WorldWideScience

Sample records for blindness

  1. Willed blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. A willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness enables us...... blindness focusing on the development of either a new moral vision of our obligations or new visions of what a good life is....

  2. Color Blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2007-01-01

    About one in 12 boys is color-blind, and one in every 400 girls, so in each school class there are likely to be at least one or two people who are color-blind. Because they are color- blind from birth, most people do not know that they are color-

  3. Color blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness is achromatopsia. This is a rare condition in which a person cannot see any color, only shades of gray. Most color blindness is due to ...

  4. [Cortical blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokron, S

    2014-02-01

    Cortical blindness refers to a visual loss induced by a bilateral occipital lesion. The very strong cooperation between psychophysics, cognitive psychology, neurophysiology and neuropsychology these latter twenty years as well as recent progress in cerebral imagery have led to a better understanding of neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness. It thus becomes possible now to propose an earlier diagnosis of cortical blindness as well as new perspectives for rehabilitation in children as well as in adults. On the other hand, studying complex neurovisual deficits, such as cortical blindness is a way to infer normal functioning of the visual system.

  5. Blind Masseurs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Guan Enming and his wife Hao Dejuan, a blind couple, vowed to "never become a burden for society." The couple retired from the QJngdao Massotherapy Hospital in 1992, and thereafter opened a private clinic with assistance from their

  6. Blind Ambition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Catherine Applefeld

    2009-01-01

    No matter how dedicated they may be, some teachers are daunted by extreme challenges. Carol Agler, music director at the Ohio State School for the Blind (OSSB), is not one of those teachers. Since joining the OSSB staff 11 years ago, Agler has revived the school's long-dormant band program and created its first marching band. Next January, she…

  7. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2016-12-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  8. Blind Quantum Signature with Blind Quantum Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Guo, Ying

    2017-04-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a client without quantum abilities to interact with a quantum server to perform a unconditional secure computing protocol, while protecting client's privacy. Motivated by confidentiality of blind quantum computation, a blind quantum signature scheme is designed with laconic structure. Different from the traditional signature schemes, the signing and verifying operations are performed through measurement-based quantum computation. Inputs of blind quantum computation are securely controlled with multi-qubit entangled states. The unique signature of the transmitted message is generated by the signer without leaking information in imperfect channels. Whereas, the receiver can verify the validity of the signature using the quantum matching algorithm. The security is guaranteed by entanglement of quantum system for blind quantum computation. It provides a potential practical application for e-commerce in the cloud computing and first-generation quantum computation.

  9. Blind system identification

    OpenAIRE

    Abed-Meriam, Karim; Qui, Wanzhi; Hua, Yingbo

    1997-01-01

    Blind system identification (BSI) is a fundamental signal processing technology aimed at retrieving a system's unknown information from its output only. This technology has a wide range of possible applications such as mobile communications, speech reverberation cancellation, and blind image restoration. This paper reviews a number of recently developed concepts and techniques for BSI, which include the concept of blind system identifiability in a deterministic framework, the blind techniques...

  10. Blindness and vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means you cannot see anything and DO NOT see light. (Most people who use the term "blindness" mean ... the vision loss. For long-term vision loss, see a low-vision specialist, who can help you learn to care for yourself and ... of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness ...

  11. Blindness%失明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同良

    2009-01-01

    @@ There was a blind girl who hated herself because she was blind. She hated everyone,except her loving boyfriend who was always there for her. She told her boyfriend, "If I could only see the World, I will marry you."

  12. Blindness and Yoga

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyes, Anthony David

    1974-01-01

    Evidence is presented to support the claims that, among many blind persons, physical inactivity leads to poor physical fitness; that a state of anxiety is often a concomitant of unguided blind mobility; and that Yogic practices offer a solution to both difficulties. (GW)

  13. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  14. Blind Pre-School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Billie, Comp.

    Articles pertinent to aiding the pre-school blind child are collected in this publication. Topics include discussion of attitudes and emotional reactions important for parents and teachers of blind children, and optimal development in regard to early motor behavior and emotional and social needs. Common areas of parental concern such as discipline…

  15. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical...... background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material...

  16. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...... of the analysis and its realisation in an automatic tool. We concentrate on the former in the present paper and provide the semantic foundation for our analysis of protocols using blinding - also in the presence of malicious attackers....

  17. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People with night blindness often have trouble seeing stars on a clear night or walking through a ... certain drugs Vitamin A deficiency (rare) Nontreatable causes: Birth defects Retinitis pigmentosa

  18. Blind Loop Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more commonly result from other conditions such as short bowel syndrome or chronic pancreatitis. Small intestine aspirate and fluid ... people with severe blind loop syndrome resulting in short bowel syndrome. References Townsend CM Jr, et al. Sabiston Textbook ...

  19. Visual Impairment, Including Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Who Knows What? Survey Item Bank Search for: Visual Impairment, Including Blindness Links updated, April 2017 En ... doesn’t wear his glasses. Back to top Visual Impairments in Children Vision is one of our ...

  20. Blind loop syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... part of the stomach) and operations for extreme obesity As a complication of inflammatory bowel disease Diseases such as diabetes or scleroderma may slow down movement in a segment of the intestine, leading to blind loop syndrome.

  1. A Blind Date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A: Talking about girls, I still remember my first time to meet my girlfriend. Iwas so clumsy and very nervous.B: That’s the same case with me. I had the jitters at my blind date, too.A: Did you also meet your girlfriend at a blind date?B: Yeah. I was actually very shy of speaking to girls, you know?

  2. Models for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material objects are rarely used as historical testimonies for the simple reason that they, unlike archival material, do not present historians with written documents that can be held as evidence of the past. However, as I point out, certain historical questions of which archives remain silent could be approached by other means such as the use of material objects. Rather than delivering concrete methodological suggestions, this second part reflects upon the historical use of material objects - both their possibilities and their limits - within the context of blindness.

  3. Models for the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in n...

  4. Oplysningens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  5. Oplysnigens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  6. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    repellent, yet 'welfare-only' positions appear to be committed to endorsing this possibility if it produces welfare gains. We call this the 'Blind Hens' Challenge'. In this paper, we argue that there are both empirical and theoretical reasons why even those adopting 'welfare-only' views should be concerned...

  7. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future.

  8. The willed blindness of humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. It is a willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness...

  9. [The blindness in the literature-Jose Saramago: blindness and Albert Bang: the blind witness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permin, H; Norn, M

    2001-01-01

    Two novels with different aspects of blindness seen through the doctors eyes. The Portuguese Nobel-prize winner José Saramago's story of a city struck by an epidemic of "white blindness", where the truth is what we cannot bear to see. The Danish author and unskilled labourer Albert Bang's (synonym with Karl E. Rasmussen) crime novel describes a blind or pretend to be blind butcher, who is a witness to a murder. Both novels are lyric, thought-provoking and insightful.

  10. Unconditionally verifiable blind computation

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2012-01-01

    Blind Quantum Computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output and computation remain private. Recently the authors together with Broadbent proposed a universal unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol, or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. In this paper we extend the BQC protocol presented in [Broadbent, Fitzsimons and Kashefi, FOCS 2009 p517] with new functionality allowing blind computational basis m...

  11. Blind Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, P; Arrighi, Pablo; Salvail, Louis

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input. Say Alice wants Bob to compute some well-known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The setting is quantum, the security is unconditional, the eavesdropper is as malicious as can be. Keywords: Secure Circuit Evaluation, Secure Two-party Computation, Information Hiding, Information gain vs disturbance.

  12. Color Blind Affirmative Action

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a conceptual framework for understanding the consequences of the widespread adoption of race-neutral alternatives' to conventional racial affirmative action policies in college admissions. A simple model of applicant competition with endogenous effort is utilized to show that, in comparison to color-conscious affirmative action, these color-blind alternatives can significantly lower the efficiency of the student selection process in equilibrium. We examine data on matricul...

  13. Postpartum cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiz, Shakeel Ahmed

    2008-09-01

    A 30-years-old third gravida with previous normal pregnancies and an unremarkable prenatal course had an emergency lower segment caesarean section at a periphery hospital for failure of labour to progress. She developed bilateral cortical blindness immediately after recovery from anesthesia due to cerebral angiopathy shown by CT and MR scan as cortical infarct cerebral angiopathy, which is a rare complication of a normal pregnancy.

  14. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  15. Fighting blindness with microelectronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zrenner, Eberhart

    2013-11-06

    There is no approved cure for blindness caused by degeneration of the photoreceptor cells of the retina. However, there has been encouraging progress with attempts to restore vision using microelectronic retinal implant devices. Yet many questions remain to be addressed. Where is the best location to implant multielectrode arrays? How can spatial and temporal resolution be improved? What are the best ways to ensure the safety and longevity of these devices? Will color vision be possible? This Perspective discusses the current state of the art of retinal implants and attempts to address some of the outstanding questions.

  16. Deaf, blind or deaf-blind: Is touch enhanced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagno, Costanza; Cecchetto, Carlo; Pisoni, Alberto; Bolognini, Nadia

    2016-02-01

    When someone looses one type of sensory input, s/he may compensate by using the sensory information conveyed by other senses. To verify whether loosing a sense or two has consequences on a spared sensory modality, namely touch, and whether these consequences depend on the type of sensory loss, we investigated the effects of deafness and blindness on temporal and spatial tactile tasks in deaf, blind and deaf-blind people. Deaf and deaf-blind people performed the spatial tactile task better than the temporal one, while blind and controls showed the opposite pattern. Deaf and deaf-blind participants were impaired in temporal discrimination as compared to controls, while deaf-blind individuals outperformed blind participants in the spatial tactile task. Overall, sensory-deprived participants did not show an enhanced tactile performance. We speculate that discriminative touch is not so relevant in humans, while social touch is. Probably, more complex tactile tasks would have revealed an increased performance in sensory-deprived people.

  17. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  18. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... build relationships and become the eventual basis for language learning. As the child who is deaf-blind becomes ... those near them, deaf-blindness fosters opportunities for learning and mutual ... M. (Eds.), (1993). Second edition. A model service delivery system for persons ...

  19. National Center On Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... My Profile Logout Menu NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness Help ... Collaborate Project Staff Service Provider Family Member State Deaf-Blind Projects Click on a state on the ...

  20. Blind Cognitive MAC Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Mehanna, Omar; Gamal, Hesham El

    2008-01-01

    We consider the design of cognitive Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols enabling an unlicensed (secondary) transmitter-receiver pair to communicate over the idle periods of a set of licensed channels, i.e., the primary network. The objective is to maximize data throughput while maintaining the synchronization between secondary users and avoiding interference with licensed (primary) users. No statistical information about the primary traffic is assumed to be available a-priori to the secondary user. We investigate two distinct sensing scenarios. In the first, the secondary transmitter is capable of sensing all the primary channels, whereas it senses one channel only in the second scenario. In both cases, we propose MAC protocols that efficiently learn the statistics of the primary traffic online. Our simulation results demonstrate that the proposed blind protocols asymptotically achieve the throughput obtained when prior knowledge of primary traffic statistics is available.

  1. Corneal blindness: prevention, treatment and rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Burton

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Blindness from corneal disease is a major ophthalmic public health problem. There are three important elements to addressing corneal blindness: prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation.

  2. Perceptual Repetition Blindness Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochhaus, Larry; Johnston, James C.; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The phenomenon of repetition blindness (RB) may reveal a new limitation on human perceptual processing. Recently, however, researchers have attributed RB to post-perceptual processes such as memory retrieval and/or reporting biases. The standard rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm used in most RB studies is, indeed, open to such objections. Here we investigate RB using a "single-frame" paradigm introduced by Johnston and Hale (1984) in which memory demands are minimal. Subjects made only a single judgement about whether one masked target word was the same or different than a post-target probe. Confidence ratings permitted use of signal detection methods to assess sensitivity and bias effects. In the critical condition for RB a precue of the post-target word was provided prior to the target stimulus (identity precue), so that the required judgement amounted to whether the target did or did not repeat the precue word. In control treatments, the precue was either an unrelated word or a dummy.

  3. LOVE IS COLOR BLIND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈梦扬

    2013-01-01

    <正>看完这部电影,突然想起小时候看完《辛德勒的名单》后,问过母亲一个问题:"为什么有些人要嘲笑和歧视那些与众不同的人?"母亲告诉我:"我们都是一样的,没有人应当受到责备,每个人都应当为自己而活,要始终坚信‘Love is color blind(爱无定界)’。"爱究竟有无定界?有太多故事让我们相信这句话并非纸上谈兵。《汤姆叔叔的小屋》、《美国往事》、《为黛西小姐开车》……是的,"Love"是"Listen(倾听)",是无条件无偏见地倾听对方的需求,并予以协助;是"Obligate(感恩)",需要不断地感恩,付出爱来灌

  4. Blinded trials taken to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  5. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What It's Like to Be Color Blind KidsHealth > For Kids > What It's Like to Be Color Blind Print A A ... blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any ...

  6. Blindness in children: a worldwide perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Gilber

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Many of the causes of childhood blindness are avoidable, being either preventable or treatable. Only three per cent of the world's blind population are children. However, because children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them, the number of ‘blind person years’ resulting from blindness starting in childhood is second only to cataract. Controlling blindness in children is a priority of VISION 20203,4; however, as its causes differ from that of blindness in adults, different strategies, personnel, infrastructure, and equipment are required to combat it. There is also a greater urgency when managing children, as delays in treatment can lead to amblyopia (lazy eye.

  7. Multiframe Blind Super Resolution Imaging Based on Blind Deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元伟; 张立毅

    2016-01-01

    As an ill-posed problem, multiframe blind super resolution imaging recovers a high resolution image from a group of low resolution images with some degradations when the information of blur kernel is limited. Note that the quality of the recovered image is influenced more by the accuracy of blur estimation than an advanced regularization. We study the traditional model of the multiframe super resolution and modify it for blind deblurring. Based on the analysis, we proposed two algorithms. The first one is based on the total variation blind deconvolution algorithm and formulated as a functional for optimization with the regularization of blur. Based on the alternating minimization and the gradient descent algorithm, the high resolution image and the unknown blur kernel are esti-mated iteratively. By using the median shift and add operator, the second algorithm is more robust to the outlier influence. The MSAA initialization simplifies the interpolation process to reconstruct the blurred high resolution image for blind deblurring and improves the accuracy of blind super resolution imaging. The experimental results demonstrate the superiority and accuracy of our novel algorithms.

  8. Access to Mathematics by Blind Students: A Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Karshmer, Arthur I.; Daryoush D. Farsi

    2007-01-01

    The issue of blindness and legally blind is becoming a global issue. Based on the last statistics from American Foundation for the blind, there are approximately 10 million blind and visually impaired people in the United States alone. Over 45 million people around the world are completely blind. 180 million more people are legally blind, and approximately 7 million people are diagnosed as blind or legally blind every year. One of the greatest stumbling blocks in the ability of the blind to e...

  9. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  10. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life...... and a structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  11. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  12. Elliptic Curve Blind Digital Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOULin; YANGYixian; WENQiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    Blind signature schemes are important cryptographic protocols in guaranteeing the privacy or anonymity of the users.Three new blind signature schemes and their corresponding generalizations are pro-posed. Moreover, their securities are simply analyzed.

  13. The Concept and Operations of Blind Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yan-jun; LIU Kai-di; ZHANG Bo-wen

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the definition and operations of blind number, and discusses its operationproperties. Blind number is a mathematical tool to express and deal with complex information with severalkinds of uncertainty.

  14. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...

  15. American Foundation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Research Navigator: A Series on Research in Blindness and Visual Impairment Stay Involved Enter your e-mail address to receive AFB eNews: Helen Keller A Driving Force Behind AFB Learn more about Helen Keller Visit the Helen Keller Kids Museum Directory of Services Find Local Services: Select a ...

  16. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources fro...

  17. The Blind as "Ordinary People".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Saul

    1978-01-01

    Based on a paper presented at the 1977 Western Social Science Association Meeting in Denver, Colorado, the article reports on a study that compared major demographic features of a sample of 70 legally blind adults with the sighted adult sample studied in the 1975 National Opinion Research Center General Social Survey. (Author/DLS)

  18. The Blind Learning Aptitude Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newland, T. Ernest

    A Blind Learning Aptitude Test (BLAT) was developed on the basis of sense of touch rather than on conventional experience, fine sensory discrimination, or verbal competency. From a pool of about 350 items, most of them used in testing intelligence in the sighted, a pool of 94 was selected and embossed after the manner of braille. A residual pool…

  19. Partially Blind Signatures Based on Quantum Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiao-Qiu; Niu, Hui-Fang

    2012-12-01

    In a partially blind signature scheme, the signer explicitly includes pre-agreed common information in the blind signature, which can improve the availability and performance. We present a new partially blind signature scheme based on fundamental properties of quantum mechanics. In addition, we analyze the security of this scheme, and show it is not possible to forge valid partially blind signatures. Moreover, the comparisons between this scheme and those based on public-key cryptography are also discussed.

  20. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C;

    2010-01-01

    Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals and envi......Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals...

  1. Poverty and blindness in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin

    2007-11-01

    Africa carries a disproportionate responsibility in terms of blindness and visual impairment. With approximately 10 per cent of the world's population, Africa has 19 per cent of the world's blindness. It is no surprise that this reality also mirrors the situation in terms of the burden of world poverty. There is an increasing recognition of the need to highlight the link between poverty, development and health care. Blindness, disabling visual impairment and the overall lack of eye-care services are too often the result of social, economic and developmental challenges of the developing world. The state of eye care in Africa stands in alarming contrast to that in the rest of the world. Poor practitioner-to-patient ratios, absence of eye-care personnel, inadequate facilities, poor state funding and a lack of educational programs are the hallmarks of eye care in Africa, with preventable and treatable conditions being the leading cause of blindness. Eye diseases causing preventable blindness are often the result of a combination of factors such as poverty, lack of education and inadequate health-care services. The challenge that Vision 2020 has set itself in Africa is enormous. Africa is not a homogenous entity, the inter- and intra-country differences in economic development, prevalence of disease, delivery infrastructure and human resources amplify the challenges of meeting eye-care needs. The successful implementation of Vision 2020 programs will be hindered without the development of a comprehensive, co-ordinated strategy that is cognisant of the differences that exist and the need for comprehensive solutions that are rooted in the economic and political realities of the continent as well as the individual countries and regions within countries. This strategy should recognise the need for economic growth that results in greater state funded eye-care services that focus on health promotion to ensure the prevention of eye disease, the development of eye clinics in

  2. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  3. BLIND ADAPTIVE XPIC BASED ON HOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Haiyang; Yang Longxiang; Peng Jianglong

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new blind XPIC and a new adaptive blind deconvolutional algorithm based on HOS processing, which separates and equalizes the signals in real time. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed adaptive blind algorithm,compared with the conventional algorithms, is outstanding with the feature of feasibility, stability and fast convergence rate.

  4. Psychomotor Development for the Deaf-Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Claudine

    The stages of psychomotor development in deaf blind children and youth are reviewed, and educational principles to guide psychomotor development programs for the deaf blind are outlined. Etiological factors which contribute to the psychomotor development of deaf blind persons are discussed including nonambulation and sensory deprivation, heart…

  5. From" Televised Blind Date” to" Televised Half-blind Wedding”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates” , arranged by a television station. It is interesting to see how a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding” to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that 1 think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out.

  6. From "Televised Blind Date" to "Televised Half-blind Wedding"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates", arranged by a television station, It is interesting to see bow a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding" to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that I think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out. In the beginning, the directors of FOX put ads in newspapers, openly asking the public: "Who wants to marry a multi-millionaire?" It did not cost much time or

  7. Color blindness and Rorschach color responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsino, B V

    1985-10-01

    Color vision deficits occur in 10% of the American white male population. Thus, color blindness may invalidate diagnostic hypotheses generated from Rorschach data. The Rorschach protocols of 43 white, college male color-blind subjects were compared to the protocols of normally sighted controls. The color-blind group manifested fewer pure "C" responses. No significant between group differences emerged for any of the other primary Rorschach color variables. Pure "C" responses rarely figure prominently in Rorschach evaluations, and the apparent lowered frequency of these responses by the color-blind is insufficient to warrant modification of current Rorschach practice. The data suggest that color blindness is unlikely to confound Rorschach assessment.

  8. BLIND SERBIAN RULERS AND FAMOUS PERSONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janicijevic Katarina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available History and medicine were an integral part of life-being of blind serbian acters. One of the main actors was half-blind serbian ruler, Stefan of Decani and whose name was associated with first ophthalmologic hospital and precursor of the eye`s injuries care. After, national reputation as Stefan Blind Righteous, ruler of the Serbian despot between 1458. and 1459. (member of Brankovic`s dinasty, and he was blinded by eye injuries burns. The famous national was also Filip Visnjic, as blind minstrel and authentic creator of serbian folk traditions, with sequels as a child, by bilateral infective panuveitis.

  9. [Cortical plasticity in blind individual].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-zhen; Zhu, Si-quan

    2008-10-01

    The cognitive mechanisms and functional brain imaging research on blind individuals provide special information for exploring the plasticity of the developing human brain. This paper focuses on five aspects of recent progress in this field: (1) the behavior compensation of the blind; (2) the influence of early visual deprivation and later visual deprivation on cross-modal reorganization; (3) the relationship between the complexity of task requirement and cross-modal reorganization; (4) the relationship between the sensitive periods of the visual system and the time course of cross-modal reorganization; (5) the neural mechanisms of cross-modal reorganization. These findings contribute greatly to the theoretical basis of the rehabilitation of individuals with perceptual deficits.

  10. Demonstration of blind quantum computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-01-20

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to preserve the privacy of a computation. We present an experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing in which the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. Various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover quantum algorithms, are demonstrated. The client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  11. [Double-blind peer review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenyvesi, Tamás

    2002-02-03

    The peer review process in medical sciences is much debated. The method is not yet evidence based. Who are the reviewers and how do they perform? They are "independent" experts. As such they are bound to be involved in research similar to that outlined in the manuscript. Very often they are contestant in the same race. That is why the author consider the double blind method, where the author is blinded and the reviewer masked from each other's identity, the best choice. Nevertheless in very many scientific journals of high quality and envied impact factors do not blind the identity of the authors. Science is a race for fame, self accomplishment and also a means to get grants for pursuing the scientific research. Only success is able to provide resources for expensive scientific research. There is no fail-safe method against bias in grant giving and editorial process. In the tidal wave of electronic information it is mandatory to help in differentiating between signal and noise in science. Peer review is the best method to protect readers from the trash of uncontrolled publications in medical science.

  12. Provably secure robust threshold partial blind signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhenfu; ZHU Haojin; LU Rongxing

    2006-01-01

    Threshold digital signature and blind signature are playing important roles in cryptography as well as in practical applications such as e-cash and e-voting systems.Over the past few years, many cryptographic researchers have made considerable headway in this field. However, to our knowledge, most of existing threshold blind signature schemes are based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this paper, we propose a new robust threshold partial blind signature scheme based on improved RSA cryptosystem.This scheme is the first threshold partial blind signature scheme based on factoring, and the robustness of threshold partial blind signature is also introduced. Moreover, in practical application, the proposed scheme will be especially suitable for blind signature-based voting systems with multiple administrators and secure electronic cash systems to prevent their abuse.

  13. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our...... behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data...... further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness...

  14. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good vision would be able to read certain letters from 20 feet (6 meters) away. Eyesight this good is called 20/20 vision, although some people can see even better than that. The numbers change depending on ...

  15. A Rare Hydrocephalus Complication: Cortical Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünal, Emre; Göçmen, Rahşan; Işıkay, Ayşe İlksen; Tekşam, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    Cortical blindness related to bilateral occipital lobe infarction is an extremely rare complication of hydrocephalus. Compression of the posterior cerebral artery, secondary to tentorial herniation, is the cause of occipital infarction. Particularly in children and mentally ill patients, cortical blindness may be missed. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of hydrocephalus is important. We present herein a child of ventricular shunt malfunction complicated by cortical blindness.

  16. CERTIFICATELESS SIGNATURE AND BLIND SIGNATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lei; Zhang Futai

    2008-01-01

    Certificateless public key cryptography is a new paradigm introduced by AI-Riyami and Paterson. It eliminates the need of the certificates in traditional public key cryptosystems and the key escrow problem in IDentity-based Public Key Cryptography (ID-PKC). Due to the advantages of the certificateless public key cryptography,a new efficient certificateless pairing-based signature scheme is presented,which has some advantages over previous constructions in computational cost. Based on this new signature scheme,a certificateless blind signature scheme is proposed. The security of our schemes is proven based on the hardness of computational Diffie-Hellman problem.

  17. Causes of blindness and needs of the blind in Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Gilany, A H; el-Fedawy, S; Tharwat, M

    2002-01-01

    A study of 113 blind people in Mansoura, Egypt highlighted the causes and risk factors for blindness, and health and social care needs of the blind. In two-thirds of cases, blindness occurred before 10 years of age. Risk factors for blindness were reported by more than half the study population. Congenital causes accounted for almost half the cases. The commonest causes of bilateral blindness were corneal opacities, cataract and glaucoma. Almost three-quarters of causes were avoidable. Health and social care for this group was inadequate and more than half would benefit from further management. Legislation for keratoplasty, a registry of blind people, and a nationwide community survey on the epidemiology of blindness are needed urgently.

  18. Blindness and Insight in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳元玉

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of blindness and insight in his great tragedy "King Lear".Four characters’ deeds and their fate are used as a case study to examine what blindness is,what insight is,and the relationship between the two.The writer finds that by depicting the characters’ deeds and their fate in a double plot,Shakespeare renders the folly of blindness,the transition from blindness to insight,and the use of reason and thought to understand the truth.

  19. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  20. Comparison of Training, Blind and Semi Blind Equalizers in MIMO Fading Systems Using Capacity as Measure

    OpenAIRE

    Kavitha, Veeraruna; Sharma, Vinod

    2005-01-01

    Semi blind/blind equalizers are believed to work unsatisfactorily in fading MIMO channels compared to training based methods, due to slow convergence or high computational complexity. We revisit this issue. Defining a 'composite' channel for each equalizer, we compare the three algorithms based on the capacity of this channel. We show that, in a Rician (with line of sight, LOS) environment, semi blind/blind algorithms outperform training equalizers, but in Rayleigh channels, it is better to u...

  1. 75 FR 47304 - Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf-Blind, or Have Low Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-05

    ... COMMISSION Accessible Mobile Phone Options for People Who Are Blind, Deaf- Blind, or Have Low Vision AGENCY... accessible for people who are blind, have vision loss, or are deaf-blind and the extent to which gaps in... deaf-blind; recommendations on the most effective and efficient technical policy solutions...

  2. Front blind spot crashes in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuk Ki; Wong, Koon Hung; Tao, Chi Hang; Tam, Cheok Ning; Tam, Yiu Yan; Tsang, Cheuk Nam

    2016-09-01

    In 2012-2014, our laboratory had investigated a total of 9 suspected front blind spot crashes, in which the medium and heavy goods vehicles pulled away from rest and rolled over the pedestrians, who were crossing immediately in front of the vehicles. The drivers alleged that they did not see any pedestrians through the windscreens or the front blind spot mirrors. Forensic assessment of the goods vehicles revealed the existence of front blind spot zones in 3 out of these 9 accident vehicles, which were attributed to the poor mirror adjustments or even the absence of a front blind spot mirror altogether. In view of this, a small survey was devised involving 20 randomly selected volunteers and their goods vehicles and 5 out of these vehicles had blind spots at the front. Additionally, a short questionnaire was conducted on these 20 professional lorry drivers and it was shown that most of them were not aware of the hazards of blind spots immediately in front of their vehicles, and many did not use the front blind spot mirrors properly. A simple procedure for quick measurements of the coverage of front blind spot mirrors using a coloured plastic mat with dimensional grids was also introduced and described in this paper.

  3. Blavigator: a navigation aid for blind persons

    OpenAIRE

    José,João; Moreno, M.; Pinilla-Dutoit, J.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Blavigator (blind navigator) is a vision aid for blind and visuaIIy impaired persons. It supports local navigation by detecting waIkable paths in the immediate vicinity of the user. It guides the user for centering on the path.

  4. Blind Equalization Based on Evolution Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongYu; ZhangXianda; 等

    1997-01-01

    Conventional blind equalization algorithms suffer from ill convergence to local minima and slow convergence speed.This paper proposes a novel blind equalization algorithm.using random search methods-evolution strategies and existing cost functions,Simulation results verify the fast and global convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  5. Early Interactions with Children Who Are Deaf-Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Logout Menu Early Interactions With Children Who Are Deaf-Blind NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness Help ... Archived Webinars Early Interactions With Children Who Are Deaf-Blind by DB-LINK on Apr 1, 2008 ...

  6. Altered sleep-wake patterns in blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubin, S.; Gacon, C.; Jennum, P.

    2016-01-01

    discuss variability in the sleep–wake pattern between blind and normal-sighted individuals. Methods Thirty-day actigraphy recordings were collected from 11 blind individuals without residual light perception and 11 age- and sex-matched normal-sighted controls. From these recordings, we extracted...... episode in blind participants as compared to sighted control participants. We also confirm previous reports of reduced sleep quality in blind individuals. Notably, the variability in sleep efficiency and in the timing of sleep correlated with the severity of sleep disturbances. Conclusion The timing...... and physiology of sleep are strongly dependent on the endogenous circadian phase; therefore, observed findings support the hypothesis of free-running circadian rhythms as a dominant factor for the sleep disturbances experienced in blindness....

  7. An ECC-Based Blind Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Gwo Jeng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is increasingly applied to the E-commerce world, especially to the untraceable payment system and the electronic voting system. Protocols for these systems strongly require the anonymous digital signature property, and thus a blind signature strategy is the answer to it. Chaum stated that every blind signature protocol should hold two fundamental properties, blindness and intractableness. All blind signature schemes proposed previously almost are based on the integer factorization problems, discrete logarithm problems, or the quadratic residues, which are shown by Lee et al. that none of the schemes is able to meet the two fundamental properties above. Therefore, an ECC-based blind signature scheme that possesses both the above properties is proposed in this paper.

  8. User-centered Technologies For Blind Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathematical skills, navigation and orientation, and problem solving of blind children. Findings indicate significant improvements in learning and cognition from using audio-based tools specially tailored for the blind. That is, technologies for blind children, carefully tailored through user-centered design approaches, can make a significant contribution to cognitive development of these children. This paper contributes new insight into the design and implementation of audio-based virtual environments to facilitate learning and cognition in blind children.

  9. Blind Braille readers mislocate tactile stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterr, Annette; Green, Lisa; Elbert, Thomas

    2003-05-01

    In a previous experiment, we observed that blind Braille readers produce errors when asked to identify on which finger of one hand a light tactile stimulus had occurred. With the present study, we aimed to specify the characteristics of this perceptual error in blind and sighted participants. The experiment confirmed that blind Braille readers mislocalised tactile stimuli more often than sighted controls, and that the localisation errors occurred significantly more often at the right reading hand than at the non-reading hand. Most importantly, we discovered that the reading fingers showed the smallest error frequency, but the highest rate of stimulus attribution. The dissociation of perceiving and locating tactile stimuli in the blind suggests altered tactile information processing. Neuroplasticity, changes in tactile attention mechanisms as well as the idea that blind persons may employ different strategies for tactile exploration and object localisation are discussed as possible explanations for the results obtained.

  10. Blind reconstruction of linear scrambler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Xie; Fenghua Wang; Zhitao Huang

    2014-01-01

    An algorithm based on eigenanalysis technique and Walsh-Hadamard transform (WHT) is proposed. The algorithm contains two steps. Firstly, the received sequence is divided into temporal windows, and a covariance matrix is computed. The li-near feedback shift register (LFSR) sequence is reconstructed from the first eigenvector of this matrix. Secondly, equations ac-cording to the recovered LFSR sequence are constructed, and the Walsh spectrum corresponding to the equations is computed. The feedback polynomial of LFSR is estimated from the Walsh spec-trum. The validity of the algorithm is verified by the simulation result. Final y, case studies are presented to il ustrate the perfor-mance of the blind reconstruction method.

  11. BLIND DIFFERENTIAL ADAPTIVE MULTIUSER DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a new blind equalization cost function, termed differential mean output energy (DMOE), was presented, and a new multiuser detection algorithm with variable step size was designed. It is shown through simulation results for a co-channel system involving severe MAI that the DMOE algorithm gives significantly enhanced signal to interference ratio (SIR) performance and converges rapidly to the optimum MMSE detector, together with a low computational complexity requirement relative to the recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. Thus, it is not necessary to switch to the decision-directed mode. Moreover, it also exhibits global convergence, and can be used in different interference environment without the requirement of estimating and restricting the surplus energy.

  12. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  13. Internet Adaptation for Colour-Blind Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rytė Žiūrienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Of all human race about 8% of males and 0,5% of females are colour-blind. It is estimated that in 2011 or 2012 there will be around 2 billion Internet users worldwide, so the number of colour-blind Internet users can reach about 200 million. Authors of this publication analyse issues that arise for colour-blind persons on the Internet and deliver the ways to make the Internet more comfortable. The special software is proposed as one of the ways together with comparison of its advantages.

  14. Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the

  15. Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.

  16. Reversible cortical blindness: posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Mondal, Kanchan Kumar; Das, Somnath; Gupta, Anindya; Biswas, Jaya; Bhattacharyya, Subir Kumar; Biswas, Gautam

    2010-11-01

    Cortical blindness is defined as visual failure with preserved pupillary reflexes in structurally intact eyes due to bilateral lesions affecting occipital cortex. Bilateral oedema and infarction of the posterior and middle cerebral arterial territory, trauma, glioma and meningioma of the occipital cortex are the main causes of cortical blindness. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) refers to the reversible subtype of cortical blindness and is usually associated with hypertension, diabetes, immunosuppression, puerperium with or without eclampsia. Here, 3 cases of PRES with complete or partial visual recovery following treatment in 6-month follow-up are reported.

  17. Compressed Blind De-convolution

    CERN Document Server

    Saligrama, V

    2009-01-01

    Suppose the signal x is realized by driving a k-sparse signal u through an arbitrary unknown stable discrete-linear time invariant system H. These types of processes arise naturally in Reflection Seismology. In this paper we are interested in several problems: (a) Blind-Deconvolution: Can we recover both the filter $H$ and the sparse signal $u$ from noisy measurements? (b) Compressive Sensing: Is x compressible in the conventional sense of compressed sensing? Namely, can x, u and H be reconstructed from a sparse set of measurements. We develop novel L1 minimization methods to solve both cases and establish sufficient conditions for exact recovery for the case when the unknown system H is auto-regressive (i.e. all pole) of a known order. In the compressed sensing/sampling setting it turns out that both H and x can be reconstructed from O(k log(n)) measurements under certain technical conditions on the support structure of u. Our main idea is to pass x through a linear time invariant system G and collect O(k lo...

  18. Blindness of Johann Sebastian Bach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarkkanen, Ahti

    2013-03-01

    Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was one of the greatest composers of all time. Apart from performing as a brilliant organist, he composed over 1.100 works in almost every musical genre. He was known as a hardworking, deeply Christian person, who had to support his family of 20 children and many students staying at his home. At the age of 64 years, his vision started to decline. Old biographies claim that it was the result of overstressing his vision in poor illumination. By persuasion of his friends, he had his both eyes operated by a travelling British eye surgeon. A cataract couching was performed. After surgery, Bach was totally blind and unable to play an organ, compose or direct choirs and orchestras. He was confined to bed and suffering from immense pain of the eyes and the body. He died <4 months after surgery. In this paper, as the plausible diagnosis, intractable glaucoma because of pupillary block or secondary to phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis is suggested.

  19. Night blindness and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha Lima, Breno; Pichi, Francesco; Lowder, Careen Y

    2014-10-01

    Signs of malnutrition are common clinical features in Crohn's disease; and bowel resection, commonly needed in these cases, can aggravate malnutrition. These patients are at risk of developing vitamin A deficiency, which can lead to night blindness. We present a 60-year-old male, with history of Crohn's disease and multiple resections for strictures and fistulas leading to short bowel syndrome, with progressive bilateral loss of night vision (nyctalopia). Serum vitamin A level was markedly depleted (11 µg/dL, reference 20-120 µg/dL), and full-field electroretinogram testing demonstrated extinguished scotopic (rod function) responses and decreased amplitudes of photopic responses on 30 Hz flicker (cone function). He was started on vitamin A supplementation (initially intramuscular). His vitamin A level was back to normal (78 µg/dL), and night vision problems subjectively improved. Patients with Crohn's disease should be inquired about night vision problems. The presence of nyctalopia should prompt vitamin A level measurement and ophthalmology referral for further evaluation.

  20. Imagery limitations in totally congenitally blind subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beni, R; Cornoldi, C

    1988-10-01

    Research on totally blind subjects performing tasks that involve visual imagery has often shown that they do not behave differently from matched sighted subjects, even when their blindness is congenital. If visual imagery is based on visual perception, such tasks may not required visual imagery. In the present article visual images are considered as representations maintaining some properties of visible objects and constructed on the basis of information from various sources. Owing to the absence of visual experience, the limitations of such representations are explored in a series of experiments requiring memorization of single nouns, pairs of nouns, or triplets of nouns associated with a cue noun. Recall by blind subjects was impaired when multiple interactive images (with noun pairs and triplets) are formed. The poorer recall of blind subjects reflected also loss of order information. Recall was better for both groups with locative noun cues and high-imagery targets.

  1. Hypertension and color blindness in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, W E

    1975-05-01

    Medical data from Selective Service registrants born from 1939 to 1941 were studied in Oregon and Colorado. Among 29,119 registrants with medical information (41.3% of all registrants), 1,073 (3.6%) had definite hypertension, and 1,226 (4.2%) had some type of color blindness. In both states, there was a highly significant association between the prevalence of hypertension and the prevalence of color blindness. Thus, definite hypertension was present in 6.0% of color clind individuals but in only 3.6% of those with unimparied color vision, while color blindness occurred in 6.8% with definite hypertension, in 5.8% with borderline hypertension, and in only 4.0% with normal blood pressure. The data did not differentiate among types of color blindness, and the reason for the association is not yet evident.

