WorldWideScience

Sample records for blindness

  1. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Got Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Blindness KidsHealth > For Kids > Blindness Print A A A ... help, are sometimes called "legally blind." What Causes Blindness? Vision problems can develop before a baby is ...

  2. Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevalent Cases of Blindness (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2010 U.S. Prevalent ... Prevalent Cases of Blindness (in thousands) by Age, Gender, and Race/Ethnicity Table for 2000 U.S. Prevalent ...

  3. Willed blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. A willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness enables us...... willed blindness focusing on the development of either a new moral vision of our obligations or new visions of what a good life is....

  4. Color Blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严双红

    2007-01-01

    About one in 12 boys is color-blind, and one in every 400 girls, so in each school class there are likely to be at least one or two people who are color-blind. Because they are color- blind from birth, most people do not know that they are color-

  5. Vision - night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003039.htm Vision - night blindness To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Night blindness is poor vision at night or in dim light. Considerations Night ...

  6. Onchocerciasis (River Blindness) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The CDC Parasites - Onchocerciasis (also known as River Blindness) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... infected Simulium blackfly. It is also called River Blindness because the fly that transmits infection breeds in ...

  7. Leading Causes of Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, more than ...

  8. Postictal blindness in adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Sadeh, M; Goldhammer, Y.; Kuritsky, A

    1983-01-01

    Cortical blindness following grand mal seizures occurred in five adult patients. The causes of seizures included idiopathic epilepsy, vascular accident, brain cyst, acute encephalitis and chronic encephalitis. Blindness was permanent in one patients, but the others recovered within several days. Since most of the patients were either unaware of or denied their blindness, it is possible that this event often goes unrecognised. Cerebral hypoxia is considered the most likely mechanism.

  9. Prevent Blindness America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advocacy Our Partners Prevent Blindness in your State Search Site Your Sight Your Sight What's Your Risk of a Vision Problem? Signs of Eye Problems ... School Your Child's Glasses Wearing Contact Lenses Prevent Blindness and Children's Vision Protecting Your Child's Eyes from ...

  10. Blindness%失明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李同良

    2009-01-01

    @@ There was a blind girl who hated herself because she was blind. She hated everyone,except her loving boyfriend who was always there for her. She told her boyfriend, "If I could only see the World, I will marry you."

  11. Facts About Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly diagnose specific types of color blindness. The Ishihara Color Test is the most common test for red-green ... red-green color blindness. The newer Cambridge Color Test uses a visual array similar to the Ishihara plates, except displayed on a computer monitor. The ...

  12. Blindness in Otters

    OpenAIRE

    Williams J

    1989-01-01

    In England, which has a long history of well-recorded otter hunts, there were historically no records of blind but fit otters. The author obtained records of 22 blind but otherwise fit otters observed between 1957 and 1980, but none before or since; this seems to correspond with the period of greatest otter decline.

  13. Models for the blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsén, Jan-Eric

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind...... person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical...... background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material...

  14. Change blindness images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Qian; Xu, Kun; Wong, Tien-Tsin; Jiang, Bi-Ye; Hu, Shi-Min

    2013-11-01

    Change blindness refers to human inability to recognize large visual changes between images. In this paper, we present the first computational model of change blindness to quantify the degree of blindness between an image pair. It comprises a novel context-dependent saliency model and a measure of change, the former dependent on the site of the change, and the latter describing the amount of change. This saliency model in particular addresses the influence of background complexity, which plays an important role in the phenomenon of change blindness. Using the proposed computational model, we are able to synthesize changed images with desired degrees of blindness. User studies and comparisons to state-of-the-art saliency models demonstrate the effectiveness of our model. PMID:24029902

  15. Blinded by Irrelevance: Pure Irrelevance Induced "Blindness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eitam, Baruch; Yeshurun, Yaffa; Hassan, Kinneret

    2013-01-01

    To what degree does our representation of the immediate world depend solely on its relevance to what we are currently doing? We examined whether relevance per se can cause "blindness," even when there is no resource limitation. In a novel paradigm, people looked at a colored circle surrounded by a differently colored ring--the task relevance of…

  16. How "Blind" Are Double-Blind Studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, Jurgen; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Compared alprazolam, imipramine, and placebo in the treatment of panic disorder patients (n=59) to investigate concerns about the internal validity of the double-blind design. Found that the great majority of patients and physicians were able to rate accurately whether active drug or placebo had been given and physicians could distinguish between…

  17. Static analysis for blinding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christoffer Rosenkilde; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2006-01-01

    operation blinding. In this paper we study the theoretical foundations for one of the successful approaches to validating cryptographic protocols and we extend it to handle the blinding primitive. Our static analysis approach is based on Flow Logic; this gives us a clean separation between the specification...... of the analysis and its realisation in an automatic tool. We concentrate on the former in the present paper and provide the semantic foundation for our analysis of protocols using blinding - also in the presence of malicious attackers....

  18. Blind Collective Signature Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Moldovyan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Using the digital signature (DS scheme specified by Belarusian DS standard there are designed the collective and blind collective DS protocols. Signature formation is performed simultaneously by all of the assigned signers, therefore the proposed protocols can be used also as protocols for simultaneous signing a contract. The proposed blind collective DS protocol represents a particular implementation of the blind multisignature schemes that is a novel type of the signature schemes. The proposed protocols are the first implementations of the multisignature schemes based on Belarusian signature standard.

  19. A Blind Date

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立

    2003-01-01

    英语对话:A: Talking about girls, I still remember my first time to meet my girlfriend. Iwas so clumsy and very nervous.B: That’s the same case with me. I had the jitters at my blind date, too.A: Did you also meet your girlfriend at a blind date?B: Yeah. I was actually very shy of speaking to girls, you know?

  20. Factors affecting blind mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Clark-Carter, David

    1985-01-01

    This thesis contains a survey of the mobility problems of blind people, experimental analysis and evaluation of these problems and suggestions for ways in which the evaluation of mobility performance and the design of mobility aids may be improved. The survey revealed a low level of mobility among blind people, with no significant improvement since a comparable survey in 1967. A group of self taught cane users were identified and their mobility was shown to be poor or potentially dangero...

  1. Models for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in nineteenth-century blind schools. The aim of this article is twofold. First, I provide a historical background to the tactile objects of the blind. When did they appear as a specific category of pedagogical aid and how did they help determine the relation between blindness, vision, and touch? Second, I address the tactile objects from the point of view of empirical sources and historical evidence. Material objects are rarely used as historical testimonies for the simple reason that they, unlike archival material, do not present historians with written documents that can be held as evidence of the past. However, as I point out, certain historical questions of which archives remain silent could be approached by other means such as the use of material objects. Rather than delivering concrete methodological suggestions, this second part reflects upon the historical use of material objects - both their possibilities and their limits - within the context of blindness.

  2. Blind Analysis in Particle Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Roodman, Aaron

    2003-01-01

    A review of the blind analysis technique, as used in particle physics measurements, is presented. The history of blind analyses in physics is briefly discussed. Next the dangers of "experimenter's bias" and the advantages of a blind analysis are described. Three distinct kinds of blind analysis in particle physics are presented in detail. Finally, the BABAR collaboration's experience with the blind analysis technique is discussed.

  3. Blind Friendly Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Červenka, Petr; Břinda, Karel; Seifert, Radek; Hofman, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Space concept of the surrounding area is one of the most important preconditions of the independent mobility and orientation of the blind people. Tactile maps are considered to be the most appropriate source of spatial information. One of the main problems of the tactile maps usage is their problematic accessibility for the blind users since they are not available in time and with up-to-date content. The map production is a matter of tedious manual work and a result of expensive and time-cons...

  4. Models for the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Eric Olsén

    2014-01-01

    When displayed in museum cabinets, tactile objects that were once used in the education of blind and visually impaired people, appear to us, sighted visitors, as anything but tactile. We cannot touch them due to museum policies and we can hardly imagine what it would have been like for a blind person to touch them in their historical context. And yet these objects are all about touch, from the concrete act of touching something to the norms that assigned touch a specific pedagogical role in n...

  5. Testing Children for Color Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / News Testing Children for Color Blindness Written by: Shirley Dang Apr. 03, 2014 New ... shows that kids can be tested for color blindness as soon as age 4, finds Caucasian boys ...

  6. Postural control in blind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vinicius Soares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze postural control in acquired and congenitally blind adults. Methods: A total of 40 visually impaired adults participated in the research, divided into 2 groups, 20 with acquired blindness and 20 with congenital blindness - 21 males and 19 females, mean age 35.8 ± 10.8. The Brazilian version of Berg Balance Scale and the motor domain of functional independence measure were utilized. Results: On Berg Balance Scale the mean for acquired blindness was 54.0 ± 2.4 and 54.4 ± 2.5 for congenitally blind subjects; on functional independence measure the mean for acquired blind group was 87.1 ± 4.8 and 87.3 ± 2.3 for congenitally blind group. Conclusion: Based upon the scale used the results suggest the ability to control posture can be developed by compensatory mechanisms and it is not affected by visual loss in congenitally and acquired blindness.

  7. The blind hens’ challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Hocking, Paul M.; Forkman, Björn;

    2014-01-01

    repellent, yet 'welfare-only' positions appear to be committed to endorsing this possibility if it produces welfare gains. We call this the 'Blind Hens' Challenge'. In this paper, we argue that there are both empirical and theoretical reasons why even those adopting 'welfare-only' views should be concerned...

  8. FLIPPS for the Blind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bothe, Hans-Heinrich; Al-Hamdani, Sermed

    2010-01-01

    (blind person) receives the reflected light from the objects and, based on brain plasticity principles, can interactively learn to construct a mental image of the objects and of the scenery. The FLIPPS idea is based on sensory substitution theory; here, substituting visual inputs by haptic vibrations....

  9. Oplysningens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  10. Oplysnigens blinde vinkler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Hansen, Pelle Guldborg

    manipulation og fordrejning, til at påvirke menneskers overvejelser, beslutninger og handlinger, både individuelt og kollektivt, hvilket i sidste ende kan få betydning for de demokratiske processer. Oplysningens blinde vinkler gennemgår en række informationsfænomener, som optræder i vores dagligdag, og den...

  11. Blind Deconvolution Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Filip; Šorel, Michal

    Berlin : Wiley, 2011 - (Cristobal, G.; Schelkens, P.; Thienpont, H.), s. 529-548 ISBN 978-3-527-40956-3 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/1593 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : blind deconvolution * space-variant deconvolution Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  12. Corneal blindness and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Vladimir; Hara, Hidetaka; Mammen, Alex; Dhaliwal, Deepinder; Cooper, David K C

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 39 million people are blind worldwide, with an estimated 285 million visually impaired. The developing world shoulders 90% of the world's blindness, with 80% of causative diseases being preventable or treatable. Blindness has a major detrimental impact on the patient, community, and healthcare spending. Corneal diseases are significant causes of blindness, affecting at least 4 million people worldwide. The prevalence of corneal disease varies between parts of the world. Trachoma, for instance, is the second leading cause of blindness in Africa, after cataracts, but is rarely found today in developed nations. When preventive strategies have failed, corneal transplantation is the most effective treatment for advanced corneal disease. The major surgical techniques for corneal transplantation include penetrating keratoplasty (PK), anterior lamellar keratoplasty, and endothelial keratoplasty (EK). Indications for corneal transplantation vary between countries, with Fuchs' dystrophy being the leading indication in the USA and keratoconus in Australia. With the exception of the USA, where EK will soon overtake PK as the most common surgical procedure, PK is the overwhelming procedure of choice. Success using corneal grafts in developing nations, such as Nepal, demonstrates the feasibility of corneal transplantation on a global scale. The number of suitable corneas from deceased human donors that becomes available will never be sufficient, and so research into various alternatives, for example stem cells, amniotic membrane transplantation, synthetic and biosynthetic corneas, and xenotransplantation, is progressing. While each of these has potential, we suggest that xenotransplantation holds the greatest potential for a corneal replacement. With the increasing availability of genetically engineered pigs, pig corneas may alleviate the global shortage of corneas in the near future. PMID:25268248

  13. The willed blindness of humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes how we seem to live in a willed blindness towards the effects that our meat production and consumption have on animals, the environment and the climate. It is a willed blindness that cannot be explained by either lack of knowledge or scientific uncertainty. The blindness...

  14. Blind Decryption and Privacy Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Al-Fayoumi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Blind decryption is an efficient way of protecting customer’s privacy in online marketing over the Internet (i.e. Hiding information about which goods a user purchases from the vendor. In this study, the RSA based blind decryption is simply transposed from an identical protocol as the Chaum’s blind signature scheme and the blind decryption protocol for the Elgamal encryption scheme is suggested. In addition, the difference between the known RSA based blind decryption protocol and our proposed protocol is examined in applications to protect copyright subjects of e-commerce documents over the internet.

  15. Unconditionally verifiable blind computation

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2012-01-01

    Blind Quantum Computing (BQC) allows a client to have a server carry out a quantum computation for them such that the client's input, output and computation remain private. Recently the authors together with Broadbent proposed a universal unconditionally secure BQC scheme where the client only needs to be able to prepare single qubits in separable states randomly chosen from a finite set and send them to the server, who has the balance of the required quantum computational resources. A desirable property for any BQC protocol is verification, whereby the client can verify with high probability whether the server has followed the instructions of the protocol, or if there has been some deviation resulting in a corrupted output state. A verifiable BQC protocol can be viewed as an interactive proof system leading to consequences for complexity theory. In this paper we extend the BQC protocol presented in [Broadbent, Fitzsimons and Kashefi, FOCS 2009 p517] with new functionality allowing blind computational basis m...

  16. Blind Quantum Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Arrighi, P; Arrighi, Pablo; Salvail, Louis

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input. Say Alice wants Bob to compute some well-known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The setting is quantum, the security is unconditional, the eavesdropper is as malicious as can be. Keywords: Secure Circuit Evaluation, Secure Two-party Computation, Information Hiding, Information gain vs disturbance.

  17. Tackling Inherited Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Batten, Matthew L.; Imanishi, Yoshikazu; Tu, Daniel C; Doan, Thuy; Zhu, Li; Pang, Jijing; Glushakova, Lyudmila; Moise, Alexander R.; Baehr, Wolfgang; Van Gelder, Russell N.; Hauswirth, William W.; Rieke, Fred; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2005-01-01

    Background Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a heterogeneous early-onset retinal dystrophy, accounts for ~15% of inherited congenital blindness. One cause of LCA is loss of the enzyme lecithin:retinol acyl transferase (LRAT), which is required for regeneration of the visual photopigment in the retina. Methods and Findings An animal model of LCA, the Lrat −/− mouse, recapitulates clinical features of the human disease. Here, we report that two interventions—intraocular gene therapy and oral ph...

  18. Stochastic Blind Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Xiao, Lei

    2015-05-13

    Blind motion deblurring from a single image is a highly under-constrained problem with many degenerate solutions. A good approximation of the intrinsic image can therefore only be obtained with the help of prior information in the form of (often non-convex) regularization terms for both the intrinsic image and the kernel. While the best choice of image priors is still a topic of ongoing investigation, this research is made more complicated by the fact that historically each new prior requires the development of a custom optimization method. In this paper, we develop a stochastic optimization method for blind deconvolution. Since this stochastic solver does not require the explicit computation of the gradient of the objective function and uses only efficient local evaluation of the objective, new priors can be implemented and tested very quickly. We demonstrate that this framework, in combination with different image priors produces results with PSNR values that match or exceed the results obtained by much more complex state-of-the-art blind motion deblurring algorithms.

  19. Noise blind test

    OpenAIRE

    H. Cadet

    2006-01-01

    In the aim of characterizing site condition for seismic risk, the microtremor or ambient noise studies have been developed. The main objective of this blind test is to check of the reliability of results, to observe the user subjectivity (array choice, parameters that are user depend) in the noise recordings analyze. Noise records were analysed on single-station with H/V method and with several sensors for array method to determine the dispersion characteristics of the surface-wave part of th...

  20. Blind Quantum Computation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salvail, Louis; Arrighi, Pablo

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x. The situa......We investigate the possibility of "having someone carry out the work of executing a function for you, but without letting him learn anything about your input". Say Alice wants Bob to compute some known function f upon her input x, but wants to prevent Bob from learning anything about x....... The situation arises for instance if client Alice has limited computational resources in comparison with mistrusted server Bob, or if x is an inherently mobile piece of data. Could there be a protocol whereby Bob is forced to compute f(x) "blindly", i.e. without observing x? We provide such a blind computation...... protocol for the class of functions which admit an efficient procedure to generate random input-output pairs, e.g. factorization. The cheat-sensitive security achieved relies only upon quantum theory being true. The security analysis carried out assumes the eavesdropper performs individual attacks....

  1. The whole story behind blind adaptive equalizers/blind deconvolution

    CERN Document Server

    Pinchas, Monika

    2012-01-01

    This e-book covers a variety of blind deconvolution/equalization methods based on both cost functions and Bayes rules where simulation results are supplied to support the theory - including Maximum Entropy density approximation technique and the Edgeworth Expansion approach used in various blind equalizers.

  2. POSTERIOR SEGMENT CAUSES OF BLINDNESS AMONG CHILDREN IN BLIND SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is estimated that there are 1.4 million irreversibly blind children in the world out of which 1 million are in Asia alone. India has the highest number of blind children than any other country. Nearly 70% of the childhood blindness is avoidable. There i s paucity of data available on the causes of childhood blindness. This study focuses on the posterior segment causes of blindness among children attending blind schools in 3 adjacent districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIAL & METHODS: This is a cross sectiona l study conducted among 204 blind children aged 6 - 16 years age. Detailed eye examination was done by the same investigator to avoid bias. Posterior segment examination was done using a direct and/or indirect ophthalmoscope after dilating pupil wherever nec essary. The standard WHO/PBL for blindness and low vision examination protocol was used to categorize the causes of blindness. A major anatomical site and underlying cause was selected for each child. The study was carried out during July 2014 to June 2015 . The results were analyzed using MS excel software and Epi - info 7 software version statistical software. RESULTS: Majority of the children was found to be aged 13 - 16 years (45.1% and males (63.7%. Family history of blindness was noted in 26.0% and consa nguinity was reported in 29.9% cases. A majority of them were belonged to fulfill WHO grade of blindness (73.0% and in majority of the cases, the onset of blindness was since birth (83.7%. The etiology of blindness was unknown in majority of cases (57.4% while hereditary causes constituted 25.4% cases. Posterior segment causes were responsible in 33.3% cases with retina being the most commonly involved anatomical site (19.1% followed by optic nerve (14.2%. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need for mandatory oph thalmic evaluation, refraction and assessment of low vision prior to admission into blind schools with periodic evaluation every 2 - 3 years

  3. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    It may seem that deaf-blindness refers to a total inability to see or hear. However, in reality deaf-blindness is a condition in which the combination of hearing and visual losses in children cause "such severe communication and other develop mental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for…

  4. Blind Known Interference Cancellation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates interference-cancellation schemes at the receiver, in which the original data of the interference is known a priori. Such a priori knowledge is common in wireless relay networks. For example, a transmitting relay could be relaying data that was previously transmitted by a node, in which case the interference received by the node now is actually self information. Besides the case of self information, the node could also have overheard or received the interference data in a prior transmission by another node. Directly removing the known interference requires accurate estimate of the interference channel, which may be difficult in many situations. In this paper, we propose a novel scheme, Blind Known Interference Cancellation (BKIC), to cancel known interference without interference channel information. BKIC consists of two steps. The first step combines adjacent symbols to cancel the interference, exploiting the fact that the channel coefficients are almost the same between successive sy...

