Sample records for block signal systems

  1. 49 CFR 236.401 - Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. (United States)


    ... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Traffic Control Systems Standards § 236.401 Automatic... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic block signal system and interlocking standards applicable to traffic control systems. 236.401 Section 236.401 Transportation Other...

  2. Integration between anticipatory blocking and redox signaling by the peroxiredoxin/thioredoxin/thioredoxin-reductase system. (United States)

    Selvaggio, Gianluca; Coelho, Pedro M B M; Salvador, Armindo


    Cells are occasionally exposed to high H2O2 concentrations, often preceding exposure to other electrophylic compounds. Both H2O2 and these compounds can irreversibly modify protein thiols, with deleterious consequences. Induction of enzymatic defenses against those agents is too slow to avoid significant damage. Cells may solve this conundrum by reversibly "blocking" the thiols once H2O2 concentrations begin to increase. We term this mechanism "anticipatory blocking" because it acts in anticipation of irreversible damage upon detection of early signs of stress. Here we examine the design requirements for the Peroxiredoxin/Thioredoxin/Thioredoxin-Reductase/Protein-Dithiol System (PTTRDS) to effectively integrate H2O2 signaling and anticipatory blocking of protein dithiols as disulfides, and we compared them to the designs found in cells. To that effect, we developed a minimal model of the PTTRDS, and we defined a set of quantitative performance criteria that embody the requirements for (a) efficient scavenging capacity, (b) low NADPH consumption, (c) effective signal propagation, and (d) effective anticipatory blocking. We then sought the design principles (relationships among rate constants and species concentrations) that warrant fulfillment of all these criteria. Experimental data indicates that the design of the PTTRDS in human erythrocytes fulfills these principles and thus accomplishes effective integration between anticipatory blocking, antioxidant protection and redox signaling. A more general analysis suggests that the same principles hold in a wide variety of cell types and organisms. We acknowledge grants PEst-C/SAU/LA0001/2013-2014, PEst-OE/QUI/UI0612/2013, FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-020978 (PTDC/QUI-BIQ/119657/2010) financed by FEDER through the "Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade, COMPETE" and by national funds through "FCT, Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia".

  3. Signal-Conditioning Block of a 1 × 200 CMOS Detector Array for a Terahertz Real-Time Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Ryul Yang


    Full Text Available A signal conditioning block of a 1 × 200 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS detector array is proposed to be employed with a real-time 0.2 THz imaging system for inspecting large areas. The plasmonic CMOS detector array whose pixel size including an integrated antenna is comparable to the wavelength of the THz wave for the imaging system, inevitably carries wide pixel-to-pixel variation. To make the variant outputs from the array uniform, the proposed signal conditioning block calibrates the responsivity of each pixel by controlling the gate bias of each detector and the voltage gain of the lock-in amplifiers in the block. The gate bias of each detector is modulated to 1 MHz to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the imaging system via the electrical modulation by the conditioning block. In addition, direct current (DC offsets of the detectors in the array are cancelled by initializing the output voltage level from the block. Real-time imaging using the proposed signal conditioning block is demonstrated by obtaining images at the rate of 19.2 frame-per-sec of an object moving on the conveyor belt with a scan width of 20 cm and a scan speed of 25 cm/s.

  4. Signal-Conditioning Block of a 1 × 200 CMOS Detector Array for a Terahertz Real-Time Imaging System. (United States)

    Yang, Jong-Ryul; Lee, Woo-Jae; Han, Seong-Tae


    A signal conditioning block of a 1 × 200 Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) detector array is proposed to be employed with a real-time 0.2 THz imaging system for inspecting large areas. The plasmonic CMOS detector array whose pixel size including an integrated antenna is comparable to the wavelength of the THz wave for the imaging system, inevitably carries wide pixel-to-pixel variation. To make the variant outputs from the array uniform, the proposed signal conditioning block calibrates the responsivity of each pixel by controlling the gate bias of each detector and the voltage gain of the lock-in amplifiers in the block. The gate bias of each detector is modulated to 1 MHz to improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the imaging system via the electrical modulation by the conditioning block. In addition, direct current (DC) offsets of the detectors in the array are cancelled by initializing the output voltage level from the block. Real-time imaging using the proposed signal conditioning block is demonstrated by obtaining images at the rate of 19.2 frame-per-sec of an object moving on the conveyor belt with a scan width of 20 cm and a scan speed of 25 cm/s.

  5. Peak Power Demand and Energy Consumption Reduction Strategies for Trains under Moving Block Signalling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Gu


    Full Text Available In the moving block signalling (MBS system where the tracking target point of the following train is moving forward with its leading train, overload of the substations occurs when a dense queue of trains starts (or restarts in very close distance interval. This is the peak power demand problem. Several methods have been attempted in the literature to deal with this problem through changing train’s operation strategies. However, most existing approaches reduce the service quality. In this paper, two novel approaches—“Service Headway Braking” (SHB and “Extending Stopping Distance Interval” (ESDI—are proposed according to available and unavailable extra station dwell times, respectively. In these two methods, the restarting times of the trains are staggered and traction periods are reduced, which lead to the reduction of peak power demand and energy consumption. Energy efficient control switching points are seen as the decision parameters. Nonlinear programming method is used to model the process. Simulation results indicate that, compared with ARL, peak power demands are reduced by 40% and 20% by applying SHB and ESDI without any arrival time delay, respectively. At the same time, energy consumptions are also reduced by 77% and 50% by applying SHB and ESDI, respectively.

  6. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V


    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  7. Properties of blocked linear systems. (United States)

    Chen, Weitian; Anderson, Brian D O; Deistler, Manfred; Filler, Alexander


    This paper presents a systematic study on the properties of blocked linear systems that have resulted from blocking discrete-time linear time invariant systems. The main idea is to explore the relationship between the blocked and the unblocked systems. Existing results are reviewed and a number of important new results are derived. Focus is given particularly on the zero properties of the blocked system as no such study has been found in the literature.

  8. Macrocell Builder: IP-Block-Based Design Environment for High-Throughput VLSI Dedicated Digital Signal Processing Systems

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    Urard Pascal


    Full Text Available We propose an efficient IP-block-based design environment for high-throughput VLSI systems. The flow generates SystemC register-transfer-level (RTL architecture, starting from a Matlab functional model described as a netlist of functional IP. The refinement model inserts automatically control structures to manage delays induced by the use of RTL IPs. It also inserts a control structure to coordinate the execution of parallel clocked IP. The delays may be managed by registers or by counters included in the control structure. The flow has been used successfully in three real-world DSP systems. The experimentations show that the approach can produce efficient RTL architecture and allows to save huge amount of time.

  9. 49 CFR 236.512 - Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where restrictive conditions obtain. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.512 Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where...

  10. Peak-to-Average Power Ratio Reduction for Integration of Radar and Communication Systems Based on OFDM Signals with Block Golay Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zi-qi


    Full Text Available Integration of radar and communication systems based on OFDM signals results in large Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR. Limited by the code rate, algorithm that use the Golay sequence code to restrain PAPR can only be applied under the condition of a few subcarriers. This study proposes an algorithm to restrain the PAPR of systems with a large number of subcarriers. The algorithm combines the group parallel code with the optimization of weight coefficients. First, bit streams are divided into several groups of parallel bits. Next, every group proceeds with Golay sequence coding, data symbol modulating and inverse Fourier transform. Finally, the parallel result is combined with an OFDM symbol. Before the parallel data are combined, several weight coefficients for every group are introduced; thus, the system has several candidate symbols for transmitting. Then the symbol with minimum PAPR is then selected as the transmitting signal, and the PAPR of the whole system is reduced. PAPR performance, Bit Error Radio (BER and wideband ambiguity function of three block methods with different coding rate are also simulated. The simulations show that the PAPR of the system decreases and the BER performance improves significantly. The signal exhibits a thumbtack ambiguity function, which suggests good resolution and accuracy for distance and velocity measurements.

  11. Support agnostic Bayesian matching pursuit for block sparse signals

    KAUST Repository

    Masood, Mudassir


    A fast matching pursuit method using a Bayesian approach is introduced for block-sparse signal recovery. This method performs Bayesian estimates of block-sparse signals even when the distribution of active blocks is non-Gaussian or unknown. It is agnostic to the distribution of active blocks in the signal and utilizes a priori statistics of additive noise and the sparsity rate of the signal, which are shown to be easily estimated from data and no user intervention is required. The method requires a priori knowledge of block partition and utilizes a greedy approach and order-recursive updates of its metrics to find the most dominant sparse supports to determine the approximate minimum mean square error (MMSE) estimate of the block-sparse signal. Simulation results demonstrate the power and robustness of our proposed estimator. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Stopping Condition for Greedy Block Sparse Signal Recovery


    Luo, Yu; Xie, Ronggui; Yin, Huarui; Wang, Weidong


    For greedy block sparse recovery where the sparsity level is unknown, we derive a stopping condition to stop the iteration process. Focused on the block orthogonal matching pursuit (BOMP) algorithm, we model the energy of residual signals at each iteration from a probabilistic perspective. At the iteration when the last supporting block is detected, the resulting energy of residual signals is supposed to suffer an obvious decrease. Based on this, we stop the iteration process when the energy ...

  13. VLSI mixed signal processing system (United States)

    Alvarez, A.; Premkumar, A. B.


    An economical and efficient VLSI implementation of a mixed signal processing system (MSP) is presented in this paper. The MSP concept is investigated and the functional blocks of the proposed MSP are described. The requirements of each of the blocks are discussed in detail. A sample application using active acoustic cancellation technique is described to demonstrate the power of the MSP approach.

  14. Architectures for block Toeplitz systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouras, Ilias; Glentis, George-Othon; Kalouptsidis, Nicholas


    In this paper efficient VLSI architectures of highly concurrent algorithms for the solution of block linear systems with Toeplitz or near-to-Toeplitz entries are presented. The main features of the proposed scheme are the use of scalar only operations, multiplications/divisions and additions, and th

  15. Block floating-point notation for signal processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, J.E.


    The development and application of a notation for use with block floating-point (BFP) mathematical operations in real-time signal processes is described. The notation has been extensively used in developing perimeter security signal processors such as the Magnetic Intrusion Line Sensor (MILES) Adaptive Digital Processor (MADP) and its forerunner, the Signal Processing Development Unit (SSPDU).

  16. Abscisic Acid Signal off the STARTing Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Archana Joshi-Saha; Christiane Valon; Jeffrey Leung


    The year 2009 marked a real turnaround in our understanding of the mode ot abscisJc acid(ABA)action. Nearly 25 years had elapsed since the first biochemical detection of ABA-binding proteins in the plasmalemma of Vicia guard cells was reported. This recent-and laudable-achievement is owed largely to the discovery of the soluble ABA receptors whose major interacting proteins happen to be some of the most well-established components of earliest steps in ABA signaling. These soluble receptors, with the double name of PYRABACTIN RESISTANCE (PYR)or REGULATORY COM-PONENT OF ABA RECEPTOR (RCAR), are a family of Arabidopsis proteins of about 150-200 amino acids that share a con-served START domain. The ABA signal transduction circuitry under non-stress conditions is muted by the ciade A protein phosphatases 2C (PP2C)(notably HAB1, ABI1, and ABI2). During the initial steps of ABA signaling, the binding of the hor-mone to the receptor induces a conformational change in the latter that allows it to sequester the PP2Cs. This excludes them from the negative regulation of the downstream ABA-activated kinases (OST1/SnRK2.6/SRK2E, SnRK2.2, and SnRK2.3), thus unleashing the pathway by freeing them to phosphorylate downstream targets that now include several b-ZIP transcription factors, ion channels (SLAC1, KAT1), and a NADPH oxidase (AtrbohF). The discovery of this family of soluble receptors and the rich insight already gained from structural studies of their complexes with different isoforms of ABA, PP2C, and the synthetic agonist pyrabactin lay the foundation towards rational design of chemical switches that can bolster drought hardiness in plants.

  17. A Signal Coordination Control Based on Traversing Empty between Mid-Block Street Crossing and Intersection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Zheng


    Full Text Available To solve the problem in pedestrian Mid-Block street crossing, the method of signal coordination control between mid-block street crossing and intersection is researched in this paper. The paper proposes to use “distance-flow rate-time” graph as the tool for building coordination control system model which is for different situations of traffic control. Through alternating the linear optimization model, the system outputs the distribution of signal timing and system operational factors (delays in vehicles and mid-block street crossing. Finally, taking one section on the Taiping North Road in Nanjing as an example, the signal coordination control is carried out. And the results which are delays in the vehicles and mid-block street crossing are compared to those in the current distribution of signal timing.

  18. Inhibitors of Hedgehog acyltransferase block Sonic Hedgehog signaling. (United States)

    Petrova, Elissaveta; Rios-Esteves, Jessica; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Glickman, J Fraser; Resh, Marilyn D


    Inhibition of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is of great clinical interest. Here we exploit Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat)-mediated Shh palmitoylation, a modification critical for Shh signaling, as a new target for Shh pathway inhibition. A target-oriented high-throughput screen was used to identify small-molecule inhibitors of Hhat. In cells, these Hhat inhibitors specifically block Shh palmitoylation and inhibit autocrine and paracrine Shh signaling.

  19. Inhibitors of Hedgehog Acyltransferase Block Sonic Hedgehog Signaling


    Petrova, Elissaveta; Rios-Esteves, Jessica; Ouerfelli, Ouathek; Glickman, J. Fraser; Resh, Marilyn D.


    Inhibition of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling is of great clinical interest. Here we exploit Hedgehog acyltransferase (Hhat)-mediated Shh palmitoylation, a modification critical for Shh signaling, as a novel target for Shh pathway inhibition. A target-oriented high-throughput screen was used to identify small-molecule inhibitors of Hhat. In cells, these Hhat inhibitors specifically block Shh palmitoylation and inhibit autocrine and paracrine Shh signaling.

  20. The RIP and block-RIP analysis of Nyquist folding receiver for recovering signals (United States)

    Jiang, Kaili; Chen, Sujuan; Tang, Bin


    Modern radar and communication systems require the detection and parameter estimation of signal under a broadband radio frequency (RF) environment. The Nyquist folding receiver (NYFR) is an efficient analog-to-information (A2I) architecture. It can use the compressive sensing (CS) techniques to break the limitations of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC). This paper demonstrates the restricted isometry property (RIP) of the NYFR deterministically by applying the Gershgorin circle theory. And, the NYFR suffers a poor RIP for the broadband signal, which will lead the conventional CS algorithms to be invalid. So, we derive the Fourier spectrum of the broadband signal, which covered multiple Nyquist zones and received by the NYFR. Then, the broadband signal can be regarded as the block-sparse signal. And, the block CS algorithms are applied for recovering the signal based on the analysis of the block-RIP. Finally, the simulation experiments demonstrate the validity of the findings.

  1. Curcumin blocks interleukin-1 signaling in chondrosarcoma cells.

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    Thomas Kalinski

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-1 signaling plays an important role in inflammatory processes, but also in malignant processes. The essential downstream event in IL-1 signaling is the activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB, which leads to the expression of several genes that are involved in cell proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis, among them VEGF-A. As microenvironment-derived IL-1β is required for invasion and angiogenesis in malignant tumors, also in chondrosarcomas, we investigated IL-1β-induced signal transduction and VEGF-A expression in C3842 and SW1353 chondrosarcoma cells. We additionally performed in vitro angiogenesis assays and NF-κB-related gene expression analyses. Curcumin is a substance which inhibits IL-1 signaling very early by preventing the recruitment of IL-1 receptor associated kinase (IRAK to the IL-1 receptor. We demonstrate that IL-1 signaling and VEGF-A expression are blocked by Curcumin in chondrosarcoma cells. We further show that Curcumin blocks IL-1β-induced angiogenesis and NF-κB-related gene expression. We suppose that IL-1 blockade is an additional treatment option in chondrosarcoma, either by Curcumin, its derivatives or other IL-1 blocking agents.

  2. Signal Space Separation method with block matrix inversion for extraction of signals in magnetoencephalography (United States)

    Baskaran, R.; Janawadkar, M. P.


    Signal Space Separation (SSS) method is a technique utilized to eliminate the contribution of unwanted signals due to external magnetic noise that inevitably get recorded along with the actual magnetic signal due to neuronal currents in the brain. In this paper, the SSS method has been implemented using block matrix inversion. By implementing block matrix inversion along with regrouping of radial terms, it has been possible to extract the true brain signal from the measured magnetic signal which includes the contribution from an external magnetic dipole artifact for measurements from as few as 64 channels. We observe that the minimum root mean square deviation (RMSD) of the signal inferred from block matrix inversion with regrouped terms is around 6 fT when the truncation order is set at L1 = 11 for signals of interest and L2 = 2 for external noise sources and saturates to similar values for higher L1. The RMSD of extracted signal is 50% smaller than the minimum RMSD when the magnetoencephalography signal is extracted by direct pseudoinverse technique and does not have a deep minimum in the truncation order L1 as observed when direct pseudoinverse technique is used.

  3. Optimal Backward Perturbation Analysis for the Block Skew Circulant Linear Systems with Skew Circulant Blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang


    Full Text Available We first give the block style spectral decomposition of arbitrary block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks. Secondly, we obtain the singular value of block skew circulant matrix with skew circulant blocks as well. Finally, based on the block style spectral decomposition, we deal with the optimal backward perturbation analysis for the block skew circulant linear system with skew circulant blocks.

  4. Earthquake Resistant Submarine Drydock Block System Design (United States)


    acceleration time history. It Is observed that the block on block surfaces for this system had been painted. According to Rabinowicz (1987) [13J, a...Maryland, 1982, p. 272. 166 13. Rabinowicz , Ernest, Lecture, "Tribology", M.I.T., Course 2.800, Fall 1987. 14. Telephone conversation between Tingley

  5. Combined parametric-nonparametric identification of block-oriented systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mzyk, Grzegorz


    This book considers a problem of block-oriented nonlinear dynamic system identification in the presence of random disturbances. This class of systems includes various interconnections of linear dynamic blocks and static nonlinear elements, e.g., Hammerstein system, Wiener system, Wiener-Hammerstein ("sandwich") system and additive NARMAX systems with feedback. Interconnecting signals are not accessible for measurement. The combined parametric-nonparametric algorithms, proposed in the book, can be selected dependently on the prior knowledge of the system and signals. Most of them are based on the decomposition of the complex system identification task into simpler local sub-problems by using non-parametric (kernel or orthogonal) regression estimation. In the parametric stage, the generalized least squares or the instrumental variables technique is commonly applied to cope with correlated excitations. Limit properties of the algorithms have been shown analytically and illustrated in simple experiments.

  6. Type WYZ-97 Eighteen-information Noninsulate Frequency-shift Automatic Blocking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Type WYZ-97 eighteen-information noninsulate frequency-shift automatic blocking system is the most advanced railroad signaling system in China nowadays.The article introduced its principles,technical targets,features and the applications.

  7. Continuous signals and systems with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    ElAli, Taan


    Designed for a one-semester undergraduate course in continuous linear systems, Continuous Signals and Systems with MATLAB®, Second Edition presents the tools required to design, analyze, and simulate dynamic systems. It thoroughly describes the process of the linearization of nonlinear systems, using MATLAB® to solve most examples and problems. With updates and revisions throughout, this edition focuses more on state-space methods, block diagrams, and complete analog filter design. New to the Second Edition           A chapter on block diagrams that covers various classical and state-space

  8. System Synthesis for Networks of Programmable Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Mannion, Ryan; Cotterell, Susan; Vahid, Frank


    The advent of sensor networks presents untapped opportunities for synthesis. We examine the problem of synthesis of behavioral specifications into networks of programmable sensor blocks. The particular behavioral specification we consider is an intuitive user-created network diagram of sensor blocks, each block having a pre-defined combinational or sequential behavior. We synthesize this specification to a new network that utilizes a minimum number of programmable blocks in place of the pre-defined blocks, thus reducing network size and hence network cost and power. We focus on the main task of this synthesis problem, namely partitioning pre-defined blocks onto a minimum number of programmable blocks, introducing the efficient but effective PareDown decomposition algorithm for the task. We describe the synthesis and simulation tools we developed. We provide results showing excellent network size reductions through such synthesis, and significant speedups of our algorithm over exhaustive search while obtaining...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The symmetric linear system gives us many simplifications and a possibility to adapt the computations to the computer at hand in order to achieve better performance. The aim of this paper is to consider the block bidiagonalization methods derived from a symmetric augmented multiple linear systems and make a comparison with the block GMRES and block biconjugate gradient methods.

  10. Optomotor-blind negatively regulates Drosophila eye development by blocking Jak/STAT signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Tsai

    Full Text Available Organ formation requires a delicate balance of positive and negative regulators. In Drosophila eye development, wingless (wg is expressed at the lateral margins of the eye disc and serves to block retinal development. The T-box gene optomotor-blind (omb is expressed in a similar pattern and is regulated by Wg. Omb mediates part of Wg activity in blocking eye development. Omb exerts its function primarily by blocking cell proliferation. These effects occur predominantly in the ventral margin. Our results suggest that the primary effect of Omb is the blocking of Jak/STAT signaling by repressing transcription of upd which encodes the Jak receptor ligand Unpaired.

  11. Blocking Dopaminergic Signaling Soon after Learning Impairs Memory Consolidation in Guinea Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiera-Nicole Lee

    Full Text Available Formation of episodic memories (i.e. remembered experiences requires a process called consolidation which involves communication between the neocortex and hippocampus. However, the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying this neocortico-hippocampal communication are poorly understood. Here, we examined the involvement of dopamine D1 receptors (D1R and D2 receptors (D2R mediated signaling on memory consolidation using the Novel Object Recognition (NOR test. We conducted the tests in male Hartley guinea pigs and cognitive behaviors were assessed in customized Phenotyper home cages utilizing Ethovision XT software from Noldus enabled for the 3-point detection system (nose, center of the body, and rear. We found that acute intraperitoneal injections of either 0.25 mg/kg SCH23390 to block D1Rs or 1.0 mg/kg sulpiride to block D2Rs soon after acquisition (which involved familiarization to two similar objects attenuated subsequent discrimination for novel objects when tested after 5-hours in the NOR test. By contrast guinea pigs treated with saline showed robust discrimination for novel objects indicating normal operational processes undergirding memory consolidation. The data suggests that involvement of dopaminergic signaling is a key post-acquisition factor in modulating memory consolidation in guinea pigs.

  12. Acoustic Signals and Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The Handbook of Signal Processing in Acoustics will compile the techniques and applications of signal processing as they are used in the many varied areas of Acoustics. The Handbook will emphasize the interdisciplinary nature of signal processing in acoustics. Each Section of the Handbook...... will present topics on signal processing which are important in a specific area of acoustics. These will be of interest to specialists in these areas because they will be presented from their technical perspective, rather than a generic engineering approach to signal processing. Non-specialists, or specialists...

  13. Signals and systems for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Wickert, Mark


    Getting mixed signals in your signals and systems course? The concepts covered in a typical signals and systems course are often considered by engineering students to be some of the most difficult to master. Thankfully, Signals & Systems For Dummies is your intuitive guide to this tricky course, walking you step-by-step through some of the more complex theories and mathematical formulas in a way that is easy to understand. From Laplace Transforms to Fourier Analyses, Signals & Systems For Dummies explains in plain English the difficult concepts that can trip you up

  14. Thoracic sympathetic block reduces respiratory system compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ely Martins Benseñor

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Thoracic epidural anesthesia (TEA following thoracic surgery presents known analgesic and respiratory benefits. However, intraoperative thoracic sympathetic block may trigger airway hyperreactivity. This study weighed up these beneficial and undesirable effects on intraoperative respiratory mechanics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Randomized, double-blind clinical study at a tertiary public hospital. METHODS: Nineteen patients scheduled for partial lung resection were distributed using a random number table into groups receiving active TEA (15 ml 0.5% bupivacaine, n = 9 or placebo (15 ml 0.9% saline, n = 10 solutions that also contained 1:200,000 epinephrine and 2 mg morphine. Under general anesthesia, flows and airway and esophageal pressures were recorded. Pressure-volume curves, lower inflection points (LIP, resistance and compliance at 10 ml/kg tidal volume were established for respiratory system, chest wall and lungs. Student’s t test was performed, including confidence intervals (CI. RESULTS: Bupivacaine rose 5 ± 1 dermatomes upwards and 6 ± 1 downwards. LIP was higher in the bupivacaine group (6.2 ± 2.3 versus 3.6 ± 0.6 cmH2O, p = 0.016, CI = -3.4 to -1.8. Respiratory system and lung compliance were higher in the placebo group (respectively 73.3 ± 10.6 versus 51.9 ± 15.5, p = 0.003, CI = 19.1 to 23.7; 127.2 ± 31.7 versus 70.2 ± 23.1 ml/cmH2O, p < 0.001, CI = 61 to 53. Resistance and chest wall compliance showed no difference. CONCLUSION: TEA decreased respiratory system compliance by reducing its lung component. Resistance was unaffected. Under TEA, positive end-expiratory pressure and recruitment maneuvers are advisable.

  15. Growth-Blocking Peptides As Nutrition-Sensitive Signals for Insulin Secretion and Body Size Regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Koyama


    Full Text Available In Drosophila, the fat body, functionally equivalent to the mammalian liver and adipocytes, plays a central role in regulating systemic growth in response to nutrition. The fat body senses intracellular amino acids through Target of Rapamycin (TOR signaling, and produces an unidentified humoral factor(s to regulate insulin-like peptide (ILP synthesis and/or secretion in the insulin-producing cells. Here, we find that two peptides, Growth-Blocking Peptide (GBP1 and CG11395 (GBP2, are produced in the fat body in response to amino acids and TOR signaling. Reducing the expression of GBP1 and GBP2 (GBPs specifically in the fat body results in smaller body size due to reduced growth rate. In addition, we found that GBPs stimulate ILP secretion from the insulin-producing cells, either directly or indirectly, thereby increasing insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling activity throughout the body. Our findings fill an important gap in our understanding of how the fat body transmits nutritional information to the insulin producing cells to control body size.

  16. Solving block linear systems with low-rank off-diagonal blocks is easily parallelizable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menkov, V. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)


    An easily and efficiently parallelizable direct method is given for solving a block linear system Bx = y, where B = D + Q is the sum of a non-singular block diagonal matrix D and a matrix Q with low-rank blocks. This implicitly defines a new preconditioning method with an operation count close to the cost of calculating a matrix-vector product Qw for some w, plus at most twice the cost of calculating Qw for some w. When implemented on a parallel machine the processor utilization can be as good as that of those operations. Order estimates are given for the general case, and an implementation is compared to block SSOR preconditioning.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Yunyun; Yang Zhen; Xu Qian


    Structural and statistical characteristics of signals can improve the performance of Compressed Sensing (CS).Two kinds of features of Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) coefficients of voiced speech signals are discussed in this paper.The first one is the block sparsity of DCT coefficients of voiced speech formulated from two different aspects which are the distribution of the DCT coefficients of voiced speech and the comparison of reconstruction performance between the mixed l2 /l1 program and Basis Pursuit (BP).The block sparsity of DCT coefficients of voiced speech means that some algorithms of block-sparse CS can be used to improve the recovery performance of speech signals.It is proved by the simulation results of the l2 / reweighted l1 mixed program which is an improved version of the mixed l2 /l1 program.The second one is the well known large DCT coefficients of voiced speech focus on low frequency.In line with this feature,a special Gaussian and Partial Identity Joint (GPIJ)matrix is constructed as the sensing matrix for voiced speech signals.Simulation results show that the GPIJ matrix outperforms the classical Gaussian matrix for speech signals of male and female adults.

  18. Signals and systems with MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Won Young; Song, Ik H; Cho, Yong S


    Covers some of the theoretical foundations and mathematical derivations that can be used in higher-level related subjects such as signal processing, communication, and control, minimizing the mathematical difficulty and computational burden. This book illustrates the usage of MATLAB and Simulink for signal and system analysis and design.

  19. Block Preconditioners for Complex Symmetric Linear System with Two-by-Two Block Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Liang Wu


    Full Text Available Based on the previous work by Zhang and Zheng (A parameterized splitting iteration method for complex symmetric linear systems, Japan J. Indust. Appl. Math., 31 (2014 265–278, three block preconditioners for complex symmetric linear system with two-by-two block form are presented. Spectral properties of the preconditioned matrices are discussed in detail. It is shown that all the eigenvalues of the preconditioned matrices are well-clustered. Numerical experiments are reported to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed preconditioners.

  20. Carrying-over effects of GVBD blocking on post-blocking meiotic progression of oocytes: species difference and the signaling pathway leading to MPF activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Zhong Jiao

    Full Text Available Efforts to improve the quality of in vitro matured oocytes by blocking germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD and allowing more time for ooplasmic maturation have achieved little due to a lack of knowledge on the molecular events during GVBD blocking. Such knowledge is also important for studies aimed at regulating gene expression in maturing oocytes prior to GVBD. We studied species difference and signaling pathways leading to the carrying-over effect of GVBD blocking on post-blocking meiotic progression (PBMP. Overall, GVBD-blocking with roscovitine decelerated PBMP of mouse oocytes but accelerated that of pig oocytes. During blocking culture, whereas cyclin B of pig oocytes increased continuously, that of mouse oocytes declined first and then increased slowly. In both species, (a whereas active CDC2A showed a dynamics similar to cyclin B, inactive CDC2A decreased continuously; (b when oocytes were blocked in blocking medium containing cycloheximide, PBMP was decelerated significantly while cyclin B and active CDC2A decreasing to the lowest level; (c whereas sodium vanadate in blocking medium reduced PBMP, epidermal growth factor (EGF in blocking medium accelerated PBMP significantly with no effect on cyclin B levels. In conclusion, the EGF signaling cascade accelerated PBMP by promoting the pre-MPF (M-phase-promoting factor to MPF conversion during GVBD blocking with roscovitine. The significant difference in PBMP observed between mouse and pig oocytes was caused by species difference in cyclin B dynamics during blocking culture as no species difference was observed in either pre-MPF to MPF conversion or the EGF signaling activity.

  1. Compressive sensing of foot-gait signals by enhancing group block-sparse structure on the first-order difference. (United States)

    Pant, Jeevan K; Krishnan, Sridhar


    A new technique for improving the signal reconstruction performance for compressive sensing of gait signals is proposed. The algorithm is based on the minimization of a pseudo-norm which promotes group-block-sparse structure on the first-order difference of the signal. Signal blocks in foot gait signals occur as groups, and the locations of the group are estimated based on the regularization promoting block-sparse structure. The group locations are used for minimizing the pseudonorm for promoting group-block-sparse structure. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed technique yields upto 0.76dB improvement in the reconstruction performance for foot-gait signals relative to the algorithms promoting block-sparse structure.

  2. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Deprettere, Ed; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo


    Handbook of Signal Processing Systems is organized in three parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools, describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies. This handbook is an essential tool for professionals in many fields and researchers of all levels.

  3. Pilot Signal Design for Massive MIMO Systems: A Received Signal-To-Noise-Ratio-Based Approach (United States)

    So, Jungho; Kim, Donggun; Lee, Yuni; Sung, Youngchul


    In this paper, the pilot signal design for massive MIMO systems to maximize the training-based received signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is considered under two channel models: block Gauss-Markov and block independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.) channel models. First, it is shown that under the block Gauss-Markov channel model, the optimal pilot design problem reduces to a semi-definite programming (SDP) problem, which can be solved numerically by a standard convex optimization tool. Second, under the block i.i.d. channel model, an optimal solution is obtained in closed form. Numerical results show that the proposed method yields noticeably better performance than other existing pilot design methods in terms of received SNR.

  4. Systemic defense signaling in tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Changbao; SUN Jiaqiang; JIANG Hongling; WU Xiaoyan; LI Chuanyou


    The wound-inducible expression of proteinase inhibitors (PIs) genes in tomato provides a powerful model system to elucidate the signal transduction pathway of sys- temic defense response. An increasing body of evidence indi- cates that systemin and jasmonic acid (JA) work in the same signaling pathway to activate the expression of PIs and other defense-related genes. However, little is known about how systemin and JA interact to regulate cell to cell communica- tion over long distances. Genetic analysis of the systemin/JA signaling pathway in tomato plants provides a unique opportunity to dissect the mechanism by which peptide and oxylipin signals interact to coordinate systemic expression of defense-related genes. Previously, it has been proposed that systemin is the long-distance mobile signal for systemic expression of defense related genes. However, recent genetic approach provided new evidence that jasmonic acid, rather than systemin, functions as the systemic wound signal, and that the peptide systemin works to regulate the biosynthesis of JA.

  5. New adhesive systems based on functionalized block copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, M.; Saunders, R.; Hurst, M.; Small, J.; Emerson, J.; Zamora, D.


    The goal of this work was to evaluate chemically-functionalized block copolymers as adhesion promoters for metal/thermoset resin interfaces. Novel block copolymers were synthesized which contain pendant functional groups reactive toward copper and epoxy resins. In particular, imidazole and triazole functionalities that chelate with copper were incorporated onto one block, while secondary amines were incorporated onto the second block. These copolymers were found to self-assemble from solution onto copper surfaces to form monolayers. The structure of the adsorbed monolayers were studied in detail by neutron reflection and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The monolayer structure was found to vary markedly with the solution conditions and adsorption protocol. Appropriate conditions were found for which the two blocks form separate layers on the surface with the amine functionalized block exposed at the air surface. Adhesion testing of block copolymer-coated copper with epoxy resins was performed in both lap shear and peel modes. Modest enhancements in bond strengths were observed with the block copolymer applied to the native oxide. However, it was discovered that the native oxide is the weak link, and that by simply removing the native oxide, and then applying an epoxy resin before the native oxide can reform, excellent bond strength in the as-prepared state as well as excellent retention of bond strength after exposure to solder in ambient conditions are obtained. It is recommended that long term aging studies be performed with and without the block copolymer. In addition, the functionalized block copolymer method should be evaluated for another system that has inherently poor bonding, such as the nickel/silicone interface, and for systems involving metals and alloys which form oxides very rapidly, such as aluminum and stainless steel, where bonding strategies involve stabilizing the native oxide.

  6. Complex function block of processing and transferring asynchronous data for the IC of reading out the signals of multichannel detectors (United States)

    Shumkin, O. V.; Normanov, D. D.; Ivanov, P. Ya; Atkin, E. V.; Voronin, A. G.


    The structure of a 32-channel system of asynchronous data processing is considered. The data come from the detectors of nuclear physics experiments. Processing is provided for signals with a mean frequency of up to 10 MHz in each channel. The system provides generation of data packages, consisting of digital codes of signal amplitude, of signal superposition in peak detectors, of signal arrival time and number of channel wherein the event has occurred with a subsequent 8b10b coding. The considered system allows us to regulate dynamically the number of active channels. Two interface of data exchange – the slow I2C and high-speed (320 MHz), providing communication IC with the GBTX chip, have been built in the system. The results of developing the structural diagram and circuital-layout solutions of separate units are presented. System prototyping is implemented by the 180nm CMOS technology of UMC. The results of testing both separate blocks and the whole system are presented.

  7. Adaptive Multi-Layered Space-Time Block Coded Systems in Wireless Environments

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Ghadhban, Samir


    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York. Multi-layered space-time block coded systems (MLSTBC) strike a balance between spatial multiplexing and transmit diversity. In this paper, we analyze the block error rate performance of MLSTBC. In addition, we propose an adaptive MLSTBC schemes that are capable of accommodating the channel signal-to-noise ratio variation of wireless systems by near instantaneously adapting the uplink transmission configuration. The main results demonstrate that significant effective throughput improvements can be achieved while maintaining a certain target bit error rate.

  8. Morbillivirus v proteins exhibit multiple mechanisms to block type 1 and type 2 interferon signalling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthil K Chinnakannan

    Full Text Available Morbilliviruses form a closely related group of pathogenic viruses which encode three non-structural proteins V, W and C in their P gene. Previous studies with rinderpest virus (RPV and measles virus (MeV have demonstrated that these non-structural proteins play a crucial role in blocking type I (IFNα/β and type II (IFNγ interferon action, and various mechanisms have been proposed for these effects. We have directly compared four important morbilliviruses, rinderpest (RPV, measles virus (MeV, peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV and canine distemper virus (CDV. These viruses and their V proteins could all block type I IFN action. However, the viruses and their V proteins had varying abilities to block type II IFN action. The ability to block type II IFN-induced gene transcription correlated with co-precipitation of STAT1 with the respective V protein, but there was no correlation between co-precipitation of either STAT1 or STAT2 and the abilities of the V proteins to block type I IFN-induced gene transcription or the creation of the antiviral state. Further study revealed that the V proteins of RPV, MeV, PPRV and CDV could all interfere with phosphorylation of the interferon-receptor-associated kinase Tyk2, and the V protein of highly virulent RPV could also block the phosphorylation of another such kinase, Jak1. Co-precipitation studies showed that morbillivirus V proteins all form a complex containing Tyk2 and Jak1. This study highlights the ability of morbillivirus V proteins to target multiple components of the IFN signalling pathways to control both type I and type II IFN action.

  9. Block Sparse Compressed Sensing of Electroencephalogram (EEG Signals by Exploiting Linear and Non-Linear Dependencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Mahrous


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a compressive sensing (CS method for multi-channel electroencephalogram (EEG signals in Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN applications, where the battery life of sensors is limited. For the single EEG channel case, known as the single measurement vector (SMV problem, the Block Sparse Bayesian Learning-BO (BSBL-BO method has been shown to yield good results. This method exploits the block sparsity and the intra-correlation (i.e., the linear dependency within the measurement vector of a single channel. For the multichannel case, known as the multi-measurement vector (MMV problem, the Spatio-Temporal Sparse Bayesian Learning (STSBL-EM method has been proposed. This method learns the joint correlation structure in the multichannel signals by whitening the model in the temporal and the spatial domains. Our proposed method represents the multi-channels signal data as a vector that is constructed in a specific way, so that it has a better block sparsity structure than the conventional representation obtained by stacking the measurement vectors of the different channels. To reconstruct the multichannel EEG signals, we modify the parameters of the BSBL-BO algorithm, so that it can exploit not only the linear but also the non-linear dependency structures in a vector. The modified BSBL-BO is then applied on the vector with the better sparsity structure. The proposed method is shown to significantly outperform existing SMV and also MMV methods. It also shows significant lower compression errors even at high compression ratios such as 10:1 on three different datasets.

  10. Handbook of signal processing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S; Leupers, Rainer; Takala, Jarmo


    The Handbook is organized in four parts. The first part motivates representative applications that drive and apply state-of-the art methods for design and implementation of signal processing systems; the second part discusses architectures for implementing these applications; the third part focuses on compilers and simulation tools; and the fourth part describes models of computation and their associated design tools and methodologies.

  11. Single Integrated Air Picture (SIAP) Block 1 Candidate Systems (United States)


    to produce joint warfighting capability. Since there was no process for the Single Integrated Air Picture System Engineering Task Force ( SIAP SE inherit or leverage, the SIAP SE TF had to build a process to identify candidate systems that will be impacted by the SIAP Block I upgrade.

  12. Block Fusion Systems and the Center of the Group Ring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Martin Wedel

    This thesis develops some aspects of the theory of block fusion systems. Chapter 1 contains a brief introduction to the group algebra and some simple results about algebras over a field of positive characteristic. In chapter 2 we define the concept of a fusion system and the fundamental property...

  13. Cripto forms a complex with activin and type II activin receptors and can block activin signaling (United States)

    Gray, Peter C.; Harrison, Craig A.; Vale, Wylie


    Activin, nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 are members of the transforming growth factor β superfamily and signal via the activin type II (ActRII/IIB) and type I (ALK4) serine/threonine kinase receptors. Unlike activins, however, signaling by nodal, Vg1, and growth and differentiation factor 1 requires a coreceptor from the epidermal growth factor-Cripto-FRL1-Cryptic protein family such as Cripto. Cripto has important roles during development and oncogenesis and binds nodal or related ligands and ALK4 to facilitate assembly of type I and type II receptor signaling complexes. Because Cripto mediates signaling via activin receptors and binds directly to ALK4, we tested whether transfection with Cripto would affect the ability of activin to signal and/or interact with its receptors. Here we show that Cripto can form a complex with activin and ActRII/IIB. We were unable to detect activin binding to Cripto in the absence of ActRII/IIB, indicating that unlike nodal, activin requires type II receptors to bind Cripto. If cotransfected with ActRII/IIB and ALK4, Cripto inhibited crosslinking of activin to ALK4 and the association of ALK4 with ActRII/IIB. In addition, Cripto blocked activin signaling when transfected into either HepG2 cells or 293T cells. We have also shown that under conditions in which Cripto facilitates nodal signaling, it antagonizes activin. Inhibition of activin signaling provides an additional example of a Cripto effect on the regulation of signaling by transforming growth factor-β superfamily members. Because activin is a potent inhibitor of cell growth in multiple cell types, these results provide a mechanism that may partially explain the oncogenic action of Cripto. PMID:12682303

  14. QuaBingo: A Prediction System for Protein Quaternary Structure Attributes Using Block Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Hua Tung


    Full Text Available Background. Quaternary structures of proteins are closely relevant to gene regulation, signal transduction, and many other biological functions of proteins. In the current study, a new method based on protein-conserved motif composition in block format for feature extraction is proposed, which is termed block composition. Results. The protein quaternary assembly states prediction system which combines blocks with functional domain composition, called QuaBingo, is constructed by three layers of classifiers that can categorize quaternary structural attributes of monomer, homooligomer, and heterooligomer. The building of the first layer classifier uses support vector machines (SVM based on blocks and functional domains of proteins, and the second layer SVM was utilized to process the outputs of the first layer. Finally, the result is determined by the Random Forest of the third layer. We compared the effectiveness of the combination of block composition, functional domain composition, and pseudoamino acid composition of the model. In the 11 kinds of functional protein families, QuaBingo is 23% of Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC higher than the existing prediction system. The results also revealed the biological characterization of the top five block compositions. Conclusions. QuaBingo provides better predictive ability for predicting the quaternary structural attributes of proteins.

  15. Block circulant and block Toeplitz approximants of a class of spatially distributed systems-An LQR perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iftime, Orest V.


    In this paper block circulant and block Toeplitz long strings of MIMO systems with finite length are compared with their corresponding infinite-dimensional spatially invariant systems. The focus is on the convergence of the sequence of solutions to the control Riccati equations and the convergence o

  16. Expression of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored ligand, growth hormone, blocks receptor signalling. (United States)

    Guesdon, François; Kaabi, Yahia; Riley, Aiden H; Wilkinson, Ian R; Gray, Colin; James, David C; Artymiuk, Peter J; Sayers, Jon R; Ross, Richard J


    We have investigated the interaction between GH (growth hormone) and GHR (GH receptor). We previously demonstrated that a truncated GHR that possesses a transmembrane domain but no cytoplasmic domain blocks receptor signalling. Based on this observation we investigated the impact of tethering the receptor's extracellular domain to the cell surface using a native lipid GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) anchor. We also investigated the effect of tethering GH, the ligand itself, to the cell surface and demonstrated that tethering either the ecGHR (extracellular domain of GHR) or the ligand itself to the cell membrane via a GPI anchor greatly attenuates signalling. To elucidate the mechanism for this antagonist activity, we used confocal microscopy to examine the fluorescently modified ligand and receptor. GH-GPI was expressed on the cell surface and formed inactive receptor complexes that failed to internalize and blocked receptor activation. In conclusion, contrary to expectation, tethering an agonist to the cell surface can generate an inactive hormone receptor complex that fails to internalize.

  17. Random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems: Cyclic blocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sudhir R Jain; Shashi C L Srivastava


    We discuss the relevance of random matrix theory for pseudo-Hermitian systems, and, for Hamiltonians that break parity and time-reversal invariance . In an attempt to understand the random Ising model, we present the treatment of cyclic asymmetric matrices with blocks and show that the nearest-neighbour spacing distributions have the same form as obtained for the matrices with scalar entries. We also summarize the theory for random cyclic matrices with scalar entries. We have also found that for block matrices made of Hermitian and pseudo-Hermitian sub-blocks of the form appearing in Ising model depart from the known results for scalar entries. However, there is still similarity in trends even in log–log plots.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Raghuram Kadali


    Full Text Available Pedestrian is one of the important component in urban transportation system and also vulnerable at un-protected mid-block locations under mixed traffic conditions. At un-protected mid-block locations, some of the vehicles may yield to pedestrians who are already at crosswalk location. However, some of the pedestrians are using forced gaps to cross the road. Hence, while pedestrians use the mid-block crosswalk with forced gaps, which decreases the vehicular flow characteristics. The pedestrian sidewalks do not show a direct effect on the vehicular flow characteristics when the pedestrian have pleasant walking facilities. The present study has analyzed the effect of pedestrian crossing on the characteristics of vehicular flow at mid-block location under mixed traffic conditions. The results indicate that the pedestrian forced gap condition has significant effect on vehicular characteristics. The study results may be useful for decreasing the travel time for vehicular drivers by controlling usage of pedestrian forced gaps.

  19. 49 CFR 236.514 - Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system. 236.514 Section 236.514 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system. The automatic cab signal system shall...

  20. Applied signal processing concepts, circuits, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hamdy, Nadder


    Introduction What are Signals? Signal parameters Why Signal processing? Analog vs. Digital Signal processing Practical Signal processing Systems Analog Signal Processing Amplitude Shaping Frequency Spectrum Shaping Phase Errors Correction Waveform Generation Analog Filter Design Describing Equations Design Procedures Filter Specifications Approximations to the Ideal Response Realization Practical RC-Filters Design Switched Capacitor Filter Realization Design examples Data Converters Introduction A typical DSP System Specifications of Data Converters Sampling Samp

  1. Characterization of blocks impacts from seismic signal: insights from laboratory experiments (United States)

    Farin, M.; Mangeney, A.; Toussaint, R.; de Rosny, J.; Sainte-Marie, J.; Shapiro, N.


    Rockfalls, debris flows and rock avalanches represent a major natural hazard for the population in mountainous, volcanic and coastal areas but their direct observation on the field is very difficult. Recent field studies showed that gravitational instabilities can be detected, localized and characterized thanks to the seismic signal they generate. Therefore, a burning challenge for risks assessment related to these events is to obtain quantiative informations on the characteristics of the rockfalls (mass, speed, extension,...) from the properties of the signal (seismic energy, frequencies,...). Using a theoretical model of viscoelastic impact of a sphere on a plane, we develop analytical scaling laws relating the energy radiated in elastic waves, the energy dissipated in viscoelasticity during the impact and the frequencies of the generated acoustic signal to the mass m and the impact speed Vz of the sphere and to the elastic parameters of the involved materials. The elastic energy is shown to vary as m5/3Vz11/5 on plates and as mVz13/5 on blocks, regardless of the elastic parameters. The energy dissipated in viscoelasticity does not depend on the support thickness and varies as m2/3Vz11/5. The mean frequency of the generated signal is inversely proportional to the impact duration. Then, we conduct simple laboratory experiments that consist in dropping spherical beads of different size and materials and small gravels on thin plates of glass and Plexiglass and rock blocks. The elastic energy emitted by an impact on the supports is first quantitatively estimated and compared to the potential energy of fall and to the potential energy change during the shock. We observe a quantitative agreement between experimental data and the analytical scaling laws, even when we use small gravels instead of spherical beads as impactors. These experiments allows to valid the theoretical model and to establish the energy budget of an impact. In the experiments, piezoelectric

  2. PN Sequence Preestimator Scheme for DS-SS Signal Acquisition Using Block Sequence Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Kyu Park


    Full Text Available An m-sequence (PN sequence preestimator scheme for direct-sequence spread spectrum (DS-SS signal acquisition by using block sequence estimation (BSE is proposed and analyzed. The proposed scheme consists of an estimator and a verifier which work according to the PN sequence chip clock, and provides not only the enhanced chip estimates with a threshold decision logic and one-chip error correction among the first m received chips, but also the reliability check of the estimates with additional decision logic. The probabilities of the estimator and verifier operations are calculated. With these results, the detection, the false alarm, and the missing probabilities of the proposed scheme are derived. In addition, using a signal flow graph, the average acquisition time is calculated. The proposed scheme can be used as a preestimator and easily implemented by changing the internal signal path of a generally used digital matched filter (DMF correlator or any other correlator that has a lot of sampling data memories for sampled PN sequence. The numerical results show rapid acquisition performance in a relatively good CNR.

  3. Neuropeptide signalling systems in flatworms. (United States)

    McVeigh, P; Kimber, M J; Novozhilova, E; Day, T A


    Two distinct families of neuropeptides are known to endow platyhelminth nervous systems - the FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) and the neuropeptide Fs (NPFs). Flatworm FLPs are structurally simple, each 4-6 amino acids in length with a carboxy terminal aromatic-hydrophobic-Arg-Phe-amide motif. Thus far, four distinct flatworm FLPs have been characterized, with only one of these from a parasite. They have a widespread distribution within the central and peripheral nervous system of every flatworm examined, including neurones serving the attachment organs, the somatic musculature and the reproductive system. The only physiological role that has been identified for flatworm FLPs is myoexcitation. Flatworm NPFs are believed to be invertebrate homologues of the vertebrate neuropeptide Y (NPY) family of peptides. Flatworm NPFs are 36-39 amino acids in length and are characterized by a caboxy terminal GRPRFamide signature and conserved tyrosine residues at positions 10 and 17 from the carboxy terminal. Like FLPs, NPF occurs throughout flatworm nervous systems, although less is known about its biological role. While there is some evidence for a myoexcitatory action in cestodes and flukes, more compelling physiological data indicate that flatworm NPF inhibits cAMP levels in a manner that is characteristic of NPY action in vertebrates. The widespread expression of these neuropeptides in flatworm parasites highlights the potential of these signalling systems to yield new targets for novel anthelmintics. Although platyhelminth FLP and NPF receptors await identification, other molecules that play pivotal roles in neuropeptide signalling have been uncovered. These enzymes, involved in the biosynthesis and processing of flatworm neuropeptides, have recently been described and offer other distinct and attractive targets for therapeutic interference.

  4. Caffeine increases mitochondrial function and blocks melatonin signaling to mitochondria in Alzheimer's mice and cells. (United States)

    Dragicevic, Natasa; Delic, Vedad; Cao, Chuanhai; Copes, Neil; Lin, Xiaoyang; Mamcarz, Maggie; Wang, Li; Arendash, Gary W; Bradshaw, Patrick C


    Caffeine and melatonin have been shown to protect the Swedish mutant amyloid precursor protein (APP(sw)) transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease from cognitive dysfunction. But their mechanisms of action remain incompletely understood. These Alzheimer's mice have extensive mitochondrial dysfunction, which likely contributes to their cognitive decline. To further explore the mechanism through which caffeine and melatonin protect cognitive function in these mice, we monitored the function of isolated mitochondria from APP(sw) mice treated with caffeine, melatonin, or both in their drinking water for one month. Melatonin treatment yielded a near complete restoration of mitochondrial function in assays of respiratory rate, membrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, and ATP levels. Caffeine treatment by itself yielded a small increase in mitochondrial function. However, caffeine largely blocked the large enhancement of mitochondrial function provided by melatonin. Studies with N2a neuroblastoma cells stably expressing APP(sw) showed that specific inhibition of cAMP-dependent phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4 or cGMP-dependent PDE5 also blocked melatonin protection of mitochondrial function, but A(2a) and A₁ adenosine receptor antagonists were without effect. Melatonin or caffeine at the concentrations used to modulate mitochondrial function in the cells had no effect on cAMP-dependent PDE activity or cellular cAMP or cGMP levels. Therefore, caffeine and increased cyclic nucleotide levels likely block melatonin signaling to mitochondria by independent mechanisms that do not involve adenosine receptor antagonism. The results of this study indicate that melatonin restores mitochondrial function much more potently than caffeine in APP(sw) transgenic mouse and cell models of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Stability and Stabilization of Block-cascading Switched Linear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-Hong Zhu; Dai-Zhan Cheng


    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the problem of quadratic stability and stabilization in switched linear systems using reducible Lie algebra. First, we investigate the structure of all real invariant subspaces for a given linear system. The result is then used to provide a comparable cascading form for switching models. Using the commoncascading form, a common quadratic Lyapunov function is (QLFs) is explored by finding common QLFs of diagonal blocks.In addition, a cascading Quaker Lemma is proved. Combining it with stability results, the problem of feedback stabilization for a class of switched linear systems is solved.

  6. Causality in thermoelectric systems: Insights from block diagrams (United States)

    Apertet, Y.


    While Carnot's model engines demonstrate ideal performances regarding conversion efficiency, they cannot be actually used as energy converters since they are non-causal systems. Such an unphysical behavior indeed restrains the working conditions to a single point where, in the case of a refrigerator (generator), the cooling power (output power) vanishes. Focusing on the example of a thermoelectric refrigerator, we study the impact of different dissipation sources on the causality of such systems. Basing our analysis on the block diagram description of this system, we discuss particularly the fact that heat conduction cannot ensure causality.

  7. Energy-Efficient Full Diversity Collaborative Unitary Space-Time Block Code Design via Unique Factorization of Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Dong; Dumitrescu, Sorina


    In this paper, a novel concept called a \\textit{uniquely factorable constellation pair} (UFCP) is proposed for the systematic design of a noncoherent full diversity collaborative unitary space-time block code by normalizing two Alamouti codes for a wireless communication system having two transmitter antennas and a single receiver antenna. It is proved that such a unitary UFCP code assures the unique identification of both channel coefficients and transmitted signals in a noise-free case as well as full diversity for the noncoherent maximum likelihood (ML) receiver in a noise case. To further improve error performance, an optimal unitary UFCP code is designed by appropriately and uniquely factorizing a pair of energy-efficient cross quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) constellations to maximize the coding gain subject to a transmission bit rate constraint. After a deep investigation of the fractional coding gain function, a technical approach developed in this paper to maximizing the coding gain is to caref...

  8. Inhibition of tankyrases induces Axin stabilization and blocks Wnt signalling in breast cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyue Bao

    Full Text Available Constitutive Wnt signalling is characterized by excessive levels of β-catenin protein and is a frequent occurrence in cancer. APC and Axin are key components of the β-catenin destruction complex that acts to promote β-catenin degradation. The levels of Axin are in turn controlled by tankyrases, members of the PARP-family of poly-ADP-ribosylation enzymes. In colorectal cancer cells, which typically harbor APC mutations, inhibition of tankyrase activity promotes Axin stabilization and attenuates Wnt signalling. Here, we examined the effect of inhibiting tankyrases in breast cancer cells with normal APC. We show that application of the small molecule tankyrase inhibitor, XAV939 or siRNA-mediated abrogation of tankyrase expression increases Axin1 and Axin2 protein levels and attenuates Wnt-induced transcriptional responses in several breast cancer lines. In MDA-MB-231 cells, inhibiton of tankyrase activity also attenuate Wnt3a induced cell migration. Moreover, in both MDA-MB-231 and colorectal cancer cells, XAV939 inhibits cell growth under conditions of serum-deprivation. However, the presence of serum prevents this growth inhibitory effect, although inhibition of Wnt-induced transcriptional and migratory responses was maintained. These results indicate that stabilization of Axin by inhibition of tankyrases alone, may not be an effective means to block tumor cell growth and that combinatorial therapeutic approaches should be considered.

  9. Leveraging "raw materials" as building blocks and bioactive signals in regenerative medicine. (United States)

    Renth, Amanda N; Detamore, Michael S


    Components found within the extracellular matrix (ECM) have emerged as an essential subset of biomaterials for tissue engineering scaffolds. Collagen, glycosaminoglycans, bioceramics, and ECM-based matrices are the main categories of "raw materials" used in a wide variety of tissue engineering strategies. The advantages of raw materials include their inherent ability to create a microenvironment that contains physical, chemical, and mechanical cues similar to native tissue, which prove unmatched by synthetic biomaterials alone. Moreover, these raw materials provide a head start in the regeneration of tissues by providing building blocks to be bioresorbed and incorporated into the tissue as opposed to being biodegraded into waste products and removed. This article reviews the strategies and applications of employing raw materials as components of tissue engineering constructs. Utilizing raw materials holds the potential to provide both a scaffold and a signal, perhaps even without the addition of exogenous growth factors or cytokines. Raw materials contain endogenous proteins that may also help to improve the translational success of tissue engineering solutions to progress from laboratory bench to clinical therapies. Traditionally, the tissue engineering triad has included cells, signals, and materials. Whether raw materials represent their own new paradigm or are categorized as a bridge between signals and materials, it is clear that they have emerged as a leading strategy in regenerative medicine. The common use of raw materials in commercial products as well as their growing presence in the research community speak to their potential. However, there has heretofore not been a coordinated or organized effort to classify these approaches, and as such we recommend that the use of raw materials be introduced into the collective consciousness of our field as a recognized classification of regenerative medicine strategies.