  2. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables Ask a Scientist Video Series Why can’ ... a scientist? Click to Watch What is an optical illusion? Click to Watch What is color blindness? Click ...

  3. Enhanced heat discrimination in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that congenitally blind individuals perform better than normally sighted controls in a variety of auditory, tactile and olfactory discrimination tasks. However, little is known about the capacity of blind individuals to make fine discriminatory judgments in the thermal...... discrimination. Thermal stimuli were delivered with either a 2.56 or 9 cm(2) Peltier-based thermode. We applied for 5-8s lasting non-painful thermal stimuli to the forearm and asked participants to detect small increments in temperature (ΔT = 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 or 1.6°C) that occurred at random time intervals. Blank...... of the stimulated skin surface or magnitude of the temperature shift. Increasing the size of the stimulated skin area increased the response criterion in the blind (p=0.022) but not in the sighted. Together, these findings show that congenitally blind individuals have enhanced temperature discrimination accuracy...

  4. Transient cortical blindness after coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alp, B N; Bozbuğa, N; Tuncer, M A; Yakut, C

    2009-01-01

    Transient cortical blindness is rarely encountered after angiography of native coronary arteries or bypass grafts. This paper reports a case of transient cortical blindness that occurred 72 h after coronary angiography in a 56-year old patient. This was the patient's fourth exposure to contrast medium. Neurological examination demonstrated cortical blindness and the absence of any focal neurological deficit. A non-contrast-enhanced computed tomographic scan of the brain revealed bilateral contrast enhancement in the occipital lobes and no evidence of cerebral haemorrhage, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed no pathology. Sight returned spontaneously within 4 days and his vision gradually improved. A search of the current literature for reported cases of transient cortical blindness suggested that this is a rarely encountered complication of coronary angiography.

  5. Reversible cortical blindness after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knower, Mark T; Pethke, Scott D; Valentine, Vincent G

    2003-06-01

    Cyclosporine (CYA) is a calcineurin inhibitor widely used in immunosuppressive regimens after organ transplantation. Several neurologic side effects are frequently associated with CYA use; however, reversible cortical blindness is a rare manifestation of CYA toxicity traditionally seen after liver and bone marrow transplantation. This report presents a case of reversible cortical blindness after lung transplantation, then details the risk factors and clinical course of 28 previously well-documented cases of CYA-induced cortical blindness after transplantation. Identification of known risk factors, clinical clues, and typical radiographic findings may aid in the diagnosis of CYA-induced cortical blindness, since reduction in CYA dose or cessation of CYA therapy usually permits resolution of the neurologic effects.

  6. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how people become color ... I’m sleeping? Click to Watch What does it mean to be nearsighted or farsighted? Click to ...

  7. From Perception to Metacognition: Auditory and Olfactory Functions in Early Blind, Late Blind, and Sighted Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell Kärnekull, Stina; Arshamian, Artin; Nilsson, Mats E.; Larsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15), late blind (n = 15), and sighted (n = 30) participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity. PMID:27729884

  8. From perception to metacognition: Auditory and olfactory functions in early blind, late blind, and sighted individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Cornell Kärnekull

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Although evidence is mixed, studies have shown that blind individuals perform better than sighted at specific auditory, tactile, and chemosensory tasks. However, few studies have assessed blind and sighted individuals across different sensory modalities in the same study. We tested early blind (n = 15, late blind (n = 15, and sighted (n = 30 participants with analogous olfactory and auditory tests in absolute threshold, discrimination, identification, episodic recognition, and metacognitive ability. Although the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA showed no overall effect of blindness and no interaction with modality, follow-up between-group contrasts indicated a blind-over-sighted advantage in auditory episodic recognition, that was most pronounced in early blind individuals. In contrast to the auditory modality, there was no empirical support for compensatory effects in any of the olfactory tasks. There was no conclusive evidence for group differences in metacognitive ability to predict episodic recognition performance. Taken together, the results showed no evidence of an overall superior performance in blind relative sighted individuals across olfactory and auditory functions, although early blind individuals exceled in episodic auditory recognition memory. This observation may be related to an experience-induced increase in auditory attentional capacity.

  9. An Efficient Scheme for Sensitive Message Transmission using Blind Signcryption

    OpenAIRE

    Awasthi, Amit K; Lal, Sunder

    2005-01-01

    Blind signature schemes enable a useful protocol that guarantee the anonymity of the participants while Signcryption offers authentication of message and confidentiality of messages at the same time and more efficiently. In this paper, we present a blind signcryption scheme that combines the functionality of blind signature and signcryption. This blind Signcryption is useful for applications that are based on anonymity untracebility and unlinkability.

  10. Shape Perception and Navigation in Blind Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, Monica; Cappagli, Giulia; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Finocchietti, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Different sensory systems interact to generate a representation of space and to navigate. Vision plays a critical role in the representation of space development. During navigation, vision is integrated with auditory and mobility cues. In blind individuals, visual experience is not available and navigation therefore lacks this important sensory signal. In blind individuals, compensatory mechanisms can be adopted to improve spatial and navigation skills. On the other hand, the limitations of these compensatory mechanisms are not completely clear. Both enhanced and impaired reliance on auditory cues in blind individuals have been reported. Here, we develop a new paradigm to test both auditory perception and navigation skills in blind and sighted individuals and to investigate the effect that visual experience has on the ability to reproduce simple and complex paths. During the navigation task, early blind, late blind and sighted individuals were required first to listen to an audio shape and then to recognize and reproduce it by walking. After each audio shape was presented, a static sound was played and the participants were asked to reach it. Movements were recorded with a motion tracking system. Our results show three main impairments specific to early blind individuals. The first is the tendency to compress the shapes reproduced during navigation. The second is the difficulty to recognize complex audio stimuli, and finally, the third is the difficulty in reproducing the desired shape: early blind participants occasionally reported perceiving a square but they actually reproduced a circle during the navigation task. We discuss these results in terms of compromised spatial reference frames due to lack of visual input during the early period of development. PMID:28144226

  11. Blind source separation dependent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yang, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers a complete and self-contained set of knowledge about dependent source separation, including the latest development in this field. The book gives an overview on blind source separation where three promising blind separation techniques that can tackle mutually correlated sources are presented. The book further focuses on the non-negativity based methods, the time-frequency analysis based methods, and the pre-coding based methods, respectively.

  12. Blind Signature Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Maheswara Rao Valluri

    2011-01-01

    A blind signature scheme is a cryptographic protocol to obtain a valid signature for a message from a signer such that signer’s view of the protocol can’t be linked to the resulting message signature pair. This paper presents blind signature scheme using Chebyshev polynomials. The security of the given scheme depends upon the intractability of the integer factorization problem and discrete logarithms ofChebyshev polynomials.

  13. Blind Signature Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswara Rao Valluri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A blind signature scheme is a cryptographic protocol to obtain a valid signature for a message from a signer such that signer’s view of the protocol can’t be linked to the resulting message signature pair. This paper presents blind signature scheme using Chebyshev polynomials. The security of the given scheme depends upon the intractability of the integer factorization problem and discrete logarithms ofChebyshev polynomials.

  14. Quantum group blind signature scheme without entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Huang, Liusheng; Yang, Wei; He, Libao

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we propose a quantum group blind signature scheme designed for distributed e-voting system. Our scheme combines the properties of group signature and blind signature to provide anonymity of voters in an e-voting system. The unconditional security of our scheme is ensured by quantum mechanics. Without employing entanglement, the proposed scheme is easier to be realized comparing with other quantum signature schemes.

  15. Can acupuncture treatment be double-blinded?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari;

    2015-01-01

    and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed "de qi" in East Asian medicine), and patients' pain levels were assessed...... is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in the assessment of acupuncture treatment....

  16. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up, and the calculation boundary condi-tions were analyzed. According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics soft-ware. The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained. The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimiza-tion. The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were ob-tained. The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed, which pro-vided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer, the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency, provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  17. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied.On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up,and the calculation boundary conditions were analyzed.According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics software.The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained.The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimization.The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were obtained.The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed,which provided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer,the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency,provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  18. Unblinding the dark matter blind spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tao; Kling, Felix; Su, Shufang; Wu, Yongcheng

    2017-02-01

    The dark matter (DM) blind spots in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) refer to the parameter regions where the couplings of the DM particles to the Z-boson or the Higgs boson are almost zero, leading to vanishingly small signals for the DM direct detections. In this paper, we carry out comprehensive analyses for the DM searches under the blind-spot scenarios in MSSM. Guided by the requirement of acceptable DM relic abundance, we explore the complementary coverage for the theory parameters at the LHC, the projection for the future underground DM direct searches, and the indirect searches from the relic DM annihilation into photons and neutrinos. We find that (i) the spin-independent (SI) blind spots may be rescued by the spin-dependent (SD) direct detection in the future underground experiments, and possibly by the indirect DM detections from IceCube and SuperK neutrino experiments; (ii) the detection of gamma rays from Fermi-LAT may not reach the desirable sensitivity for searching for the DM blind-spot regions; (iii) the SUSY searches at the LHC will substantially extend the discovery region for the blind-spot parameters. The dark matter blind spots thus may be unblinded with the collective efforts in future DM searches.

  19. The Prevention of Blindness-Past, Present and Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira; Nakajima

    1992-01-01

    Prevention of blindness is the most important aim of ophthalmology. Prevention of blindness is related to many factors. It is related to many factors, such as science and technology, economy and social behavior. There are worldwide activities by WHO, NGOs and other functions to promote the prevention of blindness in the world. More than 90% of blind population lives in developing world. Cataract is the top causes of blindness which is curable. Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in west Africa and cent...

  20. Tactile Sensitivity and Braille Reading in People with Early Blindness and Late Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kensuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shigeru; Nakano, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The inability to read quickly can be a disadvantage throughout life. This study focused on the associations of braille reading fluency and individual factors, such as the age at onset of blindness and number of years reading braille, and the tactile sensitivity of people with early and late blindness. The relationship between reading…

  1. Blind compressive sensing dynamic MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Sajan Goud; Jacob, Mathews

    2013-06-01

    We propose a novel blind compressive sensing (BCS) frame work to recover dynamic magnetic resonance images from undersampled measurements. This scheme models the dynamic signal as a sparse linear combination of temporal basis functions, chosen from a large dictionary. In contrast to classical compressed sensing, the BCS scheme simultaneously estimates the dictionary and the sparse coefficients from the undersampled measurements. Apart from the sparsity of the coefficients, the key difference of the BCS scheme with current low rank methods is the nonorthogonal nature of the dictionary basis functions. Since the number of degrees-of-freedom of the BCS model is smaller than that of the low-rank methods, it provides improved reconstructions at high acceleration rates. We formulate the reconstruction as a constrained optimization problem; the objective function is the linear combination of a data consistency term and sparsity promoting l1 prior of the coefficients. The Frobenius norm dictionary constraint is used to avoid scale ambiguity. We introduce a simple and efficient majorize-minimize algorithm, which decouples the original criterion into three simpler subproblems. An alternating minimization strategy is used, where we cycle through the minimization of three simpler problems. This algorithm is seen to be considerably faster than approaches that alternates between sparse coding and dictionary estimation, as well as the extension of K-SVD dictionary learning scheme. The use of the l1 penalty and Frobenius norm dictionary constraint enables the attenuation of insignificant basis functions compared to the l0 norm and column norm constraint assumed in most dictionary learning algorithms; this is especially important since the number of basis functions that can be reliably estimated is restricted by the available measurements. We also observe that the proposed scheme is more robust to local minima compared to K-SVD method, which relies on greedy sparse coding. Our

  2. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Neena

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness provides valid estimates in a short period of time to assess the magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness. The study determined magnitude and causes of avoidable blindness in India in 2007 among the 50+ population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sixteen randomly selected districts where blindness surveys were undertaken 7 to 10 years earlier were identified for a follow up survey. Stratified cluster sampling was used and 25 clusters (20 rural and 5 urban were randomly picked in each district.. After a random start, 100 individuals aged 50+ were enumerated and examined sequentially in each cluster. All those with presenting vision = 50 years were enumerated, and 94.7% examined. Based on presenting vision,, 4.4% (95% Confidence Interval[CI]: 4.1,4.8 were severely visually impaired (vision<6/60 to 3/60 in the better eye and 3.6% (95% CI: 3.3,3.9 were blind (vision<3/60 in the better eye. Prevalence of low vision (<6/18 to 6/60 in the better eye was 16.8% (95% CI: 16.0,17.5. Prevalence of blindness and severe visual impairment (<6/60 in the better eye was higher among rural residents (8.2%; 95% CI: 7.9,8.6 compared to urban (7.1%; 95% CI: 5.0, 9.2, among females (9.2%; 95% CI: 8.6,9.8 compared to males (6.5%; 95% CI: 6.0,7.1 and people above 70 years (20.6%; 95% CI: 19.1,22.0 compared to people aged 50-54 years (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1,1.6. Of all blindness, 88.2% was avoidable. of which 81.9% was due to cataract and 7.1% to uncorrected refractive errors/uncorrected aphakia. CONCLUSIONS: Cataract and refractive errors are major causes of blindness and low vision and control strategies should prioritize them. Most blindness and low vision burden is avoidable.

  3. Turning the tide of corneal blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Oliva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world′s largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  4. Turning the tide of corneal blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Matthew S; Schottman, Tim; Gulati, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world's largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  5. Non-blind watermarking of network flows

    CERN Document Server

    Houmansadr, Amir; Borisov, Nikita

    2012-01-01

    Linking network flows is an important problem in intrusion detection as well as anonymity. Passive traffic analysis can link flows but requires long periods of observation to reduce errors. Active traffic analysis, also known as flow watermarking, allows for better precision and is more scalable. Previous flow watermarks introduce significant delays to the traffic flow as a side effect of using a blind detection scheme; this enables attacks that detect and remove the watermark, while at the same time slowing down legitimate traffic. We propose the first non-blind approach for flow watermarking, called RAINBOW, that improves watermark invisibility by inserting delays hundreds of times smaller than previous blind watermarks, hence reduces the watermark interference on network flows. We derive and analyze the optimum detectors for RAINBOW as well as the passive traffic analysis under different traffic models by using hypothesis testing. Comparing the detection performance of RAINBOW and the passive approach we o...

  6. Experimental demonstration of blind quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barz, Stefanie; Kashefi, Elham; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joe; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2012-02-01

    Quantum computers are among the most promising applications of quantum-enhanced technologies. Quantum effects such as superposition and entanglement enable computational speed-ups that are unattainable using classical computers. The challenges in realising quantum computers suggest that in the near future, only a few facilities worldwide will be capable of operating such devices. In order to exploit these computers, users would seemingly have to give up their privacy. It was recently shown that this is not the case and that, via the universal blind quantum computation protocol, quantum mechanics provides a way to guarantee that the user's data remain private. Here, we demonstrate the first experimental version of this protocol using polarisation-entangled photonic qubits. We demonstrate various blind one- and two-qubit gate operations as well as blind versions of the Deutsch's and Grover's algorithms. When the technology to build quantum computers becomes available, this will become an important privacy-preserving feature of quantum information processing.

  7. Brief mindfulness induction reduces inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P; Creswell, J David; Denson, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Prior research has linked mindfulness to improvements in attention, and suggested that the effects of mindfulness are particularly pronounced when individuals are cognitively depleted or stressed. Yet, no studies have tested whether mindfulness improves declarative awareness of unexpected stimuli in goal-directed tasks. Participants (N=794) were either depleted (or not) and subsequently underwent a brief mindfulness induction (or not). They then completed an inattentional blindness task during which an unexpected distractor appeared on the computer monitor. This task was used to assess declarative conscious awareness of the unexpected distractor's presence and the extent to which its perceptual properties were encoded. Mindfulness increased awareness of the unexpected distractor (i.e., reduced rates of inattentional blindness). Contrary to predictions, no mindfulness×depletion interaction emerged. Depletion however, increased perceptual encoding of the distractor. These results suggest that mindfulness may foster awareness of unexpected stimuli (i.e., reduce inattentional blindness).

  8. No such thing as a "blind culture".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisleder, Pedro

    2012-06-01

    Cochlear implant technology has altered the landscape for the Deaf and for those who provide services to the profoundly hearing impaired. As indicated by Teagle in one of the companion articles, cochlear implants afford the profoundly hearing impaired child the ability to circumvent the effects of deafness. Cochlear implants, as indicated by Lee in the other companion article, are regarded differently by members of the Deaf Community where some see the technology as a threat to Deaf Culture. Members of a different community, which comprises the visually impaired, cite lack of a common language as the main argument against the existence of a "Blind Culture." As indicated by Pierce "We [the blind] often enjoy each other's company, and we certainly spend time together working on the problems that face what we often call the 'blind community,' but I would argue that this community is different from an actual culture."

  9. Blindness and cataract in children in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Gogate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Blindness in children is considered a priority area for VISION 2020, as visually impaired children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them. Various studies across the globe show that one-third to half of childhood blindness is either preventable or treatable1 and that cataract is the leading treatable cause of blindness in children.The 8th General Assembly of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB provided an opportunity to be acquainted with recent research and programme development work in the prevention of childhood blindness.

  10. Natural Gradient Approach to Multichannel Blind Deconvolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we study the geometrical structures of FIR filters and their application to multichannel blind deconvolution.First we introduce a Lie group structure and a Riemannian structure on the manifolds of the FIR filters.Then we derive the natural gradients on the manifolds using the isometry of the Riemannian metric.Using the natural gradient,we present a novel learning algorithm for blind deconvolution based on the minimization of mutual information.Some properties of the learning algorithm,such as equivariance and stability are also studied.Finally,the simulations are given to illustrate the effectiveness and validity of the proposed algorithm.

  11. Transform domain steganography with blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouny, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.

  12. Blind source separation theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xianchuan; Xu, Jindong

    2013-01-01

    A systematic exploration of both classic and contemporary algorithms in blind source separation with practical case studies    The book presents an overview of Blind Source Separation, a relatively new signal processing method.  Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, the book has been written so as to appeal to an audience from very different backgrounds. Basic mathematical skills (e.g. on matrix algebra and foundations of probability theory) are essential in order to understand the algorithms, although the book is written in an introductory, accessible style. This book offers

  13. Contrast-induced transient cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Parth R; Yohendran, Jayshan; Parker, Geoffrey D; McCluskey, Peter J

    2013-05-01

    We present a case of transient cortical blindness secondary to contrast medium toxicity. A 58-year-old man had successful endovascular coiling of a right posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm but became confused and unable to see after the procedure. His visual acuity was no light perception bilaterally. Clinically, there was no new intra-ocular pathology. An urgent non-contrast computed tomography scan of the brain showed cortical hyperdensity in both parieto-occipital cortices, consistent with contrast medium leakage through the blood-brain barrier from the coiling procedure. The man remained completely blind for 72 hours, after which his visual acuity improved gradually back to his baseline level.

  14. Blind parents and nutrition of children: experiences and care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kariane Gomes Cezario

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to understand the experiences of blind parents in care related to breastfeeding and complementary feeding of children. Methods: qualitative research with the participation of four blind mothers and five blind fathers. Home interviews were carried out to address the experience of feeding children in the context of blindness, categorized by the technique of thematic analysis. Results: three categories emerged: Breastfeeding and complementary feeding offered by blind mothers; Blind fathers and the feeding of children; and Care of the children and blindness: coping strategies, in which difficulties and alternatives developed to feed the children were highlighted. Conclusion: blind parents have difficulties similar to those seer parents but with specific demands associated with the handling of utensils in safe and satisfactory supply of food.

  15. Navigation with a sensory substitution device in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Schneider, Fabien C; Kupers, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Vision allows for obstacle detection and avoidance. The compensatory mechanisms involved in maintaining these functions in blind people using their remaining intact senses are poorly understood. We investigated the ability of congenitally blind participants to detect and avoid obstacles using...

  16. Warming Endotracheal Tube in Blind Nasotracheal Intubation throughout Maxillofacial Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Hosseinzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, our study showed that using an endotracheal tube softened by warm water could reduce the incidence and severity of epistaxis during blind nasotracheal intubation; however it could not facilitate blind nasotracheal intubation.

  17. If I am Blind or Deaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新颖

    2005-01-01

    For some time,l wished to be blind or deaf so that I could avoid the sight or the sound from having driven me mad.The majority of people must object the idea that the dark life maybe more beautiful than the life full of limitations and unhappiness.

  18. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see colors properly. When your cones don't work properly, or you don't have the right combination, your brain doesn't get the right message about which colors you're seeing. To someone who's color blind, a green leaf might look tan or gray. ...

  19. The Mediterranean blind: less light, better vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coch, H.; Serra, R.; Isalgue, A. [Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, Escola d`Arquitectura de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain)

    1998-09-01

    The mediterranean blind is one of the most efficient and sophisticated technical system to allow natural illumination in building. A simple solution permits good visual conditions with low heat gains and high ventilation. This solution shows how in architecture, simple designs following thoroughly understood principles can achieve far more suitable environment results than high-tech solution applied without criteria. (Author)

  20. Blind quantum computing with weak coherent pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-18

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ϵ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ϵ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ϵ-blind UBQC for any ϵ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  1. Blind Quantum Computing with Weak Coherent Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ɛ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ɛ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ɛ-blind UBQC for any ɛ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  2. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  3. Young Blind Children: Towards Assessment for Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Iain F. W. K.; Simmons, Joyce Nesker

    1992-01-01

    This article addresses the unique assessment needs of young blind children and discourages dependence on standardized tests for this population. Principles of one assessment approach (involving observation; clinical examination of mobility, language, play, socioemotional development, and academic skills; and interviews with mother and social…

  4. Potentials of Rubella Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin F.

    Potentials of three classifications of rubella deaf blind children are discussed. Potentials for children at the middle trainable level and below are discussed for the areas of communication skills, daily living skills, mobility and orientation, vocational effort, and self-control and social interaction. For children in the upper trainable through…

  5. Vision after 53 Years of Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Šikl

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have shown that visual recovery after blindness that occurs early in life is never complete. The current study investigated whether an extremely long period of blindness might also cause a permanent impairment of visual performance, even in a case of adult-onset blindness. We examined KP, a 71-year-old man who underwent a successful sight-restoring operation after 53 years of blindness. A set of psychophysical tests designed to assess KP's face perception, object recognition, and visual space perception abilities were conducted six months and eight months after the surgery. The results demonstrate that regardless of a lengthy period of normal vision and rich pre-accident perceptual experience, KP did not fully integrate this experience, and his visual performance remained greatly compromised. This was particularly evident when the tasks targeted finer levels of perceptual processing. In addition to the decreased robustness of his memory representations, which was hypothesized as the main factor determining visual impairment, other factors that may have affected KP's performance were considered, including compromised visual functions, problems with perceptual organization, deficits in the simultaneous processing of visual information, and reduced cognitive abilities.

  6. Automatic Blind Syllable Segmentation for Continuous Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Villing, Rudi; Timoney, Joseph; Ward, Tomas

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a simple practical method for blind segmentation of continuous speech into its constituent syllables is presented. This technique which uses amplitude onset velocity and coarse spectral makeup to identify syllable boundaries is tested on a corpus of continuous speech and compared with an established segmentation algorithm. The results show substantial performance benefit using the proposed algorithm.

  7. Functional rehabilitation of partial cortical blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoerig, Petra

    2008-01-01

    The current doctrine regards fields of partial cortical blindness as permanent once a temporally restricted window for spontaneous recovery has passed. Accordingly, neuropsychological rehabilitation mainly applies compensatory procedures that train patients to make better use of their sighted field. The more ambitious goal of functional recovery depends on the survival of pathways that continue to transmit retinal information from the blind field. Although wide-spread antero- and retrograde degeneration follows lesions that destroy or denervate the primary visual cortex and cause partial cortical blindness, several retinofugal pathways survive in cats, monkeys, and humans. In all three species, they subserve a variety of visual functions which develop and improve with practice. Post lesion plasticity is greater when the lesion occurs early in life, but changes in behavioural performance and brain responses have also been demonstrated in late lesion subjects. Although the extent of functional improvement is variable, and the most effective approaches still need to be established across cohorts, the evidence for perceptual learning in fields of cortical blindness indicates that the visual processes mediated by the surviving parts of the visual system can be harnessed to improve functional outcome.

  8. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Western Rwanda: blindness in a postconflict setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanjiku Mathenge

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization estimates that there were 37 million blind people in 2002 and that the prevalence of blindness was 9% among adults in Africa aged 50 years or older. Recent surveys indicate that this figure may be overestimated, while a survey from southern Sudan suggested that postconflict areas are particularly vulnerable to blindness. The aim of this study was to conduct a Rapid Assessment for Avoidable Blindness to estimate the magnitude and causes of visual impairment in people aged > or = 50 y in the postconflict area of the Western Province of Rwanda, which includes one-quarter of the population of Rwanda. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Clusters of 50 people aged > or = 50 y were selected through probability proportionate to size sampling. Households within clusters were selected through compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA was measured with a tumbling "E" chart, and those with VA below 6/18 in either eye were examined by an ophthalmologist. The teams examined 2,206 people (response rate 98.0%. The unadjusted prevalence of bilateral blindness was 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.2%-2.4%, 1.3% (0.8%-1.7% for severe visual impairment, and 5.3% (4.2%-6.4% for visual impairment. Most bilateral blindness (65% was due to cataract. Overall, the vast majority of cases of blindness (80.0%, severe visual impairment (67.9%, and visual impairment (87.2% were avoidable (i.e.. due to cataract, refractive error, aphakia, trachoma, or corneal scar. The cataract surgical coverage was moderate; 47% of people with bilateral cataract blindness (VA < 3/60 had undergone surgery. Of the 29 eyes that had undergone cataract surgery, nine (31% had a best-corrected poor outcome (i.e., VA < 6/60. Extrapolating these estimates to Rwanda's Western Province, among the people aged 50 years or above 2,565 are expected to be blind, 1,824 to have severe visual impairment, and 8,055 to have visual impairment. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of

  9. 34 CFR 395.11 - Training program for blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... education and additional training or retraining for improved work opportunities) for all blind licensees... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Training program for blind individuals. 395.11 Section... BLIND ON FEDERAL AND OTHER PROPERTY The State Licensing Agency § 395.11 Training program for...

  10. 77 FR 42187 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010, Section 105, Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals, Order... Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals, CG Docket No. 10-210. Form Number: N/A. Type of Review: Revision of...

  11. 76 FR 31261 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... to establish the National Deaf-Blind Equipment Distribution Program (NDBEDP) pilot program in... environments shall be considered when determining whether the individual is deaf-blind under clauses...

  12. Ya "See" What We Mean: Teaching the Blind to Ski.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Doug; Winthers, Jim

    The illustrated manual contains instructions for teaching blind and partially sighted students to ski. It is noted that blind students should be coached, instructed, and encouraged in the same manner as sighted students although additional safety precautions should be employed. Psychological implications for the blind student learning to ski are…

  13. Left-handedness in blind and sighted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caliskan, Erkan; Dane, Senol

    2009-03-01

    Rates of left-handedness were compared in 1387 blind and 831 sighted children. The rate in male blind children was higher than in female blind children. The incidence of left-handedness was significantly higher in blind than in sighted children in both boys and girls. The percentages of left-handedness were 18.23% and 17.02% in male and female blind children, and 11.02% and 7.52% in male and female sighted children, respectively. It can be stated that sighting is important in the development of normal typical cerebral lateralisation or hand preference.

  14. A New ID-Based Proxy Blind Signature Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LANG Wei-min; YANG Zong-kai; CHENG Wen-qing; TAN Yun-meng

    2005-01-01

    An identity-based proxy blind signature scheme from bilinear pairings is introduced, which combines the advantages of proxy signature and blind signature. Furthermore, our scheme can prevent the original signer from generating the proxy blind signature, thus the profits of the proxy signer are guaranteed. We introduce bilinear pairings to minimize computational overhead and to improve the related performance of our scheme. In addition, the proxy blind signature presented is non-repudiable and it fulfills perfectly the security requirements of a proxy blind signature.

  15. Retrieval and phenomenology of autobiographical memories in blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekcan, Ali Í; Yılmaz, Engin; Kızılöz, Burcu Kaya; Karadöller, Dilay Z; Mutafoğlu, Merve; Erciyes, Aslı Aktan

    2015-01-01

    Although visual imagery is argued to be an essential component of autobiographical memory, there have been surprisingly few studies on autobiographical memory processes in blind individuals, who have had no or limited visual input. The purpose of the present study was to investigate how blindness affects retrieval and phenomenology of autobiographical memories. We asked 48 congenital/early blind and 48 sighted participants to recall autobiographical memories in response to six cue words, and to fill out the Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire measuring a number of variables including imagery, belief and recollective experience associated with each memory. Blind participants retrieved fewer memories and reported higher auditory imagery at retrieval than sighted participants. Moreover, within the blind group, participants with total blindness reported higher auditory imagery than those with some light perception. Blind participants also assigned higher importance, belief and recollection ratings to their memories than sighted participants. Importantly, these group differences remained the same for recent as well as childhood memories.

  16. Latent Images, Blind Comments on Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Feray

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photographs, or images as the final result of a process, merely mark out the moment when the eye is helplessly limited to what it sees. Thus, what escapes the eye in the physical sense, i.e. what the eye will never see, is what occurs before the product- image, within the act itself. The latent image, the desire-image, unfolds throughout the duration of the photographic act. When the picture is ‘taken’, then the desire subsides until the next desire for another image arises. Based on the photographic experiment by Jerry Chan, member of a group of blind people, this article aims at rethinking the photographic act as the real- life experience of an impression process, leading the blind apprentice photographer to experience sightedness within his very flesh.  

  17. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Dunai Dunai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  18. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai Dunai, Larisa; Chillarón Pérez, Mónica; Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Lengua Lengua, Ismael

    2017-01-20

    This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively.

  19. Kalman filtering approach to blind equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Mehmet

    1993-12-01

    Digital communication systems suffer from the channel distortion problem which introduces errors due to intersymbol interference. The solution to this problem is provided by equalizers which use a training sequence to adapt to the channel. However in many cases in which a training sequence is unfeasible, the channel must be adapted blindly. Most of the blind equalization algorithms known so far have problems of convergence to local minima. Our intention is to offer an alternative approach by using extended Kalman filtering and hidden Markov models. They seem to yield more efficient algorithms which take the statistics of the transmitted sequence into consideration. The theoretical development of these new algorithms is discussed in this thesis. Also these algorithms have been simulated under different conditions. The results of simulations and comparisons with existing systems are provided. The models for simulations are presented as MATLAB codes.

  20. Emergence of Blind Areas in Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zi-Ke; Han, Xiao-Pu; Liu, Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Recently, contagion-based (disease, information, etc.) spreading on social networks has been extensively studied. In this paper, other than traditional full interaction, we propose a partial interaction based spreading model, considering that the informed individuals would transmit information to only a certain fraction of their neighbors due to the transmission ability in real-world social networks. Simulation results on three representative networks (BA, ER, WS) indicate that the spreading efficiency is highly correlated with the network heterogeneity. In addition, a special phenomenon, namely \\emph{Information Blind Areas} where the network is separated by several information-unreachable clusters, will emerge from the spreading process. Furthermore, we also find that the size distribution of such information blind areas obeys power-law-like distribution, which has very similar exponent with that of site percolation. Detailed analyses show that the critical value is decreasing along with the network heterog...

  1. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  2. Sensing Structures Inspired by Blind Cave Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConney, Michael E.; Chen, Nannan; Lu, David; Anderson, Kyle D.; Hu, Huan; Liu, Chang; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.

    2009-03-01

    Blind cave fish, with degenerated non-functioning eyes, have evolved to ``see'' their hydrodynamic environment by using the flow receptors of the lateral line system. The hair-cell receptors are encapsulated in a hydrogel-like material, called a cupula, which increases the sensitivity of the hair-cell receptors by coupling their motion to the surrounding flowing media. We characterized the viscoelastic properties and of blind cave fish cupulae by using colloidal-probe spectroscopy in fluid. A photo-patternable hydrogel with similar properties was developed to mimic the fish receptor coupling structure. Flow-based measurements indicated that the hydrogels enhance drag through increased surface area, but also inherent material properties. These bio-inspired structures endowed micro-fabricated flow sensors with sensitivities rivaling that of fish.

  3. Euro Banknote Recognition System for Blind People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunai Dunai, Larisa; Chillarón Pérez, Mónica; Peris-Fajarnés, Guillermo; Lengua Lengua, Ismael

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a portable system with the aim of allowing blind people to detect and recognize Euro banknotes. The developed device is based on a Raspberry Pi electronic instrument and a Raspberry Pi camera, Pi NoIR (No Infrared filter) dotted with additional infrared light, which is embedded into a pair of sunglasses that permit blind and visually impaired people to independently handle Euro banknotes, especially when receiving their cash back when shopping. The banknote detection is based on the modified Viola and Jones algorithms, while the banknote value recognition relies on the Speed Up Robust Features (SURF) technique. The accuracies of banknote detection and banknote value recognition are 84% and 97.5%, respectively. PMID:28117703

  4. Autobiographic narratives of congenital blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out in Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, intended at investigating, together with men and women who suffer from congenital visual impairment, how they felt about diversity, body image, self-esteem and vanity. The investigation of autobiographical accounts was the option for this study. Initially, 20 (twenty interviews were analyzed and 6 (six autobiographical accounts, selected from the peculiarities of each single interviewee – each one containing his/her single life lessons - followed suit. The conclusion reached is that the subjects had undergone an exhausting process of acceptance of their own impairment. If, on the one hand, the blindness comes with angst, uncertainties, and many difficulties, on the other hand, these circumstances lead the blind to face the ups and downs of life with courage, determination and will to live. Surprisingly, in the study the body was not approached at a source of concern or are which should be emphasized.

  5. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  6. Experimental Demonstration of Blind Quantum Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Barz, Stefanie; Broadbent, Anne; Fitzsimons, Joseph F; Zeilinger, Anton; Walther, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Quantum computers, besides offering substantial computational speedups, are also expected to provide the possibility of preserving the privacy of a computation. Here we show the first such experimental demonstration of blind quantum computation where the input, computation, and output all remain unknown to the computer. We exploit the conceptual framework of measurement-based quantum computation that enables a client to delegate a computation to a quantum server. We demonstrate various blind delegated computations, including one- and two-qubit gates and the Deutsch and Grover algorithms. Remarkably, the client only needs to be able to prepare and transmit individual photonic qubits. Our demonstration is crucial for future unconditionally secure quantum cloud computing and might become a key ingredient for real-life applications, especially when considering the challenges of making powerful quantum computers widely available.

  7. Blind integrity verification of medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Shu, Huazhong; Luo, Limin; Roux, Christian

    2012-11-01

    This work presents the first method of digital blind forensics within the medical imaging field with the objective to detect whether an image has been modified by some processing (e.g. filtering, lossy compression and so on). It compares two image features: the Histogram statistics of Reorganized Block-based Discrete cosine transform coefficients (HRBD), originally proposed for steganalysis purposes, and the Histogram statistics of Reorganized Block-based Tchebichef moments (HRBT). Both features serve as input of a set of SVM classifiers built in order to discriminate tampered images from original ones as well as to identify the nature of the global modification one image may have undergone. Performance evaluation, conducted in application to different medical image modalities, shows that these image features can help, independently or jointly, to blindly distinguish image processing or modifications with a detection rate greater than 70%. They also underline the complementarity of these features.

  8. Blind Stereoscopy of the Coronal Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus J; Malanushenko, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We test the feasibility of 3D coronal-loop tracing in stereoscopic EUV image pairs, with the ultimate goal of enabling efficient 3D reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field that drives flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We developed an automated code designed to perform triangulation of coronal loops in pairs (or triplets) of EUV images recorded from different perspectives. The automated (or blind) stereoscopy code includes three major tasks: (i) automated pattern recognition of coronal loops in EUV images, (ii) automated pairing of corresponding loop patterns from two different aspect angles, and (iii) stereoscopic triangulation of 3D loop coordinates. We perform tests with simulated stereoscopic EUV images and quantify the accuracy of all three procedures. In addition we test the performance of the blind stereoscopy code as a function of the spacecraft-separation angle and as a function of the spatial resolution. We also test the sensitivity to magnetic non-potentiality. The automated code develo...

  9. Relearning to See in Cortical Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Michael D; Tadin, Duje; Huxlin, Krystel R

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of cortically induced blindness is increasing as our population ages. The major cause of cortically induced blindness is stroke affecting the primary visual cortex. While the impact of this form of vision loss is devastating to quality of life, the development of principled, effective rehabilitation strategies for this condition lags far behind those used to treat motor stroke victims. Here we summarize recent developments in the still emerging field of visual restitution therapy, and compare the relative effectiveness of different approaches. We also draw insights into the properties of recovered vision, its limitations and likely neural substrates. We hope that these insights will guide future research and bring us closer to the goal of providing much-needed rehabilitation solutions for this patient population.

  10. Permanent cortical blindness after bronchial artery embolization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, Colette S; De Boo, Diederick W; Weersink, Els J M; van Delden, Otto M; Reekers, Jim A; van Lienden, Krijn P

    2013-12-01

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  11. The blind loop syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, B A; Karrer, F M; Hall, R J; Lilly, J R

    1990-08-01

    Anatomical abnormalities of the small bowel that cause intestinal stagnation result in bacterial overgrowth and a blind loop syndrome (BLS). Bacterial breakdown of bile salts and deamination of protein lead to malabsorption, steatorrhea, and fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies. Four children developed BLS as a complication of necrotizing enterocolitis, jejunal atresia, gastroschisis, and biliary atresia. BLS was suggested by abdominal pain, feculent vomiting, steatorrhea, and hypoalbuminemia. Dilated, stagnant bowel loops were demonstrated in each instance by upper gastrointestinal contrast study. Positive intestinal bacterial aspirates were confirmatory. Antibiotic treatment in two patients improved symptomatology but all children ultimately required surgery. Surgical procedures consisted of blind loop resection, intestinal plication, and catheterization of the bilioenteric conduit. All patients are now asymptomatic but one child suffers from parenteral nutrition-related cirrhosis and another requires chronic antibiotic therapy.