  5. Laboratory Techniques for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombaugh, Dorothy

    1972-01-01

    Describes modifications of laboratory procedures for the BSCS Green Version biology, including dissection, microbiology, animal behavior, physiology, biochemistry, and genetics that make the methods suitable for direct experimentation by blind students. Discusses models as substitutes for microscopy. (AL)

  6. Student Art for Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanda, Kay

    1982-01-01

    Describes a project in which high school student volunteers designed art activities for blind children. Students incorporated the sensation of motion and texture into their designs for toys, puzzles, games, and story illustrations. (AM)

  7. Blinded trials taken to the test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Forfang, E; Haahr, M T;

    2007-01-01

    Blinding can reduce bias in randomized clinical trials, but blinding procedures may be unsuccessful. Our aim was to assess how often randomized clinical trials test the success of blinding, the methods involved and how often blinding is reported as being successful....

  8. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes What It's Like to Be Color Blind KidsHealth > For Kids > What It's Like to Be Color Blind Print A A ... blind. But some people really are color blind. It doesn't mean they can't see any ...

  9. 20 CFR 416.983 - How we evaluate statutory blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How we evaluate statutory blindness. 416.983... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.983 How we evaluate statutory blindness. We will find that you are blind if you are statutorily blind within the meaning...

  10. 20 CFR 416.982 - Blindness under a State plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blindness under a State plan. 416.982 Section..., BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.982 Blindness under a State... plan because of your blindness for the month of December 1973; and (c) You continue to be blind...

  11. Access to Mathematics by Blind Students: A Global Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Arthur I. Karshmer; Daryoush D. Farsi

    2007-01-01

    The issue of blindness and legally blind is becoming a global issue. Based on the last statistics from American Foundation for the blind, there are approximately 10 million blind and visually impaired people in the United States alone. Over 45 million people around the world are completely blind. 180 million more people are legally blind, and approximately 7 million people are diagnosed as blind or legally blind every year. One of the greatest stumbling blocks in the ability of the blind to e...

  12. [Aiming for zero blindness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Toru

    2015-03-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of acquired blindness in Japan. One reason that it often leads to blindness is that it can continue to worsen even after effective medical reduction of intraocular pressure (IOP), the only evidence-based treatment. The limitations of current treatments make it critical to identify IOP-independent factors that can cause glaucoma and develop new drugs to target these factors. This is a challenging task, as the pathology of glaucoma is thought to be very complex, with different combinations of factors underlying its development and progression in different patients. Additionally, there is a deficiency in methods to efficiently perform clinical evaluations and reliably probe the state of the disease over relatively short periods. In addition, newly developed drugs need to be evaluated with clinical trials, for which human and financial resources are limited, before they can be widely used for treatment. Taking all these issues into consideration, it is evident that there are two urgent issues to consider: the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on its pathology, and the improvement of clinical evaluation methods. In this review, we discuss some of our efforts to develop new neuroprotective agents for glaucoma, with a focus on the following three areas: 1. Clinical research and development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP-independent factors, and the exploration of possibilities for the improvement of clinical evaluation of glaucoma. 2. Pathology-based research and development of new drugs for glaucoma, focusing on comprehensive gene expression analysis and the development of molecule-targeting drugs, using murine optic nerve crush as a disease model. 3. Development of next generation in vivo imaging modalities and the establishment of infrastructure enabling "big-data" analysis. First, we discuss our clinical research and the development of methods to classify glaucoma in detail based on IOP

  13. New treatments of hereditary blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mette; Rosenberg, Thomas; Larsen, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a structura......Ongoing clinical trials are targeting several previously intractable hereditary causes of blindness of congenital, childhood or early adulthood onset, mainly in the optic nerve and retina. The intended stage of initiation of the new therapeutic approaches ranges from neonatal life and a...... structurally intact retinal tissue to adult life with a complete loss of photoreceptors. It must be assumed that some of the trials will succeed in producing new therapies and action must be taken to refine and accelerate diagnostics and to preserve therapeutic potential in blind people....

  14. PROXY BLIND SIGNATURE BASED ON ECDLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SATARUPA PRADHAN,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Proxy blind signature combines the properties of both proxy signature and blind signature. In a proxy signature scheme, a signer delegates his signing power to a proxy, who signs a message on behalf of the original signer. In a blind signature scheme, the signer cannot link the relationship between the blind message and the signature of the chosen message. Therefore, it is very suitable for electronic commerceapplication. In this paper, a proxy blind signature scheme based on ECDLP (Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem has been proposed, which satisfy the security properties of both the blind signature and the proxy signature. Analysis shows that our scheme is secure and efficient.

  15. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  16. [The punishment of blinding and the life of the blind].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Jan Ulrich

    2009-01-01

    The article deals with a group of people who were deprived of their eyesight by private acts of force or by executions of lawful sentences. In early medieval texts blinding is frequently mentioned in connection with popes, kings, princes or bishops. However, since the High Middle Ages these dignitaries were increasingly spared the loss of their eyes. It may be said that on the whole, from the eighth to the twelfth century, blinding was overwhelmingly used to dispose of political adversaries, but did then rapidly turn into a criminal punishment. In the earliest 'Landfriedensordnungen' of the late eleventh century, the loss of the perpetrator's eyes crops up as punishment for breach of the peace, while later it was applied to a variety of more or less serious offences. The destiny of the blinded in the early Middle Ages is only highlighted by sketches of a few individual cases; for the High and late Middle Ages--apart from a few notable exceptions--it is only possible to reflect on the general situation of blind people in society, since the sources usually do not differentiate between those having lost their sight through human violence or due to other causes. PMID:20506724

  17. Elliptic Curve Blind Digital Signature Schemes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YOULin; YANGYixian; WENQiaoyan

    2003-01-01

    Blind signature schemes are important cryptographic protocols in guaranteeing the privacy or anonymity of the users.Three new blind signature schemes and their corresponding generalizations are pro-posed. Moreover, their securities are simply analyzed.

  18. Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160254.html Blindness Biggest Fear for Many Americans Losing vision would ... 4, 2016 THURSDAY, Aug. 4, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Blindness is what many Americans fear most, a new ...

  19. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations and...

  20. Blinding in randomized clinical trials: imposed impartiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hróbjartsson, A; Boutron, I

    2011-01-01

    Blinding, or "masking," is a crucial method for reducing bias in randomized clinical trials. In this paper, we review important methodological aspects of blinding, emphasizing terminology, reporting, bias mechanisms, empirical evidence, and the risk of unblinding. Theoretical considerations...

  1. The Concept and Operations of Blind Number

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PANG Yan-jun; LIU Kai-di; ZHANG Bo-wen

    2001-01-01

    This paper gives the definition and operations of blind number, and discusses its operationproperties. Blind number is a mathematical tool to express and deal with complex information with severalkinds of uncertainty.

  2. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik;

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources from...

  3. Metro Navigation for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Jaime; Saenz, Mauricio

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the impact of using the software program AudioMetro, a tool that supports the orientation and mobility of people who are blind in the Metro system of Santiago de Chile. A quasi-experimental study considering experimental and control groups and using the paired Student's t in a two sample test analysis (pretest-posttest) was…

  4. Overview on Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reading lip-reading speech Along with nonverbal and verbal conversations, a child who is deaf-blind needs a reliable routine of meaningful activities, and some way or ways that this routine can be communicated to her or him. Touch cues, gestures, and use of object symbols are some ...

  5. Visual Product Identification for Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krutarth Majithia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This project is developed to make the life of blind people easy. This is a camera based system to scan the barcode behind the image and read the description of the product with the help of Id stored in the barcode. This is very beneficial in case of finding out the description of packaged goods to the blind people and thus helping them in deciding to purchase a product or not especially which are packaged. This is because it becomes very difficult for the blind people to distinguish between the packaged goods. In order to use this system, all the user needs to do is capture the image on the product in the mobile phone which then resolves the barcode which means it scans the image to find out the Id stored. Thus this application really benefits blind and visually impaired people and thus making their work of identifying products easy. This is very easy to use and affordable as it requires a scanner to scan the barcode and a camera phone to take the picture of the image containing the barcode. This is now easy to implement as most of the mobile phones today have the required resolution in order to scan the barcode to identify the Id stored in it and read out the product description. This project can be implemented in any shopping mall, supermarket, Book stores, Medical stores etc.

  6. Vesicouterine fistula and blind vagina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of vesicouterine fistula with blind vagina following cesarean section for obstructed labor is presented. It was surgically treated by fistulectomy, cervicoplasty and maintenance of bladder and cervical potency by catheterization. Intrauterine synechiae formation was prevented by copper T insertion and oral contraceptive pills. The patient is making uneventful a symptomatic progress planning to conceive. (author)

  7. Creating workshops for blind and visually impaired

    OpenAIRE

    Rot, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The thesis Načrtovanje projektnih delavnic za osebe s slepoto in slabovidnostjo discusses the planning stage and the performance of projects for blind and visually impaired adults. It points out the positive effects of those projects on the life of an individual. Adults and senior citizens who are not blind from birth often lack professional help which would enable their adaptation to the life of blind and visually impaired. The thesis concentrates on one of the ways of integrating blind and ...

  8. Psychomotor Development for the Deaf-Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Claudine

    The stages of psychomotor development in deaf blind children and youth are reviewed, and educational principles to guide psychomotor development programs for the deaf blind are outlined. Etiological factors which contribute to the psychomotor development of deaf blind persons are discussed including nonambulation and sensory deprivation, heart…

  9. 45 CFR 233.70 - Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Blindness. 233.70 Section 233.70 Public Welfare... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS § 233.70 Blindness. (a) State plan requirements. A State plan under title X or XVI of the Social Security Act must: (1) Contain a definition of blindness in terms of...

  10. BLIND ADAPTIVE XPIC BASED ON HOS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Haiyang; Yang Longxiang; Peng Jianglong

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a new blind XPIC and a new adaptive blind deconvolutional algorithm based on HOS processing, which separates and equalizes the signals in real time. The simulation results demonstrate that the performance of the proposed adaptive blind algorithm,compared with the conventional algorithms, is outstanding with the feature of feasibility, stability and fast convergence rate.

  11. Resources for Visually Impaired or Blind Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    Suggests resources for school librarians who need materials for visually impaired or blind students. Highlights include the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped; Louis Database of Accessible Materials for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired; Braille books; large print books, audio books; assistive technology; and…

  12. National Center On Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Profile My Profile Help Logout Menu NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness NCDB: National Center on Deaf-Blindness Help Login | Make a Profile ... Together for Families State Deaf-Blind Projects & Parent Center Collaborations New OHOA Modules Released! Modules 9-18. ‹ › ...

  13. Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsen, Line Røseth; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Bryn, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Highlights •Occupant satisfaction with two blind control strategies has been studied. •Control based on cut-off position of slats was more popular than closed slats. •Results from the study are helpful in development of control strategies for blinds. •The results give indications of how blinds...

  14. From" Televised Blind Date” to" Televised Half-blind Wedding”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    @@ A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates” , arranged by a television station. It is interesting to see how a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding” to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that 1 think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out.

  15. From "Televised Blind Date" to "Televised Half-blind Wedding"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪俊

    2001-01-01

    A couple of weeks ago I happened to see on TV how American young men and women go out on "blind dates", arranged by a television station, It is interesting to see bow a young man and a young woman enjoy playing, dining or chatting with each other happily and naturally before a TV camera, even though they have never known or met with each other before. Yesterday evening one of the biggest national TV stations, FOX by name, made another bold try by broadcasting live a "half-blind wedding" to the whole country. It is such an original and also absurd idea that I think only American television-men can have figured it out and carried it out. In the beginning, the directors of FOX put ads in newspapers, openly asking the public: "Who wants to marry a multi-millionaire?" It did not cost much time or

  16. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Ruhagaze; Kahaki Kimani Margaret Njuguna; Lévi Kandeke; Paul Courtright

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. Materials and Methods: All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired be...

  17. Rapid Assessment of Avoidable Blindness in Western Rwanda: Blindness in a Postconflict Setting

    OpenAIRE

    Wanjiku Mathenge; John Nkurikiye; Hans Limburg; Hannah Kuper

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. VISION 2020, a global initiative that aims to eliminate avoidable blindness, has estimated that 75% of blindness worldwide is treatable or preventable. The WHO estimates that in Africa, around 9% of adults aged over 50 are blind. Some data suggest that people living in regions affected by violent conflict are more likely to be blind than those living in unaffected regions. Currently no data exist on the likely prevalence of blindness in Rwanda, a central African c...

  18. Reduced taste sensitivity in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    thresholds of the 5 basic tastants in 13 congenitally blind and 13 sighted control subjects. Participants also answered several eating habits questionnaires, including the Food Neophobia Scale, the Food Variety Seeking Tendency Scale, the Intuitive Eating Scale, and the Body Awareness Questionnaire. Our...... behavioral results showed that compared with the normal sighted, blind subjects have increased thresholds for taste detection and taste identification. This finding is at odds with the superior performance of congenitally blind subjects in several tactile, auditory and olfactory tasks. Our psychometric data...... further indicate that blind subjects more strongly rely on internal hunger and satiety cues, instead of external contextual or emotional cues, to decide when and what to eat. We suggest that the lower taste sensitivity observed in congenitally blind individuals is due to various blindness...

  19. Provably secure robust threshold partial blind signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhenfu; ZHU Haojin; LU Rongxing

    2006-01-01

    Threshold digital signature and blind signature are playing important roles in cryptography as well as in practical applications such as e-cash and e-voting systems.Over the past few years, many cryptographic researchers have made considerable headway in this field. However, to our knowledge, most of existing threshold blind signature schemes are based on the discrete logarithm problem. In this paper, we propose a new robust threshold partial blind signature scheme based on improved RSA cryptosystem.This scheme is the first threshold partial blind signature scheme based on factoring, and the robustness of threshold partial blind signature is also introduced. Moreover, in practical application, the proposed scheme will be especially suitable for blind signature-based voting systems with multiple administrators and secure electronic cash systems to prevent their abuse.

  20. Can acupuncture treatment be double-blinded?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari;

    2015-01-01

    acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed "de qi" in East Asian medicine), and patients' pain levels were assessed......Blinding protects against bias but the success of blinding is seldom assessed and reported in clinical trials including studies of acupuncture where blinding represents a major challenge. Recently, needles with the potential for double-blinding were developed, so we tested if acupuncture can be...... double-blinded in a randomized study of sixty-seven patients with acute pain ≥ 3 (0-10 scale following third molar removal) who received active acupuncture with a penetrating needle or placebo acupuncture with a non-penetrating needle. To test if acupuncture was administered double-blind, patients and...

  1. A new quantum blind signature with unlinkability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei-Min; Zhang, Jian-Biao; Zhou, Yi-Hua; Yang, Yu-Guang

    2015-08-01

    Recently, some quantum blind signature protocols have been proposed. However, the previous schemes cannot satisfy the unlinkability requirement. To overcome the drawback of unlinkability in the previous schemes, we propose a new quantum blind signature based on Bell states with the help of an authentic party. In this paper, we provide a method to inject a randomizing factor into a message when it is signed by the signer and then get rid of the blind factor from the blinded signature when it is verified by the verifier. Even when the message owner publishes the message-signature pair, the signer cannot identify the association between the message-signature pair and the blind signature he generated. Therefore, our scheme really realizes unlinkability property. At last, analysis results show that this scheme satisfies the basis security requirements of a weak signature such as no-counterfeiting, no-disavowing, blindness and traceability, and our total efficiency is not less than the previous schemes.

  2. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  3. Blindness. [prosthetic devices and sensory aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pudenz, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The possibilities are considered that modern electronics and engineering have to offer the individual with a damaged or disordered nervous system, especially the blind person. Discussed are the incidence and principal causes of blindness, past research activities, and a capsule review of some of the more interesting programs designed to provide the blind with the ability to be mobile in their environment and to read printed matter.

  4. Blind topological measurement-based quantum computation

    OpenAIRE

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Fujii, Keisuke

    2011-01-01

    Blind quantum computation is a novel secure quantum-computing protocol that enables Alice, who does not have sufficient quantum technology at her disposal, to delegate her quantum computation to Bob, who has a fully fledged quantum computer, in such a way that Bob cannot learn anything about Alice's input, output and algorithm. A recent proof-of-principle experiment demonstrating blind quantum computation in an optical system has raised new challenges regarding the scalability of blind quantu...

  5. CERTIFICATELESS SIGNATURE AND BLIND SIGNATURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Lei; Zhang Futai

    2008-01-01

    Certificateless public key cryptography is a new paradigm introduced by AI-Riyami and Paterson. It eliminates the need of the certificates in traditional public key cryptosystems and the key escrow problem in IDentity-based Public Key Cryptography (ID-PKC). Due to the advantages of the certificateless public key cryptography,a new efficient certificateless pairing-based signature scheme is presented,which has some advantages over previous constructions in computational cost. Based on this new signature scheme,a certificateless blind signature scheme is proposed. The security of our schemes is proven based on the hardness of computational Diffie-Hellman problem.

  6. Blindness and Insight in King Lear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳元玉

    2008-01-01

    This paper intends to explore how William Shakespeare illustrates the theme of blindness and insight in his great tragedy "King Lear".Four characters’ deeds and their fate are used as a case study to examine what blindness is,what insight is,and the relationship between the two.The writer finds that by depicting the characters’ deeds and their fate in a double plot,Shakespeare renders the folly of blindness,the transition from blindness to insight,and the use of reason and thought to understand the truth.

  7. Application of Behavior Modification to Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Charles S.; Weinhouse, Ellen

    1978-01-01

    Research and application of principles of behavior modification with visually impaired and blind children are reviewed with particular attention to lower functioning multiply impaired children. (Author)

  8. 42 CFR 436.531 - Determination of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determination of blindness. 436.531 Section 436.531... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.531 Determination of blindness. In determining blindness... determine on behalf of the agency— (1) Whether the individual meets the definition of blindness; and...

  9. Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Inattentional Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seegmiller, Janelle K.; Watson, Jason M.; Strayer, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Inattentional blindness refers to the finding that people do not always see what appears in their gaze. Though inattentional blindness affects large percentages of people, it is unclear if there are individual differences in susceptibility. The present study addressed whether individual differences in attentional control, as reflected by…

  10. Mentoring Transition-Age Youth with Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a mentoring project designed for transition-age youth (ages 16-26) who are persons with legal blindness. Youth were matched with adult mentors who were also persons with blindness but who have achieved academic and career success. Results demonstrate that youth who participated in the project for 2 years had significant…

  11. Blind Equalization Based on Evolution Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SongYu; ZhangXianda; 等

    1997-01-01

    Conventional blind equalization algorithms suffer from ill convergence to local minima and slow convergence speed.This paper proposes a novel blind equalization algorithm.using random search methods-evolution strategies and existing cost functions,Simulation results verify the fast and global convergence of the proposed algorithm.

  12. Blavigator: a navigation aid for blind persons

    OpenAIRE

    José, João; MORENO, M; Pinilla-Dutoit, J.; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    Blavigator (blind navigator) is a vision aid for blind and visuaIIy impaired persons. It supports local navigation by detecting waIkable paths in the immediate vicinity of the user. It guides the user for centering on the path.