  10. Iterative multi-user detection and decoding for space-time block coding systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yi-dan; ZHANG Feng; WU Wei-ling


    To restrain the interference of co-channel users using space-time block coding (STBC), the proposed Gaussian-forcing soft decision multi-user detection (GFSDMUD) algorithm is applied in flat-fading channels by using the relation among the users' signals, which can enhance the capacity by introducing co-channel users. During iterations, extrinsic information is calculated and exchanged between a soft multi-user detector and a bank of turbo decoders to achieve refined estimates of the users' signals. The simulations show that the proposed iterative receiver techniques provide significant performance improvement around 2 dB over conventional noniterative methods. Furthermore, iterative multi-user space-time processing techniques offer substantial performance gains around 8 dB by adding the number of receiver antennas from 4to 6, and the system performance can be enhanced by using this strategy in multi-user STBC systems, which is very important for enlarging the system capacity.

  11. Kalkitoxin Inhibits Angiogenesis, Disrupts Cellular Hypoxic Signaling, and Blocks Mitochondrial Electron Transport in Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brian Morgan


    Full Text Available The biologically active lipopeptide kalkitoxin was previously isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (Lyngbya majuscula. Kalkitoxin exhibited N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity and acted as an inhibitory ligand for voltage-sensitive sodium channels in cultured rat cerebellar granule neurons. Subsequent studies revealed that kalkitoxin generated a delayed form of colon tumor cell cytotoxicity in 7-day clonogenic cell survival assays. Cell line- and exposure time-dependent cytostatic/cytotoxic effects were previously observed with mitochondria-targeted inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1. The transcription factor HIF-1 functions as a key regulator of oxygen homeostasis. Therefore, we investigated the ability of kalkitoxin to inhibit hypoxic signaling in human tumor cell lines. Kalkitoxin potently and selectively inhibited hypoxia-induced activation of HIF-1 in T47D breast tumor cells (IC50 5.6 nM. Mechanistic studies revealed that kalkitoxin inhibits HIF-1 activation by suppressing mitochondrial oxygen consumption at electron transport chain (ETC complex I (NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase. Further studies indicate that kalkitoxin targets tumor angiogenesis by blocking the induction of angiogenic factors (i.e., VEGF in tumor cells.

  12. Fyn-phosphorylated PIKE-A binds and inhibits AMPK signaling, blocking its tumor suppressive activity. (United States)

    Zhang, S; Qi, Q; Chan, C B; Zhou, W; Chen, J; Luo, H R; Appin, C; Brat, D J; Ye, K


    The AMP-activated protein kinase, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, has a critical role in metabolic disorders and cancers. AMPK is mainly regulated by cellular AMP and phosphorylation by upstream kinases. Here, we show that PIKE-A binds to AMPK and blocks its tumor suppressive actions, which are mediated by tyrosine kinase Fyn. PIKE-A directly interacts with AMPK catalytic alpha subunit and impairs T172 phosphorylation, leading to repression of its kinase activity on the downstream targets. Mutation of Fyn phosphorylation sites on PIKE-A, depletion of Fyn, or pharmacological inhibition of Fyn blunts the association between PIKE-A and AMPK, resulting in loss of its inhibitory effect on AMPK. Cell proliferation and oncogenic assays demonstrate that PIKE-A antagonizes tumor suppressive actions of AMPK. In human glioblastoma samples, PIKE-A expression inversely correlates with the p-AMPK levels, supporting that PIKE-A negatively regulates AMPK activity in cancers. Thus, our findings provide additional layer of molecular regulation of the AMPK signaling pathway in cancer progression.

  13. The time keeping system for GPS block IIR (United States)

    Rawicz, H. C.; Epstein, M. A.; Rajan, J. A.


    The precision time keeping system (TKS) in the Global Positioning System (GPS), Block IIR satellites is designed to operate under severe natural and man made environmental conditions. The Block IIR TKS provides precise, autonomous time keeping for periods of up to seven months, without the intervention of the GPS Control Segment. The TKS is implemented using both linear and non-linear controls. The resulting TKS architecture uses a hybrid analog/digital phase locked loop (PLL). The paper provides details of the design and analysis of the TKS. The simulation techniques and the test bed activities used in performing the TKS design trade-offs are described. The effects of non-linear controls are analyzed using a TKS computer simulation of the PLL. The results from a hardware test bed are provided that verify desired TKS operation. The design criteria for the TKS computer simulation and the hardware test bed are indicated. The concepts for verification and testing of the TKS computer simulation and hardware test bed are presented.

  14. The IRS-1 signaling system. (United States)

    White, M F


    IRS-1 is a principal substrate of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. It undergoes multi-site tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates the insulin signal by associating with various signaling molecules containing Src homology 2 domains. Interleukin-4 also stimulates IRS-1 phosphorylation, and it is suspected that a few more growth factors or cytokines will be added to form a select group of receptors that utilize the IRS-1 signaling pathway. More IRS-1-like adapter molecules, such as 4PS (IRS-2), may remain to be found.

  15. Rateless Space Time Block Code for Massive MIMO Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali H. Alqahtani


    Full Text Available This paper presents a rateless space time block code (RSTBC for massive MIMO systems. The paper illustrates the basis of rateless space time codes deployments in massive MIMO transmissions over wireless erasure channels. In such channels, data may be lost or is not decodable at the receiver due to a variety of factors such as channel fading, interference, or antenna element failure. We show that RSTBC guarantees the reliability of the system in such cases, even when the data loss rate is 25% or more. In such a highly lossy channel, the conventional fixed-rate codes fail to perform well, particularly when channel state information is not available at the transmitter. Simulation results are provided to demonstrate the BER performance and the spectral efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  16. Signals and systems primer with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Poularikas, Alexander D


    Signals and Systems Primer with MATLAB® equally emphasizes the fundamentals of both analog and digital signals and systems. To ensure insight into the basic concepts and methods, the text presents a variety of examples that illustrate a wide range of applications, from microelectromechanical to worldwide communication systems. It also provides MATLAB functions and procedures for practice and verification of these concepts.Taking a pedagogical approach, the author builds a solid foundation in signal processing as well as analog and digital systems. The book first introduces orthogonal signals,

  17. An Iterative Power Allocation Algorithm for Group-wise Space-Time Block Coding Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hong-wei; ZHANG Hai-bin; SONG Wen-tao; LUO Han-wen; LIU Xing-zhao


    An iterative transmit power allocation (PA) algorithm was proposed for group-wise space-time block coding (G-STBC) systems with group-wise successive interference cancellation (GSIC) receivers.Group-wise interference suppression (GIS) filters are employed to separate each group's transmit signals from other interfer ences and noise.While the total power on all transmit symbols is constrained, all transmit PA coefficients are updated jointly according to the channel information at each iteration.Through PA, each detection symbol has the same post-detection signal to interference-and-noise ratio (SINR).The simulation results verify that the proposed PA algorithm converges at the equilibrium quickly after few iterations, and it achieves much lower bit error rates than the previous single symbol SIC PA and the fixed ratio PA algorithms for G-STBC systems with GSIC receivers.

  18. Properties of train traffic flow in a moving block system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Zeng Jun-Wei; Qian Yong-Sheng; Li Wen-Jun; Yang Fang; Jia Xin-Xin


    The development direction of railways is toward the improvement of capacity and service quality,where the service quality includes safety,schedule,high speed,and comfort.In light of the existing cellular automaton models,in this paper,we develop a model to analyze the mixed running processes of trains with maximal speeds of 500 km/h and 350 km/h respectively in the moving block system.In the proposed model,we establish some sound rules to control the running processes of a train,where the rules include the departure rules in the intermediate stations,the overtaking rules,and the conditions of speed limitation for a train stopping at a station or passing through a station.With the consideration of the mixed ratio and the distance between two adjacent stations,the properties of the train traffic flow (including capacity and average speed) are simulated.The numerical results show that the interactions among different trains will affect the capacity,and a proper increase of the spatial distance between two adjacent stations can enhance the capacity and the average speed under the moving block.

  19. Efficient spread space-time block coding scheme in multiple antenna systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu Ling; Zheng Xiayu


    Space-time coding is an important technique that can improve transmission performance at fading environments in mobile communication systems. In this paper, we propose a novel diversity scheme using spread spacetime block coding (SSTBC) in multiple antenna systems. At the transmitter, the primitive data are serial to parallel converted to multiple data streams, and each stream is rotated in constellation. Then Walsh codes are used to spread each symbol to all antenna space in a space-time block. The signals received from all receiver antennas are combined with the maximum ratio combining (MRC), equalized with linear equalizer to eliminate the inter-code interference and finally demodulated to recover to transmit data by using the one-symbol maximum likelihood detector. The proposed scheme does not sacrifice the spectrum efficiency meanwhile maintains the transceiver with low complexity. Owing to the transmission symbols of different transmit antennas passing through all the spatial subchannels between transceiver antenna pairs, the system obtains the partial additional space diversity gain of all spatial paths. It is also shown that the diversity gain is better than the previous space-time block coding (STBC) schemes with full transmission rate.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuYun; WangHui; ZhouShuoyu; ShiShunying


    In accordance with the geometric equations of elastic-mechanics in the sphere-coordinates, the displacement equation of blocks on asphere consisting of 6 deforming parameters is developed. The formula for distance between blocks is derived under the supposition that all block boundaries are prime arcs. The kinematic constraint and the penalty function for reasonable contact between blocks are developed. The normal equations and their coefficient matrix, based on the Least Squares Principle, are derived. The problem of adjudging penetration between blocks is discussed, and a solution is proposed.

  1. Probing Signal Design for Power System Identification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierre, John W.; Zhou, Ning; Tuffner, Francis K.; Hauer, John F.; Trudnowski, Daniel J.; Mittelstadt, William


    This paper investigates the design of effective input signals for low-level probing of power systems. In 2005, 2006, and 2008 the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) conducted four large-scale system wide tests of the western interconnected power system where probing signals were injected by modulating the control signal at the Celilo end of the Pacific DC intertie. A major objective of these tests is the accurate estimation of the inter-area electromechanical modes. A key aspect of any such test is the design of an effective probing signal that leads to measured outputs rich in information about the modes. This paper specifically studies low-level probing signal design for power-system identification. The paper describes the design methodology and the advantages of this new probing signal which was successfully applied during these tests. This probing input is a multi-sine signal with its frequency content focused in the range of the inter-area modes. The period of the signal is over two minutes providing high-frequency resolution. Up to 15 cycles of the signal are injected resulting in a processing gain of 15. The resulting system response is studied in the time and frequency domains. Because of the new probing signal characteristics, these results show significant improvement in the output SNR compared to previous tests.

  2. Gabapentin reduces CX3CL1 signaling and blocks spinal microglial activation in monoarthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jia-Le


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal glia, particularly microglia and astrocytes, are of the utmost importance in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. A recent study from our laboratory revealed that gabapentin, a recommended first-line treatment for multiple neuropathic conditions, could also efficiently antagonize thermal hyperalgesia evoked by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA-induced monoarthritis (MA. In the present study, we investigated whether the spinal glia are involved in the anti-hyperalgesic effect of gabapentin and how this event occurs. Results Unilateral intra-articular injection of CFA produced a robust activation of microglia and astrocytes. These cells exhibited large cell bodies, thick processes and increases in the ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1, a microglial marker or the glia fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocytic marker. These cells also displayed immunoreactive signals, and an upregulation of the voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs α2/δ-1 subunit, CX3CL1 and CX3CR1 expression levels in the spinal cord. These changes were associated with the development of thermal hyperalgesia. Immunofluorescence staining showed that VGCC α2/δ-1 subunit, a proposed gabapentin target of action, was widely distributed in primary afferent fibers terminals and dorsal horn neurons. CX3CL1, a potential trigger to activate microglia, colocalized with VGCC α2/δ-1 subunits in the spinal dorsal horn. However, its receptor CX3CR1 was mainly expressed in the spinal microglia. Multiple intraperitoneal (i.p. gabapentin injections (100 mg/kg, once daily for 4 days with the first injection 60 min before intra-articular CFA suppressed the activation of spinal microglia, downregulated spinal VGCC α2/δ-1 subunits decreased CX3CL1 levels and blocked the development of thermal hyperalgesia in MA rats. Conclusions Here we provide the first evidence that gabapentin diminishes CX3CL1 signaling and spinal microglia

  3. Sonic hedgehog signaling during nervous system development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yang; Peng Xie


    The Hedgehog signaling pathway plays a key role in embryonic development and organ formation.Sonic hedgehog signaling participates in nervous system development,regulates proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells,controls growth and targeting of axons,and contributes to specialization of oligodendrocytes.For further studies of the Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway and for the development of new drugs in the treatment of nervous system diseases,it is beneficial to understand these mechanisms.

  4. Intelligent Multimodal Signal Adaptation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro Analysis and Design (MA&D) is pleased to submit this proposal to design an Intelligent Multimodal Signal Adaptation System. This system will dynamically...

  5. Digital Signal Processing for Optical Coherent Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu

    In this thesis, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are studied to compensate for physical layer impairments in optical fiber coherent communication systems. The physical layer impairments investigated in this thesis include optical fiber chromatic dispersion, polarization demultiplexing......, light sources frequency and phase offset and phase noise. The studied DSP algorithms are considered as key building blocks in digital coherent receivers for the next generation of optical communication systems such as 112-Gb/s dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) optical......) equalizer algorithms are implemented to reduce the inter channel interference (ICI). This PhD thesis also investigates a parallel block-divided overlapped chromatic dispersion DSP compensation algorithm. The essential benefit of using a parallel chromatic dispersion compensation algorithm is that it demands...

  6. The IRS-1 signaling system. (United States)

    Myers, M G; Sun, X J; White, M F


    Insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) is a principal substrate of the receptor tyrosine kinase for insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1, and a substrate for a tyrosine kinase activated by interleukin 4. IRS-1 undergoes multisite tyrosine phosphorylation and mediates downstream signals by 'docking' various proteins that contain Src homology 2 domains. IRS-1 appears to be a unique molecule; however, 4PS, a protein found mainly in hemopoietic cells, may represent another member of this family.

  7. System for surveillance of spectral signals (United States)

    Gross, Kenneth C.; Wegerich, Stephan W.; Criss-Puszkiewicz, Cynthia; Wilks, Alan D.


    A method and system for monitoring at least one of a system, a process and a data source. A method and system have been developed for carrying out surveillance, testing and modification of an ongoing process or other source of data, such as a spectroscopic examination. A signal from the system under surveillance is collected and compared with a reference signal, a frequency domain transformation carried out for the system signal and reference signal, a frequency domain difference function established. The process is then repeated until a full range of data is accumulated over the time domain and a SPRT sequential probability ratio test methodology applied to determine a three-dimensional surface plot characteristic of the operating state of the system under surveillance.

  8. A Parallel Framework with Block Matrices of a Discrete Fourier Transform for Vector-Valued Discrete-Time Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Soto-Quiros


    Full Text Available This paper presents a parallel implementation of a kind of discrete Fourier transform (DFT: the vector-valued DFT. The vector-valued DFT is a novel tool to analyze the spectra of vector-valued discrete-time signals. This parallel implementation is developed in terms of a mathematical framework with a set of block matrix operations. These block matrix operations contribute to analysis, design, and implementation of parallel algorithms in multicore processors. In this work, an implementation and experimental investigation of the mathematical framework are performed using MATLAB with the Parallel Computing Toolbox. We found that there is advantage to use multicore processors and a parallel computing environment to minimize the high execution time. Additionally, speedup increases when the number of logical processors and length of the signal increase.

  9. Capturing blocked-entrance binaural signals from open-entrance recordings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøi, Dorte; Hoffmann, Pablo F.; Olesen, Søren Krarup


    interfering the individual's hearing and doing. In this work we propose a strategy for the recording of binaural audio with minimal hearing interference, and for transforming these recordings to blocked-entrance versions that are more suitable for analysis and reproduction of binaural audio in a more general...... context. To this purpose, equalization filters are derived from the ratio between blocked and open ear canal transfer functions. Different transfer-function measuring techniques and inverse filtering methods are evaluated....

  10. Research on Portable Fatigue Signal Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowen Li


    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of human pulse wave signals, the acquisition system acquisition system with excellent performance is designed, 16 bit MCU MSP430 with ultralow power is used to record, process and transmit the collected pulse wave signals. In order to make the hardware part satisfy acquisition requirements of pulse wave, the paper focuses on discussing composition, operating principle, analysis method and performance parameter of analog circuit. The software part makes use of the design tools of Matlab graphical user interface (GUI for designing pulse wave signal measurement system. The trial on intelligent fatigue test signal adopts relatively unique methods no matter in hardware circuit design or software algorithm process, which provides important and meaningful reference for objective and quantitative research on fatigue signal.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Tao; Zhu Guangxi


    A new scheme termed as Complement Block Coding (CBC) technique is proposed to reduce the Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of OFDM signals. Utilizing the complement bits which are added to the original information bits,this method can effectively reduce the PAPR of OFDM systems with random frame size N and the coding rate R ≤ (N - k)/N, where kis a positive integer and k ≤ N/2. The performance results obtained with CBC are given and compared with that of some well known schemes, such as Simple Block Coding (SBC), Modified Simple Block Coding (MSBC) and Simple Odd Parity Code (SOPC) for the same purpose. The results show that, at the same coding rate 3/4, the CBC can achieve almost the same performance as SBC, MSBC, but with lower complexity, and that the same performance can be obtained with higher coding rate by using CBC. At the same coding rate (N - 1)/N, the PAPR reduction of CBC is almost the twice as that of SOPC when N ≥ 16. Further more, the PAPR reductions with coding rate (N - 1)/N are almost the same as that with coding rate less than (N - 1)/N,so the proposed scheme CBC is more suitable for the large frame size with high coding rate and can provide error detection.

  12. Design of a Real-time Signal Processing System for LIF Sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xiande; Zheng Wengang; Dong Daming; Shen Changjun; Zhang Xin; Zhou Jianjun; Yan Hua; Wu Wenbiao, E-mail: [National Engineering Research Center for Information Technology in Agriculture, 100097 (China)


    Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) sensor is one of the most sensitive approaches available for a variety of analytical applications, such as determination of nitrogen content of plant leaves, detection of chlorophyll content in water, etal. As a core instrumental requirements of real time LIF sensor, signal processing system is used to store effective processing and identification algorithms in a short time. By analyzing the working principle of LIF sensor in detail, a novel platform of signal processing system used in LIF sensor is proposed in this paper. The design solutions and hardware architecture of the system are described in this paper, include Digital Signal Processor (DSP), data transmission block, and memory block. Several steps of signal processing methods are proposed, according to the characteristic of LIF sensor. At last, an application of using the signal processing system designed in this paper for measuring chlorophyll content in plant leaves is shown.

  13. Signal processing by the endosomal system. (United States)

    Villaseñor, Roberto; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Zerial, Marino


    Cells need to decode chemical or physical signals from their environment in order to make decisions on their fate. In the case of signalling receptors, ligand binding triggers a cascade of chemical reactions but also the internalization of the activated receptors in the endocytic pathway. Here, we highlight recent studies revealing a new role of the endosomal network in signal processing. The diversity of entry pathways and endosomal compartments is exploited to regulate the kinetics of receptor trafficking, and interactions with specific signalling adaptors and effectors. By governing the spatio-temporal distribution of signalling molecules, the endosomal system functions analogously to a digital-analogue computer that regulates the specificity and robustness of the signalling response.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Anastasia Endang Susilawati


    Full Text Available Survey conducted to obtain get situation of quadran strategy determine elegibility of increase of maximum expense lecturing of program student of Regular Block System (RBS at institute education of University of Kanjuruhan Unlucky enlisting and active in year of akademic 2006/2007. Used variables shall be as follows: 1 psicografis, 2 social of demography and economics, 3 geografis, 4 benefit, 5 last experience, 6 physical medium, 7 expense, 8 advertisement, 9 word of mouth communication, 10 image of PTS, 11 quality of technical service, 12 quality of functional service, 13 satisfaction of student, and 14 student expectation. Technique data collecting use quesioner which consist of question closed and is open. Obtained to be data to be analysed to descriptive method and SWOT ( strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats. Result of survey indicate that University of Kanjuruhan unlucky reside in aggresive strategy ( strength 71.12% and opportunity 71.1% and also strategy diversify ( strength 71.12% and threat 69.8%, hence competent to boost up the expense of maximum study equal to 19.41% made balance to with diversification of program to overcome threats faced in this time and in the future.

  15. The response of high-impact blocking weather systems to climate change (United States)

    Kennedy, Daniel; Parker, Tess; Woollings, Tim; Harvey, Benjamin; Shaffrey, Len


    Midlatitude weather and climate are dominated by the jet streams and associated eastward moving storm systems. Occasionally, however, these are blocked by persistent anticyclonic regimes known as blocking. Climate models generally predict a small decline in blocking frequency under anthropogenic climate change. However, confidence in these predictions is undermined by, among other things, a lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms underlying the change. Here we analyze blocking (mostly in the Euro-Atlantic sector) in a set of sensitivity experiments to determine the effect of different parts of the surface global warming pattern. We also analyze projected changes in the impacts of blocking such as temperature extremes. The results show that enhanced warming both in the tropics and over the Arctic act to strengthen the projected decline in blocking. The tropical changes are more important for the uncertainty in projected blocking changes, though the Arctic also affects the temperature anomalies during blocking.

  16. Block copolymer libraries: modular versatility of the macromolecular Lego system. (United States)

    Lohmeijer, Bas G G; Wouters, Daan; Yin, Zhihui; Schubert, Ulrich S


    The synthesis and characterization of a new 4 x 4 library of block copolymers based on polystyrene and poly(ethylene oxide) connected by an asymmetrical octahedral bis(terpyridine) ruthenium complex at the block junction are described, while initial studies on the thin film morphology of the components of the library are presented by the use of Atomic Force Microscopy, demonstrating the impact of a library approach to derive structure-property relationships.

  17. Signals and transforms in linear systems analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wasylkiwskyj, Wasyl


    Signals and Transforms in Linear Systems Analysis covers the subject of signals and transforms, particularly in the context of linear systems theory. Chapter 2 provides the theoretical background for the remainder of the text. Chapter 3 treats Fourier series and integrals. Particular attention is paid to convergence properties at step discontinuities. This includes the Gibbs phenomenon and its amelioration via the Fejer summation techniques. Special topics include modulation and analytic signal representation, Fourier transforms and analytic function theory, time-frequency analysis and frequency dispersion. Fundamentals of linear system theory for LTI analogue systems, with a brief account of time-varying systems, are covered in Chapter 4 . Discrete systems are covered in Chapters 6 and 7.  The Laplace transform treatment in Chapter 5 relies heavily on analytic function theory as does Chapter 8 on Z -transforms. The necessary background on complex variables is provided in Appendix A. This book is intended to...

  18. Block quasi-minimal residual iterations for non-Hermitian linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freund, R.W. [AT& T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States)


    Many applications require the solution of multiple linear systems that have the same coefficient matrix, but differ only in their right-hand sides. Instead of applying an iterative method to each of these systems individually, it is usually more efficient to employ a block version of the method that generates blocks of iterates for all the systems simultaneously. An example of such an iteration is the block conjugate gradient algorithm, which was first studied by Underwood and O`Leary. On parallel architectures, block versions of conjugate gradient-type methods are attractive even for the solution of single linear systems, since they have fewer synchronization points than the standard versions of these algorithms. In this talk, the author presents a block version of Freund and Nachtigal`s quasi-minimal residual (QMR) method for the iterative solution of non-Hermitian linear systems. He describes two different implementations of the block-QMR method, one based on a block version of the three-term Lanczos algorithm and one based on coupled two-term block recurrences. In both cases, the underlying block-Lanczos process still allows arbitrary normalizations of the vectors within each block, and the author discusses different normalization strategies. To maintain linear independence within each block, it is usually necessary to reduce the block size in the course of the iteration, and the author describes a deflation technique for performing this reduction. He also present some convergence results, and reports results of numerical experiments with the block-QMR method. Finally, the author discusses possible block versions of transpose-free Lanczos-based iterations such as the TFQMR method.

  19. Linear Frequency Modulated Signals VS Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Signals for Synthetic Aperture Radar Systems (United States)



  20. Developing Strategies to Block Beta-Catenin Action in Signaling and Cell Adhesion During Carcinogenesis (United States)


    supports the idea that Hid functions by blocking interaction between Inhibitor-of-apoptosis (IAP) family caspase inhibitors and caspases ( Vucic el al. 1998...Development 125: 3427-3436. Vucic , D., W.J. KAISER and L. K. MILLER, 1998 Inhibitor of apoptosis PEIFER, M., D. SWEETON, M. CASEY and E. WIESCHAUS

  1. Prediction of Wintertime Northern Hemisphere Blocking by the NCEP Climate Forecast System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Xiaolong; YANG Song; SONG Wenling; HE Bin


    Daily output from the hindcasts by the NCEP Climate Forecast System version 2 (CFSv2) is analyzed to understand CFSv2’s skill in forecasting wintertime atmospheric blocking in the Northern Hemisphere. Prediction skills of sector blocking, sector-blocking episodes, and blocking onset/decay are assessed with a focus on the Euro-Atlantic sector (20◦W-45◦E) and the Pacifi c sector (160◦E-135◦W). Features of associated circulation and climate patterns are also examined. The CFSv2 well captures the observed features of longitudinal distribution of blocking activity, but underestimates blocking frequency and intensity and shows a decreasing trend in blocking frequency with increasing forecast lead time. Within 14-day lead time, the Euro-Atlantic sector blocking receives a higher skill than the Pacifi c sector blocking. Skillful forecast (taking the hit rate of 50% as a criterion) can be obtained up to 9 days in the Euro-Atlantic sector, which is slightly longer than that in the Pacifi c sector (7 days). The forecast skill of sector-blocking episodes is slightly lower than that of sector blocking in both sectors, and it is slightly higher in the Euro-Atlantic sector than in the Pacifi c sector. Compared to block onset, the skill for block decay is lower in the Euro-Atlantic sector, slightly higher in the Pacifi c sector during the early three days but lower after three days in lead time. In both the Euro-Atlantic and the Pacifi c sectors, a local dipole pattern in 500-hPa geopotential height associated with blocking is well presented in the CFSv2 prediction, but the wave-train like pattern that is far away from the blocking sector can only maintain in the forecast of relative short lead time. The CFSv2 well reproduces the observed characteristics of local temperature and precipitation anomalies associated with blocking.

  2. Expression of oncogenic K-ras from its endogenous promoter leads to a partial block of erythroid differentiation and hyperactivation of cytokine-dependent signaling pathways. (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yangang; Beard, Caroline; Tuveson, David A; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Jacks, Tyler E; Lodish, Harvey F


    When overexpressed in primary erythroid progenitors, oncogenic Ras leads to the constitutive activation of its downstream signaling pathways, severe block of terminal erythroid differentiation, and cytokine-independent growth of primary erythroid progenitors. However, whether high-level expression of oncogenic Ras is required for these phenotypes is unknown. To address this issue, we expressed oncogenic K-ras (K-ras(G12D)) from its endogenous promoter using a tetracycline-inducible system. We show that endogenous K-ras(G12D) leads to a partial block of terminal erythroid differentiation in vivo. In contrast to results obtained when oncogenic Ras was overexpressed from retroviral vectors, endogenous levels of K-ras(G12D) fail to constitutively activate but rather hyperactivate cytokine-dependent signaling pathways, including Stat5, Akt, and p44/42 MAPK, in primary erythroid progenitors. This explains previous observations that hematopoietic progenitors expressing endogenous K-ras(G12D) display hypersensitivity to cytokine stimulation in various colony assays. Our results support efforts to modulate Ras signaling for treating hematopoietic malignancies.

  3. Lefty blocks a subset of TGFbeta signals by antagonizing EGF-CFC coreceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon K Cheng


    Full Text Available Members of the EGF-CFC family play essential roles in embryonic development and have been implicated in tumorigenesis. The TGFbeta signals Nodal and Vg1/GDF1, but not Activin, require EGF-CFC coreceptors to activate Activin receptors. We report that the TGFbeta signaling antagonist Lefty also acts through an EGF-CFC-dependent mechanism. Lefty inhibits Nodal and Vg1 signaling, but not Activin signaling. Lefty genetically interacts with EGF-CFC proteins and competes with Nodal for binding to these coreceptors. Chimeras between Activin and Nodal or Vg1 identify a 14 amino acid region that confers independence from EGF-CFC coreceptors and resistance to Lefty. These results indicate that coreceptors are targets for both TGFbeta agonists and antagonists and suggest that subtle sequence variations in TGFbeta signals result in greater ligand diversity.

  4. Analysis of Crown Block Weighing System%天车称重系统解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The hardware architecture, working principle, transmission mode, instrument fimction, weighing sensor princi- ple, wire rope supplement and correction, signal transmission,weighing instruments of crown block weighing system are intro- duced using the example of 240t crown block weighing system of steel making and rolling plant of Hebei Tangshan Iron & Steel Co., LTD. Combing with practical operation in production, the common problems in maintenance are summarized and the solutions are given.%以河北钢铁集团唐山钢铁有限责任公司一钢轧厂240t天车称重系统为例,介绍天车称重系统的硬件结构、工作原理、传输方式、仪表功能、称重传感器原理、钢丝绳补偿、信号传输、称重仪表等,结合在生产中的实际运行状况,总结出在生产维护中的常见问题,并提出具体的解决方法。

  5. Video signals integrator (VSI) system architecture (United States)

    Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Pastuszak, Grzegorz; Poźniak, Krzysztof; Trochimiuk, Maciej; Abramowski, Andrzej; Gaska, Michal; Bukowiecka, Danuta; Tyburska, Agata; Struniawski, Jarosław; Jastrzebski, Pawel; Jewartowski, Blazej; Frasunek, Przemysław; Nalbach-Moszynska, Małgorzata; Brawata, Sebastian; Bubak, Iwona; Gloza, Małgorzata


    The purpose of the project is development of a platform which integrates video signals from many sources. The signals can be sourced by existing analogue CCTV surveillance installations, recent internet-protocol (IP) cameras or single cameras of any type. The system will consist of portable devices that provide conversion, encoding, transmission and archiving. The sharing subsystem will use distributed file system and also user console which provides simultaneous access to any of video streams in real time. The system is fully modular so its extension is possible, both from hardware and software side. Due to standard modular technology used, partial technology modernization is also possible during a long exploitation period.

  6. Small signal gain in DPAL systems (United States)

    Galbally-Kinney, Kristin L.; Maser, Daniel L.; Kessler, William J.; Rawlins, Wilson T.; Davis, Steven J.


    In this paper we describe a platform for small signal gain measurements for alkali atom laser systems based on the DPAL excitation method. We present initial results that clearly show the transition from absorption on the alkali atom D1 lines in Cs and Rb to optical transparency and positive gain. The achievement of optical gain is critically dependent upon alkali cell conditions and collision partners. We also present the first spatially resolved gain measurements in a DPAL system. The small signal gain methods described will be valuable tools for power scaling of these laser systems.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Many applications require the solution of large un-symmetric linear systems with multiple right-hand sides.Instead of applying an iterative method to each of these systems individually,it is often more efficient to use a block version of the method that generates iterates for all the systems simultaneously.This paper proposes a new adaptive block QMR version based on the incomplete or-thogomalization method(IOM(q))for solving large multi-ple nusymmetric linear systems.How to incorporate de-flation to drop comverged linear systems,and how to delete linearly and almost liearly dependent vectors in the underlying block Krylov sequences are discussed.Nu-merical experiments show that the new adaptive block method has better practical performance and less compu-tational cost and CPU time than block GMRES and other proposed methods for the solution of systems with multi- ple right-hand sides.

  8. Traffic Signal Using Smart Agent System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheonshik Kim


    Full Text Available In this research, we propose an electro-sensitive traffic light using the smart agent algorithm to reduce traffic congestion and traffic accidents. The multi-agent system approach can provide a new and preferable solution. The proposed method adaptively controls the cycle of traffic signals even though the traffic volume varies. Consequently, we reduce the car waiting time and start-up delay time using fuzzy control of feedback data. In particular, we have designed and implemented a system to create optimum traffic signals in congested conditions. The effectiveness of this method was shown through simulation of multiple intersections.

  9. The V protein of Tioman virus is incapable of blocking type I interferon signaling in human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégory Caignard

    Full Text Available The capacity of a virus to cross species barriers is determined by the development of bona fide interactions with cellular components of new hosts, and in particular its ability to block IFN-α/β antiviral signaling. Tioman virus (TioV, a close relative of mumps virus (MuV, has been isolated in giant fruit bats in Southeast Asia. Nipah and Hendra viruses, which are present in the same bat colonies, are highly pathogenic in human. Despite serological evidences of close contacts between TioV and human populations, whether TioV is associated to some human pathology remains undetermined. Here we show that in contrast to the V protein of MuV, the V protein of TioV (TioV-V hardly interacts with human STAT2, does not degrade STAT1, and cannot block IFN-α/β signaling in human cells. In contrast, TioV-V properly binds to human STAT3 and MDA5, and thus interferes with IL-6 signaling and IFN-β promoter induction in human cells. Because STAT2 binding was previously identified as a host restriction factor for some Paramyxoviridae, we established STAT2 sequence from giant fruit bats, and binding to TioV-V was tested. Surprisingly, TioV-V interaction with STAT2 from giant fruit bats is also extremely weak and barely detectable. Altogether, our observations question the capacity of TioV to appropriately control IFN-α/β signaling in both human and giant fruit bats that are considered as its natural host.

  10. Simulation and Comparison of Channel Estimation Based on Block-type Pilot Frequency in OFDM System (United States)

    Di, Weiguo; Li, Zhendong; Yang, Ming; Zhao, Xiaobo

    Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) splits a high-speed data stream into a number of lower-speed data streams that are transmitted simultaneously over a number of subcarriers. The capability of resistance of intersymbol interference and bandwidth efficiency are improved, and multipath fading is effectively combated. In order to improve communication efficiency and communication quality, it is necessary to make a dynamic estimation of the current characteristics of the channel. In OFDM system, the technology of channel estimation based on the pilot frequency of block-type distribution is that pilot signal is inserted at regular intervals of time on the transmitting terminal, and on the receiving terminal extract pilot signal from the received data stream, and according to that the channel characteristics are estimated at the period of time. Three common methods of channel estimation based on pilot frequency: MMSE estimation, LS estimation and SVD estimation are discussed with comparison in OFDM system. Through the simulation of matlab, three channel estimation methods and their characteristics are analyzed and compared. The results show that the performance of MMSE estimation is far better than that of the LS estimation, but MMSE estimation has high computational complexity. The performance and computational complexity of SVD estimation are ranged between that of the MMSE estimation and LS estimation.

  11. Power systems signal processing for smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Ribeiro, Paulo Márcio; Cerqueira, Augusto Santiago


    With special relation to smart grids, this book provides clear and comprehensive explanation of how Digital Signal Processing (DSP) and Computational Intelligence (CI) techniques can be applied to solve problems in the power system. Its unique coverage bridges the gap between DSP, electrical power and energy engineering systems, showing many different techniques applied to typical and expected system conditions with practical power system examples. Surveying all recent advances on DSP for power systems, this book enables engineers and researchers to understand the current state of the art a

  12. Signal conditioning circuitry design for instrumentation systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Cory A.


    This report details the current progress in the design, implementation, and validation of the signal conditioning circuitry used in a measurement instrumentation system. The purpose of this text is to document the current progress of a particular design in signal conditioning circuitry in an instrumentation system. The input of the signal conditioning circuitry comes from a piezoresistive transducer and the output will be fed to a 250 ksps, 12-bit analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with an input range of 0-5 V. It is assumed that the maximum differential voltage amplitude input from the sensor is 20 mV with an unknown, but presumably high, sensor bandwidth. This text focuses on a specific design; however, the theory is presented in such a way that this text can be used as a basis for future designs.

  13. Bidirectional coupling of splicing and ATM signaling in response to transcription-blocking DNA damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Tresini (Maria); J.A. Marteijn (Jurgen); W. Vermeulen (Wim)


    textabstractIn response to DNA damage cells activate intricate protein networks to ensure genomic fidelity and tissue homeostasis. DNA damage response signaling pathways coordinate these networks and determine cellular fates, in part, by modulating RNA metabolism. Here we discuss a replication-indep

  14. Ras CAAX peptidomimetic FTI-277 selectively blocks oncogenic Ras signaling by inducing cytoplasmic accumulation of inactive Ras-Raf complexes. (United States)

    Lerner, E C; Qian, Y; Blaskovich, M A; Fossum, R D; Vogt, A; Sun, J; Cox, A D; Der, C J; Hamilton, A D; Sebti, S M


    Ras-induced malignant transformation requires Ras farnesylation, a lipid posttranslational modification catalyzed by farnesyltransferase (FTase). Inhibitors of this enzyme have been shown to block Ras-dependent transformation, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains largely unknown. We have designed FTI-276, a peptide mimetic of the COOH-terminal Cys-Val-Ile-Met of K-Ras4B that inhibited potently FTase in vitro (IC50 = 500 pM) and was highly selective for FTase over geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTase I) (IC50 = 50 nM). FTI-277, the methyl ester derivative of FTI-276, was extremely potent (IC50 = 100 nM) at inhibiting H-Ras, but not the geranylgeranylated Rap1A processing in whole cells. Treatment of H-Ras oncogene-transformed NIH 3T3 cells with FTI-277 blocked recruitment to the plasma membrane and subsequent activation of the serine/threonine kinase c-Raf-1 in cells transformed by farnesylated Ras (H-RasF), but not geranylgeranylated, Ras (H-RasGG). FTI-277 induced accumulation of cytoplasmic non-farnesylated H-Ras that was able to bind Raf and form cytoplasmic Ras/Raf complexes in which Raf kinase was not activated. Furthermore, FTI-277 blocked constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in H-RasF, but not H-RasGG, or Raf-transformed cells. FTI-277 also inhibited oncogenic K-Ras4B processing and constitutive activation of MAPK, but the concentrations required were 100-fold higher than those needed for H-Ras inhibition. The results demonstrate that FTI-277 blocks Ras oncogenic signaling by accumulating inactive Ras/Raf complexes in the cytoplasm, hence preventing constitutive activation of the MAPK cascade.

  15. Signal Separation and Reconstruction Method for Simultaneously Received Multi-System Signals in Flexible Wireless System (United States)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Lee, Doohwan; Shiba, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yo; Akabane, Kazunori; Uehara, Kazuhiro

    We previously proposed a unified wireless system called “Flexible Wireless System”. Comprising of flexible access points and a flexible signal processing unit, it collectively receives a wideband spectrum that includes multiple signals from various wireless systems. In cases of simultaneous multiple signal reception, however, reception performance degrades due to the interference among multiple signals. To address this problem, we propose a new signal separation and reconstruction method for spectrally overlapped signals. The method analyzes spectral information obtained by the short-time Fourier transform to extract amplitude and phase values at each center frequency of overlapped signals at a flexible signal processing unit. Using these values enables signals from received radio wave data to be separated and reconstructed for simultaneous multi-system reception. In this paper, the BER performance of the proposed method is evaluated using computer simulations. Also, the performance of the interference suppression is evaluated by analyzing the probability density distribution of the amplitude of the overlapped interference on a symbol of the received signal. Simulation results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Haptic teleoperation systems signal processing perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jae-young


    This book examines the signal processing perspective in haptic teleoperation systems. This text covers the topics of prediction, estimation, architecture, data compression, and error correction that can be applied to haptic teleoperation systems. The authors begin with an overview of haptic teleoperation systems, then look at a Bayesian approach to haptic teleoperation systems. They move onto a discussion of haptic data compression, haptic data digitization and forward error correction.   ·         Presents haptic data prediction/estimation methods that compensate for unreliable networks   ·         Discusses haptic data compression that reduces haptic data size over limited network bandwidth and haptic data error correction that compensate for packet loss problem   ·         Provides signal processing techniques used with existing control architectures.

  17. Low-Complexity Block Turbo Equalization for OFDM Systems in Time-Varying Channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, K.; Rugini, L.; Leus, G.


    We propose low-complexity block turbo equalizers for orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) systems in time-varying channels. The presented work is based on a soft minimum mean-squared error (MMSE) block linear equalizer (BLE) that exploits the banded structure of the frequency-domain cha


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-guo Cai; Hai-hui Su; Takeshi Shiono


    This feature article summarizes the synthesis of novel olefin block copolymers using fast syndiospecific living homo-and copolymerization of propylene,higher 1-alkene,and norbomene with ansa-fluorenylamidodimethyltitaniumbased catalyst according to the authors' recent results.The catalytic synthesis of monodisperse polyolefin and olefin block copolymer was also described using this living system.

  19. Joint impact of quantization and clipping on single- and multi-carrier block transmission systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, H.; Schenk, T.C.W.; Smulders, P.F.M.; Fledderus, E.R.


    This work investigates the joint impact of quantization and clipping, caused by analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) with low bit resolutions, on single- and multi-carrier block transmission systems in wireless multipath environments. We consider single carrier block transmission with frequency domai

  20. Developing Strategies to Block Beta-Catenin Action in Signaling and Cell Adhesion During Carcinogenesis (United States)


    Chapel Hill NC July, 2001 "Cell adhesion, signal transduction, and cancer: the Armadillo Connection." Department of Embryology , Carnegie Institution...Published online May 30, 2001 Copyright © 2001 by Academic Prcss. All rights of reproduction in any form rescrved. Article Abelson kinase regulates APC2 divisions, when astral microtubules are prominent during late mutants: (1 ) abnormal mitoses owing to pseudocleavage furrow mitosis (Fig. 3i,j

  1. Norrin/Frizzled4 signalling in the preneoplastic niche blocks medulloblastoma initiation (United States)

    Bassett, Erin A; Tokarew, Nicholas; Allemano, Ema A; Mazerolle, Chantal; Morin, Katy; Mears, Alan J; McNeill, Brian; Ringuette, Randy; Campbell, Charles; Smiley, Sheila; Pokrajac, Neno T; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Northcott, Paul A; Remke, Marc; Monnier, Philippe P; Potter, David; Paes, Kim; Kirkpatrick, Laura L; Coker, Kenneth J; Rice, Dennis S; Perez-Iratxeta, Carol; Taylor, Michael D; Wallace, Valerie A


    The tumor microenvironment is a critical modulator of carcinogenesis; however, in many tumor types, the influence of the stroma during preneoplastic stages is unknown. Here we explored the relationship between pre-tumor cells and their surrounding stroma in malignant progression of the cerebellar tumor medulloblastoma (MB). We show that activation of the vascular regulatory signalling axis mediated by Norrin (an atypical Wnt)/Frizzled4 (Fzd4) inhibits MB initiation in the Ptch+/− mouse model. Loss of Norrin/Fzd4-mediated signalling in endothelial cells, either genetically or by short-term blockade, increases the frequency of pre-tumor lesions and creates a tumor-permissive microenvironment at the earliest, preneoplastic stages of MB. This pro-tumor stroma, characterized by angiogenic remodelling, is associated with an accelerated transition from preneoplasia to malignancy. These data expose a stromal component that regulates the earliest stages of tumorigenesis in the cerebellum, and a novel role for the Norrin/Fzd4 axis as an endogenous anti-tumor signal in the preneoplastic niche. DOI: PMID:27823583

  2. Decoupling negative damping signals in a power system through dynamic gain reduction measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coowar, F.; Magdy, M.A. (Univ. of Wollongong, Wollongong, N.S.W. (AU)); Grainger, W. (Electricity Commission of New South Wales, Sydney, N.S.W. (AU))


    Low frequency oscillations occurring in a power system can be accentuated in generators through a feedback loop which connects the output of the system to the summing junction of the Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR) where the Power System Stabilizer (PSS) is also connected. A method of decoupling these oscillations without compromising the benevolent effects of other control loops in that system is presented. A notch filter, located in the forward path of the negative damping signal, provides the necessary Dynamic Gain Reduction (DGR) for switching off the detrimental signals. This paper provides relevant frequency domain analysis of the closed loop transfer function of a typical power system which reflects the effect of tie-line disturbances on power angle oscillations. This leads to a restructuring of the transfer blocks in the system and the design of a DGR block that allows the decoupling of the negative damping signals. Additional insight into the effect of negative damping signals and their subsequent decoupling is provided through the examination of loop and transfer block signals.

  3. Blocking lhh Signaling Pathway Inhibits the Proliferation and Pro-motes the Apoptosis of PSCs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai XU; Fengjing GUO; Shuwei ZHANG; Cheng LIU; Feixiong WANG; Zhiguo ZHOU; Anmin CHEN


    The roles of Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling pathway in the proliferation and apoptosis of precartilaginous stem cells (PSCs) were investigated.PSCs,labeled with fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR-3),were isolated from neonatal rats by immanomagnetic separation.After identifi-cation with FGFR-3 and Col Ⅱ,the cells were incubated with different concentrations of cyclopamine (cyclo),the specific inhibitor of lhh signaling pathway.The morphologic changes of the cells were observed under the inverted phase contrast microscope.The mRNA expression levels of Ibh,para-thyroid hormonerelated peptide (PTHrP),protein Patched (Ptch),Bcl-2 and p21 were detected by RT-PCR.The protein expression levels of Ihh and Ptch were measured by Western blot.MTT assay was used to examine the effects of cyclo on proliferation of PSCs.Apoptosis rate of PSCs was exam-ined by Annexin V/PI assay of flow cytometric analyses.After PSCs were incubated with cyclo,ob-vious morphologic changes were observed as compared with the control group.The mRNA expres-sion levels of PTHrP,Ptch and Bcl-2 were decreased to varying degrees in a cyclo dose-dependent manner.However,the expression levels of lhh and p21 mRNA were increased.The protein expres-sion of Ptch and Ihh had the same change as the mRNA expression.Meanwhile,cyclo could obvi-ously inhibit the proliferation and promote the apoptosis of PSCs.The results indicated that Ihh sig-naling pathway plays an important role in regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of PSCs,which is probably mediated by Bcl-2 and p21.

  4. Mycobacterium tuberculosis exploits the PPM1A signaling pathway to block host macrophage apoptosis (United States)

    Schaaf, Kaitlyn; Smith, Samuel R.; Duverger, Alexandra; Wagner, Frederic; Wolschendorf, Frank; Westfall, Andrew O.; Kutsch, Olaf; Sun, Jim


    The ability to suppress host macrophage apoptosis is essential for M. tuberculosis (Mtb) to replicate intracellularly while protecting it from antibiotic treatment. We recently described that Mtb infection upregulated expression of the host phosphatase PPM1A, which impairs the antibacterial response of macrophages. Here we establish PPM1A as a checkpoint target used by Mtb to suppress macrophage apoptosis. Overproduction of PPM1A suppressed apoptosis of Mtb-infected macrophages by a mechanism that involves inactivation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Targeted depletion of PPM1A by shRNA or inhibition of PPM1A activity by sanguinarine restored JNK activation, resulting in increased apoptosis of Mtb-infected macrophages. We also demonstrate that activation of JNK by subtoxic concentrations of anisomycin induced selective apoptotic killing of Mtb-infected human macrophages, which was completely blocked in the presence of a specific JNK inhibitor. Finally, selective killing of Mtb-infected macrophages and subsequent bacterial release enabled rifampicin to effectively kill Mtb at concentrations that were insufficient to act against intracellular Mtb, providing proof of principle for the efficacy of a “release and kill” strategy. Taken together, these findings suggest that drug-induced selective apoptosis of Mtb-infected macrophages is achievable. PMID:28176854

  5. Piperine blocks interleukin-2-driven cell cycle progression in CTLL-2 T lymphocytes by inhibiting multiple signal transduction pathways. (United States)

    Doucette, Carolyn D; Greenshields, Anna L; Liwski, Robert S; Hoskin, David W


    Piperine, a pungent alkaloid found in the fruits of black pepper plants, has diverse physiological effects, including the ability to inhibit immune cell-mediated inflammation. Since the cytokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) is essential for the clonal expansion and differentiation of T lymphocytes, we investigated the effect of piperine on IL-2 signaling in IL-2-dependent mouse CTLL-2 T lymphocytes. Tritiated-thymidine incorporation assays and flow cytometric analysis of Oregon Green 488-stained cells showed that piperine inhibited IL-2-driven T lymphocyte proliferation; however, piperine did not cause T lymphocytes to die or decrease their expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor, as determined by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that piperine blocked the IL-2-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 and STAT5 without affecting the upstream phosphorylation of Janus kinase (JAK) 1 and JAK3. In addition, piperine inhibited the IL-2-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Akt, which are signaling molecules that regulate cell cycle progression. Piperine also suppressed the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) 1, Cdk4, Cdk6, cyclin B, cyclin D2, and Cdc25c protein phosphatase by IL-2-stimulated T lymphocytes, indicating G0/G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Piperine-mediated inhibition of IL-2 signaling and cell cycle progression in CTLL-2 T lymphocytes suggests that piperine should be further investigated in animal models as a possible natural source treatment for T lymphocyte-mediated transplant rejection and autoimmune disease.

  6. Control analysis of systems with reaction blocks that 'cross-talk'. (United States)

    Ainscow, E K; Brand, M D


    Practical application of metabolic control analysis has been facilitated by use of the top-down approach, which divides a metabolic system into a small number of reaction blocks, linked by a few key intermediates. Previous papers have stressed that communication between blocks should be only through the explicit intermediates, 'cross-talk' between reaction blocks invalidated the approach. Here we show how the restriction is a result of the use of inhibitors of the blocks, and can be overcome if other system modulations are used. We also show a way to treat the related problem of enzymes that appear in more than one block such as the analysis of glycolytic substrate cycles into ATP consuming and net flux activities.

  7. Hepatitis B virus polymerase blocks pattern recognition receptor signaling via interaction with DDX3: implications for immune evasion. (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Ryu, Wang-Shick


    Viral infection leads to induction of pattern-recognition receptor signaling, which leads to interferon regulatory factor (IRF) activation and ultimately interferon (IFN) production. To establish infection, many viruses have strategies to evade the innate immunity. For the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which causes chronic infection in the liver, the evasion strategy remains uncertain. We now show that HBV polymerase (Pol) blocks IRF signaling, indicating that HBV Pol is the viral molecule that effectively counteracts host innate immune response. In particular, HBV Pol inhibits TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1)/IkappaB kinase-epsilon (IKKepsilon), the effector kinases of IRF signaling. Intriguingly, HBV Pol inhibits TBK1/IKKepsilon activity by disrupting the interaction between IKKepsilon and DDX3 DEAD box RNA helicase, which was recently shown to augment TBK1/IKKepsilon activity. This unexpected role of HBV Pol may explain how HBV evades innate immune response in the early phase of the infection. A therapeutic implication of this work is that a strategy to interfere with the HBV Pol-DDX3 interaction might lead to the resolution of life-long persistent infection.

  8. Hepatitis B virus polymerase blocks pattern recognition receptor signaling via interaction with DDX3: implications for immune evasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Wang

    Full Text Available Viral infection leads to induction of pattern-recognition receptor signaling, which leads to interferon regulatory factor (IRF activation and ultimately interferon (IFN production. To establish infection, many viruses have strategies to evade the innate immunity. For the hepatitis B virus (HBV, which causes chronic infection in the liver, the evasion strategy remains uncertain. We now show that HBV polymerase (Pol blocks IRF signaling, indicating that HBV Pol is the viral molecule that effectively counteracts host innate immune response. In particular, HBV Pol inhibits TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1/IkappaB kinase-epsilon (IKKepsilon, the effector kinases of IRF signaling. Intriguingly, HBV Pol inhibits TBK1/IKKepsilon activity by disrupting the interaction between IKKepsilon and DDX3 DEAD box RNA helicase, which was recently shown to augment TBK1/IKKepsilon activity. This unexpected role of HBV Pol may explain how HBV evades innate immune response in the early phase of the infection. A therapeutic implication of this work is that a strategy to interfere with the HBV Pol-DDX3 interaction might lead to the resolution of life-long persistent infection.

  9. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system. (United States)

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S


    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling.

  10. Contemporary kinematics of the Ordos block, North China and its adjacent rift systems constrained by dense GPS observations (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Zhang, Caihong; Wang, Dongzhen; Huang, Yong; Tan, Kai; Du, Ruilin; Liu, Jingnan


    The detailed kinematic pattern of the Ordos block, North China and its surrounding rift systems remains uncertain, mainly due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of the Global Positioning System (GPS) velocity data and the lack of GPS stations in this region. In this study, we have obtained a new and dense velocity field by processing GPS data primarily collected from the Crustal Motion Observation Network of China and from other GPS networks between 1998 and 2014. The GPS velocities within the Ordos block can be interpreted as counterclockwise rotation of the block about the Euler pole with respect to the Eurasia plate. Velocity profiles across the graben-bounding faults show relatively rapid right-lateral strike-slip motion along the Yinchuan graben, with a rate of 0.8-2.6 mm/a from north to south. In addition, a right-lateral slip rate of 1.1-1.6 mm/a is estimated along the central segment of the Shanxi rift. However, strike-slip motion is not detected along the northern and southern margins of the Ordos block. Conversely, significant extension motion is detected across the northwestern corner of the block, with a value of 1.6 mm/a, and along the northern segment of the Shanxi rift, where an extensional rate of 1.3-1.7 mm/a is measured. Both the Daihai and Datong basins are experiencing crustal extension. On the southwestern margin of the block, deformation across the compressional zone of the Liupanshan range is subtle; however, the far-field shorting rate is as high as 3.0 mm/a, implying that this region is experiencing ongoing compression. The results reveal that present-day fault slip occurs mainly along the block bounding faults, with the exception of faults along the northern and southern margins of the block. These results provide new insights into the nature of tectonic deformation around the Ordos block, and are useful for assessing the seismic activity in this region.

  11. Silymarin targets β-catenin signaling in blocking migration/invasion of human melanoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudit Vaid

    Full Text Available Metastatic melanoma is a leading cause of death from skin diseases, and is often associated with activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. We have examined the inhibitory effect of silymarin, a plant flavanoid from Silybum marianum, on cell migration of metastasis-specific human melanoma cell lines (A375 and Hs294t and assessed whether Wnt/β-catenin signaling is the target of silymarin. Using an in vitro invasion assay, we found that treatment of human melanoma cell lines with silymarin resulted in concentration-dependent inhibition of cell migration, which was associated with accumulation of cytosolic β-catenin, while reducing the nuclear accumulation of β-catenin (i.e., β-catenin inactivation and reducing the levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -2 and MMP-9 which are the down-stream targets of β-catenin. Silymarin enhanced: (i the levels of casein kinase 1α, glycogen synthase kinase-3β and phosphorylated-β-catenin on critical residues Ser(45, Ser(33/37 and Thr(41, and (ii the binding of β-transducin repeat-containing proteins (β-TrCP with phospho forms of β-catenin in melanoma cells. These events play important roles in degradation or inactivation of β-catenin. To verify whether β-catenin is a potent molecular target of silymarin, the effect of silymarin was determined on β-catenin-activated (Mel 1241 and β-catenin-inactivated (Mel 1011 melanoma cells. Treatment of Mel 1241 cells with silymarin or FH535, an inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin pathway, significantly inhibited cell migration of Mel 1241 cells, which was associated with the elevated levels of casein kinase 1α and glycogen synthase kinase-3β, and decreased accumulation of nuclear β-catenin and inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 levels. However, this effect of silymarin and FH535 was not found in Mel 1011 melanoma cells. These results indicate for the first time that silymarin inhibits melanoma cell migration by targeting β-catenin signaling pathway.

  12. Encoding olfactory signals via multiple chemosensory systems. (United States)

    Ma, Minghong


    Most animals have evolved multiple olfactory systems to detect general odors as well as social cues. The sophistication and interaction of these systems permit precise detection of food, danger, and mates, all crucial elements for survival. In most mammals, the nose contains two well described chemosensory apparatuses (the main olfactory epithelium and the vomeronasal organ), each of which comprises several subtypes of sensory neurons expressing distinct receptors and signal transduction machineries. In many species (e.g., rodents), the nasal cavity also includes two spatially segregated clusters of neurons forming the septal organ of Masera and the Grueneberg ganglion. Results of recent studies suggest that these chemosensory systems perceive diverse but overlapping olfactory cues and that some neurons may even detect the pressure changes carried by the airflow. This review provides an update on how chemosensory neurons transduce chemical (and possibly mechanical) stimuli into electrical signals, and what information each system brings into the brain. Future investigation will focus on the specific ligands that each system detects with a behavioral context and the processing networks that each system involves in the brain. Such studies will lead to a better understanding of how the multiple olfactory systems, acting in concert, offer a complete representation of the chemical world.