  12. Blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Peizhong; LI Shen; ZOU Yan; LUO Xiangyang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes which is an important problem in adaptive modulation and coding. For a given finite sequence of convolutional code, the parity check matrix of the convolutional code is first computed by solving a linear system with adequate error tolerance. Then a minimal basic encoding matrix of the original convolutional code and its puncturing pattern are determined according to the known parity check matrix of the punctured convolutional code.

  13. Ivermectin for onchocercal eye disease (river blindness)

    OpenAIRE

    Ejere, HO; Schwartz, E; Wormald, R; Evans, JR

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is believed that ivermectin (a microfilaricide) could prevent blindness due to onchocerciasis. However, when given to everyone in communities where onchocerciasis is common, the effects of ivermectin on lesions affecting the eye are uncertain and data on whether the drug prevents visual loss are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of ivermectin in preventing visual impairment and visual field loss in onchocercal eye disease. The secondary...

  14. Application of Array Measurement in Blind Identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王勇; 孙连明; 刘文江

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with blind identification and deconvolution algorithm for an arbitrary, possibly white or colored, stationary or nonstationary signal, which is observed through array sensors. By using multiple sensors with their individual outputs sampled at a rate 1/T, one can obtain cyclostationary signals. They can be considered as a single-input multiple-output model with an identical but unknown input signal. With the array measurement, an algorithm for estimating the system transfer function model and its parameters is presented.

  15. BLIND NASAL INTUBATION IN CRANIOROFACIAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R.DavidThakaran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Restricted mouth opening presents one of the greatest challenges to the anesthetist for endotracheal intubation and ventilation. Awake blind nasal intubation has been one of the finest and favored techniques for intubation in previous decades for restricted mouth opening patients. A coordinated team approach, monitoring and adequate counseling of the patient is mandatory for the airway management to carry out a safe surgical procedure

  16. Transient cortical blindness after coronary artery angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terlecki, Michał; Wojciechowska, Wiktoria; Rajzer, Marek; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Bazan-Socha, Stanisława; Bryniarski, Leszek; Czarnecka, Danuta

    2013-01-01

    Coronary angiography is the current gold standard for the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease and therefore the prevalence of percutaneous coronary procedures such as angiography and angioplasty is high. The occurrence of cerebral complications after coronary angiography and coronary angioplasty is low and it mainly includes transient ischemic attack and stroke. The prevalence of transient cortical blindness after X-ray contrast media is low and it is usually seen after cerebral angiography. Until now only a few cases of transient cortical blindness have been described after coronary artery angiography. Regarding the spread of coronary angiography worldwide and in Poland this complication is uniquely rare. A 32-year-old man with multiple extrasystolic ventricular arrhythmia suggesting Brugada syndrome diagnosis according to morphology of the left bundle branch block and with decreased left ventricular ejection fraction was admitted to the First Department of Cardiology and Hypertension, Medical College of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. Coronary angiography was performed in order to exclude ischemic etiology of the observed abnormalities. No arteriosclerotic lesions were found in coronary arteries. Transient cortical blindness was observed directly after angiography which may have been caused by the neurotoxic effect of the used X-ray contrast medium. In ophthalmologic and neurologic examination as well as in the cerebral computed tomography scan no pathologies were found. Visual impairment disappeared totally within several hours.

  17. IMPROVED COVARIANCE DRIVEN BLIND SUBSPACE IDENTIFICATION METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhiyi; FAN Jiangling; HUA Hongxing

    2006-01-01

    An improved covariance driven subspace identification method is presented to identify the weakly excited modes. In this method, the traditional Hankel matrix is replaced by a reformed one to enhance the identifiability of weak characteristics. The robustness of eigenparameter estimation to noise contamination is reinforced by the improved Hankel matrix. In combination with component energy index (CEI) which indicates the vibration intensity of signal components, an alternative stabilization diagram is adopted to effectively separate spurious and physical modes. Simulation of a vibration system of multiple-degree-of-freedom and experiment of a frame structure subject to wind excitation are presented to demonstrate the improvement of the proposed blind method. The performance of this blind method is assessed in terms of its capability in extracting the weak modes as well as the accuracy of estimated parameters. The results have shown that the proposed blind method gives a better estimation of the weak modes from response signals of small signal to noise ratio (SNR)and gives a reliable separation of spurious and physical estimates.

  18. The spatiotopic 'visual' cortex of the blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likova, Lora

    2012-03-01

    Visual cortex activity in the blind has been shown in sensory tasks. Can it be activated in memory tasks? If so, are inherent features of its organization meaningfully employed? Our recent results in short-term blindfolded subjects imply that human primary visual cortex (V1) may operate as a modality-independent 'sketchpad' for working memory (Likova, 2010a). Interestingly, the spread of the V1 activation approximately corresponded to the spatial extent of the images in terms of their angle of projection to the subject. We now raise the questions of whether under long-term visual deprivation V1 is also employed in non-visual memory task, in particular in congenitally blind individuals, who have never had visual stimulation to guide the development of the visual area organization, and whether such spatial organization is still valid for the same paradigm that was used in blindfolded individuals. The outcome has implications for an emerging reconceptualization of the principles of brain architecture and its reorganization under sensory deprivation. Methods: We used a novel fMRI drawing paradigm in congenitally and late-onset blind, compared with sighted and blindfolded subjects in three conditions of 20s duration, separated by 20s rest-intervals, (i) Tactile Exploration: raised-line images explored and memorized; (ii) Tactile Memory Drawing: drawing the explored image from memory; (iii) Scribble: mindless drawing movements with no memory component. Results and Conclusions: V1 was strongly activated for Tactile Memory Drawing and Tactile Exploration in these totally blind subjects. Remarkably, after training, even in the memory task, the mapping of V1 activation largely corresponded to the angular projection of the tactile stimuli relative to the ego-center (i.e., the effective visual angle at the head); beyond this projective boundary, peripheral V1 signals were dramatically reduced or even suppressed. The matching extent of the activation in the congenitally blind

  19. Blindness and the age of enlightenment: Diderot's letter on the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E; Smith, Don B

    2013-01-01

    Several months after anonymously publishing an essay in 1749 with the title "Letter on the Blind for the Use of Those Who Can See," the chief editor of the French Encyclopédie was arrested and taken to the prison fortress of Vincennes just east of Paris, France. The correctly assumed author, Denis Diderot, was 35 years old and had not yet left his imprint on the Age of Enlightenment. His letter, which recounted the life of Nicolas Saunderson, a blind mathematician, was intended to advance secular empiricism and disparage the religiously tinged rationalism put forward by Rene Descartes. The letter's discussion of sensory perception in men born blind dismissed the supposed primacy of visual imagery in abstract thinking. The essay did little to resolve any philosophical controversy, but it marked a turning point in Western attitudes toward visual disability.

  20. The sensory construction of dreams and nightmare frequency in congenitally blind and late blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaidi, Amani; Jennum, Poul; Ptito, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    . Every morning participants filled in a questionnaire related to the sensory construction of the dream, its emotional and thematic content, and the possible occurrence of nightmares. We also assessed participants' ability of visual imagery during waking cognition, sleep quality, and depression...... and anxiety levels. RESULTS: All blind participants had fewer visual dream impressions compared to SC participants. In LB participants, duration of blindness was negatively correlated with duration, clarity, and color content of visual dream impressions. CB participants reported more auditory, tactile......, gustatory, and olfactory dream components compared to SC participants. In contrast, LB participants only reported more tactile dream impressions. Blind and SC participants did not differ with respect to emotional and thematic dream content. However, CB participants reported more aggressive interactions...

  1. Attack and improvements of fair quantum blind signature schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiangfu; Qiu, Daowen

    2013-06-01

    Blind signature schemes allow users to obtain the signature of a message while the signer learns neither the message nor the resulting signature. Therefore, blind signatures have been used to realize cryptographic protocols providing the anonymity of some participants, such as: secure electronic payment systems and electronic voting systems. A fair blind signature is a form of blind signature which the anonymity could be removed with the help of a trusted entity, when this is required for legal reasons. Recently, a fair quantum blind signature scheme was proposed and thought to be safe. In this paper, we first point out that there exists a new attack on fair quantum blind signature schemes. The attack shows that, if any sender has intercepted any valid signature, he (she) can counterfeit a valid signature for any message and can not be traced by the counterfeited blind signature. Then, we construct a fair quantum blind signature scheme by improved the existed one. The proposed fair quantum blind signature scheme can resist the preceding attack. Furthermore, we demonstrate the security of the proposed fair quantum blind signature scheme and compare it with the other one.

  2. Untraceable partially blind signature based on DLOG problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄征; 陈克非; 冠卫东

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new untraceable Partially Blind Signature scheme which is a cross between the traditional signature scheme and the blind signature scheme. In this proposed scheme, the message M that the signer signed can be divided into two parts. The first part can be known to the signer (like that in the traditional signature scheme) while the other part cannot be known to the signer (like that in the blind signature scheme). After having signed M, the signer cannot determine if he has made the signature of M except through the part that he knows. We draw ideas from Brands' "Restricted Blind Signature" to solve the Untraceable Partially Blind Signature problem. Our scheme is a probabilistic signature scheme and the security of our Untraceable Partially Blind Signature scheme relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithm.

  3. A NEW EFFICIENT ID-BASED PROXY BLIND SIGNATURE SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yang; Wang Yumin

    2008-01-01

    In a proxy blind signature scheme, the proxy signer is allowed to generate a blind signature on behalf of the original signer. The proxy blind signature scheme is useful in several applications such as e-voting, e-payment, etc. Recently, Zheng, et al. presented an IDentity (ID)-based proxy blind signature. In this paper, a new efficient ID-based proxy blind signature scheme from bilinear pairings is proposed, which can satisfy the security properties of both the proxy signatures and the blind signature schemes. Analysis of the scheme efficiency shows that the new scheme is more efficient than Zheng, et al.'s scheme. The proposed scheme is more practical in the real world.

  4. Enhanced chemosensory detection of negative emotions in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Katrine D.; Ptito, Maurice; Møller, Per;

    2015-01-01

    blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants' abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from...... donors who had been watching excerpts from emotional movies showing amusement, fear, disgust, or sexual arousal. Our results show that congenitally blind subjects outperformed sighted controls in identifying fear from male donors. In addition, there was a strong tendency that blind individuals were also...... better in detecting disgust. Our findings reveal that congenitally blind individuals are better at identifying ecologically important emotions and provide new insights into the mechanisms of social and affective communication in blindness....

  5. PARENT Quick Blind Round-Robin Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braatz, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heasler, Patrick G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) whose goal is to investigate the effectiveness of current and novel nondestructive examination procedures and techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. This is to be done by conducting a series of open and blind international round-robin tests on a set of piping components that include large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds. The blind testing is being conducted in two segments, one is called Quick-Blind and the other is called Blind. The Quick-Blind testing and destructive analysis of the test blocks has been completed. This report describes the four Quick-Blind test blocks used, summarizes their destructive analysis, gives an overview of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques applied, provides an analysis inspection data, and presents the conclusions drawn.

  6. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.

  7. Nonlinear Blind Equalization for Volume Holographic Data Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商未雄; 何庆声; 金国藩

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear blind equalization for volume holographic data storage channel. Base on the recurrent neural network channel model, we describe a novel blind equalizer for the volume holographic data storage system to improve the bit error rate and hence to make the storage densities achievable. The experimental results also indicate that a significant improvement in the bit error rate to 2.55 × 10-3 is possible with the nonlinear blind equalization.

  8. ITERATIVE MULTICHANNEL BLIND DECONVOLUTION METHOD FOR TEMPORALLY COLORED SOURCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Mingjian; Wei Gang

    2004-01-01

    An iterative separation approach, i.e. source signals are extracted and removed one by one, is proposed for multichannel blind deconvolution of colored signals. Each source signal is extracted in two stages: a filtered version of the source signal is first obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem, which is then followed by a single channel blind deconvolution based on ensemble learning. Simulation demonstrates the capability of the approach to perform efficient mutichannel blind deconvolution.

  9. Information on blinding in registered records of clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viergever Roderik F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Information on blinding is part of the data that should be provided upon registration of a trial at a clinical trials registry. Reporting of blinding is often absent or of low quality in published articles of clinical trials. This study researched the presence and quality of information on blinding in registered records of clinical trials and highlights the important role of data-recording formats at clinical trial registries in ensuring high-quality registration.

  10. Enhanced chemosensory detection of negative emotions in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Katrine D.; Ptito, Maurice; Møller, Per

    2015-01-01

    It is generally acknowledged that congenitally blind individuals develop superior sensory abilities in order to compensate for their lack of vision. Substantial research has been done on somatosensory and auditory sensory information processing of the blind. However, relatively little information...... is available about compensatory plasticity in the olfactory domain. Although previous studies indicate that blind individuals have superior olfactory abilities, no studies so far have investigated their sense of smell in relation to social and affective communication. The current study compares congenitally...

  11. Transient cortical blindness post angiography--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, T R; Johnson, P; Webster, D; Gilbert, D T; Barton, E N

    2011-06-01

    A 56-year old female reported having had a fall two weeks prior to presentation. Computed Tomography (CT) scan showed an acute right-sided convexity subdural haematoma. A computed tomography angiogram revealed no vascular anomaly. One hour post procedure she had bilateral cortical blindness. Her vision subsequently was fully restored. A diagnosis of transient cortical blindness was made. Transient cortical blindness is a rare but recognized complication ofintra-arterial injection of iodinated contrast agents.

  12. Schizophrenia and cortical blindness: protective effects and implications for language

    OpenAIRE

    Leivada, Evelina; Boeckx, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    The repeatedly noted absence of case-reports of individuals with schizophrenia and congenital/early developed blindness has led several authors to argue that the latter can confer protective effects against the former. In this work, we present a number of relevant case-reports from different syndromes that show comorbidity of congenital and early blindness with schizophrenia. On the basis of these reports, we argue that a distinction between different types of blindness in terms of the origin...

  13. Recurrent Bilateral Occipital Infarct with Cortical Blindness and Anton Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kiu Kwong Yew; Sanihah Abdul halim; Ahmad Tajudin Liza-Sharmini; John Tharakan

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral cortical blindness and Anton syndrome, are most commonly caused by ischaemic stroke. In this condition, patients have loss of vision but deny their blindness despite objective evidence of visual loss. We report a case of a patient with multiple cardiovascular risk factors who developed recurrent bilateral occipital lobe infarct with Anton syndrome. A suspicion of this condition should be raised when the patient has denial of blindness in the presence of clinical and radiological evi...

  14. Schizophrenia and cortical blindness: Protective effects and implications for language

    OpenAIRE

    Evelina eLeivada; Cedric eBoeckx

    2014-01-01

    The repeatedly noted absence of case-reports of individuals with schizophrenia and congenital/early developed blindness has led several authors to argue that the latter can confer protective effects against the former. In this work, we present a number of relevant case-reports from different syndromes that show comorbidity of congenital and early blindness with schizophrenia. On the basis of these reports, we argue that a distinction between different types of blindness in terms of the origin...

  15. Blind Search for Variability in Planck Data

    CERN Document Server

    Rachen, Jörg P; Reinecke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The sky is full of variable and transient sources on all time scales, from milliseconds to decades. Planck's regular scanning strategy makes it an ideal instrument to search for variable sky signals in the millimetre and submillimetre regime, on time scales from hours to several years. A precondition is that instrumental noise and systematic effects, caused in particular by non-symmetric beam shapes, are properly removed. We present a method to perform a full sky blind search for variable and transient objects at all Planck frequencies.

  16. The chemistry of John Dalton's color blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, D M; Dulai, K S; Bowmaker, J K; Mollon, J D

    1995-02-17

    John Dalton described his own color blindness in 1794. In common with his brother, he confused scarlet with green and pink with blue. Dalton supposed that his vitreous humor was tinted blue, selectively absorbing longer wavelengths. He instructed that his eyes should be examined after his death, but the examination revealed that the humors were perfectly clear. In experiments presented here, DNA extracted from his preserved eye tissue showed that Dalton was a deuteranope, lacking the middlewave photopigment of the retina. This diagnosis is shown to be compatible with the historical record of his phenotype, although it contradicts Thomas Young's belief that Dalton was a protanope.

  17. Cryptanalysis of fair quantum blind signatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Li-Bao; Huang Liu-Sheng; Yang Wei; Xu Rui

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the fair quantum blind signature scheme proposed by Wang and Wen [Wang T Y and Wen Q Y 2010 Chin.Phys.B 19 060307],which uses the fundamental properties of quantum mechanics and the availability of a trusted arbitrator.However,in this paper,we find that the protocol cannot satisfy the property of non-forgeability even under the condition that the trusted arbitrator is totally credible.Moreover,a simple feasible suggestion for improving the protocol is proposed.

  18. Computer Game Lugram - Version for Blind Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Delić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Computer games have undoubtedly become an integral part of educational activities of children. However, since computer games typically abound with audio and visual effects, most of them are completely useless for children with disabilities. Specifically, computer games dealing with the basics of geometry can contribute to mathematics education, but they require significant modifications in order to be suitable for the visually impaired children. The paper presents the results of research and adaptation of the educational computer game Lugram to the needs of completely blind children, as well as the testing of the prototype, whose results are encouraging to further research and development in the same direction.

  19. Blind iterative deconvolution of binary star images

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, S K

    1997-01-01

    The technique of Blind Iterative De-convolution (BID) was used to remove the atmospherically induced point spread function (PSF) from short exposure images of two binary stars, HR 5138 and HR 5747 obtained at the cassegrain focus of the 2.34 meter Vainu Bappu Telescope(VBT), situated at Vainu Bappu Observatory (VBO), Kavalur. The position angles and separations of the binary components were seen to be consistent with results of the auto-correlation technique, while the Fourier phases of the reconstructed images were consistent with published observations of the binary orbits.

  20. Grading learning for blind source separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贤达; 朱孝龙; 保铮

    2003-01-01

    By generalizing the learning rate parameter to a learning rate matrix, this paper proposes agrading learning algorithm for blind source separation. The whole learning process is divided into threestages: initial stage, capturing stage and tracking stage. In different stages, different learning rates areused for each output component, which is determined by its dependency on other output components. Itis shown that the grading learning algorithm is equivariant and can keep the separating matrix from be-coming singular. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm can achieve faster convergence, bettersteady-state performance and higher numerical robustness, as compared with the existing algorithmsusing fixed, time-descending and adaptive learning rates.

  1. Extrapontine myelinolysis resulting in transient cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Jennifer E; Wilson, William G; Raghavan, Prashant; Rust, Robert S; Goodkin, Howard P

    2010-02-01

    Central pontine myelinolysis and extrapontine myelinolysis are characterized by symmetric demyelination subsequent to rapid shifts in serum osmolality. Described here is a novel case of transient cortical blindness in association with imaging features of extrapontine myelinolysis, which occurred in a child with carbamoyl phosphate synthetase deficiency after rapid correction of hyperammonemia. Serum sodium levels were within normal limits at presentation and throughout the period of ammonia correction. A potential pathogenic mechanism of osmotic demyelination in the setting of acute treatment for hyperammonemia in a patient with a urea cycle abnormality includes disruption of the blood-brain barrier and re-equilibration of organic osmolytes, particularly glutamine.

  2. Hypersensitivity to pain in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Danti, Sabrina; Ricciardi, Emiliano

    2013-01-01

    Vision is important for avoiding encounters with objects in the environment that may imperil physical integrity. We tested whether, in the absence of vision, a lower pain threshold would arise from an adaptive shift to other sensory channels. We therefore measured heat and cold pain thresholds...... and responses to suprathreshold heat stimuli in 2 groups of congenitally blind and matched normal-sighted participants. We also assessed detection thresholds for innocuous warmth and cold, and participants' attitude toward painful encounters in daily life. Our results show that, compared to sighted subjects...

  3. Color-Blind Racism, Color-Blind Theology, and Church Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Color-blind racism develops when persons ignore color in people and see them simply as individuals. As persons of color in racialized societies such as the United States are unequally treated on account of their color, the issue becomes a matter of faith and religious experience as religious leaders and educators, who disregard color, overlook…

  4. A Smart Infrared Microcontroller-Based Blind Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed S. Al-Fahoum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a state of lacking the visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. The partial blindness represents the lack of integration in the growth of the optic nerve or visual centre of the eye, and total blindness is the full absence of the visual light perception. In this work, a simple, cheap, friendly user, smart blind guidance system is designed and implemented to improve the mobility of both blind and visually impaired people in a specific area. The proposed work includes a wearable equipment consists of head hat and mini hand stick to help the blind person to navigate alone safely and to avoid any obstacles that may be encountered, whether fixed or mobile, to prevent any possible accident. The main component of this system is the infrared sensor which is used to scan a predetermined area around blind by emitting-reflecting waves. The reflected signals received from the barrier objects are used as inputs to PIC microcontroller. The microcontroller is then used to determine the direction and distance of the objects around the blind. It also controls the peripheral components that alert the user about obstacle's shape, material, and direction. The implemented system is cheap, fast, and easy to use and an innovative affordable solution to blind and visually impaired people in third world countries.

  5. Semi-blind Channel Estimator for OFDM-STC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yun; LUO Han-wen; SONG Wen-tao; HUANG Jian-guo

    2007-01-01

    Channel state information of OFDM-STC system is required for maximum likelihood decoding. A subspace-based semi-blind method was proposed for estimating the channels of OFDM-STC systems. The channels are first estimated blindly up to an ambiguity parameter utilizing the nature structure of STC, irrespective of the underlying signal constellations. Furthermore, a method was proposed to resolve the ambiguity by using a few pilot symbols. The simulation results show the proposed semi-blind estimator can achieve higher spectral efficiency and provide improved estimation performance compared to the non-blind estimator.

  6. Enhanced Chemosensory Detection of Negative Emotions in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrine D. Iversen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally acknowledged that congenitally blind individuals develop superior sensory abilities in order to compensate for their lack of vision. Substantial research has been done on somatosensory and auditory sensory information processing of the blind. However, relatively little information is available about compensatory plasticity in the olfactory domain. Although previous studies indicate that blind individuals have superior olfactory abilities, no studies so far have investigated their sense of smell in relation to social and affective communication. The current study compares congenitally blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants’ abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from donors who had been watching excerpts from emotional movies showing amusement, fear, disgust, or sexual arousal. Our results show that congenitally blind subjects outperformed sighted controls in identifying fear from male donors. In addition, there was a strong tendency that blind individuals were also better in detecting disgust. Our findings reveal that congenitally blind individuals are better at identifying ecologically important emotions and provide new insights into the mechanisms of social and affective communication in blindness.

  7. Fuzzy-based simulation of real color blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinmi; dos Santos, Wellington P

    2010-01-01

    About 8% of men are affected by color blindness. That population is at a disadvantage since they cannot perceive a substantial amount of the visual information. This work presents two computational tools developed to assist color blind people. The first one tests color blindness and assess its severity. The second tool is based on Fuzzy Logic, and implements a method proposed to simulate real red and green color blindness in order to generate synthetic cases of color vision disturbance in a statistically significant amount. Our purpose is to develop correction tools and obtain a deeper understanding of the accessibility problems faced by people with chromatic visual impairment.

  8. IDENTIFYING AUTISM IN CHILDREN WITH BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana VELJANOVSKA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Often in working with children with blindness or visual impairments we are enchanting children with some specific stereotype behaviors, identified as "blindizms”. Parents and professionals noted that many of these behaviors are the same as or similar to those behaviors seen in students with autism. These similarities led professionals to pursue more information about autism and its relationship to blindness. To assist in this process the professionals from Oregon School for the blind developed some guidelines to compare the characteristics observed in children with blindness and autism alone, across four domains: language and communication, relating to people, discrepancies in developmental rates and responses to sensory stimuli.

  9. 20 CFR 416.984 - If you are statutorily blind and still working.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.984 If you are statutorily blind and still working. There is no requirement that you be unable to work in order... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If you are statutorily blind and...

  10. Blind foreground subtraction for intensity mapping experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, David; Bull, Philip; Ferreira, Pedro G.; Santos, Mário G.

    2015-02-01

    We make use of a large set of fast simulations of an intensity mapping experiment with characteristics similar to those expected of the Square Kilometre Array in order to study the viability and limits of blind foreground subtraction techniques. In particular, we consider three different approaches: polynomial fitting, principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA). We review the motivations and algorithms for the three methods, and show that they can all be described, using the same mathematical framework, as different approaches to the blind source separation problem. We study the efficiency of foreground subtraction both in the angular and radial (frequency) directions, as well as the dependence of this efficiency on different instrumental and modelling parameters. For well-behaved foregrounds and instrumental effects, we find that foreground subtraction can be successful to a reasonable level on most scales of interest. We also quantify the effect that the cleaning has on the recovered signal and power spectra. Interestingly, we find that the three methods yield quantitatively similar results, with PCA and ICA being almost equivalent.

  11. An artistic exploration of inattention blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ellen K

    2011-01-01

    An experiment about inattention blindness was conducted within the context of an art exhibition as opposed to a laboratory context in order to investigate the potential of art as a vehicle to study attention and its disorders. The project utilized a flash animation, Stealing Attention, that was modeled after the movie by Simons and Chabris (1999) but with significant experimental differences, involving context and staging, the emotional salience of the objects depicted, and the prior art viewing experience of participants. The study involved two components: observing if viewers watching an animation in a gallery could be distracted from noticing the disappearance of stolen museum antiquities (the targets) by the overlaid flashing images of a card game (the distractors) and then observing whether repetition of the depicted targets throughout the gallery installation could facilitate a re-direction of attention that allowed viewers to perceive the targets not initially noted in the animation. My findings were that, after viewing the entire installation and then re-viewing the animation, 64% of the viewers who did not initially remark on the targets in the animation were then able to see them. The discussion elaborates on these findings and then considers ways in which the implications of inattention blindness paradigms might be more fully rendered by uniting insights from the two disciplines of art and neuroscience than by either alone.

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF COLOR-BLIND AID SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruki Harwahyu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Color-blind is a physical defect causing patient loses the ability to recognize colors either particular or the whole of them. This disability is problematic in daily life, moreover in some specific areas that require carefulness eyesight. We propose a vision aid kit with improved user experience, such as finger pointer and voice command-and-response. Our work proofs the design and implementation of color-blind aid system for embedded and mobile device. This study used Windows Embedded Standard 2009, Windows Phone 7, Speech API library, Open CV library and EmguCV wrapper. The performance of each functionality is evaluated. From various testing that are conducted, the system can best detect color samples with precision level of 90.67% on embedded device implementation and 95.33% on mobile device implementation. The best fingertip detection rate attained is 89.6% with normal lighting condition. The voice command works with detection rate of 75.87%, meanwhile for the synthesized speech response, 88, 33% respondents can understood the words well.

  13. Blind image quality assessment via deep learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weilong; Gao, Xinbo; Tao, Dacheng; Li, Xuelong

    2015-06-01

    This paper investigates how to blindly evaluate the visual quality of an image by learning rules from linguistic descriptions. Extensive psychological evidence shows that humans prefer to conduct evaluations qualitatively rather than numerically. The qualitative evaluations are then converted into the numerical scores to fairly benchmark objective image quality assessment (IQA) metrics. Recently, lots of learning-based IQA models are proposed by analyzing the mapping from the images to numerical ratings. However, the learnt mapping can hardly be accurate enough because some information has been lost in such an irreversible conversion from the linguistic descriptions to numerical scores. In this paper, we propose a blind IQA model, which learns qualitative evaluations directly and outputs numerical scores for general utilization and fair comparison. Images are represented by natural scene statistics features. A discriminative deep model is trained to classify the features into five grades, corresponding to five explicit mental concepts, i.e., excellent, good, fair, poor, and bad. A newly designed quality pooling is then applied to convert the qualitative labels into scores. The classification framework is not only much more natural than the regression-based models, but also robust to the small sample size problem. Thorough experiments are conducted on popular databases to verify the model's effectiveness, efficiency, and robustness.

  14. Mobility aid for blind figure skaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, A.; Graffigna, J. P.; Polimeni, G.; Fernández, H. H.

    2007-11-01

    This work is developed within the scope of rehabilitation technology to enable blind and visually impaired persons read non-Braille material commonly available in digital form to normal-vision readers. This approach, therefore, tries to broaden the reaching capacity for these persons and, thus, allow for better inclusion in social, work, educative and even leisure activities. Specifically, it is devised for reading any kind of text in digital form --books, files, documents, Internet information and exchanges, etc.-- that can be loaded in a PC to be later read on the devised Braille reading line. It consists of a string-like platform of electrodes that simulate, through tactile electrostimulation, the letter characters displayed in Braille fashion. Finger-tip feeling from these electric discharges is caused by stimulating the skin nerve receptors underneath the tip. These electric discharges produce a similar effect as when reading embossed-type characters of traditional Braille-relief paper material. After design and development, experiences were made with blind persons, with fairly satisfactory results. At present, further work is under way in order to improve the system.

  15. SECURING VIRTUAL IMAGES USING BLIND AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAVIKIRAN PEELUKHANA,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The cloud virtualization technology improves the economy of scale for data centers through server consolidation, application consolidation and resources consolidation. Virtualization allows the provider to move Virtual Images from more congested host to less-congested hosts, as required. Enterprises also get improved server reliability, which in turn increases application performance. Despite these benefits, it includes major security challenges with the portability of Virtual Images between different cloud providers.The security and integrity of Virtual images is the foundation for the overall security of the cloud. Many of the Virtual images are intended to be shared by diverse and unrelated users. Unfortunately, existing approaches to cloud security built by cloud practitioners fall short when dealing with Virtual images. Secure transmission of virtual Images can bepossible by providing authentication using Blind Authentication protocol (BAP. The proposed approach authenticates the allocation of virtual images using Blind authentication protocol. It provides provable protection against replay and client side attacks even if the keys of the user are compromised. The encryption also provides template protection, revocability and alleviates the concerns on privacy in widespread use of biometrics. Carrying out the authentication in the encrypted domain is a secure process, while the encryption key acts as an additional layer of security.

  16. Mobility aid for blind figure skaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acerbi, A; Graffigna, J P; Polimeni, G; Fernandez, H H [Gabinete de Tecnologia Medica, Fac. de Ingenieria, Universidad Nac. de San Juan Av Libertador San Martin 1109(O), J5400ARL, San Juan (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    This work is developed within the scope of rehabilitation technology to enable blind and visually impaired persons read non-Braille material commonly available in digital form to normal-vision readers. This approach, therefore, tries to broaden the reaching capacity for these persons and, thus, allow for better inclusion in social, work, educative and even leisure activities. Specifically, it is devised for reading any kind of text in digital form --books, files, documents, Internet information and exchanges, etc.-- that can be loaded in a PC to be later read on the devised Braille reading line. It consists of a string-like platform of electrodes that simulate, through tactile electrostimulation, the letter characters displayed in Braille fashion. Finger-tip feeling from these electric discharges is caused by stimulating the skin nerve receptors underneath the tip. These electric discharges produce a similar effect as when reading embossed-type characters of traditional Braille-relief paper material. After design and development, experiences were made with blind persons, with fairly satisfactory results. At present, further work is under way in order to improve the system.

  17. Blind RRT: A probabilistically complete distributed RRT

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Cesar

    2013-11-01

    Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) have been successful at finding feasible solutions for many types of problems. With motion planning becoming more computationally demanding, we turn to parallel motion planning for efficient solutions. Existing work on distributed RRTs has been limited by the overhead that global communication requires. A recent approach, Radial RRT, demonstrated a scalable algorithm that subdivides the space into regions to increase the computation locality. However, if an obstacle completely blocks RRT growth in a region, the planning space is not covered and is thus not probabilistically complete. We present a new algorithm, Blind RRT, which ignores obstacles during initial growth to efficiently explore the entire space. Because obstacles are ignored, free components of the tree become disconnected and fragmented. Blind RRT merges parts of the tree that have become disconnected from the root. We show how this algorithm can be applied to the Radial RRT framework allowing both scalability and effectiveness in motion planning. This method is a probabilistically complete approach to parallel RRTs. We show that our method not only scales but also overcomes the motion planning limitations that Radial RRT has in a series of difficult motion planning tasks. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Reporting methods of blinding in randomized trials assessing nonpharmacological treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Boutron

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blinding is a cornerstone of treatment evaluation. Blinding is more difficult to obtain in trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment and frequently relies on "creative" (nonstandard methods. The purpose of this study was to systematically describe the strategies used to obtain blinding in a sample of randomized controlled trials of nonpharmacological treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched in Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register for randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing nonpharmacological treatment with blinding, published during 2004 in high-impact-factor journals. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction form. We identified 145 articles, with the method of blinding described in 123 of the reports. Methods of blinding of participants and/or health care providers and/or other caregivers concerned mainly use of sham procedures such as simulation of surgical procedures, similar attention-control interventions, or a placebo with a different mode of administration for rehabilitation or psychotherapy. Trials assessing devices reported various placebo interventions such as use of sham prosthesis, identical apparatus (e.g., identical but inactivated machine or use of activated machine with a barrier to block the treatment, or simulation of using a device. Blinding participants to the study hypothesis was also an important method of blinding. The methods reported for blinding outcome assessors relied mainly on centralized assessment of paraclinical examinations, clinical examinations (i.e., use of video, audiotape, photography, or adjudications of clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: This study classifies blinding methods and provides a detailed description of methods that could overcome some barriers of blinding in clinical trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment, and provides information for readers assessing the quality of results of such trials.

  19. AODA Training Experiences of Blindness and Visual Impairment Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Koch, D. Shane; McKee, Marissa F.; Nelipovich, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Co-existing alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) and blindness or visually impairment may complicate the delivery of rehabilitation services. Professionals working with individuals who are blind or visually impaired need to be aware of unique issues facing those with co-existing disabilities. This study sought to examine the AODA training needs,…

  20. Use of the Cranmer Abacus by Blind Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nester, Mary Anne

    Described is the use by blind persons of the Cranmer abacus, a computational device adapted from the Japanese abacus. Noted is the lack of carefully controlled research on its use. A comparison of calculation by abacus and by paper and pencil is said to indicate that the use of such mechanical devices does not give the blind competitor an undue…

  1. [Rudolph Tegner: The blind from Marrakech (1949-1950)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norn, M; Permin, H

    1999-01-01

    The Danish sculptor and painter Rudolph Tegner (1873-1950) has built his own Museum in Dronningmolle, where his sculptures enrich the unique landscape. His last and incomplete plaster on a simple, raw wooden scaffold sculpture The Blind from Marrakech (Fig. 1) show five persons moan about, carrying a dead body. All persons are missing their arms. Tegner had a number of years earlier been in Marrakech and had watched a funeral procession, where blind beggars had carried a dead old woman raised high above the bearers on a kind of pall. In a small version of the statue cast, later in bronze from 1963, showed 15 bearers, on both sides of the bier (Fig. 2 & 3). Nine and 15 bearers are looking up, two right in front, and the rest are looking down. Totally blind people can not see the light but can see up to the divine Heaven. Some blind have kept the gleam. The confusion with the eye direction shows that they really are blind. However 10 of the 15 blind people had hollow in the eye (excenteratio orbitae) in contrast to the dead woman. The dead woman had been the blinds' mistress. The last work The Blind in Marrakech may also be the despair of the artist.

  2. Recognition of Rapid Speech by Blind and Sighted Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Friedman, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether older blind participants recognize time-compressed speech better than older sighted participants. Method: Three groups of adults with normal hearing participated (n = 10/group): (a) older sighted, (b) older blind, and (c) younger sighted listeners. Low-predictability sentences that were uncompressed (0% time…

  3. Blindness and Consciousness: new lights from the dark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pietrini, Pietro; Ptito, M.; Kupers, R.

    2009-01-01

    who has never had any visual perception form an image of the external world? Do brains from sighted and blind individuals differ and how? In this chapter we discuss recent findings from research in animals as well from functional brain imaging studies in sighted and blind individuals that are shedding...

  4. Blindness as A Challenging Medical and Social Problem in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixing Hu

    2002-01-01

    China, a country with about one fifth of the world' s population, has been gaining a rapideconomic growth since 1980s. This country has around 5 million blind people, accountingfor 18% of the blind in the world. The major causes of blindness include cataract,corneal diseases, trachoma, glaucoma, vitreoretinopathy and a number of factorscontributing to blindness in children. The principal cause of blindness in China was nolonger trachoma but cataracts. Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem inthe under-developed areas.Age-related conditions in China, such as vision loss due tocataract and retinal disorders, will increase accordingly if no preventive meaunes aretaken. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy appear to be predominant induction of thedevastating blind. In this fast developing country blindness is not only a medical orhealth, but also a social problem. Developed strategies have been adopted simultaneouslyby national efforts under the leadership of the government, international agencies,nongovernmental organizations, as well as private sectors in their every-day work toprevent and treat blindness.

  5. 77 FR 64217 - Blind Americans Equality Day, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-18

    ... several who are blind, as Champions of Change for their work to expand educational and employment... October 18, 2012 Part III The President Proclamation 8889--Blind Americans Equality Day, 2012 #0; #0; #0... / Presidential Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8889 of October 15, 2012...

  6. Differences in Soccer Kick Kinematics between Blind Players and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…

  7. 76 FR 58412 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010, Section 105, Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals...-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010, Section 105, Relay Services for...

  8. 76 FR 26641 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission adopts rules to establish the National Deaf... specialized customer premises equipment (CPE) to low- income individuals who are deaf-blind. For...