  13. Economic burden of blindness in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamanna B

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic analysis is one way to determine the allocation of scarce resources for health-care programs. The initial step in this process is to estimate in economic terms the burden of diseases and the benefit from interventions for prevention and treatment of these diseases. In this paper, the direct and indirect economic loss due to blindness in India is calculated on the basis of certain assumptions. The cost of treating cataract blindness in India is estimated at current prices. The economic burden of blindness in India for the year 1997 based on our assumptions is Rs. 159 billion (US$ 4.4 billion, and the cumulative loss over lifetime of the blind is Rs. 2,787 billion (US$ 77.4 billion. Childhood blindness accounts for 28.7% of this lifetime loss. The cost of treating all cases of cataract blindness in India is Rs. 5.3 billion (US$ 0.15 billion. Similar estimates for causes of blindness other than cataract have to be made in order to develop a comprehensive approach to deal with blindness in India.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stationary night blindness autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description Autosomal dominant congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  15. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked congenital stationary night blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stationary night blindness X-linked congenital stationary night blindness Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Close All Description X-linked congenital stationary night blindness is a disorder of the retina , which is ...

  16. Tactile maze solving in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Léa; Kupers, Ron; Schneider, Fabien C;

    2010-01-01

    Vision is undoubtedly important for navigation although not essential as blind individuals outperform their blindfolded seeing counterparts in a variety of navigational tasks. It is believed that the blind's superior performance is because of their efficient use of proprioceptive signals and...... environmental cues such as temperature and echolocation. We hypothesize that by limiting these cues, blind individuals will lose their advantage compared with controls in spatial navigation tasks. We therefore evaluated the performance of blind and sighted individuals in small-scale, tactile multiple T mazes....... Our results show that blindfolded sighted controls outperformed blind participants in the route-learning tasks. This suggests that, contrary to indoor large-scale spaces, navigational skills inside small-scale spaces benefit from visual experience....

  17. An ECC-Based Blind Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuh-Gwo Jeng

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptography is increasingly applied to the E-commerce world, especially to the untraceable payment system and the electronic voting system. Protocols for these systems strongly require the anonymous digital signature property, and thus a blind signature strategy is the answer to it. Chaum stated that every blind signature protocol should hold two fundamental properties, blindness and intractableness. All blind signature schemes proposed previously almost are based on the integer factorization problems, discrete logarithm problems, or the quadratic residues, which are shown by Lee et al. that none of the schemes is able to meet the two fundamental properties above. Therefore, an ECC-based blind signature scheme that possesses both the above properties is proposed in this paper.

  18. Blindness in designing intelligent systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    New investigations of the foundations of artificial intelligence are challenging the hypothesis that problem solving is the cornerstone of intelligence. New distinctions among three domains of concern for humans--description, action, and commitment--have revealed that the design process for programmable machines, such as expert systems, is based on descriptions of actions and induces blindness to nonanalytic action and commitment. Design processes focusing in the domain of description are likely to yield programs like burearcracies: rigid, obtuse, impersonal, and unable to adapt to changing circumstances. Systems that learn from their past actions, and systems that organize information for interpretation by human experts, are more likely to be successful in areas where expert systems have failed.

  19. Blind-date Conversation Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Cesari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available We focus on a form of joining conversations among multiple parties in service-oriented applications where a client may asynchronously join an existing conversation without need to know in advance any information about it. More specifically, we show how the correlation mechanism provided by orchestration languages enables a form of conversation joining that is completely transparent to clients and that we call 'blind-date joining'. We provide an implementation of this strategy by using the standard orchestration language WS-BPEL. We then present its formal semantics by resorting to COWS, a process calculus specifically designed for modelling service-oriented applications. We illustrate our approach by means of a simple, but realistic, case study from the online games domain.

  20. The PHENIX Hadron Blind Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielectron measurements by the PHENIX Experiment at RHIC are limited by the combinatorial background from electrons and positrons which are not produced in the same pair. The Hadron Blind Detector will allow a substantial reduction of this background by correctly identifying dielectrons from photon conversions and pion Dalitz decays which dominate the signal in the low mass region of the spectrum. Triple GEM stacks, with a CsI photocathode deposited on the uppermost GEM, detect Cherenkov light produced by electrons in a CF4 radiator. The transparency of CF4, high quantum efficiency of CsI in the UV, and absence of a window between the gas radiator and the GEMs allow a large photoelectron yield, while minimizing the hadron signal. Results from the HBD in RHIC's Run-7 and preparations for upcoming runs are discussed.

  1. IMPLEMENTATION OF BLIND DIGITAL SIGNATURE USING ECC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MS.DHANASHREE M.KUTHE

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we proposed a scheme to implement ‘ElectronicVoting’ an important application of Blind digital Signature usingelliptic curve cryptographic algorithm. The selection of thisalgorithm is its difficulty in solving it. The algorithm is used incombination with the blinding factor to scramble the contents ofthe message to be signed by the signer so that the signer do notcome to know what the message is all about. The signer then signsthe blinded message that is the vote of the voter and authenticateshim/her.

  2. Blind and visually impared in urban traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Berus, Anja

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis I present accessories, techniques and systems which enable the blind and visually impaired to move in urban traffic. The blind and visually impaired participate in traffic as pedestrians, passengers in cars and in means of public transport etc. This thesis is therefore designed so that it covers all these fields. The survey at the end of the thesis presents the needs and thoughts of the blind and visually impaired as well as the views of those who can see on the involvement of ...

  3. Blind image deconvolution methods and convergence

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Subhasis; Rameshan, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Blind deconvolution is a classical image processing problem which has been investigated by a large number of researchers over the last four decades. The purpose of this monograph is not to propose yet another method for blind image restoration. Rather the basic issue of deconvolvability has been explored from a theoretical view point. Some authors claim very good results while quite a few claim that blind restoration does not work. The authors clearly detail when such methods are expected to work and when they will not. In order to avoid the assumptions needed for convergence analysis in the

  4. Ten years left to eliminate blinding trachoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad D.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available n 1997, the World Health Organization formed the Global Alliance to Eliminate Blinding Trachoma by 2020 (GET 2020, a coalition of governmental, non-governmental, research, and pharmaceutical partners. In 1998, the World Health Assembly urged member states to map blinding trachoma in endemic areas, implement the SAFE strategy (which stands for surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial-cleanliness and environmental change, such as clean water and latrines and collaborate with the global alliance in its work to eliminate blinding trachoma.

  5. Enhanced heat discrimination in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Ptito, Maurice; Kupers, Ron

    2015-01-01

    domain. We therefore compared the capacity to detect small temperature increases in innocuous heat in a group of 12 congenitally blind and 12 age and sex-matched normally sighted participants. In addition, we also tested for group differences in the effects of spatial summation on temperature......There is substantial evidence that congenitally blind individuals perform better than normally sighted controls in a variety of auditory, tactile and olfactory discrimination tasks. However, little is known about the capacity of blind individuals to make fine discriminatory judgments in the thermal...... and are more susceptible to spatial summation of heat....

  6. Blind extraction of exoplanetary spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing spectroscopy enabled characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Transmission and emission spectra of tens of transiting exoplanets have been measured with multiple instruments aboard Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes as well as ground-based facilities, revealing the presence of atomic, ionic and molecular species in their atmospheres, and constraining their temperature and pressure profiles.Early analyses were somehow heuristic both in measuring the spectra and in their interpretation, leading to some controversies in the literature.A photometric precision of 0.01% is necessary to detect the atmospheric spectral modulations. Current observatories, except Kepler, were not designed to achieve this precision. Data reduction is necessary to minimize the effect of instrument systematics in order to achieve the target precision. In the past, parametric models have extensively been used by most teams to remove correlated noise with the aid of auxiliary information of the instrument, the so-called optical state vectors (OSVs). Such OSVs can include inter- and intra-pixel position of the star or its spectrum, instrument temperatures and inclinations, and/or other parameters. In some cases, different parameterizations led to discrepant results.We recommend the use of blind non-parametric data detrending techniques to overcome those issues. In particular, we adopt Independent Component Analysis (ICA), i.e. a blind source separation (BSS) technique to disentangle the multiple instrument systematics and astrophysical signals in transit/eclipse light curves. ICA does not require a model for the systematics, and for this reason, it can be applied to any instrument with little changes, if any. ICA-based algorithms have been applied to Spitzer/IRAC and synthetic observations in photometry (Morello et al. 2014, 2015, 2016; Morello 2015) and to Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRS in spectroscopy (Waldmann 2012, 2014, Waldmann et al. 2013

  7. Iterated Gate Teleportation and Blind Quantum Computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Delgado, Carlos A; Fitzsimons, Joseph F

    2015-06-01

    Blind quantum computation allows a user to delegate a computation to an untrusted server while keeping the computation hidden. A number of recent works have sought to establish bounds on the communication requirements necessary to implement blind computation, and a bound based on the no-programming theorem of Nielsen and Chuang has emerged as a natural limiting factor. Here we show that this constraint only holds in limited scenarios, and show how to overcome it using a novel method of iterated gate teleportations. This technique enables drastic reductions in the communication required for distributed quantum protocols, extending beyond the blind computation setting. Applied to blind quantum computation, this technique offers significant efficiency improvements, and in some scenarios offers an exponential reduction in communication requirements. PMID:26196609

  8. Teaching Introductory Statistics to Blind Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Stephen M.; Harrington, Charles F.; Walls, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The challenges of learning statistics, particularly distributions and their characteristics, can be potentially monumental for vision impaired and blind students. The authors provide some practical advice for teaching these students.

  9. Assertive Skills Training for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Gary; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The article describes how a rehabilitation center for the blind, aware that many clients were inept in dealing with society at large, instituted an assertive skills training program to improve client skills in this area. (Author/SBH)

  10. Accommodating blind and partially sighted clients

    OpenAIRE

    England, Gary; Gebbels, Tim; Whelan, Chantelle; Freeman, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary surgeons provide an important service to blind and partially sighted guide dog owners. By adopting basic disability awareness and visual impairment training, practices can ensure that the assistance needs of those clients are met, facilitating access to veterinary care.

  11. Ask a Scientist: What is Color Blindness?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scientist Video Series Why can’t you see colors well in the dark? Do fish have eyelids? ... video series. Dr. Sheldon Miller answers questions about color blindness, whether it can be treated, and how ...

  12. 42 CFR 435.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 435.530 Section 435.530... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Blindness § 435.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the same definition of blindness as used under SSI,...

  13. 42 CFR 436.530 - Definition of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definition of blindness. 436.530 Section 436.530... Requirements for Medicaid Eligibility Blindness § 436.530 Definition of blindness. (a) Definition. The agency must use the definition of blindness that is used in the State plan for AB or AABD. (b) State...

  14. Blind source separation dependent component analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yang, Zuyuan

    2015-01-01

    This book provides readers a complete and self-contained set of knowledge about dependent source separation, including the latest development in this field. The book gives an overview on blind source separation where three promising blind separation techniques that can tackle mutually correlated sources are presented. The book further focuses on the non-negativity based methods, the time-frequency analysis based methods, and the pre-coding based methods, respectively.

  15. New Certificateless Blind Ring Signature Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Sun

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A new certificateless blind ring signature scheme was proposed in this paper. The scheme could not only avoid the problem of certificate management of public key certificate cryptography, but also overcome the inherent key-escrow problem of identity-based public key cryptography. In the last, by using bilinear pairing technique, it was proved that this scheme satisfied the security of existential unforgeability, blindness and unconditional anonymity.

  16. Understanding display blindness in future display deployments

    OpenAIRE

    Memarovic, Nemanja; Clinch, Sarah; Alt, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Digital displays are heralded as a transformative medium for communication. However, a known challenge in the domain is that of display blindness in which passersby pay little or no attention to public displays. This phenomenon has been a major motivation for much of the research on public displays. However, since the early observations, little has been done to develop our understanding of display blindness – for example, to identify determining factors or propose appropriate metrics. Hence, ...

  17. Understanding Display Blindness in Future Display Deployments

    OpenAIRE

    Memarovic, Nemanja; Clinch, Sarah; Alt, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Digital displays are heralded as a transformative medium for communication. However, a known challenge in the domain is that of display blindness in which passersby pay little or no attention to public displays. This phenomenon has been a major motivation for much of the research on public dis- plays. However, since the early observations, little has been done to develop our understanding of display blindness – for example, to identify determining factors or propose appro- priate metrics. Hen...

  18. Haptic graphs for blind computer users

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, W; Ramloll, R.; Brewster, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the design of computer-based haptic graphs for blind and visually impaired people with the support of our preliminary experimental results. Since visual impairment makes data visualisation techniques inappropriate for blind people, we are developing a system that can make graphs accessible through haptic and audio media. The disparity between human haptic perception and the sensation simulated by force feedback devices is discussed. Our strategies to tackle technical ...

  19. Blind Signature Scheme Based on Chebyshev Polynomials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswara Rao Valluri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A blind signature scheme is a cryptographic protocol to obtain a valid signature for a message from a signer such that signer’s view of the protocol can’t be linked to the resulting message signature pair. This paper presents blind signature scheme using Chebyshev polynomials. The security of the given scheme depends upon the intractability of the integer factorization problem and discrete logarithms ofChebyshev polynomials.

  20. Blind Alley Aware ACO Routing Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Masaya; Otani, Kazuo

    2010-10-01

    The routing problem is applied to various engineering fields. Many researchers study this problem. In this paper, we propose a new routing algorithm which is based on Ant Colony Optimization. The proposed algorithm introduces the tabu search mechanism to escape the blind alley. Thus, the proposed algorithm enables to find the shortest route, even if the map data contains the blind alley. Experiments using map data prove the effectiveness in comparison with Dijkstra algorithm which is the most popular conventional routing algorithm.

  1. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied.On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up,and the calculation boundary conditions were analyzed.According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics software.The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained.The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimization.The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were obtained.The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed,which provided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer,the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency,provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  2. Numerical simulation of ventilation in blinding heading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG De-qiang; LIU Jing-xian; CHEN Bao-zhi

    2008-01-01

    The way of ventilation in all its forms and characteristics in the blinding heading was studied. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) the turbulence model of restrained ventilation in blinding heading was set up, and the calculation boundary condi-tions were analyzed. According to the practice application the three-dimensional flow field of ventilation in blinding heading was simulated by the computational fluid dynamics soft-ware. The characteristics of the ventilation flow field such as the temperature field zone and the flow filed zone and the rule of the flow velocity were obtained. The ventilation in blinding heading under certain circumstances was calculated and simulated for optimiza-tion. The optimal ventilation form and related parameters under given condition were ob-tained. The rule of the ventilation in blinding heading was theoretical analyzed, which pro-vided reference for the research on the process of mass transfer, the rule of hazardous substances transportation and ventilation efficiency, provided a new method for the study of reasonable and effective ventilation in blinding heading.

  3. The Prevention of Blindness-Past, Present and Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akira; Nakajima

    1992-01-01

    Prevention of blindness is the most important aim of ophthalmology. Prevention of blindness is related to many factors. It is related to many factors, such as science and technology, economy and social behavior. There are worldwide activities by WHO, NGOs and other functions to promote the prevention of blindness in the world. More than 90% of blind population lives in developing world. Cataract is the top causes of blindness which is curable. Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in west Africa and cent...

  4. CORTICAL REPRESENTATION OF SPACE AROUND THE BLIND SPOT

    OpenAIRE

    Awater, Holger; Kerlin, Jess R.; Evans, Karla K.; Tong, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The neural mechanism that mediates perceptual filling-in of the blind spot is still under discussion. One hypothesis proposes that the cortical representation of the blind spot is activated only under conditions that elicit perceptual filling-in, and requires congruent stimulation on both sides of the blind spot. Alternatively, the passive remapping hypothesis proposes that inputs from regions surrounding the blind spot infiltrate the representation of the blind spot in cortex. This theory pr...

  5. The Blinds Shop Company Limited Brand Identity Project

    OpenAIRE

    Dee, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The Blinds Shop offers made to measure window blinds catering to all markets across Ireland. The Blinds Shop required a clean, bold and modern logo using fresh colours and imagery. Peter Dee - Strategic Design and Marketing Consultant, was responsible for the design and development of the brand identity for the The Blinds Shop Company Limited which was used on business cards, letterhead, promotional information, uniforms, advertising and e-Commerce website. The Blinds Shop is a retailer...

  6. Blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils at schools for the blind in Burundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Ruhagaze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the causes of childhood blindness and severe visual impairment in pupils attending schools for the blind in Burundi in order to assist planning for services in the country. Materials and Methods: All pupils attending three schools for the blind in Burundi were examined. A modified WHO/PBL eye examination record form for children with blindness and low vision was used to record the findings. Data was analyzed for those who became blind or severely visually impaired before the age of 16 years. Results: Overall, 117 pupils who became visually impaired before 16 years of age were examined. Of these, 109 (93.2% were blind or severely visually impaired. The major anatomical cause of blindness or severe visual impairment was cornea pathology/phthisis (23.9%, followed by lens pathology (18.3%, uveal lesions (14.7% and optic nerve lesions (11.9%. In the majority of pupils with blindness or severe visual impairment, the underlying etiology of visual loss was unknown (74.3%. More than half of the pupils with lens related blindness had not had surgery; among those who had surgery, outcomes were generally poor. Conclusion: The causes identified indicate the importance of continuing preventive public health strategies, as well as the development of specialist pediatric ophthalmic services in the management of childhood blindness in Burundi. The geographic distribution of pupils at the schools for the blind indicates a need for community-based programs to identify and refer children in need of services.

  7. Tactile Sensitivity and Braille Reading in People with Early Blindness and Late Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Kensuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shigeru; Nakano, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The inability to read quickly can be a disadvantage throughout life. This study focused on the associations of braille reading fluency and individual factors, such as the age at onset of blindness and number of years reading braille, and the tactile sensitivity of people with early and late blindness. The relationship between reading…

  8. Turning the tide of corneal blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Oliva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world′s largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind.

  9. Turning the tide of corneal blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Matthew S; Schottman, Tim; Gulati, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Corneal diseases represent the second leading cause of blindness in most developing world countries. Worldwide, major investments in public health infrastructure and primary eye care services have built a strong foundation for preventing future corneal blindness. However, there are an estimated 4.9 million bilaterally corneal blind persons worldwide who could potentially have their sight restored through corneal transplantation. Traditionally, barriers to increased corneal transplantation have been daunting, with limited tissue availability and lack of trained corneal surgeons making widespread keratoplasty services cost prohibitive and logistically unfeasible. The ascendancy of cataract surgical rates and more robust eye care infrastructure of several Asian and African countries now provide a solid base from which to dramatically expand corneal transplantation rates. India emerges as a clear global priority as it has the world's largest corneal blind population and strong infrastructural readiness to rapidly scale its keratoplasty numbers. Technological modernization of the eye bank infrastructure must follow suit. Two key factors are the development of professional eye bank managers and the establishment of Hospital Cornea Recovery Programs. Recent adaptation of these modern eye banking models in India have led to corresponding high growth rates in the procurement of transplantable tissues, improved utilization rates, operating efficiency realization, and increased financial sustainability. The widespread adaptation of lamellar keratoplasty techniques also holds promise to improve corneal transplant success rates. The global ophthalmic community is now poised to scale up widespread access to corneal transplantation to meet the needs of the millions who are currently blind. PMID:22944753

  10. Hypersensitivity to pain in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slimani, Hocine; Danti, Sabrina; Ricciardi, Emiliano;

    2013-01-01

    responses to suprathreshold heat stimuli in 2 groups of congenitally blind and matched normal-sighted participants. We also assessed detection thresholds for innocuous warmth and cold, and participants' attitude toward painful encounters in daily life. Our results show that, compared to sighted subjects......, congenitally blind subjects have lower heat pain thresholds, rate suprathreshold heat pain stimuli as more painful, and have increased sensitivity for cold pain stimuli. Thresholds for nonpainful thermal stimulation did not differ between groups. The results of the pain questionnaires further indicated that...... blind subjects are more attentive to signals of external threats. These findings indicate that the absence of vision from birth induces a hypersensitivity to painful stimuli, lending new support to a model of sensory integration of vision and pain processing....