  13. Novel angiogenesis inhibitory activity in cinnamon extract blocks VEGFR2 kinase and downstream signaling. (United States)

    Lu, Jianming; Zhang, Keqiang; Nam, Sangkil; Anderson, Richard A; Jove, Richard; Wen, Wei


    As a critical factor in the induction of angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has become an attractive target for anti-angiogenesis treatment. However, the side effects associated with most anti-VEGF agents limit their chronic use. Identification of naturally occurring VEGF inhibitors derived from diet is a potential alternative approach, with the advantage of known safety. To isolate natural inhibitors of VEGF, we established an in vitro tyrosine kinase assay to screen for diet-based agents that suppress VEGFR2 kinase activity. We found that a water-based extract from cinnamon (cinnamon extract, CE), one of the oldest and most popular spices, was a potent inhibitor of VEGFR2 kinase activity, directly inhibiting kinase activity of purified VEGFR2 as well as mitogen-activated protein kinase- and Stat3-mediated signaling pathway in endothelial cells. As a result, CE inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation in vitro, sprout formation from aortic ring ex vivo and tumor-induced blood vessel formation in vivo. Depletion of polyphenol from CE with polyvinylpyrrolidone abolished its anti-angiogenesis activity. While cinnamaldehyde, a component responsible for CE aroma, had little effect on VEGFR2 kinase activity, high-performance liquid chromatography-purified components of CE, procyanidin type A trimer (molecular weight, 864) and a tetramer (molecular weight, 1152) were found to inhibit kinase activity of purified VEGFR2 and VEGFR2 signaling, implicating procyanidin oligomers as active components in CE that inhibit angiogenesis. Our data revealed a novel activity in cinnamon and identified a natural VEGF inhibitor that could potentially be useful in cancer prevention and/or treatment.

  14. MAGI1 inhibits migration and invasion via blocking MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in gastric cancer (United States)

    Jia, Shuqin; Lu, Jiajia; Qu, Tingting; Feng, Yi; Wang, Xiaohong; Liu, Caixia; Ji, Jiafu


    Objective To explore the association of membrane-associated guanylate kinase inverted 1 (MAGI1) with gastric cancer (GC) and the related molecular mechanisms. Methods The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were utilized to measure the MAGI1 expression level in GC tissues. Quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting were used to ensure the MAGI1 expression in GC cell lines. Small hairpin RNA (shRNA) was applied for knockdown of endogenous MAGI1 in GC cells. MTT assay and colony formation assay, scratch wounding migration assay and transwell chamber migration assay, as well as transwell chamber invasion assay were employed respectively to investigate the GC cell proliferation, migration and invasion in MAGI1-knockdown and control GC cells. The potential molecular mechanism mediated by MAGI1 was studied using Western blotting and RT- PCR. Results RT-PCR and IHC verified MAGI1 was frequently expressed in matched adjacent noncancerous mucosa compared with GC tissues and the expression of MAGI1 was related to clinical pathological parameters. Functional assays indicated that MAGI1 knockdown significantly promoted GC cell migration and invasion. Further mechanism investigation demonstrated that one pathway of MAGI1 inhibiting migration and invasion was mainly by altering the expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related molecules via inhibiting MAPK/ERK signaling pathway. Conclusions MAGI1 was associated with GC clinical pathological parameters and acted as a tumor suppressor via inhibiting of MAPK/ERK signaling pathway in GC. PMID:28373751

  15. Blocking transforming growth factor- receptor signaling down-regulates transforming growth factor-β1 autoproduction in keloid fibroblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟; 蔡泽浩; 王丹茹; 武小莉; 崔磊; 商庆新; 钱云良; 曹谊林


    Objective: To study transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) autoproduction in keloid fibroblasts and theregulation effect of blocking TGF-β intracellular signalingon rhTGF-β1 autoproduction.Methods: Keloid fibroblasts cultured in vitro weretreated with either rhTGF-β1 (5 ng/ml ) or recombinantadenovirus containing a truncated type II TGF-β receptorgene (50 pfu/cell ). Their effects of regulating geneexpression of TGF-β1 and its receptor I and II wereobserved with Northern blot.Results: rhTGF-β1 up-regulated the gene expressionof TGF-β1 and receptor I, but not receptor II. Over-expression of the truncated receptor II down-regulated thegene expression of TGF-β1 and its receptor I, but notreceptor II.Conclusions: TGF-β1 autoproduction was observed inkeloid fibroblasts. Over-expression of the truncated TGF-βreceptor H decreased TGF-β1 autoproduction via blockingTGF-β receptor signaling.

  16. Methods for Setting up a Three-Dimensional Industrial Surveying System of "Building Blocks Type"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Wenhao


    This paper is to advance some relevant techniques to set up a three-dimensional industrial surveying system of "building blocks type", making use of the electronic theodolite, standard ruler and portable computer.

  17. Blocking αvβ3 integrin by a recombinant RGD disintegrin impairs VEGF signaling in endothelial cells. (United States)

    Montenegro, Cyntia F; Salla-Pontes, Carmen L; Ribeiro, Juliana U; Machado, Aline Z; Ramos, Rafael F; Figueiredo, Camila C; Morandi, Verônica; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa S


    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and αvβ3 integrin are key molecules that actively participate in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. Some integrin-blocking molecules are currently under clinical trials for cancer and metastasis treatment. However, the mechanism of action of such inhibitors is not completely understood. We have previously demonstrated the anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic properties of DisBa-01, a recombinant His-tag RGD-disintegrin from Bothrops alternatus snake venom in some experimental models. DisBa-01 blocks αvβ3 integrin binding to vitronectin and inhibits integrin-mediated downstream signaling cascades and cell migration. Here we add some new information on the mechanism of action of DisBa-01 in the tumor microenvironment. DisBa-01 supports the adhesion of fibroblasts and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells but it inhibits the adhesion of these cells to type I collagen under flow in high shear conditions, as a simulation of the blood stream. DisBa-01 does not affect the release of VEGF by fibroblasts or breast cancer cells but it strongly decreases the expression of VEGF mRNA and of its receptors, vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2) in endothelial cells. DisBa-01 at nanomolar concentrations also modulates metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9) activity, the latter being decreased in fibroblasts and increased in MDA-MB-231 cells. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that αvβ3 integrin inhibitors may induce distinct effects in the cells of the tumor microenvironment, resulting in blockade of angiogenesis by impairing of VEGF signaling and in inhibition of tumor cell motility.

  18. Signals and Systems in Biomedical Engineering Signal Processing and Physiological Systems Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Devasahayam, Suresh R


    The use of digital signal processing is ubiquitous in the field of physiology and biomedical engineering. The application of such mathematical and computational tools requires a formal or explicit understanding of physiology. Formal models and analytical techniques are interlinked in physiology as in any other field. This book takes a unitary approach to physiological systems, beginning with signal measurement and acquisition, followed by signal processing, linear systems modelling, and computer simulations. The signal processing techniques range across filtering, spectral analysis and wavelet analysis. Emphasis is placed on fundamental understanding of the concepts as well as solving numerical problems. Graphs and analogies are used extensively to supplement the mathematics. Detailed models of nerve and muscle at the cellular and systemic levels provide examples for the mathematical methods and computer simulations. Several of the models are sufficiently sophisticated to be of value in understanding real wor...

  19. [The development of the system of blood flow block by using magnetic compression abdominal large vascular]. (United States)

    Yan, Xiaopeng; Lv, Yi; Ma, Feng; Ma, Jia; Wang, Haohua; Wang, Shanpei; Li, Dichen; Liu, Yaxiong; Jia, Shenli; Shi, Zongqian; Luo, Ruixue


    A new system of blood flow block for control of bleeding in abdominal operation is composed of an abdominal magnetic blocking unit, an abdominal external electromagnet unit and other non-magnetic operation instrument. The abdominal external electromagnetic unit is placed in advance in the operation bed. The abdominal magnetic blocking unit can be placed directly on the ventral of the large vessels when need to blocking the abdominal large vessels during the operation. According to the non-contact suction characteristics of magnetic materials, the two magnetic units will attract each other and compression the vessels. Using this system for vascular occlusion does not need clear exposure and without separating vessel. There is the advantage of rapid, accurate and reliable for the system.

  20. Novel multi-targeted ErbB family inhibitor afatinib blocks EGF-induced signaling and induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma. (United States)

    Mao, Xinfang; Chen, Zhenghu; Zhao, Yanling; Yu, Yang; Guan, Shan; Woodfield, Sarah E; Vasudevan, Sanjeev A; Tao, Ling; Pang, Jonathan C; Lu, Jiaxiong; Zhang, Huiyuan; Zhang, Fuchun; Yang, Jianhua


    Neuroblastoma is the most common extracranial solid tumor in children. The ErbB family of proteins is a group of receptor tyrosine kinases that promote the progression of various malignant cancers including neuroblastoma. Thus, targeting them with small molecule inhibitors is a promising strategy for neuroblastoma therapy. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of afatinib, an irreversible inhibitor of members of the ErbB family, on neuroblastoma. We found that afatinib suppressed the proliferation and colony formation ability of neuroblastoma cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Afatinib also induced apoptosis and blocked EGF-induced activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling in all neuroblastoma cell lines tested. In addition, afatinib enhanced doxorubicin-induced cytotoxicity in neuroblastoma cells, including the chemoresistant LA-N-6 cell line. Finally, afatinib exhibited antitumor efficacy in vivo by inducing apoptosis in an orthotopic xenograft neuroblastoma mouse model. Taken together, these results show that afatinib inhibits neuroblastoma growth both in vitro and in vivo by suppressing EGFR-mediated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Our study supports the idea that EGFR is a potential therapeutic target in neuroblastoma. And targeting ErbB family protein kinases with small molecule inhibitors like afatinib alone or in combination with doxorubicin is a viable option for treating neuroblastoma.

  1. Blocking IL-6 trans-signaling prevents high-fat diet-induced adipose tissue macrophage recruitment but does not improve insulin resistance. (United States)

    Kraakman, Michael J; Kammoun, Helene L; Allen, Tamara L; Deswaerte, Virginie; Henstridge, Darren C; Estevez, Emma; Matthews, Vance B; Neill, Bronwyn; White, David A; Murphy, Andrew J; Peijs, Lone; Yang, Christine; Risis, Steve; Bruce, Clinton R; Du, Xiao-Jun; Bobik, Alex; Lee-Young, Robert S; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Vasanthakumar, Ajithkumar; Shi, Wei; Kallies, Axel; Lancaster, Graeme I; Rose-John, Stefan; Febbraio, Mark A


    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) plays a paradoxical role in inflammation and metabolism. The pro-inflammatory effects of IL-6 are mediated via IL-6 "trans-signaling," a process where the soluble form of the IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) binds IL-6 and activates signaling in inflammatory cells that express the gp130 but not the IL-6 receptor. Here we show that trans-signaling recruits macrophages into adipose tissue (ATM). Moreover, blocking trans-signaling with soluble gp130Fc protein prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced ATM accumulation, but does not improve insulin action. Importantly, however, blockade of IL-6 trans-signaling, unlike complete ablation of IL-6 signaling, does not exacerbate obesity-induced weight gain, liver steatosis, or insulin resistance. Our data identify the sIL-6R as a critical chemotactic signal for ATM recruitment and suggest that selectively blocking IL-6 trans-signaling may be a more favorable treatment option for inflammatory diseases, compared with current treatments that completely block the action of IL-6 and negatively impact upon metabolic homeostasis.

  2. Efficient audio signal processing for embedded systems (United States)

    Chiu, Leung Kin

    As mobile platforms continue to pack on more computational power, electronics manufacturers start to differentiate their products by enhancing the audio features. However, consumers also demand smaller devices that could operate for longer time, hence imposing design constraints. In this research, we investigate two design strategies that would allow us to efficiently process audio signals on embedded systems such as mobile phones and portable electronics. In the first strategy, we exploit properties of the human auditory system to process audio signals. We designed a sound enhancement algorithm to make piezoelectric loudspeakers sound ”richer" and "fuller." Piezoelectric speakers have a small form factor but exhibit poor response in the low-frequency region. In the algorithm, we combine psychoacoustic bass extension and dynamic range compression to improve the perceived bass coming out from the tiny speakers. We also developed an audio energy reduction algorithm for loudspeaker power management. The perceptually transparent algorithm extends the battery life of mobile devices and prevents thermal damage in speakers. This method is similar to audio compression algorithms, which encode audio signals in such a ways that the compression artifacts are not easily perceivable. Instead of reducing the storage space, however, we suppress the audio contents that are below the hearing threshold, therefore reducing the signal energy. In the second strategy, we use low-power analog circuits to process the signal before digitizing it. We designed an analog front-end for sound detection and implemented it on a field programmable analog array (FPAA). The system is an example of an analog-to-information converter. The sound classifier front-end can be used in a wide range of applications because programmable floating-gate transistors are employed to store classifier weights. Moreover, we incorporated a feature selection algorithm to simplify the analog front-end. A machine

  3. Millimeter-wave circuits and pulse compression radar baseband/analog signal processing blocks in silicon processes



    The power dissipation and cost of the next generation pulse radar beamforming systems needs to be reduced for the imaging and surveillance sensors. This research work aims at developing and innovating the next generation, mobile hand-held, high performance radar systems for outdoor surveillance applications, i.e. pedestrian detection sensor. Integrating the low cost millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging array platforms with advanced analog/ baseband signal processing on silicon is proposed for re...

  4. A block zero-padding method based on DCFT for L1 parameter estimations in weak signal and high dynamic environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao WU; Lu-ping XU; Hua ZHANG; Wen-bo ZHAO


    Weak L1 signal acquisition in a high dynamic environment primarily faces a challenge:the integration peak is neg-atively influenced by the possible bit sign reversal every 20 ms and the frequency error. The block accumulating semi-coherent integration of correlations (BASIC) is a state-of-the-art method, but calculating the inter-block conjugate products restricts BASIC in a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) acquisition. We propose a block zero-padding method based on a discrete chirp-Fourier transform (DCFT) for parameter estimations in weak signal and high dynamic environments. Compared with the conventional receiver architecture that uses closed-loop acquisition and tracking, it is more suitable for open-loop acquisition. The proposed method combines DCFT and block zero-padding. In this way, the post-correlation signal is coherently post-integrated with the bit sequence stripped off, and the high dynamic parameters are precisely estimated using the threshold set based on a false alarm probability. In addition, the detection performance of the proposed method is analyzed. Simulation results show that compared with the BASIC method, the proposed method can precisely detect the high dynamic parameters in lower SNR when the length of the received signal is fixed.

  5. A completely transparent, adhesively bonded soda-lime glass block masonry system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Oikonomopoulou


    Full Text Available A pioneering, all transparent, self-supporting glass block facade is presented in this paper. Previously realized examples utilize embedded metal components in order to obtain the desired structural performance despite the fact that these elements greatly affect the facade’s overall transparency level. Undeniably, the oxymoron ‘transparency and strength’ remains the prime concern in such applications. In this paper, a new, innovative structural system for glass block facades is described, which demonstrably meets both criteria. The structure is exclusively constructed by monolithic glass blocks, bonded with a colourless, UV-curing adhesive, obtaining thus a maximum transparency. In addition, the desired structural performance is achieved solely through the masonry system, without any opaque substructure. Differing from previous realized projects, solid soda-lime glass blocks are used rather than borosilicate ones. This article provides an overview of the integrated architectural and structural design and discusses the choice of materials. The structural verification of the system is demonstrated. The results show that the adhesively bonded glass block structure has the required self-structural behaviour, but only if strict tolerances are met in the geometry of the glass blocks.

  6. Systemic low temperature signaling in Arabidopsis. (United States)

    Gorsuch, Peter A; Sargeant, Alexander W; Penfield, Steven D; Quick, W Paul; Atkin, Owen K


    When leaves are exposed to low temperature, sugars accumulate and transcription factors in the C-repeat binding factor (CBF) family are expressed, which, together with CBF-independent pathways, are known to contribute to the cold acclimation process and an increase in freezing tolerance. What is not known, however, is whether expression of these cold-regulated genes can be induced systemically in response to a localized cold treatment. To address this, pre-existing, mature leaves of warm-grown Arabidopsis thaliana were exposed to a localized cold treatment (near 10 °C) whilst conjoined newly developing leaves continued only to experience warmer temperatures. In initial experiments on wild-type A. thaliana (Col-0) using real-time reverse transcription--PCR (RT-PCR) we observed that some genes--including CBF genes, certain downstream cold-responsive (COR) targets and CBF-independent transcription factors--respond to a direct 9 °C treatment of whole plants. In subsequent experiments, we found that the treatment of expanded leaves with temperatures near 10 °C can induce cold-associated genes in conjoined warm-maintained tissues. CBF1 showed a particularly strong systemic response, although CBF-independent transcription factors also responded. Moreover, the localized cold treatment of A. thaliana (C24) plants with a luciferase reporter fused to the promoter region of KIN2 indicated that in warm-maintained leaves, KIN2 might respond to a systemic signal from remote, directly cold-treated leaves. Collectively, our study provides strong evidence that the processes involved in cold acclimation are partially mediated by a signal that acts systemically. This has the potential to act as an early-warning system to enable developing leaves to cope better with the cold environment in which they are growing.

  7. Development of the Functional Flow Block Diagram for the J-2X Rocket Engine System (United States)

    White, Thomas; Stoller, Sandra L.; Greene, WIlliam D.; Christenson, Rick L.; Bowen, Barry C.


    The J-2X program calls for the upgrade of the Apollo-era Rocketdyne J-2 engine to higher power levels, using new materials and manufacturing techniques, and with more restrictive safety and reliability requirements than prior human-rated engines in NASA history. Such requirements demand a comprehensive systems engineering effort to ensure success. Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne system engineers performed a functional analysis of the engine to establish the functional architecture. J-2X functions were captured in six major operational blocks. Each block was divided into sub-blocks or states. In each sub-block, functions necessary to perform each state were determined. A functional engine schematic consistent with the fidelity of the system model was defined for this analysis. The blocks, sub-blocks, and functions were sequentially numbered to differentiate the states in which the function were performed and to indicate the sequence of events. The Engine System was functionally partitioned, to provide separate and unique functional operators. Establishing unique functional operators as work output of the System Architecture process is novel in Liquid Propulsion Engine design. Each functional operator was described such that its unique functionality was identified. The decomposed functions were then allocated to the functional operators both of which were the inputs to the subsystem or component performance specifications. PWR also used a novel approach to identify and map the engine functional requirements to customer-specified functions. The final result was a comprehensive Functional Flow Block Diagram (FFBD) for the J-2X Engine System, decomposed to the component level and mapped to all functional requirements. This FFBD greatly facilitates component specification development, providing a well-defined trade space for functional trades at the subsystem and component level. It also provides a framework for function-based failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA), and a

  8. A fast direct method for block triangular Toeplitz-like with tri-diagonal block systems from time-fractional partial differential equations (United States)

    Ke, Rihuan; Ng, Michael K.; Sun, Hai-Wei


    In this paper, we study the block lower triangular Toeplitz-like with tri-diagonal blocks system which arises from the time-fractional partial differential equation. Existing fast numerical solver (e.g., fast approximate inversion method) cannot handle such linear system as the main diagonal blocks are different. The main contribution of this paper is to propose a fast direct method for solving this linear system, and to illustrate that the proposed method is much faster than the classical block forward substitution method for solving this linear system. Our idea is based on the divide-and-conquer strategy and together with the fast Fourier transforms for calculating Toeplitz matrix-vector multiplication. The complexity needs O (MNlog2 ⁡ M) arithmetic operations, where M is the number of blocks (the number of time steps) in the system and N is the size (number of spatial grid points) of each block. Numerical examples from the finite difference discretization of time-fractional partial differential equations are also given to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.

  9. Synchronization of noisy systems by stochastic signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neiman, A.; Schimansky-Geier, L.; Moss, F. [Center for Neurodynamics, University of Missouri at St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 (United States); Schimansky-Geier, L. [Institute of Physics, Humboldt University at Berlin, Invalidenstrasse 110, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Shulgin, B.; Collins, J.J. [Center for BioDynamics and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Boston University, 44 Cummington Street, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States)


    We study, in terms of synchronization, the {ital nonlinear response} of noisy bistable systems to a stochastic external signal, represented by Markovian dichotomic noise. We propose a general kinetic model which allows us to conduct a full analytical study of the nonlinear response, including the calculation of cross-correlation measures, the mean switching frequency, and synchronization regions. Theoretical results are compared with numerical simulations of a noisy overdamped bistable oscillator. We show that dichotomic noise can instantaneously synchronize the switching process of the system. We also show that synchronization is most pronounced at an optimal noise level{emdash}this effect connects this phenomenon with aperiodic stochastic resonance. Similar synchronization effects are observed for a stochastic neuron model stimulated by a stochastic spike train. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  10. Blocking Type I Interferon Signaling Rescues Lymphocytes from Oxidative Stress, Exhaustion, and Apoptosis in a Streptozotocin-Induced Mouse Model of Type I Diabetes


    Ibrahim, Hany M.; El-Elaimy, Ibrahim A.; Saad Eldien, Heba M.; Badr Mohamed Badr; Rabah, Danny M.; Gamal Badr


    Elevated levels of type I interferon (IFN) during type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) are associated with a defective immune response. In the present study, we investigated whether blocking type I IFN signaling during streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced T1D in mice improves lymphocyte proliferation and escape from continuous apoptosis. Three groups of mice were examined: diabetic mice, type I IFN signaling-incompetent diabetic mice, and control nondiabetic mice. We first found that diabetes induction w...

  11. Traffic Modelling for Moving-Block Train Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Tao; LI Ke-Ping


    This paper presents a new cellular automaton (CA) model for train control system simulation.In the proposed CA model,the driver reactions to train movements are captured by some updated rules.The space-time diagram of traffic flow and the trajectory of train movement is used to obtain insight into the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow.A number of simulation results demonstrate that the proposed CA model can be successfully used for the simulations of railway traffic.Not only the characteristic behavior of railway traffic flow can be reproduced,but also the simulation values of the minimum time headway are close to the theoretical values.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    After brief describing the principle of wavelet transform (WT) of signals, a new signals analysis system based on wavelet transform is introduced. The design and development of the instrument of wavelet transform are described. A number of practical uses of this system demonstrate that wavelet transform system is specially functional in identifying and processing impulse, singular and nonsmooth signals,so that it should be evaluated the most advanced signal analyzing system.

  13. Second International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mu, Jiasong; Wang, Wei; Liang, Qilian; Pi, Yiming


    The Proceedings of The Second International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems provides the state-of-art developments of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems. The conference covered such topics as wireless communications, networks, systems, signal processing for communications. This book is a collection of contributions coming out of The Second International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems (CSPS) held September 2013 in Tianjin, China.

  14. GENIE(++): A Multi-Block Structured Grid System (United States)

    Williams, Tonya; Nadenthiran, Naren; Thornburg, Hugh; Soni, Bharat K.


    The computer code GENIE++ is a continuously evolving grid system containing a multitude of proven geometry/grid techniques. The generation process in GENIE++ is based on an earlier version. The process uses several techniques either separately or in combination to quickly and economically generate sculptured geometry descriptions and grids for arbitrary geometries. The computational mesh is formed by using an appropriate algebraic method. Grid clustering is accomplished with either exponential or hyperbolic tangent routines which allow the user to specify a desired point distribution. Grid smoothing can be accomplished by using an elliptic solver with proper forcing functions. B-spline and Non-Uniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) algorithms are used for surface definition and redistribution. The built in sculptured geometry definition with desired distribution of points, automatic Bezier curve/surface generation for interior boundaries/surfaces, and surface redistribution is based on NURBS. Weighted Lagrance/Hermite transfinite interpolation methods, interactive geometry/grid manipulation modules, and on-line graphical visualization of the generation process are salient features of this system which result in a significant time savings for a given geometry/grid application.

  15. Sorafenib inhibits tumor growth and vascularization of rhabdomyosarcoma cells by blocking IGF-1R-mediated signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wessen Maruwge


    Full Text Available Wessen Maruwge1, Pádraig D’Arcy1, Annika Folin1,2, Slavica Brnjic1, Johan Wejde1, Anthony Davis1, Fredrik Erlandsson3, Jonas Bergh1,2, Bertha Brodin11Department of Oncology and Pathology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; 2Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; 3Bayer Pharmaceutical Corporation, SwedenAbstract: The growth of many soft tissue sarcomas is dependent on aberrant growth factor signaling, which promotes their proliferation and motility. With this in mind, we evaluated the effect of sorafenib, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on cell growth and apoptosis in sarcoma cell lines of various histological subtypes. We found that sorafenib effectively inhibited cell proliferation in rhabdomyosarcoma, synovial sarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma with IC50 values <5 µM. Sorafenib effectively induced growth arrest in rhabdomyosarcoma cells, which was concurrent with inhibition of Akt and Erk signaling. Studies of ligand-induced phosphorylation of Erk and Akt in rhabdomyosarcoma cells showed that insulin-like growth factor-1 is a potent activator, which can be blocked by treatment with sorafenib. In vivo sorafenib treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma xenografts had a significant inhibitory effect on tumor growth, which was associated with inhibited vascularization and enhanced necrosis in the adjacent tumor stroma. Our results demonstrate that in vitro and in vivo growth of rhabdomyosarcoma can be suppressed by treatment with sorafenib, and suggests the possibilities of using sorafenib as a potential adjuvant therapy for the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma.Keywords: soft tissue sarcoma, kinase inhibitors, targeted therapy, vascularization

  16. System and method for traffic signal timing estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Dumazert, Julien


    A method and system for estimating traffic signals. The method and system can include constructing trajectories of probe vehicles from GPS data emitted by the probe vehicles, estimating traffic signal cycles, combining the estimates, and computing the traffic signal timing by maximizing a scoring function based on the estimates. Estimating traffic signal cycles can be based on transition times of the probe vehicles starting after a traffic signal turns green.

  17. 3rd International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Qilian; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Baoju; Pi, Yiming


    The Proceedings of The Third International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems provides the state-of-art developments of communications, signal processing, and systems. This book is a collection of contributions from the conference and covers such topics as wireless communications, networks, systems, and signal processing for communications. The conference was held July 2014 in Hohhot, Inner Mongolia, China.

  18. Analysis of the seismic signals generated by controlled single-block rockfalls on soft clay shales sediments: the Rioux Bourdoux slope experiment (French Alps). (United States)

    Hibert, Clément; Provost, Floriane; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Bourrier, Franck; Berger, Frédéric; Bornemann, Pierrick; Borgniet, Laurent; Tardif, Pascal; Mermin, Eric


    Understanding the dynamics of rockfalls is critical to mitigate the associated hazards but is made very difficult by the nature of these natural disasters that makes them hard to observe directly. Recent advances in seismology allow to determine the dynamics of the largest landslides on Earth from the very low-frequency seismic waves they generate. However, the vast majority of rockfalls that occur worldwide are too small to generate such low-frequency seismic waves and thus these methods cannot be used to reconstruct their dynamics. However, if seismic sensors are close enough, these events will generate high-frequency seismic signals. Unfortunately we cannot yet use these high-frequency seismic records to infer parameters synthetizing the rockfall dynamics as the source of these waves is not well understood. One of the first steps towards understanding the physical processes involved in the generation of high-frequency seismic waves by rockfalls is to study the link between the dynamics of a single block propagating along a well-known path and the features of the seismic signal generated. We conducted controlled releases of single blocks of limestones in a gully of clay-shales (e.g. black marls) in the Rioux Bourdoux torrent (French Alps). 28 blocks, with masses ranging from 76 kg to 472 kg, were released. A monitoring network combining high-velocity cameras, a broadband seismometer and an array of 4 high-frequency seismometers was deployed near the release area and along the travel path. The high-velocity cameras allow to reconstruct the 3D trajectories of the blocks, to estimate their velocities and the position of the different impacts with the slope surface. These data are compared to the seismic signals recorded. As the distance between the block and the seismic sensors at the time of each impact is known, we can determine the associated seismic signal amplitude corrected from propagation and attenuation effects. We can further compare the velocity, the

  19. Adaptive neural control of MIMO nonlinear systems with a block-triangular pure-feedback control structure. (United States)

    Chen, Zhenfeng; Ge, Shuzhi Sam; Zhang, Yun; Li, Yanan


    This paper presents adaptive neural tracking control for a class of uncertain multiinput-multioutput (MIMO) nonlinear systems in block-triangular form. All subsystems within these MIMO nonlinear systems are of completely nonaffine pure-feedback form and allowed to have different orders. To deal with the nonaffine appearance of the control variables, the mean value theorem is employed to transform the systems into a block-triangular strict-feedback form with control coefficients being couplings among various inputs and outputs. A systematic procedure is proposed for the design of a new singularity-free adaptive neural tracking control strategy. Such a design procedure can remove the couplings among subsystems and hence avoids the possible circular control construction problem. As a consequence, all the signals in the closed-loop system are guaranteed to be semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Moreover, the outputs of the systems are ensured to converge to a small neighborhood of the desired trajectories. Simulation studies verify the theoretical findings revealed in this paper.

  20. SAR processing using SHARC signal processing systems (United States)

    Huxtable, Barton D.; Jackson, Christopher R.; Skaron, Steve A.


    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is uniquely suited to help solve the Search and Rescue problem since it can be utilized either day or night and through both dense fog or thick cloud cover. Other papers in this session, and in this session in 1997, describe the various SAR image processing algorithms that are being developed and evaluated within the Search and Rescue Program. All of these approaches to using SAR data require substantial amounts of digital signal processing: for the SAR image formation, and possibly for the subsequent image processing. In recognition of the demanding processing that will be required for an operational Search and Rescue Data Processing System (SARDPS), NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and NASA/Stennis Space Center are conducting a technology demonstration utilizing SHARC multi-chip modules from Boeing to perform SAR image formation processing.

  1. The switching between zonal and blocked mid-latitude atmospheric circulation: a dynamical system perspective (United States)

    Faranda, Davide; Masato, Giacomo; Moloney, Nicholas; Sato, Yuzuru; Daviaud, Francois; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Yiou, Pascal


    Atmospheric mid-latitude circulation is dominated by a zonal, westerly flow. Such a flow is generally symmetric, but it can be occasionally broken up by blocking anticyclones. The subsequent asymmetric flow can persist for several days. In this paper, we apply new mathematical tools based on the computation of an extremal index in order to reexamine the dynamical mechanisms responsible for the transitions between zonal and blocked flows. We discard the claim that mid-latitude circulation features two distinct stable equilibria or chaotic regimes, in favor of a simpler mechanism that is well understood in dynamical systems theory: we identify the blocked flow as an unstable fixed point (or saddle point) of a single basin chaotic attractor, dominated by the westerlies regime. We also analyze the North Atlantic Oscillation and the Arctic Oscillation atmospheric indices, whose behavior is often associated with the transition between the two circulation regimes, and investigate analogies and differences with the bidimensional blocking indices. We find that the Arctic Oscillation index, which can be thought as a proxy for a hemispheric average of the Tibaldi-Molteni blocking index, tracks unstable fixed points. On the other hand, the North Atlantic Oscillation, representative only for local properties of the North Atlantic blocking dynamics, does not show any trace of the presence of unstable fixed points of the dynamics.

  2. Space-Time Block Coding for Time Slotted CDMA Systems with Frequency-Selective Fading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGYingmin; YIKechu; NIUZhongxia; TIANHongxin


    The radio channel fading is one of the most important physical limitations for wireless mobile communications. Space-time coding is a coding technique that is designed for use with multiple transmit antennas and offers an effective transmit diversity technique to combat fading. However, most existing space-time coding schemes assume fiat fading that may not be valid for wideband wireless mobile communication channels. In this paper, a novel spacetime block coding scheme based on block processing is proposed for time slotted CDMA systems with frequencyselective fading. In order to get quasi-orthogonality, we encode the information based on the two data fields (blocks) of a burst, other than the symbols in a data field (block). As a consequence, it is convenient for block processing of joint detection which can be used with just some small modifications of the algorithms with no space-time coding. For decoding the new space time codes, block linear joint detection algorithms are developed. Then, we simplify these algorithms with an iterative procedure. With moderate iterative times, the computation complexity of the simplified algorithms is much less than that of the exact algorithms. Simulation results show that the performance of the simplified joint detection algorithms approximates to that of the exact ones.

  3. Differential Space-Time Block Code Modulation for DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jianhua


    Full Text Available A differential space-time block code (DSTBC modulation scheme is used to improve the performance of DS-CDMA systems in fast time-dispersive fading channels. The resulting scheme is referred to as the differential space-time block code modulation for DS-CDMA (DSTBC-CDMA systems. The new modulation and demodulation schemes are especially studied for the down-link transmission of DS-CDMA systems. We present three demodulation schemes, referred to as the differential space-time block code Rake (D-Rake receiver, differential space-time block code deterministic (D-Det receiver, and differential space-time block code deterministic de-prefix (D-Det-DP receiver, respectively. The D-Det receiver exploits the known information of the spreading sequences and their delayed paths deterministically besides the Rake type combination; consequently, it can outperform the D-Rake receiver, which employs the Rake type combination only. The D-Det-DP receiver avoids the effect of intersymbol interference and hence can offer better performance than the D-Det receiver.

  4. Block-Sparsity-Induced Adaptive Filter for Multi-Clustering System Identification (United States)

    Jiang, Shuyang; Gu, Yuantao


    In order to improve the performance of least mean square (LMS)-based adaptive filtering for identifying block-sparse systems, a new adaptive algorithm called block-sparse LMS (BS-LMS) is proposed in this paper. The basis of the proposed algorithm is to insert a penalty of block-sparsity, which is a mixed \\$l_{2, 0}\\$ norm of adaptive tap-weights with equal group partition sizes, into the cost function of traditional LMS algorithm. To describe a block-sparse system response, we first propose a Markov-Gaussian model, which can generate a kind of system responses of arbitrary average sparsity and arbitrary average block length using given parameters. Then we present theoretical expressions of the steady-state misadjustment and transient convergence behavior of BS-LMS with an appropriate group partition size for white Gaussian input data. Based on the above results, we theoretically demonstrate that BS-LMS has much better convergence behavior than \\$l_0\\$-LMS with the same small level of misadjustment. Finally, numerical experiments verify that all of the theoretical analysis agrees well with simulation results in a large range of parameters.

  5. System Performance of Concatenated STBC and Block Turbo Codes in Dispersive Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Tai Chan


    Full Text Available A new scheme of concatenating the block turbo code (BTC with the space-time block code (STBC for an OFDM system in dispersive fading channels is investigated in this paper. The good error correcting capability of BTC and the large diversity gain characteristics of STBC can be achieved simultaneously. The resulting receiver outperforms the iterative convolutional Turbo receiver with maximum- a-posteriori-probability expectation maximization (MAP-EM algorithm. Because of its ability to perform the encoding and decoding processes in parallel, the proposed system is easy to implement in real time.

  6. Rapamycin targeting mTOR and hedgehog signaling pathways blocks human rhabdomyosarcoma growth in xenograft murine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaylani, Samer Z. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1600 7th Avenue South, ACC 414, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States); Xu, Jianmin; Srivastava, Ritesh K. [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States); Kopelovich, Levy [Division of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda (United States); Pressey, Joseph G. [Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1600 7th Avenue South, ACC 414, Birmingham, AL 35233 (United States); Athar, Mohammad, E-mail: [Department of Dermatology and Skin Diseases Research Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, 1530 3rd Avenue South, VH 509, Birmingham, AL 35294-0019 (United States)


    Graphical abstract: Intervention of poorly differentiated RMS by rapamycin: In poorly differentiated RMS, rapamycin blocks mTOR and Hh signaling pathways concomitantly. This leads to dampening in cell cycle regulation and induction of apoptosis. This study provides a rationale for the therapeutic intervention of poorly differentiated RMS by treating patients with rapamycin alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. -- Highlights: •Rapamycin abrogates RMS tumor growth by modulating proliferation and apoptosis. •Co-targeting mTOR/Hh pathways underlie the molecular basis of effectiveness. •Reduction in mTOR/Hh pathways diminish EMT leading to reduced invasiveness. -- Abstract: Rhabdomyosarcomas (RMS) represent the most common childhood soft-tissue sarcoma. Over the past few decades outcomes for low and intermediate risk RMS patients have slowly improved while patients with metastatic or relapsed RMS still face a grim prognosis. New chemotherapeutic agents or combinations of chemotherapies have largely failed to improve the outcome. Based on the identification of novel molecular targets, potential therapeutic approaches in RMS may offer a decreased reliance on conventional chemotherapy. Thus, identification of effective therapeutic agents that specifically target relevant pathways may be particularly beneficial for patients with metastatic and refractory RMS. The PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway has been found to be a potentially attractive target in RMS therapy. In this study, we provide evidence that rapamycin (sirolimus) abrogates growth of RMS development in a RMS xenograft mouse model. As compared to a vehicle-treated control group, more than 95% inhibition in tumor growth was observed in mice receiving parenteral administration of rapamycin. The residual tumors in rapamycin-treated group showed significant reduction in the expression of biomarkers indicative of proliferation and tumor invasiveness. These tumors also showed enhanced apoptosis

  7. Mitogenesis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Stimulated by Platelet-Derived Growth Factor-bb Is Inhibited by Blocking of Intracellular Signaling by Epigallocatechin-3-O-Gallate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Hee Lee


    Full Text Available Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG is known to exhibit antioxidant, antiproliferative, and antithrombogenic effects and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Key events in the development of cardiovascular disease are hypertrophy and hyperplasia according to vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. In this study, we investigated whether EGCG can interfere with PDGF-bb stimulated proliferation, cell cycle distribution, and the gelatinolytic activity of MMP and signal transduction pathways on RAOSMC when it was treated in two different ways—cotreatment with PDGF-bb and pretreatment of EGCG before addition of PDGF-bb. Both cotreated and pretreated EGCG significantly inhibited PDGF-bb induced proliferation, cell cycle progression of the G0/G1 phase, and the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2/9 on RAOSMC. Also, EGCG blocked PDGF receptor-β (PDGFR-β phosphorylation on PDGF-bb stimulated RAOSMC under pretreatment with cells as well as cotreatment with PDGF-bb. The downstream signal transduction pathways of PDGFR-β, including p42/44 MAPK, p38 MAPK, and Akt phosphorylation, were also inhibited by EGCG in a pattern similar to PDGFR-β phosphorylation. These findings suggest that EGCG can inhibit PDGF-bb stimulated mitogenesis by indirectly and directly interrupting PDGF-bb signals and blocking the signaling pathway via PDGFR-β phosphorylation. Furthermore, EGCG may be used for treatment and prevention of cardiovascular disease through blocking of PDGF-bb signaling.

  8. Polypeptoids: A model system for exploring sequence and shape effects on block copolymer self-assembly (United States)

    Segalman, Rachel


    While our ability to understand the detailed relationship between block copolymer chemistry and mesoscopic self-assembly has made remarkable progress over the last many years, yet we are still limited to a relatively small number of blocks in terms of structure-property understanding. Thus, there is a need to explore self-assembly phase space with sequence using a model system. Polypeptoids are non-natural, sequence specific polymers that offer the opportunity to probe the effect of sequence on self-assembly with much simpler molecular interactions and more scalable synthesis than traditional polypeptides. In this talk, I will discuss the use of this model system to understand the role of sequence on chain collapse and globule formation in solution, polymer crystallization, and block copolymer self-assembly. I will then discuss potential application as surface active agents for anti-fouling.

  9. A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks (United States)

    Fanyang, Li; Hao, Jiang


    A hearing aid on-chip system based on accuracy optimized front- and back-end blocks is presented for enhancing the signal processing accuracy of the hearing aid. Compared with the conventional system, the accuracy optimized system is characterized by the dual feedback network and the gain compensation technique used in the front- and back-end blocks, respectively, so as to alleviate the nonlinearity distortion caused by the output swing. By using the technique, the accuracy of the whole hearing aid system can be significantly improved. The prototype chip has been designed with a 0.13 μm standard CMOS process and tested with 1 V supply voltage. The measurement results show that, for driving a 16 Ω loudspeaker with a normalized output level of 300 mVp-p, the total harmonic distortion reached about -60 dB, achieving at least three times reduction compared to the previously reported works. In addition, the typical input referred noise is only about 5 μVrms.

  10. Block backstepping design of nonlinear state feedback control law for underactuated mechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rudra, Shubhobrata; Maitra, Madhubanti


    This book presents a novel, generalized approach to the design of nonlinear state feedback control laws for a large class of underactuated mechanical systems based on application of the block backstepping method. The control law proposed here is robust against the effects of model uncertainty in dynamic and steady-state performance and addresses the issue of asymptotic stabilization for the class of underactuated mechanical systems. An underactuated system is defined as one for which the dimension of space spanned by the configuration vector is greater than that of the space spanned by the control variables. Control problems concerning underactuated systems currently represent an active field of research due to their broad range of applications in robotics, aerospace, and marine contexts. The book derives a generalized theory of block backstepping control design for underactuated mechanical systems, and examines several case studies that cover interesting examples of underactuated mechanical systems. The math...

  11. Effective System for Automatic Bundle Block Adjustment and Ortho Image Generation from Multi Sensor Satellite Imagery (United States)

    Akilan, A.; Nagasubramanian, V.; Chaudhry, A.; Reddy, D. Rajesh; Sudheer Reddy, D.; Usha Devi, R.; Tirupati, T.; Radhadevi, P. V.; Varadan, G.


    Block Adjustment is a technique for large area mapping for images obtained from different remote sensingsatellites.The challenge in this process is to handle huge number of satellite imageries from different sources with different resolution and accuracies at the system level. This paper explains a system with various tools and techniques to effectively handle the end-to-end chain in large area mapping and production with good level of automation and the provisions for intuitive analysis of final results in 3D and 2D environment. In addition, the interface for using open source ortho and DEM references viz., ETM, SRTM etc. and displaying ESRI shapes for the image foot-prints are explained. Rigorous theory, mathematical modelling, workflow automation and sophisticated software engineering tools are included to ensure high photogrammetric accuracy and productivity. Major building blocks like Georeferencing, Geo-capturing and Geo-Modelling tools included in the block adjustment solution are explained in this paper. To provide optimal bundle block adjustment solution with high precision results, the system has been optimized in many stages to exploit the full utilization of hardware resources. The robustness of the system is ensured by handling failure in automatic procedure and saving the process state in every stage for subsequent restoration from the point of interruption. The results obtained from various stages of the system are presented in the paper.

  12. Quorum quenching enzymes and their application in degrading signal molecules to block quorum sensing-dependent infection. (United States)

    Chen, Fang; Gao, Yuxin; Chen, Xiaoyi; Yu, Zhimin; Li, Xianzhen


    With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, the available options for treating bacterial infections have become very limited, and the search for a novel general antibacterial therapy has received much greater attention. Quorum quenching can be used to control disease in a quorum sensing system by triggering the pathogenic phenotype. The interference with the quorum sensing system by the quorum quenching enzyme is a potential strategy for replacing traditional antibiotics because the quorum quenching strategy does not aim to kill the pathogen or limit cell growth but to shut down the expression of the pathogenic gene. Quorum quenching enzymes have been identified in quorum sensing and non-quorum sensing microbes, including lactonase, acylase, oxidoreductase and paraoxonase. Lactonase is widely conserved in a range of bacterial species and has variable substrate spectra. The existence of quorum quenching enzymes in the quorum sensing microbes can attenuate their quorum sensing, leading to blocking unnecessary gene expression and pathogenic phenotypes. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of quorum quenching enzymes in bacterial infection and elucidate the enzymatic protection in quorum sensing systems for host diseases and their application in resistance against microbial diseases.

  13. Quorum Quenching Enzymes and Their Application in Degrading Signal Molecules to Block Quorum Sensing-Dependent Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianzhen Li


    Full Text Available With the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria, the available options for treating bacterial infections have become very limited, and the search for a novel general antibacterial therapy has received much greater attention. Quorum quenching can be used to control disease in a quorum sensing system by triggering the pathogenic phenotype. The interference with the quorum sensing system by the quorum quenching enzyme is a potential strategy for replacing traditional antibiotics because the quorum quenching strategy does not aim to kill the pathogen or limit cell growth but to shut down the expression of the pathogenic gene. Quorum quenching enzymes have been identified in quorum sensing and non-quorum sensing microbes, including lactonase, acylase, oxidoreductase and paraoxonase. Lactonase is widely conserved in a range of bacterial species and has variable substrate spectra. The existence of quorum quenching enzymes in the quorum sensing microbes can attenuate their quorum sensing, leading to blocking unnecessary gene expression and pathogenic phenotypes. In this review, we discuss the physiological function of quorum quenching enzymes in bacterial infection and elucidate the enzymatic protection in quorum sensing systems for host diseases and their application in resistance against microbial diseases.

  14. Precise Synthesis of Block Polymers Composed of Three or More Blocks by Specially Designed Linking Methodologies in Conjunction with Living Anionic Polymerization System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Hirao


    Full Text Available This article reviews the successful development of two specially designed linking methodologies in conjunction with a living anionic polymerization system for the synthesis of novel multiblock polymers, composed of three or more blocks, difficult to be synthesized by sequential polymerization. The first methodology with the use of a new heterofunctional linking agent, 2-(4-chloromethylphenylethyldimethylchlorosilane (1, was developed for the synthesis of multiblock polymers containing poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS blocks. This methodology is based on the selective reaction of the chain-end silanolate anion of living PDMS, with the silyl chloride function of 1, and subsequent linking reaction of the resulting ω-chain-end-benzyl chloride-functionalized polymer with either a living anionic polymer or living anionic block copolymer. With this methodology, various multiblock polymers containing PDMS blocks, up to the pentablock quintopolymer, were successfully synthesized. The second methodology using an α-phenylacrylate (PA reaction site was developed for the synthesis of multiblock polymers composed of all-vinyl polymer blocks. In this methodology, an α-chain-end-PA-functionalized polymer or block copolymer, via the living anionic polymerization, was first prepared and, then, reacted with appropriate living anionic polymer or block copolymer to link the two polymer chains. As a result, ACB (BCA, BAC (CAB, (ABn, (ACn, ABA, ACA, BCB, and ABCA multiblock polymers, where A, B, and C were polystyrene, poly(2-vinylpyridine, and poly(methyl methacrylate segments, could be successfully synthesized. The synthesis of triblock copolymers, BAB, CAC, and CBC, having molecular asymmetry in both side blocks, was also achieved. Furthermore, the use of living anionic polymers, derived from many other monomers, categorized as either of styrene, 2-vinylpyridine, or methyl methacrylate in monomer reactivity, in the linking methodology enabled the number of

  15. A Parallel Algorithm for Solving Block-diagonal Structured Large Linear System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jie; ZHANG Zhong-lin; CHENG Ji-lin


    A parallel algorithm for solving block-diagonal structured large linear system is presented.This algorithm is based on the "gradient-simplex" method. It partitions a large linear system into several small linear subsystems so that they can be solved in parallel. The algorithm has the merit of high speed and is suitable for the large linear systems with less coupling constrains. The efficiency and applicability of the method is also analyzed.

  16. A Staphylococcus aureus TIR domain protein virulence factor blocks TLR2-mediated NF-κB signaling. (United States)

    Askarian, Fatemeh; van Sorge, Nina M; Sangvik, Maria; Beasley, Federico C; Henriksen, Jørn R; Sollid, Johanna U E; van Strijp, Jos A G; Nizet, Victor; Johannessen, Mona


    Signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), crucial molecules in the induction of host defense responses, requires adaptor proteins that contain a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces several innate immune-evasion molecules that interfere with the host's innate immune response. A database search analysis suggested the presence of a gene encoding a homologue of the human TIR domain in S. aureus MSSA476 which was named staphylococcal TIR domain protein (TirS). Ectopic expression of TirS in human embryonic kidney, macrophage and keratinocyte cell lines interfered with signaling through TLR2, including MyD88 and TIRAP, NF-κB and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. Moreover, the presence of TirS reduced the levels of cytokines MCP-1 and G-CSF secreted in response to S. aureus. The effects on NF-κB pathway were confirmed using S. aureus MSSA476 wild type, an isogenic mutant MSSA476ΔtirS, and complemented MSSA476ΔtirS +pTirS in a Transwell system where bacteria and host cells were physically separated. Finally, in a systematic mouse infection model, TirS promoted bacterial accumulation in several organs 4 days postinfection. The results of this study reveal a new S. aureus virulence factor that can interfere with PAMP-induced innate immune signaling in vitro and bacterial survival in vivo.

  17. Blocking Probability Based Hierarchical Storage Design in VoD Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this paper, we discuss the relationship between the blocking probability and the configuration of storage hierarchy in a Video on Demand (VoD) server using the queueing model we propose. With this model , the optimal configuration of the storage system can be obtained.

  18. Modelling of composite concrete block pavement systems applying a cohesive zone model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skar, Asmus; Poulsen, Peter Noe

    This paper presents a numerical analysis of the fracture behaviour of the cement bound base material in composite concrete block pavement systems, using a cohesive zone model. The functionality of the proposed model is tested on experimental and numerical investigations of beam bending tests...

  19. Parametrization of Contractive Block Operator Matrices and Passive Discrete-Time Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arlinskii, Yury M.; Hassi, Seppo; de Snoo, Henk S. V.


    Passive linear systems tau = {A, B, C, D; h, m, n} have their transfer function Theta(tau) (lambda) = D + lambda C(I - lambda A)(-1) B in the Schur class S(m, n). Using a parametrization of contractive block operators the transfer function Theta(tau) (lambda) is connected to the Sz.-Nagy-Foias chara

  20. Performance of multi-service system with retrials due to blocking and called-party-busy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanov, S.N.; Kokina, O.A.; Iversen, Villy Bæk


    In this paper we construct a model of a multi-service system with an arbitrary number of bandwidth flow demands, taking into account retrials due to both blocking along the route and to called-party-busy. An approximate algorithm for estimation of key performance measures is proposed...

  1. Normal mode analysis of macromolecular systems with the mobile block Hessian method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghysels, An; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Van Neck, Dimitri; Waroquier, Michel [Center for Molecular Modeling, Ghent University, Technologiepark 903, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium); Brooks, Bernard R. [Laboratory for Computational Biology, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5636 Fisher' s Ln, Rockville, MD 20851 (United States)


    Until recently, normal mode analysis (NMA) was limited to small proteins, not only because the required energy minimization is a computationally exhausting task, but also because NMA requires the expensive diagonalization of a 3N{sub a}×3N{sub a} matrix with N{sub a} the number of atoms. A series of simplified models has been proposed, in particular the Rotation-Translation Blocks (RTB) method by Tama et al. for the simulation of proteins. It makes use of the concept that a peptide chain or protein can be seen as a subsequent set of rigid components, i.e. the peptide units. A peptide chain is thus divided into rigid blocks with six degrees of freedom each. Recently we developed the Mobile Block Hessian (MBH) method, which in a sense has similar features as the RTB method. The main difference is that MBH was developed to deal with partially optimized systems. The position/orientation of each block is optimized while the internal geometry is kept fixed at a plausible - but not necessarily optimized - geometry. This reduces the computational cost of the energy minimization. Applying the standard NMA on a partially optimized structure however results in spurious imaginary frequencies and unwanted coordinate dependence. The MBH avoids these unphysical effects by taking into account energy gradient corrections. Moreover the number of variables is reduced, which facilitates the diagonalization of the Hessian. In the original implementation of MBH, atoms could only be part of one rigid block. The MBH is now extended to the case where atoms can be part of two or more blocks. Two basic linkages can be realized: (1) blocks connected by one link atom, or (2) by two link atoms, where the latter is referred to as the hinge type connection. In this work we present the MBH concept and illustrate its performance with the crambin protein as an example.

  2. A convergence analysis for a sweeping preconditioner for block tridiagonal systems of linear equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bagci, Hakan


    We study sweeping preconditioners for symmetric and positive definite block tridiagonal systems of linear equations. The algorithm provides an approximate inverse that can be used directly or in a preconditioned iterative scheme. These algorithms are based on replacing the Schur complements appearing in a block Gaussian elimination direct solve by hierarchical matrix approximations with reduced off-diagonal ranks. This involves developing low rank hierarchical approximations to inverses. We first provide a convergence analysis for the algorithm for reduced rank hierarchical inverse approximation. These results are then used to prove convergence and preconditioning estimates for the resulting sweeping preconditioner.

  3. Effect of signal modulating noise in bistable stochastic dynamical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖方红; 闫桂荣; 张新武


    The effect of signal modulating noise in bistable stochastic dynamical systems is studied.The concept of instan taneous steady state is proposed for bistable dynamical systems.By making a dynamical analysis of bistable stochastic systems,we find that global and local effect of signal modulating noise as well as stochastic resonance can occur in bistable dynamical systems on which both a weak sinusoidal signal and noise are forced.The effect is demonstrated by numerical simulation.

  4. Blocking Type I Interferon Signaling Rescues Lymphocytes from Oxidative Stress, Exhaustion, and Apoptosis in a Streptozotocin-Induced Mouse Model of Type I Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hany M. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Elevated levels of type I interferon (IFN during type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D are associated with a defective immune response. In the present study, we investigated whether blocking type I IFN signaling during streptozotocin- (STZ- induced T1D in mice improves lymphocyte proliferation and escape from continuous apoptosis. Three groups of mice were examined: diabetic mice, type I IFN signaling-incompetent diabetic mice, and control nondiabetic mice. We first found that diabetes induction was accompanied by an elevation in the plasma levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS, hydroperoxide, malondialdehyde (MDN, and the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL10. Blocking type 1 IFN signaling in diabetic mice significantly decreased the levels of oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokines. In addition, lymphocytes from diabetic mice exhibited a marked reduction in their proliferative capacity, increased apoptosis, upregulation of the exhaustion marker PD-1, and aberrant phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT2, AKT and IκB-α. Interestingly, following the blocking of type I IFN signaling in diabetic mice, the lymphocytes exhibited restored proliferative capacity, decreased apoptosis, normal expression of PD-1, and normal phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT2, AKT and IκB-α. Our data suggest that elevated levels of type I IFN during T1D trigger lymphocyte exhaustion and a defective lymphocyte-medicated immune response.

  5. Implementation of a Portable Personal EKG Signal Monitoring System (United States)

    Tan, Tan-Hsu; Chang, Ching-Su; Chen, Yung-Fu; Lee, Cheng

    This research develops a portable personal EKG signal monitoring system to help patients monitor their EKG signals instantly to avoid the occurrence of tragedies. This system is built with two main units: signal pro-cessing unit and monitoring and evaluation unit. The first unit consists of EKG signal sensor, signal amplifier, digitalization circuit, and related control circuits. The second unit is a software tool developed on an embedded Linux platform (called CSA). Experimental result indicates that the proposed system has the practical potential for users in health monitoring. It is demonstrated to be more convenient and with greater portability than the conventional PC-based EKG signal monitoring systems. Furthermore, all the application units embedded in the system are built with open source codes, no licensed fee is required for operating systems and authorized applications. Thus, the building cost is much lower than the traditional systems.

  6. Nonlinear state feedback controller design for underactuated mechanical system: a modified block backstepping approach. (United States)

    Rudra, Shubhobrata; Barai, Ranjit Kumar; Maitra, Madhubanti


    This paper presents the formulation of a novel block-backstepping based control algorithm to address the stabilization problem for a generalized nonlinear underactuated mechanical system. For the convenience of compact design, first, the state model of the underactuated system has been converted into the block-strict feedback form. Next, we have incorporated backstepping control action to derive the expression of the control input for the generic nonlinear underactuated system. The proposed block backstepping technique has further been enriched by incorporating an integral action additionally for enhancing the steady state performance of the overall system. Asymptotic stability of the overall system has been analyzed using Lyapunov stability criteria. Subsequently, the stability of the zero dynamics has also been analyzed to ensure the global asymptotic stability of the entire nonlinear system at its desired equilibrium point. The proposed control algorithm has been applied for the stabilization of a benchmarked underactuated mechanical system to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control law in real-time environment.