  9. 77 FR 20553 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... the requirement for National Deaf Blind Equipment Distribution Program (NDBEDP) certified programs to... to better enable selected participants to fully meet the needs of eligible low- income,...

  10. Validity of False Belief Tasks in Blind Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambring, Michael; Asbrock, Doreen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that congenitally blind children without any additional impairment reveal a developmental delay of at least 4 years in perspective taking based on testing first-order false-belief tasks. These authors interpret this delay as a sign of autism-like behavior. However, the delay may be caused by testing blind children…

  11. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  12. Alterations in right posterior hippocampus in early blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Chen, Jan-Kai; Schneider, Fabien

    2007-01-01

    This study compares hippocampal volumes of early blind and sex/age-matched sighted controls through volumetric and localization analyses. Early blind individuals showed a significantly smaller right posterior hippocampus compared with controls. No differences in total hippocampal volumes were fou...

  13. Affective Reactions in Some Parents of Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrie, Carolyn

    Emotional problems and behavioral patterns of parents who have deaf blind children are described clinically and in short case studies. Deaf blind young children are said to be isolated from their families due to lack of sensory cues; to display behaviors such as back arching and fear of walking; and to experience frequent health crises such as…

  14. Encoding audio motion: spatial impairment in early blind individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eFinocchietti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The consequence of blindness on auditory spatial localization has been an interesting issue of research in the last decade providing mixed results. Enhanced auditory spatial skills in individuals with visual impairment have been reported by multiple studies, while some aspects of spatial hearing seem to be impaired in the absence of vision. In this study, the ability to encode the trajectory of a 2 dimensional sound motion, reproducing the complete movement, and reaching the correct end-point sound position, is evaluated in 12 early blind individuals, 8 late blind individuals, and 20 age-matched sighted blindfolded controls. Early blind individuals correctly determine the direction of the sound motion on the horizontal axis, but show a clear deficit in encoding the sound motion in the lower side of the plane. On the contrary, late blind individuals and blindfolded controls perform much better with no deficit in the lower side of the plane. In fact the mean localization error resulted 271 ± 10 mm for early blind individuals, 65 ± 4 mm for late blind individuals, and 68 ± 2 mm for sighted blindfolded controls.These results support the hypothesis that i it exists a trade-off between the development of enhanced perceptual abilities and role of vision in the sound localization abilities of early blind individuals, and ii the visual information is fundamental in calibrating some aspects of the representation of auditory space in the brain.

  15. Cortical blindness in a child with acute glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaarthigeyan, K; Vijayalakshmi, A M

    2012-01-01

    The association between hypertensive encephalopathy and cortical blindness in children with acute glomerulonephritis is extremely rare. We report the case of a 9-year old girl who presented with headache, seizures, altered sensorium, hematuria, and transient cortical blindness as a complication of hypertensive encephalopathy which showed complete reversal following normalization of blood pressure and an underlying post-infectious acute glomerulonephritis was revealed.

  16. The Cortically Blind Infant: Educational Guidelines and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverrain, Ann

    Cortical blindness is defined and its diagnosis is explained. Guidelines and sample activities are presented for use in a cognitive/visual/multi-sensory stimulation program to produce progress in cortically blind infants. The importance of using the eyes from birth through early development in order to form the nerve pathways responsible for…

  17. Multi-proxy Strong Blind Quantum Signature Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Li, Yan-Ping; An, Wan

    2016-08-01

    A multi-proxy strong blind quantum signature scheme is proposed in this paper. An original signatory Alice delegates her signing authority to a group of proxy signatories by using a classical warrant. A blind factor is introduced by a sender U to blind a message, and the proxy signatories sign the message blindly via applying appropriate unitary operators. A receiver Bob verifies the generated signature with the help of an arbitrator Trent. The security of this scheme is based on a quantum key distribution protocol, a quantum one-time pad and other quantum properties. It is proved that our scheme has the properties of non-disavowal, non-counterfeit, multi-proxy, blindness, untraceability and can resist some common attacks.

  18. Superior Orthonasal but Not Retronasal Olfactory Skills in Congenital Blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Ismaili, Abd Rahman Alaoui; Ptito, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Sight is undoubtedly important for finding and appreciating food, and cooking. Blind individuals are strongly impaired in finding food, limiting the variety of flavours they are exposed to. We have shown before that compared to sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals have enhanced...... olfactory but reduced taste perception. In this study we tested the hypothesis that congenitally blind subjects have enhanced orthonasal but not retronasal olfactory skills. Twelve congenitally blind and 14 sighted control subjects, matched in age, gender and body mass index, were asked to identify odours...... using grocery-available food powders. Results showed that blind subjects were significantly faster and tended to be better at identifying odours presented orthonasally. This was not the case when odorants were presented retronasally. We also found a significant group x route interaction, showing...

  19. Blind trust in unblinded observation in Ecology, Evolution and Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa R Kardish

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We survey 492 recent studies in the fields of ecology, evolution and behavior (EEB to evaluate potential for observer bias and the need for blind experimentation in each study. While 248 articles included experiments that could have been influenced by observer bias, only 13.3% of these articles indicated that experiments were blinded. The use of blind observation therefore was either grossly underreported in the surveyed articles, or many EEB studies were not blinded. We hope that a concerted effort of the field of EEB – including researchers, peer-reviewers, and journal editors – will help promote and institute routine, blind observation as an essential standard that should be practiced by all sciences.

  20. Designing for an inclusive school of informatics for blind students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas Brenes, Ronald

    Today it is not uncommon to see disabled people attend universities. These include in particular mobility impaired people and blind people, but they are not the only ones, as other impairments can for example be hidden under the ‘normality’ of other students, teachers and administrative staff...... at universities. As a university teacher it became obvious to me that there were no blind students at the School of Informatics at Universidad Nacional UNA in Costa Rica. This is surprising as this school has some of the university’s most attractive programmes. I learned that most of the blind people who were...... initiative to do so. It was at that moment that I shifted my focus from trying to understand why blind students were not interested in informatics and started to question whether the School of Informatics was prepared to receive blind students. As I was a teacher in this school I could start by asking myself...

  1. Hypnotic color blindness and performance on the Stroop test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallard, D; Bryant, R A

    2001-10-01

    A suggestion for hypnotic color blindness was investigated by administering a reverse Stroop color-naming task. Prior to the suggestion for color blindness, participants learned associations between color names and shapes. Following the color blindness suggestion, participants were required to name the shapes when they appeared in colors that were either congruent or incongruent with the learned associations. The 18 high hypnotizable participants who passed the suggestion were slower to name (a) shapes in which the color name was incongruent with the color in which it was printed, (b) "unseen" rather than "seen" shapes, and (c) color-incongruent shapes that were printed in the color in which they were "color-blind." These patterns are discussed in terms of potential cognitive and social mechanisms that may mediate responses to hypnotic color blindness.

  2. Cataract related blindness in India & its social implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angra, S K; Murthy, G V; Gupta, S K; Angra, V

    1997-10-01

    The prevalence of blindness in India is 14.9 per 1000. Eighty per cent of this blindness is due to cataract alone. Most of the cataract blinds in the country are in the rural areas while the surgical service delivery network is concentrated in the urban areas. Thus a large proportion of patients in the rural areas continue to remain blind. This situation has many social implications. There is loss of productivity, breakdown of interpersonal relationships, depressive manifestations, loss of self esteem and most patients lead an isolated humiliating life. Patients lack information on the available services and continue to remain blind for years even after being diagnosed as operable. This is unfortunate because cataract surgery is one of the most cost effective health interventions known and most operated patients, irrespective of the surgical technique, are immensely satisfied with the level of visual rehabilitation after surgery.

  3. A Weak Quantum Blind Signature with Entanglement Permutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhigang; Guo, Ying

    2015-09-01

    Motivated by the permutation encryption algorithm, a weak quantum blind signature (QBS) scheme is proposed. It involves three participants, including the sender Alice, the signatory Bob and the trusted entity Charlie, in four phases, i.e., initializing phase, blinding phase, signing phase and verifying phase. In a small-scale quantum computation network, Alice blinds the message based on a quantum entanglement permutation encryption algorithm that embraces the chaotic position string. Bob signs the blinded message with private parameters shared beforehand while Charlie verifies the signature's validity and recovers the original message. Analysis shows that the proposed scheme achieves the secure blindness for the signer and traceability for the message owner with the aid of the authentic arbitrator who plays a crucial role when a dispute arises. In addition, the signature can neither be forged nor disavowed by the malicious attackers. It has a wide application to E-voting and E-payment system, etc.

  4. A THRESHOLD BLIND SIGNATURE FROM WEIL PAIRING ON ELLIPTIC CURVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Xiangguo; Xu Weidong; Wang Xinmei

    2006-01-01

    The idea behind a (t, n) threshold blind signature is that a user can ask at least t out ofn players of a group to cooperate to generate a signature for a message without revealing its content. This paper first presents a new blind signature scheme from Weil pairing on elliptic curves. Based on this scheme, a threshold blind signature scheme is proposed. It is efficient and has the security properties of robustness and unforgeability. In the proposed scheme, the group manger is introduced to take the role of distributing the group secret key to each player. However, he cannot forge the players to generate partial blind signatures (Each partial blind signature depends on not only the secret key of the player, but also a random number the player picks). Compared with a threshold signature with a trusted third party, its advantage is obvious; Compared with a threshold signature without a trusted third party, it is more simple and efficient.

  5. Blind estimation of shallow water acoustic channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposed a method for blind estimation of underwater channels in shallow water environment by using received data at a single hydrophone or from single beam.First, the received signal is used for source signal reconstruction by means of signal-dependent TF (Time-Frequency) distribution, in association with instantaneous frequency estimation and TF inversion. Then the shallow-water channel estimation is achieved via WRELAX technique by use of the received signal and the estimated source signal. Finally, the results of numerical simulation and experimental test from real data taken in South China Sea trial have proved satisfactory. It is shown that the proposed method is useful for underwater channel estimation.

  6. Blind analysis results of the TWIST experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hillairet, A; Bueno, J F; Davydov, Y I; Depommier, P; Faszer, W; Fujiwara, M C; Gagliardi, C A; Gaponenko, A; Grossheim, A; Gill, D R; Gumplinger, P; Hasinoff, M D; Henderson, R S; Hu, J; Koetke, D D; MacDonald, R P; Marshall, G M; Mathie, E W; Mischke, R E; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Openshaw, R; Poutissou, J -M; Poutissou, R; Selivanov, V; Sheffer, G; Shin, B; Stanislaus, T D S; Tacik, R; Tribble, R E

    2010-01-01

    The TRIUMF Weak Interaction Symmetry Test (TWIST) experiment was designed to test the standard model at high precision in the purely leptonic decay of polarized muons. A general four-fermion interaction model is used to describe the muon decay. TWIST measures three of the four muon decay parameters of this model, $\\rho$, $\\delta$ and $P_{\\mu}^{\\pi} \\xi$, from the shape of the momentum-angle spectrum. The results of this model independent approach are compared to the standard model predictions and used to constrain new physics. Our collaboration has finalized the blind analysis of the final experimental data taken in 2006 and 2007. This analysis mostly reached our goal of a precision of an order of magnitude improvement over the pre-TWIST measurements.

  7. Double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H W; Jensen, K A; Nielsen, K F

    2005-01-01

    non-significant, and at the same level as after placebo exposure. The developed exposure system based on the Particle-Field and Laboratory Emission Cell (P-FLEC) makes it possible to deliver a precise and highly controlled dose of mold spores from water-damaged building materials, imitating realistic....... In conclusion this is, to our knowledge, the first study to successfully conduct a human exposure to a highly controlled dose of fungal material aerosolized directly from wet building materials. This short-term exposure to high concentrations of two different molds induced no more reactions than exposure...... to placebo in eight sensitive school employees. However, a statistical type II error cannot be excluded because of the small sample size. PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: In this double blind, placebo controlled study of mold exposure changes in symptoms, objective measurements and blood samples were small and mostly...

  8. Blind Signatures in Electronic Voting Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucharczyk, Marcin

    Electronic voting systems are created to facilitate the election, accelerate voting and counting votes and increase turnout for the election. The main problems of the electronic systems are related with the assurance of system security (cryptographic security and protection against frauds) and a guarantee that the voters are anonymous. The authorization of voters and the anonymity of them seem to be contradictory, but it is possible to create such a system where the both requirements are met. Some solutions, the most common e-voting systems, are presented in the paper. These models are adjusted to the demands and implemented in the polls system for quality of teaching evaluation where anonymity is very important. The blind signature protocol, model directed to user's anonymity, is a very good solution of the authorization and anonymity problem in the polls system with remote access only, as it was described in the paper.

  9. GA based robust blind digital watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Álvarez, Víctor; Frau, María-Dolores; Gudiel, Félix; Güemes, María-Belén; Martín, Elena; Osuna, Amparo

    2012-01-01

    A genetic algorithm based robust blind digital watermarking scheme is presented. Starting from a binary image (the original watermark), a genetic algorithm is performed searching for a permutation of this image which is as uncorrelated as possible to the original watermark. The output of the GA is used as our final watermark, so that both security and robustness in the watermarking process is improved. Now, the original cover image is partitioned into non-overlapped square blocks (depending on the size of the watermark image). Then a (possibly extended) Hadamard transform is applied to these blocks, so that one bit information from the watermark image is embedded in each block by modifying the relationship of two coefficients in the transformed matrices. The watermarked image is finally obtained by simply performing the inverse (extended) Hadamard transform on the modified matrices. The experimental results show that our scheme keeps invisibility, security and robustness more likely than other proposals in th...

  10. Iterative surface construction for blind deflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenchuan; Graves, Logan R.; Huang, Run; Song, Weihong; Kim, DaeWook

    2016-09-01

    Freeform optics provide excellent performance for a wide variety of applications. However, obtaining an accurate freeform surface measurement is highly challenging due to its large aspheric/freeform departure. It has been proven that SCOTS (Software Configurable Optical Test System), an advanced deflectometry system developed at the University of Arizona, can measure the departure of a freeform surface from the desired shape with nanometer accuracy. Here, a new data processing technique was used to measure a freeform surface without any prior knowledge of the shape of the surface. Knowing only the geometry of one point on the test surface, this method can take a blind measurement of a freeform surface and arrive at the true surface through iterative construction.

  11. Attending to music decreases inattentional blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beanland, Vanessa; Allen, Rosemary A; Pammer, Kristen

    2011-12-01

    This article investigates how auditory attention affects inattentional blindness (IB), a failure of conscious awareness in which an observer does not notice an unexpected event because their attention is engaged elsewhere. Previous research using the attentional blink paradigm has indicated that listening to music can reduce failures of conscious awareness. It was proposed that listening to music would decrease IB by reducing observers' frequency of task-unrelated thoughts (TUTs). Observers completed an IB task that varied both visual and auditory demands. Listening to music was associated with significantly lower IB, but only when observers actively attended to the music. Follow-up experiments suggest this was due to the distracting qualities of the audio task. The results also suggest a complex relationship between IB and TUTs: during demanding tasks, as predicted, noticers of the unexpected stimulus reported fewer TUTs than non-noticers. During less demanding tasks, however, noticers reported more TUTs than non-noticers.

  12. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in the blind population supported by the Yazd Welfare Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini - Ardakani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1995, the World Health Organization (WHO estimated that there were 37.1 million blind people worldwide. It has subsequently been reported that 110 million people have severely impaired vision, hence are at great risk of becoming blind. Watkins predicted an annual increase of about two million blind worldwide. This study was designed to investigate the causes of blindness and low vision in the blind population supported by the welfare organization of Yazd, Iran. Methods: This clinical descriptive cross-sectional study was done from January to September, 2003. In total, 109 blind patients supported by the welfare organization were included in this study. All data was collected by standard methods using questionnaire, interview and specific examination. The data included; demographic characteristics, clinical states, ophthalmic examination, family history and the available prenatal information. The data were analyzed by SPSS software and chi square test. Results: Of total patients, 73 cases were male (67% and 36 were female (33%. The median age was 24.6 years (range one month to 60 years. More than half of the cases (53.2% could be diagnosed in children less than one year of age. In total, 79 patients (88.1% were legally blind of which 23 cases (29.1% had no light perception (NLP. The most common causes of blindness were retinitis pigmentosa (32.1% followed by ocular dysgenesis (16.5%. Conclusion: Our data showed that more than half of the blindness cases occur during the first year of life. The most common cause of blindness was retinitis pigmentosa followed by ocular dysgenesis, cataract and glaucoma, respectively.

  13. Learning strategies used by blind students and psychics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Ramos Caldas Lins

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the learning strategies most often used by blind students (study 1 and compare the learning strategies used by blind and sighted students (study 2. The first study involved the participation of 25 blind students, of both sexes, aged between 9 and 16 years, enrolled from 3rd to 9th grade of elementary school. The instruments used were a sociodemographic questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. The data indicated that blind students use both cognitive and metacognitive strategies, but the repertoire variety is little. In study 2, 25 blind and 25 sighted students, of both sexes, aged between 9 and 16 years, enrolled from 3rd to 8th grade of elementary school, completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and a measure of learning strategies. The results showed homogeneity in the responses, indicating that both the blind and the sighted students reported using the same type of learning strategies. We conclude that blind and sighted students use cognitive and metacognitive strategies to study, but this repertoire is rather complex, indicating that they use the same strategies regardless of the content studied or the task to be performed.

  14. Study oOf Important Psychosocial Factors in Institutionalized Blinds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddhav T Kumbhar, Armaity Dehmubed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blindness probably is the most feared infirmity of mankind. The blind individuals were considered useless for the centuries till recent development in culture and civilization. Present study was conducted with the aim to study important psychosocial aspects of blinds undergoing formal vocational training in institutes. Objective: to identify candidates’ psychosocial profile using Self Reporting Questionnaire (S.R.Q.. Materials and Methods: it was a cross sectional study conducted in two vocational training institutes for blinds (one for males and other for females in Mumbai. The individuals were subjected to pre tested S.R.Q. and the individuals found positive with this tool and double the number of matched S.R.Q. negative controls from the institute were subjected to psychiatric examination done by qualified psychiatrist. Analysis: analysis was done using fisher’s exact test and chi square test results: 15 (7.18% blinds were found S.R.Q. positive indicating they either have or prone to have psychiatric morbidity. Conclusion: Psychological rehabilitation of the blinds should be considered before planning the vocational training of blinds.

  15. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  16. Blind spot detection using vision for automotive applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel (A)ngel SOTELO; José BARRIGA

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a vision-based system for blind spot detection (BSD) in intelligent vehicle applications. A camera is mounted in the lateral mirror of a car with the intention of visually detecting cars that are located in the so-called blind spot and cannot be perceived by the vehicle driver. The detection of cars in the blind spot is carried out using computer vision techniques,based on optical flow and a double-stage data clustering technique for robust vehicle detection.

  17. A Proxy Blind Signature Scheme Based on ECDLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHaiyan; WANGRuchuan

    2005-01-01

    While proxy signature scheme enables an original signer to fully authorize a proxy to sign a message on his or her behalf legally and undeniably, blind signature scheme keeps the message blind from the signer so that the signer cannot make a linkage between the signature and the identity of requester (receiver). Both schemes have been widely applied in the electronic business. A new ECDLP (Elliptic curve discrete problem)-based proxy blind signature scheme is to be proposed in this paper by integrating the security properties of both schemes.

  18. Recurrent Bilateral Occipital Infarct with Cortical Blindness and Anton Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiu Kwong Yew

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral cortical blindness and Anton syndrome, are most commonly caused by ischaemic stroke. In this condition, patients have loss of vision but deny their blindness despite objective evidence of visual loss. We report a case of a patient with multiple cardiovascular risk factors who developed recurrent bilateral occipital lobe infarct with Anton syndrome. A suspicion of this condition should be raised when the patient has denial of blindness in the presence of clinical and radiological evidence of occipital lobe injury. Management of this condition should focus on the underlying cause, in which our patient requires secondary stroke prevention and rehabilitation.

  19. Scan blindness in infinite phased arrays of printed dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozar, D. M.; Schaubert, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive study of infinite phased arrays of printed dipole antennas is presented, with emphasis on the scan blindness phenomenon. A rigorous and efficient moment method procedure is used to calculate the array impedance versus scan angle. Data are presented for the input reflection coefficient for various element spacings and substrate parameters. A simple theory, based on coupling from Floquet modes to surface wave modes on the substrate, is shown to predict the occurrence of scan blindness. Measurements from a waveguide simulator of a blindness condition confirm the theory.

  20. A Blind Detection Algorithm Utilizing Statistical Covariance in Cognitive Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxue Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available As the expression of performance parameters are obtained using asymptotic method in most blind covariance detection algorithm, the paper presented a new blind detection algorithm using cholesky factorization. Utilizing random matrix theory, we derived the performance parameters using non-asymptotic method. The proposed method overcomes the noise uncertainty problem and performs well without any information about the channel, primary user and noise. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that the performance parameters expressions are correct and the new detector outperforms the other blind covariance detectors.

  1. Gender-Blind Sexism and Rape Myth Acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Laurie Cooper; Lilley, Terry Glenn; Pinter, Kelly

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore whether gender-blind sexism, as an extension of Bonilla-Silva's racialized social system theory, is an appropriate theoretical framework for understanding the creation and continued prevalence of rape myth acceptance. Specifically, we hypothesize that individuals who hold attitudes consistent with the frames of gender-blind sexism are more likely to accept common rape myths. Data for this article come from an online survey administered to the entire undergraduate student body at a large Midwestern institution (N = 1,401). Regression analysis showed strong support for the effects of gender-blind sexism on rape myth acceptance.

  2. Recurrent bilateral occipital infarct with cortical blindness and anton syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong Yew, Kiu; Abdul Halim, Sanihah; Liza-Sharmini, Ahmad Tajudin; Tharakan, John

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral cortical blindness and Anton syndrome, are most commonly caused by ischaemic stroke. In this condition, patients have loss of vision but deny their blindness despite objective evidence of visual loss. We report a case of a patient with multiple cardiovascular risk factors who developed recurrent bilateral occipital lobe infarct with Anton syndrome. A suspicion of this condition should be raised when the patient has denial of blindness in the presence of clinical and radiological evidence of occipital lobe injury. Management of this condition should focus on the underlying cause, in which our patient requires secondary stroke prevention and rehabilitation.

  3. A Novel Stochastic Blind Adaptive Multiuser Detector for CDMA Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Blind adaptive multiuser detector has become a research hotspot in recent years due to a number of advantages, but many blind adaptive algorithms involve low convergence rate. This paper presents a novel stochastic blind adaptive multiuser detector without requiring training sequences, which needs only two system parameters: the signature sequence of the desired user i, si and the variance of the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN),σ2. Simulation results show that by reasonably choosing time varying step size, the proposed detector can not only improve the convergence rate, but also reduce the limiting NSE (Normalized Squared Error) values, so it can effectively increase the performance of the system.

  4. Outage analysis of blind cooperative diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-06-06

    Mobile users with single antennas can still take advantage of spatial diversity through cooperative space-time-encoded transmission. In this paper, we considered a scheme in which a relay chooses to cooperate only if its source-relay channel is of an acceptable quality, and we evaluate the usefulness of relaying when the source acts blindly and ignores the decision of the relays whether they may cooperate or not. In our study, we consider the regenerative relays in which the decisions to cooperate are based on a targeted end-to-end data rate R. We derived the end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R and a code rate ρ and look at a power allocation strategy between the source and the relays in order to minimize the end-to-end outage probability at the destination for high signal-to-noise ratio, by using the golden section search method. Performance results show that the computer simulations-based results coincide with our analytical results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A Blind Test of Hapke's Photometric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenstein, P.; Shepard, M. K.

    2003-01-01

    Hapke's bidirectional reflectance equation is a versatile analytical tool for predicting (i.e. forward modeling) the photometric behavior of a particulate surface from the observed optical and structural properties of its constituents. Remote sensing applications of Hapke s model, however, generally seek to predict the optical and structural properties of particulate soil constituents from the observed photometric behavior of a planetary surface (i.e. inverse-modeling). Our confidence in the latter approach can be established only if we ruthlessly test and optimize it. Here, we summarize preliminary results from a blind-test of the Hapke model using laboratory measurements obtained with the Bloomsburg University Goniometer (B.U.G.). The first author selected eleven well-characterized powder samples and measured the spectrophotometric behavior of each. A subset of twenty undisclosed examples of the photometric measurement sets were sent to the second author who fit the data using the Hapke model and attempted to interpret their optical and mechanical properties from photometry alone.

  6. Consumers' choice-blindness to ingredient information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, T T L; Junghans, A F; Dijksterhuis, G B; Kroese, F; Johansson, P; Hall, L; De Ridder, D T D

    2016-11-01

    Food manufacturers and policy makers have been tailoring food product ingredient information to consumers' self-reported preference for natural products and concerns over food additives. Yet, the influence of this ingredient information on consumers remains inconclusive. The current study aimed at examining the first step in such influence, which is consumers' attention to ingredient information on food product packaging. Employing the choice-blindness paradigm, the current study assessed whether participants would detect a covertly made change to the naturalness of ingredient list throughout a product evaluation procedure. Results revealed that only few consumers detected the change on the ingredient lists. Detection was improved when consumers were instructed to judge the naturalness of the product as compared to evaluating the product in general. These findings challenge consumers' self-reported use of ingredient lists as a source of information throughout product evaluations. While most consumers do not attend to ingredient information, this tendency can be slightly improved by prompting their consideration of naturalness. Future research should investigate the reasons for consumers' inattention to ingredient information and develop more effective strategies for conveying information to consumers.

  7. [Educative game on drugs for blind individuals: development and assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, Monaliza Ribeiro; Rebouças, Cristiana Brasil de Almeida; Pagliuca, Lorita Marlena Freitag

    2013-08-01

    Study aimed to develop and assess an educational game on psychoactive drugs accessible to blind individuals, conducted in three steps: development of the educative game, evaluation by three special education experts, and assessment by twelve blind individuals. As a result, a board game called Drugs: staying clean was developed. In the Alpha version, experts made suggestions regarding the game rules and instructions and the board base, including square texture, game pieces, and Braille writing. In Beta version, we proceeded to the assessment by the blind participants, who suggested changes in the square texture and the addition of Velcro-type material to fix the counters on the board. Then, the Gamma version was played by the last pairs of blind players and was considered by them to be adequate. In the evaluation of the experts, the game was appropriate, as it allowed access to information on psychoactive drugs in a ludic and playful manner.

  8. Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs & Services Technology Evaluation Center on Vision Loss eLearning Center Professional Development Public Policy Center Our Family ... of Visual Impairment & Blindness Center on Vision Loss eLearning Center Contact Us 2 Penn Plaza, Suite 1102 ...

  9. Crossmodal recruitment of the ventral visual stream in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Matteau, Isabelle; Zhi Wang, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform...... a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU). Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus......, inferotemporal (IT), cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv), and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic...

  10. Neural correlates of virtual route recognition in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Chebat, Daniel R; Madsen, Kristoffer H

    2010-01-01

    Despite the importance of vision for spatial navigation, blind subjects retain the ability to represent spatial information and to move independently in space to localize and reach targets. However, the neural correlates of navigation in subjects lacking vision remain elusive. We therefore used...... functional MRI (fMRI) to explore the cortical network underlying successful navigation in blind subjects. We first trained congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects to perform a virtual navigation task with the tongue display unit (TDU), a tactile-to-vision sensory substitution device...... that translates a visual image into electrotactile stimulation applied to the tongue. After training, participants repeated the navigation task during fMRI. Although both groups successfully learned to use the TDU in the virtual navigation task, the brain activation patterns showed substantial differences. Blind...

  11. Morphometric changes of the corpus callosum in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D Louis

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender....... There was no overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12......% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus...

  12. CROSS-MODAL PLASTICITY OF TACTILE PERCEPTION IN BLINDNESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, K.; Stilla, Randall

    2011-01-01

    This review focusses on cross-modal plasticity resulting from visual deprivation. This is viewed against the background of task-specific visual cortical recruitment that is routine during tactile tasks in the sighted and that may depend in part on visual imagery. Superior tactile perceptual performance in the blind may be practice-related, although there are unresolved questions regarding the effects of Braille-reading experience and the age of onset of blindness. While visual cortical areas are clearly more involved in tactile microspatial processing in the blind than in the sighted, it still remains unclear how to reconcile these tactile processes with the growing literature implicating visual cortical activity in a wide range of cognitive tasks in the blind, including those involving language, or with studies of short-term, reversible visual deprivation in the normally sighted that reveal plastic changes even over periods of hours or days. PMID:20404414

  13. Psychological Disorders of Blind Persons and Success in Residential Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, W. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of residential rehabilitation outcomes of blind clients with (n=45) or without (n=67) previous psychiatric diagnosis found no intergroup differences after rehabilitation in skill, attitude, and overall adjustment. All clients improved significantly during rehabilitation. (DB)

  14. Sociodrama: strategy for nurses’ self-reflection on blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inacia Sátiro Xavier de França

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the master students’ expressions about feelings, difficulties and challenges arising from participation in sociodrama “as if” they were blind. Methods: qualitative study. Participants were eight Master students in nursing. They used sociodrama, a video recorder and the Content Analysis technique. In implementing the sociodrama, the steps were followed were warm-up, drama, comments and theoretical processing. Results: the following thematic categories emerged: the role as blind person triggering limitation, blocking and fear; the role as blind person triggering a confused notion of one’s own body; spontaneity and creativity expressed by Master students. Conclusion: the Master students expressed the feeling of fear to walking in an environment with which they were already familiar, had difficulty in eating because of the confused notion of their own body, and could reflect on the challenge of caring for the blind person, because they realized that they were professionally unprepared to take care of these individuals.

  15. Semi-blind Sparse Image Reconstruction with Application to MRFM

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Se Un; Hero, Alfred O

    2012-01-01

    We propose a solution to the image deconvolution problem where the convolution kernel or point spread function (PSF) is assumed to be only partially known. Small perturbations generated from the model are exploited to produce a few principal components explaining the PSF uncertainty in a high dimensional space. Unlike recent developments on blind deconvolution of natural images, we assume the image is sparse in the pixel basis, a natural sparsity arising in magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). Our approach adopts a Bayesian Metropolis-within-Gibbs sampling framework. The performance of our Bayesian semi-blind algorithm for sparse images is superior to previously proposed semi-blind algorithms such as the alternating minimization (AM) algorithm and blind algorithms developed for natural images. We illustrate our myopic algorithm on real MRFM tobacco virus data.

  16. Neural correlates of olfactory processing in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, R; Beaulieu-Lefebvre, M; Schneider, F C

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive neuroplastic changes have been well documented in congenitally blind individuals for the processing of tactile and auditory information. By contrast, very few studies have investigated olfactory processing in the absence of vision. There is ample evidence that the olfactory system...... is highly plastic and that blind individuals rely more on their sense of smell than the sighted do. The olfactory system in the blind is therefore likely to be susceptible to cross-modal changes similar to those observed for the tactile and auditory modalities. To test this hypothesis, we used functional....... The stronger recruitment of the occipital cortex during odor detection demonstrates a preferential access of olfactory stimuli to this area when vision is lacking from birth. This finding expands current knowledge about the supramodal function of the visually deprived occipital cortex in congenital blindness...

  17. Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page An Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 23, 2014 An experimental contact lens design releases a glaucoma medicine at a steady rate for up to ...

  18. Thermal blinding of gated detectors in quantum cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydersen, Lars; Wiechers, Carlos; Wittmann, Christoffer; Elser, Dominique; Skaar, Johannes; Makarov, Vadim

    2010-12-20

    It has previously been shown that the gated detectors of two commercially available quantum key distribution (QKD) systems are blindable and controllable by an eavesdropper using continuous-wave illumination and short bright trigger pulses, manipulating voltages in the circuit [Nat. Photonics 4, 686 (2010)]. This allows for an attack eavesdropping the full raw and secret key without increasing the quantum bit error rate (QBER). Here we show how thermal effects in detectors under bright illumination can lead to the same outcome. We demonstrate that the detectors in a commercial QKD system Clavis2 can be blinded by heating the avalanche photo diodes (APDs) using bright illumination, so-called thermal blinding. Further, the detectors can be triggered using short bright pulses once they are blind. For systems with pauses between packet transmission such as the plug-and-play systems, thermal inertia enables Eve to apply the bright blinding illumination before eavesdropping, making her more difficult to catch.

  19. Altered myoelectric activity in the experimental blind loop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justus, P G; Fernandez, A; Martin, J L; King, C E; Toskes, P P; Mathias, J R

    1983-09-01

    Nutrient malabsorption and diarrhea are characteristic of the blind loop syndrome. Alterations in motility have been implicated as a cause of bacterial overgrowth, but the possibility that altered motility may result from alterations in the flora has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to characterize the myoelectric activity of the small intestine in the blind loop rat model. Eight groups of rats were studied: rats with self-filling blind loops, which develop bacterial overgrowth; rats with self-emptying blind loops, which are surgical controls that do not develop overgrowth; unoperated litter mates; rats with self-filling blind loops and unoperated controls treated with chloramphenicol, 200 mg/d i.p.; rats with surgically removed self-filling blind loops; operated control rats; and gnotobiotic rats with self-filling blind loops. In the untreated rats with self-filling blind loops, there was altered myoelectric activity characterized by an increased percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and by organized activity similar to the migrating action potential complex. Migrating action potential complex activity and percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials were significantly decreased with chloramphenicol therapy; that decrease correlated with a decrease in aerobes and anaerobes. Migrating action potential complex activity was abolished in rats with surgically removed self-filling blind loops; they also showed a significant decrease in percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials. Gnotobiotic rats with self-filling blind loops showed no alteration in myoelectric activity. These data indicate: (a) bacterial overgrowth is associated with a significant increase in percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and migrating action potential complex activity; (b) chloramphenicol significantly reduced both percentage of slow waves occupied by action potentials and migrating action potential complex activity; and (c

  20. 34 CFR 395.33 - Operation of cafeterias by blind vendors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operation of cafeterias by blind vendors. 395.33... BLIND ON FEDERAL AND OTHER PROPERTY Federal Property Management § 395.33 Operation of cafeterias by blind vendors. (a) Priority in the operation of cafeterias by blind vendors on Federal property shall...

  1. Perspectiva General sobre la Sordo-Ceguera (Overview on Deaf-Blindness). DB-LINK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    This overview provides basic information on the causes of deaf-blindness and the particular challenges faced by individuals who are deaf-blind. Causes of deaf-blindness include various syndromes, multiple congenital anomalies, prematurity, congenital prenatal dysfunction, and various postnatal causes. Differences between people deaf-blind from…

  2. A note on parallel executions of restrictive blind issuing protocols for secret-key certificates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brands, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    The receiver in a restrictive blind certificate issuing protocol can blind the issued public key and the certificate but not a certain blinding-invariant predicate of the secret key. Recently a generally applicable technique was described for designing restrictive blind issuing protocols for a certa

  3. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Blind Children: Very High Prevalence, Potentially Better Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jure, Rubin; Pogonza, Ramón; Rapin, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders affected 19 of 38 unselected children at a school for the blind in Cordoba, Argentina. Autism was linked to total congenital blindness, not blindness' etiology, acquired or incomplete blindness, sex, overt brain damage, or socioeconomic status. Autism "recovery," had occurred in 4 verbal children. Congenital…

  4. Blindness, art and exclusion in museums and galleries

    OpenAIRE

    Candlin, Fiona

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on interviews with blind people, this paper examines both their exclusion from museums and galleries and their responses to the art educational provision which is specifically designed to remedy that marginalisation. Blind visitors’ responses to these educational projects was polarised; respondents were either highly critical or very enthusiastic. This paper begins by outlining the interviewees’ criticisms which included, education officers’ misconception of how touch facilitates lear...

  5. A Collaborative Writing Mode for Avoiding Blind Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Ignat, Claudia,; Oster, Gérald; Molli, Pascal; Skaf-Molli, Hala

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Existing collaborative environments such as Wiki or version control systems allow users to work in isolation, but they do not prevent blind modifications. For instance, users may concurrently perform the same task or they might work on obsolete versions of shared documents. We propose a novel writing mode for avoiding blind modifications by providing real-time information about group activities. Changes performed concurrently are filtered according to user privacy pref...

  6. Virtual environment interaction through 3D audio by blind children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, J; Lumbreras, M

    1999-01-01

    Interactive software is actively used for learning, cognition, and entertainment purposes. Educational entertainment software is not very popular among blind children because most computer games and electronic toys have interfaces that are only accessible through visual cues. This work applies the concept of interactive hyperstories to blind children. Hyperstories are implemented in a 3D acoustic virtual world. In past studies we have conceptualized a model to design hyperstories. This study illustrates the feasibility of the model. It also provides an introduction to researchers to the field of entertainment software for blind children. As a result, we have designed and field tested AudioDoom, a virtual environment interacted through 3D Audio by blind children. AudioDoom is also a software that enables testing nontrivial interfaces and cognitive tasks with blind children. We explored the construction of cognitive spatial structures in the minds of blind children through audio-based entertainment and spatial sound navigable experiences. Children playing AudioDoom were exposed to first person experiences by exploring highly interactive virtual worlds through the use of 3D aural representations of the space. This experience was structured in several cognitive tasks where they had to build concrete models of their spatial representations constructed through the interaction with AudioDoom by using Legotrade mark blocks. We analyze our preliminary results after testing AudioDoom with Chilean children from a school for blind children. We discuss issues such as interactivity in software without visual cues, the representation of spatial sound navigable experiences, and entertainment software such as computer games for blind children. We also evaluate the feasibility to construct virtual environments through the design of dynamic learning materials with audio cues.

  7. Transient cortical blindness after thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhaneni, Raghuveer; Jim, Jeffrey; Derdeyn, Colin P; Sanchez, Luis A

    2011-05-01

    We report a patient who presented with transient cortical blindness 12 hours after completion of a thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair. Computed tomography of the brain demonstrated no acute findings. The patient's symptoms resolved spontaneously after 72 hours. To our knowledge, this is the first report of transient cortical blindness after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair. This is an uncommon diagnosis that is important to recognize in a modern vascular surgery practice.