  11. Blindness and cataract in children in developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikshit Gogate

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Blindness in children is considered a priority area for VISION 2020, as visually impaired children have a lifetime of blindness ahead of them. Various studies across the globe show that one-third to half of childhood blindness is either preventable or treatable1 and that cataract is the leading treatable cause of blindness in children.The 8th General Assembly of the International Agency for the Prevention of Blindness (IAPB provided an opportunity to be acquainted with recent research and programme development work in the prevention of childhood blindness.

  12. Blind source separation theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Xianchuan; Xu, Jindong

    2013-01-01

    A systematic exploration of both classic and contemporary algorithms in blind source separation with practical case studies    The book presents an overview of Blind Source Separation, a relatively new signal processing method.  Due to the multidisciplinary nature of the subject, the book has been written so as to appeal to an audience from very different backgrounds. Basic mathematical skills (e.g. on matrix algebra and foundations of probability theory) are essential in order to understand the algorithms, although the book is written in an introductory, accessible style. This book offers

  13. Multichannel Blind Deconvolution in Eye Fundus Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marrugo, A.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip; Millán, M. S.

    Barcelona: ACM, 2011, s. 1-4. ISBN 978-1-4503-0913-4. [4th International Symposium on Applied Sciences in Biomedical and Communication Technologies. Barcelona (ES), 26.10.2011-29.10.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : blind deconvolution * fundus image * medical image Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/sroubek-multichannel blind deconvolution in eye fundus imaging.pdf

  14. Management of a blind painful eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merbs, Shannath L

    2006-06-01

    Debilitating ocular pain poses a significant challenge to the ophthalmologist. When the pain is intractable and the eye has very poor vision and is disfigured, surgical removal of the eye has traditionally been the definitive treatment of choice. Because many people are uncomfortable psychologically with removal of their eye, however painful, and other patients are not good surgical candidates, an alternative to enucleation is sometimes warranted, and injection of a neurolytic substance can often induce long-lasting anesthesia for a blind painful eye. This article reviews a range of options for management of blind painful eye from anesthesia to enucleation. PMID:16701166

  15. Transform domain steganography with blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouny, Ismail

    2015-05-01

    This paper applies blind source separation or independent component analysis for images that may contain mixtures of text, audio, or other images for steganography purposes. The paper focuses on separating mixtures in the transform domain such as Fourier domain or the Wavelet domain. The study addresses the effectiveness of steganography when using linear mixtures of multimedia components and the ability of standard blind sources separation techniques to discern hidden multimedia messages. Mixing in the space, frequency, and wavelet (scale) domains is compared. Effectiveness is measured using mean square error rate between original and recovered images.

  16. Leading Causes of Blindness | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Vision Leading Causes of Blindness Past Issues / Winter 2012 Table of Contents Cataract ... have cataracts. They are the leading cause of blindness in the world. By age 80, more than ...

  17. Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... An Experimental Contact Lens to Prevent Glaucoma-Induced Blindness By Sharon Reynolds Posted January 23, 2014 An ... group of conditions that can result in irreversible blindness. This vision loss can be reduced if glaucoma ...

  18. Research on solar-blind UV optical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baohua; Wang, Yuanyuan; Zhong, Xiaoming; Ruan, Ningjuan

    2015-02-01

    Solar blind UV detecting system has many advantages such as strong environmental adaptability, low error rate, small volume and without refrigeration. To in-depth develop UV solar blind detection system research work has important significance for further improving solar blind UV detection technology. The working principle of solar blind UV detection system and the basic components were introduced firstly, and then the key technology of solar blind UV detection system was deeply analyzed. Finally, large coverage solar blind UV optical imaging system was designed according to the actual demand for greater coverage of the solar blind UV detection system. The result shows that the system has good imaging quality, simple and compact structure. This system can be used in various types of solar blind UV detection system, and is of high application value.

  19. Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Category All Advocacy Assessment/Evaluation Audio, Braille or ... Find Services for People Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired Browse All Search Categories About the Directory Request ...

  20. Warming Endotracheal Tube in Blind Nasotracheal Intubation throughout Maxillofacial Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamzeh Hosseinzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: In conclusion, our study showed that using an endotracheal tube softened by warm water could reduce the incidence and severity of epistaxis during blind nasotracheal intubation; however it could not facilitate blind nasotracheal intubation.

  1. If I am Blind or Deaf

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李新颖

    2005-01-01

    For some time,l wished to be blind or deaf so that I could avoid the sight or the sound from having driven me mad.The majority of people must object the idea that the dark life maybe more beautiful than the life full of limitations and unhappiness.

  2. Usage of Blinds Software in Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Fatema El Zahraa Mohamed Abdou

    2006-01-01

    The research reviews some of blinds software used in libraries, it reviews the following software : JAWS, Zoomtext, Kurzuail. Then deals the services offered by the software in libraries, these services are : pronouncing the written texts, printing in Brail method, educational software for computer, browsing the internet, and enlarging texts on the screen.

  3. CI-TAB: View for the Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Ken

    1979-01-01

    The article describes the development and content of a comprehensive career education program for blind elementary and secondary students. Eight areas are explored in the program: job search skills, job behavior, hygiene and grooming, purchase habits, budgeting, banking, home management, and health care. (CL)

  4. A blind test of photometric redshift prediction

    OpenAIRE

    Hogg, David W.; Cohen, Judith G.; Blandford, Roger; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Hartwick, F. D. A.; Mobasher, B.; Mazzei, Paula; Sawicki, Marcin; Lin, Huan; Yee, H. K. C.; Connolly, Andrew J; Brunner, Robert J.; Csabai, Istvan; Dickinson, Mark; SubbaRao, Mark U.

    1998-01-01

    Results of a blind test of photometric redshift predictions against spectroscopic galaxy redshifts obtained in the Hubble Deep Field with the Keck Telescope are presented. The best photometric redshift schemes predict spectroscopic redshifts with a redshift accuracy of |Delta-z|

  5. Recruitment, Retention, and Blinding in Clinical Trials

    OpenAIRE

    Page, Stephen J.; Persch, Andrew C.

    2013-01-01

    The recruitment and retention of participants and the blinding of participants, health care providers, and data collectors present challenges for clinical trial investigators. This article reviews challenges and alternative strategies associated with these three important clinical trial activities. Common recruiting pitfalls, including low sample size, unfriendly study designs, suboptimal testing locations, and untimely recruitment are discussed together with strategies for overcoming these b...

  6. Blind Quantum Computing with Weak Coherent Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ɛ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ɛ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ɛ-blind UBQC for any ɛ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  7. Wavelet Coherence Analysis of Change Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Ali Memon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Change blindness is the incapability of the brain to detect substantial visual changes in the presence of other visual interruption. The objectives of this study are to examine the EEG (Electroencephalographic based changes in functional connectivity of the brain due to the change blindness. The functional connectivity was estimated using the wavelet-based MSC (Magnitude Square Coherence function of ERPs (Event Related Potentials. The ERPs of 30 subjects were used and were recorded using the visual attention experiment in which subjects were instructed to detect changes in visual stimulus presented before them through the computer monitor. The two-way ANOVA statistical test revealed significant increase in both gamma and theta band MSCs, and significant decrease in beta band MSC for change detection trials. These findings imply that change blindness might be associated to the lack of functional connectivity in gamma and theta bands and increase of functional connectivity in beta band. Since gamma, theta, and beta frequency bands reflect different functions of cognitive process such as maintenance, encoding, retrieval, and matching and work load of VSTM (Visual Short Term Memory, the change in functional connectivity might be correlated to these cognitive processes during change blindness.

  8. Vision after 53 years of blindness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal; Porubanová-Norquist, M.; Bezdíček, O.; Kremláček, J.; Stodůlka, P.; Fine, I.; Ostrovsky, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 8 (2013), s. 498-507. ISSN 2041-6695 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/12/2528 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : sight recovery * blindness * visual deprivation * object agnosia * prosopagnosia Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://i-perception.perceptionweb.com/fulltext/i04/i0611.pdf

  9. Cognitive Development in Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Robert K.

    The paper reviews the literature and proposes a study on how nonlanguage deaf/blind children (ages 2 to 14) match and classify, the age at which the skills are reached, and the role of language in the process. The theories of J. Piaget and J. Bruner on the importance of language in stage development are explored. The Ss would be matched for age…

  10. Wavelet coherence analysis of change blindness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Change blindness is the incapability of the brain to detect substantial visual changes in the presence of other visual interruption. The objectives of this study are to examine the EEG (Electroencephalographic) based changes in functional connectivity of the brain due to the change blindness. The functional connectivity was estimated using the wavelet-based MSC (Magnitude Square Coherence) function of ERPs (Event Related Potentials). The ERPs of 30 subjects were used and were recorded using the visual attention experiment in which subjects were instructed to detect changes in visual stimulus presented before them through the computer monitor. The two-way ANOVA statistical test revealed significant increase in both gamma and theta band MSCs, and significant decrease in beta band MSC for change detection trials. These findings imply that change blindness might be associated to the lack of functional connectivity in gamma and theta bands and increase of functional connectivity in beta band. Since gamma, theta, and beta frequency bands reflect different functions of cognitive process such as maintenance, encoding, retrieval, and matching and work load of VSTM (Visual Short Term Memory), the change in functional connectivity might be correlated to these cognitive processes during change blindness. (author)

  11. Perbandingan Efektivitas Ishihara Colour Blind Test dan Farnsworth Munsell Colour Blind Test di Fakuktas di Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Sumatera Utara Tahun 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Indriati, Dwi Meutia

    2015-01-01

    Colour blindness is a disease caused by the inability of cone cells to capture a certain colour spectrum. Colour blindness is generally more contained on the male than the females with a 20:1 ratio. Colour blindness can be diagnosed with several test which Ishihar Colour Blind Test and Farnworth Munsell Colour Blind Test. The purpose of this research was to see a comparison the effectiveness between Ishihara Colour Blind Test with Farmsworth Munsell Colour Blind Test at the Faculty Dentist...

  12. Characteristics of Individuals with Congenital and Acquired Deaf-Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalby, Dawn M.; Hirdes, John P.; Stolee, Paul; Strong, J. Graham; Poss, Jeff; Tjam, Erin Y.; Bowman, Lindsay; Ashworth, Melody

    2009-01-01

    Using a standardized assessment instrument, the authors compared 182 adults with congenital deaf-blindness and those with acquired deaf-blindness. They found that those with congenital deaf-blindness were more likely to have impairments in cognition, activities of daily living, and social interactions and were less likely to use speech for…

  13. 42 CFR 435.531 - Determinations of blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Determinations of blindness. 435.531 Section 435... ISLANDS, AND AMERICAN SAMOA Categorical Requirements for Eligibility Blindness § 435.531 Determinations of blindness. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, in determining blindness— (1)...

  14. Restrictive partially blind signature for resource-constrained information systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, Weidong; Gong, Zheng; Liu, Bozhong; Long, Yu; Chen, Kefei

    2010-01-01

    Restrictive partially blind signature, which is designed for privacy oriented information systems, allows a user to obtain a blind signature from a signer whilst the blind message must obey some certain rules. In order to reduce storage and communication costs, several public-key cryptosystems are c

  15. What do colour-blind people really see?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogervorst, M.A.; Alferdinck, J.W.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Problem: colour perception of dichromats (colour-blind persons) Background: Various models have been proposed (e. g. Walraven & Alferdinck, 1997; Brettel et al. , 1997) to model reduced colour vision of colour-blind people. It is clear that colour-blind people cannot distinguish certain object colou

  16. OUR BLIND CHILDREN, GROWING AND LEARNING WITH THEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOWENFELD, BERTHOLD

    WRITTEN AS AN AID TO PARENTS, THIS BOOK PRESENTS FACTS ON BLINDNESS AND PRACTICAL INFORMATION ON THE REARING OF BLIND CHILDREN FROM INFANCY THROUGH ADOLESCENCE. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ABOUT TEACHING BLIND CHILDREN SKILLS AND HABITS RELATED TO EATING, TOILET TRAINING, SLEEPING, DRESSING, WALKING, TALKING, AND PLAYING. SCHOOLING AND RELATED QUESTIONS…

  17. Comparison of Quality of Life and Social Skills between Students with Visual Problems (Blind and Partially Blind) and Normal Students

    OpenAIRE

    Fereshteh Kordestani; Azam Daneshfar; Davood Roustaee

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the quality of life and social skills between students who are visually impaired (blind and partially blind) and normal students. The population consisted of all students with visual problems (blind and partially blind) and normal students in secondary schools in Tehran in the academic year 2013-2014. Using a multi-stage random sampling method, 40 students were selected from each group. The SF-36s quality of life questionnaire and Foster and Inderbitzen social skil...

  18. 20 CFR 416.981 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 416.981 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for payment...

  19. Causes of blindness in the Republic of Srpska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozomara Risto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To determine the prevalence and identify potentially curable causes of blindness. Material and methods. We analyzed causes of blindness in 808 blind persons, aged from 0 to 75 years. We classified our findings in 13 categories. Results. The least number of blind persons was discovered in children aged from 0 to 15 years (2.4%, as well as in teenagers (3.4%. The number of blind persons in working population, aged from 30 to 60 was (33.1% and in older population it was (60.7%. Glaucoma was the highest cause of blindness (15.9%. Complications of myopia (14.6% took the second place. Conclusion. We think that our community needs more screening projects for glaucoma, refraction anomalies in children and diabetic retinopathy, through which the causes of blindness would be discovered and treated on time and people would be much more educated about risks and consequences of untreated eye diseases and conditions.

  20. Sociocultural theory and blind taste-tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Paul Gee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In his entertaining 1986 book, The Real Coke, the Real Story, Thomas Oliver tells the story of the now infamous “New Coke”, a story retold in Malcolm Gladwell’s (2005 best-seller Blink. In the early 1980s, Pepsi began running commercials in which people took a sip from two glasses, not knowing which was Coke and which Pepsi. The majority preferred Pepsi. The Coca-Cola Company replicated these blind taste-tests and found the same result. Losing market share, Coke—long the dominant brand—changed its old formula and came out with “New Coke”, a soda made to a new formula, one that in a new round of blind taste-tests came out above Pepsi. But New Coke was a disaster.Consumers hated it. Coke not only returned to its old formula, but Pepsi never did overtake Coke, which remains today the dominant brand world-wide.

  1. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorn, Colette S. van, E-mail: cvandoorn@gmail.com; De Boo, Diederick W., E-mail: d.w.deboo@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Weersink, Els J. M., E-mail: e.j.m.weersink@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Pulmonology (Netherlands); Delden, Otto M. van, E-mail: o.m.vandelden@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl; Lienden, Krijn P. van, E-mail: k.p.vanlienden@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Centre, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent.

  2. Latent Images, Blind Comments on Photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Feray

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Photographs, or images as the final result of a process, merely mark out the moment when the eye is helplessly limited to what it sees. Thus, what escapes the eye in the physical sense, i.e. what the eye will never see, is what occurs before the product- image, within the act itself. The latent image, the desire-image, unfolds throughout the duration of the photographic act. When the picture is ‘taken’, then the desire subsides until the next desire for another image arises. Based on the photographic experiment by Jerry Chan, member of a group of blind people, this article aims at rethinking the photographic act as the real- life experience of an impression process, leading the blind apprentice photographer to experience sightedness within his very flesh.  

  3. Blind Stereoscopy of the Coronal Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus J; Malanushenko, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We test the feasibility of 3D coronal-loop tracing in stereoscopic EUV image pairs, with the ultimate goal of enabling efficient 3D reconstruction of the coronal magnetic field that drives flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We developed an automated code designed to perform triangulation of coronal loops in pairs (or triplets) of EUV images recorded from different perspectives. The automated (or blind) stereoscopy code includes three major tasks: (i) automated pattern recognition of coronal loops in EUV images, (ii) automated pairing of corresponding loop patterns from two different aspect angles, and (iii) stereoscopic triangulation of 3D loop coordinates. We perform tests with simulated stereoscopic EUV images and quantify the accuracy of all three procedures. In addition we test the performance of the blind stereoscopy code as a function of the spacecraft-separation angle and as a function of the spatial resolution. We also test the sensitivity to magnetic non-potentiality. The automated code develo...

  4. Blind Estimation of Multiple Carrier Frequency Offsets

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Yuanning; Poor, H Vincent; Koivunen, Visa

    2007-01-01

    Multiple carrier-frequency offsets (CFO) arise in a distributed antenna system, where data are transmitted simultaneously from multiple antennas. In such systems the received signal contains multiple CFOs due to mismatch between the local oscillators of transmitters and receiver. This results in a time-varying rotation of the data constellation, which needs to be compensated for at the receiver before symbol recovery. This paper proposes a new approach for blind CFO estimation and symbol recovery. The received base-band signal is over-sampled, and its polyphase components are used to formulate a virtual Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) problem. By applying blind MIMO system estimation techniques, the system response is estimated and used to subsequently transform the multiple CFOs estimation problem into many independent single CFO estimation problems. Furthermore, an initial estimate of the CFO is obtained from the phase of the MIMO system response. The Cramer-Rao Lower bound is also derived, and the la...

  5. Emergence of Blind Areas in Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zi-Ke; Han, Xiao-Pu; Liu, Chuang

    2013-01-01

    Recently, contagion-based (disease, information, etc.) spreading on social networks has been extensively studied. In this paper, other than traditional full interaction, we propose a partial interaction based spreading model, considering that the informed individuals would transmit information to only a certain fraction of their neighbors due to the transmission ability in real-world social networks. Simulation results on three representative networks (BA, ER, WS) indicate that the spreading efficiency is highly correlated with the network heterogeneity. In addition, a special phenomenon, namely \\emph{Information Blind Areas} where the network is separated by several information-unreachable clusters, will emerge from the spreading process. Furthermore, we also find that the size distribution of such information blind areas obeys power-law-like distribution, which has very similar exponent with that of site percolation. Detailed analyses show that the critical value is decreasing along with the network heterog...

  6. Multiple Blind Beamforming Based on LSCMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yan; Li, Ning; Lim, Myoung-Seob; Wang, Jin-Long

    Blind beamforming plays an important role in multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Systems, radar, cognitive radio, and system identification. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm for multiple blind beamforming algorithm based on the least square constant modulus algorithm (LSCMA). The new method consists of the following three parts: (a) beamforming of one signal with LSCMA. (b) direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of the remaining signals by rooting the weight vector polynomial. (c) beamforming of the remaining signals with linear constraints minimum variance (LCMV) method. After the convergence of LSCMA, one signal is captured and the arrival angles of the remaining signals can be obtained by rooting the weight vector polynomial. Therefore, beamforming can be quickly established for the remaining signals using LCMV method. Simultaneously the DOA of the signals can also be obtained. Simulation results show the performance of the presented method.

  7. Simultaneous super-resolution and blind deconvolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Filip; Cristobal, G.; Flusser, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 124, 012048 (2008), s. 1-8. ISSN 1742-6588. [4th AIP International Conference and the 1st Congress of the IPIA. Vancouver, 25.06.2007-29.06.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA202/05/0242; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/1593 Grant ostatní: CSIC-AS(XE) 2004CZ0009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : blind deconvolution * superresolution Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http:// library .utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/ZOI/sroubek-flusser-simultaneous%20super-resolution%20and%20blind%20deconvolution.pdf

  8. Autobiographic narratives of congenital blind people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The research carried out in Juiz de Fora, MG, Brazil, intended at investigating, together with men and women who suffer from congenital visual impairment, how they felt about diversity, body image, self-esteem and vanity. The investigation of autobiographical accounts was the option for this study. Initially, 20 (twenty interviews were analyzed and 6 (six autobiographical accounts, selected from the peculiarities of each single interviewee – each one containing his/her single life lessons - followed suit. The conclusion reached is that the subjects had undergone an exhausting process of acceptance of their own impairment. If, on the one hand, the blindness comes with angst, uncertainties, and many difficulties, on the other hand, these circumstances lead the blind to face the ups and downs of life with courage, determination and will to live. Surprisingly, in the study the body was not approached at a source of concern or are which should be emphasized.