  7. FunBlocks. A Modular Framework for AmI System Development (United States)

    Baquero, Rafael; Rodríguez, José; Mendoza, Sonia; Decouchant, Dominique; Papis, Alfredo Piero Mateos


    The last decade has seen explosive growth in the technologies required to implement Ambient Intelligence (AmI) systems. Technologies such as facial and speech recognition, home networks, household cleaning robots, to name a few, have become commonplace. However, due to the multidisciplinary nature of AmI systems and the distinct requirements of different user groups, integrating these developments into full-scale systems is not an easy task. In this paper we propose FunBlocks, a minimalist modular framework for the development of AmI systems based on the function module abstraction used in the IEC 61499 standard for distributed control systems. FunBlocks provides a framework for the development of AmI systems through the integration of modules loosely joined by means of an event-driven middleware and a module and sensor/actuator catalog. The modular design of the FunBlocks framework allows the development of AmI systems which can be customized to a wide variety of usage scenarios. PMID:23112599

  8. Block Copolymer Modified Epoxy Amine System for Reactive Rotational Molding: Structures, Properties and Processability (United States)

    Lecocq, Eva; Nony, Fabien; Tcharkhtchi, Abbas; Gérard, Jean-François


    Poly(styrene-butadiene-methylmethacrylate) (SBM) and poly(methylmethacrylate-butyle-acrylate-methylmethacrylate) (MAM) triblock copolymers have been dissolved in liquid DGEBA epoxy resin which is subsequently polymerized by meta-xylene diamine (MXDA) or Jeffamine EDR-148. A chemorheology study of these formulations by plate-plate rheology and by thermal analysis has allowed to conclude that the addition of these copolymer blocks improve the reactive rotational moulding processability without affecting the processing time. Indeed, it prevents the pooling of the formulation at the bottom of the mould and a too rapid build up of resin viscosity of these thermosetting systems. The morphology of the cured blends examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows an increase of fracture surface area and thereby a potential increase of the toughness with the modification of epoxy system. Dynamic mechanical spectroscopy (DMA) and opalescence of final material show that the block PMMA, initially miscible, is likely to induce phase separation from the epoxy-amine matrix. Thereby, the poor compatibilisation between the toughener and the matrix has a detrimental effect on the tensile mechanical properties. The compatibilisation has to be increased to improve in synergy the processability and the final properties of these block copolymer modified formulations. First attempts could be by adapting the length and ratio of each block.

  9. Information content in reflected global navigation satellite system signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Per; Carlstrom, Anders


    The direct signals from satellites in global satellite navigation satellites systems (GNSS) as, GPS, GLONASS and GALILEO, constitute the primary source for positioning, navigation and timing from space. But also the reflected GNSS signals contain an important information content of signal travel...

  10. System proportions fluid-flow in response to demand signals (United States)


    Control system provides proportioned fluid flow rates in response to demand signals. It compares a digital signal, representing a flow demand, with a reference signal to yield a control voltage to one or more solenoid valves connected to orifices of a predetermined size.

  11. Notch signalling and proneural genes work together to control the neural building blocks for the initial scaffold in the hypothalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle eWare


    Full Text Available The vertebrate embryonic prosencephalon gives rise to the hypothalamus, which plays essential roles in sensory information processing as well as control of physiological homeostasis and behaviour. While patterning of the hypothalamus has received much attention, initial neurogenesis in the developing hypothalamus has mostly been neglected. The first differentiating progenitor cells of the hypothalamus will give rise to neurons that form the nucleus of the tract of the postoptic commissure and the nucleus of the mammillotegmental tract. The formation of these neuronal populations has to be highly controlled both spatially and temporally as these tracts will form part of the ventral longitudinal tract and act as a scaffold for later, follower axons. This review will cumulate and summarise the existing data available describing initial neurogenesis in the vertebrate hypothalamus. It has only recently been proposed that loss of Notch signalling in the developing chick embryo causes an increase in the number of neurons in the hypothalamus, highlighting an early function of the Notch pathway during hypothalamus formation. It is well known that the Notch signalling pathway through the inhibition of proneural genes is a key regulator of neurogenesis in the vertebrate central nervous system. Scarce studies have shown genes such as Ascl1 and Hes5 are expressed in the hypothalamus earlier than when the first mature neurons appear. The timing of the transcriptional repressors of the Notch signalling pathway and proneural activators will be analysed. We will discuss novel targets that start to unravel the mechanisms behind neurogenesis in the hypothalamus. Given the critical role that hypothalamic neural circuitry plays in maintaining homeostasis, it is particularly important to establish the targets downstream of this Notch/proneural network.

  12. Adaptability of the Logistics System in National Economic Mobilization Based on Blocking Flow Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyuan Jing


    Full Text Available In the process of national economic mobilization, the logistics system usually suffers from negative impact and/or threats of such emergency events as wars and accidents, which implies that adaptability of the logistics system directly determines realization of economic mobilization. And where the real-time rescue operation is concerned, heavy traffic congestion is likely to cause a great loss of or damage to human beings and their properties. To deal with this situation, this article constructs a blocking-resistance optimum model and an optimum restructuring model based on blocking flow theories, of which both are illustrated by numerical cases and compared in characteristics and application. The design of these two models is expected to eliminate or alleviate the congestion situation occurring in the logistics system, thus effectively enhancing its adaptability in the national economic mobilization process.

  13. Optimal allocation of building blocks between nutrient uptake systems in a microbe. (United States)

    van den Berg, Hugo A; Kiselev, Yuri N; Orlov, Michael V


    A bacterial cell must distribute its molecular building blocks among various types of nutrient uptake systems. If the microbe is to maximize its average growth rate, this allocation of building blocks must be adjusted to the environmental availabilities of the various nutrients. The adjustments can be found from growth balancing considerations. We give a full proof of optimality and uniqueness of the optimal allocation regime for a simple model of microbial growth and internal stores kinetics. This proof suggests likely candidates for optimal control regimes in the case of a more realistic model. These candidate regimes differ with respect to the information that the cell's control system must have access to. We pay particular attention to one of the three candidates, a feedback regime based on a cellular control system that monitors only internal reserve densities. We show that allocation converges rapidly to balanced growth under this control regime.

  14. A novel image block cryptosystem based on a spatiotemporal chaotic system and a chaotic neural network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xing-Yuan; Bao Xue-Mei


    In this paper,we propose a novel block cryptographic scheme based on a spatiotemporal chaotic system and a chaotic neural network (CNN).The employed CNN comprises a 4-neuron layer called a chaotic neuron layer (CNL),where the spatiotemporal chaotic system participates in generating its weight matrix and other parameters.The spatiotemporal chaotic system used in our scheme is the typical coupled map lattice (CML),which can be easily implemented in parallel by hardware.A 160-bit-long binary sequence is used to generate the initial conditions of the CML.The decryption process is symmetric relative to the encryption process.Theoretical analysis and experimental results prove that the block cryptosystem is secure and practical,and suitable for image encryption.

  15. Digital signal processing in communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frerking, Marvin E


    An engineer's introduction to concepts, algorithms, and advancements in Digital Signal Processing. This lucidly written resource makes extensive use of real-world examples as it covers all the important design and engineering references.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Martynyuk


    Full Text Available In this article the periodic signal detection method on the base of Duffing system chaotic oscillations analysis is presented. This work is a development of the chaos-based signal detection technique. Generally, chaos-based signal detection is the detection of chaotic-to-periodic state transition under input periodic component influence. If the input periodic component reaches certain threshold value, the system transforms from chaotic state to periodic state. The Duffing-type chaotic systems are often used for such a signal detection purpose because of their ability to work in chaotic state for a long time and relatively simple realization. The main advantage of chaos-based signal detection methods is the utilization of chaotic system sensitivity to weak signals. But such methods are not used in practice because of the chaotic system state control problems. The method presented does not require an exact system state control. The Duffing system works continuously in chaotic state and the periodic signal detection process is based on the analysis of Duffing system Poincare map fractal structure. This structure does not depend on noise, and therefore the minimum input signal-to-noise ratio required for periodic signal detection is not limited by chaotic system state control tolerance.

  17. Performance evaluation of railway blocking system based on markov chain and queuing theory (United States)

    Guo, Jin; Chen, Hongxia; Yang, Yang


    Railway blocking system is the system with the high demanding of real-time performance. Firstly, the tasks and the time limits, which had to be handled for the blocking system, were introduced. The FCFS and the Markov chain were used to set the model for it. By analyzing the performance of the system with the FCFS model found out that it was not satisfied to the real-time performance. Secondly, NPPR model to evaluate the software real-time performance of the blocking processor was proposed. By evaluation, analysis and comparison, the results indicate that the NPPR model is prevail over the model of (M/M/1): (N/N/FCFS) in real-time performance. And the priorities of the tasks in the system should be given according to their time limit. With the principle of (M/M/1): (N/N/NPPR), if the priority was given to the tasks properly, the satisfied real-time performance will be gotten. The models were tested in forms software and the satisfied result has been gotten in practice.

  18. Air temperature regulation in mine workings on the basis of local and block ventilation systems with boreholes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrov, A.I.; Batmanov, Y.K.; Lunev, S.G.; Martynov, A.A. [Makeyevka Safety in Mines Research Institute, Makeyevka (Ukraine)


    The thermal factor is one of the main factors complicating coal mining in the Donetsk Basin (Ukraine). Local ventilation systems (small diameter boreholes to improve ventilation in individual headings at deep levels) and block ventilation systems (large diameter boreholes for ventilation and air temperature control in independently mined blocks and panels) are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  19. Holographic view on quantum correlations and mutual information between disjoint blocks of a quantum critical system (United States)

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier; Sodano, Pasquale


    In ( d + 1) dimensional Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) networks, tensors are connected so as to reproduce the discrete, ( d + 2) holographic geometry of Anti de Sitter space (AdS d+2) with the original system lying at the boundary. We analyze the MERA renormalization flow that arises when computing the quantum correlations between two disjoint blocks of a quantum critical system, to show that the structure of the causal cones characteristic of MERA, requires a transition between two different regimes attainable by changing the ratio between the size and the separation of the two disjoint blocks. We argue that this transition in the MERA causal developments of the blocks may be easily accounted by an AdS d+2 black hole geometry when the mutual information is computed using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. As an explicit example, we use a BTZ AdS3 black hole to compute the MI and the quantum correlations between two disjoint intervals of a one dimensional boundary critical system. Our results for this low dimensional system not only show the existence of a phase transition emerging when the conformal four point ratio reaches a critical value but also provide an intuitive entropic argument accounting for the source of this instability. We discuss the robustness of this transition when finite temperature and finite size effects are taken into account.

  20. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K


    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement in the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds over traditional signal-processing methods in analyzing the output of a thermionic detector attached to the output of a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above. In addition, two of six were detected at levels 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. We would have had another two correct hits if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was identified by running a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  1. Intelligent Signal Processing for Detection System Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, C Y; Petrich, L I; Daley, P F; Burnham, A K


    A wavelet-neural network signal processing method has demonstrated approximately tenfold improvement over traditional signal-processing methods for the detection limit of various nitrogen and phosphorus compounds from the output of a thermionic detector attached to a gas chromatograph. A blind test was conducted to validate the lower detection limit. All fourteen of the compound spikes were detected when above the estimated threshold, including all three within a factor of two above the threshold. In addition, two of six spikes were detected at levels of 1/2 the concentration of the nominal threshold. Another two of the six would have been detected correctly if we had allowed human intervention to examine the processed data. One apparent false positive in five nulls was traced to a solvent impurity, whose presence was subsequently identified by analyzing a solvent aliquot evaporated to 1% residual volume, while the other four nulls were properly classified. We view this signal processing method as broadly applicable in analytical chemistry, and we advocate that advanced signal processing methods should be applied as directly as possible to the raw detector output so that less discriminating preprocessing and post-processing does not throw away valuable signal.

  2. An Optimization Approach for Selecting Blocks of Embedding Process in Robust Watermarking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ababneh M.F. Mohammad


    Full Text Available This study, discusses several kinds of attacks that may meet the watermarked image such as JPEG compression, Gaussian noise and median filter. The study introduces an approach capable of selecting the optimal blocks in cover image to be used in embedding process. Also, in this study, we propose a technique in robust digital watermarking system looking for finding a relation between the contrast of cover image and robustness to increase the resistance of previous attacks.

  3. Prototypic implementations of the building block for component based open Hypermedia systems (BB/CB-OHSs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Omer I. Eldai


    In this paper we describe the prototypic implementations of the BuildingBlock (BB/CB-OHSs) that proposed to address some of the Component-based Open Hypermedia Systems (CB-OHSs) issues, including distribution and interoperability [4, 11, 12]. Four service implementations were described below. The....... These are the math service, navigational service, naming and location service and the storage service in addition to two communication protocols (TCP/IP and JAVA RMI)....

  4. Security Analysis of a Block Encryption Algorithm Based on Dynamic Sequences of Multiple Chaotic Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Mao-Kang; HE Bo; WANG Yong


    Recently, the cryptosystem based on chaos has attracted much attention. Wang and Yu (Commun. Nonlin. Sci. Numer. Simulat. 14(2009)574) proposed a block encryption algorithm based on dynamic sequences of multiple chaotic systems. We analyze the potential Saws in the algorithm. Then, a chosen-plaintext attack is presented. Some remedial measures are suggested to avoid the flaws effectively. Furthermore, an improved encryption algorithm is proposed to resist the attacks and to keep all the merits of the original cryptosystem.

  5. A system for pulsed NQR spectrometer control and signal processing (United States)

    Gourdji, M.; Péneau, A.

    The system described was built at the IEF around a HP-21OOA computer and is presently used with a nitrogen-14 pulsed NQR spectrometer. Two main functions are provided: spectrometer control (radio-frequency, pulse sequence repetition rate, sample temperature settings) and signal processing (accumulation of the NQR signals, Fourier transform). Results are presented which show typical uses of the system for the observation of complex signals.

  6. Developing the basic building blocks of mathematics to be employed in practical embedded systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tickle, A J; Harvey, P K; Smith, J S [Intelligence Engineering and Industrial Automation Research Group, Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Wu, F, E-mail: [RF Engines Ltd, Innovation Centre, St. Cross Business Park, Newport, Isle of Wight, PO30 5WB (United Kingdom)


    Mathematics is vitally important as it is used in many areas of science and engineering, in particular are functions such as sine, cosine and the exponent in addition to being to able to carry out such tasks as decimal division. The sine wave is vitally important in physics and communications due to its ability to retain its waveshape when added to another sine wave of the same frequency and arbitrary phase. It is the only periodic waveform that has this property and leads to techniques such as Fourier analysis. Unfortunately these blocks are not included in the standard DSP Builder blockset in Simulink and so a method of creating these operations must be created if this methodology is to be employed in real world tasks such as power relay protection and stereo vision systems. Shown here is a method of performing these calculations using the limited blocks provided for a 50-bit based embedded system with a discussion about the accuracy when compared to traditional digital system counterparts. The order of the equations used and the scaling factors of the blocks are investigated to provide evidence of why certain values need to be changed depending upon the calculation being performed.

  7. The Study of Full Light Speech Signal Collection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Bo; JIN Yaqiu; ZHANG Wei; HU Li; YE Kunzhen


    The demodulation character of 3×3 optic fiber couplers is analyzed, and the application in the coherent communication system and speech signal collection is pointed out in the paper. By the experiment, the feasibility of speech signal collection system by the way of the all light is verified.

  8. Utilization of excitation signal harmonics for control of nonlinear systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Rasmussen, Henrik; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh;


    signal together with Fourier analysis to generate a feedback signal and simulations have shown that different system gains and time constants does not change the global equilibrium/operating point. An evaporator in a refrigeration system was used as example in the simulations, however, it is anticipated...

  9. Theory for dynamical self arrest and gelation in microemulsions and the block copolymer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sangwook [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    The main purpose of this work is to investigate the glassy behavior of microemulsions and block copolymers. The origin of glassy behavior in microemulsions and block copolymers is frustration due to a competition between short-range interaction and long range interaction. According to the charge frustrated Ising model, the competition between ferromagnetic interaction and antiferromagnetic interaction is the origin of frustration in microemulsions. The competition between entropic effects and stoichiometric constraints responsible for the formation of micelles in microemulsions can lead to the emergence of a self generated glassy behavior in these systems. In the block copolymer, the competition between the repulsive short range interaction between monomers in polymer chains and the long range interaction by chemical bonds can lead to the emergence of a self generated glassy behavior. The criteria for the fluctuation induced first order transition and our microemulsion and block copolymer glasses are essentially the same. Both are a consequence of the large phase space of low energy excitations (14) (62) (all states with momenta q which fulfill |q| = qm) and are of at the most a moderate supercooling of the liquid state is required. This is strongly supported by the observation in Ref. (14) that the metastable states which are first to appear at a fluctuation induced first order transition are the ones build by a superposition of large amplitude waves of wavenumber qm, but with random orientations and phases, i.e. just the ones which form the metastable states of our microemulsion and block copolymer glass. (38)

  10. Theory for dynamical self arrest and gelation in microemulsions and the block copolymer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Sangwook


    The main purpose of this work is to investigate the glassy behavior of microemulsions and block copolymers. The origin of glassy behavior in microemulsions and block copolymers is frustration due to a competition between short-range interaction and long range interaction. According to the charge frustrated Ising model, the competition between ferromagnetic interaction and antiferromagnetic interaction is the origin of frustration in microemulsions. The competition between entropic effects and stoichiometric constraints responsible for the formation of micelles in microemulsions can lead to the emergence of a self generated glassy behavior in these systems. In the block copolymer, the competition between the repulsive short range interaction between monomers in polymer chains and the long range interaction by chemical bonds can lead to the emergence of a self generated glassy behavior. The criteria for the fluctuation induced first order transition and our microemulsion and block copolymer glasses are essentially the same. Both are a consequence of the large phase space of low energy excitations (14) (62) (all states with momenta q which fulfill |q| = q{sub m}) and are of at the most a moderate supercooling of the liquid state is required. This is strongly supported by the observation in Ref. (14) that the metastable states which are first to appear at a fluctuation induced first order transition are the ones build by a superposition of large amplitude waves of wavenumber q{sub m}, but with random orientations and phases, i.e. just the ones which form the metastable states of our microemulsion and block copolymer glass. (38)

  11. Partial PIC-MRC Receiver Design for Single Carrier Block Transmission System over Multipath Fading Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juinn-Horng Deng


    Full Text Available Single carrier block transmission (SCBT system has become one of the most popular modulation systems due to its low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR, and it is gradually considered to be used for uplink wireless communication systems. In this paper, a low complexity partial parallel interference cancellation (PIC with maximum ratio combining (MRC technology is proposed to use for receiver to combat the intersymbol interference (ISI problem over multipath fading channel. With the aid of MRC scheme, the proposed partial PIC technique can effectively perform the interference cancellation and acquire the benefit of time diversity gain. Finally, the proposed system can be extended to use for multiple antenna systems to provide excellent performance. Simulation results reveal that the proposed low complexity partial PIC-MRC SIMO system can provide robust performance and outperform the conventional PIC and the iterative frequency domain decision feedback equalizer (FD-DFE systems over multipath fading channel environment.

  12. A New Indoor Positioning System Architecture Using GPS Signals (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Chen, Wu; Xu, Ying; Ji, Shengyue


    The pseudolite system is a good alternative for indoor positioning systems due to its large coverage area and accurate positioning solution. However, for common Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, the pseudolite system requires some modifications of the user terminals. To solve the problem, this paper proposes a new pseudolite-based indoor positioning system architecture. The main idea is to receive real-world GPS signals, repeat each satellite signal and transmit those using indoor transmitting antennas. The transmitted GPS-like signal can be processed (signal acquisition and tracking, navigation data decoding) by the general receiver and thus no hardware-level modification on the receiver is required. In addition, all Tx can be synchronized with each other since one single clock is used in Rx/Tx. The proposed system is simulated using a software GPS receiver. The simulation results show the indoor positioning system is able to provide high accurate horizontal positioning in both static and dynamic situations. PMID:25938199

  13. Block preconditioners for linear systems arising from multiscale collocation with compactly supported RBFs

    KAUST Repository

    Farrell, Patricio


    © 2015John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Symmetric collocation methods with RBFs allow approximation of the solution of a partial differential equation, even if the right-hand side is only known at scattered data points, without needing to generate a grid. However, the benefit of a guaranteed symmetric positive definite block system comes at a high computational cost. This cost can be alleviated somewhat by considering compactly supported RBFs and a multiscale technique. But the condition number and sparsity will still deteriorate with the number of data points. Therefore, we study certain block diagonal and triangular preconditioners. We investigate ideal preconditioners and determine the spectra of the preconditioned matrices before proposing more practical preconditioners based on a restricted additive Schwarz method with coarse grid correction. Numerical results verify the effectiveness of the preconditioners.

  14. Exploiting the natural redundancy of chaotic signals in communication systems (United States)

    Marino; Rosa; Grebogi


    Chaotic signals can be used as carriers of information in communication systems. In this work we describe a simple encoding method that allows one to map any desired bit sequence into a chaotic waveform. The redundancy of the resulting information carrying signal enables us to devise a novel signal reconstruction technique that is able to recover relatively large parts of the chaotic signal starting from just a few samples of it. We show that this technique allows one to increase both the transmission reliability and the transmission rate of a communication system even in the presence of noise.

  15. Volume shrinkage and rheological studies of epoxidised and unepoxidised poly(styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene) triblock copolymer modified epoxy resin-diamino diphenyl methane nanostructured blend systems. (United States)

    George, Sajeev Martin; Puglia, Debora; Kenny, Josè M; Parameswaranpillai, Jyotishkumar; Vijayan P, Poornima; Pionteck, Jűrgen; Thomas, Sabu


    Styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (SBS) copolymers epoxidised at different epoxidation degrees were used as modifiers for diglycidyl ether of the bisphenol A-diamino diphenyl methane (DGEBA-DDM) system. Epoxy systems containing modified epoxidised styrene-block-butadiene-block-styrene (eSBS) triblock copolymer with compositions ranging from 0 to 30 wt% were prepared and the curing reaction was monitored in situ using rheometry and pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) analysis. By controlling the mole percent of epoxidation, we could generate vesicles, worm-like micelles and core-shell nanodomains. At the highest mole percent of epoxidation, the fraction of the epoxy miscible component in the triblock copolymer (epoxidised polybutadiene (PB)) was maximum. This gave rise to core-shell nanodomains having a size of 10-15 nm, in which the incompatible polystyrene (PS) becomes the core, the unepoxidised PB becomes the shell and the epoxidised PB interpenetrates with the epoxy phase. On the other hand, the low level of epoxidation gave rise to bigger domains having a size of ∼1 μm and the intermediate epoxidation level resulted in a worm-like structure. This investigation specifically focused on the importance of cure rheology on nanostructure formation, using rheometry. The reaction induced phase separation of the PS phase in the epoxy matrix was carefully explored through rheological measurements. PVT measurements during curing were carried out to understand the volume shrinkage of the blend, confirming that shrinkage behaviour is related to the block copolymer phase separation process during curing. The volume shrinkage was found to be maximum in the case of blends with unmodified SBS, where a heterogeneous morphology was observed, while a decrease in the shrinkage was evidenced in the case of SBS epoxidation. It could be explained by two effects: (1) solubility of the epoxidised block copolymer in the DGEBA leads to the formation of nanoscopic domains upon

  16. Linux block IO: introducing multi-queue SSD access on multi-core systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørling, Matias; Axboe, Jens; Nellans, David;


    The IO performance of storage devices has accelerated from hundreds of IOPS five years ago, to hundreds of thousands of IOPS today, and tens of millions of IOPS projected in five years. This sharp evolution is primarily due to the introduc- tion of NAND-flash devices and their data parallel design...... generation block layer that is capable of handling tens of millions of IOPS on a multi-core system equipped with a single storage device. Our experiments show that our design scales graciously with the number of cores, even on NUMA systems with multiple sockets....

  17. Secure transmission of images based on chaotic systems and cipher block chaining (United States)

    Lakhani, Mahdieh Karimi; Behnam, Hamid; Karimi, Arash


    The ever-growing penetration of communication networks, digital and Internet technologies in our everyday lives has the transmission of text data, as well as multimedia data such as images and videos, possible. Digital images have a vast usage in a number of applications, including medicine and providing security authentication, for example. This applicability becomes evident when images, such as walking or people's facial features, are utilized in their identification. Considering the required security level and the properties of images, different algorithms may be used. After key generation using logistic chaos signals, a scrambling function is utilized for image agitation in both horizontal and vertical axes, and then a block-chaining mode of operation may be applied to encrypt the resultant image. The results demonstrate that using the proposed method drastically degrades the correlation between the image components and also the entropy is increased to an acceptable level. Therefore, the image will become greatly resistant to differential attacks. However, the increasing scrambling rounds and the decreasing number of bits of the blocks result in increasing the entropy and decreasing the correlation.

  18. Resveratrol inhibits enterovirus 71 replication and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion in rhabdosarcoma cells through blocking IKKs/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available Polydatin and resveratrol, as major active components in Polygonum cuspidatum, have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the effect and mechanism of polydatin and resveratrol on enterovirus 71 (EV71 have not been reported. In this study, resveratrol revealed strong antiviral activity on EV71, while polydatin had weak effect. Neither polydatin nor resveratrol exhibited influence on viral attachment. Resveratrol could effectively inhibit the synthesis of EV71/VP1 and the phosphorylation of IKKα, IKKβ, IKKγ, IKBα, NF-κB p50 and NF-κB p65, respectively. Meanwhile, the remarkably increased secretion of IL-6 and TNF-α in EV71-infected rhabdosarcoma (RD cells could be blocked by resveratrol. These results demonstrated that resveratrol inhibited EV71 replication and cytokine secretion in EV71-infected RD cells through blocking IKKs/NF-κB signaling pathway. Thus, resveratrol may have potent antiviral effect on EV71 infection.

  19. Structure-property relationships in multilayered polymeric system and olefinic block copolymers (United States)

    Khariwala, Devang

    Chapter 1. The effect of tie-layer thickness on delamination behavior of polypropylene/tie-layer/Nylon-6 multilayers is examined in this study. Various maleated polypropylene resins were compared for their effectiveness as tie-layers. Delamination failure occurred cohesively in all the multilayer systems. Two adhesion regimes were defined based on the change in slope of the linear relationship between the delamination toughness and the tie-layer thickness. The measured delamination toughness of the various tie-layers was quantitatively correlated to the damage zone length formed at the crack tip. In addition, the effect of tie-layer thickness on the multilayer tensile properties was correlated with the delamination behavior. The fracture strain of the multilayers decreased with decreasing tie-layer thickness. Examination of the prefracture damage mechanism of stretched multilayers revealed good correlation with the delamination toughness of the tie-layers. In thick tie-layers (>2microm) the delamination toughness of the tie-layers was large enough to prevent delamination of multilayers when they were stretched. In the thin tie-layers (organized lamellar crystals with the orthorhombic unit cell and high melting temperature. The lamellae are organized into space-filling spherulites in all compositions even in copolymers with only 18 wt% hard block. The morphology is consistent with crystallization from a miscible melt. Crystallization of the hard blocks forces segregation of the noncrystallizable soft blocks into the interlamellar regions. Good separation of hard and soft blocks in the solid state is confirmed by distinct and separate beta- and alpha-relaxations in all the block copolymers. Compared to statistical ethylene-octene copolymers, the blocky architecture imparts a substantially higher crystallization temperature, a higher melting temperature and a better organized crystalline morphology, while maintaining a lower glass transition temperature. The


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Tao; Zhu Guangxi; Zheng Jianbin


    The major drawback in Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) system is due to the high Peak-to-Average Power Ratio (PAPR), so the performance of the system is significantly degraded by the nonlinearity of a High Power Amplifier (HPA) in the transmitter.In order to mitigate distortion, a block coding scheme for reducing PAPR in OFDM systems with large number of subcarriers based on complementary sequences and predistortion is proposed,which is capable of both error correction and PAPR reduction. Computer simulation results show that the proposed scheme significantly improves Bit Error Rate(BER) performance as compared to an uncoded system when an HPA is employed or a coded system without predistortion.

  1. Signals, processes, and systems an interactive multimedia introduction to signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karrenberg, Ulrich


    This is a very new concept for learning Signal Processing, not only from the physically-based scientific fundamentals, but also from the didactic perspective, based on modern results of brain research. The textbook together with the DVD form a learning system that provides investigative studies and enables the reader to interactively visualize even complex processes. The unique didactic concept is built on visualizing signals and processes on the one hand, and on graphical programming of signal processing systems on the other. The concept has been designed especially for microelectronics, computer technology and communication. The book allows to develop, modify, and optimize useful applications using DasyLab - a professional and globally supported software for metrology and control engineering. With the 3rd edition, the software is also suitable for 64 bit systems running on Windows 7. Real signals can be acquired, processed and played on the sound card of your computer. The book provides more than 200 pre-pr...

  2. Signals and systems with MATLAB and Simulink modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Karis, Steven, T


    This text contains a comprehensive discussion on continuous and discrete time signals and systems with many MATLABʼ examples. Contents: Elementary Signals, Laplace transformation and its Inverse, Circuit Analysis with the Laplace transformation, State-Space, Impulse Response and Convolution, Fourier Series and Transform, Discrete-Time Signals and the Z transform, Discrete Fourier Transform and FFT, Design of Analog and Digital Filters, and Window Functions Ideal for self-study by students and working professionals.

  3. Antagonistic evolution in an aposematic predator-prey signaling system. (United States)

    Speed, Michael P; Franks, Daniel W


    Warning signals within species, such as the bright colors of chemically defended animals, are usually considered mutualistic, monomorphic traits. Such a view is however increasingly at odds with the growing empirical literature, showing nontrivial levels of signal variation within prey populations. Key to understanding this variation, we argue, could be a recognition that toxicity levels frequently vary within populations because of environmental heterogeneity. Inequalities in defense may undermine mutualistic monomorphic signaling, causing evolutionary antagonism between loci that determine appearance of less well-defended and better defended prey forms within species. In this article, we apply a stochastic model of evolved phenotypic plasticity to the evolution of prey signals. We show that when toxicity levels vary, then antagonistic interactions can lead to evolutionary conflict between alleles at different signaling loci, causing signal evolution, "red queen-like" evolutionary chase, and one or more forms of signaling equilibria. A key prediction is that variation in the way that predators use information about toxicity levels in their attack behaviors profoundly affects the evolutionary characteristics of the prey signaling systems. Environmental variation is known to cause variation in many qualities that organisms signal; our approach may therefore have application to other signaling systems.

  4. Flash signal evolution in Photinus fireflies: character displacement and signal exploitation in a visual communication system. (United States)

    Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F; Lloyd, James E


    Animal communication is an intriguing topic in evolutionary biology. In this comprehensive study of visual signal evolution, we used a phylogenetic approach to study the evolution of the flash communication system of North American fireflies. The North American firefly genus Photinus contains 35 described species with simple ON-OFF visual signals, and information on habitat types, sympatric congeners, and predators. This makes them an ideal study system to test hypotheses on the evolution of male and female visual signal traits. Our analysis of 34 Photinus species suggests two temporal pattern generators: one for flash duration and one for flash intervals. Reproductive character displacement was a main factor for signal divergence in male flash duration among sympatric Photinus species. Male flash pattern intervals (i.e., the duration of the dark periods between signals) were positively correlated with the number of sympatric Photuris fireflies, which include predators of Photinus. Females of different Photinus species differ in their response preferences to male traits. As in other communication systems, firefly male sexual signals seem to be a compromise between optimizing mating success (sexual selection) and minimizing predation risk (natural selection). An integrative model for Photinus signal evolution is proposed.

  5. DNA-PK triggers histone ubiquitination and signaling in response to DNA double-strand breaks produced during the repair of transcription-blocking topoisomerase I lesions. (United States)

    Cristini, Agnese; Park, Joon-Hyung; Capranico, Giovanni; Legube, Gaëlle; Favre, Gilles; Sordet, Olivier


    Although defective repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) leads to neurodegenerative diseases, the processes underlying their production and signaling in non-replicating cells are largely unknown. Stabilized topoisomerase I cleavage complexes (Top1cc) by natural compounds or common DNA alterations are transcription-blocking lesions whose repair depends primarily on Top1 proteolysis and excision by tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase-1 (TDP1). We previously reported that stabilized Top1cc produce transcription-dependent DSBs that activate ATM in neurons. Here, we use camptothecin (CPT)-treated serum-starved quiescent cells to induce transcription-blocking Top1cc and show that those DSBs are generated during Top1cc repair from Top1 peptide-linked DNA single-strand breaks generated after Top1 proteolysis and before excision by TDP1. Following DSB induction, ATM activates DNA-PK whose inhibition suppresses H2AX and H2A ubiquitination and the later assembly of activated ATM into nuclear foci. Inhibition of DNA-PK also reduces Top1 ubiquitination and proteolysis as well as resumption of RNA synthesis suggesting that DSB signaling further enhances Top1cc repair. Finally, we show that co-transcriptional DSBs kill quiescent cells. Together, these new findings reveal that DSB production and signaling by transcription-blocking Top1 lesions impact on non-replicating cell fate and provide insights on the molecular pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases such as SCAN1 and AT syndromes, which are caused by TDP1 and ATM deficiency, respectively.

  6. Power system small signal stability analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Mondal, Debasish; Sengupta, Aparajita


    Power System Small Signal Stability Analysis and Control presents a detailed analysis of the problem of severe outages due to the sustained growth of small signal oscillations in modern interconnected power systems. The ever-expanding nature of power systems and the rapid upgrade to smart grid technologies call for the implementation of robust and optimal controls. Power systems that are forced to operate close to their stability limit have resulted in the use of control devices by utility companies to improve the performance of the transmission system against commonly occurring power system

  7. Holographic View on Quantum Correlations and Mutual Information between Disjoint Blocks of a Quantum Critical System

    CERN Document Server

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier


    We exploit the Multiscale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA) to explicitly build the bulk AdSd+2 space associated to a (d+1) dimensional conformal field theory describing a critical system lying at the boundary of the AdS space. We show that, when computing the quantum correlations between two disjoint blocks of the boundary critical system, the structure of the causal cones characteristic of MERA requires a transition between two different regimes attainable by changing the ratio between the size and the separation of the two disjoint blocks. We argue that this transition may be easily accounted for if the metric of the MERA induced holographic dual bulk spacetime is described by an AdSd+2 black hole and the mutual information is computed using the Ryu-Takayanagi formula. As an explicit example, we use a BTZ AdS3 black hole to compute the MI and the quantum correlations between two disjoint intervals of a one dimensional boundary critical system. Our results for this low dimensional system not only s...

  8. Simulation of queue with cyclic service in signalized intersection system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dermawan Mulyodiputro


    Full Text Available The simulation was implemented by modeling the queue with cyclic service in the signalized intersection system. The service policies used in this study were exhaustive and gated, the model was the M/M/1 queue, the arrival rate used was Poisson distribution and the services rate used was Exponential distribution. In the gated service policy, the server served only vehicles that came before the green signal appears at an intersection. Considered that there were 2 types of exhaustive policy in the signalized intersection system, namely normal exhaustive (vehicles only served during the green signal was still active, and exhaustive (there was the green signal duration addition at the intersection, when the green signal duration at an intersection finished. The results of this queueing simulation program were to obtain characteristics and performance of the system, i.e. average number of vehicles and waiting time of vehicles in the intersection and in the system, as well as system utilities. Then from these values, it would be known which of the cyclic service policies (normal exhaustive, exhaustive and gated was the most suitable when applied to a signalized intersection system

  9. Signal processing method and system for noise removal and signal extraction (United States)

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren


    A signal processing method and system combining smooth level wavelet pre-processing together with artificial neural networks all in the wavelet domain for signal denoising and extraction. Upon receiving a signal corrupted with noise, an n-level decomposition of the signal is performed using a discrete wavelet transform to produce a smooth component and a rough component for each decomposition level. The level smooth component is then inputted into a corresponding neural network pre-trained to filter out noise in that component by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. Additional rough components, beginning at the highest level, may also be retained and inputted into corresponding neural networks pre-trained to filter out noise in those components also by pattern recognition in the wavelet domain. In any case, an inverse discrete wavelet transform is performed on the combined output from all the neural networks to recover a clean signal back in the time domain.

  10. Auditory signal design for automatic number plate recognition system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heydra, C.G.; Jansen, R.J.; Van Egmond, R.


    This paper focuses on the design of an auditory signal for the Automatic Number Plate Recognition system of Dutch national police. The auditory signal is designed to alert police officers of suspicious cars in their proximity, communicating priority level and location of the suspicious car and takin

  11. Measurement System for Playout Delay of TV Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, W.J.; Stokking, H.M.; Brandenburg, R. van; Boer, P.T. de


    TV signals are carried towards end-users using different (broadcast) technologies and by different providers. This is causing differences in the playout timing of the TV signal at different locations and devices. Authors have developed a measurement system for measuring the relative playout delay of

  12. Biophysics and Thermodynamics: The Scientific Building Blocks of Bio-inspired Drug Delivery Nano Systems. (United States)

    Demetzos, Costas


    Biophysics and thermodynamics are considered as the scientific milestones for investigating the properties of materials. The relationship between the changes of temperature with the biophysical variables of biomaterials is important in the process of the development of drug delivery systems. Biophysics is a challenge sector of physics and should be used complementary with the biochemistry in order to discover new and promising technological platforms (i.e., drug delivery systems) and to disclose the 'silence functionality' of bio-inspired biological and artificial membranes. Thermal analysis and biophysical approaches in pharmaceuticals present reliable and versatile tools for their characterization and for the successful development of pharmaceutical products. The metastable phases of self-assembled nanostructures such as liposomes should be taken into consideration because they represent the thermal events can affect the functionality of advanced drug delivery nano systems. In conclusion, biophysics and thermodynamics are characterized as the building blocks for design and development of bio-inspired drug delivery systems.

  13. Targeting the PDGF-B/PDGFR-β Interface with Destruxin A5 to Selectively Block PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ Signaling and Attenuate Liver Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingqi Wang


    Full Text Available PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ signaling plays very crucial roles in the process of many diseases such as liver fibrosis. However, drug candidates with selective affinities for PDGF-B/PDGFR-β remain deficient. Here, we identified a natural cyclopeptide termed destruxin A5 that effectively inhibits PDGF-BB-induced PDGFR-β signaling. Interestingly and importantly, the inhibitory mechanism is distinct from the mechanism of tyrosine kinase inhibitors because destruxin A5 does not have the ability to bind to the ATP-binding pocket of PDGFR-β. Using Biacore T200 technology, thermal shift technology, microscale thermophoresis technology and computational analysis, we confirmed that destruxin A5 selectively targets the PDGF-B/PDGFR-β interaction interface to block this signaling. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of destruxin A5 on PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ signaling was verified using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models, in which the extent of liver fibrosis was effectively alleviated by destruxin A5. In summary, destruxin A5 may represent an efficacious and more selective inhibitor of PDGF-BB/PDGFR-ββ signaling.

  14. Water distributions in polystyrene-block-poly[styrene-g-poly(ethylene oxide)] block grafted copolymer system in aqueous solutions revealed by contrast variation small angle neutron scattering study (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hong, Kunlun; Liu, Yun; Shew, Chwen-Yang; Liu, Emily; Herwig, Kenneth W.; Smith, Gregory S.; Zhao, Junpeng; Zhang, Guangzhao; Pispas, Stergios; Chen, Wei-Ren


    We develop an experimental approach to analyze the water distribution around a core-shell micelle formed by polystyrene-block-poly[styrene-g-poly(ethylene oxide (PEO)] block copolymers in aqueous media at a fixed polymeric concentration of 10 mg/ml through contrast variation small angle neutron scattering (SANS) study. Through varying the D2O/H2O ratio, the scattering contributions from the water molecules and the micellar constituent components can be determined. Based on the commonly used core-shell model, a theoretical coherent scattering cross section incorporating the effect of water penetration is developed and used to analyze the SANS I(Q ). We have successfully quantified the intramicellar water distribution and found that the overall micellar hydration level increases with the increase in the molecular weight of hydrophilic PEO side chains. Our work presents a practical experimental means for evaluating the intramacromolecular solvent distributions of general soft matter systems.

  15. Exploitation of Ubiquitous Wi-Fi Devices as Building Blocks for Improvised Motion Detection Systems. (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Gennarelli, Gianluca


    This article deals with a feasibility study on the detection of human movements in indoor scenarios based on radio signal strength variations. The sensing principle exploits the fact that the human body interacts with wireless signals, introducing variations of the radiowave fields due to shadowing and multipath phenomena. As a result, human motion can be inferred from fluctuations of radiowave power collected by a receiving terminal. In this paper, we investigate the potentialities of widely available wireless communication devices in order to develop an improvised motion detection system (IMDS). Experimental tests are performed in an indoor environment by using a smartphone as a Wi-Fi access point and a laptop with dedicated software as a receiver. Simple detection strategies tailored for real-time operation are implemented to process the received signal strength measurements. The achieved results confirm the potentialities of the simple system here proposed to reliably detect human motion in operational conditions.

  16. Nucleic acids and smart materials: advanced building blocks for logic systems. (United States)

    Pu, Fang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang


    Logic gates can convert input signals into a defined output signal, which is the fundamental basis of computing. Inspired by molecular switching from one state to another under an external stimulus, molecular logic gates are explored extensively and recognized as an alternative to traditional silicon-based computing. Among various building blocks of molecular logic gates, nucleic acid attracts special attention owing to its specific recognition abilities and structural features. Functional materials with unique physical and chemical properties offer significant advantages and are used in many fields. The integration of nucleic acids and functional materials is expected to bring about several new phenomena. In this Progress Report, recent progress in the construction of logic gates by combining the properties of a range of smart materials with nucleic acids is introduced. According to the structural characteristics and composition, functional materials are categorized into three classes: polymers, noble-metal nanomaterials, and inorganic nanomaterials. Furthermore, the unsolved problems and future challenges in the construction of logic gates are discussed. It is hoped that broader interests in introducing new smart materials into the field are inspired and tangible applications for these constructs are found.

  17. Double CAN communicating building block based on embedded system μC/OS-Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mo,Chuanmeng; Feng,Xiaoyu


    On the basis of transplanting successfully a suit of RTOS μC/OS-Ⅱ to MB90F543 MCU, double CAN communicating program module have been embedded into μC/OS-Ⅱ as a building block. Double CAN redundant communication have been realized among several hardware nodes based on μC/OS-Ⅱ. The design mechanism, hardware and software of double CAN communication were described in detail. The paper analyze the differences of CAN communication based on μC/OS-Ⅱ and traditional foreground/background system.Key Word:RTOS; μC/OS-Ⅱ;CAN bus;MB90F543 MCU;redundancy

  18. Noise Separation from the Weak Signal Chaotic Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanjie Gu


    Full Text Available The traditional weak signal chaotic detection system still restricts some technical issues in the situation of the signal with noise, such as poor denoising ability and low detection precision. In this paper, we propose a novel weak signal chaotic detection system based on an improved wavelet transform algorithm. First, the traditional wavelet transform algorithm domain variables have been transformed and discretized to eliminate the redundant transform. Then, based on the discrete optimization, the wavelet coefficients have been optimized by threshold compromise strategy. The improved wavelet transform algorithm is applied in the weak signal chaotic detection system. The noise signal after finite discrete processing is treated as a perturbation of cycle power and put into a chaotic system for detecting weak signal under the noise conditions. The simulation experiments show that the proposed improved wavelet transform algorithm has a better denoising effect than the traditional wavelet transform algorithm. Moreover, the improved algorithm shows better accuracy and higher robustness in the weak signal chaotic detection system.

  19. A Radio Communication System for Neuronal Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Min; Yang Maoquan; Wang Xiaojun; Guang Kui; Zhang Xiao


    To collect neuronal activity data from awake, freely behaving animals, we developed miniature telemetry recording system. The integrated system consists of four major components: l) Microelectrodes and micro-driver assembly, 2) analog front end (AFE), 3) programmable system on chip (PSoC), and 4) ra- dio transceiver and the LabVIEW were used as a platform for the graphic user interface. The result showed the system was able to record and analyze neuronal recordings in freely moving animals and lasted continuously for a time period of a week or more. This is very useful for the study of the interdisciplinary research of neu- roscience and information engineering techniques. The circuits and architecture of the devices can be adapted for neurobiology and research with other small animals.

  20. Modelling of Signal - Level Crossing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Novak


    Full Text Available The author presents an object-oriented model of a railway level-crossing system created for the purpose of functional requirements specification. Unified Modelling Language (UML, version 1.4, which enables specification, visualisation, construction and documentation of software system artefacts, was used. The main attention was paid to analysis and design phases. The former phase resulted in creation of use case diagrams and sequential diagrams, the latter in creation of class/object diagrams and statechart diagrams.

  1. An implantable CMOS signal conditioning system for recording nerve signals with cuff electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papathanasiou, Konstantinos; Lehmann, Torsten


    We propose a system architecture for recording nerve signals with cuff electrodes and develop the key component in this system, the small-input, low-noise, low-power, high-gain amplifier. The amplifier is implemented using a mixture of weak- and strong-inversion transistors and a special off-set ......-set compensation technique; its performance is validated using Spice simulations....


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying ZHOU; Yuqiang WU


    The paper addresses the global output tracking of a class of multi-input multi-output(MIMO) nonlinear systems affected by disturbances, which are generated by a known exosystem. An adaptive controller is designed based on the proposed observer and the backstepping approach to asymptotically track arbitrary reference signal and to guarantee the boundedness of all the signals in the closed loop system. Finally, the numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

  3. 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mu, Jiasong; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Baoju


    This book brings together papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems, which provides a venue to disseminate the latest developments and to discuss the interactions and links between these multidisciplinary fields. Spanning topics ranging from Communications, Signal Processing and Systems, this book is aimed at undergraduate and graduate students in Electrical Engineering, Computer Science and Mathematics, researchers and engineers from academia and industry as well as government employees (such as NSF, DOD, DOE, etc).

  4. Curcumin blocks interleukin (IL)-2 signaling in T-lymphocytes by inhibiting IL-2 synthesis, CD25 expression, and IL-2 receptor signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forward, Nicholas A.; Conrad, David M. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Power Coombs, Melanie R.; Doucette, Carolyn D. [Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Furlong, Suzanne J. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Lin, Tong-Jun [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Pediatrics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Hoskin, David W., E-mail: [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Pathology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Department of Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)


    Highlights: {yields} Curcumin inhibits CD4{sup +} T-lymphocyte proliferation. {yields} Curcumin inhibits interleukin-2 (IL-2) synthesis and CD25 expression by CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes. {yields} Curcumin interferes with IL-2 receptor signaling by inhibiting JAK3 and STAT5 phosphorylation. {yields} IL-2-dependent regulatory T-lymphocyte function and Foxp3 expression is downregulated by curcumin. -- Abstract: Curcumin (diferulomethane) is the principal curcuminoid in the spice tumeric and a potent inhibitor of activation-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation; however, the molecular basis of this immunosuppressive effect has not been well studied. Here we show that micromolar concentrations of curcumin inhibited DNA synthesis by mouse CD4{sup +} T-lymphocytes, as well as interleukin-2 (IL-2) and CD25 ({alpha} chain of the high affinity IL-2 receptor) expression in response to antibody-mediated cross-linking of CD3 and CD28. Curcumin acted downstream of protein kinase C activation and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release to inhibit I{kappa}B phosphorylation, which is required for nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF{kappa}B. In addition, IL-2-dependent DNA synthesis by mouse CTLL-2 cells, but not constitutive CD25 expression, was impaired in the presence of curcumin, which demonstrated an inhibitory effect on IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) signaling. IL-2-induced phosphorylation of STAT5A and JAK3, but not JAK1, was diminished in the presence of curcumin, indicating inhibition of critical proximal events in IL-2R signaling. In line with the inhibitory action of curcumin on IL-2R signaling, pretreatment of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T-cells with curcumin downregulated suppressor function, as well as forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression. We conclude that curcumin inhibits IL-2 signaling by reducing available IL-2 and high affinity IL-2R, as well as interfering with IL-2R signaling.

  5. Digital signal processing in power system protection and control

    CERN Document Server

    Rebizant, Waldemar; Wiszniewski, Andrzej


    Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control bridges the gap between the theory of protection and control and the practical applications of protection equipment. Understanding how protection functions is crucial not only for equipment developers and manufacturers, but also for their users who need to install, set and operate the protection devices in an appropriate manner. After introductory chapters related to protection technology and functions, Digital Signal Processing in Power System Protection and Control presents the digital algorithms for signal filtering, followed

  6. Ephrin signalling in the developing nervous system. (United States)

    Klein, Rüdiger; Kania, Artur


    Ephrin ligands and their Eph receptors hold our attention since their link to axon guidance almost twenty years ago. Since then, they have been shown to be critical for short distance cell-cell interactions in the nervous system. The interest in their function has not abated, leading to ever-more sophisticated studies generating as many surprising answers about their function as new questions. We discuss recent insights into their functions in the developing nervous system, including neuronal progenitor sorting, stochastic cell migration, guidance of neuronal growth cones, topographic map formation, as well as synaptic plasticity.

  7. Wearable Systems for Service based on Physiological Signals. (United States)

    Ryoo, Dong-Wan; Kim, Young-Sung; Lee, Jeun-Woo


    Many researches for useful status information on humans have been done using the bio-signals. The bio-signal acquisition systems can be used to connect a user and a ubiquitous computing environment. The ubiquitous computing environment has to give various services anywhere, anytime. Consequently, ubiquitous computing requires new technology, such as a new user interface, dynamic service mechanism based on context and mobility support, which is different from technology used in desktop environment. To do this, we developed a wearable system, which can sense physiological data, determine emotional status and execute service based on the emotion. In this paper, we described wearable systems for personalized service based on physiological signals. The wearable system is composed of three subsystems, the physiological data sensing subsystem, the human status awareness subsystem and the service management subsystem. The physiological data sensing subsystem senses PPG, GSR and SKT signals from the data glove and sends the data to a wearable system using Bluetooth. The human status awareness subsystem in the wearable system receives the data from bio-sensors and determines emotional status using nonlinear mapping and rule-base. After determining emotion, the service management subsystem activates proper service automatically, and the service management subsystem can provide personalized service for users based on acquired bio-signals. Also, we presented various feature extraction using bio-signals such as PPG, GSR, SKT considering mobility, and emotion recognition of human status for the ubiquitous computing service.

  8. Nonselective Blocking of the Sympathetic Nervous System Decreases Detrusor Overactivity in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Shin Park


    Full Text Available The involuntary dual control systems of the autonomic nervous system (ANS in the bladder of awake spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs were investigated through simultaneous registrations of intravesical and intraabdominal pressures to observe detrusor overactivity (DO objectively as a core symptom of an overactive bladder. SHRs (n = 6 showed the features of overactive bladder syndrome during urodynamic study, especially DO during the filling phase. After injection of the nonselective sympathetic blocking agent labetalol, DO disappeared in 3 of 6 SHRs (50%. DO frequency decreased from 0.98 ± 0.22 min−1 to 0.28 ± 0.19 min−1 (p < 0.01, and DO pressure decreased from 3.82 ± 0.57 cm H2O to 1.90 ± 0.86 cm H2O (p < 0.05. This suggests that the DO originating from the overactive parasympathetic nervous system is attenuated by the nonselective blocking of the sympathetic nervous system. The detailed mechanism behind this result is still not known, but parasympathetic overactivity seems to require overactive sympathetic nervous system activity in a kind of balance between these two systems. These findings are consistent with recent clinical findings suggesting that patients with idiopathic overactive bladder may have ANS dysfunction, particularly a sympathetic dysfunction. The search for newer and better drugs than the current anticholinergic drugs as the mainstay for overactive bladder will be fueled by our research on these sympathetic mechanisms. Further studies of this principle are required.

  9. Emergency vehicle traffic signal preemption system (United States)

    Bachelder, Aaron D. (Inventor); Foster, Conrad F. (Inventor)


    An emergency vehicle traffic light preemption system for preemption of traffic lights at an intersection to allow safe passage of emergency vehicles. The system includes a real-time status monitor of an intersection which is relayed to a control module for transmission to emergency vehicles as well as to a central dispatch office. The system also provides for audio warnings at an intersection to protect pedestrians who may not be in a position to see visual warnings or for various reasons cannot hear the approach of emergency vehicles. A transponder mounted on an emergency vehicle provides autonomous control so the vehicle operator can attend to getting to an emergency and not be concerned with the operation of the system. Activation of a priority-code (i.e. Code-3) situation provides communications with each intersection being approached by an emergency vehicle and indicates whether the intersection is preempted or if there is any conflict with other approaching emergency vehicles. On-board diagnostics handle various information including heading, speed, and acceleration sent to a control module which is transmitted to an intersection and which also simultaneously receives information regarding the status of an intersection. Real-time communications and operations software allow central and remote monitoring, logging, and command of intersections and vehicles.

  10. Microglia antioxidant systems and redox signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhardt, F; Haslund-Vinding, J; Jaquet, V;


    't stand alone however, and are not always pernicious. We discuss in general terms, and where available in microglia, GSH synthesis and relation to cystine import and glutamate export, and the thioredoxin system as the most important antioxidative defense mechanism, and further, we discuss in the context...

  11. Reduced-density-matrix spectrum and block entropy of permutationally invariant many-body systems. (United States)

    Salerno, Mario; Popkov, Vladislav


    Spectral properties of the reduced density matrix (RDM) of permutational invariant quantum many-body systems are investigated. The RDM block diagonalization which accounts for all symmetries of the Hamiltonian is achieved. The analytical expression of the RDM spectrum is provided for arbitrary parameters and rigorously proved in the thermodynamical limit. The existence of several sum rules and recurrence relations among RDM eigenvalues is also demonstrated and the distribution function of RDM eigenvalues (including degeneracies) characterized. In particular, we prove that the distribution function approaches a two-dimensional Gaussian in the limit of large subsystem sizes n>1. As a physical application we discuss the von Neumann entropy (VNE) of a block of size n for a system of hard-core bosons on a complete graph, as a function of n and of the temperature T. The occurrence of a crossover of VNE from purely logarithmic behavior at T=0 to a purely linear behavior in n for T≥Tc, is demonstrated.

  12. Frictional energy barrier and blocking temperature in water molecules and carbon nanotubes system (United States)

    Zhang, Jianwei; Li, Jiaxi; Li, Wenfeng


    Water transport through hydrophobic channels of single-walled carbon nanotubes has attracted a lot interests, especially, various potential applications of SWCNTs have been proposed for designing novel nanofluidic devices. By adopting Molecular dynamics method, we investigated mechanics and statistics properties of water molecules escaping from a confined single-walled carbon nanotube. From our numerical MD simulations and statistical model, we determined the friction energy barrier of water molecules in (10.10) SWCNT is 9.88 kcal/mol, and which is the minimal energy for flowing a water molecules in CNT. By only using friction energy barrier and relaxation time parameter, our model can fit all different situations MD simulation results. In order to describing the frictional lock behavior of water molecules, we introduced a new blocking temperature, below this temperature (391K for our system), water is locked in CNT due to friction energy barrier. We found that the blocking temperature is closely related to system response time, and it also shows a linear behavior to frictional energy barrier. Furthermore, we found several other interesting statistics results when a water molecules leaving SWCNTs. This work was supported by NSFC No. 11274240 and NO. 51471119.

  13. Massive MIMO Systems: Signal Processing Challenges and Research Trends


    de Lamare, R.C.


    This article presents a tutorial on multiuser multiple-antenna wireless systems with a very large number of antennas, known as massive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) systems. Signal processing challenges and future trends in the area of massive MIMO systems are presented and key application scenarios are detailed. A linear algebra approach is considered for the description of the system and data models of massive MIMO architectures. The operational requirements of massive MIMO systems are di...