  8. Blind loop syndrome: an unusual cause of panniculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caux, F; Halimi, C; Kevorkian, J P; Pinquier, L; Dubertret, L; Segrestaa, J M

    1997-11-01

    We describe a 52-year-old woman with panniculitis and blind loop syndrome. She had undergone a gastrectomy for peptic ulcer 4 years before. Tender erythematous nodules on her palms and soles were associated with diarrhea and weight loss. A biopsy specimen revealed septal and lobular panniculitis. A glucose hydrogen breath test was consistent with bacterial overgrowth. These results were consistent with panniculitis associated with a blind loop syndrome. Only four cases of this association have been reported previously.

  9. Spot Rare Occurrences More Frequently by Lessening Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-29

    FINCH, U. and LAVIE , N. 2007. The role of perceptual load in inattentional blindness. Cognition 102 (2007), 321–340. DOI 10.1016/j.cognition... LAVIE , N. 2008. Load induced blindness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 34 (5), 1078-1091. DOI: 10.1037/0096...2011.09.013 RODA, C. and THOMAS, J. 2006. Attention Aware Systems: Theory , Application, and Research Agenda. Computers in Human Behavior," Computers in Human

  10. Neural correlates of taste perception in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, L; Kupers, R; Ptito, M

    2015-04-01

    Sight is undoubtedly important for the perception and the assessment of the palatability of tastants. Although many studies have addressed the consequences of visual impairment on food selection, feeding behavior, eating habits and taste perception, nothing is known about the neural correlates of gustation in blindness. In the current study we examined brain responses during gustation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We scanned nine congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched blindfolded sighted control subjects, matched in age, gender and body mass index (BMI), while they made judgments of either the intensity or the (un)pleasantness of different tastes (sweet, bitter) or artificial saliva that were delivered intra-orally. The fMRI data indicated that during gustation, congenitally blind individuals activate less strongly the primary taste cortex (right posterior insula and overlying Rolandic operculum) and the hypothalamus. In sharp contrast with results of multiple other sensory processing studies in congenitally blind subjects, including touch, audition and smell, the occipital cortex was not recruited during taste processing, suggesting the absence of taste-related compensatory crossmodal responses in the occipital cortex. These results underscore our earlier behavioral demonstration that congenitally blind subjects have a lower gustatory sensitivity compared to normal sighted individuals. We hypothesize that due to an underexposure to a variety of tastants, training-induced crossmodal sensory plasticity to gustatory stimulation does not occur in blind subjects.

  11. Blinding in randomized control trials: the enigma unraveled.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vartika Saxena

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The search for new treatments and testing of new ideas begins in the laboratory and then established in clinical research settings. Studies addressing the same therapeutic problem may produce conflicting results hence Randomised Clinical Trial is regarded as the most valid method for assessing the benefits and harms of healthcare interventions. The next challenge face by the medical community is the validity of such trials as theses tend to deviate from the truth because of various biases. For the avoidance of the same it has been suggested that the validity or quality of primary trials should be assessed under blind conditions. Thus blinding, is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. Blinding can be defined as withholding information about the assigned interventions from people involved in the trial who may potentially be prejudiced by this knowledge. In this article we make an effort to define blinding, explain its chronology, hierarchy and discuss methods of blinding, its assessment, its possibility, un-blinding and finally the latest guidelines.

  12. Cognitive sophistication does not attenuate the bias blind spot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Richard F; Meserve, Russell J; Stanovich, Keith E

    2012-09-01

    The so-called bias blind spot arises when people report that thinking biases are more prevalent in others than in themselves. Bias turns out to be relatively easy to recognize in the behaviors of others, but often difficult to detect in one's own judgments. Most previous research on the bias blind spot has focused on bias in the social domain. In 2 studies, we found replicable bias blind spots with respect to many of the classic cognitive biases studied in the heuristics and biases literature (e.g., Tversky & Kahneman, 1974). Further, we found that none of these bias blind spots were attenuated by measures of cognitive sophistication such as cognitive ability or thinking dispositions related to bias. If anything, a larger bias blind spot was associated with higher cognitive ability. Additional analyses indicated that being free of the bias blind spot does not help a person avoid the actual classic cognitive biases. We discuss these findings in terms of a generic dual-process theory of cognition.

  13. Space and time in the sighted and blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottini, Roberto; Crepaldi, Davide; Casasanto, Daniel; Crollen, Virgine; Collignon, Olivier

    2015-08-01

    Across many cultures people conceptualize time as extending along a horizontal Mental Time Line (MTL). This spatial mapping of time has been shown to depend on experience with written text, and may also depend on other graphic conventions such as graphs and calendars. All of this information is typically acquired visually, suggesting that visual experience may play an important role in the development of the MTL. Do blind people develop a MTL? If so, how does it compare with the MTL in sighted? In this study we tested early blind, late blind and sighted participants in a space-time congruity task. Participants had to classify temporal words by pressing a right and a left key, either with crossed or uncrossed hands. We found that the MTL develops in the absence of vision, and that it is based on the same external frame of reference in sighted and blind people. Reading braille may provide the same experiential link between space and time in the manual modality as reading printed text provides in the visual modality. These results showing a similar MTL in sighted and blind participants contrast with previous results showing that the Mental Number Line (MNL) depends on different spatial coordinates in the sighted and the blind, and suggest that spatial representations of time and number may have different experiential bases.

  14. On the malleability of ideology: motivated construals of color blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Eric D; Lowery, Brian S; Hogan, Caitlin M; Chow, Rosalind M

    2009-04-01

    The authors propose that the content of certain sociopolitical ideologies can be shaped by individuals in ways that satisfy their social motivations. This notion was tested in the context of color-blind ideology. Color blindness, when construed as a principle of distributive justice, is an egalitarian stance concerned with reducing discrepancies between groups' outcomes; as a principle of procedural justice, however, color blindness can function as a legitimizing ideology that entrenches existing inequalities. In Study 1, White people high in antiegalitarian sentiment were found to shift their construal of color blindness from a distributive to a procedural principle when exposed to intergroup threat. In Studies 2, 3A, and 3B, the authors used manipulations and a measure of threat to show that antiegalitarian White people endorse color blindness to legitimize the racial status quo. In Study 3B, participants' endorsement of color-blind ideology was mediated by increases in their preference for equal treatment (i.e., procedural justice) as a response to threat. In the Discussion section, the authors examine implications of the present perspective for understanding the manner in which individuals compete over the meaning of crucial ideologies.

  15. Cataract blindness in the developing world: is there a solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Robert; Ram, Jagat; Apple, David

    2004-01-01

    Cataracts are the leading cause of blindness worldwide, accounting for half of the world's 40 million blind. The majority of the world's 20 million cataract blind live in the developing world. About 5 million new cases of cataract blindness occur each year. Only a small percentage of persons in the Third World who develop cataracts receive cataract surgery. Cataract blindness causes severe economic and social problems in these countries. Because of increased longevity and population growth in the Third World, the number of untreated cataract cases is escalating rapidly. Governmental, non-governmental and service club organizations have put extraordinary effort and resources into reversing the trend of increasing cataract blindness, but much work still needs to be done. Current surgical methods used in the Third World have not yet succeeded in reducing the backlog of cataracts, due in part to either their prohibitive cost or poor results. Extra capsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with placement of a posterior chamber intraocular lens (PC-IOL) is the hope for preferred method of treatment. This paper discusses a largely overlooked method of cataract surgery which may be an additional, cost-effective and efficacious means of providing good sight rehabilitation. Combining intracapsular cataract extraction, currently the most common method used in the rural developing world, with anterior chamber intraocular lens implantation (ICCE AC-IOL), may prove effective in reducing the cataract backlog in developing countries.

  16. Crossmodal Recruitment of the Ventral Visual Stream in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ptito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional MRI (fMRI to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU. Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus, inferotemporal (IT, cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv, and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic tactile shape discrimination. The activation of LOtv by nonhaptic tactile shape processing in blind and sighted subjects adds further support to the notion that this area subserves an abstract or supramodal representation of shape. Together with our previous findings, our data suggest that the segregation of the efferent projections of the primary visual cortex into a dorsal and ventral visual stream is preserved in individuals blind from birth.

  17. Post-anesthetic cortical blindness in cats: twenty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiles, J; Weil, A B; Packer, R A; Lantz, G C

    2012-08-01

    The medical records of 20 cats with post-anesthetic cortical blindness were reviewed. Information collected included signalment and health status, reason for anesthesia, anesthetic protocols and adverse events, post-anesthetic visual and neurological abnormalities, clinical outcome, and risk factors. The vascular anatomy of the cat brain was reviewed by cadaver dissections. Thirteen cats were anaesthetised for dentistry, four for endoscopy, two for neutering procedures and one for urethral obstruction. A mouth gag was used in 16/20 cats. Three cats had had cardiac arrest, whereas in the remaining 17 cases, no specific cause of blindness was identified. Seventeen cats (85%) had neurological deficits in addition to blindness. Fourteen of 20 cats (70%) had documented recovery of vision, whereas four (20%) remained blind. Two cats (10%) were lost to follow up while still blind. Ten of 17 cats (59%) with neurological deficits had full recovery from neurological disease, two (12%) had mild persistent deficits and one (6%) was euthanased as it failed to recover. Four cats (23%) without documented resolution of neurological signs were lost to follow up. Mouth gags were identified as a potential risk factor for cerebral ischemia and blindness in cats.

  18. Protein digestion and absorption in the blind loop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, K J; Prizont, R; Kim, Y S

    1979-12-01

    Protein digestion and absorption was studied in rats with 6-week-old surgically constructed self-filling intestinal blind loops and steatorrhea, ie, blind-loop animals and controls were fed a 14C-labeled protein meal containing a nonabsorbable marker, 51CrCl3, and sacrificed 1 or 2 hr later. Intestinal contents were analyzed for 14C, 51Cr, protein, trypsin, and the products of digestion. At 1 hr, 14C absorption was greater in controls, but at 2 hr there was no difference in absorption between the two groups. Marker studies showed that blind-loop filling resulted in a delay of the progression of intestinal contents distally. Intraluminal trypsin and porteolysis were similar in the two groups. Endogenous protein was greater in the blind-loop animals. The early stages of the blind-loop syndrome may be characterized by delayed protein absorption secondary to blind-loop filling, which is compensated for by the distal gut resulting in an absence of overall protein malabsorption.

  19. Attentional modulation of motion-induced blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG HaiYan; SONG QianLan; LI YunFeng; XU Shan; ZHU Ying

    2007-01-01

    When a global moving pattern is superimposed on high-contrast stationary or slowly moving stimuli,the stimuli can be perceived as disappearing and reappearing alternately for periods of several seconds. This visual illusory phenomenon was named "motion-induced blindness" (MIB) in recent literature. So far there is no consensus on the mechanism of MIB, especially on the role of attention in this phenomenon. To examine the effect of spatial attention on MIB, the present study manipulated the participants' spatial attention by asking them to respond to two targets simultaneously presented in bilateral visual fields (the divided-attention condition) or only respond to one of them (the focused-attention condition). A central arrow was presented as an endogenous cue to index the target visual field in the focused-attention condition, while a point was presented instead in the divided-attention condition. The results show that the percentage of accumulated invisibility period was larger for the targets in the focused-attention condition than for those in the divided-attention condition.This effect of attentionis significant in upper visual field (UVF) and left lower visual field (left LVF); that is, this effect shows a hemispheric asymmetry in LVF but not in UVF. Furthermore, the percentage of accumulated invisibility period was larger for targets in left LVF than for those in right LVF in the focused-attention condition, but no hemispheric asymmetry was found in the divided-attention condition.In addition, the increased percentage of accumulated invisibility period in the focused-attention condition originated merely in the enhancement of the mean phase duration of disappearance in LVF, while the disappearance occurred more frequently and lasted longer for each occurrence, which led to an increase in the total invisibility period, in the focused- than divided-attention condition in UVF. These results suggest that the modulation of spatial attention on MIB has different

  20. Lexical references to sensory modalities in verbal descriptions of people and objects by congenitally blind, late blind and sighted adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Chauvey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some previous studies have revealed that while congenitally blind people have a tendency to refer to visual attributes ('verbalism', references to auditory and tactile attributes are scarcer. However, this statement may be challenged by current theories claiming that cognition is linked to the perceptions and actions from which it derives. Verbal productions by the blind could therefore differ from those of the sighted because of their specific perceptual experience. The relative weight of each sense in oral descriptions was compared in three groups with different visual experience Congenitally blind (CB, late blind (LB and blindfolded sighted (BS adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants were asked to give an oral description of their mother and their father, and of four familiar manually-explored objects. The number of visual references obtained when describing people was relatively high, and was the same in the CB and BS groups ("verbalism" in the CB. While references to touch were scarce in all groups, the CB referred to audition more frequently than the LB and the BS groups. There were, by contrast, no differences between groups in descriptions of objects, and references to touch dominated the other modalities. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The relative weight of each modality varies according to the cognitive processes involved in each task. Long term memory, internal representations and information acquired through social communication, are at work in the People task, seem to favour visual references in both the blind and the sighted, whereas the congenitally blind also refer often to audition. By contrast, the perceptual encoding and working memory at work in the Objects task enhance sensory references to touch in a similar way in all groups. These results attenuate the impact of verbalism in blindness, and support (albeit moderately the idea that the perceptual experience of the congenitally blind is to some extent

  1. Three Blind Men and the Elephant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J S

    2007-02-13

    Just like the blind men in the popular story of perceiving the elephant, the three major constituencies participating in the energy debate have greatly different perceptions of the problem. The constituency that is worried about climate change believes the energy problem is caused by profligate use of fossil fuel that has dramatically changed our atmosphere. The energy security group sees dangerous reliance on foreign sources of oil increasingly held by countries hostile to the US. The economic vitality group sees high energy prices and their effect on the economy and our life-style. Just like the blind men, each of the three constituencies perceives a different problem. And just as with the blind men, while each perspective is right as a piece of the elephant, it takes all the perspectives together to actually solve the problem. Environmentalists focus on solutions responding to the scientific consensus that greenhouse gases are creating rapid climate change. The tipping point has come: it is now a consensus position among scientists the global warming is being affected by anthropogenic activity to 90% certainty according to the last IPCC report. Although they still struggle with the prediction of how much global temperatures will rise if we do nothing--is it 5 deg or 10 under BAU? This group believes that we cannot afford to take a chance because we get only one chance. We can not afford to do this kind of experiment with the Earth. Any choice which decreases our CO{sub 2} footprint is favored, even if it means a decrease in standard of living. The energy security constituency sees the geo-politics of oil becoming increasingly dire. They look at oil money being used to fund anti-American activities of groups such as the Wahabis in Saudi Arabia, Hezbollah in Lebanon and the infamous Al Qaeda. They quip that the Iraq war is the first war where we are paying for both sides. They note Iran and the Shia throughout the Middle East seeing the possibility of controlling

  2. Rubber hands feel touch, but not in blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkova, Valeria I; Zetterberg, Hedvig; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005). We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10), all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12). The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception) revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals.

  3. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O . Oduntan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent review of the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness world wide is lack-ing. Such review is important for highlighting the causes and prevalence of visual impairment in the different parts of the world. Also, it is important in providing information on the types and magnitude of eye care programs needed in different parts of the world. In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blind-ness in different parts of the world are reviewed and  the  socio-economic  and  psychological implications are briefly discussed. The review is based on an extensive review of the litera-ture using computer data bases combined with review of available national, regional and inter-national journals. Low vision and blindness are more prevalent in the developing countries than in the developed ones. Generally, the causes and prevalence of the conditions vary widely in different parts of the world and even within the same country. World wide, cataract is the most common cause of blindness and low vision among adults and elderly. Infectious diseases such as trachoma and onchocerciasis result-ing in low vision and blindness are peculiar to Africa, Asia and South America. Hereditary and congenital conditions are the most common causes of low vision and blindness among chil-dren worldwide.

  4. Critical behavior of blind spots in sensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Park, Kwangho; Zhang, Junshan; Hu, Zhifeng

    2007-06-01

    Blind spots in sensor networks, i.e., individual nodes or small groups of nodes isolated from the rest of the network, are of great concern as they may significantly degrade the network's ability to collect and process information. As the operations of many types of sensors in realistic applications rely on short-lifetime power supplies (e.g., batteries), once they are used up ("off"), replacements become necessary ("on"). This off-and-on process can lead to blind spots. An issue of both theoretical and practical interest concerns the dynamical process and the critical behavior associated with the occurrence of blind spots. In particular, there can be various network topologies, and the off-and-on process can be characterized by the probability that a node functions normally, or the occupying probability of a node in the network. The question to be addressed in this paper concerns how the dynamics of blind spots depend on the network topology and on the occupying probability. For regular, random, and mixed networks, we provide theoretical formulas relating the probability of blind spots to the occupying probability, from which the critical point for the occurrence of blind spots can be determined. For scale-free networks, we present a procedure to estimate the critical point. While our theoretical and numerical analyses are presented in the framework of sensor networks, we expect our results to be generally applicable to network partitioning issues in other networks, such as the wireless cellular network, the Internet, or transportation networks, where the issue of blind spots may be of concern.

  5. Rubber hands feel touch, but not in blind individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria I Petkova

    Full Text Available Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005. We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10, all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12. The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals.

  6. Crossmodal Processing of Haptic Inputs in Sighted and Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Patrice; Alary, Flamine; Lazzouni, Latifa; Chapman, C. E.; Goldstein, Rachel; Bourgoin, Pierre; Lepore, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In a previous behavioral study, it was shown that early blind individuals were superior to sighted ones in discriminating two-dimensional (2D) tactile angle stimuli. The present study was designed to assess the neural substrate associated with a haptic 2D angle discrimination task in both sighted and blind individuals. Subjects performed tactile angle size discriminations in order to investigate whether the pattern of crossmodal occipital recruitment was lateralized as a function of the stimulated hand. Task-elicited activations were also compared across different difficulty levels to ascertain the potential modulatory role of task difficulty on crossmodal processing within occipital areas. We show that blind subjects had more widespread activation within the right lateral and superior occipital gyri when performing the haptic discrimination task. In contrast, the sighted activated the left cuneus and lingual gyrus more so than the blind when performing the task. Furthermore, activity within visual areas was shown to be predictive of tactile discrimination thresholds in the blind, but not in the sighted. Activity within parietal and occipital areas was modulated by task difficulty, where the easier angle comparison elicited more focal occipital activity along with bilateral posterior parietal activity, whereas the more difficult comparison produced more widespread occipital activity combined with reduced parietal activation. Finally, we show that crossmodal reorganization within the occipital cortex of blind individuals was primarily right lateralized, regardless of the stimulated hand, supporting previous evidence for a right-sided hemispheric specialization of the occipital cortex of blind individuals for the processing of tactile and haptic inputs. PMID:27531974

  7. 盲者亦美丽%Blind Is Beautiful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟厚全(译注)

    2012-01-01

    Do you know anyone who is Blind or Visually Impaired1? I do! ME! Hi, my name is Ashley. I am 15 years oldand I am visually impaired. I have a disorder called "Optic Nerve Hypoplasia". I attend a School for the Blind, so most of my friends are blind or visually impaired. People think a lot of different things about us Blind people. There are so many misconceptions3. I would like to clear a few of these up and hopefully help you to see that blind people are the same as the sighted.%虽然我们看不见,但是我们一样心思敏捷,一样自食其力。因此,请平等对待我们吧!你认识失明或视力有障碍的人吗?我认识!我就是?你好,我的名字叫阿什莉,我现年15岁,有视力障碍,我患上了一种名为“视神经发育不全”的眼疾,

  8. Blinding trachoma among refugees:complicating social disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeshigeta; Gelaw; Aemero; Abateneh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of blinding trachoma among refugees in South Western Ethiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional outreach clinic based descriptive study was conducted on 1054 refugees in Southwest Ethiopia.A basic eyelid and cornea examination for signs of trachoma was done by using 2.5× binocular magnifying loupe.The findings were classified by using the World Health Digitization simplified trachoma grading system and data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0.Results:A total of 1054 refugee patients were examined for trachoma.179(16.98%) of them had clinical signs of trachoma.About 6(3.35%) patients had active trachoma with trachomatous trichiasis(TT),47(26.26%) patients had TT only and the rest 126(70.39%)patients had TT with trachomatous corneal opacity.All of the trachoma patients had blinding trachoma(TT with or without trachomatous corneal opacity),and about 60.89% of them had visual impairment.Blinding trachoma was significantly more common among females.patients in age group of 16-59 years,married patients,illiterates and Fugnido camp settlers(P<0.05).Conclusions:There is a very high burden of blinding trachoma among refugees.Urgent surgical intervention is needed to prevent blindness and low vision in the study subjects,and targeted regular outreach-based eye care service should be commenced.

  9. The global problem of blindness and visual dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2012-10-01

    According to World Health Organization statistics there are approximately 285 million people who are blind, have severe low vision, or are near-blind. Of these, 39 million are blind, and 246 million have low vision problems. About 90% of these live in developing countries. The major causes are uncorrected refractive errors (42%), and cataracts (38%). In the US, there are about 6 million people over the age of 65 who have age-related macular degeneration which is the leading cause of blindness. For each decade after age 40, it is found that there is a three-fold increase in the prevalence of blindness and low vision. This paper will address the question of what can we, as optical physicists and engineers, do? There is a need for efficient methods to detect problems, investigate function, provide solutions, and develop rehabilitation devices for the visually impaired. Here I will sketch out the magnitude and variety of the problem, examples and future research directions.

  10. TOOLS TO INCLUDE BLIND STUDENTS IN SCHOOL BUILDING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Pietzschke Abate

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the design of data collection instruments that include the opinions of blind students, in accordance with the principles of Universal Design (UD. The aim of this study is to understand the importance of adapting data collection instruments for the inclusion of disabled persons in field research in Architecture and Design, among other fields. The data collection instruments developed were a play interview with a tactile map and a 3D survey with the use of tactile models. These instruments sought to assess the school environment experienced by blind students. The study involved students from the early years of a school for the blind who had not yet mastered the Braille system. The participation of these students was evaluated. A multidisciplinary team consisting of architects, designers, educators, and psychologists lent support to the study. The results showed that the data collection instruments adapted to blind students were successful in making the group of authors examine questions regarding UD. An analysis of the participatory phase showed that the limitations resulting from blindness determine the specificities in the adaptation and implementation process of the instruments in schools. Practical recommendations for future studies related to instruments in the UD thematic are presented. This approach is in line with the global trend of including disabled persons in society based on these users’ opinions concerning what was designed by architects and designers.

  11. Schizophrenia and cortical blindness: Protective effects and implications for language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelina eLeivada

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The repeatedly noted absence of case-reports of individuals with schizophrenia and congenital/early developed blindness has led several authors to argue that the latter can confer protective effects against the former. In this work, we present a number of relevant case-reports from different syndromes that show comorbidity of congenital and early blindness with schizophrenia. On the basis of these reports, we argue that a distinction between different types of blindness in terms of the origin of the visual deficit, cortical or peripheral, is crucial for understanding the observed patterns of comorbidity. We discuss the genetic underpinnings and the brain structures involved in schizophrenia and blindness, with insights from language processing, laying emphasis on the three structures that particularly stand out: the occipital cortex, the lateral geniculate nucleus and the pulvinar. Last, we build on previous literature on the nature of the protective effects in order to offer novel insights into the nature of the protection mechanism from the perspective of the brain structures involved in each type of blindness.

  12. Schizophrenia and cortical blindness: protective effects and implications for language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivada, Evelina; Boeckx, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    The repeatedly noted absence of case-reports of individuals with schizophrenia and congenital/early developed blindness has led several authors to argue that the latter can confer protective effects against the former. In this work, we present a number of relevant case-reports from different syndromes that show comorbidity of congenital and early blindness with schizophrenia. On the basis of these reports, we argue that a distinction between different types of blindness in terms of the origin of the visual deficit, cortical or peripheral, is crucial for understanding the observed patterns of comorbidity. We discuss the genetic underpinnings and the brain structures involved in schizophrenia and blindness, with insights from language processing, laying emphasis on the three structures that particularly stand out: the occipital cortex, the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), and the pulvinar. Last, we build on previous literature on the nature of the protective effects in order to offer novel insights into the nature of the protection mechanism from the perspective of the brain structures involved in each type of blindness.

  13. Preferential interactions promote blind cooperation and informed defection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escudero, Alfonso; Friedman, Jonathan; Gore, Jeff

    2016-12-06

    It is common sense that costs and benefits should be carefully weighed before deciding on a course of action. However, we often disapprove of people who do so, even when their actual decision benefits us. For example, we prefer people who directly agree to do us a favor over those who agree only after securing enough information to ensure that the favor will not be too costly. Why should we care about how people make their decisions, rather than just focus on the decisions themselves? Current models show that punishment of information gathering can be beneficial because it forces blind decisions, which under some circumstances enhances cooperation. Here we show that aversion to information gathering can be beneficial even in the absence of punishment, due to a different mechanism: preferential interactions with reliable partners. In a diverse population where different people have different-and unknown-preferences, those who seek additional information before agreeing to cooperate reveal that their preferences are close to the point where they would choose not to cooperate. Blind cooperators are therefore more likely to keep cooperating even if conditions change, and aversion to information gathering helps to interact preferentially with them. Conversely, blind defectors are more likely to keep defecting in the future, leading to a preference for informed defectors over blind ones. Both mechanisms-punishment to force blind decisions and preferential interactions-give qualitatively different predictions, which may enable experimental tests to disentangle them in real-world situations.

  14. Change-readiness of the blind: A hospital based study in a coastal town of South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya Shetty

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that there is a need to modify health policy to include blind rehabilitation, to improve visibility of blind rehabilitation centers, to include family members and co-professionals while managing the blind so that we treat the "blind person" and not a "pair of blind eyes."

  15. Age is highly associated with stereo blindness among surgeons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fergo, Charlotte; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of stereo blindness in the general population varies greatly within a range of 1-30 %. Stereo vision adds an extra dimension to aid depth perception and gives a binocular advantage in task completion. Lack of depth perception may lower surgical performance, potentially...... affecting surgical outcome. 3D laparoscopy offers stereoscopic vision of the operative field to improve depth perception and is being introduced to several surgical specialties; however, a normal stereo vision is a prerequisite. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of stereo blindness among...... and stereo tested by the use of the Random Dot E stereo test. Upon stereo testing, a demographic questionnaire was completed. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to assess the association between stereo blindness and the variables resulting from the univariate analysis. RESULTS: Three...

  16. Blind Deconvolution for Ultrasound Sequences Using a Noninverse Greedy Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu-Teodor Chira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The blind deconvolution of ultrasound sequences in medical ultrasound technique is still a major problem despite the efforts made. This paper presents a blind noninverse deconvolution algorithm to eliminate the blurring effect, using the envelope of the acquired radio-frequency sequences and a priori Laplacian distribution for deconvolved signal. The algorithm is executed in two steps. Firstly, the point spread function is automatically estimated from the measured data. Secondly, the data are reconstructed in a nonblind way using proposed algorithm. The algorithm is a nonlinear blind deconvolution which works as a greedy algorithm. The results on simulated signals and real images are compared with different state of the art methods deconvolution. Our method shows good results for scatters detection, speckle noise suppression, and execution time.

  17. Countermeasures Against Blinding Attack on Superconducting Nanowire Detectors for QKD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs are used in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD instead of single-photon avalanche photodiodes. Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing technique. We developed the autoreset system which returns the SSPD to superconducting state when it is latched. We investigate latched state of the SSPD and define limit conditions for effective blinding attack. Peculiarity of the blinding attack is a long nonsingle photon response of the SSPD. It is much longer than usual single photon response. Besides, we need follow up response duration of the SSPD. These countermeasures allow us to prevent blind attack on SSPDs for Quantum Key Distribution.

  18. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raffaele; Dalla; Valle; Roberto; Zinicola; Maurizio; Iaria

    2014-01-01

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anas-tomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its in-cidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perfora-tion. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

  19. Effect of coffee (caffeine against human cataract blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varma SD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Shambhu D VarmaDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Previous biochemical and morphological studies with animal experiments have demonstrated that caffeine given topically or orally to certain experimental animal models has significant inhibitory effect on cataract formation. The present studies were undertaken to examine if there is a correlation between coffee drinking and incidence of cataract blindness in human beings. That has been found to be the case. Incidence of cataract blindness was found to be significantly lower in groups consuming higher amounts of coffee in comparison to the groups with lower coffee intake. Mechanistically, the caffeine effect could be multifactorial, involving its antioxidant as well as its bioenergetic effects on the lens.Keywords: caffeine, cataract, cataract blindness, cataractogenic process, intraocular pressure, vision impairment

  20. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Janečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the development proceeds in stages that correspond to the development of normal vision child. If development proceeds in the right direction is the temporal aspect criterion rather orientation. For blind children is also important to strengthen the ability to correctly identify their own body through somatognosy. Stereognosy in turn determines the degree of contact with the outer world and focus it in relation to the physical schema.

  1. Cortical Blindness in a Child Secondary to Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Tirado, A; Jimenez-Rolando, B; Noval, S; Martinez Bermejo, A

    2017-01-01

    Our objective is to present a case of an uncommon complication associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in a child where cortical blindness was the main clinical feature. Stroke due to an infection by M. pneumoniae is very uncommon. No consensus has been reached on the pathogenesis, although several pathogenic mechanisms have been proposed. Occlusion of posterior cerebral circulation is the most uncommon central nervous system complication of M. pneumoniae infection being reported. Symptoms are usually hemiplegia and dysarthria. We report a case of a 6-year-old boy who suffered cortical blindness due to a stroke 2 days after M. pneumoniae infection. This is the first case of documented cortical blindness due to posterior cerebral arteries occlusion in children after M. pneumoniae infection.

  2. Amygdala activation for eye contact despite complete cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Nicolas; Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Kerzel, Dirk; Tamietto, Marco; de Gelder, Beatrice; Pegna, Alan J

    2013-06-19

    Cortical blindness refers to the loss of vision that occurs after destruction of the primary visual cortex. Although there is no sensory cortex and hence no conscious vision, some cortically blind patients show amygdala activation in response to facial or bodily expressions of emotion. Here we investigated whether direction of gaze could also be processed in the absence of any functional visual cortex. A well-known patient with bilateral destruction of his visual cortex and subsequent cortical blindness was investigated in an fMRI paradigm during which blocks of faces were presented either with their gaze directed toward or away from the viewer. Increased right amygdala activation was found in response to directed compared with averted gaze. Activity in this region was further found to be functionally connected to a larger network associated with face and gaze processing. The present study demonstrates that, in human subjects, the amygdala response to eye contact does not require an intact primary visual cortex.

  3. Acute cortical blindness due to posterior reversible encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Lam, Jenny; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2008-10-01

    An acutely hypertensive 55 year-old male experienced seizures and cortical blindness post-operatively. CT scans demonstrated hypointensities in the occipital lobes bilaterally. MRI revealed symmetrical bilateral hyperintense signals in the same region, involving both grey and white matter. Thromboembolic screening investigations including vertebral artery doppler studies were normal and echocardiography demonstrated borderline left ventricular hypertrophy. A diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) was reached and there was complete resolution of blindness with antihypertensive therapy. This case supports the vasogenic theory of PRES which suggests that sustained high grade fluctuations in blood pressure lead to a reduction in cerebral vascular autoregulatory function. The resultant failure of compensatory vasoconstriction to prevent hyperperfusion causes fluid to extravasate into the occipital lobes, which in the present case resulted in cortical blindness.

  4. Blind loop perforation after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Raffaele Dalla; Zinicola, Roberto; Iaria, Maurizio

    2014-08-27

    Blind loop syndrome after side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis is a well-recognized entity even though its incidence and complication rates are not clearly defined. The inevitable dilation of the ileal cul-de-sac leads to stasis and bacterial overgrowth which eventually leads to mucosal ulceration and even full-thickness perforation. Blind loop syndrome may be an underestimated complication in the setting of digestive surgery. It should always be taken into account in cases of acute abdomen in patients who previously underwent right hemicolectomy. We herein report 3 patients who were diagnosed with perforative blind loop syndrome a few years after standard right hemicolectomy followed by a side-to-side ileocolonic anastomosis.

  5. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornby Stella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for LVDs by an optometrist. The major anatomical site and underlying aetiology of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL; <6/60 in the better eye were recorded using the standardised WHO reporting form. Results: Two hundred and ninety one students under 16 years were examined, and after refraction, 267 (91.7% were classified as being severely visually impaired or blind. The most common anatomical sites of SVI/BL were retina in 31.1% children; cornea in 24.3%; and whole globe in 20.2%. The aetiology was unknown in 38.2%, hereditary in 34.8% and childhood causes in 24%. 114 children (39.2% had functional low vision (i.e. visual acuity <6/18 to light perception with navigational vision. In this group, 36 children improved with spectacles and 16 benefited by LVDs. 41 children (15.4% were able to read N10 point though they were studying Braille. Conclusion: Overall 37.4% of children had "avoidable" causes of blindness. The major avoidable causes were vitamin-A deficiency and cataract. Vitamin-A deficiency and congenital anomalies were more common in the dry plateau areas of the state. One in seven children could read normal print with optical support.

  6. Designing Motion Gesture Interfaces in Mobile Phones for Blind People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任向实

    2014-01-01

    Despite the existence of advanced functions in smartphones, most blind people are still using old-fashioned phones with familiar layouts and dependence on tactile buttons. Smartphones support accessibility features including vibration, speech and sound feedback, and screen readers. However, these features are only intended to provide feedback to user commands or input. It is still a challenge for blind people to discover functions on the screen and to input the commands. Although voice commands are supported in smartphones, these commands are difficult for a system to recognize in noisy environments. At the same time, smartphones are integrated with sophisticated motion sensors, and motion gestures with device tilt have been gaining attention for eyes-free input. We believe that these motion gesture interactions offer more efficient access to smartphone functions for blind people. However, most blind people are not smartphone users and they are aware of neither the affordances available in smartphones nor the potential for interaction through motion gestures. To investigate the most usable gestures for blind people, we conducted a user-defined study with 13 blind participants. Using the gesture set and design heuristics from the user study, we implemented motion gesture based interfaces with speech and vibration feedback for browsing phone books and making a call. We then conducted a second study to investigate the usability of the motion gesture interface and user experiences using the system. The findings indicated that motion gesture interfaces are more efficient than traditional button interfaces. Through the study results, we provided implications for designing smartphone interfaces.

  7. Color blindness among multiple sclerosis patients in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shaygannejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a disease of young and middle aged individuals with a demyelinative axonal damage nature in central nervous system that causes various signs and symptoms. As color vision needs normal function of optic nerve and macula, it is proposed that MS can alter it via influencing optic nerve. In this survey, we evaluated color vision abnormalities and its relationship with history of optic neuritis and abnormal visual evoked potentials (VEPs among MS patients. Materials and Methods: The case group was included of clinically definitive MS patients and the same number of normal population was enrolled as the control group. Color vision of all the participants was evaluated by Ishihara test and then visual evoked potential (VEPs and history of optic neuritis (ON was assessed among them. Then, frequency of color blindness was compared between the case and the control group. Finally, color blinded patients were compared to those with the history of ON and abnormal VEPs. Results: 63 MS patients and the same number of normal populations were enrolled in this study. 12 patients had color blindness based on the Ishihara test; only 3 of them were among the control group, which showed a significant different between the two groups (P = 0.013. There was a significant relationship between the color blindness and abnormal VEP (R = 0.53, P = 0.023 but not for the color blindness and ON (P = 0.67. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a significant correlation between color blindness and multiple sclerosis including ones with abnormal prolonged VEP latencies. Therefore, in individuals with acquired color vision impairment, an evaluation for potentially serious underlying diseases like MS is essential.

  8. Novel blind source separation algorithm using Gaussian mixture density function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔薇; 杨杰; 周越

    2004-01-01

    The blind source separation (BSS) is an important task for numerous applications in signal processing, communications and array processing. But for many complex sources blind separation algorithms are not efficient because the probability distribution of the sources cannot be estimated accurately. So in this paper, to justify the ME(maximum enteropy) approach, the relation between the ME and the MMI(minimum mutual information) is elucidated first. Then a novel algorithm that uses Gaussian mixture density to approximate the probability distribution of the sources is presented based on the ME approach. The experiment of the BSS of ship-radiated noise demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is valid and efficient.

  9. Blind Recognition Algorithm of Turbo Codes for Communication Intelligence Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naseri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Turbo codes are widely used in land and space radio communication systems, and because of complexity of structure, are custom in military communication systems. In electronic warfare, COMINT systems make attempt to recognize codes by blind ways. In this Paper, the algorithm is proposed for blind recognition of turbo code parameters like code kind, code-word length, code rate, length of interleaver and delay blocks number of convolution code. The algorithm calculations volume is0.5L3+1.25L, therefore it is suitable for real time systems.

  10. Reliability of tactile tools for pain assessment in blind athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ana Claudia de Souza; Pagliuca, Lorita M Freitag; Almeida, Paulo Cesar P; Dallaire, Clemence C

    2008-06-01

    Health professionals have numerous visual and reporting scales at their disposal to assess pain. In recent years new tactile tools have been created (Pain Texture Scale and Tactile Pain Scale). This study validates these scales compared with the Numerical Rating Scale in 36 blind athletes who were assessed before and after competitions in the World Paralympics Games organized by the International Blind Sports Federation (IBSA) in Quebec, Canada. The reliability of these scales was analyzed through the intraclass correlation coefficient. Results showed good reliability for the Tactile Pain Scale and satisfactory reliability for the Pain Texture Scale.