  9. Permanent Cortical Blindness After Bronchial Artery Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 35-year-old female with a known medical history of cystic fibrosis was admitted to our institution for massive hemoptysis. CTA depicted a hypertrophied bronchial artery to the right upper lobe and showed signs of recent bleeding at that location. Bronchial artery embolization (BAE) was performed with gelfoam slurry, because pronounced shunting to the pulmonary artery was present. Immediately after BAE, the patient developed bilateral cortical blindness. Control angiography showed an initially not opacified anastomosis between the embolized bronchial artery and the right subclavian artery, near to the origin of the right vertebral artery. Cessation of outflow in the bronchial circulation reversed the flow through the anastomosis and allowed for spill of embolization material into the posterior circulation. Unfortunately the cortical blindness presented was permanent

  10. User-Centered Technologies for Blind Children

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Sánchez

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review, summarize, and illustrate research work involving four audio-based games created within a user-centered design methodology through successive usability tasks and evaluations. These games were designed by considering the mental model of blind children and their styles of interaction to perceive and process data and information. The goal of these games was to enhance the cognitive development of spatial structures, memory, haptic perception, mathe...

  11. Blind Source Separation for Speaker Recognition Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Unverdorben, Michael; Rothbucher, Martin; Diepold, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, a combined blind source separation (BSS) and speaker recognition approach for teleconferences is studied. By using a microphone array, consisting of eight microphones, different methods to perform overdetermined independent vector analysis (IVA) are compared. One method is to select a subset of microphones or all available microphones to perform IVA. The second method, the so called subspace method, that utilizes a principal component analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reductio...

  12. Visual dreams in the congenitally blind?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes da Silva, Fernando H.

    2003-08-01

    An EEG study of sleep in congenitally blind persons revealed a significant correlation between the visual activity reported during dreaming and the decrease of alpha strength recorded from the central and occipital regions of the scalp. This provides the first objective evidence that subjects who have never had visual experiences can have dreams with virtual images that are probably mediated by the activation of the cortical areas responsible for visual representations. PMID:12907221

  13. Blind Source Separation: the Sparsity Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Bobin, J.; Starck, Jean-Luc; Moudden, Y.; Fadili, Jalal M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, the development of multi-channel sensors motivated interest in methods for the coherent processing of multivariate data. Some specific issues have already been addressed as testified by the wide literature on the so-called blind source separation (BSS) problem. In this context, as clearly emphasized by previous work, it is fundamental that the sources to be retrieved present some quantitatively measurable diversity. Recently, sparsity and morphological diversity have ...

  14. Making Visual Maps Accessible to the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Buzzi, Maria Claudia; Buzzi, Marina; Leporini, Barbara; Martusciello, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    Visual maps deliver content in a simple and effective way. They can be useful for various purposes in areas such as street guidance, surrounding information, and education. However, sightless persons are unable to explore visual maps and risk being cut off from several multimedia Web applications. In this paper, starting from accessibility issues of map-based applications, we discuss possible interaction modalities and devices to use for truly achieving usage perspectives desired by blind peo...

  15. Navigation of blind and visually impaired people

    OpenAIRE

    Axer, Steffen; Belz, Jörg; Leske, Kathrin; Friedrich, Bernhard; Hesse, Tobias; Vollrath, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The mobility of the blind and visually impaired is associated with many barriers and risks. To secure crossings, signalized intersections are partially equipped with acoustic or tactile indicators. However, environmental conditions might interfere with the acoustic identification of the green time. Furthermore, information such as intersection topology, bicycle traffic or the curb structure is not accessible to visually impaired road users. Therefore, most trips are limited to trained routes....

  16. Social Sciences for the Prevention of Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Goldschmidt, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Organizations working for the elimination of Chlamydia-triggered blindness (trachoma) follow the WHO SAFE strategy (surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, face washing and environmental changes) with the aim to achieve a minimum of 80% of children with clean faces in endemic communities, mass treatment covering the whole district with trachoma rates of 10% or more and surveillance plans. Trachoma recurrence that is common after implementing the SAFE strategy 3, 5 or even 7 times evidence that t...

  17. BLIND NASAL INTUBATION IN CRANIOROFACIAL TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.R.DavidThakaran

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Restricted mouth opening presents one of the greatest challenges to the anesthetist for endotracheal intubation and ventilation. Awake blind nasal intubation has been one of the finest and favored techniques for intubation in previous decades for restricted mouth opening patients. A coordinated team approach, monitoring and adequate counseling of the patient is mandatory for the airway management to carry out a safe surgical procedure

  18. Blind surveys for radio pulsars and transients

    OpenAIRE

    Lorimer, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    The main reasons for searching for pulsars are to: (i) get an accurate census of the neutron star population and its origin and evolution; (ii) connect neutron stars to other stellar populations in the Galaxy and globular clusters; (iii) study Galactic astronomy (the interstellar medium and magnetic field); (iv) find and study new interesting individual objects; (v) study pulsar phenomenology; (vi) find pulsars to add to the sensitivity of pulsar timing arrays. This review focuses on blind (i...

  19. Broadband Venetian Blind polarizer with dual vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.; Hoppe, Daniel J.; Imbriale, William A.

    1993-05-01

    During development of a Venetian Blind polarizer, high reflections and substantial pattern deformation were noted. Analysis showed that when the polarizer was illuminated slightly off axis, a degenerate mode was excited. This mode is resonant at the design center frequency, and was the cause of the problems. A design developed using dual vanes has been shown to be free of the problem. It also has greater bandwidth.

  20. Blind Source Separation Using Hessian Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Jyothirmayi M; Elavaar Kuzhali S; Sethu Selvi S

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the blind image separation using sparse representation for natural images. The statistics of the natural image is based on one particular statistical property called sparseness, which is closely related to the super-gaussian distribution. Since natural images can have both gaussian and non gaussian distribution, the original infomax algorithm cannot be directly used for source separation as it is better suited to estimate the super-gaussian sources. Hence, we explore the...

  1. Blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Peizhong; LI Shen; ZOU Yan; LUO Xiangyang

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for blind recognition of punctured convolutional codes which is an important problem in adaptive modulation and coding. For a given finite sequence of convolutional code, the parity check matrix of the convolutional code is first computed by solving a linear system with adequate error tolerance. Then a minimal basic encoding matrix of the original convolutional code and its puncturing pattern are determined according to the known parity check matrix of the punctured convolutional code.

  2. Vision after 53 years of blindness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šikl, Radovan; Šimeček, Michal; Porubanová, M.; Bezdíček, O.

    London: Pion, 2010. s. 57-57. [Thirty-third European Conference on Visual Perception. 22.08.2010-26.08.2010, Lausanne] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/09/2003 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : blindness recovery * object perception * visual space perception Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www.perceptionweb.com/abstract.cgi?id=v100610

  3. Change blindness: eradication of gestalt strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Steve; Goddard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Arrays of eight, texture-defined rectangles were used as stimuli in a one-shot change blindness (CB) task where there was a 50% chance that one rectangle would change orientation between two successive presentations separated by an interval. CB was eliminated by cueing the target rectangle in the first stimulus, reduced by cueing in the interval and unaffected by cueing in the second presentation. This supports the idea that a representation was formed that persisted through the interval befo...

  4. A Completely Blind Video Integrity Oracle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Anish; Saad, Michele A; Bovik, Alan C

    2016-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made toward developing still picture perceptual quality analyzers that do not require any reference picture and that are not trained on human opinion scores of distorted images. However, there do not yet exist any such completely blind video quality assessment (VQA) models. Here, we attempt to bridge this gap by developing a new VQA model called the video intrinsic integrity and distortion evaluation oracle (VIIDEO). The new model does not require the use of any additional information other than the video being quality evaluated. VIIDEO embodies models of intrinsic statistical regularities that are observed in natural vidoes, which are used to quantify disturbances introduced due to distortions. An algorithm derived from the VIIDEO model is thereby able to predict the quality of distorted videos without any external knowledge about the pristine source, anticipated distortions, or human judgments of video quality. Even with such a paucity of information, we are able to show that the VIIDEO algorithm performs much better than the legacy full reference quality measure MSE on the LIVE VQA database and delivers performance comparable with a leading human judgment trained blind VQA model. We believe that the VIIDEO algorithm is a significant step toward making real-time monitoring of completely blind video quality possible. PMID:26599970

  5. Corona solar blind ultraviolet image detecting method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Li-min; Tang, Wen-qing; Zhang, Yu

    2009-07-01

    Corona is one of important reasons of electrical energy loss in the electric power. According to incomplete statistics, corona loss electrical energy has achieved two thousands and fifty millions kW.h in our nation every year. Sometimes corona also can have some disturbance to radio and communication. Therefore to discover and examine corona promptly has the extremely vital significance for conserving energy and realizing high quality communication. Ultraviolet image detecting technology is a preferred corona detection method in electric power. It may realize all-weather reliable survey to corona. The solar blind ultraviolet signal discharged by corona is quite weak. Moreover the ultraviolet image quality has been affected seriously by the detection system noise. A corona solar blind ultraviolet image processing method is proposed in this paper. Ultraviolet image has so small target, low contrast image, district characteristic and real-time demand that it is processed by multi-scale ultraviolet morphology filter technology based on mathematics morphology in this paper. Results show that the method can stretch image contrast, enhance target and weaken noise. The algorithm is easy to deal in parallel and it can be realized easily by hardware. It will be accurately demarcated when the condition of device need to be absolutely measured. The paper proposes a kind of mathematics morphology algorithm. Solar blind ultraviolet image will be further processed according to temperature and humidity in order to remove the infection of corona discharge demarcation and solve correct demarcation question when equipment condition need to be absolutely measured.

  6. The sensory construction of dreams and nightmare frequency in congenitally blind and late blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meaidi, Amani; Jennum, Poul; Ptito, Maurice;

    2014-01-01

    . Every morning participants filled in a questionnaire related to the sensory construction of the dream, its emotional and thematic content, and the possible occurrence of nightmares. We also assessed participants' ability of visual imagery during waking cognition, sleep quality, and depression...... and anxiety levels. RESULTS: All blind participants had fewer visual dream impressions compared to SC participants. In LB participants, duration of blindness was negatively correlated with duration, clarity, and color content of visual dream impressions. CB participants reported more auditory, tactile......, gustatory, and olfactory dream components compared to SC participants. In contrast, LB participants only reported more tactile dream impressions. Blind and SC participants did not differ with respect to emotional and thematic dream content. However, CB participants reported more aggressive interactions...

  7. Blindness and the age of enlightenment: Diderot's letter on the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, Curtis E; Harman, Lynn E; Smith, Don B

    2013-01-01

    Several months after anonymously publishing an essay in 1749 with the title "Letter on the Blind for the Use of Those Who Can See," the chief editor of the French Encyclopédie was arrested and taken to the prison fortress of Vincennes just east of Paris, France. The correctly assumed author, Denis Diderot, was 35 years old and had not yet left his imprint on the Age of Enlightenment. His letter, which recounted the life of Nicolas Saunderson, a blind mathematician, was intended to advance secular empiricism and disparage the religiously tinged rationalism put forward by Rene Descartes. The letter's discussion of sensory perception in men born blind dismissed the supposed primacy of visual imagery in abstract thinking. The essay did little to resolve any philosophical controversy, but it marked a turning point in Western attitudes toward visual disability. PMID:23307219

  8. A NEW EFFICIENT ID-BASED PROXY BLIND SIGNATURE SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yang; Wang Yumin

    2008-01-01

    In a proxy blind signature scheme, the proxy signer is allowed to generate a blind signature on behalf of the original signer. The proxy blind signature scheme is useful in several applications such as e-voting, e-payment, etc. Recently, Zheng, et al. presented an IDentity (ID)-based proxy blind signature. In this paper, a new efficient ID-based proxy blind signature scheme from bilinear pairings is proposed, which can satisfy the security properties of both the proxy signatures and the blind signature schemes. Analysis of the scheme efficiency shows that the new scheme is more efficient than Zheng, et al.'s scheme. The proposed scheme is more practical in the real world.

  9. Untraceable partially blind signature based on DLOG problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zheng(黄征); CHEN Ke-fei(陈克非); KOU Wei-dong(寇卫东)

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new untraceable Partially Blind Signature scheme which is a cross between the traditional signature scheme and the blind signature scheme. In this proposed scheme, the message M that the signer signed can be divided into two parts. The first part can be known to the signer (like that in the traditional signature scheme) while the other part cannot be known to the signer (like that in the blind signature scheme). After having signed M, the signer cannot determine if he has made the signature of M except through the part that he knows. We draw ideas from Brands' "Restricted Blind Signature" to solve the Untraceable Partially Blind Signature problem. Our scheme is a probabilistic signature scheme and the security of our Untraceable Partially Blind Signature scheme relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithm.

  10. Enhanced chemosensory detection of negative emotions in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Katrine D.; Ptito, Maurice; Møller, Per;

    2015-01-01

    blind and normal sighted individuals in their ability to discriminate and identify emotions from body odours. A group of 14 congenitally blind and 14 age- and sex-matched sighted control subjects participated in the study. We compared participants' abilities to detect and identify by smelling sweat from...... donors who had been watching excerpts from emotional movies showing amusement, fear, disgust, or sexual arousal. Our results show that congenitally blind subjects outperformed sighted controls in identifying fear from male donors. In addition, there was a strong tendency that blind individuals were also...... better in detecting disgust. Our findings reveal that congenitally blind individuals are better at identifying ecologically important emotions and provide new insights into the mechanisms of social and affective communication in blindness....

  11. Untraceable partially blind signature based on DLOG problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zheng; Chen, Ke-fei; Kou, Wei-dong

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a new untraceable Partially Blind Signature scheme which is a cross between the traditional signature scheme and the blind signature scheme. In this proposed scheme, the message M that the signer signed can be divided into two parts. The first part can be known to the signer (like that in the traditional signature scheme) while the other part cannot be known to the signer (like that in the blind signature scheme). After having signed M, the signer cannot determine if he has made the signature of M except through the part that he knows. We draw ideas from Brands' "Restricted Blind Signature" to solve the Untraceable Partially Blind Signature problem. Our scheme is a probabilistic signature scheme and the security of our Untraceable Partially Blind Signature scheme relies on the difficulty of computing discrete logarithm. PMID:14663850

  12. A New Proxy Blind Signature Scheme based on ECDLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniyal M Alghazzawi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A proxy blind signature scheme is a special form of blind signature which allows a designated person called proxy signer to sign on behalf of two or more original signers without knowing the content of the message or document. It combines the advantages of proxy signature, blind signature and multi-signature scheme and satisfies the security properties of both proxy and blind signature scheme. Most of the exiting proxy blind signature schemes were developed based on the mathematical hard problems integer factorization (IFP and simple discrete logarithm (DLP which take sub-exponential time to solve. This paper describes an secure simple proxy blind signature scheme based on Elliptic Curve Discrete Logarithm Problem (ECDLP takes fully-exponential time. This can be implemented in low power and small processor mobile devices such as smart card, PDA etc. Here also we describes implementation issues of various scalar multiplication for ECDLP.

  13. PARENT Quick Blind Round-Robin Test Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braatz, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heasler, Patrick G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques (PARENT) whose goal is to investigate the effectiveness of current and novel nondestructive examination procedures and techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. This is to be done by conducting a series of open and blind international round-robin tests on a set of piping components that include large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds. The blind testing is being conducted in two segments, one is called Quick-Blind and the other is called Blind. The Quick-Blind testing and destructive analysis of the test blocks has been completed. This report describes the four Quick-Blind test blocks used, summarizes their destructive analysis, gives an overview of the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques applied, provides an analysis inspection data, and presents the conclusions drawn.

  14. Blind estimation of compartmental model parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computation of physiologically relevant kinetic parameters from dynamic PET or SPECT imaging requires knowledge of the blood input function. This work is concerned with developing methods to accurately estimate these kinetic parameters blindly; that is, without use of a directly measured blood input function. Instead, only measurements of the output functions - the tissue time-activity curves - are used. The blind estimation method employed here minimizes a set of cross-relation equations, from which the blood term has been factored out, to determine compartmental model parameters. The method was tested with simulated data appropriate for dynamic SPECT cardiac perfusion imaging with 99mTc-teboroxime and for dynamic PET cerebral blood flow imaging with 15O water. The simulations did not model the tomographic process. Noise levels typical of the respective modalities were employed. From three to eight different regions were simulated, each with different time-activity curves. The time-activity curve (24 or 70 time points) for each region was simulated with a compartment model. The simulation used a biexponential blood input function and washin rates between 0.2 and 1.3 min-1 and washout rates between 0.2 and 1.0 min-1. The system of equations was solved numerically and included constraints to bound the range of possible solutions. From the cardiac simulations, washin was determined to within a scale factor of the true washin parameters with less than 6% bias and 12% variability. 99mTc-teboroxime washout results had less than 5% bias, but variability ranged from 14% to 43%. The cerebral blood flow washin parameters were determined with less than 5% bias and 4% variability. The washout parameters were determined with less than 4% bias, but had 15-30% variability. Since washin is often the parameter of most use in clinical studies, the blind estimation approach may eliminate the current necessity of measuring the input function when performing certain dynamic studies

  15. Blind estimation of compartmental model parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bella, E V; Clackdoyle, R; Gullberg, G T

    1999-03-01

    Computation of physiologically relevant kinetic parameters from dynamic PET or SPECT imaging requires knowledge of the blood input function. This work is concerned with developing methods to accurately estimate these kinetic parameters blindly; that is, without use of a directly measured blood input function. Instead, only measurements of the output functions--the tissue time-activity curves--are used. The blind estimation method employed here minimizes a set of cross-relation equations, from which the blood term has been factored out, to determine compartmental model parameters. The method was tested with simulated data appropriate for dynamic SPECT cardiac perfusion imaging with 99mTc-teboroxime and for dynamic PET cerebral blood flow imaging with 15O water. The simulations did not model the tomographic process. Noise levels typical of the respective modalities were employed. From three to eight different regions were simulated, each with different time-activity curves. The time-activity curve (24 or 70 time points) for each region was simulated with a compartment model. The simulation used a biexponential blood input function and washin rates between 0.2 and 1.3 min(-1) and washout rates between 0.2 and 1.0 min(-1). The system of equations was solved numerically and included constraints to bound the range of possible solutions. From the cardiac simulations, washin was determined to within a scale factor of the true washin parameters with less than 6% bias and 12% variability. 99mTc-teboroxime washout results had less than 5% bias, but variability ranged from 14% to 43%. The cerebral blood flow washin parameters were determined with less than 5% bias and 4% variability. The washout parameters were determined with less than 4% bias, but had 15-30% variability. Since washin is often the parameter of most use in clinical studies, the blind estimation approach may eliminate the current necessity of measuring the input function when performing certain dynamic studies

  16. The global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten L Armstrong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To complete an initial estimate of the global cost of eliminating avoidable blindness, including the investment required to build ongoing primary and secondary health care systems, as well as to eliminate the ′backlog′ of avoidable blindness. This analysis also seeks to understand and articulate where key data limitations lie. Materials and Methods : Data were collected in line with a global estimation approach, including separate costing frameworks for the primary and secondary care sectors, and the treatment of backlog. Results : The global direct health cost to eliminate avoidable blindness over a 10-year period from 2011 to 2020 is estimated at $632 billion per year (2009 US$. As countries already spend $592 billion per annum on eye health, this represents additional investment of $397.8 billion over 10 years, which is $40 billion per year or $5.80 per person for each year between 2010 and 2020. This is concentrated in high-income nations, which require 68% of the investment but comprise 16% of the world′s inhabitants. For all other regions, the additional investment required is $127 billion. Conclusions : This costing estimate has identified that low- and middle-income countries require less than half the additional investment compared with high-income nations. Low- and middle-income countries comprise the greater investment proportion in secondary care whereas high-income countries require the majority of investment into the primary sector. However, there is a need to improve sector data. Investment in better data will have positive flow-on effects for the eye health sector.