  14. Dietary phytochemicals and cancer prevention: Nrf2 signaling, epigenetics, and cell death mechanisms in blocking cancer initiation and progression (United States)

    Lee, Jong Hun; Khor, Tin Oo; Shu, Limin; Su, Zheng-Yuan; Fuentes, Francisco; Kong, Ah-Ng Tony


    Reactive metabolites from carcinogens and oxidative stress can drive genetic mutations, genomic instability, neoplastic transformation, and ultimately carcinogenesis. Numerous dietary phytochemicals in vegetables/fruits have been shown to possess cancer chemopreventive effects in both preclinical animal models and human epidemiological studies. These phytochemicals could prevent the initiation of carcinogenesis via either direct scavenging of reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) or, more importantly, the induction of cellular defense detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes. These defense enzymes mediated by Nrf2-antioxidative stress and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways can contribute to cellular protection against ROS/RNS and reactive metabolites of carcinogens. In addition, these compounds would kill initiated/transformed cancer cells in vitro and in in vivo xenografts via diverse anti-cancer mechanisms. These mechanisms include the activation of signaling kinases (e.g., JNK), caspases and the mitochondria damage/cytochrome c pathways. Phytochemicals may also have anti-cancer effects by inhibiting the IKK/NF-κB pathway, inhibiting STAT3, and causing cell cycle arrest. In addition, other mechanisms may include epigenetic alterations (e.g., inhibition of HDACs, miRNAs, and the modification of the CpG methylation of cancer-related genes). In this review, we will discuss: the current advances in the study of Nrf2 signaling; Nrf2-deficient tumor mouse models; the epigenetic control of Nrf2 in tumorigenesis and chemoprevention; Nrf2-mediated cancer chemoprevention by naturally occurring dietary phytochemicals; and the mutation or hyper-expression of the Nrf2–Keap1 signaling pathway in advanced tumor cells. The future development of dietary phytochemicals for chemoprevention must integrate in vitro signaling mechanisms, relevant biomarkers of human diseases, and combinations of different phytochemicals and/or non-toxic therapeutic drugs, including

  15. Blind and semi-blind ML detection for space-time block-coded OFDM wireless systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zaib, Alam


    This paper investigates the joint maximum likelihood (ML) data detection and channel estimation problem for Alamouti space-time block-coded (STBC) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless systems. The joint ML estimation and data detection is generally considered a hard combinatorial optimization problem. We propose an efficient low-complexity algorithm based on branch-estimate-bound strategy that renders exact joint ML solution. However, the computational complexity of blind algorithm becomes critical at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the number of OFDM carriers and constellation size are increased especially in multiple-antenna systems. To overcome this problem, a semi-blind algorithm based on a new framework for reducing the complexity is proposed by relying on subcarrier reordering and decoding the carriers with different levels of confidence using a suitable reliability criterion. In addition, it is shown that by utilizing the inherent structure of Alamouti coding, the estimation performance improvement or the complexity reduction can be achieved. The proposed algorithms can reliably track the wireless Rayleigh fading channel without requiring any channel statistics. Simulation results presented against the perfect coherent detection demonstrate the effectiveness of blind and semi-blind algorithms over frequency-selective channels with different fading characteristics.

  16. Performance of Turbo Interference Cancellation Receivers in Space-Time Block Coded DS-CDMA Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Oluremi Bejide


    Full Text Available We investigate the performance of turbo interference cancellation receivers in the space time block coded (STBC direct-sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA system. Depending on the concatenation scheme used, we divide these receivers into the partitioned approach (PA and the iterative approach (IA receivers. The performance of both the PA and IA receivers is evaluated in Rayleigh fading channels for the uplink scenario. Numerical results show that the MMSE front-end turbo space-time iterative approach receiver (IA effectively combats the mixture of MAI and intersymbol interference (ISI. To further investigate the possible achievable data rates in the turbo interference cancellation receivers, we introduce the puncturing of the turbo code through the use of rate compatible punctured turbo codes (RCPTCs. Simulation results suggest that combining interference cancellation, turbo decoding, STBC, and RCPTC can significantly improve the achievable data rates for a synchronous DS-CDMA system for the uplink in Rayleigh flat fading channels.

  17. Application of Block Copolymer in Three-Liquid-Phase Extraction System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A novel three-liquid-phase extraction system (TES) composed of butyl acetate, block copolymer polyethylene oxide-polypropylene oxide-polyethylene oxide and ammonium sulphate aqueous solution [(NH4)2SO4] as top, middle, and bottom phase, respectively, has been developed. The copolymer recycling and partitioning behavior of penicillin V has been studied in this system. Results show that the copolymer could be purified and recycled and penicillin V of the filtrated ferment broth could be partitioned unevenly among the phases and purified in the top phase of this TES. About 90 wt.% of penicillin V could be distributed into the top phase around pH 2.5 and only less than 0.1 wt.% left in the bottom phase.

  18. The application of information theory to biochemical signaling systems. (United States)

    Rhee, Alex; Cheong, Raymond; Levchenko, Andre


    Cell signaling can be thought of fundamentally as an information transmission problem in which chemical messengers relay information about the external environment to the decision centers within a cell. Due to the biochemical nature of cellular signal transduction networks, molecular noise will inevitably limit the fidelity of any messages received and processed by a cell's signal transduction networks, leaving it with an imperfect impression of its environment. Fortunately, Shannon's information theory provides a mathematical framework independent of network complexity that can quantify the amount of information that can be transmitted despite biochemical noise. In particular, the channel capacity can be used to measure the maximum number of stimuli a cell can distinguish based upon the noisy responses of its signaling systems. Here, we provide a primer for quantitative biologists that covers fundamental concepts of information theory, highlights several key considerations when experimentally measuring channel capacity, and describes successful examples of the application of information theoretic analysis to biological signaling.

  19. Signal Processing in Large Systems: a New Paradigm

    CERN Document Server

    Couillet, Romain


    For a long time, signal processing applications, and most particularly detection and parameter estimation methods, have relied on the limiting behaviour of test statistics and estimators, as the number n of observations of a population grows large comparatively to the population size N, i.e. n>>N. Modern technological and societal advances now demand the study of sometimes extremely large populations, while simultaneously requiring fast signal processing due to accelerated system dynamics; this results in not-so-large practical ratios n/N, sometimes even smaller than one. A disruptive change in classical signal processing methods has therefore been initiated in the past ten years, mostly spurred by the field of large dimensional random matrix theory. The early literature in random matrix theory for signal processing applications is however scarce and highly technical. This tutorial proposes an accessible methodological introduction to the modern tools of random matrix theory and to the signal processing metho...

  20. Medical Signal-Conditioning and Data-Interface System (United States)

    Braun, Jeffrey; Jacobus, charles; Booth, Scott; Suarez, Michael; Smith, Derek; Hartnagle, Jeffrey; LePrell, Glenn


    A general-purpose portable, wearable electronic signal-conditioning and data-interface system is being developed for medical applications. The system can acquire multiple physiological signals (e.g., electrocardiographic, electroencephalographic, and electromyographic signals) from sensors on the wearer s body, digitize those signals that are received in analog form, preprocess the resulting data, and transmit the data to one or more remote location(s) via a radiocommunication link and/or the Internet. The system includes a computer running data-object-oriented software that can be programmed to configure the system to accept almost any analog or digital input signals from medical devices. The computing hardware and software implement a general-purpose data-routing-and-encapsulation architecture that supports tagging of input data and routing the data in a standardized way through the Internet and other modern packet-switching networks to one or more computer(s) for review by physicians. The architecture supports multiple-site buffering of data for redundancy and reliability, and supports both real-time and slower-than-real-time collection, routing, and viewing of signal data. Routing and viewing stations support insertion of automated analysis routines to aid in encoding, analysis, viewing, and diagnosis.

  1. Phenolic alkaloids from Menispermum dauricum inhibits BxPC-3 pancreatic cancer cells by blocking of Hedgehog signaling pathway


    Zhou, Zhong-guang; Zhang, Chao-ying; Fei, Hong-xin; Zhong, Li-Li; Bai, Yun


    Background: The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an important role in pancreatic cancer (PC) cells. Phenolic alkaloids from Menispermum dauricum (PAMD), a traditional Chinese medicine used for the treatment of immune disorders, have been reported to have antitumor activity recently. Objective: To investigate the efficacy and mechanism of PAMD against PC cell BxPC-3. Materials and Methods: F assay was used to assess cell proliferation inhibition of PAMD; the apoptotic induction and cell c...

  2. Embryonic tongue morphogenesis in an organ culture model of mouse mandibular arches: blocking Sonic hedgehog signaling leads to microglossia. (United States)

    Torii, Daisuke; Soeno, Yuuichi; Fujita, Kazuya; Sato, Kaori; Aoba, Takaaki; Taya, Yuji


    Mouse tongue development is initiated with the formation of lateral lingual swellings just before fusion between the mediodorsal surfaces of the mandibular arches at around embryonic day 11.0. Here, we investigated the role of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in embryonic mouse tongue morphogenesis. For this, we used an organ culture model of the mandibular arches from mouse embryos at embryonic day 10.5. When the Shh signaling inhibitor jervine was added to the culture medium for 24-96 h, the formation of lateral lingual swellings and subsequent epithelial invagination into the mesenchyme were impaired markedly, leading to a hypoplastic tongue with an incomplete oral sulcus. Notably, jervine treatment reduced the proliferation of non-myogenic mesenchymal cells at the onset of forming the lateral lingual swellings, whereas it did not affect the proliferation and differentiation of a myogenic cell lineage, which created a cell community at the central circumferential region of the lateral lingual swellings as seen in vivo and in control cultures lacking the inhibitor. Thus, epithelium-derived Shh signaling stimulates the proliferation of non-myogenic mesenchymal cells essential for forming lateral lingual swellings and contributes to epithelial invagination into the mesenchyme during early tongue development.

  3. Outage performance of cognitive radio systems with Improper Gaussian signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Osama


    Improper Gaussian signaling has proved its ability to improve the achievable rate of the systems that suffer from interference compared with proper Gaussian signaling. In this paper, we first study impact of improper Gaussian signaling on the performance of the cognitive radio system by analyzing the outage probability of both the primary user (PU) and the secondary user (SU). We derive exact expression of the SU outage probability and upper and lower bounds for the PU outage probability. Then, we design the SU signal by adjusting its transmitted power and the circularity coefficient to minimize the SU outage probability while maintaining a certain PU quality-of-service. Finally, we evaluate the proposed bounds and adaptive algorithms by numerical results.

  4. Signal structure of the Chinese Area Positioning System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Proper signal structure is very important in the navigation, positioning, and time services of a satellite navigation system. In this paper, the carrier wave characteristics, ranging code functions, BOC modulation, navigation data rate, the error-correcting methods, and signal channel resource allocation are discussed in terms of the technical characteristics of the transforming satellite navigation system and the resources of communication satellites. The results show that dual-frequency of C band in the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS), compound ranging code, a combination of the coarse code and precise code, BOC modulation, separate-channel transmission of different users are compatible with the satellite navigation system at present. The experiments show that the current signal structure can meet the demand of CAPS.

  5. Digital Signal Processor System for AC Power Drivers


    Ovidiu Neamtu


    DSP (Digital Signal Processor) is the bestsolution for motor control systems to make possible thedevelopment of advanced motor drive systems. The motorcontrol processor calculates the required motor windingvoltage magnitude and frequency to operate the motor atthe desired speed. A PWM (Pulse Width Modulation)circuit controls the on and off duty cycle of the powerinverter switches to vary the magnitude of the motorvoltages.

  6. Digital Signal Processor System for AC Power Drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Neamtu


    Full Text Available DSP (Digital Signal Processor is the bestsolution for motor control systems to make possible thedevelopment of advanced motor drive systems. The motorcontrol processor calculates the required motor windingvoltage magnitude and frequency to operate the motor atthe desired speed. A PWM (Pulse Width Modulationcircuit controls the on and off duty cycle of the powerinverter switches to vary the magnitude of the motorvoltages.

  7. MiR-122 directly inhibits human papillomavirus E6 gene and enhances interferon signaling through blocking suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 in SiHa cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junming He

    Full Text Available Human Papillomavirus (HPV 16 infection is considered as one of the significant causes of human cervical cancer. The expression of the viral oncogenes like E6 and E7 play an important role in the development of the cancer. MiR-122 has been reported to exhibit a strong relationship with hepatitis viruses and take part in several tumor development, while the effects of miR-122 on HPV infection and the HPV viral oncogenes expression still remain unexplored. In this study, using RNAhybrid software, the potential binding sites between miR-122 and HPV16 E6 and E7 mRNAs were identified. Over and loss of miR-122 function showed that miR-122 could directly bind with HPV16 E6 mRNA and significantly inhibit its expression in SiHa cells, which was further confirmed by constructing the miR-122-E6-mu to eliminate the miR-122 binding effects with E6. The increase of the expression of type I interferon (IFN and its classical effective molecules and the phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT1 protein indicated that miR-122 might enhance type I interferon in cervical carcinoma cells, which explained the significant reduction of HPV16 E7 and E6*I mRNA expression. This might be due to the binding between miR-122 and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1 mRNA, which is the suppressor of interferon signaling pathway. Moreover, it was identified that the miR-122 binding position was nt359-nt375 in SOCS1 mRNA. Taken together, this study indicated that HPV16 could be effectively inhibited by miR-122 through both direct binding with E6 mRNA and promoting SOCS1-dependent IFN signaling pathway. Thus, miR-122 may serve as a new therapeutic option for inhibiting HPV infection.

  8. An efficient user scheduling scheme for downlink Multiuser MIMO-OFDM systems with Block Diagonalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mounir Esslaoui


    Full Text Available The combination of multiuser multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO technology with orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM is an attractive solution for next generation of wireless local area networks (WLANs, currently standardized within IEEE 802.11ac, and the fourth-generation (4G mobile cellular wireless systems to achieve a very high system throughput while satisfying quality of service (QoS constraints. In particular, Block Diagonalization (BD scheme is a low-complexity precoding technique for MU-MIMO downlink channels, which completely pre-cancels the multiuser interference. The major issue of the BD scheme is that the number of users that can be simultaneously supported is limited by the ratio of the number of base station transmit antennas to the number of user receive antennas. When the number of users is large, a subset of users must be selected, and selection algorithms should be designed to maximize the total system throughput. In this paper, the BD technique is extended to MU-MIMO-OFDM systems and a low complexity user scheduling algorithm is proposed to find the optimal subset of users that should transmit simultaneously, in light of the instantaneous channel state information (CSI, such that the total system sum-rate capacity is maximized. Simulation results show that the proposed scheduling algorithm achieves a good trade-off between sum-rate capacity performance and computational complexity.

  9. Space-Frequency Block Code with Matched Rotation for MIMO-OFDM System with Limited Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thushara D. Abhayapala


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel matched rotation precoding (MRP scheme to design a rate one space-frequency block code (SFBC and a multirate SFBC for MIMO-OFDM systems with limited feedback. The proposed rate one MRP and multirate MRP can always achieve full transmit diversity and optimal system performance for arbitrary number of antennas, subcarrier intervals, and subcarrier groupings, with limited channel knowledge required by the transmit antennas. The optimization process of the rate one MRP is simple and easily visualized so that the optimal rotation angle can be derived explicitly, or even intuitively for some cases. The multirate MRP has a complex optimization process, but it has a better spectral efficiency and provides a relatively smooth balance between system performance and transmission rate. Simulations show that the proposed SFBC with MRP can overcome the diversity loss for specific propagation scenarios, always improve the system performance, and demonstrate flexible performance with large performance gain. Therefore the proposed SFBCs with MRP demonstrate flexibility and feasibility so that it is more suitable for a practical MIMO-OFDM system with dynamic parameters.

  10. Blocking Signaling at the Level of GLI Regulates Downstream Gene Expression and Inhibits Proliferation of Canine Osteosarcoma Cells (United States)

    Shahi, Mehdi Hayat; Holt, Roseline; Rebhun, Robert B.


    The Hedgehog-GLI signaling pathway is active in a variety of human malignancies and is known to contribute to the growth and survival of human osteosarcoma cells. In this study, we examined the expression and regulation of GLI transcription factors in multiple canine osteosarcoma cell lines and analyzed the effects of inhibiting GLI with GANT61, a GLI-specific inhibitor. Compared with normal canine osteoblasts, real-time PCR showed that GLI1 and GLI2 were highly expressed in two out of three cell lines and correlated with downstream target gene expression of PTCH1and PAX6. Treatment of canine osteosarcoma cells with GANT61 resulted in decreased expression of GLI1, GLI2, PTCH1, and PAX6. Furthermore, GANT61 inhibited proliferation and colony formation in all three canine osteosarcoma cell lines. The finding that GLI signaling activity is present and active in canine osteosarcoma cells suggests that spontaneously arising osteosarcoma in dogs might serve as a good model for future preclinical testing of GLI inhibitors. PMID:24810746

  11. Blocking signaling at the level of GLI regulates downstream gene expression and inhibits proliferation of canine osteosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Hayat Shahi

    Full Text Available The Hedgehog-GLI signaling pathway is active in a variety of human malignancies and is known to contribute to the growth and survival of human osteosarcoma cells. In this study, we examined the expression and regulation of GLI transcription factors in multiple canine osteosarcoma cell lines and analyzed the effects of inhibiting GLI with GANT61, a GLI-specific inhibitor. Compared with normal canine osteoblasts, real-time PCR showed that GLI1 and GLI2 were highly expressed in two out of three cell lines and correlated with downstream target gene expression of PTCH1and PAX6. Treatment of canine osteosarcoma cells with GANT61 resulted in decreased expression of GLI1, GLI2, PTCH1, and PAX6. Furthermore, GANT61 inhibited proliferation and colony formation in all three canine osteosarcoma cell lines. The finding that GLI signaling activity is present and active in canine osteosarcoma cells suggests that spontaneously arising osteosarcoma in dogs might serve as a good model for future preclinical testing of GLI inhibitors.

  12. Berberine Protects Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells against LPS-Induced Apoptosis by Blocking JNK-Mediated Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Guo


    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction is a critical factor during the initiation of atherosclerosis. Berberine has a beneficial effect on endothelial function; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of berberine on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and the molecular mechanisms mediating the effect. The effects of berberine on LPS-induced cell apoptosis and viability were measured with 5-ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine staining, flow cytometry, and Cell Counting Kit-8 assays. The expression and/or activation of proapoptotic and antiapoptotic proteins or signaling pathways, including caspase-3, poly(ADP-ribose polymerase, myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, were determined with western blotting. The malondialdehyde levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, and production of proinflammatory cytokines were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The results demonstrated that berberine pretreatment protected HUVECs from LPS-induced apoptosis, attenuated LPS-induced injury, inhibited LPS-induced JNK phosphorylation, increased MCL-1 expression and SOD activity, and decreased proinflammatory cytokine production. The effects of berberine on LPS-treated HUVECs were prevented by SP600125, a JNK-specific inhibitor. Thus, berberine might be a potential candidate in the treatment of endothelial cell injury-related vascular diseases.

  13. Structural insight into RNA recognition motifs: versatile molecular Lego building blocks for biological systems. (United States)

    Muto, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki


    'RNA recognition motifs (RRMs)' are common domain-folds composed of 80-90 amino-acid residues in eukaryotes, and have been identified in many cellular proteins. At first they were known as RNA binding domains. Through discoveries over the past 20 years, however, the RRMs have been shown to exhibit versatile molecular recognition activities and to behave as molecular Lego building blocks to construct biological systems. Novel RNA/protein recognition modes by RRMs are being identified, and more information about the molecular recognition by RRMs is becoming available. These RNA/protein recognition modes are strongly correlated with their biological significance. In this review, we would like to survey the recent progress on these versatile molecular recognition modules.

  14. Multiple solutions to dense systems in radar scattering using a preconditioned block GMRES solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyse, W.E. [Advanced Software Resources, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)


    Multiple right-hand sides occur in radar scattering calculations in the computation of the simulated radar return from a body at a large number of angles. Each desired angle requires a right-hand side vector to be computed and the solution generated. These right-hand sides are naturally smooth functions of the angle parameters and this property is utilized in a novel way to compute solutions an order of magnitude faster than LINPACK The modeling technique addressed is the Method of Moments (MOM), i.e. a boundary element method for time harmonic Maxwell`s equations. Discretization by this method produces general complex dense systems of rank 100`s to 100,000`s. The usual way to produce the required multiple solutions is via LU factorization and solution routines such as found in LINPACK. Our method uses the block GMRES iterative method to directly iterate a subset of the desired solutions to convergence.

  15. Energy profiling of FPGA-based PHY-layer building blocks encountered in modern wireless communication systems


    Bartzoudis, Nikolaos; Font Bach, Oriol; Payaró Llisterri, Miquel; Pascual Iserte, Antonio; Rubio López, Javier; García Fernández, Juan José; García Armada, Ana


    Proceeding at: IEEE 8th Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop (SAM), took place 2014, Jun, 22-25 in Coruña (españa). The event web site of . Characterizing the energy cost of different physical (PHY) layer building blocks is becoming increasingly important in modern cellular-based communications, considering the cross sector requirements for performance enhancements and energy savings. This paper presents energy profiling metrics of diffe...

  16. Chaotic oscillator detection system about weak signals in spot welding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai-lei SONG; Zhen LUO; Feng YE; Xin-xin TANG; Shu-xian YUAN


    Spot welding is an efficient and shortcut processing method used in plate, and its quality detection is very important. However, there are many factors affecting the spot welding quality. Because of the low precision of traditional detection methods, spot welding has seldom been used in the aerospace industry which requires high welding quality. In this article, we give a new weak signal detection model based on chaotic oscillators. Using Melnikov methods and Lyapunov exponent, we can determine the critical values when the system enters in and out of chaos. Through lots of numerical simulations, it can be found that the lowest value of the weak sinusoidal signal the system can detect reach 10-11, and its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is = 126 dB. Compared with other detection methods, chaos oscillator detection system not only has a lower threshold value, but also is easy to implement in practice. This model thus has good application prospects.

  17. A four-channel microelectronic system for neural signal regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Shushan; Wang Zhigong; Li Wenyuan [Institute of RF- and OE-ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Lue Xiaoying; Pan Haixian, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Bio-Electronics, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)


    This paper presents a microelectronic system which is capable of making a signal record and functional electric stimulation of an injured spinal cord. As a requirement of implantable engineering for the regeneration microelectronic system, the system is of low noise, low power, small size and high performance. A front-end circuit and two high performance OPAs (operational amplifiers) have been designed for the system with different functions, and the two OPAs are a low-noise low-power two-stage OPA and a constant-g{sub m} RTR input and output OPA. The system has been realized in CSMC 0.5-{mu}m CMOS technology. The test results show that the system satisfies the demands of neuron signal regeneration. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. A four-channel microelectronic system for neural signal regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Shushan; Wang Zhigong; Lü Xiaoying; Li Wenyuan; Pan Haixian


    This paper presents a microelectronic system which is capable of making a signal record and functional electric stimulation of an injured spinal cord. As a requirement of implantable engineering for the regeneration microelectronic system, the system is of low noise, low power, small size and high performance. A front-end circuit and two high performance OPAs (operational amplifiers) have been designed for the system with different functions,and the two OPAs are a low-noise low-power two-stage OPA and a constant-g_m RTR input and output OPA. The system has been realized in CSMC 0.5-μm CMOS technology. The test results show that the system satisfies the demands of neuron signal regeneration.

  19. Development and characterization of a modular acquisition system for a 4D PET block detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcatili, Sara, E-mail: [University of Pisa, Department of Physics, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Belcari, Nicola; Bisogni, Maria G. [University of Pisa, Department of Physics, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Collazuol, Gianmaria [INFN sezione di Pisa, I 56127 Pisa (Italy); Ambrosi, Giovanni [INFN sezione di Perugia, I 06100 Perugia (Italy); Corsi, Francesco; Foresta, Maurizio; Marzocca, Cristoforo; Matarrese, Gianvito [Politecnico di Bari, I 70100 Bari (Italy); INFN Sezione di Bari, I 70100 Bari (Italy); Sportelli, Giancarlo; Guerra, Pedro; Santos, Andres [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, E 28040 Madrid (Spain); CIBER-BBN (Spain); Del Guerra, Alberto [University of Pisa, Department of Physics, I 56127 Pisa (Italy)


    Next generation PET scanners should fulfill very high requirements in terms of spatial, energy and timing resolution. Modern scanner performances are inherently limited by the use of standard photomultiplier tubes. The use of Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) matrices is proposed for the construction of a 4D PET module based on LSO continuous crystals, which is envisaged to replace the standard PET block detector. The expected spatial resolution of the module for the photon hit position is below 1 mm, and it will perform at the same time, the Depth Of Interaction (DOI) calculation and the Time Of Flight (TOF) measurement. The use of large area multi-pixel Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) detectors requires the development of a multichannel Digital Acquisition system (DAQ) as well as of a dedicated front-end in order not to degrade the intrinsic detector performances. We have developed a flexible and modular DAQ system for the read-out of two modules in time coincidence for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) applications. The DAQ system is based on a previously developed custom front-end ASIC chip (BASIC) which allows to read-out SiPM matrices preserving their spectroscopy and timing capabilities. Here we describe the acquisition system architecture and its characterization measurements.

  20. A Network Map of FGF-1/FGFR Signaling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Raju


    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1 is a well characterized growth factor among the 22 members of the FGF superfamily in humans. It binds to all the four known FGF receptors and regulates a plethora of functions including cell growth, proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival in different cell types. FGF-1 is involved in the regulation of diverse physiological processes such as development, angiogenesis, wound healing, adipogenesis, and neurogenesis. Deregulation of FGF-1 signaling is not only implicated in tumorigenesis but also is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Given the biomedical significance of FGFs and the fact that individual FGFs have different roles in diverse physiological processes, the analysis of signaling pathways induced by the binding of specific FGFs to their cognate receptors demands more focused efforts. Currently, there are no resources in the public domain that facilitate the analysis of signaling pathways induced by individual FGFs in the FGF/FGFR signaling system. Towards this, we have developed a resource of signaling reactions triggered by FGF-1/FGFR system in various cell types/tissues. The pathway data and the reaction map are made available for download in different community standard data exchange formats through NetPath and NetSlim signaling pathway resources.

  1. Quantifying signal dispersion in a hybrid ice core melting system. (United States)

    Breton, Daniel J; Koffman, Bess G; Kurbatov, Andrei V; Kreutz, Karl J; Hamilton, Gordon S


    We describe a microcontroller-based ice core melting and data logging system allowing simultaneous depth coregistration of a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system (for microparticle and conductivity measurement) and a discrete sample analysis system (for geochemistry and microparticles), both supplied from the same melted ice core section. This hybrid melting system employs an ice parcel tracking algorithm which calculates real-time sample transport through all portions of the meltwater handling system, enabling accurate (1 mm) depth coregistration of all measurements. Signal dispersion is analyzed using residence time theory, experimental results of tracer injection tests and antiparallel melting of replicate cores to rigorously quantify the signal dispersion in our system. Our dispersion-limited resolution is 1.0 cm in ice and ~2 cm in firn. We experimentally observe the peak lead phenomenon, where signal dispersion causes the measured CFA peak associated with a given event to be depth assigned ~1 cm shallower than the true event depth. Dispersion effects on resolution and signal depth assignment are discussed in detail. Our results have implications for comparisons of chemistry and physical properties data recorded using multiple instruments and for deconvolution methods of enhancing CFA depth resolution.

  2. Niclosamide, an old antihelminthic agent, demonstrates antitumor activity by blocking multiple signaling pathways of cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Xuan Pan; Ke Ding; Cheng-Yan Wang


    Niclosamide,an oral antihelminthic drug,has been used to treat tapeworm infection for about 50 years.Niclosamide is also used as a molluscicide for water treatment in schistosomiasis control programs.Recently,several groups have independently discovered that niclosamide is also active against cancer cells,but its precise mechanism of antitumor action is not fully understood.Evidence supports that niclosamide targets multiple signaling pathways (NF-κB,Wnt/β-catenin,Notch,ROS,mTORC1,and Stat3),most of which are closely involved with cancer stem cells.The exciting advances in elucidating the antitumor activity and the molecular targets of this drug will be discussed.A method for synthesizing a phosphate pro-drug of niclosamide is provided.Given its potential antitumor activity,clinical trials for niclosamide and its derivatives are warranted for cancer treatment.

  3. S100A7-downregulation inhibits epidermal growth factor-induced signaling in breast cancer cells and blocks osteoclast formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Paruchuri

    Full Text Available S100A7 is a small calcium binding protein, which has been shown to be differentially expressed in psoriatic skin lesions, as well as in squamous cell tumors of the skin, lung and breast. Although its expression has been correlated to HER+ high-grade tumors and to a high risk of progression, the molecular mechanisms of these S100A7-mediated tumorigenic effects are not well known. Here, we showed for the first time that epidermal growth factor (EGF induces S100A7 expression in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-468 cell lines. We also observed a decrease in EGF-directed migration in shRNA-downregulated MDA-MB-468 cell lines. Furthermore, our signaling studies revealed that EGF induced simultaneous EGF receptor phosphorylation at Tyr1173 and HER2 phosphorylation at Tyr1248 in S100A7-downregulated cell lines as compared to the vector-transfected controls. In addition, reduced phosphorylation of Src at tyrosine 416 and p-SHP2 at tyrosine 542 was observed in these downregulated cell lines. Further studies revealed that S100A7-downregulated cells had reduced angiogenesis in vivo based on matrigel plug assays. Our results also showed decreased tumor-induced osteoclastic resorption in an intra-tibial bone injection model involving SCID mice. S100A7-downregulated cells had decreased osteoclast number and size as compared to the vector controls, and this decrease was associated with variations in IL-8 expression in in vitro cell cultures. This is a novel report on the role of S100A7 in EGF-induced signaling in breast cancer cells and in osteoclast formation.

  4. Systemic Acquired Resistance and Signal Transduction in Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Shu-qing; GUO Jian-bo


    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR), known as the broad-spectrum, inducible plant immunity,is a defense response triggered by pathogen infection. The response starts from the recognition of plant resist-ance (R) with the corresponding avirulence (avr) gene from the pathogen. There are some genes for conver-gence of signals downstream of different R/avr interacting partners into a single signaling pathway. Salicylicacid (SA) is required for the induction of SAR and involved in transducing the signal in target tissues. The SAsignal is transduced through NPR1, a nuclear-localized protein that interacts with transcription factors thatare involved in regulating SA-mediated gene expression. Some chemicals that mimic natural signaling com-pounds can also activate SAR. The application of biochemical activators to agriculture for plant protection is anovel idea for developing green chemical pesticide.

  5. 1st International Conference on Signal, Networks, Computing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, Durga; Nagar, Atulya; Sahoo, Manmath


    The book is a collection of high-quality peer-reviewed research papers presented in the first International Conference on Signal, Networks, Computing, and Systems (ICSNCS 2016) held at Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India during February 25–27, 2016. The book is organized in to two volumes and primarily focuses on theory and applications in the broad areas of communication technology, computer science and information security. The book aims to bring together the latest scientific research works of academic scientists, professors, research scholars and students in the areas of signal, networks, computing and systems detailing the practical challenges encountered and the solutions adopted.

  6. Wearable System for Acquisition and Monitoring of Biological Signals (United States)

    Piccinini, D. J.; Andino, N. B.; Ponce, S. D.; Roberti, MA; López, y. N.


    This paper presents a modular, wearable system for acquisition and wireless transmission of biological signals. Configurable slaves for different signals (such as ECG, EMG, inertial sensors, and temperature) based in the ADS1294 Medical Analog Front End are connected to a Master, based in the CC3200 microcontroller, both from Texas Instruments. The slaves are configurable according to the specific application, providing versatility to the wearable system. The battery consumption is reduced, through a couple of Li-ion batteries and the circuit has also a battery charger. A custom made box was designed and fabricated in a 3D printer, preserving the requirements of low cost, low weight and safety recommendations.

  7. Analysis of the call blocking rate of two-hop-relay cellular system in the dead spots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Wei-feng; WU Meng


    In a traditional cellular system, the call requests initiated by mobile stations (MSs) must be carried through a base station (BS) via the cellular interface, but when MSs are located in the dead spots, their call requests will be blocked because the MSs cannot communicate with the BS. It is considered to relay these blocked calls requested using Ad-hoc network, which will improve the performance of the system as a whole. This article first introduces a novel architecture of the two-hop-relay cellular system in the dead spots, and then analyzes and compares the call blocking rate of the traditional cellular and the two-hop-relay cellular system respectively under three different conditions. The first and second conditions are the traditional cellular system without and with taking account of the effect of the dead spots. The third condition is the two-hop-relay cellular system with taking account of the effect of the dead spots. Numerical analytical result shows that the two-hop-relay cellular system can obtain lower call blocking rate than the traditional cellular system when considering the effect of dead spots. Consequently, this novel architecture can resolve the problem of coverage limitation of a traditional cellular system effectively.

  8. Types of Heart Block (United States)

    ... P wave as it normally would. If an electrical signal is blocked before it reaches the ventricles, they won't contract and pump blood to the lungs and the rest of the body. Second-degree heart block is divided into two ...

  9. Phosphoproteomics-based systems analysis of signal transduction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko eKozuka-Hata


    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems coordinate complex cellular information to regulate biological events such as cell proliferation and differentiation. Although the accumulating evidence on widespread association of signaling molecules has revealed essential contribution of phosphorylation-dependent interaction networks to cellular regulation, their dynamic behavior is mostly yet to be analyzed. Recent technological advances regarding mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics have enabled us to describe the comprehensive status of phosphorylated molecules in a time-resolved manner. Computational analyses based on the phosphoproteome dynamics accelerate generation of novel methodologies for mathematical analysis of cellular signaling. Phosphoproteomics-based numerical modeling can be used to evaluate regulatory network elements from a statistical point of view. Integration with transcriptome dynamics also uncovers regulatory hubs at the transcriptional level. These omics-based computational methodologies, which have firstly been applied to representative signaling systems such as the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway, have now opened up a gate for systems analysis of signaling networks involved in immune response and cancer.

  10. Signal Adaptive System for Space/Spatial-Frequency Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselin N. Ivanović


    Full Text Available This paper outlines the development of a multiple-clock-cycle implementation (MCI of a signal adaptive two-dimensional (2D system for space/spatial-frequency (S/SF signal analysis. The design is based on a method for improved S/SF representation of the analyzed 2D signals, also proposed here. The proposed MCI design optimizes critical design performances related to hardware complexity, making it a suitable system for real time implementation on an integrated chip. Additionally, the design allows the implemented system to take a variable number of clock cycles (CLKs (the only necessary ones regarding desirable—2D Wigner distribution-presentation of autoterms in different frequency-frequency points during the execution. This ability represents a major advantage of the proposed design which helps to optimize the time required for execution and produce an improved, cross-terms-free S/SF signal representation. The design has been verified by a field-programmable gate array (FPGA circuit design, capable of performing S/SF analysis of 2D signals in real time.

  11. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety

    CERN Document Server

    Boyraz, Pinar; Takeda, Kazuya; Abut, Hüseyin


    Compiled from papers of the 4th Biennial Workshop on DSP (Digital Signal Processing) for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety this edited collection features world-class experts from diverse fields focusing on integrating smart in-vehicle systems with human factors to enhance safety in automobiles. Digital Signal Processing for In-Vehicle Systems and Safety presents new approaches on how to reduce driver inattention and prevent road accidents. The material addresses DSP technologies in adaptive automobiles, in-vehicle dialogue systems, human machine interfaces, video and audio processing, and in-vehicle speech systems. The volume also features: Recent advances in Smart-Car technology – vehicles that take into account and conform to the driver Driver-vehicle interfaces that take into account the driving task and cognitive load of the driver Best practices for In-Vehicle Corpus Development and distribution Information on multi-sensor analysis and fusion techniques for robust driver monitoring and driver recognition ...

  12. Rock blocks


    Turner, W.


    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  13. Conduction block in the peripheral nervous system in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (United States)

    Pender, M. P.; Sears, T. A.


    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) has been widely studied as a model of multiple sclerosis, a central nervous system (CNS) disease of unknown aetiology. The clinical features of both EAE and multiple sclerosis provide the only guide to the progress and severity of these diseases, and are used to assess the response to treatment. In such comparisons the clinical features of EAE are assumed to be due to lesions in the CNS, but in this disease there is also histological evidence of damage to the peripheral nervous system1-8. However, the functional consequences of such peripheral lesions have been entirely ignored. To examine this we have studied nerve conduction in rabbits with EAE. We report here that most of the large diameter afferent fibres are blocked in the region of the dorsal root ganglion and at the dorsal root entry zone, thus accounting for the loss of tendon jerks and also, through the severe loss of proprioceptive information, the ataxia of these animals. We conclude that whenever clinical comparisons are made between EAE and multiple sclerosis, the pathophysiology associated with the histological damage of the peripheral nervous system must be taken into account.

  14. Fixed-complexity vector perturbation with Block diagonalization for MU-MIMO systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mohaisen, Manar; Chang, KyungHi; Ji, Seunghwan; Joung, Jinsoup


    Block diagonalization (BD) is an attractive technique that transforms the multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) channel into parallel single-user MIMO (SU-MIMO) channels with zero inter-user interference (IUI). In this paper, we combine the BD technique with two deterministic vector perturbation (VP) algorithms that reduce the transmit power in MU-MIMO systems with linear precoding. These techniques are the fixed-complexity sphere encoder (FSE) and the QR-decomposition with M-algorithm encoder (QRDM-E). In contrast to the conventional BD VP technique, which is based on the sphere encoder (SE), the proposed techniques have fixed complexity and a tradeoff between performance and complexity can be achieved by controlling the size of the set of candidates for the perturbation vector. Simulation results and analysis demonstrate the properness of the proposed techniques for the next generation mobile communications systems which are latency and computational complexity limited. In MU-MIMO system with ...

  15. Correlation between peak and median blocking temperatures by magnetization measurement on isolated ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic particle systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Mørup, Steen


    The influence of the particle size distribution on the ratio of the peak temperature, T-peak, to the blocking temperature, T-Bm, in zero field cooled (ZFD) magnetization curves has studied for both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic particle systems. In both systems the ratio beta=T-peak/T-Bm does...

  16. Rhein lysinate inhibits monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells by blocking p38 signaling pathway. (United States)

    Lin, Yajun; Zhen, Yongzhan; Liu, Jiang; Wei, Jie; Tu, Ping; Hu, Gang


    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of rhein lysinate (RHL) on monocyte adhesion and its mechanism. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the growth inhibition by drugs. The monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 levels were assayed using MCP-1 ELISA. The expression of proteins was detected by Western blotting analysis. The results indicated that RHL inhibited monocyte adhesion in a dose- and time-dependent manner. RHL (<20 μmol/L) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) had no effect on viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Therefore, 20 μmol/L RHL was selected for this study. RHL inhibited secretion of MCP-1 induced by LPS and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. In the meantime, both RHL and p38 inhibitor (SB203580) inhibited phosphorylation of p38 and mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK-2) and transcription and expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. In conclusion, RHL inhibits the transcription and expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 by the p38/MAPKAPK-2 signaling pathway, and the effect of RHL on transcription and expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 is similar to p38 inhibitor. RHL could be a prophylactic drug for atherosclerosis.

  17. Advances in signal processing and intelligent recognition systems

    CERN Document Server

    Gelbukh, Alexander; Mukhopadhyay, Jayanta


    This Edited Volume contains a selection of refereed and revised papers originally presented at the International Symposium on Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems (SIRS-2014), March 13-15, 2014, Trivandrum, India. The program committee received 134 submissions from 11 countries. Each paper was peer reviewed by at least three or more independent referees of the program committee and the 52 papers were finally selected. The papers offer stimulating insights into Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning and Knowledge-Based Systems; Signal and Speech Processing; Image and Video Processing; Mobile Computing and Applications and Computer Vision. The book is directed to the researchers and scientists engaged in various field of signal processing and related areas.  

  18. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Block 3.0 Communications Strategies (United States)

    Miller, S. W.; Grant, K. D.; Ottinger, K.


    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The JPSS program is the follow-on for both space and ground systems to the Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a globally distributed, multi-mission system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. In a highly successful international partnership between NOAA and the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT), the CGS currently provides data routing from McMurdo Station in Antarctica to the EUMETSAT processing center in Darmstadt, Germany. Continuing and building upon that partnership, NOAA and EUMETSAT are collaborating on the development of a new path forward for the 2020's. One approach being explored is a concept of operations where each organization shares satellite downlink resources with the other. This paper will describe that approach, as well as modeling results that demonstrate its feasibility and expected performance.

  19. Optimizing Blocking and Nonblocking Reduction Operations for Multicore Systems: Hierarchical Design and Implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorentla Venkata, Manjunath [ORNL; Shamis, Pavel [ORNL; Graham, Richard L [ORNL; Ladd, Joshua S [ORNL; Sampath, Rahul S [ORNL


    Many scientific simulations, using the Message Passing Interface (MPI) programming model, are sensitive to the performance and scalability of reduction collective operations such as MPI Allreduce and MPI Reduce. These operations are the most widely used abstractions to perform mathematical operations over all processes that are part of the simulation. In this work, we propose a hierarchical design to implement the reduction operations on multicore systems. This design aims to improve the efficiency of reductions by 1) tailoring the algorithms and customizing the implementations for various communication mechanisms in the system 2) providing the ability to configure the depth of hierarchy to match the system architecture, and 3) providing the ability to independently progress each of this hierarchy. Using this design, we implement MPI Allreduce and MPI Reduce operations (and its nonblocking variants MPI Iallreduce and MPI Ireduce) for all message sizes, and evaluate on multiple architectures including InfiniBand and Cray XT5. We leverage and enhance our existing infrastructure, Cheetah, which is a framework for implementing hierarchical collective operations to implement these reductions. The experimental results show that the Cheetah reduction operations outperform the production-grade MPI implementations such as Open MPI default, Cray MPI, and MVAPICH2, demonstrating its efficiency, flexibility and portability. On Infini- Band systems, with a microbenchmark, a 512-process Cheetah nonblocking Allreduce and Reduce achieves a speedup of 23x and 10x, respectively, compared to the default Open MPI reductions. The blocking variants of the reduction operations also show similar performance benefits. A 512-process nonblocking Cheetah Allreduce achieves a speedup of 3x, compared to the default MVAPICH2 Allreduce implementation. On a Cray XT5 system, a 6144-process Cheetah Allreduce outperforms the Cray MPI by 145%. The evaluation with an application kernel, Conjugate

  20. A general U-block model-based design procedure for nonlinear polynomial control systems (United States)

    Zhu, Q. M.; Zhao, D. Y.; Zhang, Jianhua


    The proposition of U-model concept (in terms of 'providing concise and applicable solutions for complex problems') and a corresponding basic U-control design algorithm was originated in the first author's PhD thesis. The term of U-model appeared (not rigorously defined) for the first time in the first author's other journal paper, which established a framework for using linear polynomial control system design approaches to design nonlinear polynomial control systems (in brief, linear polynomial approaches → nonlinear polynomial plants). This paper represents the next milestone work - using linear state-space approaches to design nonlinear polynomial control systems (in brief, linear state-space approaches → nonlinear polynomial plants). The overall aim of the study is to establish a framework, defined as the U-block model, which provides a generic prototype for using linear state-space-based approaches to design the control systems with smooth nonlinear plants/processes described by polynomial models. For analysing the feasibility and effectiveness, sliding mode control design approach is selected as an exemplary case study. Numerical simulation studies provide a user-friendly step-by-step procedure for the readers/users with interest in their ad hoc applications. In formality, this is the first paper to present the U-model-oriented control system design in a formal way and to study the associated properties and theorems. The previous publications, in the main, have been algorithm-based studies and simulation demonstrations. In some sense, this paper can be treated as a landmark for the U-model-based research from intuitive/heuristic stage to rigour/formal/comprehensive studies.

  1. Z-guggulsterone negatively controls microglia-mediated neuroinflammation via blocking IκB-α-NF-κB signals. (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Wang, Jili; Lu, Xu; Hu, Wenfeng; Wu, Feng; Jiang, Bo; Ling, Yong; Yang, Rongrong; Zhang, Wei


    Induction of pro-inflammatory factors is one of the characteristics of microglial activation and can be regulated by numerous active agents extracted from plants. Suppression of pro-inflammatory factors is beneficial to alleviate neuroinflammation. Z-guggulsterone, a compound extracted from the gum resin of the tree commiphora mukul, exhibits numerous anti-inflammatory effects. However, the role and mechanism of Z-guggulsterone in pro-inflammatory responses in microglia remains unclear. This study addressed this issue in in vitro murine microglia and in vivo neuroinflammation models. Results showed that Z-guggulsterone reduced inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) protein expression as well as nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) production in LPS-stimulated BV-2 cells. Z-guggulsterone also reduced the mRNA level of iNOS, TNF-α, and IL-6. Mechanistic studies revealed that Z-guggulsterone attenuated the LPS-induced degradation of inhibitor κ B-α (IκB-α) as well as the LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Z-guggulsterone, however, failed to reduce the LPS-induced increase in NF-κB phosphorylation level. These major findings were ascertained in primary microglia where the LPS-induced increases in iNOS expression, NO content, and IκB-α degradation were diminished by Z-guggulsterone treatment. In a mouse model of neuroinflammation, Z-guggulsterone exhibited significant anti-inflammatory effects, which were exemplified by the attenuation of microglial activation and neuroinflammation-induced behavioral abnormalities in Z-guggulsterone-treated mice. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that Z-guggulsterone attenuates the LPS-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory factors in microglia via inhibition of IκB-α-NF-κB signals, providing evidence to uncover the potential role of Z-guggulsterone in neuroinflammation-associated disorder therapies.

  2. Influence of Block of NF-Kappa B Signaling Pathway on Oxidative Stress in the Liver Homogenates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Kleniewska


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess whether BAY 11-7082, a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB inhibitor, influences the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, and NF-κB related signaling pathways in the liver. The animals were divided into 4 groups: I: saline; II: saline + endothelin-1 (ET-1 (1.25 μg/kg b.w., i.v.; III: saline + ET-1 (12.5 μg/kg b.w., i.v.; and IV: BAY 11-7082 (10 mg/kg b.w., i.v. + ET-1 (12.5 μg/kg b.w., i.v.. Injection of ET-1 alone at a dose of 12.5 μg/kg b.w. showed a significant (P<0.001 increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 level and decrease (P<0.01 in GSH level (vs. control. ET-1 administration slightly downregulated gene expression of p65 of NF-κB but potently and in a dose-dependent way downregulated p21-cip gene expression in the liver. BAY 11-7082 significantly decreased TBARS (P<0.001, H2O2 (P<0.01 and improved the redox status (P<0.05, compared to ET-1 group. The concentration of TNF-α was increased in the presence of ET-1 (P<0.05, while BAY 11-7082 decreased TNF-α concentration (P<0.01. Inhibition of IkBα before ET-1 administration downregulated gene expression of p21-cip but had no effect on p65.

  3. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olli Yli-Harja; Antti Ylip(a)(a); Matti Nykter; Wei Zhang


    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  4. Cancer systems biology: signal processing for cancer research. (United States)

    Yli-Harja, Olli; Ylipää, Antti; Nykter, Matti; Zhang, Wei


    In this editorial we introduce the research paradigms of signal processing in the era of systems biology. Signal processing is a field of science traditionally focused on modeling electronic and communications systems, but recently it has turned to biological applications with astounding results. The essence of signal processing is to describe the natural world by mathematical models and then, based on these models, develop efficient computational tools for solving engineering problems. Here, we underline, with examples, the endless possibilities which arise when the battle-hardened tools of engineering are applied to solve the problems that have tormented cancer researchers. Based on this approach, a new field has emerged, called cancer systems biology. Despite its short history, cancer systems biology has already produced several success stories tackling previously impracticable problems. Perhaps most importantly, it has been accepted as an integral part of the major endeavors of cancer research, such as analyzing the genomic and epigenomic data produced by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. Finally, we show that signal processing and cancer research, two fields that are seemingly distant from each other, have merged into a field that is indeed more than the sum of its parts.

  5. Linear System Models for Ultrasonic Imaging: Application to Signal Statistics (United States)

    Zemp, Roger J.; Abbey, Craig K.; Insana, Michael F.


    Linear equations for modeling echo signals from shift-variant systems forming ultrasonic B-mode, Doppler, and strain images are analyzed and extended. The approach is based on a solution to the homogeneous wave equation for random inhomogeneous media. When the system is shift-variant, the spatial sensitivity function—defined as a spatial weighting function that determines the scattering volume for a fixed point of time—has advantages over the point-spread function traditionally used to analyze ultrasound systems. Spatial sensitivity functions are necessary for determining statistical moments in the context of rigorous image quality assessment, and they are time-reversed copies of point-spread functions for shift variant systems. A criterion is proposed to assess the validity of a local shift-invariance assumption. The analysis reveals realistic situations in which in-phase signals are correlated to the corresponding quadrature signals, which has strong implications for assessing lesion detectability. Also revealed is an opportunity to enhance near- and far-field spatial resolution by matched filtering unfocused beams. The analysis connects several well-known approaches to modeling ultrasonic echo signals. PMID:12839176

  6. Increased noise signal processing in incoherent radar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Chesanovskyi


    Full Text Available Introduction. The work is devoted to the method of increasing coherence and noise immunity pulse radar systems with incoherent sources probing signals. Problem. Incongruities between a resolution and a range of pulsed radar systems can not be resolved within the classical approaches of building incoherent radar systems, requiring new approaches in their construction. The main part. The paper presents a method of two-stage processing incoherent pulsed radar signals, allowing to compensate and use the information available to them and the angular amplitude of spurious modulation. Conclusions. Simulation results and research functions of these expressions of uncertainty indicate that use volatility as an additional transmitter modulation allows to significantly improve the resolution and robustness of the radar system.

  7. Dose-response aligned circuits in signaling systems. (United States)

    Yan, Long; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Hongli


    Cells use biological signal transduction pathways to respond to environmental stimuli and the behavior of many cell types depends on precise sensing and transmission of external information. A notable property of signal transduction that was characterized in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast cell and many mammalian cells is the alignment of dose-response curves. It was found that the dose response of the receptor matches closely the dose responses of the downstream. This dose-response alignment (DoRA) renders equal sensitivities and concordant responses in different parts of signaling system and guarantees a faithful information transmission. The experimental observations raise interesting questions about the nature of the information transmission through DoRA signaling networks and design principles of signaling systems with this function. Here, we performed an exhaustive computational analysis on network architectures that underlie the DoRA function in simple regulatory networks composed of two and three enzymes. The minimal circuits capable of DoRA were examined with Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Several motifs that are essential for the dynamical function of DoRA were identified. Systematic analysis of the topology space of robust DoRA circuits revealed that, rather than fine-tuning the network's parameters, the function is primarily realized by enzymatic regulations on the controlled node that are constrained in limiting regions of saturation or linearity.

  8. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cumin Essential Oil by Blocking JNK, ERK, and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wei


    Full Text Available Cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum L. have been commonly used in food flavoring and perfumery. In this study, cumin essential oil (CuEO extracted from seeds was employed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 26 volatile constituents were identified in CuEO by GC-MS, and the most abundant constituent was cuminaldehyde (48.773%. Mitochondrial-respiration-dependent 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT reduction assay demonstrated that CuEO did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect at the employed concentrations (0.0005–0.01%. Real-time PCR tests showed that CuEO significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, cyclooxygenase (COX-2, interleukin- (IL- 1, and IL-6. Moreover, western blotting analysis revealed that CuEO blocked LPS-induced transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB and inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK. These results suggested that CuEO exerted anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via inhibition of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and JNK signaling; the chemical could be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as dietary complement for health promotion.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Cumin Essential Oil by Blocking JNK, ERK, and NF-κB Signaling Pathways in LPS-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells (United States)

    Wei, Juan; Zhang, Xitong; Bi, Yang; Miao, Ruidong; Zhang, Zhong; Su, Hailan


    Cumin seeds (Cuminum cyminum L.) have been commonly used in food flavoring and perfumery. In this study, cumin essential oil (CuEO) extracted from seeds was employed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells and the underlying mechanisms. A total of 26 volatile constituents were identified in CuEO by GC-MS, and the most abundant constituent was cuminaldehyde (48.773%). Mitochondrial-respiration-dependent 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction assay demonstrated that CuEO did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect at the employed concentrations (0.0005–0.01%). Real-time PCR tests showed that CuEO significantly inhibited the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin- (IL-) 1, and IL-6. Moreover, western blotting analysis revealed that CuEO blocked LPS-induced transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and inhibited the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). These results suggested that CuEO exerted anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells via inhibition of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK and JNK signaling; the chemical could be used as a source of anti-inflammatory agents as well as dietary complement for health promotion. PMID:26425131

  10. Blocking Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling in HTR-8/SVneo First Trimester Trophoblast Cells Results in Dephosphorylation of PKBα/AKT and Induces Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bolnick


    Full Text Available We identified a major peptide signaling target of EGF/EGFR pathway and explored the consequences of blocking or activating this pathway in the first trimester extravillous trophoblast cells, HTR-8/SVneo. A global analysis of protein phosphorylation was undertaken using novel technology (Kinexus Kinetworks that utilizes SDS-polyacrylamide minigel electrophoresis and multi-lane immunoblotting to permit specific and semiquantitative detection of multiple phosphoproteins. Forty-seven protein phosphorylation sites were queried, and the results reported based on relative phosphorylation at each site. EGF- and Iressa-(gefitinib, ZD1839, an inhibitor of EGFR treated HTR-8/SVneo cells were subjected to immunoblotting and flow cytometry to confirm the phosphoprotein screen and to assess the effects of EGF versus Iressa on cell cycle and apoptosis. EGFR mediates the phosphorylation of important signaling proteins, including PKBα/AKT. This pathway is likely to be central to EGFR-mediated trophoblast survival. Furthermore, EGF treatment induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis, while Iressa induces apoptosis.

  11. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin


    Knowledge of bacteria’s heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria’s heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample’s thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS’s performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria’s thermo-tolerances.

  12. Performance of a Heating Block System Designed for Studying the Heat Resistance of Bacteria in Foods. (United States)

    Kou, Xiao-Xi; Li, Rui; Hou, Li-Xia; Huang, Zhi; Ling, Bo; Wang, Shao-Jin


    Knowledge of bacteria's heat resistance is essential for developing effective thermal treatments. Choosing an appropriate test method is important to accurately determine bacteria's heat resistances. Although being a major factor to influence the thermo-tolerance of bacteria, the heating rate in samples cannot be controlled in water or oil bath methods due to main dependence on sample's thermal properties. A heating block system (HBS) was designed to regulate the heating rates in liquid, semi-solid and solid foods using a temperature controller. Distilled water, apple juice, mashed potato, almond powder and beef were selected to evaluate the HBS's performance by experiment and computer simulation. The results showed that the heating rates of 1, 5 and 10 °C/min with final set-point temperatures and holding times could be easily and precisely achieved in five selected food materials. A good agreement in sample central temperature profiles was obtained under various heating rates between experiment and simulation. The experimental and simulated results showed that the HBS could provide a sufficiently uniform heating environment in food samples. The effect of heating rate on bacterial thermal resistance was evaluated with the HBS. The system may hold potential applications for rapid and accurate assessments of bacteria's thermo-tolerances.

  13. Coding and signal processing for magnetic recording systems

    CERN Document Server

    Vasic, Bane


    RECORDING SYSTEMSA BriefHistory of Magnetic Storage, Dean PalmerPhysics of Longitudinal and Perpendicular Recording, Hong Zhou, Tom Roscamp, Roy Gustafson, Eric Boernern, and Roy ChantrellThe Physics of Optical Recording, William A. Challener and Terry W. McDanielHead Design Techniques for Recording Devices, Robert E. RottmayerCOMMUNICATION AND INFORMATION THEORY OF MAGNETIC RECORDING CHANNELSModeling the Recording Channel, Jaekyun MoonSignal and Noise Generation for Magnetic Recording Channel Simulations, Xueshi Yang and Erozan M. KurtasStatistical Analysis of Digital Signals and Systems, Dra

  14. Carrier recovery systems for arbitrarily mapped APK signals (United States)

    Matsuo, Y.; Namiki, J.


    This paper introduces new carrier recovery techniques for general amplitude-phase keying (APK) modulation signals. The APK's include not only normal QAM but also arbitrarily mapped APK's, including an unsymmetrical APK. Difficulty in phase error detection due to signal mapping complexity, undesirable stable-lock point existence, and the contradiction between a fast acquisition and an accurate steady state performance can be overcome. For that purpose, an acquisition mode and a steady-state mode are used. Furthermore, read-only memories (ROM) are used for recognizing various system states. Random sampling controlled PLL noise performance and acquisition mode carrier recovery circuit pull-in performance with hysteresis property was obtained.