  11. Aspergillus keratitis: A cause of blindness in Tropical India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafil Akhtar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotic keratitis is a fungal infection of the cornea, which constitute an important eye problem in outdoor workers. This infection is difficult to treat, and it can lead to severe visual impairment or blindness. Trauma is the major predisposing factor, followed by ocular and systemic defects, prior application of corticosteroids and prolonged use of antibiotic eye-drops. We report this case because of the rarity of endogenous Aspergillosis presenting as blindness in tropical India and review of the relevant literature.

  12. Alterations of the visual pathways in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Schneider, Fabien C G; Paulson, Olaf B

    2008-01-01

    We used whole brain MRI voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to study the anatomical organization of the visual system in congenitally blind (CB) adults. Eleven CB without a history of visual perception were compared with 21 age- and sex-matched normal-sighted controls (NS). CB showed significant atrophy...... projections to the visual cortex in CB are largely atrophied. Despite the massive volume reductions in the occipital lobes, there is compelling evidence from the literature (reviewed in Noppeney 2007; Ptito and Kupers 2005) that blind subjects activate their visual cortex when performing tasks that involve...

  13. [Appropriate cataract surgery training can promote work of blindness prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzhi

    2014-03-01

    Cataract is the first blinding eye disease in the world and China. However, due to various reasons, cataract surgery rate (CSR) in China is much lower than in developed countries and even some developing countries. Properly and standardized training of cataract surgery for ophthalmologists from primary hospital and young eye doctors is one of the key point to improve CSR. For above, we had explored actively to establish an appropriate and suitable training model of cataract surgery. Ophthalmologist in primary hospital can provide high quality medical services to cataract patients in accordance with their own conditions after training and promote the sustainable development of blindness prevention work.

  14. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  15. Air flow phenomena in the model of the blind drift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaszczur Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the presented paper, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV has been used to investigate flow pattern and turbulent structure in the model of blind drift. The presented model exist in mining, and has been analyzed to resolve ventilation issues. Blind region is particularly susceptible to unsafe methane accumulation. The measurement system allows us to evaluate all components of the velocity vector in channel cross-section simultaneously. First order and second order statistic of the velocity fields from different channel cross-section are computed and analyzed.

  16. Salience and Blindness: A Haptic Hike on Gins Mountain

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier, Marie-Dominique

    2016-01-01

    This paper attempts to follow an improbable ridge line between architecture, geography and linguistics, between the optic and haptic ends of the concept of salience, through a reading of Helen Keller Or Arakawa, Madeline Gins’s 1994 essay-cum-joint-biography partly devoted to “salience” approached through the blind figure of Helen Keller (1880-1968). In a chapter titled “Or Mountains Or Lines”, prominent features envisaged from a sighted perception give way, under the condition of blindness, ...

  17. Cortical Plasticity and Olfactory Function in Early Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araneda, Rodrigo; Renier, Laurent A.; Rombaux, Philippe; Cuevas, Isabel; De Volder, Anne G.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, functional brain imaging has provided insight to the maturation processes and has helped elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in brain plasticity in the absence of vision. In case of congenital blindness, drastic changes occur within the deafferented “visual” cortex that starts receiving and processing non visual inputs, including olfactory stimuli. This functional reorganization of the occipital cortex gives rise to compensatory perceptual and cognitive mechanisms that help blind persons achieve perceptual tasks, leading to superior olfactory abilities in these subjects. This view receives support from psychophysical testing, volumetric measurements and functional brain imaging studies in humans, which are presented here. PMID:27625596

  18. A Blind Pilot: Who is a Super-Luminal Observer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the nature of a hypothetical super-luminal observer who, as well as a real (sub-light speed observer, perceives the world by light waves. This consideration is due to that fact that the theory of relativity permits different frames of reference, including light-like and super-luminal reference frames. In analogy with a blind pilot on board a supersonic jet aeroplane (or missile, perceived by blind people, it is concluded that the light barrier is observed in the framework of only the light signal exchange experiment.

  19. The Noise Clinic: a Blind Image Denoising Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Lebrun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the complete implementation of a blind image algorithm, that takes any digital image as input. In a first step the algorithm estimates a Signal and Frequency Dependent (SFD noise model. In a second step, the image is denoised by a multiscale adaptation of the Non-local Bayes denoising method. We focus here on a careful analysis of the denoising step and present a detailed discussion of the influence of its parameters. Extensive commented tests of the blind denoising algorithm are presented, on real JPEG images and scans of old photographs.

  20. A Robust Algorithm for Blind Total Variation Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Qian-shun Chang

    2008-01-01

    Image restoration is a fundamental problem in image processing. Blind image restoration has a great value in its practical application. However, it is not an easy problem to solve due to its complexity and difficulty. In this paper, we combine our robust algorithm for known blur operator with an alternating minimization implicit iterative scheme to deal with blind deconvolution problem, recover the image and identify the point spread function(PSF). The only assumption needed is satisfy the practical physical sense. Numerical experiments demonstrate that this minimization algorithm is efficient and robust over a wide range of PSF and have almost the same results compared with known PSF algorithm.

  1. Supporting the Social Lives of Adolescents Who Are Blind: Research to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Katrina; Lieberman, Lauren; James, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    Seven adolescents who are blind and seven of their parents were interviewed about the adolescents' social lives. Adolescent and parent perspectives are reviewed, followed by implications for teachers to support the social connections of students who are blind.

  2. Missouri Annual Blind/Visually Impaired Literacy Study, December 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, per Section 162.1136 RSMo, conducts an annual study of the educational status of eligible blind/visually impaired students and reports the findings to the Missouri Legislature on December 1st each year. The information contained in this report pertains to the twelve data elements…

  3. Missouri Annual Blind/Visually Impaired Literacy Study, December 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education, per Section 162.1136 RSMo, conducts an annual study of the educational status of eligible blind/visually impaired students and reports the findings to the Missouri Legislature on December 1st each year. The information contained in this report pertains to the twelve data elements…

  4. Walking by Night: Japanese Art for Blind and Sighted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Joshua

    1982-01-01

    Describes a museum exhibit of Japanese art designed to enhance tactual awareness. Blind and sighted visitors cooperated in sharing their hands-on perceptions of objects. Display pieces, chosen for functionality and design interest, included ceramics, textiles, folk art, lacquer work, musical instruments, and household objects. (AM)

  5. A blind testing design for authenticating ancient DNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H; Golenberg, E M; Shoshani, J

    1997-04-01

    Reproducibility is a serious concern among researchers of ancient DNA. We designed a blind testing procedure to evaluate laboratory accuracy and authenticity of ancient DNA obtained from closely related extant and extinct species. Soft tissue and bones of fossil and contemporary museum proboscideans were collected and identified based on morphology by one researcher, and other researchers carried out DNA testing on the samples, which were assigned anonymous numbers. DNA extracted using three principal isolation methods served as template in PCR amplifications of a segment of the cytochrome b gene (mitochondrial genome), and the PCR product was directly sequenced and analyzed. The results show that such a blind testing design performed in one laboratory, when coupled with phylogenetic analysis, can nonarbitrarily test the consistency and reliability of ancient DNA results. Such reproducible results obtained from the blind testing can increase confidence in the authenticity of ancient sequences obtained from postmortem specimens and avoid bias in phylogenetic analysis. A blind testing design may be applicable as an alternative to confirm ancient DNA results in one laboratory when independent testing by two laboratories is not available.

  6. Security considerations in blinded exposure experiments using electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Christian

    2008-12-01

    Whether exposure to electromagnetic fields well below accepted exposure limits has a cytogenetic effect on human cells has long been debated. It is widely published and generally accepted that the exposure unit invariably used in these experiments is capable of providing blinded exposure conditions. The following short report illustrates, however, that exposure conditions might not always be as effectively masked as is generally assumed.

  7. Homemade Wooden Vernier Scales for Use by Blind Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Mike; Bidleman, Cricket; Brown, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Because she had been blind since birth, we knew that our new student, Cricket, would be unable to make the necessary measurements needed to get any meaningful lab data while all of the other students would be able to use highly accurate commercial Vernier calipers. All we had on loan for Cricket was a Brailled plastic tactile meter stick with low…

  8. Change detection and change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbranson, Walter T; Trinh, Yvan T; Xi, Patricia M; Arand, Mark P; Barker, Michael S K; Pratt, Theodore H

    2014-05-01

    Change blindness is a phenomenon in which even obvious details in a visual scene change without being noticed. Although change blindness has been studied extensively in humans, we do not yet know if it is a phenomenon that also occurs in other animals. Thus, investigation of change blindness in a nonhuman species may prove to be valuable by beginning to provide some insight into its ultimate causes. Pigeons learned a change detection task in which pecks to the location of a change in a sequence of stimulus displays were reinforced. They were worse at detecting changes if the stimulus displays were separated by a brief interstimulus interval, during which the display was blank, and this primary result matches the general pattern seen in previous studies of change blindness in humans. A second experiment attempted to identify specific stimulus characteristics that most reliably produced a failure to detect changes. Change detection was more difficult when interstimulus intervals were longer and when the change was iterated fewer times.

  9. Overdetermined Blind Source Extraction exploiting a Generalized Sidelobe Canceller structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemendal, B.B.A.J.; Van de Laar, J.; Sommen, P.C.W.

    2011-01-01

    In many acoustic applications, the extraction of only one desired source signal from a mixture of signals is required. We propose a novel method to perform this extraction in the overdetermined case wheremore sensors than sources are available. We apply blind signal processing techniques in a struct

  10. Blind prediction of interfacial water positions in CAPRI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, Marc F.; Moal, Iain H.; Bates, Paul A.; Kastritis, Panagiotis L.; Melquiond, Adrien S. J.; Karaca, Ezgi; Schmitz, Christophe; van Dijk, Marc; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Eisenstein, Miriam; Jimenez-Garcia, Brian; Grosdidier, Solene; Solernou, Albert; Perez-Cano, Laura; Pallara, Chiara; Fernandez-Recio, Juan; Xu, Jianqing; Muthu, Pravin; Kilambi, Krishna Praneeth; Gray, Jeffrey J.; Grudinin, Sergei; Derevyanko, Georgy; Mitchell, Julie C.; Wieting, John; Kanamori, Eiji; Tsuchiya, Yuko; Murakami, Yoichi; Sarmiento, Joy; Standley, Daron M.; Shirota, Matsuyuki; Kinoshita, Kengo; Nakamura, Haruki; Chavent, Matthieu; Ritchie, David W.; Park, Hahnbeom; Ko, Junsu; Lee, Hasup; Seok, Chaok; Shen, Yang; Kozakov, Dima; Vajda, Sandor; Kundrotas, Petras J.; Vakser, Ilya A.; Pierce, Brian G.; Hwang, Howook; Vreven, Thom; Weng, Zhiping; Buch, Idit; Farkash, Efrat; Wolfson, Haim J.; Zacharias, Martin; Qin, Sanbo; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Huang, Shen-You; Zou, Xiaoqin; Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Kleanthous, Colin; Wodak, Shoshana J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the first assessment of blind predictions of water positions at protein-protein interfaces, performed as part of the critical assessment of predicted interactions (CAPRI) community-wide experiment. Groups submitting docking predictions for the complex of the DNase domain of colicin E2 and

  11. Applied Computational Chemistry for the Blind and Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedler, Henry B.; Cohen, Sarah R.; Davis, Rebecca L.; Harrison, Jason G.; Siebert, Matthew R.; Willenbring, Dan; Hamann, Christian S.; Shaw, Jared T.; Tantillo, Dean J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe accommodations that we have made to our applied computational-theoretical chemistry laboratory to provide access for blind and visually impaired students interested in independent investigation of structure-function relationships. Our approach utilizes tactile drawings, molecular model kits, existing software, Bash and Perl scripts…

  12. Liefde maakt blind? : ziekelijke schoonheid binnen de rashondenfokkerij

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.

    2013-01-01

    Op Van Hall Larenstein in Leeuwarden vond op 15 mei 2013 het Studium Generale 'Liefde maakt blind: Ziekelijke schoonheid binnen de rashondenfokkerij' plaats. Lector Welzijn van Dieren, dr. ing. Hans Hopster, leidde de middag in. Hopster begon zijn verhaal met te vertellen dat alle rassen, ongeacht s

  13. Alabama School for the Blind Fitness and Nutrition Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Douglas

    This project compared the relative physical fitness levels of 30 visually handicapped/blind students (aged 7-18) at a residential school with that of non-handicapped peers, to develop a school-based fitness and nutrition intervention program and determine impact of the intervention. The compounding handicapping nature of fitness deficits and…

  14. BUDHIES: a Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffé, Y. L.; Verheijen, M. A.; Poggianti, B. M.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Deshev, B. Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results from the Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey (BUDHIES), that has detected over 150 galaxies at z˜ 0.2 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Our multi-wavelength study is the first where optical properties and HI content are combined at a redshift where

  15. Giving Eyesight to the Blind: Towards Attention-Aware AIED

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Mello, Sidney K.

    2016-01-01

    There is an inextricable link between attention and learning, yet AIED systems in 2015 are largely blind to learners' attentional states. We argue that next-generation AIED systems should have the ability to monitor and dynamically (re)direct attention in order to optimize allocation of sparse attentional resources. We present some initial ideas…

  16. Videotaped Presentations by Blind Speakers as Attitudinal Change Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1986-01-01

    Determined whether a videotaped presentation by a speaker who is blind would more positively influence attitude change and information retention than would a presentation by a sighted speaker. Findings suggested that there were no significant main effects for either presenter or pretest conditions on the measures. (Author/BL)

  17. Sexual Well-Being: A Goal for Young Blind Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, Jan

    1983-01-01

    The article discusses developing sexuality and sexual awareness, with special reference to blind girls, and emphasizes the importance of establishing a sense of identity, individual and sexual, and structuring one's sexual growth by a conscious process of goal setting and achievement. (Author/CL)

  18. Orientation-Invariant Object Recognition: Evidence from Repetition Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Irina M.; Dux, Paul E.

    2005-01-01

    The question of whether object recognition is orientation-invariant or orientation-dependent was investigated using a repetition blindness (RB) paradigm. In RB, the second occurrence of a repeated stimulus is less likely to be reported, compared to the occurrence of a different stimulus, if it occurs within a short time of the first presentation.…

  19. Blind Persons Report Critical Incidents of Science and Mathematics Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Morris G.

    This project identified over 500 critical incidents of successful and unsuccessful instruction in science and mathematics courses reported through interviews of 105 blind college students. The principal categories of effective teacher behavior included planned concrete learning experiences, creative use of learning materials, and detailed…

  20. On the blind recovery of cardiac and respiratory sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ghafoor; Koch, Peter; Papadias, Constantinos B.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for smart auscultation by proposing a novel blind recovery of the original cardiac and respiratory sounds from a single observation mixture, in the framework of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). The method learns the basis spectra of the mixing sources in unsupervised...

  1. Visual Pigments and Molecular Genetics of Color Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowmaker, J. K.

    1998-04-01

    Red/green color blindness, found in ~1 in 15 men, is caused by the expression of hybrid genes coding for visual pigments. Spectral information from site-directed mutagenesis and recombinant expression has led to the possibility of correlating individual genotypes with psychophysical measurements of the severity of the deficiency.

  2. 'Blind' transfusion of blood products in exsanguinating trauma patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geeraedts, L.M.G.; Demiral, H.; Schaap, N.P.M.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Pompe, J.C.; Frolke, J.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In trauma, as interventions are carried out to stop bleeding, ongoing resuscitation with blood products is of vital importance. As transfusion policy in exsanguinating patients cannot be based on laboratory tests, transfusion of blood products is performed empirically or 'blindly'. The a

  3. Concept mapping for virtual rehabilitation and training of the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Flores, Hector

    2010-04-01

    Concept mapping is a technique that allows for the strengthening of the learning process, based on graphic representations of the learner's mental schemes. However, due to its graphic nature, it cannot be utilized by learners with visual disabilities. In response to this limitation we implemented a study that involves the design of AudiodMC, an audio-based, virtual environment for concept mapping designed for use by blind users and aimed at virtual training and rehabilitation. We analyzed the stages involved in the design of AudiodMC from a user-centered design perspective, considering user involvement and usability testing. These include an observation stage to learn how blind learners construct conceptual maps using concrete materials, a design stage to design of a software tool that aids blind users in creating concept maps, and a cognitive evaluation stage using AudiodMC. We also present the results of a study implemented in order to determine the impact of the use of this software on the development of essential skills for concept mapping (association, classification, categorization, sorting and summarizing). The results point to a high level of user acceptance, having identified key sound characteristics that help blind learners to learn concept codification and selection skills. The use of AudiodMC also allowed for the effective development of the skills under review in our research, thus facilitating meaningful learning.

  4. Colour Blind: A Practical Guide to Teaching Black Adult Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malach, Alyson

    This document is intended to help learning organizations and practitioners meet the needs of their black and minority ethnic adult students. The introduction explains how the guide was developed and discusses the concept of "color blindness." The next six sections examine the following topics: (1) social and economic issues; (2)…

  5. Establishing a Conditional Signal for Assistance in Teenagers with Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Muriel D.; Sella, Ana Carolina; Attri, Dua; Saunders, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    Five teenagers with severe intellectual impairments and no discernible communication skills were enrolled in training to teach a conditional request for assistance using a speech-generating device (SGD). All were either blind or severely visually impaired since birth. All learned to operate an adaptive switch to control sensory outcomes, next…

  6. BLIND ADAPTIVE MULTIUSER DETECTION BASED ON A CONSTRAINED MMSE CRITERION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Libin; Chen Fangjiong; Wei Gang

    2004-01-01

    The proposed blind adaptive multiuser detector utilizes the signature waveform and time information of the desired user. With each received sample vector, the proposed algorithm updates the detector and gives the symbol estimate in the current time slot. Such property facilitates it to track time-varying channels.

  7. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside...

  8. Exploring Gender Norms through the "Colour Blind" Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niblett, Blair; Potvin, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the authors have been collecting data for a research project that explores secondary school boys' perceptions of masculinity. They spent a week in Leigh's grade 11 philosophy class discussing gender while observing and video recording students' perception for analysis. In their research, they used Colour Blind as a vehicle for unearthing…

  9. A Blind Eye to Industry-Level Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the risk of favouring domestic industries in the current European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS). As the EU forms a weak federal structure compared to the US, there is a risk that single countries may free ride on the others by choosing to take a blind eye to industry-level...

  10. A blind H i survey in the Canes Venatici region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovac, K.; Oosterloo, T. A.; van der Hulst, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    We have carried out a blind H i survey using the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope to make an inventory of objects with small H i masses (between 106 and 108 M(circle dot)) and to constrain the low-mass end of the H i mass function. The survey has been conducted in a part of the volume containing

  11. Blind fluorescence structured illumination microscopy: A new reconstruction strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Labouesse, S; Idier, J; Bourguignon, S; Liu, P; Sentenac, A

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, a fast reconstruction algorithm is proposed for fluorescence \\textit{blind} structured illumination microscopy (SIM) under the sample positivity constraint. This new algorithm is by far simpler and faster than existing solutions, paving the way to 3D and/or real-time 2D reconstruction.

  12. Techniques with Tangibles; a Manual for Teaching the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulker, Wilber H.; Fulker, Mary

    The production and use of tangible aids for teaching complete mental concepts to the blind are discussed. The Thermoform vacuum duplicating machine which produces teaching aids simulating pictures or drawings used by sighted children is described; and examples of Thermoform masters are cited, including Mendel's law, the maze, four stages of cell…

  13. A New Partially Blind Signature Based on Factoring and Discrete Logarithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M.F. Tahat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Partially blind signatures played an important role in many electronic commerce applications. Many existing partially blind signature scheme based on a single hard problem but not secure. In this study, we propose a secure partially blind signature scheme based on factoring and discrete logarithms and show that the proposed scheme satisfies the partial blindness, randomization, unlinkability and unforgeability properties. We also analyse the computation cost of the proposed scheme.

  14. Gastrointestinal bleeding and iron absorption in the experimental blind loop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannella, R A; Toskes, P P

    1976-07-01

    Rats with surgically created self-filling jejunal blind loops and the blind loop syndrome manifested gastrointestinal bleeding and hyperabsorption of iron. Although the mean hematocrit and serum iron levels of rats with self-filling blind loops became overtly anemic and manifested low-serum iron levels. It is suggested that the documented gastrointestinal bleeding in these rats with the experimental blind loop syndrome is another manifestation of damage to the intestinal epithelium in conditions of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.

  15. 36 CFR 701.6 - Loans of library materials for blind and other physically handicapped persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... consultation with persons, organizations, and agencies engaged in work for the blind and for other physically... for blind and other physically handicapped persons. 701.6 Section 701.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property LIBRARY OF CONGRESS PROCEDURES AND SERVICES § 701.6 Loans of library materials for blind and...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1584 - Evaluation of work activity of blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Evaluation of work activity of blind people... Evaluation of work activity of blind people. (a) General. If you are blind (as explained in § 404.1581), we will consider the earnings from the work you are doing to determine whether or not you should be...

  17. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity by blind... Reductions § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is... substantial gainful activity that does not require skills or ability used in his or her previous work....

  18. Welcoming Students Who Are Deaf-Blind into Typical Classrooms: Facilitating School Participation, Learning, and Friendships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haring, Norris G., Ed.; Romer, Lyle T., Ed.

    This collection of 18 papers focuses on the inclusion of students who are deaf-blind in regular classrooms. Papers include: (1) "Inclusion of Students Who Are Deaf-Blind: What Does the Future Hold?" (Lori Goetz); (2) "A History of Federal Support for Students with Deaf-Blindness" (R. Paul Thompson and Charles W. Freeman); (3)…

  19. Body Experiences of Persons Who Are Congenitally Blind: A Phenomenological-Psychological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullington, J.; Karlsson, G.

    1997-01-01

    A study of seven people with congenital blindness, three with adventitious blindness, and four sighted people investigated how people with congenital blindness experience body capability, body expression, and the social and psychological, identity creating aspects of the body and body experience. The value of exercise and body-awareness training…

  20. Blind and semi-blind ML detection for space-time block-coded OFDM wireless systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zaib, Alam

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the joint maximum likelihood (ML) data detection and channel estimation problem for Alamouti space-time block-coded (STBC) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless systems. The joint ML estimation and data detection is generally considered a hard combinatorial optimization problem. We propose an efficient low-complexity algorithm based on branch-estimate-bound strategy that renders exact joint ML solution. However, the computational complexity of blind algorithm becomes critical at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the number of OFDM carriers and constellation size are increased especially in multiple-antenna systems. To overcome this problem, a semi-blind algorithm based on a new framework for reducing the complexity is proposed by relying on subcarrier reordering and decoding the carriers with different levels of confidence using a suitable reliability criterion. In addition, it is shown that by utilizing the inherent structure of Alamouti coding, the estimation performance improvement or the complexity reduction can be achieved. The proposed algorithms can reliably track the wireless Rayleigh fading channel without requiring any channel statistics. Simulation results presented against the perfect coherent detection demonstrate the effectiveness of blind and semi-blind algorithms over frequency-selective channels with different fading characteristics.

  1. Nasa Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    BALTIMORE - At a Tuesday ceremony at the National Federation of the Blind, NASA unveiled a new book that brings majestic images taken by its Great Observatories to the fingertips of the blind. "Touch the Invisible Sky" is a 60-page book with color images of nebulae, stars, galaxies and some of the telescopes that captured the original pictures. Each image is embossed with lines, bumps and other textures. These raised patterns translate colors, shapes and other intricate details of the cosmic objects, allowing visually impaired people to experience them. Braille and large-print descriptions accompany each of the book's 28 photographs, making the book's design accessible to readers of all visual abilities. Sample page Sample page The book contains spectacular images from the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope and powerful ground-based telescopes. The celestial objects are presented as they appear through visible-light telescopes and different spectral regions invisible to the naked eye, from radio to infrared, visible, ultraviolet and X-ray light. The book introduces the concept of light and the spectrum and explains how the different observatories complement each others' findings. Readers take a cosmic journey beginning with images of the sun, and travel out into the galaxy to visit relics of exploding and dying stars, as well as the Whirlpool galaxy and colliding Antennae galaxies. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion Black Holes Are The Rhythm at The Heart of Galaxies "Touch the Invisible Sky" was written by astronomy educator and accessibility specialist Noreen Grice of You Can Do Astronomy LLC and the Museum of Science, Boston, with authors Simon Steel, an astronomer with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and Doris Daou, an astronomer

  2. Blind trials of computer-assisted structure elucidation software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moser Arvin

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the largest challenges in chemistry today remains that of efficiently mining through vast amounts of data in order to elucidate the chemical structure for an unknown compound. The elucidated candidate compound must be fully consistent with the data and any other competing candidates efficiently eliminated without doubt by using additional data if necessary. It has become increasingly necessary to incorporate an in silico structure generation and verification tool to facilitate this elucidation process. An effective structure elucidation software technology aims to mimic the skills of a human in interpreting the complex nature of spectral data while producing a solution within a reasonable amount of time. This type of software is known as computer-assisted structure elucidation or CASE software. A systematic trial of the ACD/Structure Elucidator CASE software was conducted over an extended period of time by analysing a set of single and double-blind trials submitted by a global audience of scientists. The purpose of the blind trials was to reduce subjective bias. Double-blind trials comprised of data where the candidate compound was unknown to both the submitting scientist and the analyst. The level of expertise of the submitting scientist ranged from novice to expert structure elucidation specialists with experience in pharmaceutical, industrial, government and academic environments. Results Beginning in 2003, and for the following nine years, the algorithms and software technology contained within ACD/Structure Elucidator have been tested against 112 data sets; many of these were unique challenges. Of these challenges 9% were double-blind trials. The results of eighteen of the single-blind trials were investigated in detail and included problems of a diverse nature with many of the specific challenges associated with algorithmic structure elucidation such as deficiency in protons, structure symmetry, a large number of

  3. The incidence of color blindness among some school children of Pokhara, Western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niroula, D R; Saha, C G

    2010-03-01

    The incidence of color blindness varies from race to race and different in different geographical area. Since, there is no such report about the prevalence of color blindness in the western part of Nepal, the present study had been conducted to find out the incidence of color blindness among school children of Pokhara city, western Nepal. Participant's (n=964, 474 boys, 490 girls, age group 10 to 19 years) color vision was tested by using Ishihara chart (38 plates). Among 474 boys, 18 boys were color blind with the prevalence of 3.8%. None of girls were found to be color blind. Out of 18 color blind boys, nine, six and three boys were the victims of deuteranopia, deuteranomaly and protanomaly respectively. The incidence of color blindness were more amongst the Darji (14.3%) and Newar (9.1%) ethnic groups.

  4. Robust Blind Adaptive Channel Equalization in Chaotic Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-Shu

    2006-01-01

    Based on the bounded property and statistics of chaotic signal and the idea of set-membership identification,we propose a set-membership generalized least mean square (SM-GLMS) algorithm with variable step size for blind adaptive channel equalization in chaotic communication systems. The steady state performance of the proposed SM-GLMS algorithm is analysed, and comparison with an extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based adaptive algorithm and variable gain least mean square (VG-LMS) algorithm is performed for blind adaptive channel equalization. Simulations show that the proposed SM-GLMS algorithm can provide more significant steady state performance improvement than the EKF-based adaptive algorithm and VG-LMS algorithm.

  5. Pædagogen i skolen - en blind plet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rigbolt, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    as a consequence of the school-based leisure time facilities’ developing in opposition to the school. The content priorities in the social education worker’s education are also seen as having consequences for how both the social educator and the social educator students are suited for the role they have to fulfill...... educator in the school is a ’BLIND SPOT’. A function which is completely blank and which leaves the students and some of the social educators lost and fumbling not knowing what their responsibilities and tasks are. The main task for the social educators in the school is seen to act as support for children......18.1 Abstract – The social education worker in the school – a blind spot? This thesis examines the background of the fully comprehensive school age 6 to 10 with the purpose of investigating and discussing how the social education worker’s duties, challenges and needs for innovation...

  6. Visual imagery without visual perception: lessons from blind subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bértolo, Helder

    2014-08-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be used as a way of answering some of those questions, namely if it is possible to have visual imagery without visual perception. We present results from the work of our group using visual activation in dreams and its relation with EEG's spectral components, showing that congenitally blind have visual contents in their dreams and are able to draw them; furthermore their Visual Activation Index is negatively correlated with EEG alpha power. This study supports the hypothesis that it is possible to have visual imagery without visual experience.

  7. On-line blind separation of non-stationary signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović-Zarkula Slavica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of blind separation of non-stationary signals. We introduce an on-line separating algorithm for estimation of independent source signals using the assumption of non-stationary of sources. As a separating model, we apply a self-organizing neural network with lateral connections, and define a contrast function based on correlation of the network outputs. A separating algorithm for adaptation of the network weights is derived using the state-space model of the network dynamics, and the extended Kalman filter. Simulation results obtained in blind separation of artificial and real-world signals from their artificial mixtures have shown that separating algorithm based on the extended Kalman filter outperforms stochastic gradient based algorithm both in convergence speed and estimation accuracy.

  8. Multi-dimensional blind separation method for STBC systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minggang Luo; Liping Li; Guobing Qian; Huaguo Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Intercepted signal blind separation is a research topic with high importance for both military and civilian communication systems. A blind separation method for space-time block code (STBC) systems is proposed by using the ordinary independent component analysis (ICA). This method cannot work when spe-cific complex modulations are employed since the assumption of mutual independence cannot be satisfied. The analysis shows that source signals, which are group-wise independent and use multi-dimensional ICA (MICA) instead of ordinary ICA, can be applied in this case. Utilizing the block-diagonal structure of the cumulant matrices, the JADE algorithm is generalized to the multi-dimensional case to separate the received data into mutual y in-dependent groups. Compared with ordinary ICA algorithms, the proposed method does not introduce additional ambiguities. Sim-ulations show that the proposed method overcomes the drawback and achieves a better performance without utilizing coding infor-mation than channel estimation based algorithms.

  9. A semiotic approach to blind wayfinding: some primary conceptual standpoints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers from a wide variety of disciplines, such as philosophy, art, education or psychology, have over the years sustained the idea that blind persons are incapable or nearly incapable of formulating complex mental diagrammatic representations, which are schema based on the similarities found within internal logical relations between sign and object.Contrary to this widely accepted opinion, we will present an alternative approach in this paper: Our main idea is that blind and visually impaired people relying upon tact as a main knowledge source are capable of diagrammatic reasoning very well, but use a different method for this purpose, namely the method of inductive reasoning. Such method can effectively provide the mind with the data necessary to the elaboration of mental maps. Therefore, wayfinding as a semiotic process in which a route is planned and executed from marks or navigation indexes, is also enabled by tact.

  10. Modularity and sense organs in the blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hall, Brian K

    2006-01-01

    Mexican tetra (Astyanax mexicanus) exist as two morphs: a sighted (surface) form and a blind (cavefish) form. In the cavefish, some modules are lost, such as the eye and pigment modules, whereas others are expanded, such as the taste bud and cranial neuromast modules. We suggest that modularity can be viewed as being nested in a manner similar to Baupläne so that modules express unique sets of genes, cells, and processes. In terms of evolution, we conclude that natural selection can act on any of these hierarchical levels within modules or on all the sensory modules as a whole. We discuss interactions within and between modules with reference to the blind cavefish from both genetic and developmental perspectives. The cavefish represents an illuminating example of module interaction, uncoupling of modules, and module expansion.

  11. A Joint Optimization Criterion for Blind DS-CDMA Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Cruces-Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the blind detection of a desired user in an asynchronous DS-CDMA communications system with multipath propagation channels. Starting from the inverse filter criterion introduced by Tugnait and Li in 2001, we propose to tackle the problem in the context of the blind signal extraction methods for ICA. In order to improve the performance of the detector, we present a criterion based on the joint optimization of several higher-order statistics of the outputs. An algorithm that optimizes the proposed criterion is described, and its improved performance and robustness with respect to the near-far problem are corroborated through simulations. Additionally, a simulation using measurements on a real software-radio platform at 5 GHz has also been performed.

  12. Blind source separation advances in theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    Blind Source Separation intends to report the new results of the efforts on the study of Blind Source Separation (BSS). The book collects novel research ideas and some training in BSS, independent component analysis (ICA), artificial intelligence and signal processing applications. Furthermore, the research results previously scattered in many journals and conferences worldwide are methodically edited and presented in a unified form. The book is likely to be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in computer science and electronics who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms, and applications of BSS. Dr. Ganesh R. Naik works at University of Technology, Sydney, Australia; Dr. Wenwu Wang works at University of Surrey, UK.

  13. Method of target tracking with Doppler blind zone constraint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Han; Ziyue Tang; Zhenbo Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Doppler blind zone (DBZ) has a bad influence on the airborne early warning radar, although it has good detection per-formance for low altitude targets with pulse Doppler (PD) techno-logy. In target tracking, the blind zone can cause target tracking breakage easily. In order to solve this problem, a paral el parti-cle filter (PF) algorithm based on multi-hypothesis motion models (MHMMs) is proposed. The algorithm produces multiple possible target motion models according to the DBZ constraint. Particles are updated with the constraint in each motion model. Once the first measurement from the target which reappears from DBZ fal s into the particle cloud formed by any model, the measurement-track association succeeds and track breakage is avoided. The simulation results show that on the condition of different DBZ ranges, a high association ratio can be got for targets with different maneuverability levels, which accordingly improves the tracking quality.

  14. Robust and Blind Watermarking of Relational Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Haj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Digital multimedia watermarking technology was suggested in the last decade to embed copyright information in digital objects such images, audio and video. However, the increasing use of relational database systems in many real-life applications created an ever increasing need for watermarking database systems. As a result, watermarking relational database systems is now merging as a research area that deals with the legal issue of copyright protection of database systems. Approach: In this study, we proposed an efficient database watermarking algorithm based on inserting binary image watermarks in non-numeric mutli-word attributes of selected database tuples. Results: The algorithm is robust as it resists attempts to remove or degrade the embedded watermark and it is blind as it does not require the original database in order to extract the embedded watermark. Conclusion: Experimental results demonstrated blindness and the robustness of the algorithm against common database attacks.

  15. Developing the Bias Blind Spot: Increasing Skepticism towards Others.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadwa B Elashi

    Full Text Available Two experiments with eighty-eight 7- to 10-year-olds examined the bias blind spot in children. Both younger and older children rated themselves as less likely than a specific other (Experiment 1 or an average child (Experiment 2 to commit various biases. These self-other differences were also more extreme for biased behaviors than for other behaviors. At times, older children demonstrated stronger self-other differences than younger children, which seemed primarily driven by older children's judgments about bias in others. These findings suggest that, although the bias blind spot exists as soon as children recognize other-committed biases, what changes over development is how skeptical children are towards others.

  16. Blind channel identication of nonlinear folding mixing model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Yong; Xu Shangzhi; Ye Zhongfu

    2006-01-01

    Signals from multi-sensor systems are often mixtures of (statistically) independent sources by unknown mixing method. Blind source separation(BSS) and independent component analysis(ICA) are the methods to identify/recover the channels and the sources. BSS/ICA of nonlinear mixing models are difficult problems. For instance, the post-nonlinear model has been studied by several authors. It is noticed that in most cases, the proposed models are always with an invertible mixing. According to this fact there is an interesting question: how about the situation of the non-invertible non-linear mixing in BSS or ICA? A new simple non-linear mixing model is proposed with a kind of non-invertible mixing, the folding mixing, and method to identify its channel, blindly.

  17. Reversible cortical blindness in a case of hepatic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Kanti Biswas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy is a frequent and often fatal manifestation of chronic liver disease. The pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy is believed to be multifactorial including impaired blood-brain barrier function, imbalance between the excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in cortex, accumulation of various toxic and false neurotransmitters, and lack of nutrients like oxygen and glucose. Signs and symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy varies and commonly ranges from personality changes, disturbed consciousness, sleep pattern alternation, intellectual deterioration, speech disturbances, asterixis to frank coma and even death. Reversible or transient cortical blindness is rare manifestation of hepatic encephalopathy. It may even precede the phase of altered consciousness in such patients. Very few similar cases have been reported worldwide. Hence, we would like to report a case of transient cortical blindness in a patient of hepatic encephalopathy.

  18. Denoising Using Blind Source Separation for Pyroelectric Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huez Regis

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a process of denoising based on a Blind Source Separation (BSS method. This technique is inserted in an experimental device of nondestructive testing. Its excitation is a laser beam and its detectors are pyroelectric sensors. The latter are sensitive to the temperature. As they are also piezoelectric, they are particularly sensitive to the environmental noise. Therefore, it is necessary to denoise them. With this aim in view, a technique of blind source separation is implemented. One source corresponds to the incidental beam and the other sources are various noise. A judicious experimental device was designed in the laboratory. It fits to the requirements of the BSS technique, and it allows indeed a restoration of the incident signal.

  19. A novel blind deconvolution algorithm using single frequency bin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Former frequency-domain blind devolution algorithms need to consider a large number of frequency bins and recover the sources in different orders and with different amplitudes in each frequency bin, so they suffer from permutation and amplitude indeterminacy troubles. Based on sliding discrete Fourier transform, the presented deconvolution algorithm can directly recover time-domain sources from frequency-domain convolutive model using single frequency bin. It only needs to execute blind separation of instantaneous mixture once there are no permutation and amplitude indeterminacy troubles. Compared with former algorithms, the algorithm greatly reduces the computation cost as only one frequency bin is considered. Its good and robust performance is demonstrated by simulations when the signal-to-noise-ratio is high.

  20. The SAMPL2 blind prediction challenge: introduction and overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geballe, Matthew T; Skillman, A Geoffrey; Nicholls, Anthony; Guthrie, J Peter; Taylor, Peter J

    2010-04-01

    The interactions between a molecule and the aqueous environment underpin any process that occurs in solution, from simple chemical reactions to protein-ligand binding to protein aggregation. Fundamental measures of the interaction between molecule and aqueous phase, such as the transfer energy between gas phase and water or the energetic difference between two tautomers of a molecule in solution, remain nontrivial to predict accurately using current computational methods. SAMPL2 represents the third annual blind prediction of transfer energies, and the first time tautomer ratios were included in the challenge. Over 60 sets of predictions were submitted, and each participant also attempted to estimate the error in their predictions, a task that proved difficult for most. The results of this blind assessment of the state of the field for transfer energy and tautomer ratio prediction both indicate where the field is performing well and point out flaws in current methods.

