement waves). From this study, dynamic characteristics of impact response can be better simulated by using the proposed model. As a result, when the sand cushion was set up, the impact force, reaction force, mid-span displacement waves, distribution of reaction force-displacement loops, and crack patterns obtained from the numerical analysis are in good agreement with those from the experimental results.

  19. Power transfer capability assessment of transmission interfaces with SVC and load shedding systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlovsky, V. [DMCC-Engineering, Kiev (Ukraine). Inst. of Electrodynamics; Dolzhenitsa, Y. [DMCC Engineering, Kiev (Ukraine); Ushapovskiy, K. [National Power Co. Ukrenergo, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2009-07-01

    As a result of deregulation in the power industry, energy trade and markets are pushing transmission system operators to operate their systems closer to the edge of the power transfer capability. Voltage instability and inadequate reactive power support of generators is a key factor in most major outages around the world. The ideal way to control power systems is to avoid emergencies by reliable planning and secure operation of power systems. Therefore, the accurate calculation of the power transfer capability of transmission interfaces is an important task on the planning and operation stages. This paper discussed the issue of transfer capability assessment and monitoring for interfaces with static var compensator (SVC) and load shedding schemes. It also proposed a special measure, a distance to voltage instability point, to monitor transfer capability on-line. The distance may be observed by measurement of SVC output. The paper considered the problem of optimal SVC size selection and a new approach was proposed based on P-V curves analysis. The paper discussed the problem formulation and proposed approach. A case was also presented in order to demonstrate the proposed approach on the IPS Ukraine-Crimea interface. It was concluded that the proposed approach allows the optimal rating of SVC for increasing transfers capability of transmission corridors. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  20. How counterfactuals of Red-Queen theory shed light on science and its historiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagg, Joachim L

    2017-08-01

    A historical episode of evolutionary theory, which has lead to the Red Queen theory of the evolutionary maintenance of sex, includes two striking contingencies. These are used to explore alternative what-if scenarios, in order to test some common opinions about such counterfactuals. This sheds new light on the nature of science and its historiography. One counterfactual leads to an unexpected convergence of its result to that of the actual science but, nevertheless, differs in its causal structure. The other diverges towards an incompatible alternative, but this requires further contingent choices that also diverge from actual science. The convergence in the first counterfactual is due to a horizontal transfer of knowledge. Similar transfers of knowledge are typical for innovations of actual science. This suggests that contingent choices can merge as well as fork research traditions both in actual research and counterfactual history. Neither the paths of the actual history of science nor those of its counterfactual alternatives will form a tree of exclusively diverging bifurcations, but a network instead. Convergencies in counterfactuals may, therefore, be due to the web-structure of science as much as to the aims of the historians in question. Furthermore, the difference in causal structure between the actual science and its convergent counterfactual might become diagnostic for external factors rather than internal aims forcing a historian towards convergence. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Unsteady flow challenges tracking performance at vortex shedding frequencies without disrupting lift mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Megan; Sponberg, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Birds, insects, and many animals use unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms to achieve stable hovering flight. Natural environments are often characterized by unsteady flows causing animals to dynamically respond to perturbations while performing complex tasks, such as foraging. Little is known about how unsteady flow around an animal interacts with already unsteady flow in the environment or how this impacts performance. We study how the environment impacts maneuverability to reveal any coupling between body dynamics and aerodynamics for hawkmoths, Manduca sexta,tracking a 3D-printed robotic flower in a wind tunnel. We also observe the leading-edge vortex (LEV), a known lift-generating mechanism for insect flight with smoke visualization. Moths in still and unsteady air exhibit near perfect tracking at low frequencies, but tracking in the flower wake results in larger overshoot at mid-range. Smoke visualization of the flower wake shows that the dominant vortex shedding corresponds to the same frequency band as the increased overshoot. Despite the large effect on flight dynamics, the LEV remains bound to the wing and thorax throughout the wingstroke. In general, unsteady wind seems to decrease maneuverability, but LEV stability seems decoupled from changes in flight dynamics.

  2. Transient Stability Improvement for Combined Heat and Power System Using Load Shedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-Cheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze and improve the transient stability of an industrial combined heat and power (CHP system in a high-tech science park in Taiwan. The CHP system installed two 161 kV/161 kV high-impendence transformers to connect with Taipower System (TPS for both decreasing the short-circuit fault current and increasing the fault critical clearing time. The transient stabilities of three types of operation modes in CHP units, 3G1S, 2G1S, and 1G1S, are analyzed. Under the 3G1S operation mode, the system frequency is immediately restored to 60 Hz after tie line tripping with the TPS. Under the 1G1S and 2G1S operation modes, the system frequencies will continuously decrease and eventually become unstable. A novel transient stability improvement approach using load shedding technique based on the change in frequency is proposed to improve the transient stability.