  15. Nonlinear optical signal processing for high-speed, spectrally efficient fiber optic systems and networks (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    The past decade has witnessed astounding boom in telecommunication network traffic. With the emergence of multimedia over Internet, the high-capacity optical transport systems have started to shift focus from the core network towards the end users. This trend leads to diverse optical networks with transparency and reconfigurability requirement. As single channel data rate continues to increase and channel spacing continues to shrink for high capacity, high spectral efficiency, the workload on conventional electronic signal processing elements in the router nodes continues to build up. Performing signal processing functions in the optical domain can potentially alleviate the speed bottleneck if the unique optical properties are efficiently leveraged to assist electronic processing methodologies. Ultra-high bandwidth capability along with the promise for multi-channel and format-transparent operation make optical signal processing an attractive technology which is expected to have great impact on future optical networks. For optical signal processing applications in fiber-optic network and systems, a laudable goal would be to explore the unique nonlinear optical processes in novel photonic devices. This dissertation investigates novel optical signal processing techniques through simulations and experimental demonstrations, analyzes limitations of these nonlinear processing elements and proposes techniques to enhance the system performance or designs for functional photonic modules. Two key signal-processing building blocks for future optical networks, namely slow-light-based tunable optical delay lines and SOA-based high-speed wavelength converters, are presented in the first part of the dissertation. Phase preserving and spectrally efficient slow light are experimentally demonstrated using advanced modulation formats. Functional and novel photonic modules, such as multi-channel synchronizer and variable-bit-rate optical time division multiplexer are designed and

  16. Notch signaling and development of the hematopoietic system. (United States)

    Sandy, Ashley R; Jones, Morgan; Maillard, Ivan


    Notch signaling exerts multiple important functions in the hematopoietic system. Notch1-mediated signals are essential to induce the onset of definitive hematopoiesis within specialized domains of hemogenic endothelium in the fetal dorsal aorta. In contrast, Notch is dispensable for the subsequent maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells in the adult bone marrow. Notch is a key regulator of early T-cell development in the thymus. An expanding number of hematopoietic and lymphoid cell types have been reported to receive context-dependent inputs from the Notch pathway that regulate their differentiation and function. Progress in the field will continue to bring fundamental information about hematopoiesis and practical insights into the potential to modulate Notch signaling for therapeutic purposes.

  17. Impact of Improper Gaussian Signaling on Hardware Impaired Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Javed, Sidrah


    In this paper, we accurately model the hardware impairments (HWI) as improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) which can characterize the asymmetric characteristics of different HWI sources. The proposed model encourages us to adopt IGS scheme for transmitted signal that represents a general study compared with the conventional scheme, proper Gaussian signaling (PGS). First, we express the achievable rate of HWI systems when both PGS and IGS schemes are used when the aggregate effect of HWI is modeled as IGS. Moreover, we tune the IGS statistical characteristics to maximize the achievable rate. Then, we analyze the outage probability for both schemes and derive closed form expressions. Finally, we validate the analytic expressions through numerical and simulation results. In addition, we quantify through the numerical results the performance degradation in the absence of ideal transceivers and the gain reaped from adopting IGS scheme compared with PGS scheme.

  18. Self-configurable radio receiver system and method for use with signals without prior knowledge of signal defining characteristics (United States)

    Hamkins, Jon (Inventor); Simon, Marvin K. (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Samuel J. (Inventor); Tkacenko, Andre (Inventor)


    A method, radio receiver, and system to autonomously receive and decode a plurality of signals having a variety of signal types without a priori knowledge of the defining characteristics of the signals is disclosed. The radio receiver is capable of receiving a signal of an unknown signal type and, by estimating one or more defining characteristics of the signal, determine the type of signal. The estimated defining characteristic(s) is/are utilized to enable the receiver to determine other defining characteristics. This in turn, enables the receiver, through multiple iterations, to make a maximum-likelihood (ML) estimate for each of the defining characteristics. After the type of signal is determined by its defining characteristics, the receiver selects an appropriate decoder from a plurality of decoders to decode the signal.

  19. Altered B cell receptor signaling in human systemic lupus erythematosus (United States)

    Jenks, Scott A.; Sanz, Iñaki


    Regulation of B cell receptor signaling is essential for the development of specific immunity while retaining tolerance to self. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by a loss of B cell tolerance and the production of anti-self antibodies. Accompanying this break down in tolerance are alterations in B cell receptor signal transduction including elevated induced calcium responses and increased protein phosphorylation. Specific pathways that negatively regulate B cell signaling have been shown to be impaired in some SLE patients. These patients have reduced levels of the kinase Lyn in lipid raft microdomains and this reduction is inversely correlated with increased CD45 in lipid rafts. Function and expression of the inhibitory immunoglobulin receptor FcγRIIB is also reduced in Lupus IgM- CD27+ memory cells. Because the relative contribution of different memory and transitional B cell subsets can be abnormal in SLE patients, we believe studies targeted to well defined B cell subsets will be necessary to further our understanding of signaling abnormalities in SLE. Intracellular flow cytometric analysis of signaling is a useful approach to accomplish this goal. PMID:18723129

  20. The application of information theory to biochemical signaling systems (United States)

    Rhee, Alex; Cheong, Raymond; Levchenko, Andre


    Cell signaling can be thought of fundamentally as an information transmission problem in which chemical messengers relay information about the external environment to the decision centers within a cell. Due to the biochemical nature of cellular signal transduction networks, molecular noise will inevitably limit the fidelity of any messages received and processed by a cell’s signal transduction networks, leaving it with an imperfect impression of its environment. Fortunately, Shannon’s information theory provides a mathematical framework independent of network complexity that can quantify the amount of information that can be transmitted despite biochemical noise. In particular, the channel capacity can be used to measure the maximum number of stimuli a cell can distinguish based upon the noisy responses of its signaling systems. Here, we provide a primer for quantitative biologists that covers fundamental concepts of information theory, highlights several key considerations when experimentally measuring channel capacity, and describes successful examples of the application of information theoretic analysis to biological signaling. PMID:22872091

  1. Novel layered two-dimensional semiconductors as the building blocks for nano-electronic/photonic systems (United States)

    Su, Guoxiong; De, Debtanu; Hadjiev, Viktor G.; Peng, Haibing


    Layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors beyond graphene have been emerging as potential building blocks for the next-generation electronic/photonic applications. Representative metal chalcogenides, including the widely studied MoS2, possess similar layered crystal structures with weak interaction between adjacent layers, thus allowing the formation of stable thin-layer crystals with thickness down to a few or even single atomic layer. Other important chalcogenides, involving earth-abundant and environment-friendly materials desirable for sustainable applications, include SnS2 (band gap: 2.1 eV) and SnS (band gap: 1.1 eV). So far, commonly adopted for research purpose are mechanical and liquid exfoliation methods for creating thin layers of such 2D semiconductors. Most recently, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was attracting significant attention as a practical method for producing thin films or crystal grains of MoS2. However, critical yet still absent is an effective experimental approach for controlling the positions of thin crystal grains of layered 2D semiconductors during the CVD process. Here we report the controlled CVD synthesis of thin crystal arrays of representative layered semiconductors (including SnS2 and SnS) at designed locations on chip, promising large-scale optoelectronic applications. Our work opens a window for future practical applications of layered 2D semiconductors in integrated nano-electronic/photonic systems.

  2. Hepatic venous outflow block in a young patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghavidel


    Full Text Available Introduction: Hepatic venous outflow block or Budd-Chiari syndrome is a severe liver disease with a 3 years survival rate of 50%. Several conditions have been implicated as a cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome, including myeloproliferative disorders, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, the presence of lupus anti-coagulant, oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and others. In a small number of cases, Budd-Chiari syndrome is associated with the presence of lupus anticoagulant. Anticardiolipin antibodies (ACA are similar to lupus anti-coagulant antiphospholipid antibodies (APLAs, which have been described in patients with recurrent arterial and venous thrombosis, thrombocytopenia, fetal loss, or miscarriage. Case Report: A 23-year-old woman is reported with Budd-Chiari syndrome in whom lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies were shown; 9 months after diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE treatment with steroids admitted with gastrointestinal problems, abdominal pain and ascites and treated oral anticoagulants induced a considerable improvement. This treatment was continued after 1 year, but interruption was followed by redevelopment of ascites. Further treatment with anticoagulants was continued for 5 years with noticeable improvement. Conclusion: Patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome should be tested for lupus anticoagulants and anticardiolipin antibodies, Budd-Chiari syndrome resulting from this cause may have a good response to treatment with oral anticoagulants; this treatment should be maintained permanently, and pregnancy in such patients may initiate serious difficulties. The condition of the patient at follow-up was good.

  3. Curing kinetics and morphology of a nanovesicular epoxy/stearyl-block-poly(ethylene oxide) surfactant system. (United States)

    Bogaerts, K; Lavrenova, A; Spoelstra, A B; Boyard, N; Goderis, B


    Brittle epoxy based thermosets can be made tougher by introducing structural inhomogeneities at the micro- or nanoscale. In that respect, nano vesicles and worm-like micelles from self-assembling blockcopolymers have been shown to be very effective. This paper describes the curing kinetics and morphology of an epoxy composed of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA), modified by 20% of the surfactant stearyl-block-poly(ethylene oxide). Time resolved, synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering demonstrates that at any time during the epoxy curing process, the surfactant predominantly adopts a bilayer vesicular nano-morphology. Transmission electron microscopy on fully cured systems reveals the coexistence of spherical and worm-like micelles. Differential scanning calorimetry experiments prove that the presence of surfactant reduces the epoxy curing rate but that ultimately full curing is accomplished. The material glass transition temperature falls below that of the pure resin due to plasticization. It is suggested that favorable secondary interactions between the PEO segments and the epoxy resin are responsible for the observed phenomena.

  4. Protective Effects of Blocking Renin-Angiotensin System on the Progression of Renal Injury in Glomerulosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zequan Ji; Cuiwen Huang; Chengjie Liang; Bo Chen; Shengqiang Chen; Weiwen Sun


    To investigate the protective effects of blocking rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) on the progression of renal injury in glomerulosclerosis, a glomerulosclerosis model was made for SD rats by unilateral nephrectomy and being injected with Adriamycin into caudal vein. The rats with glomerulosclerosis were randomly divided as ten pergroup into those without further treatment (group D) and those treated with Benazepril (group DB), Losartan (group DL), or sham-operation (group C), respectively. After 6 weeks of administration of Benazepril or Losartan,the mRNA expressions of TGF-β1, Col Ⅳ, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS in renal cortex were measured by RT-PCR. Besides,the expressions of TGF-β1, ET-1 and iNOS at protein level were detected by Western blotting and the concentrations of Col Ⅳ and Fn were analyzed with immunohistochemistry respectively. Results showed that the rats in group D appeared as obvious proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia, which had a significant difference compared with group C (p<0.05), and most of their mesangiums were detected with cellular proliferation and significant increasing for extracellular matrix. Renal cortex TGF-β1, Col Ⅳ, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS in rats of group D were increased by 3.59, 2.57, 2.21, 2.58 and 3.28 times at mRNA level, and by 2.60, 1.40, 0.75, 1.83 and 2.15 times at protein level, respectively, compared with group C. When the animals were treated with Benazepril (group DB) or Losartan (group DL), however, the biochemical and pathological damages were significantly recovered, and protein expressions of TGF-β, Col Ⅳ, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS were also significantly diminished (p<0.05). This study suggested that blocking RAS using Benazepril or Losartan can have protective effects on the renal injury in glomerulosclerosis by down-regulating the expressions of TGF-β1, Col Ⅳ, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(2):150-154.

  5. Protective Effects of Blocking Renin-Angiotensin System on the Progression of Renal Injury in Glomerulosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZequanJi; CuiwenHuang; ChengjieLiang; BoChen; ShengqiangChen; WeiwenSun


    To investigate the protective effects of blocking rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) on the progression of renal injury in glomerulosclerosis, a glomerulosclerosis model was made for SD rats by unilateral nephrectomy and being injected with Adriamycin into caudal vein. The rats with glomerulosclerosis were randomly divided as ten per group into those without further treatment (group D) and those treated with Benazepril (group DB), Losartan (group DL), or sham-operation (group C), respectively. After 6 weeks of administration of Benazepril or Losartan, the mRNA expressions of TGF-β1, Col IV, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS in renal cortex were measured by RT-PCR. Besides, the expressions of TGF-β1, ET-1 and iNOS at protein level were detected by Western blotting and the concentrations of Col IV and Fn were analyzed with immunohistochemistry respectively. Results showed that the rats in group D appeared as obvious proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia, which had a significant difference compared with group C (p < 0.05), and most of their mesangiums were detected with cellular proliferation and significant increasing for extracellular matrix. Renal cortex TGF-β1, Col IV, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS in rats of group D were increased by 3.59, 2.57, 2.21, 2.58 and 3.28 times at mRNA level, and by 2.60, 1.40, 0.75, 1.83 and 2.15 times at protein level, respectively, compared with group C. When the animals were treated with Benazepril (group DB) or Losartan (group DL), however, the biochemical and pathological damages were significantly recovered, and protein expressions of TGF-β1, Col IV, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS were also significantly diminished (p < 0.05). This study suggested that blocking RAS using Benazepril or Losartan can have protective effects on the renal injury in glomerulosclerosis by down-regulating the expressions of TGF-β1, Col IV, Fn, ET-1 and iNOS. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2005;2(2):150-154.

  6. Verification of Mixed-Signal Systems with Affine Arithmetic Assertions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carna Radojicic


    Full Text Available Embedded systems include an increasing share of analog/mixed-signal components that are tightly interwoven with functionality of digital HW/SW systems. A challenge for verification is that even small deviations in analog components can lead to significant changes in system properties. In this paper we propose the combination of range-based, semisymbolic simulation with assertion checking. We show that this approach combines advantages, but as well some limitations, of multirun simulations with formal techniques. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated by several examples.

  7. Functional Genomic Screen Identifies Klebsiella pneumoniae Factors Implicated in Blocking Nuclear Factor κB (NF-κB) Signaling. (United States)

    Tomás, Anna; Lery, Leticia; Regueiro, Verónica; Pérez-Gutiérrez, Camino; Martínez, Verónica; Moranta, David; Llobet, Enrique; González-Nicolau, Mar; Insua, Jose L; Tomas, Juan M; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Tournebize, Régis; Bengoechea, José A


    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an etiologic agent of community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia. It has been shown that K. pneumoniae infections are characterized by reduced early inflammatory response. Recently our group has shown that K. pneumoniae dampens the activation of inflammatory responses by antagonizing the activation of the NF-κB canonical pathway. Our results revealed that K. pneumoniae capsule polysaccharide (CPS) was necessary but not sufficient to attenuate inflammation. To identify additional Klebsiella factors required to dampen inflammation, we standardized and applied a high-throughput gain-of-function screen to examine a Klebsiella transposon mutant library. We identified 114 mutants that triggered the activation of NF-κB. Two gene ontology categories accounted for half of the loci identified in the screening: metabolism and transport genes (32% of the mutants) and envelope-related genes (17%). Characterization of the mutants revealed that the lack of the enterobactin siderophore was linked to a reduced CPS expression, which in turn underlined the NF-κB activation induced by the mutant. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) O-polysaccharide and the pullulanase (PulA) type 2 secretion system (T2SS) are required for full effectiveness of the immune evasion. Importantly, these factors do not play a redundant role. The fact that LPS O-polysaccharide and T2SS mutant-induced responses were dependent on TLR2-TLR4-MyD88 activation suggested that LPS O-polysaccharide and PulA perturbed Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent recognition of K. pneumoniae. Finally, we demonstrate that LPS O-polysaccharide and pulA mutants are attenuated in the pneumonia mouse model. We propose that LPS O-polysaccharide and PulA T2SS could be new targets for the design of new antimicrobials. Increasing TLR-governed defense responses might provide also selective alternatives for the management of K. pneumoniae pneumonia.

  8. Dissecting Nck/Dock Signaling Pathways in Drosophila Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available The establishment of neuronal connections during embryonic development requires the precise guidance and targeting of the neuronal growth cone, an expanded cellular structure at the leading tip of a growing axon. The growth cone contains sophisticated signaling systems that allow the rapid communication between guidance receptors and the actin cytoskeleton in generating directed motility. Previous studies demonstrated a specific role for the Nck/Dock SH2/SH3 adapter protein in photoreceptor (R cell axon guidance and target recognition in the Drosophila visual system, suggesting strongly that Nck/Dock is one of the long-sought missing links between cell surface receptors and the actin cytoskeleton. In this review, I discuss the recent progress on dissecting the Nck/Dock signaling pathways in R-cell growth cones. These studies have identified additional key components of the Nck/Dock signaling pathways for linking the receptor signaling to the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton in controlling growth-cone motility.

  9. Signaling mechanisms regulating myelination in the central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jared T.Ahrendsen; Wendy Macklin


    The precise and coordinated production of myelin is essential for proper development and function of the nervous system.Diseases that disrupt myelin,including multiple sclerosis,cause significant functional disability.Current treatment aims to reduce the inflammatory component of the disease,thereby preventing damage resulting from demyelination.However,therapies are not yet available to improve natural repair processes after damage has already occurred.A thorough understanding of the signaling mechanisms that regulate myelin generation will improve our ability to enhance repair.In this review,we summarize the positive and negative regulators of myelination,focusing primarily on central nervous system myelination.Axon-derived signals,extracellular signals from both diffusible factors and the extracellular matrix,and intracellular signaling pathways within myelinating oligodendrocytes are discussed.Much is known about the positive regulators that drive myelination,while less is known about the negative regulators that shift active myelination to myelin maintenance at the appropriate time.Therefore,we also provide new data on potential negative regulators of CNS myelination.

  10. Analysis of accuracy in dose and position in calculations of a treatment planning system for blocked photon fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vantVeld, AA


    Accuracy in dose and position, defined as complementary criteria, was determined for blocked photon field calculations with a pencil beam based treatment planning system. The concept of field accuracy has been defined as a combination of deviations in dose and position. Absolute dose deviations were

  11. Performance evaluation of block-diagonal preconditioners for the divergence-conforming B-spline discretization of the Stokes system

    KAUST Repository

    Côrtes, A.M.A.


    The recently introduced divergence-conforming B-spline discretizations allow the construction of smooth discrete velocity–pressure pairs for viscous incompressible flows that are at the same time inf-sup stable and pointwise divergence-free. When applied to discretized Stokes equations, these spaces generate a symmetric and indefinite saddle-point linear system. Krylov subspace methods are usually the most efficient procedures to solve such systems. One of such methods, for symmetric systems, is the Minimum Residual Method (MINRES). However, the efficiency and robustness of Krylov subspace methods is closely tied to appropriate preconditioning strategies. For the discrete Stokes system, in particular, block-diagonal strategies provide efficient preconditioners. In this article, we compare the performance of block-diagonal preconditioners for several block choices. We verify how the eigenvalue clustering promoted by the preconditioning strategies affects MINRES convergence. We also compare the number of iterations and wall-clock timings. We conclude that among the building blocks we tested, the strategy with relaxed inner conjugate gradients preconditioned with incomplete Cholesky provided the best results.

  12. Nodal signalling and asymmetry of the nervous system. (United States)

    Signore, Iskra A; Palma, Karina; Concha, Miguel L


    The role of Nodal signalling in nervous system asymmetry is still poorly understood. Here, we review and discuss how asymmetric Nodal signalling controls the ontogeny of nervous system asymmetry using a comparative developmental perspective. A detailed analysis of asymmetry in ascidians and fishes reveals a critical context-dependency of Nodal function and emphasizes that bilaterally paired and midline-unpaired structures/organs behave as different entities. We propose a conceptual framework to dissect the developmental function of Nodal as asymmetry inducer and laterality modulator in the nervous system, which can be used to study other types of body and visceral organ asymmetries. Using insights from developmental biology, we also present novel evolutionary hypotheses on how Nodal led the evolution of directional asymmetry in the brain, with a particular focus on the epithalamus. We intend this paper to provide a synthesis on how Nodal signalling controls left-right asymmetry of the nervous system.This article is part of the themed issue 'Provocative questions in left-right asymmetry'.

  13. A novel 300 kW arc plasma inverter system based on hierarchical controlled building block structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    To date, the high power arc plasma technology is widely used. A next generation high power arc plasma system based on building block structure is presented. The whole arc plasma inverter system is composed of 12 paralleled units to increase the system output capability. The hierarchical control system is adopted to improve the reliability and flexibility of the high power arc plasma inverter. To ensure the reliable turn on and off of the IGBT module in each building block unit, a special pulse drive circuit is designed by using pulse transformer. The experimental result indicates that the high power arc plasma inverter system can transfer 300 kW arc plasma energy reliably with high efficiency.

  14. Airborne Warning and Control System Block 40/45 Upgrade (AWACS Blk 40/45 Upgrade) (United States)


    Cost Estimate Details Date of Estimate: July 31, 2015 Source of Estimate: SCP Quantity to Sustain: 24 Unit of Measure : Aircraft Service Life per...S cost is based on historical Block 30/35 O&S cost projected through FY 2035. These costs are used for comparison to Block 40/45 O&S costs . This...9 Performance 10 Track to Budget 12 Cost and Funding 13 Low Rate Initial Production 21 Foreign Military Sales 22 Nuclear Costs

  15. Snore related signals processing in a private cloud computing system. (United States)

    Qian, Kun; Guo, Jian; Xu, Huijie; Zhu, Zhaomeng; Zhang, Gongxuan


    Snore related signals (SRS) have been demonstrated to carry important information about the obstruction site and degree in the upper airway of Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) patients in recent years. To make this acoustic signal analysis method more accurate and robust, big SRS data processing is inevitable. As an emerging concept and technology, cloud computing has motivated numerous researchers and engineers to exploit applications both in academic and industry field, which could have an ability to implement a huge blue print in biomedical engineering. Considering the security and transferring requirement of biomedical data, we designed a system based on private cloud computing to process SRS. Then we set the comparable experiments of processing a 5-hour audio recording of an OSAHS patient by a personal computer, a server and a private cloud computing system to demonstrate the efficiency of the infrastructure we proposed.

  16. BlockSolve95 users manual: Scalable library software for the parallel solution of sparse linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, M.T.; Plassmann, P.E.


    BlockSolve95 is a software library for solving large, sparse systems of linear equations on massively parallel computers or networks of workstations. The matrices must be symmetric in structure; however, the matrix nonzero values may be either symmetric or nonsymmetric. The nonzeros must be real valued. BlockSolve95 uses a message-passing paradigm and achieves portability through the use of the MPI message-passing standard. Emphasis has been placed on achieving both good professor performance through the use of higher-level BLAS and scalability through the use of advanced algorithms. This report gives detailed instructions on the use of BlockSolve95 and descriptions of a number of program examples that can be used as templates for application programs.

  17. Block 3 X-band receiver-exciter (United States)

    Johns, C. E.


    The development of an X-band exciter, for use in the X-Band Uplink Subsystem, was completed. The exciter generates the drive signal for the X-band transmitter and also generates coherent test signals for the S- and X-band Block 3 translator and a Doppler reference signal for the Doppler extractor system. In addition to the above, the exciter generates other reference signals that are described. Also presented is an overview of the exciter design and some test data taken on the prototype. A brief discussion of the Block 3 Doppler extractor is presented.

  18. Audio Signal Generator System Based On State Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A state machine can make program designing quicker, simpler and more efficient. This paper describes in detail the model for a state machine and the idea for its designing and gives the design process of the state machine through an example of audio signal generator system based on Labview. The result shows that the introduction of the state machine can make complex design processes more clear and the revision of programs easier.

  19. System Measures Errors Between Time-Code Signals (United States)

    Cree, David; Venkatesh, C. N.


    System measures timing errors between signals produced by three asynchronous time-code generators. Errors between 1-second clock pulses resolved to 2 microseconds. Basic principle of computation of timing errors as follows: central processing unit in microcontroller constantly monitors time data received from time-code generators for changes in 1-second time-code intervals. In response to any such change, microprocessor buffers count of 16-bit internal timer.

  20. System Acquires And Displays Signal-Propagation Data (United States)

    Mckeeman, John C.; Remaklus, P. William


    Electronic system acquires, controls processing of, and displays data from experiments on propagation of phase-coherent radio signals at frequencies of 12, 20, and 30 GHz. Acquisition equipment coordinates flow of data from multiple input channels to computer. Software provides for multi-tasking and for interactive graphical displays, including easy-to-use windows and pulldown menus with mouse input. Offers outstanding accuracy; acquires and displays data and controls associated equipment, all in real time.

  1. Calcium efflux systems in stress signalling and adaptation in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayakumar eBose


    Full Text Available Transient cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]cyt elevation is an ubiquitous denominator of the signalling network when plants are exposed to literally every known abiotic and biotic stress. These stress-induced [Ca2+]cyt elevations vary in magnitude, frequency and shape, depending on the severity of the stress as well the type of stress experienced. This creates a unique stress-specific calcium signature that is then decoded by signal transduction networks. While most published papers have been focused predominantly on the role of Ca2+ influx mechanisms in shaping [Ca2+]cyt signatures, restoration of the basal [Ca2+]cyt levels is impossible without both cytosolic Ca2+ buffering and efficient Ca2+ efflux mechanisms removing excess Ca2+ from cytosol, to reload Ca2+ stores and to terminate Ca2+ signalling. This is the topic of the current review. The molecular identity of two major types of Ca2+ efflux systems, Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers, is described, and their regulatory modes are analysed in detail. The spatial and temporal organisation of calcium signalling networks is described, and the importance of existence of intracellular calcium microdomains is discussed. Experimental evidence for the role of Ca2+ efflux systems in plant responses to a range of abiotic and biotic factors is summarised. Contribution of Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers in shaping [Ca2+]cyt signatures is then modelled by using a four-component model (plasma- and endo- membrane-based Ca2+-permeable channels and efflux systems taking into account the cytosolic Ca2+ buffering. It is concluded that physiologically relevant variations in the activity of Ca2+-ATPase pumps and Ca2+/H+ exchangers are sufficient to fully describe all the reported experimental evidence and determine the shape of [Ca2+]cyt signatures in response to environmental stimuli, emphasising the crucial role these active efflux systems play in plant adaptive responses to environment.

  2. Dynamic Response Analysis of an Asymmetric Coupled Vehicle-Track System Generated by Voided Elastic Two-Block Sleeper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing He


    Full Text Available Based on vehicle-track coupled dynamic theory, a three-dimensional asymmetric vehicle-track coupling vibration model is developed to investigate the effect of voided elastic two-block sleepers on vehicle and track system dynamic responses. For the vehicle system, one car body, two frames, and four wheel sets are assumed to be rigid, with 35 degrees of freedom (DOF. For the track system, the rails and the concrete two-block sleepers are the main vibration components. The rails are modelled as Timoshenko beams, and the concrete two-block sleepers are assumed to be rigid mass with vertical and lateral movement. The pads under the rails and the rubber boots under the sleepers provide greater vertical and lateral elasticity for the track. The Hertz nonlinear elastic contact theory is used to calculate the normal wheel/rail force. The wheel/rail tangent creep force is first calculated using Kalker’s linear creep theory and then modified by the Shen-Hedrick-Elkins theory. The results show that the asymmetric voided elastic two-block sleepers have greater effects on the dynamic responses for fasteners and sleepers than on the car body and the wheel/rail forces under measured geometric irregularity and random irregularity. Two or more voided sleepers will greatly affect the vehicle running safety.

  3. Power and signal transmission for mobile teleoperated systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, A.C. Jr.; Hamel, W.R.


    Appropriate means must be furnished for supplying power and for sending controlling commands to mobile teleoperated systems. Because a sizable number of possibilities are available for such applications, methods used in designing both the power and communications systems built into mobile vehicles that serve in radiological emergencies must be carefully selected. This paper describes a number of umbilical, on-board, and wireless systems used in tranmitting power that are available for mobile teleoperator services. The pros and cons of selecting appropriate methods from a list of possible communication systems (wired, fiber optic, and radio frequency) are also examined. Moreover, hybrid systems combining wireless power transmissions with command-information signals are also possible.

  4. Positioning models and systems based on digital television broadcasting signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Feng; WU Lenan


    The requirement and feasibility of the positioning system using digital television(DTV)broadcasting signals are analyzed.The principle of DTV positioning on the basis of frame synchronization is brought forward and the ranging characteristic is studied that the observables are asynchronously measured during the same epoch interval.The models of the pseudo-range observation and Doppler carrier phase integral are researched.The system observation and state equations are presented on the basis of the above models.The simulation results showed that DTV positioning technology could remarkably improve the precision of system state estimates using smoothing methods for positioning systems or integrated navigation systems.The DTV positioning that has a sub-meter level ranging error and meter level positioning accuracy can parallel with and even taken as a beneficial substitute for the tradition positioning technology.

  5. Earthquake early warning system using real-time signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, R.R. Jr.; Dowla, F.U.


    An earthquake warning system has been developed to provide a time series profile from which vital parameters such as the time until strong shaking begins, the intensity of the shaking, and the duration of the shaking, can be derived. Interaction of different types of ground motion and changes in the elastic properties of geological media throughout the propagation path result in a highly nonlinear function. We use neural networks to model these nonlinearities and develop learning techniques for the analysis of temporal precursors occurring in the emerging earthquake seismic signal. The warning system is designed to analyze the first-arrival from the three components of an earthquake signal and instantaneously provide a profile of impending ground motion, in as little as 0.3 sec after first ground motion is felt at the sensors. For each new data sample, at a rate of 25 samples per second, the complete profile of the earthquake is updated. The profile consists of a magnitude-related estimate as well as an estimate of the envelope of the complete earthquake signal. The envelope provides estimates of damage parameters, such as time until peak ground acceleration (PGA) and duration. The neural network based system is trained using seismogram data from more than 400 earthquakes recorded in southern California. The system has been implemented in hardware using silicon accelerometers and a standard microprocessor. The proposed warning units can be used for site-specific applications, distributed networks, or to enhance existing distributed networks. By producing accurate, and informative warnings, the system has the potential to significantly minimize the hazards of catastrophic ground motion. Detailed system design and performance issues, including error measurement in a simple warning scenario are discussed in detail.

  6. Activation of Robo1 signaling of breast cancer cells by Slit2 from stromal fibroblast restrains tumorigenesis via blocking PI3K/Akt/β-catenin pathway. (United States)

    Chang, Po-Hao; Hwang-Verslues, Wendy W; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Chin; Hsiao, Michael; Jeng, Yung-Ming; Chang, King-Jen; Lee, Eva Y-H P; Shew, Jin-Yuh; Lee, Wen-Hwa


    Tumor microenvironment plays a critical role in regulating tumor progression by secreting factors that mediate cancer cell growth. Stromal fibroblasts can promote tumor growth through paracrine factors; however, restraint of malignant carcinoma progression by the microenvironment also has been observed. The mechanisms that underlie this paradox remain unknown. Here, we report that the tumorigenic potential of breast cancer cells is determined by an interaction between the Robo1 receptor and its ligand Slit2, which is secreted by stromal fibroblasts. The presence of an active Slit2/Robo1 signal blocks the translocation of β-catenin into nucleus, leading to downregulation of c-myc and cyclin D1 via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway. Clinically, high Robo1 expression in the breast cancer cells correlates with increased survival in patients with breast cancer, and low Slit2 expression in the stromal fibroblasts is associated with lymph node metastasis. Together, our findings explain how a specific tumor microenvironment can restrain a given type of cancer cell from progression and show that both stromal fibroblasts and tumor cell heterogeneity affect breast cancer outcomes.

  7. Discovery of a novel class of targeted kinase inhibitors that blocks protein kinase C signaling and ameliorates retinal vascular leakage in a diabetic rat model. (United States)

    Grant, Stephan; Tran, Phong; Zhang, Qin; Zou, Aihua; Dinh, Dac; Jensen, Jordan; Zhou, Sue; Kang, Xiaolin; Zachwieja, Joseph; Lippincott, John; Liu, Kevin; Johnson, Sarah Ludlum; Scales, Stephanie; Yin, Chunfeng; Nukui, Seiji; Stoner, Chad; Prasanna, Ganesh; Lafontaine, Jennifer; Wells, Peter; Li, Hui


    Protein kinase C (PKC) family members such as PKCbetaII may become activated in the hyperglycemic state associated with diabetes. Preclinical and clinical data implicate aberrant PKC activity in the development of diabetic microvasculature abnormalities. Based on this potential etiological role for PKC in diabetic complications, several therapeutic PKC inhibitors have been investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of diabetic patients. In this report, we present the discovery and preclinical evaluation of a novel class of 3-amino-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazole derivatives as inhibitors of PKC that are structurally distinct from the prototypical indolocarbazole and bisindolylmaleimide PKC inhibitors. From this pyrrolo-pyrazole series, several compounds were identified from biochemical assays as potent, ATP-competitive inhibitors of PKC activity with high specificity for PKC over other protein kinases. These compounds were also found to block PKC signaling activity in multiple cellular functional assays. PF-04577806, a representative from this series, inhibited PKC activity in retinal lysates from diabetic rats stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate. When orally administered, PF-04577806 showed good exposure in the retina of diabetic Long-Evans rats and ameliorated retinal vascular leakage in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. These novel PKC inhibitors represent a promising new class of targeted protein kinase inhibitors with potential as therapeutic agents for the treatment of patients with diabetic microvascular complications.

  8. Blocking protein phosphatase 2A signaling prevents endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition and renal fibrosis: a peptide-based drug therapy (United States)

    Deng, Yuanjun; Guo, Yanyan; Liu, Ping; Zeng, Rui; Ning, Yong; Pei, Guangchang; Li, Yueqiang; Chen, Meixue; Guo, Shuiming; Li, Xiaoqing; Han, Min; Xu, Gang


    Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) contributes to the emergence of fibroblasts and plays a significant role in renal interstitial fibrosis. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a major serine/threonine protein phosphatase in eukaryotic cells and regulates many signaling pathways. However, the significance of PP2A in EndMT is poorly understood. In present study, the role of PP2A in EndMT was evaluated. We demonstrated that PP2A activated in endothelial cells (EC) during their EndMT phenotype acquisition and in the mouse model of obstructive nephropathy (i.e., UUO). Inhibition of PP2A activity by its specific inhibitor prevented EC undergoing EndMT. Importantly, PP2A activation was dependent on tyrosine nitration at 127 in the catalytic subunit of PP2A (PP2Ac). Our renal-protective strategy was to block tyrosine127 nitration to inhibit PP2A activation by using a mimic peptide derived from PP2Ac conjugating a cell penetrating peptide (CPP: TAT), termed TAT-Y127WT. Pretreatment withTAT-Y127WT was able to prevent TGF-β1-induced EndMT. Administration of the peptide to UUO mice significantly ameliorated renal EndMT level, with preserved density of peritubular capillaries and reduction in extracellular matrix deposition. Taken together, these results suggest that inhibiting PP2Ac nitration using a mimic peptide is a potential preventive strategy for EndMT in renal fibrosis.

  9. Photonics for microwave systems and ultra-wideband signal processing (United States)

    Ng, W.


    The advantages of using the broadband and low-loss distribution attributes of photonics to enhance the signal processing and sensing capabilities of microwave systems are well known. In this paper, we review the progress made in the topical areas of true-time-delay beamsteering, photonic-assisted analog-to-digital conversion, RF-photonic filtering and link performances. We also provide an outlook on the emerging field of integrated microwave photonics (MWP) that promise to reduce the cost of MWP subsystems and components, while providing significantly improved form-factors for system insertion.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Xuehong


    This paper proposes an efficient approximate Maximum Likelihood (ML) detection method for Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems, which searches local area instead of exhaustive search and selects valid search points in each transmit antenna signal constellation instead of all hyperplane. Both of the selection and search complexity can be reduced significantly. The method performs the tradeoff between computational complexity and system performance by adjusting the neighborhood size to select the valid search points. Simulation results show that the performance is comparable to that of the ML detection while the complexity is only as the small fraction of ML.

  11. Signal Processing System for the CASA Integrated Project I Radars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharadwaj, Nitin; Chandrasekar, V.; Junyent, Francesc


    This paper describes the waveform design space and signal processing system for dual-polarization Doppler weather radar operating at X band. The performance of the waveforms is presented with ground clutter suppression capability and mitigation of range velocity ambiguity. The operational waveform is designed based on operational requirements and system/hardware requirements. A dual Pulse Repetition Frequency (PRF) waveform was developed and implemented for the first generation X-band radars deployed by the Center for Collaborative Adaptive Sensing of the Atmosphere (CASA). This paper presents an evaluation of the performance of the waveforms based on simulations and data collected by the first-generation CASA radars during operations.

  12. Advanced biofeedback from surface electromyography signals using fuzzy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samani, Afshin; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen;


    The aims of this study were to develop a fuzzy inference-based biofeedback system and investigate its effects when inducing active (shoulder elevation) and passive (relax) pauses on the trapezius muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during computer work. Surface EMG signals were recorded from...... clavicular, descending (bilateral) and ascending parts of the trapezius muscles during computer work. The fuzzy system readjusted itself based on the history of previous inputs. The effect of feedback was assessed in terms of muscle activation regularity and amplitude. Active pause resulted in non...

  13. Calibration of Frequency Data Collection Systems Using Shortwave Radio Signals (United States)

    Estler, Ron


    The atomic-clock-derived audio tones broadcast on the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) shortwave station WWV are used to calibrate computer frequency data collection systems via Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT). Once calibrated, the data collection system can be used to accurately determine the audio signals used in several instructional physical chemistry laboratory experiments. This method can be applied to virtually any hardware-software configuration that allows adjustment of the apparent time scale (digitizing rate) of the recorded audio file.

  14. Noise helped manifestation of intrinsic frequency: A case study in the mesoscopic hormone signaling system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Ji; Yuanyuan Zhang; Xiufeng Lang; Wenxiang Hu; Qianshu Li


    The selective sustainment of nonlinear systems to signals is of great significance to signal transduction in living systems. We take hormone signaling as an example, and investigate the sustainment of internal and external signals. Simulation results prove that signals with "intrinsic frequency", no matter if it is noise induced or external injected, can be selectively sustained by exploiting internal and/or external noise. Both the internal and external noise can optimize the noise-induced signals, and the optimization is rather robust to the disturbance of external signals with other frequencies. These results are of significance for weak signal detection and trausduction in the presence of external signals.

  15. Analog signal processing for optical coherence imaging systems (United States)

    Xu, Wei

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence microscopy (OCM) are non-invasive optical coherence imaging techniques, which enable micron-scale resolution, depth resolved imaging capability. Both OCT and OCM are based on Michelson interferometer theory. They are widely used in ophthalmology, gastroenterology and dermatology, because of their high resolution, safety and low cost. OCT creates cross sectional images whereas OCM obtains en face images. In this dissertation, the design and development of three increasingly complicated analog signal processing (ASP) solutions for optical coherence imaging are presented. The first ASP solution was implemented for a time domain OCT system with a Rapid Scanning Optical Delay line (RSOD)-based optical signal modulation and logarithmic amplifier (Log amp) based demodulation. This OCT system can acquire up to 1600 A-scans per second. The measured dynamic range is 106dB at 200A-scan per second. This OCT signal processing electronics includes an off-the-shelf filter box with a Log amp circuit implemented on a PCB board. The second ASP solution was developed for an OCM system with synchronized modulation and demodulation and compensation for interferometer phase drift. This OCM acquired micron-scale resolution, high dynamic range images at acquisition speeds up to 45,000 pixels/second. This OCM ASP solution is fully custom designed on a perforated circuit board. The third ASP solution was implemented on a single 2.2 mm x 2.2 mm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip. This design is expandable to a multiple channel OCT system. A single on-chip CMOS photodetector and ASP channel was used for coherent demodulation in a time domain OCT system. Cross-sectional images were acquired with a dynamic range of 76dB (limited by photodetector responsivity). When incorporated with a bump-bonded InGaAs photodiode with higher responsivity, the expected dynamic range is close to 100dB.

  16. Population Blocks. (United States)

    Smith, Martin H.


    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  17. Altered signaling in systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis monocytes. (United States)

    Macaubas, Claudia; Wong, Elizabeth; Zhang, Yujuan; Nguyen, Khoa D; Lee, Justin; Milojevic, Diana; Shenoi, Susan; Stevens, Anne M; Ilowite, Norman; Saper, Vivian; Lee, Tzielan; Mellins, Elizabeth D


    Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) is characterized by systemic inflammation and arthritis. Monocytes are implicated in sJIA pathogenesis, but their role in disease is unclear. The response of sJIA monocytes to IFN may be dysregulated. We examined intracellular signaling in response to IFN type I (IFNα) and type II (IFNγ) in monocytes during sJIA activity and quiescence, in 2 patient groups. Independent of disease activity, monocytes from Group 1 (collected between 2002 and 2009) showed defective STAT1 phosphorylation downstream of IFNs, and expressed higher transcript levels of SOCS1, an inhibitor of IFN signaling. In the Group 2 (collected between 2011 and 2014), monocytes of patients with recent disease onset were IFNγ hyporesponsive, but in treated, quiescent subjects, monocytes were hyperresponsive to IFNγ. Recent changes in medication in sJIA may alter the IFN hyporesponsiveness. Impaired IFN/pSTAT1 signaling is consistent with skewing of sJIA monocytes away from an M1 phenotype and may contribute to disease pathology.

  18. A Miniaturized System for Neural Signal Acquiring and Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Min; GAO Guang-hong; XIANG Dong-sheng; CAO Mao-yong; JIA Ai-bin; DING Lei; KONG Hui-min


    To collect neural activity data from awake, behaving freely animals, we develop miniaturized implantable recording system by the modern chip:Programmable System on Chip(PSoC) and through chronic electrodes in the cortex. With PSoC family member CY8C29466,the system completed operational and instrument amplifiers, filters, timers, AD convertors, and serial communication, etc. The signal processing was dealt with virtual instrument technology. All of these factors can significantly affect the price and development cycle of the project. The result showed that the system was able to record and analyze neural extrocellular discharge generated by neurons continuously for a week or more. This is very useful for the interdisciplinary research of neuroscience and information engineering technique.The circuits and architecture of the devices can be adapted for neurobiology and research with other small animals.

  19. An enzymatic signal amplification system for calorimetric studies of cellobiohydrolases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murphy, Leigh; Baumann, Martin Johannes; Borch, Kim


    is heat production. This can be converted to the rate of reaction and allows direct and continuous monitoring of the hydrolysis of complex substrates. To overcome the low molar enthalpy of the hydrolysis of the glycosidic bond, which is typically on the order of −2.5 kJ mol−1, an enzymatic signal......The study of cellulolytic enzymes has traditionally been carried out using endpoint measurements by quantitation of reaction products using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) or overall determination of produced reducing ends. To measure catalytic activity, model substrates...... amplification method has been developed to measure even slow hydrolytically active enzymes such as cellobiohydrolases. This method is explained in detail for the amplification of the heat signal by more than 130 times by using glucose oxidase and catalase. The kinetics of this complex coupled reaction system...

  20. [Mental fatigue electroencephalogram signals analysis based on singular system]. (United States)

    Zhang, Chong; Yu, Xiaolin; Yang, Yong; Xu, Lei


    In the present paper, the contribution of the largest principal component and the number of principal component needed for accumulative contribution 95% are selected as indices of electroencephalogram (EEG) in mental fatigue state in order to investigate the relationship between these parameters and mental fatigue. The experimental results showed that the contribution of the largest principal component of EEG signals increased in the prefrontal, frontal and central areas, while the number of principal component needed for accumulative contribution decreased by 95% with the increasing mental fatigue level. The parameters of singular system of EEG signals can be regarded as useful features for the estimation of mental fatigue and have larger application value in the study of mental fatigue.

  1. Chemosensory signals and their receptors in the olfactory neural system. (United States)

    Ihara, S; Yoshikawa, K; Touhara, K


    Chemical communication is widely used among various organisms to obtain essential information from their environment required for life. Although a large variety of molecules have been shown to act as chemical cues, the molecular and neural basis underlying the behaviors elicited by these molecules has been revealed for only a limited number of molecules. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding the signaling molecules whose flow from receptor to specific behavior has been characterized. Discussing the molecules utilized by mice, insects, and the worm, we focus on how each organism has optimized its reception system to suit its living style. We also highlight how the production of these signaling molecules is regulated, an area in which considerable progress has been recently made.

  2. A Readout IC Using Two-Step Fastest Signal Identification for Compact Data Acquisition of PET Systems. (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Jin; Hong, Seong-Kwan; Kwon, Oh-Kyong


    A readout integrated circuit (ROIC) using two-step fastest signal identification (FSI) is proposed to reduce the number of input channels of a data acquisition (DAQ) block with a high-channel reduction ratio. The two-step FSI enables the proposed ROIC to filter out useless input signals that arise from scattering and electrical noise without using complex and bulky circuits. In addition, an asynchronous fastest signal identifier and a self-trimmed comparator are proposed to identify the fastest signal without using a high-frequency clock and to reduce misidentification, respectively. The channel reduction ratio of the proposed ROIC is 16:1 and can be extended to 16 × N:1 using N ROICs. To verify the performance of the two-step FSI, the proposed ROIC was implemented into a gamma photon detector module using a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode with a lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate array. The measured minimum detectable time is 1 ns. The difference of the measured energy and timing resolution between with and without the two-step FSI are 0.8% and 0.2 ns, respectively, which are negligibly small. These measurement results show that the proposed ROIC using the two-step FSI reduces the number of input channels of the DAQ block without sacrificing the performance of the positron emission tomography (PET) systems.

  3. FireSignal-Data acquisition and control system software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neto, A. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)], E-mail:; Fernandes, H.; Duarte, A.; Carvalho, B.B.; Sousa, J.; Valcarcel, D.F. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Hron, M. [Asociace EURATOM IPP.CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Varandas, C.A.F. [Associacao Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Av. Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)


    Control of fusion experiments requires non-ambiguous, easy to use, user-interfaces to configure hardware devices. With that aim, a highly generic system for data control and acquisition has been developed. Among the main features it allows remote hardware configuration, shot launching, data sharing between connected users and experiment monitoring. The system is fully distributed: the hardware driver nodes, clients and servers are completely independent from each other and might run in different operating systems and programmed in different languages. All the communication is provided through the Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) protocol. FireSignal is designed to be as independent as possible from any kind of constraints as it is a plugin based system. Database, data viewers and the security system are some examples of what can easily be changed and adapted to the target machine's needs. In this system, every hardware is described in eXtensible Markup Language (XML) and with this information Graphical User Interfaces (GUI) are automatically built and user's parameter configuration validated. Any type of hardware device can be integrated in the system as long as it is described in XML and the respective driver developed. Any modern programming language can be used to develop these drivers. Currently Python and Java generic drivers are used. Data storage and indexing is time stamp event-based. Nodes are responsible for tagging the acquired samples with the absolute time stamps and to react to machine events. FireSignal is currently being used to control the ISTTOK/PT and CASTOR/CZ tokamaks.

  4. Analysis of the blocking behaviour of schema transformations in relational database systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, Lesley; Hofstra, Matthijs; Tammens, Menno; Huisman, Marieke; Keulen, van Maurice


    In earlier work we have extended the TPC-C benchmark with basic and complex schema transformations. This paper uses this benchmark to investigate the blocking behaviour of online schema transformations in PostgreSQL, MySQL and Oracle 11g. First we discuss experiments using the data definition langua

  5. Structural analysis of superposed fault systems of the Bornholm horst block, Tornquist Zone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graversen, Ole


    The Bornholm horst block is composed of Precambrian crystalline basement overlain by Palaeozoicand Mesozoic cover rocks. The cover intervals are separated by an angular unconformity and a hiatus spanning the Devonian through Middle Triassic interval. Late Palaeozoic faulting of the Early Palaeozoic...

  6. Inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK5 blocks pancreatic cancer formation and progression through the suppression of Ras-Ral signaling. (United States)

    Feldmann, Georg; Mishra, Anjali; Hong, Seung-Mo; Bisht, Savita; Strock, Christopher J; Ball, Douglas W; Goggins, Michael; Maitra, Anirban; Nelkin, Barry D


    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a neuronal kinase that functions in migration, has been found to be activated in some human cancers in which it has been implicated in promoting metastasis. In this study, we investigated the role of CDK5 in pancreatic cancers in which metastatic disease is most common at diagnosis. CDK5 was widely active in pancreatic cancer cells. Functional ablation significantly inhibited invasion, migration, and anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and orthotopic tumor formation and systemic metastases in vivo. CDK5 blockade resulted in the profound inhibition of Ras signaling through its critical effectors RalA and RalB. Conversely, restoring Ral function rescued the effects of CDK5 inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. Our findings identify CDK5 as a pharmacologically tractable target to degrade Ras signaling in pancreatic cancer.

  7. Inhibiting the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK5 blocks pancreatic cancer formation and progression via suppression of Ras-Ral signaling (United States)

    Feldmann, Georg; Mishra, Anjali; Hong, Seung-Mo; Bisht, Savita; Strock, Christopher J.; Ball, Douglas W.; Goggins, Michael; Maitra, Anirban; Nelkin, Barry D.


    Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5), a neuronal kinase that functions in migration, has been found to be activated in some human cancers where it has been implicated in promoting metastasis. In this study, we investigated the role of CDK5 in pancreatic cancers where metastatic disease is most common at diagnosis. CDK5 was widely active in pancreatic cancer cells. Functional ablation significantly inhibited invasion, migration and anchorage-independent growth in vitro, and orthotopic tumor formation and systemic metastases in vivo. CDK5 blockade resulted in profound inhibition of Ras signaling through its critical effectors RalA and RalB. Conversely, restoring Ral function rescued the effects of CDK5 inhibition in pancreatic cancer cells. Our findings identify CDK5 as a pharmacologically tractable target to degrade Ras signaling in pancreatic cancer. PMID:20484029

  8. 2012 Proceedings of the International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Mu, Jiasong; Liang, Jing; Zhang, Baoju; Pi, Yiming; Zhao, Chenglin


    Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems is a collection of contributions coming out of the International Conference on Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems (CSPS) held October 2012. This book provides the state-of-art developments of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems, and their interactions in multidisciplinary fields, such as Smart Grid. The book also examines Radar Systems, Sensor Networks, Radar Signal Processing, Design and Implementation of Signal Processing Systems and Applications. Written by experts and students in the fields of Communications, Signal Processing, and Systems.

  9. Response prediction techniques and case studies of a path blocking system based on Global Transmissibility Direct Transmissibility method (United States)

    Wang, Zengwei; Zhu, Ping; Zhao, Jianxuan


    In this paper, the prediction capabilities of the Global Transmissibility Direct Transmissibility (GTDT) method are further developed. Two path blocking techniques solely using the easily measured variables of the original system to predict the response of a path blocking system are generalized to finite element models of continuous systems. The proposed techniques are derived theoretically in a general form for the scenarios of setting the response of a subsystem to zero and of removing the link between two directly connected subsystems. The objective of this paper is to verify the reliability of the proposed techniques by finite element simulations. Two typical cases, the structural vibration transmission case and the structure-borne sound case, in two different configurations are employed to illustrate the validity of proposed techniques. The points of attention for each case have been discussed, and conclusions are given. It is shown that for the two cases of blocking a subsystem the proposed techniques are able to predict the new response using measured variables of the original system, even though operational forces are unknown. For the structural vibration transmission case of removing a connector between two components, the proposed techniques are available only when the rotational component responses of the connector are very small. The proposed techniques offer relative path measures and provide an alternative way to deal with NVH problems. The work in this paper provides guidance and reference for the engineering application of the GTDT prediction techniques.

  10. Effects of HVDC on power systems small signal angle stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Custodio, D.T.; Paccini, R.O.; Kopcak, I.; Costa, V.F. da [State University of Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. Power Systems Dept.], Emails:,,,


    In this paper, a didactic method for parameters tuning of the Power Oscillation Damper (POD) coupled to the HVDC constant current controller is proposed utilizing the MATLAB package with a control system toolbox. First, modal analysis is done from the system state matrix to determine the critical mode and oscillation natural frequency. Input and output linearized matrixes are built to single-input and single-output (SISO) control systems. The phase to be compensated between the active power flow in the parallel AC inter-tie and the current reference signal of the HVDC constant current controller is obtained from the Nyquist theorem. Following, the POD time constants are obtained. Finally, the static gain of the POD is tuned based on the root locus method of the classical control theory. Simulations results prove that the DC power modulation is efficient to damp the AC power oscillations. This method is straightforward because only involves matrix operation. (author)

  11. Intracellular Signaling Mediators in the Circulatory and Ventilatory Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc


    The volumes in this authoritative series present a multidisciplinary approach to modeling and simulation of flows in the cardiovascular and ventilatory systems, especially multiscale modeling and coupled simulations. The cardiovascular and respiratory systems are tightly coupled, as their primary function is to supply oxygen to and remove carbon dioxide from the body's cells. Because physiological conduits have deformable and reactive walls, macroscopic flow behavior and prediction must be coupled to phenomenological models of nano- and microscopic events in a corrector scheme of regulated mechanisms when the vessel lumen caliber varies markedly. Therefore, investigation of flows of blood and air in physiological conduits requires an understanding of the biology, chemistry, and physics of these systems together with the mathematical tools to describe their functioning. Volume 4 is devoted to major sets of intracellular mediators that transmit signals upon stimulation of cell-surface receptors.  Activation of...

  12. FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of mouse hematopoietic system. (United States)

    Zhao, Meng; Ross, Jason T; Itkin, Tomer; Perry, John M; Venkatraman, Aparna; Haug, Jeffrey S; Hembree, Mark J; Deng, Chu-Xia; Lapidot, Tsvee; He, Xi C; Li, Linheng


    Previous studies have shown that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling promotes hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in vitro. However, it is unknown whether FGF promotes HSPC expansion in vivo. Here we examined FGF receptor 1 (FGFR1) expression and investigated its in vivo function in HSPCs. Conditional knockout (CKO) of Fgfr1 did not affect phenotypical number of HSPCs and homeostatic hematopoiesis, but led to a reduced engraftment only in the secondary transplantation. When treated with 5-fluorouracil (5FU), the Fgfr1 CKO mice showed defects in both proliferation and subsequent mobilization of HSPCs. We identified megakaryocytes (Mks) as a major resource for FGF production, and further discovered a novel mechanism by which Mks underwent FGF-FGFR signaling dependent expansion to accelerate rapid FGF production under stress. Within HSPCs, we observed an up-regulation of nuclear factor κB and CXCR4, a receptor for the chemoattractant SDF-1, in response to bone marrow damage only in control but not in Fgfr1 CKO model, accounting for the corresponding defects in proliferation and migration of HSPCs. This study provides the first in vivo evidence that FGF signaling facilitates postinjury recovery of the mouse hematopoietic system by promoting proliferation and facilitating mobilization of HSPCs.

  13. Energy Signal Tool for Decision Support in Building Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henze, G. P.; Pavlak, G. S.; Florita, A. R.; Dodier, R. H.; Hirsch, A. I.


    A prototype energy signal tool is demonstrated for operational whole-building and system-level energy use evaluation. The purpose of the tool is to give a summary of building energy use which allows a building operator to quickly distinguish normal and abnormal energy use. Toward that end, energy use status is displayed as a traffic light, which is a visual metaphor for energy use that is either substantially different from expected (red and yellow lights) or approximately the same as expected (green light). Which light to display for a given energy end use is determined by comparing expected to actual energy use. As expected, energy use is necessarily uncertain; we cannot choose the appropriate light with certainty. Instead, the energy signal tool chooses the light by minimizing the expected cost of displaying the wrong light. The expected energy use is represented by a probability distribution. Energy use is modeled by a low-order lumped parameter model. Uncertainty in energy use is quantified by a Monte Carlo exploration of the influence of model parameters on energy use. Distributions over model parameters are updated over time via Bayes' theorem. The simulation study was devised to assess whole-building energy signal accuracy in the presence of uncertainty and faults at the submetered level, which may lead to tradeoffs at the whole-building level that are not detectable without submetering.

  14. Signal co-operation between integrins and other receptor systems. (United States)

    Streuli, Charles H; Akhtar, Nasreen


    The multicellular nature of metazoans means that all cellular processes need to be tuned by adhesive interactions between cells and their local microenvironment. The spatial organization of cells within tissues requires sophisticated networks of extracellular signals to control their survival and proliferation, movements and positioning, and differentiated function. These cellular characteristics are mediated by multiple inputs from adhesion systems in combination with soluble and developmental signals. In the present review we explore how one class of adhesion receptor, the integrins, co-operate with other types of receptor to control diverse aspects of cell fate. In particular we discuss: (i) how beta3 and beta1 integrins work together with growth factors to control angiogenesis; (ii) how alpha6beta4 integrin co-operates with receptor tyrosine kinases in normal epithelial function and cancer; (iii) the interplay between beta1 integrins and EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor; (iv) signal integration connecting integrins and cytokine receptors for interleukins, prolactin and interferons; and (v) how integrins and syndecans co-operate in cell migration.