  17. Nonlinear Blind Equalization for Volume Holographic Data Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    商未雄; 何庆声; 金国藩

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear blind equalization for volume holographic data storage channel. Base on the recurrent neural network channel model, we describe a novel blind equalizer for the volume holographic data storage system to improve the bit error rate and hence to make the storage densities achievable. The experimental results also indicate that a significant improvement in the bit error rate to 2.55 × 10-3 is possible with the nonlinear blind equalization.

  18. ITERATIVE MULTICHANNEL BLIND DECONVOLUTION METHOD FOR TEMPORALLY COLORED SOURCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Mingjian; Wei Gang

    2004-01-01

    An iterative separation approach, i.e. source signals are extracted and removed one by one, is proposed for multichannel blind deconvolution of colored signals. Each source signal is extracted in two stages: a filtered version of the source signal is first obtained by solving the generalized eigenvalue problem, which is then followed by a single channel blind deconvolution based on ensemble learning. Simulation demonstrates the capability of the approach to perform efficient mutichannel blind deconvolution.

  19. Causes of childhood blindness in the northeastern states of India

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharjee Harsha; Das Kalyan; Borah Rishi; Guha Kamalesh; Gogate Parikshit; Purukayastha S; Gilbert Clare

    2008-01-01

    Background: The northeastern region (NER) of India is geographically isolated and ethno-culturally different from the rest of the country. There is lacuna regarding the data on causes of blindness and severe visual impairment in children from this region. Aim: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness amongst children from schools for the blind in the four states of NER of India. Design and Setting: Survey of children attending special education schools for the b...

  20. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Hornby Stella; Adolph Shajan; Gothwal Vijaya; Gilbert Clare; Dandona Lalit; Foster Allen

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs) Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for ...

  1. Altered myoelectric activity in the experimental blind loop syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Justus, P G; Fernandez, A; Martin, J.L.; King, C E; Toskes, P P; Mathias, J R

    1983-01-01

    Nutrient malabsorption and diarrhea are characteristic of the blind loop syndrome. Alterations in motility have been implicated as a cause of bacterial overgrowth, but the possibility that altered motility may result from alterations in the flora has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to characterize the myoelectric activity of the small intestine in the blind loop rat model. Eight groups of rats were studied: rats with self-filling blind loops, which develop bacterial overgrowt...

  2. Congenital Blindness and Visual Impairment Cause Infection or Non Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana A. Janicijevic-Petrovic; Tatjana S. Sarenac-Vulovic; Katarina M. Janicijevic; Dragan I. Vujic; Dejan D. Vulovic

    2013-01-01

    Conflict of interest: none declared. Introduction Authors are from reference documentation to archive at Organization of Federation of blind and visually impaired in central Serbia (Kragujevac), by retrograde analysis, of 2007-2012, comprehend two groups by etiology–clinical characteristics of congenital blindness and visually impaired, caused infection or non infection example. Aim to analyze relationship between infectious and non infectious of congenital blindness and visually impaired in ...

  3. A Secured Application for Generating Acoustic Signal for Blind People

    OpenAIRE

    PrachiPhursutkar; Apurva Bajaj; Priyanka Veer; Tai Chormale; Prof.G.M.Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    Visionless people face many difficulties in their daily activities. This paper is basically designed to facilitate blind people for autonomous navigation. It is based on ‘image to sound’ conversion. The mobile camera is used to captures the image in front of the blind user. This image is then equated with the database and the processed information is fetched by blind user through a set of earphones. Color information of the object is also measured and it is informed...

  4. "Visual" Cortex Responds to Spoken Language in Blind Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bedny, Marina; Richardson, Hilary; Saxe, Rebecca R.

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity in the visual cortex of blind individuals provides a rare window into the mechanisms of cortical specialization. In the absence of visual input, occipital (“visual”) brain regions respond to sound and spoken language. Here, we examined the time course and developmental mechanism of this plasticity in blind children. Nineteen blind and 40 sighted children and adolescents (4–17 years old) listened to stories and two auditory control conditions (unfamiliar foreign speech, and music). ...

  5. Physics Education for Blind Students: The Teachers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Amauri; Dickman, Adriana

    2008-03-01

    We discuss the challenge high school teachers face when teaching physics to the blind. Using the oral history method, we interview physics teachers who have dealt with the inclusion of blind students in regular classrooms. Based on our study, we find that the performance of these students varies, depending on the studied subject. The narrative makes clear the teachers' lack of preparation to deal with inclusion, and their search for alternative methods to improve blind students' learning.

  6. Aging Increases Inattentional Blindness to the Gorilla in our Midst

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth R. Graham; Burke, Deborah M

    2011-01-01

    When engaged in an attention demanding task, people are surprisingly vulnerable to inattentional blindness, the failure to notice an unexpected event. Two theories of cognitive aging, attentional capacity models and inhibitory deficit models, make opposite predictions about age differences in susceptibility to inattentional blindness. We tested these predictions using an inattentional blindness paradigm developed by Simons and Chabris (1999) and found that older adults were more likely to exp...

  7. Using noise inconsistencies for blind image forensics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saic, Stanislav; Mahdian, Babak

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 10 (2009), s. 1497-1503. ISSN 0262-8856 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image forensics * Digital forgery * Image tampering * Image segmentation Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.474, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/ZOI/saic-using%20noise%20inconsistencies%20for%20blind%20image%20forensics.pdf

  8. Understanding image priors in blind deconvolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Filip; Šmídl, Václav; Kotera, Jan

    USA: IEEE, 2014, s. 4492-4496. ISBN 978-1-4799-5751-4. [2014 IEEE International Conference on Image Processing . Paris (FR), 27.10.2014-30.10.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S Grant ostatní: Grantová agentura UK(CZ) GAUK 938213 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : blind deconvolution * variational Bayes * automatic relevance determination Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/ZOI/sroubek-0434275.pdf

  9. Grading learning for blind source separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贤达; 朱孝龙; 保铮

    2003-01-01

    By generalizing the learning rate parameter to a learning rate matrix, this paper proposes agrading learning algorithm for blind source separation. The whole learning process is divided into threestages: initial stage, capturing stage and tracking stage. In different stages, different learning rates areused for each output component, which is determined by its dependency on other output components. Itis shown that the grading learning algorithm is equivariant and can keep the separating matrix from be-coming singular. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm can achieve faster convergence, bettersteady-state performance and higher numerical robustness, as compared with the existing algorithmsusing fixed, time-descending and adaptive learning rates.

  10. Constrained variable projection method for blind deconvolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is focused on the solution of the blind deconvolution problem, here modeled as a separable nonlinear least squares problem. The well known ill-posedness, both on recovering the blurring operator and the true image, makes the problem really difficult to handle. We show that, by imposing appropriate constraints on the variables and with well chosen regularization parameters, it is possible to obtain an objective function that is fairly well behaved. Hence, the resulting nonlinear minimization problem can be effectively solved by classical methods, such as the Gauss-Newton algorithm.

  11. Blind Search for Variability in Planck Data

    CERN Document Server

    Rachen, Jörg P; Reinecke, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The sky is full of variable and transient sources on all time scales, from milliseconds to decades. Planck's regular scanning strategy makes it an ideal instrument to search for variable sky signals in the millimetre and submillimetre regime, on time scales from hours to several years. A precondition is that instrumental noise and systematic effects, caused in particular by non-symmetric beam shapes, are properly removed. We present a method to perform a full sky blind search for variable and transient objects at all Planck frequencies.

  12. Cortical blindness in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katafuchi, Y; Nishimi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Matsuishi, T; Kimura, Y; Otaki, E; Yamashita, Y

    1985-01-01

    A 3-year-old boy had persistent cortical blindness following acute carbon monoxide poisoning. He was believed to have suffered anoxic brain damage due to incomplete combustion of the briquette-type solid fuel. Computed tomographic (CT) scan of the brain and visual evoked potentials (VEP) in the early stage were normal. However, on the 20th hospital day CT scan showed leukomalacia and VEP showed an absence of N1-, and P1-waves which was well correlated with the clinical feature at that time. PMID:4083389

  13. A blind test of photometric redshift prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Hogg, D W; Blandford, R D; Gwyn, S D J; Hartwick, F D A; Mobasher, B; Mazzei, P; Sawicki, M; Lin, H; Yee, H K C; Connolly, A J; Brunner, R J; Csabai, I; Dickinson, M; Subba-Rao, M; Szalay, A S; Fernández-Soto, A; Lanzetta, K M; Yahil, A; Hogg, David W.; Cohen, Judith G.; Blandford, Roger; Gwyn, Stephen D. J.; Mazzei, Paula; Sawicki, Marcin; Lin, Huan; Connolly, Andrew J.; Brunner, Robert J.; Csabai, Istvan; Dickinson, Mark; Rao, Mark U. Subba; Szalay, Alexander S.; Fernandez-Soto, Alberto; Lanzetta, Kenneth M.; Yahil, Amos

    1998-01-01

    Results of a blind test of photometric redshift predictions against spectroscopic galaxy redshifts obtained in the Hubble Deep Field with the Keck Telescope are presented. The best photometric redshift schemes predict spectroscopic redshifts with a redshift accuracy of |Delta-z|<0.1 for more than 68 percent of sources and with |Delta-z|<0.3 for 100 percent, when single-feature spectroscopic redshifts are removed from consideration. This test shows that photometric redshift schemes work well at least when the photometric data are of high quality and when the sources are at moderate redshifts.

  14. Low-rank blind nonnegative matrix deconvolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Phan, A. H.; Tichavský, Petr; Cichocki, A.; Koldovský, Z.

    Kyoto : IEEE, 2012, s. 1893-1896. ISBN 978-1-4673-0045-2. ISSN 1520-6149. [IEEE International Conference on Acoustics , Speech, and Signal Processing ICASSP 2012. Kyoto (JP), 25.03.2012-30.03. 2012] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/1278 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : nonnegative matrix deconvolution * pattern extraction * music decomposition Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/SI/tichavsky-low-rank blind nonnegative matrix deconvolution.pdf

  15. Blinds Methods for Detecting Image Fakery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saic, Stanislav; Mahdian, Babak

    Piscataway : IEEE, 2008 - (Sanson, L.; Fliegel, K.), s. 280-286 ISBN 978-1-4244-1816-9. [ICCST 2008. IEEE International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology /42./. Prague (CZ), 13.10.2008-16.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image forensics * image tampering * Forgery detection * Authentication Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2008/ZOI/saic-blinds methods for detecting image fakery.pdf

  16. Color-Blind Racism, Color-Blind Theology, and Church Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearn, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Color-blind racism develops when persons ignore color in people and see them simply as individuals. As persons of color in racialized societies such as the United States are unequally treated on account of their color, the issue becomes a matter of faith and religious experience as religious leaders and educators, who disregard color, overlook…

  17. Semi-blind Channel Estimator for OFDM-STC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yun; LUO Han-wen; SONG Wen-tao; HUANG Jian-guo

    2007-01-01

    Channel state information of OFDM-STC system is required for maximum likelihood decoding. A subspace-based semi-blind method was proposed for estimating the channels of OFDM-STC systems. The channels are first estimated blindly up to an ambiguity parameter utilizing the nature structure of STC, irrespective of the underlying signal constellations. Furthermore, a method was proposed to resolve the ambiguity by using a few pilot symbols. The simulation results show the proposed semi-blind estimator can achieve higher spectral efficiency and provide improved estimation performance compared to the non-blind estimator.

  18. A Smart Infrared Microcontroller-Based Blind Guidance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amjed S. Al-Fahoum

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Blindness is a state of lacking the visual perception due to physiological or neurological factors. The partial blindness represents the lack of integration in the growth of the optic nerve or visual centre of the eye, and total blindness is the full absence of the visual light perception. In this work, a simple, cheap, friendly user, smart blind guidance system is designed and implemented to improve the mobility of both blind and visually impaired people in a specific area. The proposed work includes a wearable equipment consists of head hat and mini hand stick to help the blind person to navigate alone safely and to avoid any obstacles that may be encountered, whether fixed or mobile, to prevent any possible accident. The main component of this system is the infrared sensor which is used to scan a predetermined area around blind by emitting-reflecting waves. The reflected signals received from the barrier objects are used as inputs to PIC microcontroller. The microcontroller is then used to determine the direction and distance of the objects around the blind. It also controls the peripheral components that alert the user about obstacle's shape, material, and direction. The implemented system is cheap, fast, and easy to use and an innovative affordable solution to blind and visually impaired people in third world countries.

  19. IDENTIFYING AUTISM IN CHILDREN WITH BLINDNESS AND VISUAL IMPAIRMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana VELJANOVSKA

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Often in working with children with blindness or visual impairments we are enchanting children with some specific stereotype behaviors, identified as "blindizms”. Parents and professionals noted that many of these behaviors are the same as or similar to those behaviors seen in students with autism. These similarities led professionals to pursue more information about autism and its relationship to blindness. To assist in this process the professionals from Oregon School for the blind developed some guidelines to compare the characteristics observed in children with blindness and autism alone, across four domains: language and communication, relating to people, discrepancies in developmental rates and responses to sensory stimuli.

  20. A Secured Application for Generating Acoustic Signal for Blind People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PrachiPhursutkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Visionless people face many difficulties in their daily activities. This paper is basically designed to facilitate blind people for autonomous navigation. It is based on ‘image to sound’ conversion. The mobile camera is used to captures the image in front of the blind user. This image is then equated with the database and the processed information is fetched by blind user through a set of earphones. Color information of the object is also measured and it is informed to the blind user through the set of headphones.

  1. 20 CFR 416.933 - How we make a finding of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... disability or presumptive blindness. 416.933 Section 416.933 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Blindness Presumptive Disability and Blindness § 416.933 How we make a finding of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness. We may make a finding of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness if...

  2. 20 CFR 404.1582 - A period of disability based on blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false A period of disability based on blindness..., SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1582 A period of disability based on blindness. If we find that you are blind and you meet the insured...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1581 - Meaning of blindness as defined in the law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of blindness as defined in the law..., SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Blindness § 404.1581 Meaning of blindness as defined in the law. We will consider you blind under the law for a period...

  4. 20 CFR 416.931 - The meaning of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... presumptive blindness. 416.931 Section 416.931 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Presumptive Disability and Blindness § 416.931 The meaning of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness. If you...

  5. SECURING VIRTUAL IMAGES USING BLIND AUTHENTICATION PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAVIKIRAN PEELUKHANA,

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The cloud virtualization technology improves the economy of scale for data centers through server consolidation, application consolidation and resources consolidation. Virtualization allows the provider to move Virtual Images from more congested host to less-congested hosts, as required. Enterprises also get improved server reliability, which in turn increases application performance. Despite these benefits, it includes major security challenges with the portability of Virtual Images between different cloud providers.The security and integrity of Virtual images is the foundation for the overall security of the cloud. Many of the Virtual images are intended to be shared by diverse and unrelated users. Unfortunately, existing approaches to cloud security built by cloud practitioners fall short when dealing with Virtual images. Secure transmission of virtual Images can bepossible by providing authentication using Blind Authentication protocol (BAP. The proposed approach authenticates the allocation of virtual images using Blind authentication protocol. It provides provable protection against replay and client side attacks even if the keys of the user are compromised. The encryption also provides template protection, revocability and alleviates the concerns on privacy in widespread use of biometrics. Carrying out the authentication in the encrypted domain is a secure process, while the encryption key acts as an additional layer of security.

  6. Do "mudsplashes" induce tactile change blindness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallace, Alberto; Tan, Hong Z; Spence, Charles

    2007-05-01

    The phenomenon of change blindness (the surprising inability of people to correctly perceive changes between consecutively presented displays), primarily reported in vision, has recently been shown to occur for positional changes presented in tactile displays as well. Here, we studied people's ability to detect changes in the number of tactile stimuli in successively presented displays composed of one to three stimuli distributed over the body surface. In Experiment 1, a tactile mask consisting of the simultaneous activation of all seven possible tactile stimulators was sometimes presented between the two to-be-discriminated tactile displays. In Experiment 2, a "mudsplash" paradigm was used, with a brief irrelevant tactile distractor presented at the moment of change of the tactile display. Change blindness was demonstrated in both experiments, thus showing that the failure to detect tactile change is not necessarily related to (1) the physical disruption between consecutive events, (2) the effect of masking covering the location of the change, or (3) the erasure or resetting of the information contained within an internal representation of the tactile display. These results are interpreted in terms of a limitation in the number of spatial locations/events that can be consciously accessed at any one time. This limitation appears to constrain change-detection performance, no matter the sensory modality in which the stimuli are presented. PMID:17727101

  7. An investigation of the Venetian blind effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filley, E T; Khutoryansky, Natalie; Dobias, J J; Stine, Wm Wren

    2011-01-01

    When a rectangular wave grating is binocularly viewed with a neutral density filter over one eye, an illusory rotation resembling that of a partially opened Venetian blind is perceived (Cibis and Haber, 1951). Using a binary classification task, in the first experiment, the probability of perceiving a rotation in a given direction was measured as a function of a factorial combination of inter-ocular contrast (see Note 1) and luminance ratios. The probability of a rotation in a given direction decreased monotonically with the luminance of the brighter bars when the grating contains a less than unity contrast. This result is inconsistent with (i) the model of the Venetian blind effect proposed by Cibis and Haber (1951), (ii) a mechanism based on irradiation with a compressive non-linearity (von Helmholtz, 1911/1924, pp. 186-193) and (iii) contemporary stereo-energy/cross-correlation models of stereopsis. In the second and third experiments, we tested the prediction that irradiation combined with an early compressive non-linearity in response implies a positive relationship between both the threshold contrast or average luminance disparity to perceive rotation and the magnitude of perceived rotation, and the blur width at the bar's edge. No support was found for the prediction. We propose an intensity difference model of the probability of perceiving a rotation in a given direction as a function of the interocular difference in luminance or contrast. PMID:21864465

  8. Mobility aid for blind figure skaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acerbi, A.; Graffigna, J. P.; Polimeni, G.; Fernández, H. H.

    2007-11-01

    This work is developed within the scope of rehabilitation technology to enable blind and visually impaired persons read non-Braille material commonly available in digital form to normal-vision readers. This approach, therefore, tries to broaden the reaching capacity for these persons and, thus, allow for better inclusion in social, work, educative and even leisure activities. Specifically, it is devised for reading any kind of text in digital form --books, files, documents, Internet information and exchanges, etc.-- that can be loaded in a PC to be later read on the devised Braille reading line. It consists of a string-like platform of electrodes that simulate, through tactile electrostimulation, the letter characters displayed in Braille fashion. Finger-tip feeling from these electric discharges is caused by stimulating the skin nerve receptors underneath the tip. These electric discharges produce a similar effect as when reading embossed-type characters of traditional Braille-relief paper material. After design and development, experiences were made with blind persons, with fairly satisfactory results. At present, further work is under way in order to improve the system.