  3. Evaluation of the mechanism of skin enhancing surfactants on the biomembrane of shed snake skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonglertnirant, Nanthida; Ngawhirunpat, Tanasait; Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Mont

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the effects of different surfactants at various concentrations as a skin penetration enhancer through the biomembrane of the shed skin of Naja kaouthia. Additionally, the enhancer mechanism(s) of each class of surfactants were evaluated using physical characterization techniques, such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, and small and wide angle X-ray scattering (SWAXS). Our results showed that skin permeability increased with increasing concentrations of surfactants and the degree of increase was higher for the model hydrophilic permeant, deuterium dioxide (D(2)O), than the lipophilic permeant, ketoprofen (KP). Ionic surfactants, sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), demonstrated higher enhancement ability than the polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan mono-oleate (Tween 80) non-ionic surfactant, which was consistent with the results from physical characterization studies. Increasing amounts of permeated drug resulted in an increase in membrane interactions. From our observations, it can be assumed that SLS and CTAB can be localized inside the biomembrane and thereby enhance drug permeation mainly through interactions with intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum (SC) and the creation of a perturbed microenvironment among lipid alkyl chains and polar head groups.

  4. A previously undescribed organic residue sheds light on heat treatment in the Middle Stone Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Patrick; Porraz, Guillaume; Bellot-Gurlet, Ludovic; February, Edmund; Ligouis, Bertrand; Paris, Céline; Texier, Pierre-Jean; Parkington, John E; Miller, Christopher E; Nickel, Klaus G; Conard, Nicholas J

    2015-08-01

    South Africa has in recent years gained increasing importance for our understanding of the evolution of 'modern human behaviour' during the Middle Stone Age (MSA). A key element in the suite of behaviours linked with modern humans is heat treatment of materials such as ochre for ritual purposes and stone prior to tool production. Until now, there has been no direct archaeological evidence for the exact procedure used in the heat treatment of silcrete. Through the analysis of heat-treated artefacts from the Howiesons Poort of Diepkloof Rock Shelter, we identified a hitherto unknown type of organic residue - a tempering-residue - that sheds light on the processes used for heat treatment in the MSA. This black film on the silcrete surface is an organic tar that contains microscopic fragments of charcoal and formed as a residue during the direct contact of the artefacts with hot embers of green wood. Our results suggest that heat treatment of silcrete was conducted directly using an open fire, similar to those likely used for cooking. These findings add to the discussion about the complexity of MSA behaviour and appear to contradict previous studies that had suggested that heat treatment of silcrete was a complex (i.e., requiring a large number of steps for its realization) and resource-consuming procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Protein shedding in urothelial bladder cancer: prognostic implications of soluble urinary EGFR and EpCAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, R T; Regan, H L; Pirrie, S J; Devall, A J; Cheng, K K; Zeegers, M P; James, N D; Knowles, M A; Ward, D G

    2015-03-17

    Better biomarkers must be found to develop clinically useful urine tests for bladder cancer. Proteomics can be used to identify the proteins released by cancer cell lines and generate candidate markers for developing such tests. We used shotgun proteomics to identify proteins released into culture media by eight bladder cancer cell lines. These data were compared with protein expression data from the Human Protein Atlas. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was identified as a candidate biomarker and measured by ELISA in urine from 60 noncancer control subjects and from 436 patients with bladder cancer and long-term clinical follow-up. Bladder cancer cell lines shed soluble EGFR ectodomain. Soluble EGFR is also detectable in urine and is highly elevated in some patients with high-grade bladder cancer. Urinary EGFR is an independent indicator of poor bladder cancer-specific survival with a hazard ratio of 2.89 (95% CI 1.81-4.62, Pbladder cancer-specific survival and have prognostic value over and above that provided by standard clinical observations. Measuring urinary EGFR and EpCAM may represent a simple and useful approach for fast-tracking the investigation and treatment of patients with the most aggressive bladder cancers.

  6. Zebrafish models flex their muscles to shed light on muscular dystrophies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joachim; Currie, Peter D

    2012-11-01

    Muscular dystrophies are a group of genetic disorders that specifically affect skeletal muscle and are characterized by progressive muscle degeneration and weakening. To develop therapies and treatments for these diseases, a better understanding of the molecular basis of muscular dystrophies is required. Thus, identification of causative genes mutated in specific disorders and the study of relevant animal models are imperative. Zebrafish genetic models of human muscle disorders often closely resemble disease pathogenesis, and the optical clarity of zebrafish embryos and larvae enables visualization of dynamic molecular processes in vivo. As an adjunct tool, morpholino studies provide insight into the molecular function of genes and allow rapid assessment of candidate genes for human muscular dystrophies. This unique set of attributes makes the zebrafish model system particularly valuable for the study of muscle diseases. This review discusses how recent research using zebrafish has shed light on the pathological basis of muscular dystrophies, with particular focus on the muscle cell membrane and the linkage between the myofibre cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix.

  7. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-08-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats.