  15. Chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-bacteria associations. (United States)

    Scharf, Birgit E; Hynes, Michael F; Alexandre, Gladys M


    Beneficial plant-microbe associations play critical roles in plant health. Bacterial chemotaxis provides a competitive advantage to motile flagellated bacteria in colonization of plant root surfaces, which is a prerequisite for the establishment of beneficial associations. Chemotaxis signaling enables motile soil bacteria to sense and respond to gradients of chemical compounds released by plant roots. This process allows bacteria to actively swim towards plant roots and is thus critical for competitive root surface colonization. The complete genome sequences of several plant-associated bacterial species indicate the presence of multiple chemotaxis systems and a large number of chemoreceptors. Further, most soil bacteria are motile and capable of chemotaxis, and chemotaxis-encoding genes are enriched in the bacteria found in the rhizosphere compared to the bulk soil. This review compares the architecture and diversity of chemotaxis signaling systems in model beneficial plant-associated bacteria and discusses their relevance to the rhizosphere lifestyle. While it is unclear how controlling chemotaxis via multiple parallel chemotaxis systems provides a competitive advantage to certain bacterial species, the presence of a larger number of chemoreceptors is likely to contribute to the ability of motile bacteria to survive in the soil and to compete for root surface colonization.

  16. Dual readout 3D direct/induced-signals pixel systems

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Sherwood; Deile, Mario; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher; Kok, Angela; Watts, Stephen


    In this paper, 3D-electrode pixel detectors are described, in which the bias electrode systems have additional elements. Adding resistors between the bias supply line and each bias electrode together with a signal electrode readout that can measure pulse heights of both polarities could simultaneously provide lower capacitance and improved spatial resolution in both directions. A separate paper (“Dual-readout—strip/pixel systems”) covers an alternative—pixels with an added strip readout in one direction which could be used with either planar or 3D-electrodes, and could simultaneously provide a fast trigger and significantly increase the spatial resolution in both directions.

  17. Signal and reference wave dually encrypted digital holographic system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU YiChao; ZHANG JiaSen; GONG QiHuang


    We propose a secure digital holographic system with signal and reference waves dually encrypted. Two random phase masks are used to encrypt the images in the input and the Fourier planes. The reference beam is phase encoded by another random phase mask. The encrypted image and the key are recorded by a CCD camera. The data can be processed or transferred directly by computer. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate encryption and decryption of multiple images and the results show a high quality and good fault tolerance.

  18. Fault Tolerant Neural Network for ECG Signal Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERAH, M.


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to apply a new robust hardware Artificial Neural Network (ANN for ECG classification systems. This ANN includes a penalization criterion which makes the performances in terms of robustness. Specifically, in this method, the ANN weights are normalized using the auto-prune method. Simulations performed on the MIT ? BIH ECG signals, have shown that significant robustness improvements are obtained regarding potential hardware artificial neuron failures. Moreover, we show that the proposed design achieves better generalization performances, compared to the standard back-propagation algorithm.

  19. Cucurbitacin E ameliorates hepatic fibrosis in vivo and in vitro through activation of AMPK and blocking mTOR-dependent signaling pathway. (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Ling; Zhang, Yu-Jing; Yao, You-Li; Li, Zhi-Man; Han, Xin; Lian, Li-Hua; Zhao, Yu-Qing; Nan, Ji-Xing


    The study evaluated the potential protective effect and underlying mechanism of Cucurbitacin E (CuE) in both thioacetamide-induced hepatic fibrosis and activated HSCs. CuE inhibited the proliferation of activated HSC/T-6 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner; triggered the activation of caspase-3, cleaved PARP, altered ratio of bcl-2-to-bax, and affected cytochrome C protein in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. CuE arrested activated HSCs at the G2/M phase. Furthermore, CuE reduced levels of p-Erk/MAPK and also inhibited the protein and mRNA expressions of α-SMA, TIMP-1 and collagen I in activated HSC-T6 cells. CuE inhibited PI3K and Akt phosphorylation, and reduced the levels of p-mTOR and p-P70S6K and increased the expression of p-AMPK, which is similar with AICAR and metformin. C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally injected with thioacetamide (TAA) for five continuous weeks (100 or 200mg/kg, three times per week) along with daily administration of CuE (5 or 10mg/kg/d) and curcumin (Cur, 20mg/kg). CuE treatments significantly reduced serum ALT/AST levels, α-SMA, TIMP-1, and collagen I protein expressions. HE, Masson trichrome, Sirius red and immunohistochemical staining also suggested that CuE could ameliorate hepatic fibrosis. Our findings suggest that CuE induces apoptosis of activated HSC and ameliorates TAA-induced hepatic fibrosis through activation of AMPK and blocking mTOR-dependent signaling pathway.

  20. Photo-activated psoralen binds the ErbB2 catalytic kinase domain, blocking ErbB2 signaling and triggering tumor cell apoptosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenle Xia

    Full Text Available Photo-activation of psoralen with UVA irradiation, referred to as PUVA, is used in the treatment of proliferative skin disorders. The anti-proliferative effects of PUVA have been largely attributed to psoralen intercalation of DNA, which upon UV treatment, triggers the formation of interstrand DNA crosslinks (ICL that inhibit transcription and DNA replication. Here, we show that PUVA exerts antitumor effects in models of human breast cancer that overexpress the ErbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase oncogene, through a new mechanism. Independent of ICL formation, the antitumor effects of PUVA in ErbB2+ breast cancer models can instead be mediated through inhibition of ErbB2 activation and signaling. Using a mass spectroscopy-based approach, we show for the first time that photo-activated 8MOP (8-methoxypsoralen interacts with the ErbB2 catalytic autokinase domain. Furthermore, PUVA can reverse therapeutic resistance to lapatinib and other ErbB2 targeted therapies, including resistance mediated via expression of a phosphorylated, truncated form of ErbB2 (p85(ErbB2 that is preferentially expressed in tumor cell nuclei. Current ErbB2 targeted therapies, small molecule kinase inhibitors or antibodies, do not block the phosphorylated, activated state of p85(ErbB2. Here we show that PUVA reduced p85(ErbB2 phosphorylation leading to tumor cell apoptosis. Thus, in addition to its effects on DNA and the formation of ICL, PUVA represents a novel ErbB2 targeted therapy for the treatment of ErbB2+ breast cancers, including those that have developed resistance to other ErbB2 targeted therapies.

  1. The Role Played by Blocking Systems over Europe in Abnormal Weather over Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in Summer 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Hafez


    Full Text Available The present paper investigates the role played by blocking high systems over Europe in abnormal weather over the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA in summer 2010. The NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis data of several meteorological elements such as surface air temperature, wind, sea level pressure, relative humidity, outgoing long wave radiation, precipitation rate, and geopotential height at level 500 hpa for summer seasons for the period 1948–2012 and in particular of summer 2010 have been used and analyzed through the present work. Furthermore, the corresponding daily and monthly mean values of climatic indices NAO index, SOI, and El-Nino3.4 have been analyzed. The results uncovered that air current in the upper atmosphere over Europe and NAO, SOI and El-Nino3.4 have impacts on the weather conditions over KSA through the study period 1948–2012. During the period of persistence of blocking system over Europe in summer 2010, results revealed that; weather in KSA was fully controlled by two abnormal weather regimes. The first one is the European blocking system and negative anomaly of NAO from the north. The second one is the positive anomaly of SOI and negative anomaly of El-Nino3.4.

  2. Finding a nitrogen niche: a systems integration of local and systemic nitrogen signalling in plants. (United States)

    Li, Ying; Krouk, Gabriel; Coruzzi, Gloria M; Ruffel, Sandrine


    The ability of plants to sense their nitrogen (N) microenvironment in the soil and deploy strategic root growth in N-rich patches requires exquisite systems integration. Remarkably, this new paradigm for systems biology research has intrigued plant biologists for more than a century, when a split-root framework was first used to study how plants sense and respond to heterogeneous soil nutrient environments. This systemic N-signalling mechanism, allowing plants to sense and forage for mineral nutrients in resource-rich patches, has important implications for agriculture. In this review, we will focus on how advances in the post-genomic era have uncovered the gene regulatory networks underlying systemic N-signalling. After defining how local and systemic N-signalling can be experimentally distinguished for molecular study using a split-root system, the genetic factors that have been shown to mediate local and/or systemic N-signalling are reviewed. Second, the genetic mechanism of this regulatory system is broadened to the whole genome level. To do this, publicly available N-related transcriptomic datasets are compared with genes that have previously been identified as local and systemic N responders in a split-root transcriptome dataset. Specifically, (i) it was found that transcriptional reprogramming triggered by homogeneous N-treatments is composed of both local and systemic responses, (ii) the spatio-temporal signature of local versus systemic responsive genes is defined, and (iii) the conservation of systemic N-signalling between Arabidopsis and Medicago is assessed. Finally, the potential mediators, i.e. metabolites and phytohormones, of the N-related long-distance signals, are discussed.

  3. Fluorescence-enhancement with different ionic inputs in a cryptand-based multi-receptor signalling system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bamaprasad Bag; Parimal K Bharadwaj


    Two molecules of a laterally non-symmetric aza cryptand have been attached to 9,10-dimethylanthracene to obtain a multi-receptor fluorescent signalling system in the ``receptor-spacer-fluorophore- spacer-receptor” format. In the absence of a metal ion, weak fluorescence is observed upon excitation of the anthryl group owing to efficient photo-induced electron transfer (PET) of the lone pair of N attached to the anthryl group. However, when a metal salt is added, the lone pair is engaged, thus in blocking of the PET and leading to recovery of fluorescence to different extents depending upon the nature of the metal ion.

  4. From blood dialysis to desalination: A one-size fits all block copolymer based membrane system (United States)

    Sanna Kotrappanavar, Nataraj; Zavala-Rivera, Paul; Chonnon, Kevin; Almuhtaseb, Shaheen S. A.; Sivaniah, Easan; University of Cambridge Team; Qatar University Collaboration


    Asymmetric membrane with ultrahigh selective self-assembled nanoporous block copolymer layer were developed successfully on polyimide (PI) support, which demonstrated excellent thermal, chemical and mechanical stability. Membranes with specific nano- structural architectures and optimized cascades of block assemblies on the top selective skin have been used largely for separation of colour from aqueous streams, wastewater treatment, desalination, blood filtration and gas separation with dense layer transformation. A consistent and reliable method of membrane preparation and measuring separation performance has been adopted. A homologous series of ethylene oxide oligomers covering a large range was used to characterise MWCO of Membrane and were able to provide many points to give a comprehensive description of the membrane performance in the nanofiltration range.

  5. A solution for applying IEC 61499 function blocks in the development of substation automation systems


    Vlad, Valentin; Popa, Cezar D.; Turcu, Corneliu O.; Buzduga, Corneliu


    This paper presents a solution for applying IEC 61499 function blocks along with IEC 61850 specifications in modeling and implementing control applications for substations automation. The IEC 61499 artifacts are used for structuring the control logic, while the IEC 61850 concepts for communication and information exchange between the automation devices. The proposed control architecture was implemented and validated in a simple fault protection scenario with simulated power equipment.

  6. Linear systems analysis of the fMRI signal. (United States)

    Boynton, Geoffrey M; Engel, Stephen A; Heeger, David J


    In 1995 when we began our investigations of the human visual system using fMRI, little was known about the temporal properties of the fMRI signal. Before we felt comfortable making quantitative estimates of neuronal responses with this new technique, we decided to first conduct a basic study of how the time-course of the fMRI response varied with stimulus timing and strength. The results ended up showing strong evidence that to a first approximation the hemodynamic transformation was linear in time. This was both important and remarkable: important because nearly all fMRI data analysis techniques assume or require linearity, and remarkable because the physiological basis of the hemodynamic transformation is so complex that we still have a far from complete understanding of it. In this paper, we provide highlights of the results of our original paper supporting the linear transform hypothesis. A reanalysis of the original data provides some interesting new insights into the published results. We also provide a detailed appendix describing of the properties and predictions of a linear system in time in the context of the transformation between neuronal responses and the BOLD signal.

  7. DESI systems engineering: throughput and signal-to-noise (United States)

    Besuner, Robert W.; Sholl, Michael J.


    The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is a fiber-fed multi-object spectroscopic instrument under construction to measure the expansion history of the Universe using the Baryon Acoustic Oscillation technique. Management of light throughput and noise in all elements of the instrument is key to achieving the high-level DESI science requirements over the planned survey area and depth within the planned survey duration. The DESI high-level science requirements flow down to instrument performance requirements on system throughput and operational efficiency. Signal-to-noise requirements directly affect minimum required exposure time per field, which dictates the pace and duration of the entire survey. The need to maximize signal (light throughput) and to minimize noise contributions and time overhead due to reconfigurations between exposures drives the instrument subsystem requirements and technical implementation. Throughput losses, noise contributors, and interexposure reconfiguration time are budgeted, tracked, and managed as DESI Systems Engineering resources. Current best estimates of throughput losses and noise contributions from each individual element of the instrument are tracked together in a master budget to calculate overall margin on completing the survey within the allotted time. That budget is a spreadsheet accessible to the entire DESI project.

  8. Zitongdong Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The Zitongdong Block (Eastern Zitong Block) is located in the northwest of the Sichuan Basin. Tectonically, it is situated in the east part of Zitong Depression, southeast of mid-Longmenshan folded and faulted belt( as shown on Fig. 8 ), covering an area of 1 730 km2. The traffic is very convenient, the No. 108 national highway passes through the north of the block. Topographically, the area belongs to low hilly land at the elevation of 500-700 m.

  9. Special Issue on Signal Processing for Mechanical Systems in Honor of Professor Simon Braun (United States)

    Fassois, Spilios D.


    This Special Issue is in honor of a pioneer of the area of Signal Processing for Mechanical Systems and, at the same time, Founding Editor of the Journal of Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing (MSSP), Professor Simon Braun.

  10. Improper Gaussian Signaling in Interference-Limited Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gaafar, Mohamed


    In the last decade, wireless applications have witnessed a tremendous growth. This can be envisioned in the surge of smart devices which became almost in everyone\\'s possession, demand for high speed connection and the internet of things (IoT) along with its enabling technologies. Hence, the multiuser interference became the main limiting factor in wireless communications. Moreover, just like diamonds and emeralds, the electromagnetic spectrum is limited and precious. Therefore, the high data rate application may not be satisfied by our current technologies. In order to solve this spectrum scarcity problem, researchers have steered their focus to develop new techniques such as cognitive radio (CR) and in-band full-duplex (FD). However, these systems suffer from the interference problem that can dramatically impede their quality-of-service (QoS). Therefore, investigating communication techniques/systems that can relieve the interference adverse signature becomes imperative. Improper Gaussian signaling (IGS) has been recently shown to outperform the traditional proper Gaussian signaling (PGS) in several interference-limited systems. In this thesis, we use IGS in order to mitigate the interference issue in three different communication settings. IGS has the ability to control the interference signal dimension, and hence, it can be considered as one form of interference alignment. In the first part, we investigate an underlay CR system with in-band FD primary users (PUs) and one-way communication for the secondary user (SU). IGS is employed to alleviate the interference introduced by the SU on the PUs. First, we derive a closed form expression and an upper bound for the SU and PUs outage probabilities, respectively. Second, we optimize the SU signal parameters, represented in its power and the circularity coefficient, to achieve the design objectives of the SU while satisfying certain QoS constraints for the PU under instantaneous, average and partial channel state

  11. Permutation-based Homogeneous Block Content Authentication for Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In modern days, digital watermarking has become an admired technique for hitting data in digital images to help guard against copyright infringement. The proposed Permutation-based Homogeneous Block Content authentication (PHBC methods develop a secure and excellence strong watermarking algorithm that combines the reward of permutation-based Homogeneous block (PHB with that of significant and insignificant bit values with X0R encryption function using Max coefficient of least coordinate value for embedding the watermark. In the projected system uses the relationship between the permutation blocks to embed many data into Homogeneous blocks without causing solemn distortion to the watermarked image. The experimental results show that the projected system is very efficient in achieving perceptual invisibility with an increase in the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR. Moreover, the projected system is robust to a variety of signal processing operations, such as image Cropping, Rotation, Resizing, Adding noise, Filtering , Blurring and Motion blurring.

  12. Light relations and performance of signal grass in silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynara Oliveira Diniz Rodrigues


    Full Text Available The aim was to evaluate the influence of different spatial arrangements of trees [(3×2×20 m, (2×2×9 m and 2×9 m] and sampling sites (center of row spacing and side of tree rows with regard to the amount and quality of light in the understory of silvopastoral systems and their effects on the production and chemical composition of pasture. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split plot, with three replications. The sampling site affected absolute irradiance, photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, light interception (LI and red/far red ratio, with higher rates in the center of spacing. There were high and positive correlations between LI/leaf area index (LAI, LI/dry mater (DM and LAI/DM in the center and LI/LAI and FAR/DM in the side of tree rows. Spatial arrangement (3×2×20 m had higher rates for plant height (PH, DM and neutral detergent fiber rate, while (2×2×9 m had high leaf/stem ratio and crude protein rate. In the case of the sampling site, higher rates of PH and DM were reported in the center. Forage composition was not affected by sampling sites. Highest production of DM was obtained in the (3×2×20 m arrangement and improvements in forage composition were observed in denser arrangements.

  13. Optical signal monitoring in phase modulated optical fiber transmission systems (United States)

    Zhao, Jian

    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) is one of the essential functions for future high speed optical networks. Among the parameters to be monitored, chromatic dispersion (CD) is especially important since it has a significant impact on overall system performance. In this thesis effective CD monitoring approaches for phase-shift keying (PSK) based optical transmission systems are investigated. A number of monitoring schemes based on radio frequency (RF) spectrum analysis and delay-tap sampling are proposed and their performance evaluated. A method for dispersion monitoring of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals based on RF power detection is studied. The RF power spectrum is found to increase with the increase of CD and decrease with polarization mode dispersion (PMD). The spectral power density dependence on CD is studied theoretically and then verified through simulations and experiments. The monitoring sensitivity for nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (NRZ-DPSK) and return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) based systems can reach 80ps/nm/dB and 34ps/nm/dB respectively. The scheme enables the monitoring of differential group delay (DGD) and CD simultaneously. The monitoring sensitivity of CD and DGD can reach 56.7ps/nm/dB and 3.1ps/dB using a bandpass filter. The effects of optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), DGD, fiber nonlinearity and chirp on the monitoring results are investigated. Two RF pilot tones are employed for CD monitoring of DPSK signals. Specially selected pilot tone frequencies enable good monitoring sensitivity with minimum influence on the received signals. The dynamic range exceeding 35dB and monitoring sensitivity up to 9.5ps/nm/dB are achieved. Asynchronous sampling technique is employed for CD monitoring. A signed CD monitoring method for 10Gb/s NRZ-DPSK and RZ-DPSK systems using asynchronous delay-tap sampling technique is studied. The demodulated signals suffer asymmetric waveform distortion if

  14. Adaptive Noise Cancellation Method Used for Wheel Speed Signal of Integrate ABS/ASR System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Yue-feng; LIU Zhao-du; QI Zhi-quan; CUI Hai-feng


    A novel adaptive noise cancellation method for wheel speed signal of the anti-lock braking system/anti-slip regulation(ABS/ASR) control system is proposed. Based on the spectrum distribution of vehicle's wheel speed signal got from fast Fourier transform under various conditions, the high-pass filter is used to deal with original wheel speed signals sampled to get reference noise signal and the original wheel speed signals are used as adaptive filter's desired outputs. The difference between original signals and reference noise signals is used as the error signal for the adaptive FIR filter and also used as the whole adaptive noise cancellation system's final output. This method can obtain the noise signal on-line and is easy to use for real control system,which is useful to improve the performance of integrate system ABS/ASR.

  15. Lesson Thirteen Trifascicular Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁端; 王劲


    @@ A complete trifascicular block would result in complete AV block. The idio ventricular rhythm has a slower rate and a wide QRS complex because the pacemaker is located at the peripheral part of the conduction system distal to the sites of the block1. Such a rhythm may be difficult to differentiate from bifascicular or bundle branch block combined with complete block at a higher level such as the AV node or His bundle2. Besides a slower ventricular rate, a change in the morphology of the QRS complex from a previous known bifascicular pattern would be strongly suggestive of a trifascicular origin of the complete AV block3. A His bundle recording is required for a definitive diagnosis, however.

  16. Characteristic parameters of electromagnetic signals from a human heart system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xin-Yuan; Pei Liu-Qing; Wang Yin; Zhang Su-Ming; Gao Hong-Lei; Dai Yuan-Dong


    The electromagnetic field of a human heart system is a bioelectromagnetic field. Electrocardiography (ECG)and magnetocardiography (MCG)are both carriers of electromagnetic information about the cardiac system, and they are nonstationary signals. In this study, ECG and MCG data from healthy subjects are acquired;the MCG data are captured using a high-T, radio frequency superconducting quantum interference device (HTc rf SQUIDs)and the QRS complexes in these data are analysed by the evolutionary spectrum analysis method. The results show that the quality factor Q and the central frequency fz of the QRS complex evolutionary spectrum are the characteristic parameters (CHPs)of ECG and MCG in the time-frequency domain. The confidence intervals of the mean values of the CHPs are estimated by the Student t distribution method in mathematical statistics. We believe that there are threshold ranges of the mean values of Q and fz for healthy subjects. We have postulated the following criterion:if the mean values of CHPs are in the proper ranges, the cardiac system is in a normal condition and it possesses the capability of homeostasis. In contrast, if the mean values of the CHPs do not lie in the proper ranges, the homeostasis of the cardiac system is lacking and some cardiac disease may follow. The results and procedure of MCG CHPs in the study afford a technological route for the application of HTc rf SQUIDs in cardiology.

  17. Supra-normal stimulation of dopamine D1 receptors in the prelimbic cortex blocks behavioral expression of both aversive and rewarding associative memories through a cyclic-AMP-dependent signaling pathway. (United States)

    Lauzon, Nicole M; Bechard, Melanie; Ahmad, Tasha; Laviolette, Steven R


    Dopamine (DA) receptor transmission through either D(1) or D(2)-like subtypes is involved critically in the processing of emotional information within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However the functional role of specific DA D(1)-like receptor transmission in the expression of emotionally salient associative memories (either aversive or rewarding) is not currently understood. Here we demonstrate that specific activation of DA D(1) receptors in the prelimbic (PLC) division of the mPFC causes a transient block in the behavioral expression of both aversive and rewarding associative memories. We report that intra-PLC microinfusions of a selective D(1) receptor agonist block the spontaneous expression of an associative olfactory fear memory, without altering the stability of the original memory trace. Furthermore, using an unbiased place conditioning procedure (CPP), intra-PLC D(1) receptor activation blocks the spontaneous expression of an associative morphine (5 mg/kg; i.p.) reward memory, while leaving morphine-primed memory expression intact. Interestingly, both intra-PLC D(1)-receptor mediated block of either fear-related or reward-related associative memories were dependent upon downstream cyclic-AMP (cAMP) signaling as both effects were rescued by co-administration of a cAMP signaling inhibitor. The blockade of both rewarding and aversive associative memories is mediated through a D(1)-specific signaling pathway, as neither forms of spontaneous memory expression were blocked by intra-PLC microinfusions of a D(2)-like receptor agonist. Our results demonstrate that the spontaneous expression of either rewarding or aversive emotionally salient memories shares a common, D(1)-receptor mediated substrate within the mPFC.

  18. Living ordered neural networks as model systems for signal processing (United States)

    Villard, C.; Amblard, P. O.; Becq, G.; Gory-Fauré, S.; Brocard, J.; Roth, S.


    Neural circuit architecture is a fundamental characteristic of the brain, and how architecture is bound to biological functions is still an open question. Some neuronal geometries seen in the retina or the cochlea are intriguing: information is processed in parallel by several entities like in "pooling" networks which have recently drawn the attention of signal processing scientists. These systems indeed exhibit the noise-enhanced processing effect, which is also actively discussed in the neuroscience community at the neuron scale. The aim of our project is to use in-vitro ordered neuron networks as living paradigms to test ideas coming from the computational science. The different technological bolts that have to be solved are enumerated and the first results are presented. A neuron is a polarised cell, with an excitatory axon and a receiving dendritic tree. We present how soma confinement and axon differentiation can be induced by surface functionalization techniques. The recording of large neuron networks, ordered or not, is also detailed and biological signals shown. The main difficulty to access neural noise in the case of weakly connected networks grown on micro electrode arrays is explained. This open the door to a new detection technology suitable for sub-cellular analysis and stimulation, whose development will constitute the next step of this project.

  19. Modeling the global positioning system signal propagation through the ionosphere (United States)

    Bassiri, S.; Hajj, G. A.


    Based on realistic modeling of the electron density of the ionosphere and using a dipole moment approximation for the Earth's magnetic field, one is able to estimate the effect of the ionosphere on the Global Positioning System (GPS) signal for a ground user. The lowest order effect, which is on the order of 0.1-100 m of group delay, is subtracted out by forming a linear combination of the dual frequencies of the GPS signal. One is left with second- and third-order effects that are estimated typically to be approximately 0-2 cm and approximately 0-2 mm at zenith, respectively, depending on the geographical location, the time of day, the time of year, the solar cycle, and the relative geometry of the magnetic field and the line of sight. Given the total electron content along a line of sight, the authors derive an approximation to the second-order term which is accurate to approximately 90 percent within the magnetic dipole moment model; this approximation can be used to reduce the second-order term to the millimeter level, thus potentially improving precise positioning in space and on the ground. The induced group delay, or phase advance, due to second- and third-order effects is examined for two ground receivers located at equatorial and mid-latitude regions tracking several GPS satellites.

  20. Cross-membrane signal transduction of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs): from systems biology to systems pharmacology. (United States)

    Benson, Neil; van der Graaf, Piet H; Peletier, Lambertus A


    Receptor tyrosine kinases are high-affinity cell surface receptors for many polypeptide growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. They straddle the cell wall and play an important role in cross-membrane signalling. We present a two-component systems pharmacology model based on the local physiology and identify characteristic features of its dynamics. We thus present a transparent tool for studying the effects of drug intervention and ways of administration on cross-membrane signalling through these receptors.

  1. The impact of domestic rainwater harvesting systems in storm water runoff mitigation at the urban block scale. (United States)

    Palla, A; Gnecco, I; La Barbera, P


    In the framework of storm water management, Domestic Rainwater Harvesting (DRWH) systems are recently recognized as source control solutions according to LID principles. In order to assess the impact of these systems in storm water runoff control, a simple methodological approach is proposed. The hydrologic-hydraulic modelling is undertaken using EPA SWMM; the DRWH is implemented in the model by using a storage unit linked to the building water supply system and to the drainage network. The proposed methodology has been implemented for a residential urban block located in Genoa (Italy). Continuous simulations are performed by using the high-resolution rainfall data series for the ''do nothing'' and DRWH scenarios. The latter includes the installation of a DRWH system for each building of the urban block. Referring to the test site, the peak and volume reduction rate evaluated for the 2125 rainfall events are respectively equal to 33 and 26 percent, on average (with maximum values of 65 percent for peak and 51 percent for volume). In general, the adopted methodology indicates that the hydrologic performance of the storm water drainage network equipped with DRWH systems is noticeable even for the design storm event (T = 10 years) and the rainfall depth seems to affect the hydrologic performance at least when the total depth exceeds 20 mm.

  2. Simulation of signal transduction in model multiprotein systems (United States)

    Su, Julius


    To simulate the dynamics of multiprotein machines, I have developed a method called multiconformer Brownian dynamics (mcBD). In this method, proteins rotate and translate via Brownian motion while their conformations are varied among a prestored set of structures on a simplified energy landscape, taking into account inter-protein interactions. As an example, I build a simple model of a G-protein coupled receptor/G-protein complex, and show that ligand binding causes conformational shifts, which induce GDP to leave, GTP to bind, and the complex to dissociate. The two proteins couple their fast fluctuations together into large-scale coordinated functional motions, resulting in signal transduction. I vary the shapes, electrostatics, and energy landscapes of the proteins independently and examine the impact this has on the system's function. In one result, increasing the binding between proteins improves the fidelity of communication, but at the expense of overall switching frequency.

  3. An online emission spectral tomography system with digital signal processor. (United States)

    Wan, Xiong; Xiong, Wenlin; Zhang, Zhimin; Chang, Fangfei


    Emission spectral tomography (EST) has been adopted to test the three-dimensional distribution parameters of fluid fields, such as burning gas, flame and plasma etc. In most cases, emission spectral data received by the video cameras are enormous so that the emission spectral tomography calculation is often time-consuming. Hence, accelerating calculation becomes the chief factor that one must consider for the practical application of EST. To solve the problem, a hardware implementation method was proposed in this paper, which adopted a digital signal processor (DSP) DM642 in an emission spectral tomography test system. The EST algorithm was fulfilled in the DSP, then calculation results were transmitted to the main computer via the user datagram protocol. Compared with purely VC++ software implementations, this new approach can decrease the calculation time significantly.

  4. Pristimerin induces apoptosis in imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia cells harboring T315I mutation by blocking NF-κB signaling and depleting Bcr-Abl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cao Qi


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML is characterized by the chimeric tyrosine kinase Bcr-Abl. Bcr-Abl-T315I is the notorious point mutation that causes resistance to imatinib and the second generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors, leading to poor prognosis. CML blasts have constitutive p65 (RelA NF-κB transcriptional activity, and NF-κB may be a potential target for molecular therapies in CML that may also be effective against CML cells with Bcr-Abl-T315I. Results In this report, we discovered that pristimerin, a quinonemethide triterpenoid isolated from Celastraceae and Hippocrateaceae, inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in CML cells, including the cells harboring Bcr-Abl-T315I mutation. Additionally, pristimerin inhibited the growth of imatinib-resistant Bcr-Abl-T315I xenografts in nude mice. Pristimerin blocked the TNFα-induced IκBα phosphorylation, translocation of p65, and expression of NF-κB-regulated genes. Pristimerin inhibited two steps in NF-κB signaling: TAK1→IKK and IKK→IκBα. Pristimerin potently inhibited two pairs of CML cell lines (KBM5 versus KBM5-T315I, 32D-Bcr-Abl versus 32D-Bcr-Abl-T315I and primary cells from a CML patient with acquired resistance to imatinib. The mRNA and protein levels of Bcr-Abl in imatinib-sensitive (KBM5 or imatinib-resistant (KBM5-T315I CML cells were reduced after pristimerin treatment. Further, inactivation of Bcr-Abl by imatinib pretreatment did not abrogate the TNFα-induced NF-κB activation while silencing p65 by siRNA did not affect the levels of Bcr-Abl, both results together indicating that NF-κB inactivation and Bcr-Abl inhibition may be parallel independent pathways. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first report to show that pristimerin is effective in vitro and in vivo against CML cells, including those with the T315I mutation. The mechanisms may involve inhibition of NF-κB and Bcr-Abl. We concluded that pristimerin could be a lead compound for

  5. Control of intrachain charge transfer in model systems for block copolymer photovoltaic materials. (United States)

    Johnson, Kerr; Huang, Ya-Shih; Huettner, Sven; Sommer, Michael; Brinkmann, Martin; Mulherin, Rhiannon; Niedzialek, Dorota; Beljonne, David; Clark, Jenny; Huck, Wilhelm T S; Friend, Richard H


    We report the electronic properties of the conjugated coupling between a donor polymer and an acceptor segment serving as a model for the coupling in conjugated donor-acceptor block copolymers. These structures allow the study of possible intrachain photoinduced charge separation, in contrast to the interchain separation achieved in conventional donor-acceptor blends. Depending on the nature of the conjugated linkage, we observe varying degrees of modification of the excited states, including the formation of intrachain charge transfer excitons. The polymers comprise a block (typically 18 repeat units) of P3HT, poly(3-hexyl thiophene), coupled to a single unit of F8-TBT (where F8 is dioctylfluorene, and TBT is thiophene-benzothiadiazole-thiophene). When the P3HT chain is linked to the TBT unit, we observe formation of a localized charge transfer state, with red-shifted absorption and emission. Independent of the excitation energy, this state is formed very rapidly (<40 fs) and efficiently. Because there is only a single TBT unit present, there is little scope for long-range charge separation and it is relatively short-lived, <1 ns. In contrast, when the P3HT chain and TBT unit are separated by the wider bandgap F8 unit, there is little indication for modification of either ground or excited electronic states, and longer-lived charge separated states are observed.

  6. Development of DC-TOP Signal Processing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Uk Won [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The PSD panel of the DC-TOF consists of 32 PSD(Position Sensitive Detector) and its signal processing part. Each signal processing part can communicate with Data Acquisition PC with TCP/IP protocol. By such a way, total 352 PSD(l1 paneD can be used in DC-TOF. In panel, 1 DSP, 8 PML and 64 PAM are installed as signal processing part, and control neutron detecting signal from 32 PSDs

  7. Signal transduction in cells of the immune system in microgravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huber Kathrin


    Full Text Available Abstract Life on Earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Gravity has been present during the entire evolution, from the first organic molecule to mammals and humans. Modern research revealed clearly that gravity is important, probably indispensable for the function of living systems, from unicellular organisms to men. Thus, gravity research is no more or less a fundamental question about the conditions of life on Earth. Since the first space missions and supported thereafter by a multitude of space and ground-based experiments, it is well known that immune cell function is severely suppressed in microgravity, which renders the cells of the immune system an ideal model organism to investigate the influence of gravity on the cellular and molecular level. Here we review the current knowledge about the question, if and how cellular signal transduction depends on the existence of gravity, with special focus on cells of the immune system. Since immune cell function is fundamental to keep the organism under imnological surveillance during the defence against pathogens, to investigate the effects and possible molecular mechanisms of altered gravity is indispensable for long-term space flights to Earth Moon or Mars. Thus, understanding the impact of gravity on cellular functions on Earth will provide not only important informations about the development of life on Earth, but also for therapeutic and preventive strategies to cope successfully with medical problems during space exploration.

  8. Exchange bias beyond the superparamagnetic blocking temperature of the antiferromagnet in a Ni-NiO nanoparticulate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Aparna, E-mail:, E-mail:; Ferreira, J. M. F. [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); De Toro, J. A.; Muniz, P.; Riveiro, J. M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Amaral, V. S. [Department of Physics and CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)


    We report magnetic and exchange bias studies on Ni-NiO nanoparticulate systems synthesized by a two-step process, namely, chemical reduction of a Ni salt followed by air annealing of the dried precipitate in the temperature range 400–550 °C. Size of Ni and NiO crystallites as estimated from X–ray diffraction line broadening ranges between 10.5–13.5 nm and 2.3–4 nm, respectively. The magneto-thermal plots (M-T) of these bi-magnetic samples show a well developed peak in the vicinity of 130 K. This has been identified as the superparamagnetic blocking temperature “T{sub B}” of NiO. Interestingly, all samples exhibit exchange bias even above their respective NiO blocking temperatures, right up to 300 K, the maximum temperature of measurement. This is in contrast to previous reports since exchange bias requires the antiferromagnetic NiO to have a stable direction of its moment in order to pin the ferromagnet (Ni) magnetization, whereas such stability is unlikely above T{sub B} since the NiO is superparamagnetic, its moment flipping under thermal activation. Our observation is elucidated by taking into account the core-shell morphology of the Ni-NiO nanoparticles whereby clustering of some of these nanoparticles connects their NiO shells to form extended continuous regions of NiO, which because of their large size remain blocked at T > T{sub B}, with thermally stable spins capable of pinning the Ni cores and giving rise to exchange bias. The investigated samples may thus be envisaged as being constituted of both isolated core-shell Ni-NiO nanoparticles as well as clustered ones, with T{sub B} denoting the blocking temperature of the NiO shell of the isolated particles.

  9. Performance of a space-time block coded code division multiple access system over Nakagami-m fading channels (United States)

    Yu, Xiangbin; Dong, Tao; Xu, Dazhuan; Bi, Guangguo


    By introducing an orthogonal space-time coding scheme, multiuser code division multiple access (CDMA) systems with different space time codes are given, and corresponding system performance is investigated over a Nakagami-m fading channel. A low-complexity multiuser receiver scheme is developed for space-time block coded CDMA (STBC-CDMA) systems. The scheme can make full use of the complex orthogonality of space-time block coding to simplify the high decoding complexity of the existing scheme. Compared to the existing scheme with exponential decoding complexity, it has linear decoding complexity. Based on the performance analysis and mathematical calculation, the average bit error rate (BER) of the system is derived in detail for integer m and non-integer m, respectively. As a result, a tight closed-form BER expression is obtained for STBC-CDMA with an orthogonal spreading code, and an approximate closed-form BER expression is attained for STBC-CDMA with a quasi-orthogonal spreading code. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve almost the same performance as the existing scheme with low complexity. Moreover, the simulation results for average BER are consistent with the theoretical analysis.

  10. Theoretical analysis and simulation of a code division multiple access system (cdma for secure signal transmission in wideband channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan M. Berber


    Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA technique which allows communications of multiple users in the same communication system. This is achieved in such a way that each user is assigned a unique code sequence, which is used at the receiver side to discover the information dedicated to that user. These systems belong to the group of communication systems for direct sequence spread spectrum systems. Traditionally, CDMA systems use binary orthogonal spreading codes. In this paper, a mathematical model and simulation of a CDMA system based on the application of non-binary, precisely speaking, chaotic spreading sequences. In their nature, these sequences belong to random sequences with infinite periodicity, and due to that they are appropriate for applications in the systems that provide enhanced security against interception and secrecy in signal transmission. Numerous papers are dedicated to the development of CDMA systems in flat fading channels. This paper presents the results of these systems analysis for the case when frequency selective fading is present in the channel. In addition, the paper investigates a possibility of using interleaving techniques to mitigate fading in a wideband channel with the frequency selective fading. Basic structure of a CDMA communication system and its operation In this paper, a CDMA system block schematic is ppresented and the function of all blocks is explained. Notation  to be used in the paper is introduced. Chaotic sequences are defined and explained in accordance with the method of their generation. A wideband channel with frequency selective fading is defined by its impulse response function. Theoretical analysis of a CDMA system with flat fading in a narrowband channel A narrowband channel and flat fading are defined. A mathematical analysis of the system is conducted by presenting the signal expressions at vital points in the transmitter and receiver. The expression of the signal at the output of the sequence correlator is


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Hong; ZHOU Zhiyuan; DAI Rongyang; LUO Bo; ZHENG Xiaoli; YANG Wenli; HE Tao; WU Minglu


    In cells, the interactions of distinct signaling transduction pathways originating from cross-talkings between signaling molecules give rise to the formation of signaling transduction networks, which contributes to the changes (emergency) of kinetic behaviors of signaling system compared with single molecule or pathway. Depending on the known experimental data, we have constructed a model for complex cellular signaling transduction system, which is derived from signaling transduction of epidermal growth factor receptor in neuron. By the computational simulating methods, the self-adaptive controls of this system have been investigated. We find that this model exhibits a relatively stable selfadaptive system, especially to over-stimulation of agonist, and the amplitude and duration of signaling intermediates in it could be controlled by multiple self-adaptive effects, such as "signal scattering", "positive feedback", "negative feedback" and "B-Raf shunt". Our results provide an approach to understanding the dynamic behaviors of complex biological systems.

  12. Zitongxi Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Zitongxi Block (Western Zitong Block), is located in Zitong County, northwest of Sichuan Province (as shown on Fig. 8 ). Geologically. it is situated in the Zitong Depression, southwest of the middle Longmenshan faulted and folded belt, covering an area of 1 830 km2. Transportation is very convenient. A crisscross network of highways run through the block and the Baocheng railway is nearby. The climate is moderate. Most area belongs to hilly land with the elevation of 500-600 m.The Tongjiang River runs across the area.

  13. Engineering satellite-based navigation and timing global navigation satellite systems, signals, and receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Betz, J


    This book describes the design and performance analysis of satnav systems, signals, and receivers. It also provides succinct descriptions and comparisons of all the world’s satnav systems. Its comprehensive and logical structure addresses all satnav signals and systems in operation and being developed. Engineering Satellite-Based Navigation and Timing: Global Navigation Satellite Systems, Signals, and Receivers provides the technical foundation for designing and analyzing satnav signals, systems, and receivers. Its contents and structure address all satnav systems and signals: legacy, modernized, and new. It combines qualitative information with detailed techniques and analyses, providing a comprehensive set of insights and engineering tools for this complex multidisciplinary field. Part I describes system and signal engineering including orbital mechanics and constellation design, signal design principles and underlying considerations, link budgets, qua tifying receiver performance in interference, and e...

  14. Non-Linear Detection for Joint Space-Frequency Block Coding and Spatial Multiplexing in OFDM-MIMO Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahman, Imadur Mohamed; Marchetti, Nicola; Fitzek, Frank;


    In this work, we have analyzed a joint spatial diversity and multiplexing transmission structure for MIMO-OFDM system, where Orthogonal Space-Frequency Block Coding (OSFBC) is used across all spatial multiplexing branches. We have derived a BLAST-like non-linear Successive Interference Cancellation...... in this paper. We have found that a linear two-stage receiver for the proposed system [1] performs very close to the non-linear receiver studied in this work. Finally, we compared the system performance in spatially correlated scenario. It is found that higher amount of spatial correlation at the transmitter...... (SIC) receiver where the detection is done on subcarrier by sub-carrier basis based on both Zero Forcing (ZF) and Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) nulling criterion for the system. In terms of Frame Error Rate (FER), MMSE based SIC receiver performs better than all other receivers compared...

  15. Design Error Performance of Space-Frequency Block Coded OFDM Systems with Different Equalizers and For Different Modulation Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijhun Tripathi


    Full Text Available —Multiple transmit and receive antennas can be used to form multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO channels to increase the capacity (by a factor of the minimum number of transmit and receive antennas and data rate. In this paper, the combination of MIMO technology and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM systems is considered for wideband transmission to mitigate inter symbol interference and to enhance system capacity. It owns the advantages of both MIMO and OFDM. MIMO-OFDM system exploits the space and frequency diversity simultaneously to improve the performance of system. The coding is done across OFDM subcarriers rather than OFDM symbols. In this paper, the performance of Space-Frequency (SF block coding for MIMO-OFDM along with different equalizers is investigated. Bit Error Rate (BER analysis is presented using different equalizers and then optimum equalization method is suggested.

  16. The Bucket System – A computer mediated signaling system for group improvisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlstedt, Palle; Nilsson, Per Anders; Robair, Gino


    The Bucket System is a new system for computer-mediated ensemble improvisation, designed by improvisers for improvisers. Coming from a tradition of structured free ensemble improvisation practices (comprovisation), influenced by post-WW2 experimental music practices, it is a signaling system...... implemented with a set of McMillen QuNeo controllers as input and output interfaces, powered by custom software. It allows for a new kind of on-stage compositional/improvisation interaction....

  17. Analysis on Design of Kohonen-network System Based on Classification of Complex Signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The key methods of detection and classification of the electroencephalogram(EEG) used in recent years are introduced . Taking EEG for example, the design plan of Kohonen neural network system based on detection and classification of complex signals is proposed, and both the network design and signal processing are analyzed, including pre-processing of signals, extraction of signal features, classification of signal and network topology, etc.

  18. Chengzikou Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Chengzikou Block is located in the north of Hekou district, Dongying City, Shandong Province, adjacent to Bohai Bay. It can be geographically divided into three units: onshore, transitional zone and offshore ultrashallow zone, totally covering an area of 470 km2. The southern onshore area is low and gentle in topography;the northern shallow sea is at water depths of 2-8 m below sea level, and the transitional zone occupies more than 60% of the whole block. The climate belongs to temperate zone with seasonal wind. Highways are welldeveloped here, and the traffic is very convenient. The Chengzikou Block is about 80 km away from Dongying City and 290 km from Jinan City in the south. The northern offshore area of the block is 160 km away from Longkou port in the east and only 38 km away in the west from Zhuangxi port.

  19. Digital Signal Processing Based Real Time Vehicular Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhaoxuan; LIN Tao; LI Xiangping; LIU Chunyi; GAO Jian


    Traffic monitoring is of major importance for enforcing traffic management policies.To accomplish this task,the detection of vehicle can be achieved by exploiting image analysis techniques.In this paper,a solution is presented to obtain various traffic parameters through vehicular video detection system(VVDS).VVDS exploits the algorithm based on virtual loops to detect moving vehicle in real time.This algorithm uses the background differencing method,and vehicles can be detected through luminance difference of pixels between background image and current image.Furthermore a novel technology named as spatio-temporal image sequences analysis is applied to background differencing to improve detection accuracy.Then a hardware implementation of a digital signal processing (DSP) based board is described in detail and the board can simultaneously process four-channel video from different cameras. The benefit of usage of DSP is that images of a roadway can be processed at frame rate due to DSP′s high performance.In the end,VVDS is tested on real-world scenes and experiment results show that the system is both fast and robust to the surveillance of transportation.

  20. Longmenshan Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ Longmenshan Block is located in Jiange County of Jiangyou City in the northwest of Sichuan Basin. covering an area of 2 628 km2. Geologically, it is situated in the Mid-Longmenshan fault and fold belt, neighbouring Zitong Depression in its southeast. There are mountains surrounding its northwest , the rest area being hilly land,with the elevation of 500-700 m. The BaoCheng railway and the No. 108 highway run through the block, the traffic is very convenient.

  1. Expression of the Wnt signaling system in central nervous system axon guidance and regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eHollis


    Full Text Available Wnt signaling is essential for axon wiring throughout the development of the nervous system in vertebrates and invertebrates. In vertebrates, Wnts are expressed in gradients that span the entire anterior-posterior axis in the spinal cord and the medial-lateral axis in the superior colliculus. In the brainstem, Wnts are expressed in more complex gradients along the anterior-posterior axis. These gradients provide directional information for axon pathfinding and positional information for topographic mapping and are detected by cell polarity signaling pathways. The gradient expression of Wnts and the coordinated expression of Wnt signaling systems are regulated by mechanisms which are currently unknown. Injury to the adult spinal cord results in the re-induction of Wnts in multiple cell types around the lesion site and their signaling system in injured axons. Reinduced Wnts form gradients around the lesion site, with the lesion site being the peak. The reinduced Wnts may be responsible for the well-known retraction of descending motor axons through the atypical kinase receptor Ryk. Wnt signaling is an appealing therapeutic target for CNS repair. The mechanisms regulating the reinduction will be informative for therapeutic design.

  2. A signal processing method for the friction-based endpoint detection system of a CMP process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Chi; Guo Dongming; Jin Zhuji; Kang Renke, E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-Traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)


    A signal processing method for the friction-based endpoint detection system of a chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process is presented. The signal process method uses the wavelet threshold denoising method to reduce the noise contained in the measured original signal, extracts the Kalman filter innovation from the denoised signal as the feature signal, and judges the CMP endpoint based on the feature of the Kalman filter innovation sequence during the CMP process. Applying the signal processing method, the endpoint detection experiments of the Cu CMP process were carried out. The results show that the signal processing method can judge the endpoint of the Cu CMP process. (semiconductor technology)

  3. Signal amplification in biological and electrical engineering systems: universal role of cascades. (United States)

    Grubelnik, Vladimir; Dugonik, Bogdan; Osebik, Davorin; Marhl, Marko


    In this paper we compare the cascade mechanisms of signal amplification in biological and electrical engineering systems, and show that they share the capacity to considerably amplify signals, and respond to signal changes both quickly and completely, which effectively preserves the form of the input signal. For biological systems, these characteristics are crucial for efficient and reliable cellular signaling. We show that this highly-efficient biological mechanism of signal amplification that has naturally evolved is mathematically fully equivalent with some man-developed amplifiers, which indicates parallels between biological evolution and successful technology development.

  4. Interleukin-7 Receptor Signaling Network: An Integrated Systems Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Megan J. Palmer; Vinay S. Mahajan; Lily C. Trajman; Darrell J. Irvine; Douglas A.Lauffenburger; Jianzhu Chen


    Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an essential cytokine for the development and homeostatic maintenance of T and B lymphocytes. Binding of IL-7 to its cognate receptor, the IL-7 receptor (IL-7R), activates multiple pathways that regulate lymphocyte survival, glucose uptake, proliferation and differentiation. There has been much interest in understanding how IL-7 receptor signaling is modulated at multiple interconnected network levels. This review examines how the strength of the signal through the IL-7 receptor is modulated in T and B cells, including the use of shared receptor components, signaling crosstaik, shared interaction domains, feedback loops, integrated gene regulation, muitimerization and ligand competition. We discuss how these network control mechanisms could integrate to govern the properties of IL-7R signaling in lymphocytes in health and disease. Analysis of IL-7receptor signaling at a network level in a systematic manner will allow for a comprehensive approach to understanding the impact of multiple signaling pathways on lymphocyte biology.

  5. A novel peptide can mimic extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein to block the activation of complement system. (United States)

    Gao, Ya-ping; Dong, Jie; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Yu; Lu, Qiang; Feng, Jian-nan; Tan, Xiao-rong; Yang, Guang


    Extracellular fibrinogen-binding protein (Efb) of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a bi-functional protein, which can specifically bind fibrinogen with its N terminus and inhibit deposition of C3b on the surface of S. aureus with its C terminus. Here, we screened the epitopes of Efb using phage display. Four peptides with consensus motif were screened. This consensus motif was identical to C terminus (161-164) of Efb. In the further investigation, it was found the synthesized peptide EC1 (154-165aa of Efb) could specifically bind C3/C3b and subsequently to block the activation of complement. Meanwhile, EC1 could inhibit the interaction between Efb and C3/C3b. Moreover, the interaction between the mutant protein of EmC1 (Efb without EC1) and C3 was decreased. And, the effect on the complement system of the mutant protein was dramatically declined compared with Efb. Our finding suggested that the peptide EC1 could mimic Efb to block complement system activation via binding C3.

  6. Modelling of Shaded and Unshaded Shallow-Ground Heat Pump System for a Residential Building Block in a Mediterranean Climate (United States)

    Bottarelli, M.; Yousif, C.


    Heat pumps may be coupled to shallow-ground geothermal fields and used for the purpose of space heating and cooling of buildings. However, quite often it is not possible to locate the geothermal field in cleared grounds, especially in cities where building density is high and land has a high premium. This leads to the possibility of burying the geothermal field under the basement of new building blocks, before construction of the building. In the present work, the shaded-unshaded arrangement is numerically studied by coupling the software DesignBuilder-EnergyPlus to assess the building’s energy requirement with the software FEFLOW to solve the heat transfer equation in porous media. Assuming a standard residential building block, the coupling between the two software is performed by assigning the thermal energy requirement for air conditioning, as calculated by EnergyPlus, to a flat-panel typology of ground heat exchanger simplified in a 2D FEFLOW’s domain. The results show that it is necessary to opt for a dual-source heat pump (air/geothermal) system to ensure that the ground is not frozen or over-heated at peak times and to improve the overall performance of the system.

  7. Prorenin and renin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 activation in monocytes is not blocked by aliskiren or the handle-region peptide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Feldt (Sandra); W.W. Batenburg (Wendy); I. Mazak (Istvan); U. Maschke (Ulrike); M. Wellner (Maren); H. Kvakan (Heda); R. Dechend (Ralf); A. Fiebeler (Anette); C. Burckle (Celine); A. Contrepas (Aurelie); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); M. Bader (Michael); G. Nguyen (Genevieve); F.C. Luft (Friedrich); D. Müller (Dominik)


    textabstractThe recently cloned (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] mediates renin-stimulated cellular effects by activating mitogen-activated protein kinases and promotes nonproteolytic prorenin activation. In vivo, (P)RR is said to be blocked with a peptide consisting of 10 amino acids from the prorenin p

  8. Statistical Signal Processing in Humanitarian Mine Clerance Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Brian; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Larsen, Jan;


    Denne artikel beskriver kortfattet metoder og resultater relateret til clutterreduktion (clutter: uønskede reflekterede signaler) i jordradar- (eng. ground penetrating radar, GPR) signaler vha. statistiske signalbehandlingsmetoder baseret på Independent Component Analysis (ICA). Formålet ved denn...

  9. Signalling in rhizobacteria-induced systemic resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse, C.M.J.; Wees, A.C.M. van; Ton, J.; Pelt, J.A. van; Loon, L.C. van


    To protect themselves from disease, plants have evolved sophisticated defence mechanisms in which the signal molecules salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene often play crucial roles. Elucidation of signalling pathways controlling disease resistance is a major objective in research on plant-path


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Faizulaieva


    Full Text Available The reasonability for the usage of computer systems user voice in the authentication process is proved. The scientific task for improving the signal/noise ratio of the user voice signal in the authentication system is considered. The object of study is the process of input and output of the voice signal of authentication system user in computer systems and networks. Methods and means for input and extraction of voice signal against external interference signals are researched. Methods for quality enhancement of user voice signal in voice authentication systems are suggested. As modern computer facilities, including mobile ones, have two-channel audio card, the usage of two microphones is proposed in the voice signal input system of authentication system. Meanwhile, the task of forming a lobe of microphone array in a desired area of voice signal registration (100 Hz to 8 kHz is solved. The usage of directional properties of the proposed microphone array gives the possibility to have the influence of external interference signals two or three times less in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The possibilities for implementation of space-time processing of the recorded signals using constant and adaptive weighting factors are investigated. The simulation results of the proposed system for input and extraction of signals during digital processing of narrowband signals are presented. The proposed solutions make it possible to improve the value of the signal/noise ratio of the useful signals recorded up to 10, ..., 20 dB under the influence of external interference signals in the frequency range from 4 to 8 kHz. The results may be useful to specialists working in the field of voice recognition and speaker’s discrimination.

  11. Chaotic signal reconstruction with application to noise radar system (United States)

    Liu, Lidong; Hu, Jinfeng; He, Zishu; Han, Chunlin; Li, Huiyong; Li, Jun


    Chaotic signals are potentially attractive in engineering applications, most of which require an accurate estimation of the actual chaotic signal from a noisy background. In this article, we present an improved symbolic dynamics-based method (ISDM) for accurate estimating the initial condition of chaotic signal corrupted by noise. Then, a new method, called piecewise estimation method (PEM), for chaotic signal reconstruction based on ISDM is proposed. The reconstruction performance using PEM is much better than that using the existing initial condition estimation methods. Next, PEM is applied in a noncoherent reception noise radar scheme and an improved noncoherent reception scheme is given. The simulation results show that the improved noncoherent scheme has better correlation performance and range resolution especially at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs).

  12. Chaotic signal reconstruction with application to noise radar system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Lidong


    Full Text Available Abstract Chaotic signals are potentially attractive in engineering applications, most of which require an accurate estimation of the actual chaotic signal from a noisy background. In this article, we present an improved symbolic dynamics-based method (ISDM for accurate estimating the initial condition of chaotic signal corrupted by noise. Then, a new method, called piecewise estimation method (PEM, for chaotic signal reconstruction based on ISDM is proposed. The reconstruction performance using PEM is much better than that using the existing initial condition estimation methods. Next, PEM is applied in a noncoherent reception noise radar scheme and an improved noncoherent reception scheme is given. The simulation results show that the improved noncoherent scheme has better correlation performance and range resolution especially at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs.

  13. The virion host shutoff protein of herpes simplex virus 1 blocks the replication-independent activation of NF-κB in dendritic cells in the absence of type I interferon signaling. (United States)

    Cotter, Christopher R; Kim, Won-keun; Nguyen, Marie L; Yount, Jacob S; López, Carolina B; Blaho, John A; Moran, Thomas M


    Immune evasion is a defining feature of the virus-host relationship. During infection, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) utilizes multiple proteins to manipulate the host immune response. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which the virion host shutoff (vhs) protein blocks the activation of dendritic cells (DCs). Previously, we found that coinfection of wild-type HSV-1 with a panel of RNA viruses resulted in a block to DC activation that was attributable to vhs. These observations led us to hypothesize that the vhs-mediated inhibition was dependent on signaling through the RIG-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling pathway. By examining DCs generated from MAVS (IPS-1) knockout (KO) mice, we determined that RLR/MAVS signaling is not essential for the DC response to HSV-1. We also evaluated the requirement for the type I interferon (IFN) signaling pathway in DC activation following infection with HSV-1 and found that stimulation of DCs with wild-type HSV-1 required intact type I IFN signaling for the production of cytokines, whereas the vhs deletion (vhs(-)) mutant virus activated DCs without the need for exogenous IFN signaling. Comparisons of transcription factor activation in DCs infected with wild-type HSV and the vhs(-) mutant virus revealed that NF-κB activation was inhibited by vhs in the early phase of the infection. In contrast, IRF3 activation was not influenced by vhs. In these studies, measurement of proinflammatory cytokines and type I IFN release from the infected DCs reflected the activation status of these transcription factors. Taken together, the work presented here (i) describes a novel role for the vhs protein as an inhibitor of the early activation of NF-κB during HSV-1 infection of DCs and (ii) offers a mechanistic explanation of how this protein interferes with DC activation.