  1. Blind detection for disparity-coherent stereo video watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burini, César; Baudry, Séverine; Doërr, Gwenaël.

    2014-02-01

    Stereo video content calls for new watermarking strategies, e.g. to achieve robustness against virtual view synthesis. Prior works focused either on inserting the watermark in an invariant domain or on guaranteeing that the watermarks introduced in the left and right views are coherent with the disparity of the scene. However, the first approach raises fidelity issues while the second requires side information at detection i.e. the detector is not blind. In this paper, we propose a new blind detection procedure for disparity-coherent watermarks. In a nutshell, the detector relies on cross-correlation to aggregate the scattered pieces of the embedded reference watermark pattern rather than warping the reference pattern according to the parameters of the current view prior to detection. Reported experimental results indicate that this revisited detector successfully manages to retrieve embedded watermarks even after lossy compression.

  2. Wavelet Based Semi-blind Channel Estimation For Multiband OFDM

    CERN Document Server

    Sadough, Sajad; Jaffrot, Emmanuel; Duhamel, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm within a wavelet domain Bayesian framework for semi-blind channel estimation of multiband OFDM based UWB communications. A prior distribution is chosen for the wavelet coefficients of the unknown channel impulse response in order to model a sparseness property of the wavelet representation. This prior yields, in maximum a posteriori estimation, a thresholding rule within the EM algorithm. We particularly focus on reducing the number of estimated parameters by iteratively discarding ``unsignificant'' wavelet coefficients from the estimation process. Simulation results using UWB channels issued from both models and measurements show that under sparsity conditions, the proposed algorithm outperforms pilot based channel estimation in terms of mean square error and bit error rate and enhances the estimation accuracy with less computational complexity than traditional semi-blind methods.

  3. A BLIND SNR ESTIMATOR FOR DIGITAL BANDPASS SIGNALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A subspace-based blind Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) estimation algorithm for digital bandpass signals in Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel is discussed. The lower bounds of the mean and variance of the estimation are derived, and simulations are performed for the commonly used digital bandpass signals, such as MPSK (M=2, 4, 8), MFSK (M=2, 4) and MQAM (M=16, 64, 128, 256) signals. Theoretical analyses and simulation results indicate that the proposed algorithm is effective even when the SNR is below 0dB. Furthermore, the algorithm can provide a blind estimator in that it needs neither the parameters of the received signals, such as the carrier frequency, symbol rate and modulation scheme, nor the synchronization of the system.

  4. Detecting Signage and Doors for Blind Navigation and Wayfinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuihua; Yang, Xiaodong; Tian, Yingli

    2013-07-01

    Signage plays a very important role to find destinations in applications of navigation and wayfinding. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to detect doors and signage to help blind people accessing unfamiliar indoor environments. In order to eliminate the interference information and improve the accuracy of signage detection, we first extract the attended areas by using a saliency map. Then the signage is detected in the attended areas by using a bipartite graph matching. The proposed method can handle multiple signage detection. Furthermore, in order to provide more information for blind users to access the area associated with the detected signage, we develop a robust method to detect doors based on a geometric door frame model which is independent to door appearances. Experimental results on our collected datasets of indoor signage and doors demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.

  5. Quantum blind dual-signature scheme without arbitrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Huang, Dazu; Shi, Jinjing; Guo, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the elegant features of a bind signature, we suggest the design of a quantum blind dual-signature scheme with three phases, i.e., initial phase, signing phase and verification phase. Different from conventional schemes, legal messages are signed not only by the blind signatory but also by the sender in the signing phase. It does not rely much on an arbitrator in the verification phase as the previous quantum signature schemes usually do. The security is guaranteed by entanglement in quantum information processing. Security analysis demonstrates that the signature can be neither forged nor disavowed by illegal participants or attacker. It provides a potential application for e-commerce or e-payment systems with the current technology.

  6. Night blindness in a teenager with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roddy, Marie Frances

    2011-12-01

    This article describes the case of a 16-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis who presented with difficulty seeing in the dark. He had a history of bowel surgery at birth, and he developed cystic fibrosis liver disease and osteopenia during his teenage years. He always had good lung function. When his serum vitamin A level was checked, it was undetectable in sample. He was diagnosed with night blindness and commenced on high-dose vitamin A. His symptoms resolved within 3 days. However, it took over 1 year for his vitamin A level to return to normal. This case emphasizes the importance of monitoring vitamin levels in cystic fibrosis to detect deficiency and prevent long-term consequences, and it highlights the challenges encountered during the course of night blindness treatment.

  7. Simultaneous deghosting and wavelet estimation via blind deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghshenas Lari, Hojjat; Gholami, Ali

    2016-12-01

    Seismic deconvolution and deghosting are common methods for increasing the temporal resolution of marine seismic data. In this paper, we employ the advantages of multichannel blind deconvolution technique to obtain a deghosting algorithm for source and receiver side ghost elimination. The advantage of the proposed algorithm is two fold: first, it uses the correlation between the information contained in neighboring traces to stabilize the deghosting process while deconvolving the data in a blind fashion. Second, an estimation of the source wavelet is simultaneously provided by the inversion process. A fast algorithm is provided to solve the inverse problem by using the split Bregman iteration. Numerical results from simulated and field seismic data confirm the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for automatic deghosting and deconvolution of marine data while being able to recover complex mixed-phase source wavelets.

  8. Permanent bilateral cortical blindness due to reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, Mayumi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Takagi, Ryo; Hiraoka, Miki

    2011-01-01

    Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) is induced by acute cerebral edema. Its symptoms include seizures, headache, altered mental status, and visual disturbances. The clinical and radiological findings are usually transient. This report describes a case of RPLS resulting in bilateral total blindness. A 40-year-old man presented with lethargy and bilateral visual loss. He had a 20-year history of hypertension, but had never been treated. On presentation, the left eye was able to perceive light, but the right eye was not. Radiological examination showed diffuse edema in the brain, and ocular fundus examination revealed severe bilateral hypertensive retinopathy. Antihypertensive therapy improved the patient's general condition, including blood pressure. Radiological findings 5 months later showed resolution of most of the abnormal signal areas. However, total blindness had developed in both eyes by day 15, and two courses of pulsed corticosteroid therapy failed to restore the visual loss.

  9. Multi-frame partially saturated images blind deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Pengzhao; Feng, Huajun; Xu, Zhihai; Li, Qi; Chen, Yueting

    2016-12-01

    When blurred images have saturated or over-exposed pixels, conventional blind deconvolution approaches often fail to estimate accurate point spread function (PSF) and will introduce local ringing artifacts. In this paper, we propose a method to deal with the problem under the modified multi-frame blind deconvolution framework. First, in the kernel estimation step, a light streak detection scheme using multi-frame blurred images is incorporated into the regularization constraint. Second, we deal with image regions affected by the saturated pixels separately by modeling a weighted matrix during each multi-frame deconvolution iteration process. Both synthetic and real-world examples show that more accurate PSFs can be estimated and restored images have richer details and less negative effects compared to state of art methods.

  10. Malthus redux, and still blind in the same eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Don

    2016-01-01

    Gowdy & Krall (G&K) essentially recapitulate Malthus's classic argument for ecological pessimism in modern biological dress. Their reasoning also reproduces Malthus's blindness to the implications of technological innovation. Agriculture might have suppressed human individualism as G&K insist, but technology has tended to foster it. This complicates human ecological prospects in a non-Malthusian way, and it might additionally provide the resources for deliverance from disaster.

  11. Online blind source separation based on joint diagonalization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ronghua; Zhou Guoxu; Fang Zuyuan; Xie Shengli

    2009-01-01

    A now algorithm is proposed for joint diagonalization. With a modified objective function, the now algorithm not only excludes trivial and unbalanced solutions successfully, but is also easily optimized. In addition, with the new objective function, the proposed algorithm can work well in online blind source separation (BSS) for the first time, although this family of algorithms is always thought to be valid only in batch-mode BSS by far. Simulations show that it is a very competitive joint diagonalization algorithm.

  12. SOME BLIND FRESH EQUALIZATION ALGORITHMS WITH ANTI-INTERFERENCE CAPABILITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Some novel blind FREquency.Shift (FRESH) equalizer algorithms axe proposed for the equalization of Finite Impulse Response(FIR)single channel with anti-interference capabilities.These algorithms based on FRESH filter can work well without any training sequence.Simulation results show that the equalizer algorithms can effectively reject many types of interferences and the performances of these new equalizer algorithms are superior to the conventional equalizer algorithms.

  13. Blind river dolphin: first side-swimming cetacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, E S; Brownell, R L; Frye, F L; Morris, E J; Evans, W E; Scott, A B

    1969-12-12

    The blind river dolphin (Platanista gangetica), first written about by Pliny the Elder in A.D. 72, was found (10 November 1968) to be the first known side-swimming cetacean. The rudimentary eye lacks the lens, but anatomical evidence suggests that the eye may serve as a light sensor. The underwater sound emissions of this species, although similar to those of the Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis), appear to be produced constantly.

  14. Glowworm Swarm Optimization and Its Application to Blind Signal Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhucheng Li; Xianglin Huang

    2016-01-01

    Traditional optimization algorithms for blind signal separation (BSS) are mainly based on the gradient, which requires the objective function to be continuous and differentiable, so the applications of these algorithms are very limited. Moreover, these algorithms have problems with the convergence speed and accuracy. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper presents a modified glowworm swarm optimization (MGSO) algorithm based on a novel step adjustment rule and then applies MGSO to BSS. Takin...

  15. Gallium nitride nanoparticles for solar-blind detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dinesh Kabra; Kripasindhu Sardar; K S Narayan

    2003-10-01

    We investigate the properties of GaN semiconducting nanoparticles as a potential candidate for photodetection in the solar-blind region. The photocurrent spectral response is studied spanning the range 1.6-5.5 eV. A significant fraction of the response is in the range 4-5.5 eV. The results are compared to other optical properties and the origins of the features observed in the spectra are speculated upon.

  16. Wavelet Based Semi-blind Channel Estimation For Multiband OFDM

    OpenAIRE

    Sadough, Sajad; Ichir, Mahieddine; Jaffrot, Emmanuel; Duhamel, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm within a wavelet domain Bayesian framework for semi-blind channel estimation of multiband OFDM based UWB communications. A prior distribution is chosen for the wavelet coefficients of the unknown channel impulse response in order to model a sparseness property of the wavelet representation. This prior yields, in maximum a posteriori estimation, a thresholding rule within the EM algorithm. We particularly focus on reducing the nu...

  17. Blind bedside insertion of small bowel feeding tubes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, SN

    2009-12-01

    The use of Naso-Jejunal (NJ) feeding is limited by difficulty in feeding tube placement. Patients have traditionally required transfer to Endoscopy or Radiology for insertion of small bowel feeding tubes, with clear resource implications. We hypothesised that the adoption of a simple bedside procedure would be effective and reduce cost. Clinical nutrition and nurse specialist personnel were trained in the 10\\/10\\/10 method of blind bedside NJ insertion.

  18. The pathogenesis of autism: insights from congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, R Peter; Bishop, Martin

    2003-02-28

    There is substantial heterogeneity in the aetiology and clinical presentation of autism. So how do we account for homogeneity in the syndrome? The answer to this question will be critical for any attempt to trace the links between brain pathology and the psychological disabilities that characterize autism. One possibility is that the source of homogeneity in autism is not to be found 'in the child', but rather in dysfunction of the system constituted by child-in-relation-to-other. We have been exploring this hypothesis through the study of congenitally blind children, among whom features of autism, and the syndrome of autism itself, are strikingly common. To justify such an approach, one needs to establish that the clinical features in blind children have qualities that are indeed 'autistic-like'. We conducted systematic observations of the social interactions of two matched groups of congenitally blind children who do not have autism, rating their social engagement, emotional tone, play and language during three sessions of free play in the school playground. The qualities of social impairment in the more disabled children were similar to those in sighted children with autism. Additional evidence came from independent ratings of the children in a different play setting: on the childhood autism rating scale (CARS), the socially impaired children had 'autistic-like' abnormalities in both social and non-social domains. If we can determine the way in which congenital blindness predisposes to features of autism, we shall be in a better position to trace the developmental pathways that lead to the syndrome in sighted children.

  19. Night Blindness and Vitamin A Deficiency following Jejunoilieal Bypass Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Paul C; Canny, Christopher L.

    1989-01-01

    A 42-year-old man who developed severe night blindness 15 years following jejunoileal bypass surgery for morbid obesity is described. Ophthamological testing, including dark adaptation, electroretinography and serum vitamin A levels, confirmed a diagnosis of vitamin A deficiency. Oral vitamin A 25,000 iu/day for two months resulted in a full recovery of visual deficits. Nutritional vitamin A deficiency is discussed in the context of intestinal bypass surgery.

  20. AN IMPROVED SUBSPACE TRACKING ALGORITHM FOR BLIND ADAPTIVE MULTIUSER DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Changqing; Wang Hongyang; Song Wentao

    2004-01-01

    As the Projection Approximation Subspace Tracking with deflation(PASTd) algorithm is sensitive to impulsive noise, an improved subspace tracking algorithm is proposed and applied to blind adaptive multi-user detection. Simulation results show that the improved PASTd algorithm not only remains the properties of the conventional PASTdalgorithm, but also has good Bit Error Rate(BER) performance in impulsive noise environment, thus it can effectively improve the system performance.

  1. Transient cortical blindness after intradiscal oxygen–ozone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Salvatore Vaiano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 54-year-old caucasian male developed bilateral blindness during an oxygen–ozone injection for disc herniation. The visual loss (VL was immediately followed by severe frontal headache, vomiting, and nausea. The patient underestimated the VL showing Anton's syndrome, with a complete visual recovery after 2-month follow-up. Magnetic resonance data were consistent with recent ischemic lesions in bilateral vascular territories of posterior cerebral arteries.

  2. Transient cortical blindness after intradiscal oxygen-ozone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaiano, Agostino Salvatore; Valente, Cristiana; De Benedetti, Giacomo; Caramello, Guido

    2016-12-01

    A 54-year-old caucasian male developed bilateral blindness during an oxygen-ozone injection for disc herniation. The visual loss (VL) was immediately followed by severe frontal headache, vomiting, and nausea. The patient underestimated the VL showing Anton's syndrome, with a complete visual recovery after 2-month follow-up. Magnetic resonance data were consistent with recent ischemic lesions in bilateral vascular territories of posterior cerebral arteries.

  3. Cortical Plasticity and Olfactory Function in Early Blindness.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo Araneda; Laurent A Renier; Philippe Rombaux; Isabel Cuevas; De Volder, Anne G.

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, functional brain imaging has provided insight in the maturation processes and has helped elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms involved in brain plasticity in the absence of vision. In case of congenital blindness, drastic changes occur within the deafferented visual cortex that starts receiving and processing nonvisual inputs, including olfactory stimuli. This functional reorganization of the occipital cortex gives rise to compensatory perceptual and cognitive me...

  4. Intelligent Building with the Assistance for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Hudec

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Home Automation Systems and AAL Systems are nowadays very quickly developed technologies. It is used for the living space support, heating, zone temperature regulation and many other automatable comfort for operating and gaining the information of the humans and household condition. The system of home automation "RUDO" is equipped with the assistance technologies that allow blind people to fully operate the heating system, zone regulation and use PC at the professional level.

  5. An Ecopsychological Perspective on Sustainability: The BlindSpot

    OpenAIRE

    Lori Pye

    2014-01-01

    As the 2015 deadline for the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) approaches many of the goals and objectives for education, the development agenda andsustainability have not and will not be met.This suggests something is not working – there is a blind spot.The inability to achieve sustainability is based upon much deeper humannarratives and behaviors that drive destructive practices: gender exclusion and violence toward women areamong these two core drivers. An ecopsychologica...

  6. Fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols against collective noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Hui; Li, Hui-Fang

    2016-10-01

    This work proposes two fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols based on the entanglement swapping of logical Bell states, which are robust against two kinds of collective noises: the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Both of the quantum blind signature protocols are constructed from four-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states, i.e., logical Bell qubits. The initial message is encoded on the logical Bell qubits with logical unitary operations, which will not destroy the anti-noise trait of the logical Bell qubits. Based on the fundamental property of quantum entanglement swapping, the receiver simply performs two Bell-state measurements (rather than four-qubit joint measurements) on the logical Bell qubits to verify the signature, which makes the protocols more convenient in a practical application. Different from the existing quantum signature protocols, our protocols can offer the high fidelity of quantum communication with the employment of logical qubits. Moreover, we hereinafter prove the security of the protocols against some individual eavesdropping attacks, and we show that our protocols have the characteristics of unforgeability, undeniability and blindness.

  7. Blind speech source separation via nonlinear time-frequency masking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Shun; CHEN Shaorong; LIU Yulin

    2008-01-01

    Aim at the underdetermined convolutive mixture model, a blind speech source separation method based on nonlinear time-frequency masking was proposed, where the approximate W-disjoint orthogonality (W-DO) property among independent speech signals in time-frequency domain is utilized. In this method, the observation mixture signal from multimicrophones is normalized to be independent of frequency in the time-frequency domain at first, then the dynamic clustering algorithm is adopted to obtain the active source information in each time-frequency slot, a nonlinear function via deflection angle from the cluster center is selected for time-frequency masking, finally the blind separation of mixture speech signals can be achieved by inverse STFT (short-time Fourier transformation). This method can not only solve the problem of frequency permutation which may be met in most classic frequency-domain blind separation techniques, but also suppress the spatial direction diffusion of the separation matrix. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed separation method is better than the typical BLUES method, the signal-noise-ratio gain (SNRG) increases 1.58 dB averagely.

  8. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed-Meraim Karim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from to , where is the number of emitted signals, the data vector length, and the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  9. Hadron blind detector. Final report, FY1994 and 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, M.

    1997-10-25

    The authors have been developing a novel threshold Cherenkov detector, consisting of a gas radiator followed by a UV photosensitive wire chamber using CsI photocathodes. The photo-detector lies directly in the particle path and is thus required to have single photo-electron sensitivity and yet to be insensitive to the passage of a charged particle. In addition, the detector should be made of low mass material to minimize the effect of multiple scatterings. The proposed threshold Cherenkov counters are called Hadron Blind Detectors (HBDs) because they are blind to low energy hadrons which have lower speed {beta} for given momentum p than that of electrons. HBDs can be used in colliders, especially heavy ion hadron colliders (RHIC, LHC), which have huge {number_sign} of hadrons produced per event, to select electrons by being blind to low-momentum hadrons. The authors have studied two different methods to build HBDs described as follows: (1) windowless configuration; (2) thin window configuration. The authors describe herewith their recent experimental results on HBD research obtained with CsI photo-cathodes and HBD prototype beam testing in 1995.

  10. The NUC and blind pixel eliminating in the DTDI application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao Feng; Chen, Fan Sheng; Pan, Sheng Da; Gong, Xue Yi; Dong, Yu Cui

    2013-12-01

    AS infrared CMOS Digital TDI (Time Delay and integrate) has a simple structure, excellent performance and flexible operation, it has been used in more and more applications. Because of the limitation of the Production process level, the plane array of the infrared detector has a large NU (non-uniformity) and a certain blind pixel rate. Both of the two will raise the noise and lead to the TDI works not very well. In this paper, for the impact of the system performance, the most important elements are analyzed, which are the NU of the optical system, the NU of the Plane array and the blind pixel in the Plane array. Here a reasonable algorithm which considers the background removal and the linear response model of the infrared detector is used to do the NUC (Non-uniformity correction) process, when the infrared detector array is used as a Digital TDI. In order to eliminate the impact of the blind pixel, the concept of surplus pixel method is introduced in, through the method, the SNR (signal to noise ratio) can be improved and the spatial and temporal resolution will not be changed. Finally we use a MWIR (Medium Ware Infrared) detector to do the experiment and the result proves the effectiveness of the method.

  11. Adapting smart phone applications about physics education to blind students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülbül, M. Ş.; Yiğit, N.; Garip, B.

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of necessary equipment in a physics laboratory are available for smartphone users via applications. Physics teachers may measure from acceleration to sound volume with its internal sensors. These sensors collect data and smartphone applications make the raw data visible. Teachers who do not have well-equipped laboratories at their schools may have an opportunity to conduct experiments with the help of smart phones. In this study, we analyzed possible open source physics education applications in terms of blind users in inclusive learning environments. All apps are categorized as partially, full or non-supported. The roles of blind learner’s friend during the application are categorized as reader, describer or user. Mentioned apps in the study are compared with additional opportunities like size and downloading rates. Out of using apps we may also get information about whether via internet and some other extra information for different experiments in physics lab. Q-codes reading or augmented reality are two other opportunity provided by smart phones for users in physics labs. We also summarized blind learner’s smartphone experiences from literature and listed some suggestions for application designers about concepts in physics.

  12. The coupling of vision with locomotion in cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelah, Adar; Barbur, John; Thurrell, Adrian; Hock, Howard S

    2015-05-01

    Maintaining or modifying the speed and direction of locomotion requires the coupling of the locomotion with the retinal optic flow that it generates. It is shown that this essential behavioral capability, which requires on-line neural control, is preserved in the cortically blind hemifield of a hemianope. In experiments, optic flow stimuli were presented to either the normal or blind hemifield while the patient was walking on a treadmill. Little difference was found between the hemifields with respect to the coupling (i.e. co-dependency) of optic flow detection with locomotion. Even in the cortically blind hemifield, faster walking resulted in the perceptual slowing of detected optic flow, and self-selected locomotion speeds demonstrated behavioral discrimination between different optic flow speeds. The results indicate that the processing of optic flow, and thereby on-line visuo-locomotor coupling, can take place along neural pathways that function without processing in Area V1, and thus in the absence of conscious intervention. These and earlier findings suggest that optic flow and object motion are processed in parallel along with correlated non-visual locomotion signals. Extrastriate interactions may be responsible for discounting the optical effects of locomotion on the perceived direction of object motion, and maintaining visually guided self-motion.

  13. Beyond blindsight: properties of visual relearning in cortically blind fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Anasuya; Tadin, Duje; Huxlin, Krystel R

    2014-08-27

    Damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) or its immediate afferents results in a dense scotoma, termed cortical blindness (CB). CB subjects have residual visual abilities, or blindsight, which allow them to detect and sometimes discriminate stimuli with high temporal and low spatial frequency content. Recent work showed that with training, discriminations in the blind field can become more reliable, and even reach consciousness. However, the narrow spatiotemporal bandwidth of blindsight limits its functional usefulness in everyday vision. Here, we asked whether visual training can induce recovery outside the spatiotemporal bandwidth of blindsight. Specifically, could human CB subjects learn to discriminate static, nonflickering stimuli? Can such learning transfer to untrained stimuli and tasks, and does double training with moving and static stimuli provide additional advantages relative to static training alone? We found CB subjects capable of relearning static orientation discriminations following single as well as double training. However, double training with complex, moving stimuli in a separate location was necessary to recover complex motion thresholds at locations trained with static stimuli. Subjects trained on static stimuli alone could only discriminate simple motion. Finally, both groups had approximately equivalent, incomplete recovery of fine orientation and direction discrimination thresholds, as well as contrast sensitivity. These results support two conclusions: (1) from a practical perspective, complex moving stimuli and double training may be superior training tools for inducing visual recovery in CB, and (2) the cortically blind visual system can relearn to perform a wider range of visual discriminations than predicted by blindsight alone.

  14. A New Look at Theory of Mind in Children with Ocular and Ocular-Plus Congenital Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeer, Sander; Dik, Marjolein; voor de Wind, Marieke J.; Asbrock, Doreen; Brambring, Michael; Kef, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Delays in theory of mind (ToM) of children who are congenitally blind have often been attributed to the absence of visual and social experiences. However, these delays could also be partly due to neural factors. In some children, the blindness itself has neural causes (ocular-plus blindness). Children whose blindness has an…

  15. A Sensitive Period for Language in the Visual Cortex: Distinct Patterns of Plasticity in Congenitally versus Late Blind Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedny, Marina; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Dravida, Swethasri; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that blindness enables visual circuits to contribute to language processing. We examined whether this dramatic functional plasticity has a sensitive period. BOLD fMRI signal was measured in congenitally blind, late blind (blindness onset 9-years-old or later) and sighted participants while they performed a sentence…

  16. Using acoustic information to perceive room size: effects of blindness, room reverberation time, and stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolarik, Andrew J; Pardhan, Shahina; Cirstea, Silvia; Moore, Brian C J

    2013-01-01

    Blind participants greatly rely on sound for spatial information regarding the surrounding environment. It is not yet established whether lack of vision to calibrate audition in far space affects blind participants' internal spatial representation of acoustic room size. Furthermore, blind participants may rely more on farthest distance estimates to sound sources compared with sighted participants when perceiving room size. Here we show that judgments of apparent room size and sound distance are correlated, more so for blind than for sighted participants. Sighted participants judged a reverberant virtual room to be larger for speech than for music or noise stimuli, whereas blind participants did not. The results suggest that blindness affects the use of room reverberation for distance and room-size judgments.

  17. Association Between Retinal Vascular Calibre and Blindness in Young Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Malin Lundberg

    Association Between Retinal Vascular Calibre and Blindness in Young Patients With Type 1 Diabetes Purpose To examine the association between retinal vascular calibre and incident blindness caused by diabetic retinopathy in young patients with type 1 diabetes. Methods A case-control study of 6...... patients (12 eyes) who later went blind and 18 age- and sex-matched controls (36 eyes). They were all identified in a population-based cohort study of 339 patients with type 1 diabetes. Patients and controls all participated in a clinical baseline examination in 1995 and were subsequently followed for 15...... years. Incident blindness was defined for patients who registered between 1995 and 2010 in the Danish Association of the Blind, which is a voluntary organization open for patients with a visual acuity at or below 6/60 (0.1) in the best eye. Each blind patient was matched with 3 controls regarding age...

  18. Brush border peptidases and arylamidases in the experimental blind loop syndrome of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzacca, G; Musella, S; Andria, G; D'Agostino, L; Cimino, L; Budillon, G

    1977-10-01

    Peptidase and arylamidase activities were assessed in purified brush borders from jejunum of rats with surgically created blind loops. The blind loop segment and the jejunum proximal and distal to the blind loop were studied. Comparable jejunal segments from control rats were also studied. The blind loop syndrome was documented by presence of macrocytic anemia. Enzyme activities were determined on purified brush borders. In rats with the blind loop syndromes enzymatic activities hydrolizing sucrose, L-Leucyl-beta-naphthylamide, L-lysyl-beta-naphthylamide, alpha-L-glutamyl-beta-naphthylamide, L-phenylalanyl-alanine and L-leucyl-glycine were significantly reduced as compared to controls (P less than 0.001). After a short course of antibiotic therapy enzymatic activities returned to normal. Our findings suggest a reversible intestinal mucosa damage in the rat with blind loop syndrome.

  19. Sight and blindness in the same person: Gating in the visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasburger, Hans; Waldvogel, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    We present the case of a patient having dissociative identity disorder (DID) who-after 15 years of misdiagnosed cortical blindness--step-by-step regained sight during psychotherapeutic treatment. At first only a few personality states regained vision whereas others remained blind. This could be confirmed by electrophysiological measurement, in which visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were absent in the blind personality states but were normal and stable in the seeing states. A switch between these states could happen within seconds. We assume a top-down modulation of activity in the primary visual pathway as a neural basis of such psychogenic blindness, possibly at the level of the thalamus. VEPs therefore do not allow separating psychogenic blindness from organic disruption of the visual pathway. In summary, psychogenic blindness seems to suppress visual information at an early neural stage.

  20. Privacy Preserving Similarity Based Text Retrieval through Blind Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinki Kumari

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing is improving rapidly due to their more advantage and more data owners give interest to outsource their data into cloud storage for centralize their data. As huge files stored in the cloud storage, there is need to implement the keyword based search process to data user. At the same time to protect the privacy of data, encryption techniques are used for sensitive data, that encryption is done before outsourcing data to cloud server. But it is critical to search results in encryption data. In this system we propose similarity text retrieval from the blind storage blocks with encryption format. This system provides more security because of blind storage system. In blind storage system data is stored randomly on cloud storage.  In Existing Data Owner cannot encrypt the document data as it was done only at server end. Everyone can access the data as there was no private key concept applied to maintained privacy of the data. But In our proposed system, Data Owner can encrypt the data himself using RSA algorithm.  RSA is a public key-cryptosystem and it is widely used for sensitive data storage over Internet. In our system we use Text mining process for identifying the index files of user documents. Before encryption we also use NLP (Nature Language Processing technique to identify the keyword synonyms of data owner document. Here text mining process examines text word by word and collect literal meaning beyond the words group that composes the sentence. Those words are examined in API of word net so that only equivalent words can be identified for index file use. Our proposed system provides more secure and authorized way of recover the text in cloud storage with access control. Finally, our experimental result shows that our system is better than existing.

  1. Manipulation detection and preference alterations in a choice blindness paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Taya

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that individuals make choices based upon their preferences and have access to the reasons for their choices. Recent studies in several areas suggest that this is not always the case. In choice blindness paradigms, two-alternative forced-choice in which chosen-options are later replaced by the unselected option, individuals often fail to notice replacement of their chosen option, confabulate explanations for why they chose the unselected option, and even show increased preferences for the unselected-but-replaced options immediately after choice (seconds. Although choice blindness has been replicated across a variety of domains, there are numerous outstanding questions. Firstly, we sought to investigate how individual- or trial-factors modulated detection of the manipulations. Secondly, we examined the nature and temporal duration (minutes vs. days of the preference alterations induced by these manipulations.Participants performed a computerized choice blindness task, selecting the more attractive face between presented pairs of female faces, and providing a typewritten explanation for their choice on half of the trials. Chosen-face cue manipulations were produced on a subset of trials by presenting the unselected face during the choice explanation as if it had been selected. Following all choice trials, participants rated the attractiveness of each face individually, and rated the similarity of each face pair. After approximately two weeks, participants re-rated the attractiveness of each individual face online.Participants detected manipulations on only a small proportion of trials, with detections by fewer than half of participants. Detection rates increased with the number of prior detections, and detection rates subsequent to first detection were modulated by the choice certainty. We show clear short-term modulation of preferences in both manipulated and non-manipulated explanation trials compared to choice-only trials

  2. An Efficient Restrictive Blind Signature Scheme with Applications to Electronic Cash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new restrictive blind signature scheme is proposed. Compared with Brands restrictive blind signature scheme, our scheme is even more restrictive and efficient. And our scheme is proved secure, too. A new withdrawal protocol of electronic cash system is designed by using our restrictive blind signature scheme, which is more efficient than the withdrawal protocol and is more appropriate for adopting pre-processing and post-processing.

  3. BLIND IDENTIFICATION OF A CLASS OF NONLINEAR SYSTEMS WITH CYCLOSTATIONARY INPUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This letter deals with blind identification of nonlinear discrete Hammerstein system under the input signal that is cyclostationary.The first-order moment of the specific input as well as the inverse nonlinear mapping of the Hammerstein model are combined to establish a relationship between the system output and the system parameters,which implies an approach to identifying the system blindly.Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach to blind identification of a class of nonUnear systems.

  4. A Quantum Proxy Weak Blind Signature Scheme Based on Controlled Quantum Teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Yu, Yao-Feng; Song, Qin; Gao, Lan-Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Proxy blind signature is applied to the electronic paying system, electronic voting system, mobile agent system, security of internet, etc. A quantum proxy weak blind signature scheme is proposed in this paper. It is based on controlled quantum teleportation. Five-qubit entangled state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement message blinding, so it could guarantee not only the unconditional security of the scheme but also the anonymity of the messages owner.

  5. Sir William Wilde and provision for the blind in nineteenth-century Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, S

    2016-05-01

    As Assistant Commissioner for the Census of Ireland Sir William Wilde worked as an early epidemiologist, providing information regarding the deaf-and-dumb and the blind in mid-nineteenth-century Ireland. As a social agitator he focussed the attention of the authorities to the plight of the blind and their inability to earn a living and support themselves. This paper highlights his contribution to the provision for the blind in Ireland.

  6. Blind separation of multicomponent seismic wavefield using SVD of reduced dimension spectral matrix

    OpenAIRE

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a blind separation algorithm based on singular value decomposition (SVD) of reduced dimension spectral matrix. Furthermore, a mathematical matrix model of the multicomponent seismic wavefield is developed as a framework for implementing the proposed algorithm. The proposed blind separation algorithm organizes the frequency transformed multicomponent seismic wavefield into one long data vector. The blind separation of the desired seismic wavefield is accomplished by project...

  7. Spatial Explorations and Digital Traces: Experiences of Legal Blindness through Filmmaking

    OpenAIRE

    Adolfo Ruiz; Megan Strickfaden

    2016-01-01

    Descriptions of legal blindness, as lived experience—involving continual movement between the world of sightedness and blindness—are largely absent within medical models of disability. In an effort to challenge depictions of blindness as pathology, researchers in this project worked with participants who are legally blind, in a co-designed exploration of built spaces in the city of Edmonton, Canada. In this article we describe a collaborative research method through which participants shared ...

  8. Color Blindness Defect and Medical Laboratory Technologists: Unnoticed Problems and the Care for Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Dargahi; Nahid Einollahi; Nasrin Dashti

    2010-01-01

    "nColor -blindness is the inability to perceive differences between some color that other people can distinguish. Using a literature search , the results indicate the prevalence of color vision deficiency in the medical profession and its on medical skills. Medical laboratory technicians and technologists employees should also screen for color blindness. This research aimed to study color blindness prevalence among Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees and Students in Teh...

  9. Two Schemes of Blind MMSE Multiuser Receiver for Space-Time Coded CDMA Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Min; XU Chang-jiang; FENG Guang-zeng

    2004-01-01

    Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) multiuser detection yields the highest output SINR among all linear detectors. The blind MMSE linear detector can be implemented with batch processes or sequential processes. In this paper, according to the different implementations of blind detectors, the authors analyze two schemes of the blind MMSE multiuser receiver for space-time coded CDMA Systems and make a comparison between both schemes by the theoretical analysis and numerical simulations.

  10. Post-traumatic transient cortical blindness in a child with occipital bone fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Rachel H C

    2016-12-01

    Cortical blindness as sequelae of trauma has been reported in literature but mostly in the setting of occipital cortex or visual tract damages. We present a case of transient cortical blindness in a child following a closed head injury with a non-displaced occipital bone fracture and underlying occipital lobe contusion. We discuss the pathophysiology behind Post-traumatic transient cortical blindness, relevant investigations, and current management.

  11. Blind adaptive identification of FIR channel in chaotic communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bao-Yun; Tommy W.S.Chow; K.T.Ng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of blind channel identification in chaotic communications. An adaptive algorithm is proposed, which exploits the boundness property of chaotic signals. Compared with the EKF-based approach, the proposed algorithm achieves a great complexity gain but at the expense of a slight accuracy degradation.However, our approach enjoys the important advantage that it does not require the a priori information such as nonlinearity of chaotic dynamics and the variances of measurement noise and the coefficient model noise. In addition,our approach is applicable to the ARMA system.

  12. Blind Separation by Redundancy Reduction in a Recurrent Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ju; NIE Kaibao; HE Zhenya

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a novel information the-ory criterion is proposed for blind source separationbased on a fully recurrent neural network, and a learn-ing algorithm is then developed. Stochastic naturalgradient descent algorithm is used in this algorithm.The proposed algorithm can ensure the maximizationof transferred information when a Hebb term is intro-duced to express the derivative of information missing.At the same time, the mutual information of outputs isminimized so as to make the outputs mutually statis-tically independent. The computer simulation showsthe validity and the good performance of the proposedalgorithm.

  13. Coblation tonsillectomy: a double blind randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timms, M S; Temple, R H

    2002-06-01

    Tonsillectomy has been performed by a number of techniques. This double blind randomized controlled study compares the technique of tissue coblation with bipolar dissection for the removal of tonsils in 10 adult patients with a history of chronic tonsillitis. A significant reduction in post-operative pain and more rapid healing of the tonsillar fossae were found in the side removed by tissue coblation. There were no episodes of primary or secondary haemorrhage on either side. This new technique for tonsil removal warrants further study.

  14. Blind spots for neutralinos in NMSSM with light singlet scalar

    CERN Document Server

    Badziak, M; Szczerbiak, P

    2016-01-01

    A substantial contribution to the SM-like Higgs mass may come from the mixing with the lightest singlet-dominated scalar in NMSSM for moderate or large values of $\\tan\\beta$ [1]. The LSP neutralino in this model may also contain the singlet component - singlino. In this work we analyze the direct detection cross section for a Higgsino-singlino LSP with the emphasis on possible direct detection blind spots in the parameter space. Correlations between the LSP properties and the effects in the Higgs sector coming from the mixing are also discussed.

  15. Cryptographically Blinded Games: Leveraging Players' Limitations for Equilibria and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubacek, Pavel; Park, Sunoo

    2014-01-01

    In this work we apply methods from cryptography to enable mutually distrusting players to implement broad classes of mediated equilibria of strategic games without trusted mediation. Our implementation uses a pre-play 'cheap talk' phase, consisting of non- binding communication between players pr...... prior to play in the original game. In the cheap talk phase, the players run a secure multi-party computation protocol to sample from an equilibrium of a "cryptographically blinded" version of the game, in which actions are encrypted...

  16. Blind Deconvolution in Nonminimum Phase Systems Using Cascade Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqing Zhang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel cascade demixing structure for multichannel blind deconvolution in nonminimum phase systems. To simplify the learning process, we decompose the demixing model into a causal finite impulse response (FIR filter and an anticausal scalar FIR filter. A permutable cascade structure is constructed by two subfilters. After discussing geometrical structure of FIR filter manifold, we develop the natural gradient algorithms for both FIR subfilters. Furthermore, we derive the stability conditions of algorithms using the permutable characteristic of the cascade structure. Finally, computer simulations are provided to show good learning performance of the proposed method.