  8. Vortex shedding control of circular cylinder by perforated shroud in deep water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozkan Gokturk M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to control the vortex shedding downstream of a circular cylinder (inner cylinder by the existence of outer perforated cylinder concentrically located around the inner cylinder in deep water. The flow characteristics downstream of concentrically placed coupled cylinders were investigated quantitatively by the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV technique. Diameter of the outer perforated cylinder and inner cylinder were kept constant as Do=100 mm and Di=50 mm. The depth-averaged free-stream velocity was also kept constant as U=100 mm/s which corresponded to the Reynolds number of ReDo=10,000 based on the outer cylinder diameter. Experiments were conducted for six porosities (β = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 in order to show the effect of these parameters on the flow control. Maximum values of both Reynolds shear stress, and turbulence kinetic energy, significantly decreased with the existence of outer perforated cylinder and also, the location of peak magnitudes of turbulence statistics occurred at locations further downstream compared to the bare cylinder case. The most effective control was revealed for the porosity of β=0.7.

  9. Vortex shedding control of circular cylinder by perforated shroud in deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Gokturk M.; Durhasan, Tahir; Pinar, Engin; Aksoy, Muhammed M.; Akilli, Huseyin; Sahin, Beşir

    The aim of the present study is to control the vortex shedding downstream of a circular cylinder (inner cylinder) by the existence of outer perforated cylinder concentrically located around the inner cylinder in deep water. The flow characteristics downstream of concentrically placed coupled cylinders were investigated quantitatively by the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique. Diameter of the outer perforated cylinder and inner cylinder were kept constant as Do=100 mm and Di=50 mm. The depth-averaged free-stream velocity was also kept constant as U=100 mm/s which corresponded to the Reynolds number of ReDo=10,000 based on the outer cylinder diameter. Experiments were conducted for six porosities (β = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8) in order to show the effect of these parameters on the flow control. Maximum values of both Reynolds shear stress, and turbulence kinetic energy, significantly decreased with the existence of outer perforated cylinder and also, the location of peak magnitudes of turbulence statistics occurred at locations further downstream compared to the bare cylinder case. The most effective control was revealed for the porosity of β=0.7.

  10. Toward Composable Hardware Agnostic Communications Blocks Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    block-by-block level or on a multi- block level. In the block-by-block pushback approach, queues between each block are small and blocks processing data...medium access, and physical layers of the waveform has limited our ability to take advantage of technology advances in signal processing , rate...pro- cessing functions, and application processing functions as shown in Figure 1 [1]. Transceiver functions are functions associated with transmitting

  11. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, K; Kannan, R; Kumar, N Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple technique. The objective of this study is to find an alternative inferior alveolar nerve block that has a higher success rate than other routine techniques. To this purpose, a simple painless inferior alveolar nerve block was designed to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve. This study was conducted in Oral surgery department of Vinayaka Mission's dental college Salem from May 2009 to May 2011. Five hundred patients between the age of 20 years and 65 years who required extraction of teeth in mandible were included in the study. Out of 500 patients 270 were males and 230 were females. The effectiveness of the IANB was evaluated by using a sharp dental explorer in the regions innervated by the inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves after 3, 5, and 7 min, respectively. This study concludes that inferior alveolar nerve block is an appropriate alternative nerve block to anesthetize inferior alveolar nerve due to its several advantages.

  12. The impact of load shedding on gender relations in heterosexual households in Mkoba north, Gweru, Zimbabwe: Implications for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuku Mukoni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of load shedding on gender relations in heterosexual households. 20 couples were selected through judgmental sampling that was followed by network referencing; bringing the sample to 40 participants. Study was descriptive in nature. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data. Study reveals that load shedding have ripple effects in the social fabric of sustainable development through its impacts on gender relations. Load shedding is proving to be reproducing and maintaining gender relations of inequality, thus holding back sustainable development. Women are deprived control of areas that traditional belongs to them like the decision and control of energy use in the household giving men more power over women. Load shedding is increasing men’s time in the public sphere while women are tied more to the private sphere. For sustainable development to be achieved, household relationships should uphold the principles of sustainable development and gender equality is one of them. Empowerment of women and men in household energy uses will aid in opening up their ‘functioning space’. An understanding and appreciation of gender equality in the household will help men and women to be influential in the larger society leading to sustainable development.

  13. Evaluation of bovine coronavirus antibody levels, virus shedding, and respiratory disease incidence throughout the beef cattle production cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective- Determine how levels of serum antibody to bovine coronavirus (BCV) are related to virus shedding patterns and respiratory disease incidence in beef calves at various production stages. Animals- 890 crossbred beef calves from four separately managed herds at the U.S. Meat Animal Research C...