  9. Mobility aid for blind figure skaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is developed within the scope of rehabilitation technology to enable blind and visually impaired persons read non-Braille material commonly available in digital form to normal-vision readers. This approach, therefore, tries to broaden the reaching capacity for these persons and, thus, allow for better inclusion in social, work, educative and even leisure activities. Specifically, it is devised for reading any kind of text in digital form --books, files, documents, Internet information and exchanges, etc.-- that can be loaded in a PC to be later read on the devised Braille reading line. It consists of a string-like platform of electrodes that simulate, through tactile electrostimulation, the letter characters displayed in Braille fashion. Finger-tip feeling from these electric discharges is caused by stimulating the skin nerve receptors underneath the tip. These electric discharges produce a similar effect as when reading embossed-type characters of traditional Braille-relief paper material. After design and development, experiences were made with blind persons, with fairly satisfactory results. At present, further work is under way in order to improve the system

  10. IMPLEMENTATION OF COLOR-BLIND AID SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruki Harwahyu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Color-blind is a physical defect causing patient loses the ability to recognize colors either particular or the whole of them. This disability is problematic in daily life, moreover in some specific areas that require carefulness eyesight. We propose a vision aid kit with improved user experience, such as finger pointer and voice command-and-response. Our work proofs the design and implementation of color-blind aid system for embedded and mobile device. This study used Windows Embedded Standard 2009, Windows Phone 7, Speech API library, Open CV library and EmguCV wrapper. The performance of each functionality is evaluated. From various testing that are conducted, the system can best detect color samples with precision level of 90.67% on embedded device implementation and 95.33% on mobile device implementation. The best fingertip detection rate attained is 89.6% with normal lighting condition. The voice command works with detection rate of 75.87%, meanwhile for the synthesized speech response, 88, 33% respondents can understood the words well.

  11. Mobility aid for blind figure skaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acerbi, A; Graffigna, J P; Polimeni, G; Fernandez, H H [Gabinete de Tecnologia Medica, Fac. de Ingenieria, Universidad Nac. de San Juan Av Libertador San Martin 1109(O), J5400ARL, San Juan (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    This work is developed within the scope of rehabilitation technology to enable blind and visually impaired persons read non-Braille material commonly available in digital form to normal-vision readers. This approach, therefore, tries to broaden the reaching capacity for these persons and, thus, allow for better inclusion in social, work, educative and even leisure activities. Specifically, it is devised for reading any kind of text in digital form --books, files, documents, Internet information and exchanges, etc.-- that can be loaded in a PC to be later read on the devised Braille reading line. It consists of a string-like platform of electrodes that simulate, through tactile electrostimulation, the letter characters displayed in Braille fashion. Finger-tip feeling from these electric discharges is caused by stimulating the skin nerve receptors underneath the tip. These electric discharges produce a similar effect as when reading embossed-type characters of traditional Braille-relief paper material. After design and development, experiences were made with blind persons, with fairly satisfactory results. At present, further work is under way in order to improve the system.

  12. Blind RRT: A probabilistically complete distributed RRT

    KAUST Repository

    Rodriguez, Cesar

    2013-11-01

    Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs) have been successful at finding feasible solutions for many types of problems. With motion planning becoming more computationally demanding, we turn to parallel motion planning for efficient solutions. Existing work on distributed RRTs has been limited by the overhead that global communication requires. A recent approach, Radial RRT, demonstrated a scalable algorithm that subdivides the space into regions to increase the computation locality. However, if an obstacle completely blocks RRT growth in a region, the planning space is not covered and is thus not probabilistically complete. We present a new algorithm, Blind RRT, which ignores obstacles during initial growth to efficiently explore the entire space. Because obstacles are ignored, free components of the tree become disconnected and fragmented. Blind RRT merges parts of the tree that have become disconnected from the root. We show how this algorithm can be applied to the Radial RRT framework allowing both scalability and effectiveness in motion planning. This method is a probabilistically complete approach to parallel RRTs. We show that our method not only scales but also overcomes the motion planning limitations that Radial RRT has in a series of difficult motion planning tasks. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Reporting methods of blinding in randomized trials assessing nonpharmacological treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Boutron

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blinding is a cornerstone of treatment evaluation. Blinding is more difficult to obtain in trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment and frequently relies on "creative" (nonstandard methods. The purpose of this study was to systematically describe the strategies used to obtain blinding in a sample of randomized controlled trials of nonpharmacological treatment. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We systematically searched in Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register for randomized controlled trials (RCTs assessing nonpharmacological treatment with blinding, published during 2004 in high-impact-factor journals. Data were extracted using a standardized extraction form. We identified 145 articles, with the method of blinding described in 123 of the reports. Methods of blinding of participants and/or health care providers and/or other caregivers concerned mainly use of sham procedures such as simulation of surgical procedures, similar attention-control interventions, or a placebo with a different mode of administration for rehabilitation or psychotherapy. Trials assessing devices reported various placebo interventions such as use of sham prosthesis, identical apparatus (e.g., identical but inactivated machine or use of activated machine with a barrier to block the treatment, or simulation of using a device. Blinding participants to the study hypothesis was also an important method of blinding. The methods reported for blinding outcome assessors relied mainly on centralized assessment of paraclinical examinations, clinical examinations (i.e., use of video, audiotape, photography, or adjudications of clinical events. CONCLUSIONS: This study classifies blinding methods and provides a detailed description of methods that could overcome some barriers of blinding in clinical trials assessing nonpharmacological treatment, and provides information for readers assessing the quality of results of such trials.

  14. About a case of blindness following scorpion envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Delma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author reports a case of blindness occurred after three scorpion stings in a young woman from the region Ouargla, Algeria. The absence of signs of neurological and cardiovascular envenomation and the functional examinations of eyes is likely to be the consequence of a toxic neuropathy. Two months later, blindness persists and functional prognosis remains reserved.

  15. Attenuation of Change Blindness in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher-Watson, Sue; Leekam, Susan R.; Connolly, Brenda; Collis, Jess M.; Findlay, John M.; McConachie, Helen; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Change blindness refers to the difficulty most people find in detecting a difference between two pictures when these are presented successively, with a brief interruption between. Attention at the site of the change is required for detection. A number of studies have investigated change blindness in adults and children with autism spectrum…

  16. AODA Training Experiences of Blindness and Visual Impairment Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S. J.; Koch, D. Shane; McKee, Marissa F.; Nelipovich, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Co-existing alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) and blindness or visually impairment may complicate the delivery of rehabilitation services. Professionals working with individuals who are blind or visually impaired need to be aware of unique issues facing those with co-existing disabilities. This study sought to examine the AODA training needs,…

  17. Navigation with a sensory substitution device in congenitally blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Schneider, Fabien C; Kupers, Ron;

    2011-01-01

    Vision allows for obstacle detection and avoidance. The compensatory mechanisms involved in maintaining these functions in blind people using their remaining intact senses are poorly understood. We investigated the ability of congenitally blind participants to detect and avoid obstacles using the...

  18. Rubella Deaf-Blind Child: Implications of Psychological Assessment. Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouin, Carole

    Presented are proceedings of a conference involving authorities in testing and evaluating the blind, deaf, and deaf-blind. In a paper titled "Psychological Implications of Assessing the Deaf", C. Goetzinger discusses references used in audiology, anatomy and physiology of the ear, degrees of hearing impairment, and implications of the various…

  19. The Probability of Blindness in Patients Treated for Glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Chang

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To investigate the risk factors and probability of blindness in patients treatedfor glaucoma.Methods: The study design was a retrospective, hospital-based, clinical chart, reviewstudy. Medical records were reviewed from patients seen between January2003 and December 2003 at the Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospitaleye clinic, who had been diagnosed with glaucoma in 1986 or later and whohad been treated for at least 2 years for glaucoma.Results: A total of 186 charts were reviewed, which included 66 patients who wereblind in at least one eye from glaucoma on presentation. A total of 172patients and 290 eyes were followed-up for a mean duration of 10.6 4.67years. Twenty seven patients and 31 eyes developed blindness from glaucomaduring follow-up. The Kaplan-Meier survival estimate at 16 years was28.6% for glaucoma-related blindness in at least one eye. A worse visualfield on presentation, older age, and poor compliance during therapy weresignificantly associated with the development of blindness. Glaucoma type, agender difference, systemic disease, greater intraocular pressure fluctuationin the last year of therapy and blindness in one eye on presentation did notshow a significant relationship with the rate of development of blindness.Conclusion: Blindness from treated glaucoma is considerable. Our results gave a 28.6%probability of blindness at 16 years in at least one eye. An older age, poorcompliance and a worse visual field on presentation were significant risk factors.

  20. Differences in Soccer Kick Kinematics between Blind Players and Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi; Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios; Natsikas, Christos

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the kinematic differences during instep soccer kicks between players who were blind and sighted controls. Eleven male soccer players who were blind and nine male sighted performed instep kicks under static and dynamic conditions. The results indicated significantly higher (p less than 0.05) ball…

  1. Neural correlates of olfactory processing in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, R; Beaulieu-Lefebvre, M; Schneider, F C;

    2011-01-01

    highly plastic and that blind individuals rely more on their sense of smell than the sighted do. The olfactory system in the blind is therefore likely to be susceptible to cross-modal changes similar to those observed for the tactile and auditory modalities. To test this hypothesis, we used functional...

  2. The Institute for Deaf-Blind Studies: Proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, Joye A.; And Others

    The document contains 16 papers from the Institute for Deaf Blind Studies, a program to bring together many disciplines and to place emphasis on every aspect of the learning and teaching activity involved in the development of deaf-blind children. The following titles and authors are included: "Current Status of the Rubella Problem" (P. Ziring);…

  3. Blindness as A Challenging Medical and Social Problem in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shixing Hu

    2002-01-01

    China, a country with about one fifth of the world' s population, has been gaining a rapideconomic growth since 1980s. This country has around 5 million blind people, accountingfor 18% of the blind in the world. The major causes of blindness include cataract,corneal diseases, trachoma, glaucoma, vitreoretinopathy and a number of factorscontributing to blindness in children. The principal cause of blindness in China was nolonger trachoma but cataracts. Vitamin A deficiency remains a public health problem inthe under-developed areas.Age-related conditions in China, such as vision loss due tocataract and retinal disorders, will increase accordingly if no preventive meaunes aretaken. Glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy appear to be predominant induction of thedevastating blind. In this fast developing country blindness is not only a medical orhealth, but also a social problem. Developed strategies have been adopted simultaneouslyby national efforts under the leadership of the government, international agencies,nongovernmental organizations, as well as private sectors in their every-day work toprevent and treat blindness.

  4. Double-blind ureteral duplication: report of two cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind ending of ureteral duplication is one of the most rare anomalies of the upper urinary tract. We report two cases of ureteral duplication with a blind ending both superiorly and inferiorly, and with no definite communication with the urinary tract. (orig.)

  5. Special samples for investigation into kinetics of blind fatigue cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples designed for investigation into kinetics of elliptic and semi-elliptic fatigue cracks in construction large-size elements and for evaluation of structural material resistance to fracture are developed. Data on form changing of blind fatigue cracks in vessel steel 15KH2MFA are obtained; it is shown, that material anisotropy and load kind affect essentially blind fatigue crack forms

  6. Multi-proxy Strong Blind Quantum Signature Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Li, Yan-Ping; An, Wan

    2016-08-01

    A multi-proxy strong blind quantum signature scheme is proposed in this paper. An original signatory Alice delegates her signing authority to a group of proxy signatories by using a classical warrant. A blind factor is introduced by a sender U to blind a message, and the proxy signatories sign the message blindly via applying appropriate unitary operators. A receiver Bob verifies the generated signature with the help of an arbitrator Trent. The security of this scheme is based on a quantum key distribution protocol, a quantum one-time pad and other quantum properties. It is proved that our scheme has the properties of non-disavowal, non-counterfeit, multi-proxy, blindness, untraceability and can resist some common attacks.

  7. Guiding Blind Pedestrians with a Personal Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodson, A. H.; Moon, G. V.; Moore, T.; Jones, D.

    With the assistance provided by the white cane or guide dog, most blind pedestrians can find their way to known destinations along familiar routes. Finding new or known destinations along unfamiliar routes is more challenging. Before such a journey is attempted, detailed instructions must be acquired. The difficulty of obtaining and then reliably following such instructions deters many blind pedestrians from travelling alone in unknown areas. This paper demonstrates a technological approach, by way of field trials, that supplements the existing aids and eliminates the need for sighted guides. The approach has the potential to offer greater independence to the blind person. The investigation suggests that the methodology used in personal navigation systems for the sighted is sub-optimal for guiding the blind pedestrian. Suitable extensions are introduced, and the results show the proposed methodology is efficient for guiding the blind individual to unknown destinations in the chosen field trial environment.

  8. The countermeasures against the blinding attack in quantum key distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jindong; Wang, Hong; Qin, Xiaojuan; Wei, Zhengjun; Zhang, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that the single photon detectors (SPDs) based on the avalanche photodiode (APD) can be blinded and controlled by the bright light and short trigger pulses. Eavesdropper can get the full information without causing additional quantum bit error rate. Hence, in order to guarantee the security of the quantum key distribution (QKD) systems, some countermeasures, by changing the characteristic of the SPD or monitoring the parameters of the detector, are presented by some research groups. In this paper, we provide a new and effective countermeasure against the blinding attack based on improving the optical scheme of the decoding unit in the QKD system rather than only considering the characteristic of the SPD. In our proposal we use a coupler with asymmetric splitting ratio to distinguish the detection characteristic of the SPD with blinding attack from that without blinding attack. The detailed analysis shows that the proposed scheme is feasible to defense the blinding attack.

  9. BAMBI: blind accelerated multimodal Bayesian inference

    CERN Document Server

    Graff, Philip; Hobson, Michael P; Lasenby, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for rapid Bayesian analysis that combines the benefits of nested sampling and artificial neural networks. The blind accelerated multimodal Bayesian inference (BAMBI) algorithm implements the MultiNest package for nested sampling as well as the training of an artificial neural network (NN) to learn the likelihood function. In the case of computationally expensive likelihoods, this allows the substitution of a much more rapid approximation in order to increase significantly the speed of the analysis. We begin by demonstrating, with a few toy examples, the ability of a NN to learn complicated likelihood surfaces. BAMBI's ability to decrease running time for Bayesian inference is then demonstrated in the context of estimating cosmological parameters from WMAP and other observations. We show that valuable speed increases are achieved in addition to obtaining NNs trained on the likelihood functions for the different model and data combinations. These NNs can then be used for an...

  10. Indoor magnetic navigation for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Giudice, Nicholas A; Sheikh, Suneel I; Knuesel, Robert J; Kollmann, Daniel T; Hedin, Daniel S

    2012-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction of and evaluation of a navigation system that infers the users' location using only magnetic sensing. It is well known that the environments within steel frame structures are subject to significant magnetic distortions. Many of these distortions are persistent and have sufficient strength and spatial characteristics to allow their use as the basis for a location technology. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a prototype magnetic navigation system consisting of a wireless magnetometer placed at the users' hip streaming magnetic readings to a smartphone processing location algorithms. Human trials were conducted to assess the efficacy of the system by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system for real-time guidance. PMID:23366303

  11. Double blind placebo controlled exposure to molds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, H W; Jensen, K A; Nielsen, K F;

    2005-01-01

    The objective was to develop an experimental setup for human exposure to mold spores, and to study the clinical effect of this exposure in sensitive subjects who had previously experienced potentially building-related symptoms (BRS) at work. From three water-damaged schools eight employees with a...... positive histamine release test to Penicillium chrysogenum were exposed double- blinded to either placebo, approximately 600,000 spores/m3 air of P. chrysogenum or approximately 350,000 spores/m3 of Trichoderma harzianum for 6 min on three separate days. A statistically significant rise in symptoms from...... mucous membranes appeared from the 9-graded symptom scale after exposure to T. harzianum or placebo. Dichotomizing the data, whether the participants experienced at least a two-step rise on the symptom scale or not, gave borderline increase in mucous membrane symptoms after exposure to P. chrysogenum. In...

  12. Blind identification of cellular phone cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliktutan, Oya; Avcibas, Ismail; Sankur, Bülent

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we focus on blind source cell-phone identification problem. It is known various artifacts in the image processing pipeline, such as pixel defects or unevenness of the responses in the CCD sensor, black current noise, proprietary interpolation algorithms involved in color filter array [CFA] leave telltale footprints. These artifacts, although often imperceptible, are statistically stable and can be considered as a signature of the camera type or even of the individual device. For this purpose, we explore a set of forensic features, such as binary similarity measures, image quality measures and higher order wavelet statistics in conjunction SVM classifier to identify the originating cell-phone type. We provide identification results among 9 different brand cell-phone cameras. In addition to our initial results, we applied a set of geometrical operations to original images in order to investigate how much our proposed method is robust under these manipulations.

  13. Indoor inertial waypoint navigation for the blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Whalen, William E; Giudice, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Indoor navigation technology is needed to support seamless mobility for the visually impaired. This paper describes the construction and evaluation of an inertial dead reckoning navigation system that provides real-time auditory guidance along mapped routes. Inertial dead reckoning is a navigation technique coupling step counting together with heading estimation to compute changes in position at each step. The research described here outlines the development and evaluation of a novel navigation system that utilizes information from the mapped route to limit the problematic error accumulation inherent in traditional dead reckoning approaches. The prototype system consists of a wireless inertial sensor unit, placed at the users' hip, which streams readings to a smartphone processing a navigation algorithm. Pilot human trials were conducted assessing system efficacy by studying route-following performance with blind and sighted subjects using the navigation system with real-time guidance, versus offline verbal directions. PMID:24110904

  14. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light. PMID:21192112

  15. Regularization mechanism in blind tip reconstruction procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In quantitative investigations of mechanical and chemical surface parameters using atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques the determination of the probe radius and shape is required. To the most favorable methods of the microprobe characterization belongs the blind tip reconstruction method (BTR). The BTR similar to many other inverse problems is sensitive to noise and needs the so-called regularization mechanism. In this article we describe and investigate two the most popular regularization schemes, which were proposed in Villarubia et al. (1997) and Tian et al. (2008) . We have shown that the procedure described in Tian et al. (2008) enables very effective probe shape reconstruction if we know the statistics of noise present in the AFM system. The increase of effectiveness with relation to the procedure described in Villarubia (1997) is so significant that makes it possible to reconstruct probes with much larger resolution. We have also noticed the fact, that probes reconstructed by means of the procedure presented in Tian et al. (2008) have flat apexes for AFM images with low signal to noise ratio (SNR). We propose procedure, which can improve the probe apex reconstruction. It uses the AFM image to estimate the initial shape of the reconstructed probe. This shape may be further improved by the BTR algorithm. We have shown that it is possible only for the procedure described in Tian et al. (2008) . -- Highlights: ► We study regularization mechanism of blind tip reconstruction. ► We propose combination of direct probe imaging with BTR to improve the reconstruction of a probe apex. ► The possibility of improving efficiency of the BTR procedure is presented. ► The possibility of improving resolution of a reconstructed probe is presented.