  17. A blind algorithm for recovering articulator positions from acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, John E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    MIMICRI is a signal-processing algorithm that has been shown to blindly infer and invert memoryless nonlinear functions of unobservable bandlimited signals, such as the mapping from the unobservable positions of the speech articulators to observable speech sounds. We review results of using MIMICRI on toy problems and on human speech data. We note that MIMICRI requires that the user specify two parameters: the dimensionality and pass-band of the unobservable signals. We show how to use cross-validation to help estimate the passband. An unexpected consequence of this work is that it helps separate signals with overlapping frequency bands.

  18. Single channel blind source separation based on ICA feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new technique is proposed to solve the blind source separation (BSS) given only a single channel observation. The basis functions and the density of the coefficients of source signals learned by ICA are used as the prior knowledge. Based on the learned prior information the learning rules of single channel BSS are presented by maximizing the joint log likelihood of the mixed sources to obtain source signals from single observation,in which the posterior density of the given measurements is maximized. The experimental results exhibit a successful separation performance for mixtures of speech and music signals.

  19. Self-Tuning Blind Identification and Equalization of IIR Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Tamal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers self-tuning blind identification and equalization of fractionally spaced IIR channels. One recursive estimator is used to generate parameter estimates of the numerators of IIR systems, while the other estimates denominator of IIR channel. Equalizer parameters are calculated by solving Bezout type equation. It is shown that the numerator parameter estimates converge (a.s. toward a scalar multiple of the true coefficients, while the second algorithm provides consistent denominator estimates. It is proved that the equalizer output converges (a.s. to a scalar version of the actual symbol sequence.

  20. Color blindness and interracial interaction: playing the political correctness game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Michael I; Sommers, Samuel R; Apfelbaum, Evan P; Pura, Natassia; Ariely, Dan

    2006-11-01

    Two experiments explored the ramifications of endorsing color blindness as a strategy for appearing unprejudiced. In Study 1, Whites proved adept at categorizing faces on the basis of race, but understated their ability to do so. In Study 2, Whites playing the Political Correctness Game--a matching task that requires describing other individuals--were less likely to use race as a descriptor when paired with a Black partner than when paired with a White partner, a strategy that impaired communication and performance. In addition, avoidance of race was associated with Whites making less eye contact with and appearing less friendly toward Black partners.

  1. White privilege, color blindness, and services to battered women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Denise A; Cook, Kimberly J; van Ausdale, Debra; Foley, Lara

    2005-01-01

    White privilege is a system of benefits, advantages, and opportunities experienced by White persons in our society simply because of their skin color. In this article, the authors present the results of a descriptive, exploratory study of White privilege in battered women's shelters in the Deep South. Based on a qualitative analysis, the authors show how White privilege is intricately connected to executive directors' claims of color blindness, the othering of women of color, and viewing White as the norm. The authors conclude the article with implications for service provision to battered women and directions for future research.

  2. Fixed-point blind source separation algorithm based on ICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan LI; Jianfen MA; Deng'ao LI; Huakui WANG

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces the fixed-point learning algorithm based on independent component analysis (ICA);the model and process of this algorithm and simulation results are presented.Kurtosis was adopted as the estimation rule of independence.The results of the experiment show that compared with the traditional ICA algorithm based on random grads,this algorithm has advantages such as fast convergence and no necessity for any dynamic parameter,etc.The algorithm is a highly efficient and reliable method in blind signal separation.

  3. FREQUENCY OVERLAPPED SIGNAL IDENTIFICATION USING BLIND SOURCE SEPARATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Junfeng; SHI Tielin; HE Lingsong; YANG Shuzi

    2006-01-01

    The concepts, principles and usages of principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) are interpreted. Then the algorithm and methodology of ICA-based blind source separation (BSS), in which the pre-whitened based on PCA for observed signals is used, are researched. Aiming at the mixture signals, whose frequency components are overlapped by each other, a simulation of BSS to separate this type of mixture signals by using theory and approach of BSS has been done. The result shows that the BSS has some advantages what the traditional methodology of frequency analysis has not.

  4. Blindsight: Recent and historical controversies on the blindness of blindsight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    of blindsight is a history of changing experimental paradigms and very few patients. In late 19th century, researchers debatedwhy lesions to primary visual cortex seemingly left some visual abilities intact in animals, while human patients reported to be blind. From the 1970s until today, experiments have......The phenomenon ‘blindsight’ has received much interest from neuroscientists, philosophers, and psychologists during the last decades. Several researchers seem to agree that blindsight might be of great importance in the ambition to find neural correlates of consciousness. However, the history...

  5. Virtual Acoustic Space: Space perception for the blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramos, Luis F.

    2011-06-01

    This R&D project implements a new way of perception of the three-dimensional surrounding space, based exclusively in sounds and thus especially useful for the blind. The innate capability of locating sounds, the externalization of sounds played with headphones and the machine capture of the 3D environment are the technological pillars used for this purpose. They are analysed and a summary of their main requirements are presented. A number of laboratory facilities and portable prototypes are described, together with their main characteristics.

  6. Changing patterns in global blindness: 1988–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Johnson

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available When the Community Eye Health Journal was launched in 1988, the world population was approximately 5.1 billion. Over the last 20 years, it has increased by approximately 30%, reaching 6.7 billion in 2008. During the same period, the world population has also become proportionally older, as the number of people aged 65 years and over has increased by approximately 55%, from 320 million in 1988 to 500 million in 2008. Since the prevalence of visual impairment becomes higher as people age, this combination of an increasing population and an ageing population is expected to cause a significant increase in the total number of blind people.

  7. Gauss-Newton based kurtosis blind deconvolution of spectroscopic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghe Yuan; Ziqiang Hu

    2006-01-01

    @@ The spectroscopic data recorded by dispersion spectrophotometer are usually degraded by the response function of the instrument. To improve the resolving power, double or triple cascade spectrophotometer and narrow slits have been employed, but the total flux of the radiation decreases accordingly, resulting in a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and a longer measuring time. However, the spectral resolution can be improved by mathematically removing the effect of the instrument response function. Based on the ShalviWeinstein criterion, a Gauss-Newton based kurtosis blind deconvolution algorithm for spectroscopic data is proposed. Experiments with some real measured Raman spectroscopic data show that this algorithm has excellent deconvolution capability.

  8. The conundrum of transient cortical blindness following coronary angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Claudia; Saia, Francesco; Marzocchi, Antonio; Branzi, Angelo

    2008-10-01

    We report a case of transient cortical blindness that occurred after coronary angiography and angioplasty performed through the right radial artery. This is a very rare entity, the physiopathology of which remains largely speculative. The most likely mechanism appears to be the local disruption of the blood-brain barrier by the contrast agent, possibly favoured by predisposing factors, which may cause a direct neurotoxic effect. All contrast agents can be associated with this complication, which does not seem to be volume dependent. The outcome is generally favourable, with spontaneous return of sight within 24-48 h and no requirement for specific therapy. Recurrence has never been reported.

  9. Cerebral venous thrombosis presenting with cerebellar ataxia and cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Sassi, Samia; Mizouni, Habiba; Nabli, Fatma; Kallel, Lamia; Kefi, Mounir; Hentati, Fayçal

    2010-01-01

    Venous infarction in the cerebellum has been reported only rarely, probably because of the abundant venous collateral drainage in this region. Bilateral occipital infarction is a rare cause of visual loss in cerebral venous thrombosis. We describe a 50-year-old woman with a history of ulcerative colitis who developed acute cerebellar ataxia and cortical blindness. She had bilateral cerebellar and occipital lesions related to sigmoid venous thrombosis and achieved complete recovery with anticoagulation therapy. Cerebral venous thrombosis should be considered in cases of simultaneous cerebellar and occipital vascular lesions.

  10. Transient cortical blindness following vertebral angiography: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Lai Wan; Chan, Ho Fung; Ma, Ka Fai; Cheng, Lik Fai; Chan, Tony Kt

    2015-02-01

    Transient cortical blindness (TCB) is a rare but well-known complication of cerebral angiography. Its pathophysiology remains uncertain. We would like to report a case of TCB in a patient during a follow up vertebral angiogram for post-coil embolization of left posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Patient's vision was resumed spontaneously within 24 hours after angiography, with no residual neurological deficit in subsequent clinical follow up. Multi-modality imaging evaluation including vertebral angiography, brain CT and MRI performed on same day are presented.

  11. Transient cortical blindness and successful recovery after coronary bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasdemir, Kutay; Evereklioglu, Cem; Kaya, Mehmet G

    2011-10-01

    Left ventricular injury has a bad prognosis, especially when a coronary artery is involved. After perforation of the left cardiac ventricle by a knife, a 19-year-old male patient presented with: (i) complete bilateral visual loss; (ii) left anterior descending (LAD) artery injury; (iii) severe systemic hypotension. Under emergency conditions and cardiopulmonary bypass, the LAD artery was revascularized by a saphenous vein graft. Bilateral blindness recovered within several days. Cerebral hypoxia as a result of severe systemic hypotension was the most likely underlying mechanism.

  12. Quantum broadcasting multiple blind signature with constant size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Li, Zhenli

    2016-09-01

    Using quantum homomorphic signature in quantum network, we propose a quantum broadcasting multiple blind signature scheme. Different from classical signature and current quantum signature schemes, the multi-signature proposed in our scheme is not generated by simply putting the individual signatures together, but by aggregating the individual signatures based on homomorphic property. Therefore, the size of the multi-signature is constant. Furthermore, based on a wide range of investigation for the security of existing quantum signature protocols, our protocol is designed to resist possible forgery attacks against signature and message from the various attack sources and disavowal attacks from participants.

  13. A Blind Eye to Industry-Level Corruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    -level corruption when tempted to favour their own industries. In other words, the optimal level of national cheating may not take into account the external cost it imposes upon other countries and the risk of wide-scale cheating and the possibility of an EU ETS collapse. Such national incentives to cheat......We investigate the risk of favouring domestic industries in the current European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS). As the EU forms a weak federal structure compared to the US, there is a risk that single countries may free ride on the others by choosing to take a blind eye to industry...

  14. Looking Good, Feeling Good – Tac Map: a navigation system for the blind

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Paul; Dieng, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the research and development of a navigation system for the blind that provides a tactile and visual language that can be understood by both sighted and blind users. It describes key work and issues in the development of graphical symbols and in particular the pioneering work of Neurath‟s ISOTYPES, as well as more specific communication systems for blind people. The paper focuses on the development of "TacMap‟, a navigation system for the blind. User engagement has been f...

  15. Causes of blindness among adult Yemenis: A Hospital-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Akily Saleh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This hospital-based retrospective study was aimed to assess the causes of blindness among adults aged 17 years and over who attended a teaching eye hospital in Yemen. Methods: The case notes of 3845 consecutive new patients over 12 months attending Ibn Al-Haitham Eye Center which is affiliated to the University of Science and Technology in Sana′a (the capital of Yemen were retrieved and analysed. Data collected included age, gender, chief complaint and complete eye examination. Results: 7.7 percent (296 were uniocularly blind and 11.2 percent (432 were binocularly blind (best corrected visual acuity < 3/60 in the better eye. The leading causes of uniocular blindness were cataract, trauma related ocular complications, corneal opacity, amblyopia and glaucoma. Binocular blindness was mainly due to cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, age related macular degeneration and corneal opacity. Conclusions: These data imply that the preliminary results give us some insight about the magnitude of the problem of blindness in Yemen while awaiting a national survey on the prevalence and causes of blindness. Cataract was found to be the main cause of unilateral and bilateral blindness and this will require surgical relief, either in public hospitals, private hospitals and clinics, or in eye camps. Trauma related ocular complications were found to be the second most common cause of uniocular blindness. Health education, implementing work safety measures and bringing ophthalmological care to the doorstep of underprivileged rural community will improve their level of awareness.

  16. [Significance of deficient bacterial colonization in the pathogenesis of mucosal lesions in experimental blind loop syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menge, H; Germer, C T; Stössel, R; Simes, G; Wagner, J; Hahn, H; Riecken, E O

    1985-07-20

    A complete evaluation of the bacterial flora in jejunal self-filling blind loops was performed. The results show a significant increase in bacteria of the genera E. coli, Streptococcus and Bacteroides. In further experiments, jejunal self-filling blind loops were created in germ-free animals. In spite of the germ-free state the mucosa displayed marked hyperplasia. The same was true when the blind loops had been contaminated with aerobic bacteria. These results demonstrate that other factors in addition to bacterial overgrowth contribute to the mucosal damage observed in self-filling blind loops.

  17. Comparing Whole Building Energy Implications of Sidelighting Systems with Alternate Manual Blind Control Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Dyke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no manual blind control guideline used consistently throughout the energy modeling community. This paper identifies and compares five manual blind control algorithms with unique control patterns and reports blind occlusion, rate of change data, and annual building energy consumption. The blind control schemes detailed here represent five reasonable candidates for use in lighting and energy simulation based on difference driving factors. This study was performed on a medium-sized office building using EnergyPlus with the internal daylight harvesting engine. Results show that applying manual blind control algorithms affects the total annual consumption of the building by as much as 12.5% and 11.5% for interior and exterior blinds respectively, compared to the Always Retracted blinds algorithm. Peak demand was also compared showing blind algorithms affected zone load sizing by as much as 9.8%. The alternate algorithms were tested for their impact on American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE Guideline 14 calibration metrics and all models were found to differ from the original calibrated baseline by more than the recommended ±15% for coefficient of variance of the mean square error (CVRMSE and ±5% for normalized mean bias error (NMBE. The paper recommends that energy modelers use one or more manual blind control algorithms during design stages when making decisions about energy efficiency and other design alternatives.

  18. Molyneux's Question: A Window on Crossmodal Interplay in Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Occelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In 1688, the Irish scientist William Molyneux sent a letter to the philosopher John Locke in which he asked whether a man who had been born blind and whose experience of the world was based on senses other than vision, would be able to distinguish and name a globe and a cube by sight alone, once he had been enabled to see. This issue immediately raised considerable interest amongst philosophers, who, for centuries, have continued to speculate about how this issue might be resolved. More recently, the possibility of corrective surgery for people born with congenital cataracts, has offered a valuable opportunity to explore this topic experimentally. A discussion of how Molyneux’s question has been addressed over the centuries, allows us to investigate a number of intellectual challenges, involving a variety of fields, ranging from philosophy, psychology and the cognitive sciences, to neuroscience. For instance, Molyenux’s question raises the question of whether sensory experience is specific to each sensory modality, or rather supramodal, and if a transfer of knowledge across modalities can be established. Molyneux’s question is also relevant to the discussion of whether, how and to what extent a concept of space can be developed by blind people. More generally, it concerns the idea of how conceptual knowledge is acquired and processed when vision is lacking. The present paper aims to provide an overview of all the issues raised by Molyenux’s question.

  19. Inattentional Blindness and Individual Differences in Cognitive Abilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Kreitz

    Full Text Available People sometimes fail to notice salient unexpected objects when their attention is otherwise occupied, a phenomenon known as inattentional blindness. To explore individual differences in inattentional blindness, we employed both static and dynamic tasks that either presented the unexpected object away from the focus of attention (spatial or near the focus of attention (central. We hypothesized that noticing in central tasks might be driven by the availability of cognitive resources like working memory, and that noticing in spatial tasks might be driven by the limits on spatial attention like attention breadth. However, none of the cognitive measures predicted noticing in the dynamic central task or in either the static or dynamic spatial task. Only in the central static task did working memory capacity predict noticing, and that relationship was fairly weak. Furthermore, whether or not participants noticed an unexpected object in a static task was only weakly associated with their odds of noticing an unexpected object in a dynamic task. Taken together, our results are largely consistent with the notion that noticing unexpected objects is driven more by stochastic processes common to all people than by stable individual differences in cognitive abilities.

  20. Blind separation of incoherent and spatially disjoint sound sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Antoni, Jérôme; Pereira, Antonio; Kellermann, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Blind separation of sound sources aims at reconstructing the individual sources which contribute to the overall radiation of an acoustical field. The challenge is to reach this goal using distant measurements when all sources are operating concurrently. The working assumption is usually that the sources of interest are incoherent - i.e. statistically orthogonal - so that their separation can be approached by decorrelating a set of simultaneous measurements, which amounts to diagonalizing the cross-spectral matrix. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is traditionally used to this end. This paper reports two new findings in this context. First, a sufficient condition is established under which "virtual" sources returned by PCA coincide with true sources; it stipulates that the sources of interest should be not only incoherent but also spatially orthogonal. A particular case of this instance is met by spatially disjoint sources - i.e. with non-overlapping support sets. Second, based on this finding, a criterion that enforces both statistical and spatial orthogonality is proposed to blindly separate incoherent sound sources which radiate from disjoint domains. This criterion can be easily incorporated into acoustic imaging algorithms such as beamforming or acoustical holography to identify sound sources of different origins. The proposed methodology is validated on laboratory experiments. In particular, the separation of aeroacoustic sources is demonstrated in a wind tunnel.

  1. Probabilistic blind deconvolution of non-stationary sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Rasmus Kongsgaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2004-01-01

    We solve a class of blind signal separation problems using a constrained linear Gaussian model. The observed signal is modelled by a convolutive mixture of colored noise signals with additive white noise. We derive a time-domain EM algorithm `KaBSS' which estimates the source signals, the associa......We solve a class of blind signal separation problems using a constrained linear Gaussian model. The observed signal is modelled by a convolutive mixture of colored noise signals with additive white noise. We derive a time-domain EM algorithm `KaBSS' which estimates the source signals......, the associated second-order statistics, the mixing filters and the observation noise covariance matrix. KaBSS invokes the Kalman smoother in the E-step to infer the posterior probability of the sources, and one-step lower bound optimization of the mixing filters and noise covariance in the M-step. In line...... with (Parra and Spence, 2000) the source signals are assumed time variant in order to constrain the solution sufficiently. Experimental results are shown for mixtures of speech signals....

  2. Partially blind instantly decodable network codes for lossy feedback environment

    KAUST Repository

    Sorour, Sameh

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we study the multicast completion and decoding delay minimization problems for instantly decodable network coding (IDNC) in the case of lossy feedback. When feedback loss events occur, the sender falls into uncertainties about packet reception at the different receivers, which forces it to perform partially blind selections of packet combinations in subsequent transmissions. To determine efficient selection policies that reduce the completion and decoding delays of IDNC in such an environment, we first extend the perfect feedback formulation in our previous works to the lossy feedback environment, by incorporating the uncertainties resulting from unheard feedback events in these formulations. For the completion delay problem, we use this formulation to identify the maximum likelihood state of the network in events of unheard feedback and employ it to design a partially blind graph update extension to the multicast IDNC algorithm in our earlier work. For the decoding delay problem, we derive an expression for the expected decoding delay increment for any arbitrary transmission. This expression is then used to find the optimal policy that reduces the decoding delay in such lossy feedback environment. Results show that our proposed solutions both outperform previously proposed approaches and achieve tolerable degradation even at relatively high feedback loss rates.

  3. HOC Based Blind Identification of Hydroturbine Shaft Volterra System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Bai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify the quadratic Volterra system simplified from the hydroturbine shaft system, a blind identification method based on the third-order cumulants and a reversely recursive method are proposed. The input sequence of the system under consideration is an unobservable independent identically distributed (i.i.d., zero-mean and non-Gaussian stationary signal, and the observed signals are the superposition of the system output signal and Gaussian noise. To calculate the third-order moment of the output signal, a computer loop judgment method is put forward to determine the coefficient. When using optimization method to identify the time domain kernels, we combined the traditional optimization algorithm (direct search method with genetic algorithm (GA and constituted the hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA. Finally, according to the prototype observation signal and the time domain kernel parameters obtained from identification, the input signal of the system can be gained recursively. To test the proposed method, three numerical experiments and engineering application have been carried out. The results show that the method is applicable to the blind identification of the hydroturbine shaft system and has strong universality; the input signal obtained by the reversely recursive method can be approximately taken as the random excitation acted on the runner of the hydroturbine shaft system.

  4. Blind test of physics-based prediction of protein structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, M Scott; Ozkan, S Banu; Voelz, Vincent; Wu, Guohong Albert; Dill, Ken A

    2009-02-01

    We report here a multiprotein blind test of a computer method to predict native protein structures based solely on an all-atom physics-based force field. We use the AMBER 96 potential function with an implicit (GB/SA) model of solvation, combined with replica-exchange molecular-dynamics simulations. Coarse conformational sampling is performed using the zipping and assembly method (ZAM), an approach that is designed to mimic the putative physical routes of protein folding. ZAM was applied to the folding of six proteins, from 76 to 112 monomers in length, in CASP7, a community-wide blind test of protein structure prediction. Because these predictions have about the same level of accuracy as typical bioinformatics methods, and do not utilize information from databases of known native structures, this work opens up the possibility of predicting the structures of membrane proteins, synthetic peptides, or other foldable polymers, for which there is little prior knowledge of native structures. This approach may also be useful for predicting physical protein folding routes, non-native conformations, and other physical properties from amino acid sequences.

  5. Prosthetic eye rehabilitation and management of completely blind patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamleh, Muhanad M; Haylock, Colin; Hollows, Philip; Richmond, Andrew; Watson, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Facial prostheses aim to restore the appearance, contours, and esthetics of the face while consequently enhancing patients' self-esteem and reintegration into social life. Restoring unilateral missing ocular and orbital tissues is a challenging task that requires great skill from the clinician (anaplastologist) to accurately mimic the opposing natural tissues. Bilateral defects present additional technical and clinical challenges for clinicians and patients alike. This article presents two cases involving restoration of the ocular and orbital components of bilaterally blind patients. The first case comprised the construction of indwelling scleral eye shells for both eyes, while the second comprised left orbital (implant-retained) and right indwelling eye shell prostheses. Custom-made bilaterally indwelling eyes are more esthetically pleasing than stock options and show better fit and comfort following conventional impression techniques. Clinical challenges include impression taking, prosthesis fabrication, identification of the correct orientation into the socket, communication with the patient, and satisfaction of patient expectations. Since both patients were blind, their families played a vital role in describing their prostheses and thus in improving the patients' self-esteem and satisfaction with treatment.

  6. Blind Source Parameters for Performance Evaluation of Despeckling Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashettappa Biradar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The speckle noise is inherent to transthoracic echocardiographic images. A standard noise-free reference echocardiographic image does not exist. The evaluation of filters based on the traditional parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity index may not reflect the true filter performance on echocardiographic images. Therefore, the performance of despeckling can be evaluated using blind assessment metrics like the speckle suppression index, speckle suppression and mean preservation index (SMPI, and beta metric. The need for noise-free reference image is overcome using these three parameters. This paper presents a comprehensive analysis and evaluation of eleven types of despeckling filters for echocardiographic images in terms of blind and traditional performance parameters along with clinical validation. The noise is effectively suppressed using the logarithmic neighborhood shrinkage (NeighShrink embedded with Stein’s unbiased risk estimation (SURE. The SMPI is three times more effective compared to the wavelet based generalized likelihood estimation approach. The quantitative evaluation and clinical validation reveal that the filters such as the nonlocal mean, posterior sampling based Bayesian estimation, hybrid median, and probabilistic patch based filters are acceptable whereas median, anisotropic diffusion, fuzzy, and Ripplet nonlinear approximation filters have limited applications for echocardiographic images.

  7. Hedgehog signalling controls eye degeneration in blind cavefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Stock, David W; Jeffery, William R

    2004-10-14

    Hedgehog (Hh) proteins are responsible for critical signalling events during development but their evolutionary roles remain to be determined. Here we show that hh gene expression at the embryonic midline controls eye degeneration in blind cavefish. We use the teleost Astyanax mexicanus, a single species with an eyed surface-dwelling form (surface fish) and many blind cave forms (cavefish), to study the evolution of eye degeneration. Small eye primordia are formed during cavefish embryogenesis, which later arrest in development, degenerate and sink into the orbits. Eye degeneration is caused by apoptosis of the embryonic lens, and transplanting a surface fish embryonic lens into a cavefish optic cup can restore a complete eye. Here we show that sonic hedgehog (shh) and tiggy-winkle hedgehog (twhh) gene expression is expanded along the anterior embryonic midline in several different cavefish populations. The expansion of hh signalling results in hyperactivation of downstream genes, lens apoptosis and arrested eye growth and development. These features can be mimicked in surface fish by twhh and/or shh overexpression, supporting the role of hh signalling in the evolution of cavefish eye regression.

  8. Blind extraction of an exoplanetary spectrum through Independent Component Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Waldmann, Ingo P; Deroo, Pieter; Hollis, Morgan D J; Yurchenko, Sergey N; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Blind-source separation techniques are used to extract the transmission spectrum of the hot-Jupiter HD189733b recorded by the Hubble/NICMOS instrument. Such a 'blind' analysis of the data is based on the concept of independent component analysis. The de-trending of Hubble/NICMOS data using the sole assumption that nongaussian systematic noise is statistically independent from the desired light-curve signals is presented. By not assuming any prior, nor auxiliary information but the data themselves, it is shown that spectroscopic errors only about 10 - 30% larger than parametric methods can be obtained for 11 spectral bins with bin sizes of ~0.09 microns. This represents a reasonable trade-off between a higher degree of objectivity for the non-parametric methods and smaller standard errors for the parametric de-trending. Results are discussed in the light of previous analyses published in the literature. The fact that three very different analysis techniques yield comparable spectra is a strong indication of th...

  9. Solar-blind ultraviolet optical system design for missile warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Huo, Furong; Zheng, Liqin

    2015-03-01

    Solar-blind region of Ultraviolet (UV) spectrum has very important application in military field. The spectrum range is from 240nm to 280nm, which can be applied to detect the tail flame from approaching missile. A solar-blind UV optical system is designed to detect the UV radiation, which is an energy system. iKon-L 936 from ANDOR company is selected as the UV detector, which has pixel size 13.5μm x 13.5 μm and active image area 27.6mm x 27.6 mm. CaF2 and F_silica are the chosen materials. The original structure is composed of 6 elements. To reduce the system structure and improve image quality, two aspheric surfaces and one diffractive optical element are adopted in this paper. After optimization and normalization, the designed system is composed of five elements with the maximum spot size 11.988μ m, which is less than the pixel size of the selected CCD detector. Application of aspheric surface and diffractive optical element makes each FOV have similar spot size, which shows the system almost meets the requirements of isoplanatic condition. If the focal length can be decreased, the FOV of the system can be enlarged further.

  10. Methomyl poisoning presenting with decorticate posture and cortical blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chih-Ming

    2014-01-17

    Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction.

  11. Pathogenesis of mucosal injury in the blind loop syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, A; Krishnan, C; Forstner, G

    1978-11-01

    Bacterial extracts were prepared from cultures originating in chronic self-filling intestinal blind loops in rats. Their ability to remove active maltase molecules from isolated brush border membranes was studied in vitro. Twelve strains in 51 tested, belonging to one of three species, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium perfringens, and Streptococcus fecalis, possessed maltase-releasing activity. The ability to remove maltase correlated well with the ability to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-l-alaninate (NBA), an ester substrate rapidly hydrolyzed by elastase, but not with substrated favored by tryhsin and chymotrypsin. Maltase-releasing activity from C. perfringens was strongly inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor and to a lesser extent by lima bean trypsin inhibitor. Of four chloromethylketone active-site directed inhibitors tested with specificities for elastase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin, inhibition was maximal with elastase-specific inhibitors. In two species, activity was shown to be heat sensitive, and to be inhibited by concentration of the extract. In one species maltase-releasing activity was shown to be due to an enzyme of molecular weight at least 66,000 with the capacity to remove lactase, sucrase, and alkaline phosphatase, as well as maltase. The results indicate that anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic species, previously identified with the pathology of of the blind loop syndrome, contain proteases which are capable of removing components of the intestinal surface membrane. These proteases appear to have elastase-like substrate specificity and may be involved in the etiology of disaccharidase deficiency in bacterial overgrowth syndromes.

  12. BLIND EXTRACTION OF AN EXOPLANETARY SPECTRUM THROUGH INDEPENDENT COMPONENT ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldmann, I. P.; Tinetti, G.; Hollis, M. D. J.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Deroo, P., E-mail: ingo@star.ucl.ac.uk [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109-8099 (United States)

    2013-03-20

    Blind-source separation techniques are used to extract the transmission spectrum of the hot-Jupiter HD189733b recorded by the Hubble/NICMOS instrument. Such a 'blind' analysis of the data is based on the concept of independent component analysis. The detrending of Hubble/NICMOS data using the sole assumption that nongaussian systematic noise is statistically independent from the desired light-curve signals is presented. By not assuming any prior or auxiliary information but the data themselves, it is shown that spectroscopic errors only about 10%-30% larger than parametric methods can be obtained for 11 spectral bins with bin sizes of {approx}0.09 {mu}m. This represents a reasonable trade-off between a higher degree of objectivity for the non-parametric methods and smaller standard errors for the parametric de-trending. Results are discussed in light of previous analyses published in the literature. The fact that three very different analysis techniques yield comparable spectra is a strong indication of the stability of these results.

  13. Methomyl poisoning presenting with decorticate posture and cortical blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Ming Lin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Methomyl is a potent pesticide that is widely used in the field of agriculture. The systemic toxic effects of methomyl have been well described. However, the neurological effects of methomyl intoxication are not well understood. In this study, we report a 61-year-old Taiwanese man sent to our emergency department because of altered mental status. His family stated that he had consumed liquid methomyl in a suicide attempt. He was provided cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of unstable vital signs. He was then sent to an intensive care unit for close observation. On the second day of admission, he regained consciousness but exhibited irregular limb and torso posture. On the sixth day, he started to complain of blurred vision. An ophthalmologist was consulted but no obvious abnormalities could be identified. On suspicion of cerebral disease, a neurologist was consulted. Further examination revealed cortical blindness and decorticate posture. Cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was arranged, which identified bilateral occipital regions lesions. The patient was administered normal saline and treated with aspirin and piracetam for 3 weeks in hospital. During the treatment period, his symptom of cortical blindness resolved, whereas his decorticate posture was refractory. Follow-up brain MRI results supported our clinical observations by indicating the disappearance of the bilateral occipital lesions and symmetrical putaminal high signal abnormalities. In this article, we briefly discuss the possible mechanisms underlying the cerebral effects of methomyl poisoning. Our study can provide clinicians with information on the manifestations of methomyl intoxication and an appropriate treatment direction.

  14. Blindness in a 25-Year Follow-up of a Population-Based Cohort of Danish Type 1 Diabetic Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grauslund, Jakob; Green, Anders; Sjølie, Anne Katrin

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the long-term incidence of blindness and to evaluate risk factors for blindness in a population-based cohort of type 1 diabetic patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A population-based cohort of 573 type 1 diabetic patients, all of whom participated...... to the subsequent development of blindness. Blindness was defined as present in patients who were registered as members of the Danish Association of the Blind between baseline and January 2007. The Danish Association of the Blind is a voluntary organization open for all patients with a best-corrected visual acuity...

  15. Color Blindness Defect and Medical Laboratory Technologists: Unnoticed Problems and the Care for Screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dargahi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available "nColor -blindness is the inability to perceive differences between some color that other people can distinguish. Using a literature search , the results indicate the prevalence of color vision deficiency in the medical profession and its on medical skills. Medical laboratory technicians and technologists employees should also screen for color blindness. This research aimed to study color blindness prevalence among Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees and Students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS. A cross- sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 633 TUMS Clinical Laboratory Sciences' Students and Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees to detect color - blindness problems by Ishihara Test. The tests were first screened with certain pictures, then compared to the Ishihara criteria to be possible color defective were tested further with other plates to determine color - blindness defects. The data was saved using with SPSS software and analyzed by statistical methods. This is the first study to determine the prevalence of color - blindness in Clinical Laboratory Sciences' Students and Employees. 2.4% of TUMS Medical Laboratory Sciences Students and Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees are color- blind. There is significant correlation between color - blindness and sex and age. But the results showed that there is not significant correlation between color -blindness defect and exposure to chemical agents, type of job , trauma and surgery history, history of familial defect and race. It would be a wide range of difficulties by color blinded students and employees in their practice of laboratory diagnosis and techniques with a potentially of errors. We suggest color blindness as a medical conditions should restrict employment choices for medical laboratory technicians and technologists job in Iran.

  16. Color blindness defect and medical laboratory technologists: unnoticed problems and the care for screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargahi, Hossein; Einollahi, Nahid; Dashti, Nasrin

    2010-01-01

    Color-blindness is the inability to perceive differences between some color that other people can distinguish. Using a literature search, the results indicate the prevalence of color vision deficiency in the medical profession and its on medical skills. Medical laboratory technicians and technologists employees should also screen for color blindness. This research aimed to study color blindness prevalence among Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees and Students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted among 633 TUMS Clinical Laboratory Sciences' Students and Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees to detect color-blindness problems by Ishihara Test. The tests were first screened with certain pictures, then compared to the Ishihara criteria to be possible color defective were tested further with other plates to determine color - blindness defects. The data was saved using with SPSS software and analyzed by statistical methods. This is the first study to determine the prevalence of color - blindness in Clinical Laboratory Sciences' Students and Employees. 2.4% of TUMS Medical Laboratory Sciences Students and Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees are color-blind. There is significant correlation between color-blindness and sex and age. But the results showed that there is not significant correlation between color-blindness defect and exposure to chemical agents, type of job, trauma and surgery history, history of familial defect and race. It would be a wide range of difficulties by color blinded students and employees in their practice of laboratory diagnosis and techniques with a potentially of errors. We suggest color blindness as a medical conditions should restrict employment choices for medical laboratory technicians and technologists job in Iran.

  17. Glycoprotein degradation in the blind loop syndrome: identification of glycosidases in jejunal contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prizont, R

    1981-02-01

    Contents obtained from jejunum of normal controls, self-emptying and self-filling blind loop rats were analyzed for the presence of glycoprotein-degrading glycosidases. The blind loop syndrome was documented by the increased fat excretion and slower growth rate of self-filling blind loop rats 6 wk after surgery. With p-nitrophenylglycosides as substrate, the specific activity of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, a potential blood group A destroying glycosidase, was 0.90+/-0.40 mU/mg of protein. This level was 23-fold higher than the specific activity of normal controls. In partially purified self-filling blind loop contents, the activity of alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase was 9- to 70-fold higher than activities of self-emptying and normal controls. Antibiotic treatment with chloromycetin and polymyxin decreased 24-fold the glycosidase levels in self-filling blind loops. In experiments with natural substrate, the blood group A titer of a20,000g supernate from normal jejunal homogenates decreased 128-fold after 24-h incubation with blind loop contents. Normal contents failed to diminish the blood group reactivity of the natural substrate. Furthermore, blind loop contents markedly decreased the blood group A titer of isolated brush borders. Incubation between blind loop bacteria and mucosal homogenates or isolated brush borders labeled with d-[U-(14)C]glucosamine revealed increased production of labeled ether extractable organic acids. Likewise, intraperitoneal injection of d-[U-(14)C]glucosamine into self-filling blind loop rats resulted in incorporation of the label into luminal short chain fatty acids. These results suggest that glycosidases may provide a mechanism by which blind loop bacteria obtain sugars from intestinal glycoproteins. The released sugars are used and converted by bacteria into energy and organic acids. This use of the host's glycoproteins would allow blind loop bacteria to grow and survive within the lumen independent of exogenous sources.

  18. Do open label blinded outcome studies of novel anticoagulants versus warfarin have equivalent validity to those carried out under double-blind conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, William M; Welner, Sharon A; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2013-03-01

    Recent anticoagulants for stroke prevention in AF have been tested in active comparator controlled studies versus warfarin using two designs: double-blind, double-dummy and prospective randomised, open blinded endpoint (PROBE). The former requires elaborate procedures to maintain blinding, while PROBE does not. Outcomes of double-blind and PROBE designed studies of novel anticoagulants for AF, focusing on warfarin controls, were explored. Major, Phase III warfarin-controlled trials for stroke prevention in AF were identified. Odds ratios (ORs) of key outcomes for active comparators versus VKA and event rates for VKA arms were compared between designs, in context of baseline demographics and inclusion criteria. Identified trials studied five novel anticoagulants in three each of PROBE and double-blind design. For ORs of results across studies and outcomes, there was little pattern differentiating the two designs. Among VKA-control subjects, event rates for the primary outcome (stroke or systemic embolism) in PROBE trials at 1.74 %/year (95% confidence interval: 1.54-1.95) was not significantly different from that in double-blind trials, at 1.88 (1.73-2.03). Among other outcomes, VKA-treated subjects in both trial designs had similar event rates, apart from higher all-cause mortality in ROCKET AF, and lower myocardial infarction rates among the PROBE study patients. Although there are differences in outcome between PROBE and double blind trials, they do not appear to be design-related. The exacting requirements of double-blinding in AF trials may not be necessary.

  19. Circadian genes in a blind subterranean mammal II: Conservation and uniqueness of the three Period homologs in the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies

    OpenAIRE

    Avivi, A; Oster, H; A Joel; BEILES, A.; Albrecht, U; Nevo, E.

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrated that a subterranean, visually blind mammal has a functional set of three Per genes that are important components of the circadian clockwork in mammals. The mole rat superspecies Spalax ehrenbergi is a blind subterranean animal that lives its entire life underground in darkness. It has degenerated eyes, but the retina and highly hypertrophic harderian gland are involved in photoperiodic perception. All three Per genes oscillate with a periodicity of 24 h in the suprachiasmatic ...

  20. Motivating Visually Impaired and Deaf-Blind People to Perform Regular Physical Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakka, Airi; Kivela, Tero

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the different ways in which visually impaired and deaf-blind people can be motivated to perform regular physical exercises through the use of a physical training programme. The programme was designed for visually impaired and deaf-blind people with the aim of reducing their most common physical problems: those…