  14. rROP2 from Toxoplasma gondii as a potential vaccine against oocyst shedding in domestic cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauton Luiz Zulpo

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate oocyst shedding in cats immunized by nasal route with T. gondii proteins ROP2. Twelve short hair cats (Felis catus were divided in three groups G1, G2 and G3 (n=4. Animals from G1 received 100 μg of rROP2 proteins plus 20 μg of Quil-A, G2 received 100 μg of BSA plus 20 μg of Quil-A, and the G3 only saline solution (control group. All treatments were done by intranasal route at days 0, 21, 42, and 63. The challenge was performed in all groups on day 70 with ≅ 800 tissue cysts of ME-49 strain by oral route. Animals from G1 shed less oocysts (86.7% than control groups. ELISA was used to detect anti-rROP2 IgG and IgA, however, there were no correlation between number of oocyst shedding by either IgG or IgA antibody levels. In the present work, in spite of lesser oocysts production in immunized group than control groups, it was not possible to associate the use of rROP2 via nostrils with protection against oocyst shedding. For the future, the use of either other recombinant proteins or DNA vaccine, in combination with rROP2 could be tested to try improving the efficacy of this kind of vaccine.

  15. Intestinal Adenovirus Shedding Before Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation Is a Risk Factor for Invasive Infection Post-transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kosulin

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Human adenoviruses (HAdV are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric human stem cell transplant (HSCT recipients. Our previous studies identified the gastrointestinal tract as a site of HAdV persistence, but the role of intestinal virus shedding pre-transplant for the risk of ensuing invasive infection has not been entirely elucidated. Molecular HAdV monitoring of serial stool samples using RQ-PCR was performed in 304 children undergoing allogeneic HSCT. Analysis of stool and peripheral blood specimens was performed pre-transplant and at short intervals until day 100 post-HSCT. The virus was detected in the stool of 129 patients (42%, and 42 tested positive already before HSCT. The patients displaying HAdV shedding pre-transplant showed a significantly earlier increase of intestinal HAdV levels above the critical threshold associated with high risk of invasive infection (p < 0.01. In this subset of patients, the occurrence of invasive infection characterized by viremia was significantly higher than in patients without HAdV shedding before HSCT (33% vs 7%; p < 0.0001. The data demonstrate that intestinal HAdV shedding before HSCT confers a greatly increased risk for invasive infection and disseminated disease post-transplant, and highlights the need for timely HAdV monitoring and pre-emptive therapeutic considerations in HSCT recipients.

  16. Predictors and risk factors for the intestinal shedding of Escherichia coli O157 among working donkeys (Equus asinus) in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedial, Jesse T.; Shittu, Aminu; Tambuwal, Faruk M.; Abubakar, Mikail B.; Garba, Muhammed K.; Kwaga, Jacob P.; Fasina, Folorunso O.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Escherichia coli are an important group of bacteria in the normal gastrointestinal system but can sometimes cause infections in domestic animals and man. Donkeys are routinely used as multipurpose animal but details of burdens of potentially infectious bacteria associated with it are limited. The prevalence and associations between intestinal shedding of E. coli O157 and animal characteristics and management factors were studied among 240 randomly selected working donkeys in north-western Nigeria. Design Four local government areas, of Sokoto State in north-western Nigeria were recruited in this study. A multistage randomised cluster design was used to select subjects and donkey owners within selected zones. Confirmation of infection was based on bacterial culture, isolation and biochemical test for E. coli O157 from faecal samples. Results Of the total bacteria isolated, 203 of the 329 (61.70 per cent) were E. coli, 76 of which was E. coli serotype O157. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to examine the relation between intestinal shedding of E. coli O157 and selected variables. The analysis yielded five potential predictors of shedding: soft faeces in donkeys, Akaza and Fari ecotypes of donkey were positive predictors while maize straw as feed and sampling during the cold dry period were negative predictors. Conclusions This study concludes that controlling intestinal shedding of E. coli O157 among working donkeys in Nigeria is possible using the identified predictors in planning appropriate interventions to reduced human risk of infection. PMID:26392892

  17. Comparative community-level associations of helminth infections and microparasite shedding in wild long-tailed macaques in Bali, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Justin J S; Lane-Degraaf, Kelly E; Fuentes, Agustin; Hollocher, Hope

    2015-03-01

    Helminthes have the capacity to modulate host immunity, leading to positive interactions with coinfecting microparasites. This phenomenon has been primarily studied during coinfections with a narrow range of geo-helminthes and intracellular microparasites in human populations or under laboratory conditions. Far less is known regarding differences in coinfection dynamics between helminth types, the range of microparasites that might be affected or the overall community-level effects of helminth infections on microparasites in wild systems. Here, we analysed the presence/absence and abundance patterns of enteric parasites in long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis) on the island of Bali, Indonesia, to assess whether naturally occurring helminth infections were associated with increased shedding of the most common intracellular (Cryptosporidium spp., Isospora spp.) and extracellular (Entamoeba spp., Giardia spp.) microparasites. We also comparatively assessed the statistical correlations of different helminth taxa with microparasite shedding to determine if there were consistent relationships between the specific helminth taxa and microparasites. Helminth infections were associated with increased shedding of both intracellular and extracellular microparasites. Platyhelminthes repeatedly displayed strong positive correlations with several microparasites; while nematodes did not. Our results indicate that helminthes can influence microparasite community shedding dynamics under wild conditions, but that trends may be driven by a narrow range of helminthes.