  14. A Combinatorial Method Based on Function Block and Object-Orientation Concepts for Modeling Distributed Real-Time Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sadighi Moshkenani


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel modeling method for distributed real-time control systems. The method uses function blocks model of IEC 61499 standard related to industrial control systems in combination with object-oriented approach for software production. The new modeling technique is named OO+FB. This method models distribution characteristics and real-time constraints accurately and provides a proper background for analysis and design of controllers. The new methodology, gives a complete framework for facing with modern industrial processes, using the good characteristics of both fundamental method. In this paper, different steps of OO+FB is described and advantages of using such a model is discussed, so a reliable approach is introduced for modeling.

  15. The promotion of breast cancer metastasis caused by inhibition of CSF-1R/CSF-1 signaling is blocked by targeting the G-CSF receptor. (United States)

    Swierczak, Agnieszka; Cook, Andrew D; Lenzo, Jason C; Restall, Christina M; Doherty, Judy P; Anderson, Robin L; Hamilton, John A


    Treatment options are limited for patients with breast cancer presenting with metastatic disease. Targeting of tumor-associated macrophages through the inhibition of colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R), a key macrophage signaling pathway, has been reported to reduce tumor growth and metastasis, and these treatments are now in clinical trials. Here, we report that, surprisingly, treatment with neutralizing anti-CSF-1R and anti-CSF-1 antibodies, or with two different small-molecule inhibitors of CSF-1R, could actually increase spontaneous metastasis without altering primary tumor growth in mice bearing two independently derived mammary tumors. The blockade of CSF-1R or CSF-1 led to increased levels of serum G-CSF, increased frequency of neutrophils in the primary tumor and in the metastasis-associated lung, as well as increased numbers of neutrophils and Ly6C(hi) monocytes in the peripheral blood. Neutralizing antibody against the G-CSF receptor, which regulates neutrophil development and function, reduced the enhanced metastasis and neutrophil numbers that resulted from CSF-1R blockade. These results indicate that the role of the CSF-1R/CSF-1 system in breast cancer is far more complex than originally proposed, and requires further investigation as a therapeutic target.

  16. [Research on proportional control system of prosthetic hand based on FMG signals]. (United States)

    Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; Li, Panpan; Zhao, Shengnan


    The control of prosthetic hand is always a focus in prosthesis research. For solving current problems of controlling signals of skin surface electrical signals, we applied force myography (FMG) signals in prosthetic control of this system. The control system based on FMG signals were designed, containing signal acquisition and pre-processing, prosthetic control, motor driving and so on. Two-freedom artificial hand with proportional control was proposed through acquiring two-channel FMG signals from the amputee stump. The proportional control of prosthetic hand was achieved according to the average of FMG amplitude. The results showed that the control system had a great potential to control artificial hand and to realize speed adjustment effectively. Besides, the Virtual instrument software LabVIEW is adopted to establish the FMG signal collection and calibration of experiment system.

  17. Property Blocks: Games and Activities. (United States)

    Humphreys, Alan, Ed.; Dailey, Jean, Ed.

    This pamphlet describes the property blocks produced by MINNEMAST, and discusses their use in the development of thinking processes. Classification systems, including block diagrams and tree diagrams, are discussed. Sixteen classroom activities and eleven games which use the blocks are described. Suggestions to the teacher for further reading are…

  18. Chadong Block

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The Chadong Block, located in the east of Qaidam Basin, Qinghai Province, covers an area of 12 452 km2. It is bounded by Kunlum Mountains in the south and the northwest is closely adjacent to Aimunike Mountain.Rivers are widely distributed, which always run in NWSE direction, including the Sulunguole, Qaidam and Haluwusu Rivers. The traffic condition is good, the Qinghai-Tibet highway stretching through the whole area and the Lan-Qing railway, 20-50 km away from the block, passing from north to west. A lot of Mongolia minority people have settled there, of which herdsmen always live nearby the Qaidam River drainage area.

  19. Extracting information masked by the chaotic signal of a time-delay system. (United States)

    Ponomarenko, V I; Prokhorov, M D


    We further develop the method proposed by Bezruchko et al. [Phys. Rev. E 64, 056216 (2001)] for the estimation of the parameters of time-delay systems from time series. Using this method we demonstrate a possibility of message extraction for a communication system with nonlinear mixing of information signal and chaotic signal of the time-delay system. The message extraction procedure is illustrated using both numerical and experimental data and different kinds of information signals.

  20. Research of error structure of standard time signal synchronization system via digital television channels


    Троцько, Максим Леонідович; Тріщ, Роман Михайлович


    The error structure of the standard time signal synchronization system via digital television channels was investigated. The relevance of this research is determined by changing the format of television broadcasting in Ukraine from analog to digital, which has necessitated the creation of a new standard time signal transmission system, adapted to the current format.An estimate of the basic permissible error of the system of standard time signal transmission via digital television channels, wh...

  1. NF1 Is an Effector and Regulator of the GPCR Signaling in the Nervous System (United States)


    1 AD______________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0074 TITLE: “NF1 Is an Effector and Regulator of the GPCR Signaling in the Nervous System ...NF1 Is an Effector and Regulator of the GPCR Signaling in the Nervous System 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kirill Martemyanov, Ph.D...strategies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS neurofibromatosis, nervous system disorders, receptor signaling mechanisms, NF1 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17

  2. Chaotic system for the detection of periodic signals under the background of strong noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    We propose a method to study the chaotic system for the detection of periodic signals in the presence of strong background noise. The numerical experiments indicate that the chaotic system constructed from the modified Duffing-Holmes equation is sensitive to the weak periodic signal mixed with noise, and it has certain immunity to noise. The signal to noise ratio for the system can reach to about -91 dB.

  3. Porous block nanofiber composite filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginley, David S.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Miedaner, Alexander; Weiss, Alan J.; Paddock, Arnold


    Porous block nano-fiber composite (110), a filtration system (10) and methods of using the same are disclosed. An exemplary porous block nano-fiber composite (110) includes a porous block (100) having one or more pores (200). The porous block nano-fiber composite (110) also includes a plurality of inorganic nano-fibers (211) formed within at least one of the pores (200).

  4. 49 CFR 234.9 - Grade crossing signal system failure reports. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grade crossing signal system failure reports. 234... PLANS Reports and Plans § 234.9 Grade crossing signal system failure reports. Each railroad shall report to FRA within 15 days each activation failure of a highway-rail grade crossing warning system....

  5. Multi-Purpose Radio Signal Generation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MRSiG will be able to replace many of the expensive, highly specialized RF signal generators with cheaper generic boxes that can be customized as the...

  6. A population pharmacokinetic model for the complex systemic absorption of ropivacaine after femoral nerve block in patients undergoing knee surgery. (United States)

    Gaudreault, François; Drolet, Pierre; Fallaha, Michel; Varin, France


    Because of its slow systemic absorption and flip-flop kinetics, ropivacaine's pharmacokinetics after a peripheral nerve block has never been thoroughly characterized. The purpose of this study was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model for ropivacaine after loco-regional administration and to identify patient characteristics that may influence the drug's absorption and disposition. Frequent plasma samples were taken up to 93 h after a 100 mg dose given as femoral block for postoperative analgesia in 15 orthopedic patients. Ropivacaine plasma concentration-time data were analyzed using a nonlinear mixed effects modeling method. A one-compartment model with parallel inverse Gaussian and time-dependent inputs best described ropivacaine plasma concentration-time curves. Ropivacaine systemic absorption was characterized by a rapid phase (mean absorption time of 25 ± 4.8 min) followed by a much slower phase (half-life of 3.9 ± 0.65 h). Interindividual variability (IIV) for these parameters, 58 and 9 %, indicated that the initial absorption phase was more variable. The apparent volume of distribution (V/F = 77.2 ± 11.5 L, IIV = 26 %) was influenced by body weight (Δ 1.49 % per kg change) whereas the absorption rate constant (slower phase) of ropivacaine was affected by age (Δ 2.25 % per year change). No covariate effects were identified for the apparent clearance of the drug (CL/F =10.8 ± 1.0 L/h, 34  IIV = 34 %). These findings support our hypothesis that modeling a complex systemic absorption directly from plasma concentration-time curves exhibiting flip-flop kinetics is possible. Only the age-effect was considered as relevant for possible dosing adjustments.

  7. Establishment of control equations and adjoint equations using block-pulse functions for optimal control of linear systems with time delays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Control equation and adjoint equation are established by using block-pulse functions, which trans-forms the linear time-varying systems with time delays into a system of algebraic equations and the optimal con-trol problems are transformed into an optimization problem of multivariate functions thereby achieving the opti-mal control of linear systems with time delays.

  8. Control of polarization signal distortion by frequency domain phase conjugation in optical fiber systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Optical frequency domain phase conjugation(FDPC) is based on phase conjuga-tion of spectrum of an input signal.It is equivalent to the phase conjugation and the time reversal of the temporal envelope of an input signal.The use of FDPC to con-trol polarization signal distortion in birefringent optical fiber systems is proposed.Evolution of polarization signals in the system using midway FDPC is analyzed theoretically and simulated numerically.It is shown that the distortion of polariza-tion signals can be controlled effectively by FDPC.The impairments due to disper-sion and nonlinear effects can be suppressed simultaneously.

  9. Control of polarization signal distortion by frequency domain phase conjusation in optical fiber systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Yang; WANG XiangZhao


    Optical frequency domain phase conjugation (FDPC) is based on phase conjugation of spectrum of an input signal. It is equivalent to the phase conjugation and the time reversal of the temporal envelope of an input signal. The use of FDPC to con-trol polarization signal distortion in birefringent optical fiber systems is proposed. Evolution of polarization signals in the system using midway FDPC is analyzed theoretically and simulated numerically. It is shown that the distortion of polariza-tion signals can be controlled effectively by FDPC. The impairments due to disper-sion and nonlinear effects can be suppressed simultaneously.

  10. Low Cost Em Signal Spectral Analysis with Two Element Time Modulated Array System by Multiple Signal Classification Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Balagurappa,


    Full Text Available Today homeland security is a big matter of concern. The present day wireless technology is available to anti-social elements, who are using this in several undesirable manners. By knowing the direction of the source of electromagnetic waves it becomes possible to locate such anti-social groups and take offensive action. In military applications also finding the direction of the signal source becomes very valuable information. The direction finding systems can achieve this goal. Conventional radio direction finding (RDF systems often use an array of two or more antennas and use either phase-comparison or amplitude-comparison of the received signals to determine direction of arrival information. In both of these techniques directional information is derived by processing array data at the receive signal frequency. In this project an alternative approach to direction finding using the concept of a time-switched array is proposed. The time-switched array system uses simple signal processing techniques to provide a directional main beam and pattern nulls at harmonic frequencies. To determine two dimensional angles is three elements, the system cost has been mostly minimised. we now consider the problem of using our low cost system to detect and estimate the direction of arrival of a desired signal in the presence of array antenna. The proposed scheme is cost effective technique in comparison with the existing schemes. MATLAB/GNU OCTAVE simulation tool will be used for simulation. The simulation results, applications, merits and demerits of proposed approach will be analyzed and will be documented.

  11. Wearable data acquisition system of multimodal physiological signals for personal health care. (United States)

    Annus, Paul; Samieipour, Ali; Rist, Marek; Ruiso, Indrek; Krivoshei, Andrei; Land, Raul; Parve, Toomas; Min, Mart


    The paper proposes a wearable multimodal data acquisition system for biological signals. The system enables logging of electrical bioimpedance signals from multiple electrodes, electrocardiographic signals (ECG), acceleration signals from multiple locations, and spirometric data from a moving object. Later it will be used to conduct field measurements for characterizing health of the object under investigation. Main goal is to acquire enough data for development, refinement, and simplification of signal processing algorithms. The system is center part of the new wearable compact data acquisition modules ZCardio. Those modules enable multichannel impedance spectroscopy by logging ECG signals and data from the spirometric sensor. Initial reference measurements were conducted. Alternatively, tests were performed using Plessey Semiconductors capacitive sensors. Acceleration signals are gathered.

  12. Vectorcardiogram of complete right bundle branch block with left axis deviation by the Frank and Kimura systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Vectorcardiogram (VCG recorded by both the Frank and Kimura systems were examined in 45 patients with complete right bundle branch block (RBBB and left axis deviation (LAD to investigate the relationship seen on electrocardiogram (ECG between RBBB with LAD and bilateral bundle. The sample included: 13 cases of type SI, SII, SIII, SaVF; 21 cases of type SI, SII, SIII, aVF; and 11 cases of types SI, SII, SIII. VCG recorded by the Frank system were classified into seven types according to the QRS loop pattern on the frontal plane and into three types according to the horizontal plane. The main findings were: (a In the Frank system the QRS loop in the frontal plane showed a variety of patterns in RBBB with LAD. (b On VCG of complete RBBB judged complicated by a left anterior hemiblock by the Frank system, the main portion of the QRS loop extended to the left superior or merely to the left in the frontal plane. The direction of rotation and position on the horizontal plane were not consistent. (c The results of this study suggest the usefulness of the Kimura system as an auxiliary diagnostic technique.

  13. LDPC concatenated space-time block coded system in multipath fading environment: Analysis and evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Sharma


    Full Text Available Irregular low-density parity-check (LDPC codes have been found to show exceptionally good performance for single antenna systems over a wide class of channels. In this paper, the performance of LDPC codes with multiple antenna systems is investigated in flat Rayleigh and Rician fading channels for different modulation schemes. The focus of attention is mainly on the concatenation of irregular LDPC codes with complex orthogonal space-time codes. Iterative decoding is carried out with a density evolution method that sets a threshold above which the code performs well. For the proposed concatenated system, the simulation results show that the QAM technique achieves a higher coding gain of 8.8 dB and 3.2 dB over the QPSK technique in Rician (LOS and Rayleigh (NLOS faded environments respectively.

  14. Immunization registries can be building blocks for national health information systems. (United States)

    Hinman, Alan R; Ross, David A


    Electronic health records and health information exchanges are necessary components of the information infrastructure to support a reformed health care system. However, they are not sufficient by themselves. Merely summing data from electronic health records together will not provide a comprehensive picture of the population, which is essential for tracking disease trends and treatment outcomes. Public health information systems such as immunization registries are an essential component of the information infrastructure and will allow assessment of the impact of changes in health care on the population as a whole.

  15. The solubilization of fatty acids in systems based on block copolymers and nonionic surfactants (United States)

    Mirgorodskaya, A. B.; Yatskevich, E. I.; Zakharova, L. Ya.


    The solubilizing action of micellar, microemulsion, and polymer-colloid systems formed on the basis of biologically compatible amphiphilic polymers and nonionic surfactants on capric, lauric, palmitic, and stearic acids was characterized quantitatively. Systems based on micelle forming oxyethyl compounds increased the solubility of fatty acids by more than an order of magnitude. Acid molecules incorporated into micelles increased their size and caused structural changes. Solubilization was accompanied by complete or partial destruction of intrinsic acid associates and an increase in their p K a by 1.5-2 units compared with water.

  16. Radiotracers For Lipid Signaling Pathways In Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatley, S. J. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)


    The primary focus of this project continues to be the development of radiotracers and radiotracer methodology for studying physiology and biochemistry. The compounds that have been labeled areacylethanolamines and acylglycerols that are, as classes, represented in both in plants and in animals. In the latter, some of these act as ligands for cannabinoid receptors and they are therefore known as endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptors are not found in plant genomes so that plants must contain other receptors and signaling systems that use acylethanolamines. Relatively little work has been done on that issue, though acylethanolamines do modulate plant growth and stress resistance, thus possessing obvious relevance to agriculture and energy production. Progress has been described in five peer-reviewed papers and seven meeting abstracts. Preparation of 2-acylglycerol lipid messengers in high purity. A novel enzymatic synthesis was developedthat gave pure 2-acylglycerols free of any rearrrangement to the thermodynamically more stable 1(3)-acylglycerol byproducts. The method utilized 1,3-dibutyryl-2-acylglycerol substrate ethanolysis by a resinimobilized lipase. Thus, pure radiolabeled 2-acylglycerols can now be conveniently prepared just prior to their utilization. These synthetic studies were published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2011. Diacylglycerol lipase assay methodology. Diacylglycerol lipases (DAGLs) generate 2- acylglycerols, and are thus potential targets for disease- or growth-modifying agents, by means of reducing formation of 2-acylglycerols. A radioTLC assay of the hydrolysis of radiolabeled diglyceride substrate [1''-carbon-14]2-arachidonoyl-1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol has been implemented, and used to validate a novel, potentially highthroughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based assay. A number of new DAGL inhibitors that have selectivity for DAGLs were synthesized and screened. This work was very recently published in

  17. FPGA Implementation of Block Parallel DF-MPIC Detectors for DS-CDMA Systems in Frequency-Nonselective Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Omar Dahmane


    Full Text Available Multistage parallel interference cancellation- (MPIC- based detectors allow to mitigate multiple-access interference in direct-sequence code-division multiple-access (DS-CDMA systems. They are considered serious candidates for practical implementation showing a good tradeoff between performance and complexity. Better performance is obtained when decision feedback (DF is employed. Although MPIC and DF-MPIC have the same arithmetic complexity, DF-MPIC needs much more FPGA resources when compared to MPIC without decision feedback. In this letter, FPGA implementation of block parallel DF-MPIC (BP-DF-MPIC is proposed allowing better tradeoff between performance and FPGA area occupancy. To reach an uncoded bit-error rate of 10−3, BP-DF-MPIC shows a 1.5 dB improvement over the MPIC without decision feedback with only 8% increase in FPGA resources compared to 69% for DF-MPIC.

  18. On bounded block decomposition problems for under-specified systems of equations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bomhoff, Matthijs; Kern, Walter; Still, Georg


    When solving a system of equations, it can be beneficial not to solve it in its entirety at once, but rather to decompose it into smaller subsystems that can be solved in order. Based on a bisimplicial graph representation we analyze the parameterized complexity of two problems central to such a dec

  19. Screening system of blocking agents of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts in cells using fluorescence. (United States)

    Jung, Dong Ho; Kim, Young Sook; Kim, Jin Sook


    Activation of the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) triggers cellular responses implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications; blockade of RAGE has been shown to inhibit the development of diabetic complications. To develop a screening system to identify novel disruptors of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE)-RAGE binding, we used an AGE-RAGE binding system in RAGE-overexpressing cells; test compounds were screened using this system. To construct human RAGE-overexpressing cells, mouse mesangial cells (MMCs) were stably transfected with the pcDNA-human RAGE (hRAGE) vector and selected under 1 mg/mL gentamicin (G418). RAGE expression in hRAGE-overexpressing MMCs was analyzed by Western blotting with specific RAGE antibody. To identify novel disruptors of AGE-RAGE binding, 50 single compounds and AGE-bovine serum albumin (BSA)-Alexa 488 (AGE-BSA labeled with Alexa 488) were treated to the hRAGE-overexpressing MMCs. Nonbinding AGE-BSA-Alexa 488 was washed and fluorescence measured by microtiter plate reader (excitation wavelength, 485 nm; emission wavelength, 528 nm). In hRAGE-overexpressing cells, only treatment with AGE-BSA-Alexa 488 significantly increased fluorescence intensity in a dose-dependent manner. Of 50 compounds tested, genistein disrupted AGE-RAGE binding in a dose-dependent manner. This AGE-RAGE binding system using AGE-BSA-Alexa 488 in hRAGE-overexpressing cells was suitable for screening of agents that disrupt AGE-hRAGE binding.

  20. A block Krylov subspace time-exact solution method for linear ordinary differential equation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botchev, M.A.


    We propose a time-exact Krylov-subspace-based method for solving linear ordinary differential equation systems of the form $y'=-Ay+g(t)$ and $y"=-Ay+g(t)$, where $y(t)$ is the unknown function. The method consists of two stages. The first stage is an accurate piecewise polynomial approximation of th

  1. A block Krylov subspace time-exact solution method for linear ODE systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botchev, M.A.


    We propose a time-exact Krylov-subspace-based method for solving linear ODE (ordinary differential equation) systems of the form $y'=-Ay + g(t)$ and $y''=-Ay + g(t)$, where $y(t)$ is the unknown function. The method consists of two stages. The first stage is an accurate piecewise polynomial approxim

  2. Time-resolved single-photon detection module based on silicon photomultiplier: A novel building block for time-correlated measurement systems (United States)

    Martinenghi, E.; Di Sieno, L.; Contini, D.; Sanzaro, M.; Pifferi, A.; Dalla Mora, A.


    We present the design and preliminary characterization of the first detection module based on Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) tailored for single-photon timing applications. The aim of this work is to demonstrate, thanks to the design of a suitable module, the possibility to easily exploit SiPM in many applications as an interesting detector featuring large active area, similarly to photomultipliers tubes, but keeping the advantages of solid state detectors (high quantum efficiency, low cost, compactness, robustness, low bias voltage, and insensitiveness to magnetic field). The module integrates a cooled SiPM with a total photosensitive area of 1 mm2 together with the suitable avalanche signal read-out circuit, the signal conditioning, the biasing electronics, and a Peltier cooler driver for thermal stabilization. It is able to extract the single-photon timing information with resolution better than 100 ps full-width at half maximum. We verified the effective stabilization in response to external thermal perturbations, thus proving the complete insensitivity of the module to environment temperature variations, which represents a fundamental parameter to profitably use the instrument for real-field applications. We also characterized the single-photon timing resolution, the background noise due to both primary dark count generation and afterpulsing, the single-photon detection efficiency, and the instrument response function shape. The proposed module can become a reliable and cost-effective building block for time-correlated single-photon counting instruments in applications requiring high collection capability of isotropic light and detection efficiency (e.g., fluorescence decay measurements or time-domain diffuse optics systems).

  3. Performance analysis of general purpose and digital signal processor kernels for heterogeneous systems-on-chip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. von Sydow


    Full Text Available Various reasons like technology progress, flexibility demands, shortened product cycle time and shortened time to market have brought up the possibility and necessity to integrate different architecture blocks on one heterogeneous System-on-Chip (SoC. Architecture blocks like programmable processor cores (DSP- and GPP-kernels, embedded FPGAs as well as dedicated macros will be integral parts of such a SoC. Especially programmable architecture blocks and associated optimization techniques are discussed in this contribution. Design space exploration and thus the choice which architecture blocks should be integrated in a SoC is a challenging task. Crucial to this exploration is the evaluation of the application domain characteristics and the costs caused by individual architecture blocks integrated on a SoC. An ATE-cost function has been applied to examine the performance of the aforementioned programmable architecture blocks. Therefore, representative discrete devices have been analyzed. Furthermore, several architecture dependent optimization steps and their effects on the cost ratios are presented.

  4. The building blocks of health reform: achieving universal coverage and health system savings. (United States)

    Davis, Karen; Schoen, Cathy; Collins, Sara R


    The presidential election has focused public attention on the need for health system reform--to ensure health insurance for all, to make health care more accessible and responsive to patients, and to slow the growth in health care cost. This issue brief sets forth a framework for expanding health coverage that offers Americans a choice of a product modeled on Medicare to those under age 65, made available through a national insurance connector. Coupled with reforms to Medicare provider payment, expansion of preventive health care, and improved information, such a strategy has the potential to achieve near-universal coverage and improve quality and access, while generating health system savings of $1.6 trillion over 10 years.

  5. Multistep phosphorylation systems: tunable components of biological signaling circuits. (United States)

    Valk, Evin; Venta, Rainis; Ord, Mihkel; Faustova, Ilona; Kõivomägi, Mardo; Loog, Mart


    Multisite phosphorylation of proteins is a powerful signal processing mechanism that plays crucial roles in cell division and differentiation as well as in disease. We recently demonstrated a novel phenomenon in cell cycle regulation by showing that cyclin-dependent kinase-dependent multisite phosphorylation of a crucial substrate is performed sequentially in the N-to-C terminal direction along the disordered protein. The process is controlled by key parameters, including the distance between phosphorylation sites, the distribution of serines and threonines in sites, and the position of docking motifs. According to our model, linear patterns of phosphorylation along disordered protein segments determine the signal-response function of a multisite phosphorylation switch. Here we discuss the general advantages and engineering principles of multisite phosphorylation networks as processors of kinase signals. We also address the idea of using the mechanistic logic of linear multisite phosphorylation networks to design circuits for synthetic biology applications.

  6. Treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinomas by systemic inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Volker Schmitz; Miroslaw Kornek; Tobias Hilbert; Christian Dzienisowicz; Esther Raskopf; Christian Rabe; Tilman Sauerbruch; Cheng Qian; Wolfgang H Caselmann


    AIM: Tumor angiogenesis has been shown to be promoted by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) via stimulating endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and survival.Blockade of VEGF signaling by different means has been demonstrated to result in reduced tumor growth and suppression of tumor angiogenesis in distinct tumor entities.Here, we tested a recombinant adenovirus, AdsFlt1-3,that encodes an antagonistically acting fragment of the VEGF receptor 1 (Flt-1), for systemic antitumor effects in pre-established subcutaneous CRC tumors in mice.METHODS: Murine colorectal carcinoma cells (CT26) were inoculated subcutaneously into Balb/c mice forin vivo studies. Tumor size and survival were determined. 293cell line was used for propagation of the adenoviral vectors.Human lung cancer line 4549 and human umbilical vein endothelial cells were transfected forin vitro experiments.RESULTS: Infection of tumor cells with AdsFlt1-3 resulted in protein secretion into cell supernatant, demonstrating correct vector function. As expected, the secreted sFlt1-3 protein had no direct effect on CT26 tumor cell proliferation in vitro, but endothelial cell function was inhibited by about 46% as compared to the AdLacZ control in a tube formation assay. When AdsFlt1-3 (5×109 PFU/animal) was applied to tumor bearing mice, we found a tumor inhibition by 72% at d 12 after treatment initiation. In spite of these antitumoral effects, the survival time was not improved.According to reduced intratumoral microvessel density in AdsFlt1-3-treated mice, the antitumor mechanism can be attributed to angiostatic vector effects. We did not detect increased systemic VEGF levels after AdsFlt1-3 treatment and liver toxicity was low as judged by serum alanine aminotransferase determination.CONCLUSION: In this study we confirmed the value of a systemic administration of AdsFlt1-3 to block VEGF signaling as antitumor therapy in an experimental metastatic colorectal carcinoma model in mice.

  7. Radiotracers For Lipid Signaling Pathways In Biological Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatley, S. J. [Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (United States)


    The primary focus of this project continues to be the development of radiotracers and radiotracer methodology for studying physiology and biochemistry. The compounds that have been labeled areacylethanolamines and acylglycerols that are, as classes, represented in both in plants and in animals. In the latter, some of these act as ligands for cannabinoid receptors and they are therefore known as endocannabinoids. Cannabinoid receptors are not found in plant genomes so that plants must contain other receptors and signaling systems that use acylethanolamines. Relatively little work has been done on that issue, though acylethanolamines do modulate plant growth and stress resistance, thus possessing obvious relevance to agriculture and energy production. Progress has been described in five peer-reviewed papers and seven meeting abstracts. Preparation of 2-acylglycerol lipid messengers in high purity. A novel enzymatic synthesis was developedthat gave pure 2-acylglycerols free of any rearrrangement to the thermodynamically more stable 1(3)-acylglycerol byproducts. The method utilized 1,3-dibutyryl-2-acylglycerol substrate ethanolysis by a resinimobilized lipase. Thus, pure radiolabeled 2-acylglycerols can now be conveniently prepared just prior to their utilization. These synthetic studies were published in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 2011. Diacylglycerol lipase assay methodology. Diacylglycerol lipases (DAGLs) generate 2- acylglycerols, and are thus potential targets for disease- or growth-modifying agents, by means of reducing formation of 2-acylglycerols. A radioTLC assay of the hydrolysis of radiolabeled diglyceride substrate [1''-carbon-14]2-arachidonoyl-1-stearoyl-sn-glycerol has been implemented, and used to validate a novel, potentially highthroughput fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) based assay. A number of new DAGL inhibitors that have selectivity for DAGLs were synthesized and screened. This work was very recently published in

  8. Improvement of Small Signal Stability of SMIB System Using PSO and CSO based Power System Stabilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Raghuvamsi


    Full Text Available In a power system, Low Frequency Oscillations (LFOs are dangerous and make system unstable. These oscillations are referred to small signal stability and they are mainly due to lack of damping torque. This insufficient damping torque is because of high gain and low time constant of Automatic Voltage Regulator (AVR. AVR is useful for maintaining the terminal voltage of synchronous machine as constant. While doing so, it will make the system damping torque as negative. For providing required damping torque thereby minimizing the LFOs, Power System Stabilizer is used in conjunction with AVR. In this paper for SMIB system, the stability is studied with the help of eigen values before and after placement of PSS with optimized PSS parameters using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Cat Swarm Optimization (CSO. The simulation work is performed in the MATLAB/SIMULINK and corresponding results are presented and analyzed.

  9. Block copolymer battery separator (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez


    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  10. Design and implementation of a hybrid circuit system for micro sensor signal processing*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zhuping; Chen Jing; Liu Ruqing


    This paper covers a micro sensor analog signal processing circuit system (MASPS) chip with low power and a digital signal processing circuit board implementation including hardware connection and software design.Attention has been paid to incorporate the MASPS chip into the digital circuit board. The ultimate aim is to form a hybrid circuit used for mixed-signal processing, which can be applied to a micro sensor flow monitoring system.

  11. Design and implementation of a hybrid circuit system for micro sensor signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhuping; Chen Jing; Liu Ruqing, E-mail: [School of Information and Electronics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)


    This paper covers a micro sensor analog signal processing circuit system (MASPS) chip with low power and a digital signal processing circuit board implementation including hardware connection and software design. Attention has been paid to incorporate the MASPS chip into the digital circuit board. The ultimate aim is to form a hybrid circuit used for mixed-signal processing, which can be applied to a micro sensor flow monitoring system. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  12. Block Copolymer Composites: A Bio-Optic Synthetic System for Dynamic Control of Refractive Index (United States)


    solvents: 5 wt% in DCM, 4 wt% in CHCI3 (Tap=661 C) and 4 wt% 42:9955-67. in 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE, Tap= 147 °C). For the PLLA/TCE [23] Spivak ...AF, Dzenis YA. Appl Phys Lett 1998;73:3067-9. system, at 4 wt% mostly fibers with some beads were observed. In [24] Spivak AF, Dzenis YA, Reneker DH...42: 9955- 9967. [14] Spivak AF, Dzenis YA, Reneker DH. Mechanics Research Communications 2000; 27: 37-42. [15] Fridrikh SV, Yu JH, Brenner MP, Rutledge

  13. A low-cost biomedical signal transceiver based on a Bluetooth wireless system. (United States)

    Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Pauls, Mark; Slawinski, David


    Most current wireless biomedical signal transceivers use range-limiting communication. This work presents a low-cost biomedical signal transceiver that uses Bluetooth wireless technology. The design is implemented in a modular form to be adaptable to different types of biomedical signals. The signal front end obtains and processes incoming signals, which are then transmitted via a microcontroller and wireless module. Near real-time receive software in LabVIEW was developed to demonstrate the system capability. The completed transmitter prototype successfully transmits ECG signals, and is able to simultaneously send multiple signals. The sampling rate of the transmitter is fast enough to send up to thirteen ECG signals simultaneously, with an error rate below 0.1% for transmission exceeding 65 meters. A low-cost wireless biomedical transceiver has many applications, such as real-time monitoring of patients with a known condition in non-clinical settings.

  14. Integration System of Head, Eye, and Retinal Position Signals for Perceptual Direction (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masashi; Kaneko, Hirohiko


    This study investigates the integration system of head (-to-trunk), eye (-to-head), and retinal position signals for hand pointing. In experiment 1, subjects changed their head and eye positions and pointed at a fixated visual stimulus by using an unseen pointer. In experiment 2, subjects fixated a visual stimulus and pointed at another visual stimulus. The results show that the head and eye position signals contributed linearly to perceptual direction (experiments 1 and 2), and that the coefficients of these signals decrease with peripheral vision and are smaller than the coefficient of the retinal position signal (experiment 2). These results collectively suggest that the integration algorithm of the position signals might be described by the linear summation equation and that the retinal position signal serves a more important role than the other position signals in the visual system.

  15. Wireless Body Area Network in a Ubiquitous Healthcare System for Physiological Signal Monitoring and Health Consulting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joonyoung Jung


    Full Text Available We developed a ubiquitous healthcare system consisted of aphysiological signal devices, a mobile system, a device provider system, a healthcare service provider system, a physician system, and a healthcare personal system. In this system, wireless body area network (WBAN such as ZigBee is used to communicate between physiological signal devices and the mobile system. WBAN device needs a specific function for ubiquitous healthcare application. We propose a scanning algorithm, dynamic discovery and installation, reliable data transmission, device access control, and a healthcare profile for ubiquitous healthcare system.

  16. Numerical simulation of the slip power recovery system using functional adapted blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, G.D. [Technical University of Lisbon, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Seccao de Maquinas Electricas e de Electronica de Potencia, Lisboa (Portugal)


    This paper presents a numerical simulation method for the Slip Power Recovery System. The dq induction machine model using stator flux linkages as state variables is used. This leads to a simple and efficient computer program. The diode bridge rectifier is modeled using three switching functions that are determined by the sign of the corresponding AC currents. The model obtained is very simple and accurately represents the three-phase diode bridge rectifier including the current commutation process. When a DC current circuit is used in the intermediate circuit, a model of the whole 'Induction machine and diode bridge rectifier' should be used in other simulation methods. In this paper a different approach is presented. The operations performed to model the system are equivalent to assume that the induction machine has two state variables, i.e, the stator flux linkages. From the rotor point of view, the induction machine is equivalent to a three-phase RLE circuit. MATLAB/Simulink is used to integrate the equations. Experimental and simulated results are presented and compared showing good accuracy. (orig.)

  17. Part and Parcel of the Cardiac Autonomic Nerve System: Unravelling Its Cellular Building Blocks during Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. D. Végh


    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system (cANS is essential for proper heart function, and complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias and even sudden cardiac death are associated with an altered cANS function. A changed innervation state may underlie (part of the atrial and ventricular arrhythmias observed after myocardial infarction. In other cardiac diseases, such as congenital heart disease, autonomic dysfunction may be related to disease outcome. This is also the case after heart transplantation, when the heart is denervated. Interest in the origin of the autonomic nerve system has renewed since the role of autonomic function in disease progression was recognized, and some plasticity in autonomic regeneration is evident. As with many pathological processes, autonomic dysfunction based on pathological innervation may be a partial recapitulation of the early development of innervation. As such, insight into the development of cardiac innervation and an understanding of the cellular background contributing to cardiac innervation during different phases of development is required. This review describes the development of the cANS and focuses on the cellular contributions, either directly by delivering cells or indirectly by secretion of necessary factors or cell-derivatives.

  18. Wnt signaling through the Ror receptor in the nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrova, Iveta M; Malessy, Martijn J; Verhaagen, J.; Fradkin, Lee G; Noordermeer, Jasprina N


    The receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor (Ror) proteins are conserved tyrosine kinase receptors that play roles in a variety of cellular processes that pattern tissues and organs during vertebrate and invertebrate development. Ror signaling is required for skeleton and neuronal development

  19. Antenna Array Signal Processing for Multistatic Radar Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfiori, F.


    The introductions of Digital Beam Forming (DBF), original signal exploitation and waveform multiplexing techniques have led to the design of novel radar concepts. Passive Coherent Locator (PCL) and Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) sensors are two examples of innovative approaches. Beside the in

  20. Fast optical signal processing in high bit rate OTDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Clausen, Anders;


    As all-optical signal processing is maturing, optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) has also gained interest for simple networking in high capacity backbone networks. As an example of a network scenario we show an OTDM bus interconnecting another OTDM bus, a single high capacity user...

  1. 47 CFR 73.4097 - EBS (now EAS) attention signals on automated programing systems. (United States)


    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EBS (now EAS) attention signals on automated programing systems. 73.4097 Section 73.4097 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED... (now EAS) attention signals on automated programing systems. See Public Notice dated March 1, 1979....

  2. A Simulated System for Traffic Signal Management Based on Integrating GIS & WSN Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Elmotelb


    Full Text Available Traffic signals management systems (TSMS are traffic systems based on cameras, infrared sensors and satellite systems. Such systems have been lacking the ability of real-time data collection and support. This paper proposes a solution to the traffic signal management problem using combined techniques that combines both GIS information with WSN based techniques. This combination provide appropriate techniques and tools that will enhance the capabilities of traffic jam prevention, early detection, efficient surveillance, efficient spread control, and fast termination of possible hazards. Consequently, this work proposes a new methodology thrown merging WSN and GIS techniques to produce valuable information for traffic signals management systems purposes.

  3. Reservoir computing with a slowly modulated mask signal for preprocessing using a mutually coupled optoelectronic system (United States)

    Tezuka, Miwa; Kanno, Kazutaka; Bunsen, Masatoshi


    Reservoir computing is a machine-learning paradigm based on information processing in the human brain. We numerically demonstrate reservoir computing with a slowly modulated mask signal for preprocessing by using a mutually coupled optoelectronic system. The performance of our system is quantitatively evaluated by a chaotic time series prediction task. Our system can produce comparable performance with reservoir computing with a single feedback system and a fast modulated mask signal. We showed that it is possible to slow down the modulation speed of the mask signal by using the mutually coupled system in reservoir computing.

  4. Analysis of a kind of Duffing oscillator system used to detect weak signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yue; Yang Bao-Jun; Yuan Ye; Liu Xiao-Hua


    The stability of the periodic solution of the Duffing oscillator system in the periodic phase state is proved by using the Yoshizaw theorem, which establishes a theoretical basis for using this kind of chaotic oscillator system to detect weak signals. The restoring force term of the system affects the weak-signal detection ability of the system directly,the quantitative relationship between the coefficients of the linear and nonlinear items of the restoring force of the Duffing oscillator system and the SNR in the detection of weak signals is obtained through a large number of simulation experiments, then a new restoring force function with better detection results is established.

  5. In vitro comparison rate of dental root canal transportation using two single file systems on the simulated resin blocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Javad Etesami


    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Cleaning and shaping is one of the most important stages in endodontic treatment. Single-file systems save time and reduce the risk of transmission of pathogens. This in vitro study was aimed to compare the rate of canal transportation after the preparation of the stimulated resin root canal with two single-file systems, namely Waveone and Reciproc. Materials and Methods: Thirty stimulated resin root canal blocks with size 8/0. 02 K file were randomly divided into two study groups. The preparation in Group A and Group B was performed using Reciproc and Waveone files, respectively. Pre and post- preparation photographs were taken and the images were superimposed to evaluate the inner and outer wall’s curvature tendency at three points (apical, middle and coronal using AutoCad pragram. Data were analyzed using T-test. Results: Based on the results, the degree of transportation in the inner and outer walls of the canal was less at the level of 3 millimeters (P0.05. Conclusion: Waveone showed better performance in the middle third of canal and this system maybe recommended.

  6. An acid-labile block copolymer of PDMAEMA and PEG as potential carrier for intelligent gene delivery systems. (United States)

    Lin, Song; Du, Fusheng; Wang, Yang; Ji, Shouping; Liang, Dehai; Yu, Lei; Li, Zichen


    Intelligent gene delivery systems based on physiologically triggered reversible shielding technology have evinced enormous interest due to their potential in vivo applications. In the present work, an acid-labile block copolymer consisting of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) segments connected through a cyclic ortho ester linkage (PEG- a-PDMAEMA) was synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization of DMAEMA using a PEG macroinitiator with an acid-cleavable end group. PEG- a-PDMAEMA condensed with plasmid DNA formed polyplex nanoparticles with an acid-triggered reversible PEG shield. The pH-dependent shielding/deshielding effect of PEG chains on the polyplex particles were evaluated by zeta potential and size measurements. At pH 7.4, polyplexes generated from PEG- a-PDMAEMA exhibited smaller particle size, lower surface charge, reduced interaction with erythrocytes, and less cytotoxicity compared to PDMAEMA-derived polyplexes. At pH 5.0, zeta potential of polyplexes formed from PEG- a-PDMAEMA increased, leveled up after 2 h of incubation and gradual aggregation occurred in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA). In contrast, the stably shielded polyplexes formed by DNA and an acid-stable block copolymer, PEG- b-PDMAEMA, did not change in size and zeta potential in 6 h. In vitro transfection efficiency of the acid-labile copolymer greatly increased after 6 h incubation at pH 5.0, approaching the same level of PDMAEMA, whereas there was only slight increase in efficiency for the stable copolymer, PEG- b-PDMAEMA.

  7. Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (United States)

    Niimi, Hirofumi; Koike, Minoru; Takeuchi, Seiichi; Douhara, Noriyoshi


    Humanoid by ROBO-BLOCK (robot block system) and the rational formula of robots were proposed. ROBO-BLOCK is composed of servo motors, the parts for servomotor rotor, the brackets for servomotor fixation, the board parts and the controllers. A robot can be assembled easily by ROBO-BLOCK. Meanwhile, it is convenient when the structure of the robot can be described easily as a character. The whole structure of the robot is expressed as rational formula of the robot to show molecule structure in chemistry. ROBO-BLOCK can be useful for not only the research but also the education. Creative student experiment was done in the college of industrial technology.

  8. Signal modulating noise effect in bistable stochastic resonance systems and its analog simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Fang-hong; YAN Gui-rong; XIE Shi-cheng


    The effect of signal modulating noise in bistable stochastic resonance systems was studied theoretically and experimentally. A mathematical analysis was made on the bistable stochastic resonance model with small system parameters. An analogue circuit was designed to perform the effect. The effect of signal modulating noise was shown in the analog simulation experiment. The analog experiment was conducted for two sinusoidal signals with different frequencies. The results show that there are a sinusoidal component corresponding to the input sinusoidal signal and a noise component presented as a Wiener process corresponding to the input white noise in the system output. By properly selecting system parameters, the effect of signal modulating noise can be manifested in the system output.

  9. Fast Detection of Weak Singularities in a Chaotic Signal Using Lorenz System and the Bisection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiezheng Song


    Full Text Available Signals with weak singularities are important for condition monitoring, fault forecasting, and medicine diagnosis. However, the weak singularity in a signal is usually hidden by strong noise. A novel fast method is proposed for detecting a weak singularity in a noised signal by determining a critical threshold towards chaos for the Lorenz system. First, a rough critical threshold value is calculated by local Lyapunov exponents with a step size 0.1. Second, the exact threshold value is calculated by the bisection algorithm. The advantage of the method will not only reduce the computation costs, but also show the weak singular signal which can be accurately identified from strong noise. When the variance of an external signal method embeds into a Lorenz system, according to the parametric equivalent relation between the Lorenz system and the original system, the critical threshold value of the parameter in a Lorenz system is determined.

  10. Throughput-Distortion Computation Of Generic Matrix Multiplication: Toward A Computation Channel For Digital Signal Processing Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Anastasia, Davide


    The generic matrix multiply (GEMM) function is the core element of high-performance linear algebra libraries used in many computationally-demanding digital signal processing (DSP) systems. We propose an acceleration technique for GEMM based on dynamically adjusting the imprecision (distortion) of computation. Our technique employs adaptive scalar companding and rounding to input matrix blocks followed by two forms of packing in floating-point that allow for concurrent calculation of multiple results. Since the adaptive companding process controls the increase of concurrency (via packing), the increase in processing throughput (and the corresponding increase in distortion) depends on the input data statistics. To demonstrate this, we derive the optimal throughput-distortion control framework for GEMM for the broad class of zero-mean, independent identically distributed, input sources. Our approach converts matrix multiplication in programmable processors into a computation channel: when increasing the processi...

  11. A GPR18-based signalling system regulates IOP in murine eye (United States)

    Caldwell, Meggie D; Hu, Sherry Shu-Jung; Viswanathan, Suresh; Bradshaw, Heather; Kelly, Melanie EM; Straiker, Alex


    Background and Purpose GPR18 is a recently deorphaned lipid receptor that is activated by the endogenous lipid N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) as well the behaviourally inactive atypical cannabinoid, abnormal cannabidiol (Abn-CBD). The presence and/or function of any GPR18-based ocular signalling system remain essentially unstudied. The objectives of this research are: (i) to determine the disposition of GPR18 receptors and ligands in anterior murine eye, (ii) examine the effect of GPR18 activation on intraocular pressure (IOP) in a murine model, including knockout mice for CB1, CB2 and GPR55. Experimental Approach IOP was measured in mice following topical application of Abn-CBD, NAGly or the GPR55/GPR18 agonist O-1602, alone or with injection of the GPR18 antagonist, O-1918. GPR18 protein localization was assessed with immunohistochemistry. Endocannabinoids were measured using LC/MS-MS. Key Results GPR18 protein was expressed most prominently in the ciliary epithelium and the corneal epithelium and, interestingly, in the trabecular meshwork. The GPR18 ligand, NAGly, was also detected in mouse eye at a level comparable to that seen in the brain. Abn-CBD and NAGly, but not O-1602, significantly reduced IOP in all mice tested. The antagonist, O-1918, blocked the effects of Abn-CBD and NAGly. Conclusions and Implications We present evidence for a functional GPR18-based signalling system in the murine anterior eye, including receptors and ligands. GPR18 agonists, Abn-CBD and NAGly, reduce IOP independently of CB1, CB2 or GPR55. These findings suggest that GPR18 may serve as a desirable target for the development of novel ocular hypotensive medications. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Cannabinoids. To view the other articles in this section visit & PMID:23461720

  12. 49 CFR 236.205 - Signal control circuits; requirements. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Signal control circuits; requirements. 236.205... Block Signal Systems Standards § 236.205 Signal control circuits; requirements. The circuits shall be so... fouling point derail equipped with switch circuit controller is not in derailing position, (d) When...

  13. Non-Dioxin-Like Polychlorinated Biphenyls Inhibit G-Protein Coupled Receptor-Mediated Ca2+ Signaling by Blocking Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se-Young Choi

    Full Text Available Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs are ubiquitous pollutants which accumulate in the food chain. Recently, several molecular mechanisms by which non-dioxin-like (NDL PCBs mediate neurodevelopmental and neurobehavioral toxicity have been elucidated. However, although the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR is a significant target for neurobehavioral disturbance, our understanding of the effects of PCBs on GPCR signaling remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of NDL-PCBs on GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling in PC12 cells. We found that ortho-substituted 2,2',6-trichlorinated biphenyl (PCB19 caused a rapid decline in the Ca2+ signaling of bradykinin, a typical Gq- and phospholipase Cβ-coupled GPCR, without any effect on its inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate production. PCB19 reduced thapsigargin-induced sustained cytosolic Ca2+ levels, suggesting that PCB19 inhibits SOCE. The abilities of other NDL-PCBs to inhibit store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE were also examined and found to be of similar potencies to that of PCB19. PCB19 also showed a manner equivalent to that of known SOCE inhibitors. PCB19-mediated SOCE inhibition was confirmed by demonstrating the ability of PCB19 to inhibit the SOCE current and thapsigargin-induced Mn2+ influx. These results imply that one of the molecular mechanism by which NDL-PCBs cause neurobehavioral disturbances involves NDL-PCB-mediated inhibition of SOCE, thereby interfering with GPCR-mediated Ca2+ signaling.

  14. Protein S blocks the extrinsic apoptotic cascade in tissue plasminogen activator/N-methyl D-aspartate-treated neurons via Tyro3-Akt-FKHRL1 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freeman Robert S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA benefits patients with acute ischemic stroke. However, tPA increases the risk for intracerebral bleeding and enhances post-ischemic neuronal injury if administered 3-4 hours after stroke. Therefore, combination therapies with tPA and neuroprotective agents have been considered to increase tPA's therapeutic window and reduce toxicity. The anticoagulant factor protein S (PS protects neurons from hypoxic/ischemic injury. PS also inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA excitotoxicity by phosphorylating Bad and Mdm2 which blocks the downstream steps in the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. To test whether PS can protect neurons from tPA toxicity we studied its effects on tPA/NMDA combined injury which in contrast to NMDA alone kills neurons by activating the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Neither Bad nor Mdm2 which are PS's targets and control the intrinsic apoptotic pathway can influence the extrinsic cascade. Thus, based on published data one cannot predict whether PS can protect neurons from tPA/NMDA injury by blocking the extrinsic pathway. Neurons express all three TAM (Tyro3, Axl, Mer receptors that can potentially interact with PS. Therefore, we studied whether PS can activate TAM receptors during a tPA/NMDA insult. Results We show that PS protects neurons from tPA/NMDA-induced apoptosis by suppressing Fas-ligand (FasL production and FasL-dependent caspase-8 activation within the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. By transducing neurons with adenoviral vectors expressing the kinase-deficient Akt mutant AktK179A and a triple FKHRL1 Akt phosphorylation site mutant (FKHRL1-TM, we show that Akt activation and Akt-mediated phosphorylation of FKHRL1, a member of the Forkhead family of transcription factors, are critical for FasL down-regulation and caspase-8 inhibition. Using cultured neurons from Tyro3, Axl and Mer mutants, we show that Tyro3, but not Axl and Mer, mediates

  15. PPARs Signaling and Cancer in the Gastrointestinal System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Pazienza


    Full Text Available Nowadays, the study of the peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs as potential targets for cancer prevention and therapy has gained a strong interest. From a biological point of view, the overall responsibility of PPARs in cancer development and progression is still controversial since several studies report both antiproliferative and tumor-promoting actions for these signaling molecules in human cancer cells and animal models. In this paper, we discuss PPARs functions in the context of different types of gastrointestinal cancer.

  16. Unveiling Hidden Dynamics of Hippo Signalling: A Systems Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Young Shin


    Full Text Available The Hippo signalling pathway has recently emerged as an important regulator of cell apoptosis and proliferation with significant implications in human diseases. In mammals, the pathway contains the core kinases MST1/2, which phosphorylate and activate LATS1/2 kinases. The pro-apoptotic function of the MST/LATS signalling axis was previously linked to the Akt and ERK MAPK pathways, demonstrating that the Hippo pathway does not act alone but crosstalks with other signalling pathways to coordinate network dynamics and cellular outcomes. These crosstalks were characterised by a multitude of complex regulatory mechanisms involving competitive protein-protein interactions and phosphorylation mediated feedback loops. However, how these different mechanisms interplay in different cellular contexts to drive the context-specific network dynamics of Hippo-ERK signalling remains elusive. Using mathematical modelling and computational analysis, we uncovered that the Hippo-ERK network can generate highly diverse dynamical profiles that can be clustered into distinct dose-response patterns. For each pattern, we offered mechanistic explanation that defines when and how the observed phenomenon can arise. We demonstrated that Akt displays opposing, dose-dependent functions towards ERK, which are mediated by the balance between the Raf-1/MST2 protein interaction module and the LATS1 mediated feedback regulation. Moreover, Ras displays a multi-functional role and drives biphasic responses of both MST2 and ERK activities; which are critically governed by the competitive protein interaction between MST2 and Raf-1. Our study represents the first in-depth and systematic analysis of the Hippo-ERK network dynamics and provides a concrete foundation for future studies.

  17. A SystemC-Based Design Methodology for Digital Signal Processing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Haubelt


    Full Text Available Digital signal processing algorithms are of big importance in many embedded systems. Due to complexity reasons and due to the restrictions imposed on the implementations, new design methodologies are needed. In this paper, we present a SystemC-based solution supporting automatic design space exploration, automatic performance evaluation, as well as automatic system generation for mixed hardware/software solutions mapped onto FPGA-based platforms. Our proposed hardware/software codesign approach is based on a SystemC-based library called SysteMoC that permits the expression of different models of computation well known in the domain of digital signal processing. It combines the advantages of executability and analyzability of many important models of computation that can be expressed in SysteMoC. We will use the example of an MPEG-4 decoder throughout this paper to introduce our novel methodology. Results from a five-dimensional design space exploration and from automatically mapping parts of the MPEG-4 decoder onto a Xilinx FPGA platform will demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  18. A Proposed Model for Traffic Signal Preemption Using Global Positioning System (GPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Mascarenhas


    Full Text Available A Traffic Signal Preemption system is an automated system that allows normal operation of traffic lights at automated signalized intersection s to be preempted. Preemption of signals is generally done to assist emergency vehicles, such a s ambulances, so that response times are reduced and right-of-way is provided in a smooth an d controlled manner. This paper proposes an innovative and cost-effective server-centric mod el to facilitate preemption using a simple mobile phone app which uses Global Positioning Syst em (GPS and a microcontroller which controls traffic signals.

  19. Glossogyne tenuifolia Extract Inhibits TNF-α-Induced Expression of Adhesion Molecules in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells via Blocking the NF-kB Signaling Pathway. (United States)

    Hsuan, Chin-Feng; Hsu, Hsia-Fen; Tseng, Wei-Kung; Lee, Thung-Lip; Wei, Yu-Feng; Hsu, Kwan-Lih; Wu, Chau-Chung; Houng, Jer-Yiing


    Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of atherosclerosis, where the pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and the recruitment of monocytes are the crucial events leading to its pathogenesis. Glossogyne tenuifolia ethanol extract (GTE) is shown to have potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. We evaluated the effects of GTE and its major components, luteolin (lut), luteolin-7-glucoside (lut-7-g), and oleanolic acid (OA) on TNF-α-induced expression of adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results demonstrated that GTE, lut, and lut-7-g attenuated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in TNF-α-activated HUVECs, and inhibited the adhesion of monocytes to TNF-α-activated HUVECs. The TNF-α-induced mRNA expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 was also suppressed, revealing their inhibitory effects at the transcriptional level. Furthermore, GTE, lut, and lut-7-g blocked the TNF-α-induced degradation of nuclear factor-kB inhibitor (IkB), an indicator of the activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB). In summary, GTE and its bioactive components were effective in preventing the adhesion of monocytes to cytokine-activated endothelium by the inhibition of expression of adhesion molecules, which in turn is mediated through blocking the activation and nuclear translocation of NF-kB. The current results reveal the therapeutic potential of GTE in atherosclerosis.

  20. Drug repurposing: sulfasalazine sensitizes gliomas to gamma knife radiosurgery by blocking cystine uptake through system Xc-, leading to glutathione depletion. (United States)

    Sleire, L; Skeie, B S; Netland, I A; Førde, H E; Dodoo, E; Selheim, F; Leiss, L; Heggdal, J I; Pedersen, P-H; Wang, J; Enger, P Ø


    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are aggressive brain tumors that always recur after radiotherapy. Cystine, mainly provided by the system X(c)(-) antiporter, is a requirement for glioma cell synthesis of glutathione (GSH) which has a critical role in scavenging free radicals, for example, after radiotherapy. Thus, we hypothesized that the X(c)(-)-inhibitor sulfasalazine (SAS) could potentiate the efficacy of radiotherapy against gliomas. Here, we show that the catalytic subunit of system X(c)(-), xCT, was uniformly expressed in a panel of 30 human GBM biopsies. SAS treatment significantly reduced cystine uptake and GSH levels, whereas it significantly increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in glioma cells in vitro. Furthermore, SAS and radiation synergistically increased DNA double-strand breaks and increased glioma cell death, whereas adding the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reversed cell death. Moreover, SAS and gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) synergistically prolonged survival in nude rats harboring human GBM xenografts, compared with controls or either treatment alone. In conclusion, SAS effectively blocks cystine uptake in glioma cells in vitro, leading to GSH depletion and increased ROS levels, DNA damage and cell death. Moreover, it potentiates the anti-tumor efficacy of GKRS in rats with human GBM xenografts, providing a survival benefit. Thus, SAS may have a role as a radiosensitizer to enhance the efficacy of current radiotherapies for glioma patients.