  18. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  19. Effect of genital herpes on cervicovaginal HIV shedding in women co-infected with HIV AND HSV-2 in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Jim; Riedner, Gabriele; Maboko, Leonard; Hoelscher, Michael; Weiss, Helen A; Lyamuya, Eligius; Mabey, David; Rusizoka, Mary; Belec, Laurent; Hayes, Richard

    2013-01-01

    To compare the presence and quantity of cervicovaginal HIV among HIV seropositive women with clinical herpes, subclinical HSV-2 infection and without HSV-2 infection respectively; to evaluate the association between cervicovaginal HIV and HSV shedding; and identify factors associated with quantity of cervicovaginal HIV. Four groups of HIV seropositive adult female barworkers were identified and examined at three-monthly intervals between October 2000 and March 2003 in Mbeya, Tanzania: (1) 57 women at 70 clinic visits with clinical genital herpes; (2) 39 of the same women at 46 clinic visits when asymptomatic; (3) 55 HSV-2 seropositive women at 60 clinic visits who were never observed with herpetic lesions; (4) 18 HSV-2 seronegative women at 45 clinic visits. Associations of genital HIV shedding with HIV plasma viral load (PVL), herpetic lesions, HSV shedding and other factors were examined. Prevalence of detectable genital HIV RNA varied from 73% in HSV-2 seronegative women to 94% in women with herpetic lesions (geometric means 1634 vs 3339 copies/ml, p = 0.03). In paired specimens from HSV-2 positive women, genital HIV viral shedding was similar during symptomatic and asymptomatic visits. On multivariate regression, genital HIV RNA (log10 copies/mL) was closely associated with HIV PVL (β = 0.51 per log10 copies/ml increase, 95%CI:0.41-0.60, pgenital HIV than the presence of herpetic lesions. These data support a role of HSV-2 infection in enhancing HIV transmissibility.

  20. Hair shedding score may affect body temperature more than hair coat color during heat stress in weaned beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hair shedding score and hair coat color on the vaginal temperature (VT) of calves during heat stress. Weaned Bos taurus beef heifers (n = 32; BW = 282 ± 6.4 kg) were assigned to a hair coat color class (BLACK; RED; or LIGHT, where LIGHT = yel...

  1. [Conduction block: a notion to let through].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, E

    2012-12-01

    Historical study of electrodiagnosis indicates that nerve conduction block is an old notion, used as early as the second century by Galien and then early in the 19th by physiologists such as Müller and Mateucci. Although introduced into the field of human pathology by Mitchell in 1872, who used it to study nerve injuries, and then by Erb in 1874 to study radial palsy, the contribution of nerve conduction blocks to electrodiagnosis was not exploited until the 1980s. At that time, attempts to improve early diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome showed that among the electrophysiological consequences of demyelination, conduction block was the most appropriate to account for the paralysis. At the same time, descriptions of neuropathies characterized by conduction blocks led to considering conduction block as a major electrophysiological sign. Why was it so difficult for this sign to be retained for electrodiagnosis? Since the notion is not always associated with anatomical lesions, it doesn't fit easily into anatomoclinical reasoning, but has to be thought of in functional terms. Understanding how an uninjured axon could fail to conduct action potentials leads to an examination of the intimate consequences of demyelinations and axonal dysfunctions. But some of the difficulty encountered in adding this new old sign to the armamentarium of electrophysiological diagnosis was related to the technical precautions required to individualize a block. Several pitfalls have to be avoided if a conduction block is to be afforded real diagnostic value. Similar precautions and discussions are also needed to establish an opposing sign, the "excitability block" or "inverse block". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. CT and fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sun Kyung; Kwon, Dae Ik; Ahn, Hyup; Kim, Jong Il; Kim, Byung Young; Lee, Jong Gil

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the effects and usefulness of fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block after marking of needle path with CT scan. Celiac ganglion block with 100% ethyl alcohol was performed in 50 cancer patients who were inoperable and had intractable abdominal pain. Duration and degree of pain relief after the procedure and its complication were analyzed. Early pain relief was observed in 98% and long term relief in 68% without serious complication. Fluoroscopy guided celiac ganglion block after marking of needle path with CT scan was a safe and valuable procedure in relieving intractable pain in terminal cancer patients and reduced the time in the CT room

  3. Measurement of soil moisture using gypsum blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis Dela, B.

    the building. Consequently, measuring the moisture of the surrounding soil is of great importance for detecting the source of moisture in a building. Up till now, information has been needed to carry out individual calibrations for the different types of gypsum blocks available on the market and to account......For the past 50 years, gypsum blocks have been used to determine soil moisture content. This report describes a method for calibrating gypsum blocks for soil moisture measurements. Moisture conditions inside a building are strongly influenced by the moisture conditions in the soil surrounding...

  4. Evaluative Conditioning is Insensitive to Blocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Beckers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative conditioning has been claimed to have a number of functional characteristics that set it apart from other forms of associative learning in humans, such as insensitivity to extinction and contingency, independence of contingency awareness, and insensitivity to modulation. Despite its potential theoretical importance, until now few data are available concerning the susceptibility of evaluative conditioning to cue competition effects such as blocking. In the present study, we assessed the susceptibility of acquired preferences and evaluations to blocking in a candy game. Results suggest that evaluative conditioning is not susceptible to blocking. We discuss this observation in the light of theoretical accounts of evaluative conditioning and associative learning in humans.

  5. Blocks and families for cyclotomic Hecke algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Chlouveraki, Maria

    2009-01-01

    The definition of Rouquier for the families of characters introduced by Lusztig for Weyl groups in terms of blocks of the Hecke algebras has made possible the generalization of this notion to the case of complex reflection groups. The aim of this book is to study the blocks and to determine the families of characters for all cyclotomic Hecke algebras associated to complex reflection groups. This volume offers a thorough study of symmetric algebras, covering topics such as block theory, representation theory and Clifford theory, and can also serve as an introduction to the Hecke algebras of complex reflection groups.

  6. Theory of circuit block switch-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Henzler

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Switching-off unused circuit blocks is a promising approach to supress static leakage currents in ultra deep sub-micron CMOS digital systems. Basic performance parameters of Circuit Block Switch-Off (CBSO schemes are defined and their dependence on basic circuit parameters is estimated. Therefore the design trade-off between strong leakage suppression in idle mode and adequate dynamic performance in active mode can be supported by simple analytic investigations. Additionally, a guideline for the estimation of the minimum time for which a block deactivation is useful is derived.

  7. Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail

    2016-02-01

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.

  8. Productivity assessment of Angola's oil blocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana; Managi, Shunsuke

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the change in productivity as a result of Angola oil policy from 2001 to 2007. Angola oil blocks are the main source of tax receipts and, therefore, strategically important for public finances. A Malmquist index with the input technological bias is applied to measure productivity change. Oil blocks on average became both more efficient and experienced technological progress. Our results indicate that the traditional growth accounting method, which assumes Hicks neutral technological change, is not appropriate for analyzing changes in productivity for Angola oil blocks. Policy implications are derived. (author)

  9. Superintegrability of d-dimensional conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isachenkov, Mikhail [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics and Astronomy; Schomerus, Volker [DESY Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    We observe that conformal blocks of scalar 4-point functions in a d-dimensional conformal field theory can mapped to eigenfunctions of a 2-particle hyperbolic Calogero-Sutherland Hamiltonian. The latter describes two coupled Poeschl-Teller particles. Their interaction, whose strength depends smoothly on the dimension d, is known to be superintegrable. Our observation enables us to exploit the rich mathematical literature on Calogero-Sutherland models in deriving various results for conformal field theory. These include an explicit construction of conformal blocks in terms of Heckman-Opdam hypergeometric functions and a remarkable duality that relates the blocks of theories in different dimensions.

  10. Round Gating for Low Energy Block Ciphers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banik, Subhadeep; Bogdanov, Andrey; Regazzoni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    design techniques for implementing block ciphers in a low energy fashion. We concentrate on round based implementation and we discuss how gating, applied at round level can affect and improve the energy consumption of the most common lightweight block cipher currently used in the internet of things....... Additionally, we discuss how to needed gating wave can be generated. Experimental results show that our technique is able to reduce the energy consumption in most block ciphers by over 60% while incurring only a minimal overhead in hardware....

  11. PEO-related block copolymer surfactants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Non-ionic block copolymer systems based on hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) and more hydrophobic co-polymer blocks are used intensively in a variety of industrial and personal applications. A brief description on the applications is presented. The physical properties of more simple model systems...... of such PEG-based block copolymers in aqueous suspensions are reviewed. Based on scattering experiments using either X-ray or neutrons, the phase behavior is characterized, showing that the thermo-reversible gelation is a result of micellar ordering into mesoscopic crystalline phases of cubic, hexagonal...

  12. Seismic proof test of shielding block walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohte, Yukio; Watanabe, Takahide; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Maruyama, Kazuhide

    1989-01-01

    Most of the shielding block walls used for building nuclear facilities are built by dry process. When a nuclear facility is designed, seismic waves specific at each site are set as input seismic motions and they are adopted in the design. Therefore, it is necessary to assure safety of the shielding block walls for earthquake by performing anti-seismic experiments under the conditions at each site. In order to establish the normal form that can be applied to various seismic conditions in various areas, Shimizu Corp. made an actual-size test samples for the shielding block wall and confirmed the safety for earthquake and validity of normalization. (author)

  13. Shedding light on avian influenza H4N6 infection in mallards: modes of transmission and implications for surveillance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaci K VanDalen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Wild mallards (Anas platyrhychos are considered one of the primary reservoir species for avian influenza viruses (AIV. Because AIV circulating in wild birds pose an indirect threat to agriculture and human health, understanding the ecology of AIV and developing risk assessments and surveillance systems for prevention of disease is critical. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, mallards were experimentally infected with an H4N6 subtype of AIV by oral inoculation or contact with an H4N6 contaminated water source. Cloacal swabs, oropharyngeal swabs, fecal samples, and water samples were collected daily and tested by real-time RT-PCR (RRT-PCR for estimation of viral shedding. Fecal samples had significantly higher virus concentrations than oropharyngeal or cloacal swabs and 6 month old ducks shed significantly more viral RNA than 3 month old ducks regardless of sample type. Use of a water source contaminated by AIV infected mallards, was sufficient to transmit virus to naïve mallards, which shed AIV at higher or similar levels as orally-inoculated ducks. CONCLUSIONS: Bodies of water could serve as a transmission pathway for AIV in waterfowl. For AIV surveillance purposes, water samples and fecal samples appear to be excellent alternatives or additions to cloacal and oropharyngeal swabbing. Furthermore, duck age (even within hatch-year birds may be important when interpreting viral shedding results from experimental infections or surveillance. Differential shedding among hatch-year mallards could affect prevalence estimates, modeling of AIV spread, and subsequent risk assessments.

  14. Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection exacerbates vaginal HIV shedding without affecting systemic viral loads in human CD34+ engrafted mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey X Xu

    Full Text Available HIV synergy with sexually transmitted co-infections is well-documented in the clinic. Co-infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in particular, increases genital HIV shedding and mucosal transmission. However, no animal model of co-infection currently exists to directly explore this relationship or to bridge the gap in understanding between clinical and in vitro studies of this interaction. This study aims to test the feasibility of using a humanized mouse model to overcome this barrier. Combining recent in vivo modelling advancements in both HIV and gonococcal research, we developed a co-infection model by engrafting immunodeficient NSG mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to generate humanized mice that permit both systemic HIV infection and genital N. gonorrhoeae infection. Systemic plasma and vaginal lavage titres of HIV were measured in order to assess the impact of gonococcal challenge on viral plasma titres and genital shedding. Engrafted mice showed human CD45+ leukocyte repopulation in blood and mucosal tissues. Systemic HIV challenge resulted in 104-105 copies/mL of viral RNA in blood by week 4 post-infection, as well as vaginal shedding of virus. Subsequent gonococcal challenge resulted in unchanged plasma HIV levels but higher viral shedding in the genital tract, which reflects published clinical observations. Thus, human CD34+ stem cell-transplanted NSG mice represent an experimentally tractable animal model in which to study HIV shedding during gonococcal co-infection, allowing dissection of molecular and immunological interactions between these pathogens, and providing a platform to assess future therapeutics aimed at reducing HIV transmission.

  15. An effective Load shedding technique for micro-grids using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foday Conteh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of renewable energy sources in micro-grids has become an effectivemeans of power decentralization especially in remote areas where the extension of the main power gridis an impediment. Despite the huge deposit of natural resources in Africa, the continent still remains inenergy poverty. Majority of the African countries could not meet the electricity demand of their people.Therefore, the power system is prone to frequent black out as a result of either excess load to the systemor generation failure. The imbalance of power generation and load demand has been a major factor inmaintaining the stability of the power systems and is usually responsible for the under frequency andunder voltage in power systems. Currently, load shedding is the most widely used method to balancebetween load and demand in order to prevent the system from collapsing. But the conventional methodof under frequency or under voltage load shedding faces many challenges and may not perform asexpected. This may lead to over shedding or under shedding, causing system blackout or equipmentdamage. To prevent system cascade or equipment damage, appropriate amount of load must beintentionally and automatically curtailed during instability. In this paper, an effective load sheddingtechnique for micro-grids using artificial neural network and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system isproposed. The combined techniques take into account the actual system state and the exact amount ofload needs to be curtailed at a faster rate as compared to the conventional method. Also, this methodis able to carry out optimal load shedding for any input range other than the trained data. Simulationresults obtained from this work, corroborate the merit of this algorithm.

  16. NDRG2 promoted secreted miR-375 in microvesicles shed from M1 microglia, which induced neuron damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li-li; Wu, Yuan-bo; Fang, Chuan-qin; Qu, Ping; Gao, Zong-liang

    2016-01-15

    Microglia microvesicles (MVs) has shown to have significant biological functions under normal conditions. A diversity of miRNAs is involved in neuronal development, survival, function, and plasticity, but the exact functional role of NDRG2 and secreted miR-375 in MVs in neuron damage is poorly understood. We investigated the effect of NDRG2 and secreted miR-375 in MVs shed from M1 microglia on neuron damage. Expression of Nos2, Arg-1, miR-375, syntaxin-1A, NDRG2 and Pdk 1 were evaluated using RT-PCR or western blotting. Cell viability of N2A neuron was quantified by a MTT assay. Microglia can be polarized into different functional phenotypes. Expression of NDRG2 and Nos2 were significantly increased by LPS treatment on N9 cells, whereas treatment with IL-4 dramatically suppressed the expression of NDRG2 and remarkably elevated expression of Arg-1. Besides, MVs shed from LPS-treated N9 microglia significantly inhibited cell viability of N2A neurons and expression of syntaxin-1A, and NDRG2 interference reversed the up-regulated miR-375 in LPS-treated N9 microglia and MVs shed from LPS-treated N9 cells. Furthermore, NDRG2 could modulate miR-375 expression in N9 microglia and MVs. And miR-375 inhibitor remarkably elevated Pdk1 expression in N2A neurons. Finally, miR-375 inhibitor could reverse suppression effect of NDRG2 overexpression on cell viability of N2A neurons and expression of syntaxin-1A. Our results demonstrated that NDRG2 promoted secreted miR-375 in microvesicles shed from M1 microglia, which induced neuron damage. The suppression of NDRG2 and secreted miR-375 in MVs shed from M1 microglia may be potential targets for alleviation of neuron damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection exacerbates vaginal HIV shedding without affecting systemic viral loads in human CD34+ engrafted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Stacey X; Leontyev, Danila; Kaul, Rupert; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2018-01-01

    HIV synergy with sexually transmitted co-infections is well-documented in the clinic. Co-infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in particular, increases genital HIV shedding and mucosal transmission. However, no animal model of co-infection currently exists to directly explore this relationship or to bridge the gap in understanding between clinical and in vitro studies of this interaction. This study aims to test the feasibility of using a humanized mouse model to overcome this barrier. Combining recent in vivo modelling advancements in both HIV and gonococcal research, we developed a co-infection model by engrafting immunodeficient NSG mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to generate humanized mice that permit both systemic HIV infection and genital N. gonorrhoeae infection. Systemic plasma and vaginal lavage titres of HIV were measured in order to assess the impact of gonococcal challenge on viral plasma titres and genital shedding. Engrafted mice showed human CD45+ leukocyte repopulation in blood and mucosal tissues. Systemic HIV challenge resulted in 104-105 copies/mL of viral RNA in blood by week 4 post-infection, as well as vaginal shedding of virus. Subsequent gonococcal challenge resulted in unchanged plasma HIV levels but higher viral shedding in the genital tract, which reflects published clinical observations. Thus, human CD34+ stem cell-transplanted NSG mice represent an experimentally tractable animal model in which to study HIV shedding during gonococcal co-infection, allowing dissection of molecular and immunological interactions between these pathogens, and providing a platform to assess future therapeutics aimed at reducing HIV transmission.

  18. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: Application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hore, Paromita; Zartarian, Valerie; Xue Jianping; Ozkaynak, Haluk; Wang, S.-W.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chu, P.-Ling; Sheldon, Linda; Robson, Mark; Needham, Larry; Barr, Dana; Freeman, Natalie; Georgopoulos, Panos; Lioy, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found in the

  19. Quantification of eDNA shedding rates from invasive bighead carp Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and silver carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klymus, Katy E.; Richter, Catherine A.; Chapman, Duane C.; Paukert, Craig P.

    2015-01-01

    Wildlife managers can more easily mitigate the effects of invasive species if action takes place before a population becomes established. Such early detection requires sensitive survey tools that can detect low numbers of individuals. Due to their high sensitivity, environmental DNA (eDNA) surveys hold promise as an early detection method for aquatic invasive species. Quantification of eDNA amounts may also provide data on species abundance and timing of an organism’s presence, allowing managers to successfully combat the spread of ecologically damaging species. To better understand the link between eDNA and an organism’s presence, it is crucial to know how eDNA is shed into the environment. Our study used quantitative PCR (qPCR) and controlled laboratory experiments to measure the amount of eDNA that two species of invasive bigheaded carps (Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) shed into the water. We first measured how much eDNA a single fish sheds and the variability of these measurements. Then, in a series of manipulative lab experiments, we studied how temperature, biomass (grams of fish), and diet affect the shedding rate of eDNA by these fish. We found that eDNA amounts exhibit a positive relationship with fish biomass, and that feeding could increase the amount of eDNA shed by ten-fold, whereas water temperature did not have an effect. Our results demonstrate that quantification of eDNA may be useful for predicting carp density, as well as densities of other rare or invasive species.

  20. Functionalization of Block Copolymer Vesicle Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Meier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In dilute aqueous solutions certain amphiphilic block copolymers self-assemble into vesicles that enclose a small pool of water with a membrane. Such polymersomes have promising applications ranging from targeted drug-delivery devices, to biosensors, and nanoreactors. Interactions between block copolymer membranes and their surroundings are important factors that determine their potential biomedical applications. Such interactions are influenced predominantly by the membrane surface. We review methods to functionalize block copolymer vesicle surfaces by chemical means with ligands such as antibodies, adhesion moieties, enzymes, carbohydrates and fluorophores. Furthermore, surface-functionalization can be achieved by self-assembly of polymers that carry ligands at their chain ends or in their hydrophilic blocks. While this review focuses on the strategies to functionalize vesicle surfaces, the applications realized by, and envisioned for, such functional polymersomes are also highlighted.