  16. Children Who Are Deaf-Blind. Practice Perspectives--Highlighting Information on Deaf-Blindness. Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Peggy; Killoran, John

    2007-01-01

    Although the term deaf-blind implies a complete absence of hearing and sight, in reality, it refers to children with varying degrees of vision and hearing losses. The type and severity differ from child to child. The key feature of deaf-blindness is that the combination of losses limits access to auditory and visual information. Children with…

  17. College Students Who Are Deaf-Blind. Practice Perspectives--Highlighting Information on Deaf-Blindness. Number 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    Imagine being in college and being deaf-blind. What opportunities might you have? What types of challenges would you face? This publication describes a study that begins to answer these questions. During the study, 11 college students with deaf-blindness were interviewed about their college experiences. They were like most college students in many…

  18. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in the blind population supported by the Yazd Welfare Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ezoddini - Ardakani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1995, the World Health Organization (WHO estimated that there were 37.1 million blind people worldwide. It has subsequently been reported that 110 million people have severely impaired vision, hence are at great risk of becoming blind. Watkins predicted an annual increase of about two million blind worldwide. This study was designed to investigate the causes of blindness and low vision in the blind population supported by the welfare organization of Yazd, Iran. Methods: This clinical descriptive cross-sectional study was done from January to September, 2003. In total, 109 blind patients supported by the welfare organization were included in this study. All data was collected by standard methods using questionnaire, interview and specific examination. The data included; demographic characteristics, clinical states, ophthalmic examination, family history and the available prenatal information. The data were analyzed by SPSS software and chi square test. Results: Of total patients, 73 cases were male (67% and 36 were female (33%. The median age was 24.6 years (range one month to 60 years. More than half of the cases (53.2% could be diagnosed in children less than one year of age. In total, 79 patients (88.1% were legally blind of which 23 cases (29.1% had no light perception (NLP. The most common causes of blindness were retinitis pigmentosa (32.1% followed by ocular dysgenesis (16.5%. Conclusion: Our data showed that more than half of the blindness cases occur during the first year of life. The most common cause of blindness was retinitis pigmentosa followed by ocular dysgenesis, cataract and glaucoma, respectively.

  19. Can Acupuncture Treatment Be Double-Blinded? An Evaluation of Double-Blind Acupuncture Treatment of Postoperative Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vase, Lene; Baram, Sara; Takakura, Nobuari; Takayama, Miho; Yajima, Hiroyoshi; Kawase, Akiko; Schuster, Lars; Kaptchuk, Ted J.; Schou, Søren; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Zachariae, Robert; Svensson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Blinding protects against bias but the success of blinding is seldom assessed and reported in clinical trials including studies of acupuncture where blinding represents a major challenge. Recently, needles with the potential for double-blinding were developed, so we tested if acupuncture can be double-blinded in a randomized study of sixty-seven patients with acute pain ≥ 3 (0-10 scale following third molar removal) who received active acupuncture with a penetrating needle or placebo acupuncture with a non-penetrating needle. To test if acupuncture was administered double-blind, patients and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed “de qi” in East Asian medicine), and patients’ pain levels were assessed. Perceived treatment allocation depended on actual group allocation (p < 0.015) for both patients and acupuncturists, indicating that the needles were not successful in double-blinding. Up to 68% of patients and 83% of acupuncturists correctly identified the treatment, but for patients the distribution was not far from 50/50. Also, there was a significant interaction between actual or perceived treatment and the experience of de qi (p = 0.027), suggesting that the experience of de qi and possible non-verbal clues contributed to correct identification of the treatment. Yet, of the patients who perceived the treatment as active or placebo, 50% and 23%, respectively, reported de qi. Patients’ acute pain levels did not influence the perceived treatment. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment was not fully double-blinded which is similar to observations in pharmacological studies. Still, the non-penetrating needle is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical trials in

  20. Can acupuncture treatment be double-blinded? An evaluation of double-blind acupuncture treatment of postoperative pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Vase

    Full Text Available Blinding protects against bias but the success of blinding is seldom assessed and reported in clinical trials including studies of acupuncture where blinding represents a major challenge. Recently, needles with the potential for double-blinding were developed, so we tested if acupuncture can be double-blinded in a randomized study of sixty-seven patients with acute pain ≥ 3 (0-10 scale following third molar removal who received active acupuncture with a penetrating needle or placebo acupuncture with a non-penetrating needle. To test if acupuncture was administered double-blind, patients and acupuncturists were asked about perceived treatment allocation at the end of the study. To test if there were clues which led to identification of the treatment, deep dull pain associated with needle application and rotation (termed "de qi" in East Asian medicine, and patients' pain levels were assessed. Perceived treatment allocation depended on actual group allocation (p < 0.015 for both patients and acupuncturists, indicating that the needles were not successful in double-blinding. Up to 68% of patients and 83% of acupuncturists correctly identified the treatment, but for patients the distribution was not far from 50/50. Also, there was a significant interaction between actual or perceived treatment and the experience of de qi (p = 0.027, suggesting that the experience of de qi and possible non-verbal clues contributed to correct identification of the treatment. Yet, of the patients who perceived the treatment as active or placebo, 50% and 23%, respectively, reported de qi. Patients' acute pain levels did not influence the perceived treatment. In conclusion, acupuncture treatment was not fully double-blinded which is similar to observations in pharmacological studies. Still, the non-penetrating needle is the only needle that allows some degree of practitioner blinding. The study raises questions about alternatives to double-blind randomized clinical

  1. Psychosocial characteristics of totally blind people in a Nigerian city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola-Popoola Dupe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To characterize the demographic and psychosocial problems of a group of blind people as a way of attracting more attention to and providing data that can improve the psychosocial care of the visually impaired. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study of a population of totally blind people in Ilorin, Nigeria using a self-report questionnaire (SRQ. The questionnaire was verbally administered by the study personnel in the local language. Simple frequency tables were obtained and the Chi-square test was performed to determine significant differences between variables. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Sixty one blind patients consented to participate. Most participants were engaged in street begging for their livelihood. Most subjects desired a job change, signifying dissatisfaction with the present occupation. Up to 80% of the cohort was married and had spouses who were also blind in at least one eye. Approximately two-thirds had five or more children and majority lived with family members who were responsible for taking care of their personal hygiene, cooking and mobility. The majority developed blindness in childhood and 16% had a family history of blindness and 77% had never used conventional eye care, with corneal disease being the most frequent cause of blindness. Many feared that their children may also become blind. Thirty-one (51% scored ≥5 on SRQ and were classified as probable cases of psychological disorder. Conclusion: Blindness in a majority of cases that started in childhood was probably preventable. Inaccessibility to or failure of the formal rehabilitation and social welfare systems may have caused this psychosocial dilemma. The high level of social and family interaction provides opportunity for organized preventive ophthalmology, community health care services and psychosocial care.

  2. The first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB in Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saichin Isipradit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The majority of vision loss is preventable or treatable. Population surveys are crucial for planning, implementation, and monitoring policies and interventions to eliminate avoidable blindness and visual impairments. This is the first rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB study in Thailand. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of a population in Thailand age 50 years old or over aimed to assess the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairments. Using the Thailand National Census 2010 as the sampling frame, a stratified four-stage cluster sampling based on a probability proportional to size was conducted in 176 enumeration areas from 11 provinces. Participants received comprehensive eye examination by ophthalmologists. RESULTS: The age and sex adjusted prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (VA <20/400, severe visual impairment (VA <20/200 but ≥20/400, and moderate visual impairment (VA <20/70 but ≥20/200 were 0.6% (95% CI: 0.5-0.8, 1.3% (95% CI: 1.0-1.6, 12.6% (95% CI: 10.8-14.5. There was no significant difference among the four regions of Thailand. Cataract was the main cause of vision loss accounted for 69.7% of blindness. Cataract surgical coverage in persons was 95.1% for cut off VA of 20/400. Refractive errors, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, and corneal opacities were responsible for 6.0%, 5.1%, 4.0%, and 2.0% of blindness respectively. CONCLUSION: Thailand is on track to achieve the goal of VISION 2020. However, there is still much room for improvement. Policy refinements and innovative interventions are recommended to alleviate blindness and visual impairments especially regarding the backlog of blinding cataract, management of non-communicative, chronic, age-related eye diseases such as glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy, prevention of childhood blindness, and establishment of a robust eye health information system.

  3. A Proxy Blind Signature Scheme Based on ECDLP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGHaiyan; WANGRuchuan

    2005-01-01

    While proxy signature scheme enables an original signer to fully authorize a proxy to sign a message on his or her behalf legally and undeniably, blind signature scheme keeps the message blind from the signer so that the signer cannot make a linkage between the signature and the identity of requester (receiver). Both schemes have been widely applied in the electronic business. A new ECDLP (Elliptic curve discrete problem)-based proxy blind signature scheme is to be proposed in this paper by integrating the security properties of both schemes.

  4. Blind spot detection using vision for automotive applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel (A)ngel SOTELO; José BARRIGA

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a vision-based system for blind spot detection (BSD) in intelligent vehicle applications. A camera is mounted in the lateral mirror of a car with the intention of visually detecting cars that are located in the so-called blind spot and cannot be perceived by the vehicle driver. The detection of cars in the blind spot is carried out using computer vision techniques,based on optical flow and a double-stage data clustering technique for robust vehicle detection.

  5. Scan blindness in infinite phased arrays of printed dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozar, D. M.; Schaubert, D. H.

    1984-01-01

    A comprehensive study of infinite phased arrays of printed dipole antennas is presented, with emphasis on the scan blindness phenomenon. A rigorous and efficient moment method procedure is used to calculate the array impedance versus scan angle. Data are presented for the input reflection coefficient for various element spacings and substrate parameters. A simple theory, based on coupling from Floquet modes to surface wave modes on the substrate, is shown to predict the occurrence of scan blindness. Measurements from a waveguide simulator of a blindness condition confirm the theory.

  6. Demonstration of measurement-only blind quantum computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greganti, Chiara; Roehsner, Marie-Christine; Barz, Stefanie; Morimae, Tomoyuki; Walther, Philip

    2016-01-01

    Blind quantum computing allows for secure cloud networks of quasi-classical clients and a fully fledged quantum server. Recently, a new protocol has been proposed, which requires a client to perform only measurements. We demonstrate a proof-of-principle implementation of this measurement-only blind quantum computing, exploiting a photonic setup to generate four-qubit cluster states for computation and verification. Feasible technological requirements for the client and the device-independent blindness make this scheme very applicable for future secure quantum networks.

  7. Crossmodal recruitment of the ventral visual stream in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ptito, Maurice; Matteau, Isabelle; Zhi Wang, Arthur;

    2012-01-01

    We used functional MRI (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform a......, inferotemporal (IT), cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv), and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic...

  8. Alterations in right posterior hippocampus in early blind individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chebat, Daniel-Robert; Chen, Jan-Kai; Schneider, Fabien;

    2007-01-01

    between groups and there were no within-group differences for left versus right hippocampus. Sex, age and total brain grey matter volume had no effect on hippocampal volumes. Although extensive navigational training results in structural enhancement of the hippocampus for the sighted, the reduction of the......This study compares hippocampal volumes of early blind and sex/age-matched sighted controls through volumetric and localization analyses. Early blind individuals showed a significantly smaller right posterior hippocampus compared with controls. No differences in total hippocampal volumes were found...... posterior hippocampus in early blind individuals suggests the implication of this region in visual spatial memory. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-5...

  9. Designing for an inclusive school of informatics for blind students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas Brenes, Ronald

    on Braille to read and write, and partially sighted people who can read printed material with the use of magnifiers or other supportive tools. The social construction of blindness, drawing on four different models: the charity model, the medical model, the rights-based model and the economic model. A...... the understanding of blindness and for easing the negotiability of practices between different populations. Therefore, this strategy contributes to the inclusion of blind students in these educational environments. Specialised offices in each university will benefit the incorporation of policies, knowledge...

  10. Blind Source Separation For Ion Mobility Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniaturization is a powerful trend for smart chemical instrumentation in a diversity of applications. It is know that miniaturization in IMS leads to a degradation of the system characteristics. For the present work, we are interested in signal processing solutions to mitigate limitations introduced by limited drift tube length that basically involve a loss of chemical selectivity. While blind source separation techniques (BSS) are popular in other domains, their application for smart chemical instrumentation is limited. However, in some conditions, basically linearity, BSS may fully recover the concentration time evolution and the pure spectra with few underlying hypothesis. This is extremely helpful in conditions where non-expected chemical interferents may appear, or unwanted perturbations may pollute the spectra. SIMPLISMA has been advocated by Harrington et al. in several papers. However, more modern methods of BSS for bilinear decomposition with the restriction of positiveness have appeared in the last decade. In order to explore and compare the performances of those methods a series of experiments were performed.

  11. Temporal dynamics of the Venetian blind effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobias, Joshua Jay; Stine, Wm Wren

    2012-05-01

    When square wave gratings are viewed binocularly with lower luminance or contrast in one eye, the individual bars of the grating appear to rotate around a vertical axis (Venetian blind effect). The effect has typically been thought to occur due to retinal disparities that result from irradiation and, therefore, are entirely entoptic. If so, the visual system should process disparities from a luminance or contrast disparity and a geometric disparity at the same rate. Studies of motion-in-depth using geometric disparities have shown that the visual system is unable to process depth cues when those cues are oscillated at frequencies greater than 5 Hz. By changing contrast (experiments one and two) and geometric (experiment three) disparity cues over time, the present study measured the frequency at which both the perception of motion-in-depth and the perception of depth diminish. The perception of motion-in-depth from contrast disparities decreased near 1.1 Hz (experiments one and four) and the perception of depth from contrast disparities decreased near 1.3 Hz (experiments one, two and four); both of which are lower than the frequency where depth from a geometric disparity diminished (near 4.8 Hz in experiment three). The differences between the dynamics of depth from contrast and geometric disparities suggest that the perception arises from separate neural mechanisms. PMID:22406308

  12. Outage analysis of blind cooperative diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Tourki, Kamel

    2011-06-06

    Mobile users with single antennas can still take advantage of spatial diversity through cooperative space-time-encoded transmission. In this paper, we considered a scheme in which a relay chooses to cooperate only if its source-relay channel is of an acceptable quality, and we evaluate the usefulness of relaying when the source acts blindly and ignores the decision of the relays whether they may cooperate or not. In our study, we consider the regenerative relays in which the decisions to cooperate are based on a targeted end-to-end data rate R. We derived the end-to-end outage probability for a transmission rate R and a code rate ρ and look at a power allocation strategy between the source and the relays in order to minimize the end-to-end outage probability at the destination for high signal-to-noise ratio, by using the golden section search method. Performance results show that the computer simulations-based results coincide with our analytical results. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis a potentially blinding disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juberias, J R; Calonge, M; Montero, J; Herreras, J M; Saornil, M A

    1996-01-01

    Phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis, a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to foreign proteins (i.e., bacterial products), occurs more often in children and young adults sensitized to Staphylococcus aureus inhabiting the lid margins. Clinical manifestations occur on the conjunctiva and/or the cornea. Management strategies used to treat a 14-year-old girl with a long history of keratoconjunctivitis with severe corneal involvement and secondary lacrimal gland enlargement included a complete ocular examination, blood workups, cultures, vigorous lid hygiene, topical antibiotics and steroids, and systemic doxycycline. Phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis was diagnosed, and Streptoccocus viridans was found colonizing the lid margins and fornices. Subsequent treatment quieted the active inflammation and the secondary lacrimal gland enlargement. However, the residual corneal scarring permanently compromised visual acuity. This patient demonstrates the potentially blinding consequences of untreated phlyctenular keratoconjunctivitis. Moreover, Streptoccocus viridans is not frequently associated with this disorder. To our knowledge hypertrophy of the lacrimal gland, as a secondary complication of this disorder, has not been reported previously. PMID:22827417

  14. Computer Simulation to Detect the Blind Spots in Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem (moh'd Said Hatamleh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During driving Changing lanes can be very hazardous on a busy highway. There is region called "blind spot" which is a problem for every car driver since its not covered by the drivers mirrors. Relying solely on the mirrors while changing lane can lead to a collision with another vehicle. This paper focuses on this situation by ensuring that the blind spots of the vehicle are clear prior to the driver attempt to change lanes. This computer simulation incorporates the need for detection and warning of objects present within the blind spot on either side of the vehicle to the driver along with distance measurement of the object relative to the vehicle, incase the driver decides to change lanes. This simulation is constructed using the theory of embedded systems and will alert the driver if there is another car on the blind area.

  15. The Preschool Blind Child Can Be a Cane User.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrund, R. L.; Rosen, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    This article proposes the teaching of long cane mobility skills to blind preschool-age children. Traditional arguments against early cane use are refuted and possible advantages of early use identified. Strategies and techniques for cane introduction are specified. (DB)

  16. Retinopathy of prematurity blindness worldwide: phenotypes in the third epidemic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn GE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Graham E Quinn Division of Ophthalmology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is an increasing problem worldwide as improved levels of neonatal care are provided in countries with developing neonatal intensive care units. The occurrence of ROP blindness varies dramatically with the socioeconomic development of a country. In regions with high levels of neonatal care and adequate resources, ROP blindness is largely restricted to premature infants with very low birth weight and low gestational age while in middle- and low-income countries with regional variation in technology and capacity, limited health resources may well limit the care of the premature newborn. Keywords: ROP, international, blindness

  17. Morphometric changes of the corpus callosum in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Campana, Serena; Collins, D Louis;

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual deprivation at birth on the development of the corpus callosum in a large group of congenitally blind individuals. We acquired high-resolution T1-weighted MRI scans in 28 congenitally blind and 28 normal sighted subjects matched for age and gender. There was no...... overall group effect of visual deprivation on the total surface area of the corpus callosum. However, subdividing the corpus callosum into five subdivisions revealed significant regional changes in its three most posterior parts. Compared to the sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals showed a 12......% reduction in the splenium, and a 20% increase in the isthmus and the posterior part of the body. A shape analysis further revealed that the bending angle of the corpus callosum was more convex in congenitally blind compared to the sighted control subjects. The observed morphometric changes in the corpus...

  18. Various categories of changes in the inducement of change blindness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porubanová-Norquist, M.; Šikl, Radovan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2013), s. 83-94. ISSN 0039-3320 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : change blindness * scene perception * flicker paradigm * attention allocation * attention Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.414, year: 2013

  19. Natural ventilation in the double skin facade with venetian blind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xiao-li [Thermal Energy Research Institute, Tianjin University, Weijin Road No. 92, Tianjin 300072 (China); China Electronics Engineering Design Institute, Beijing 100083 (China); Yang, Zhao [Thermal Energy Research Institute, Tianjin University, Weijin Road No. 92, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-07-01

    As a new-style building, the thermal performance of double skin facade with the venetian blind cannot be predicted for the absence of suitable tool. In the paper, a detailed analysis of the thermal process in glass double facade with venetian blind was made. The governing equations were solved by comprising CFD, optical and heat balance model for multi-layer transparent system. It is shown that the more complex natural ventilation exists in the two air gaps divided by venetian blind, which cannot be reflected with the simplified model. Comparing the simulation results with the experiment data in the literature, a good agreement was achieved. Hence, it can be used as a reliable tool to analyze the ventilation in the double skin facade with a venetian blind. (author)

  20. Seal allows blind assembly and thermal expansion of components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The design of a seal consisting of two concentric cylinders with outer and inner threaded elements attached to each side of the system interface withstands large temperature changes and allows for blind assembly.

  1. Semi-blind Sparse Image Reconstruction with Application to MRFM

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Se Un; Hero, Alfred O

    2012-01-01

    We propose a solution to the image deconvolution problem where the convolution kernel or point spread function (PSF) is assumed to be only partially known. Small perturbations generated from the model are exploited to produce a few principal components explaining the PSF uncertainty in a high dimensional space. Unlike recent developments on blind deconvolution of natural images, we assume the image is sparse in the pixel basis, a natural sparsity arising in magnetic resonance force microscopy (MRFM). Our approach adopts a Bayesian Metropolis-within-Gibbs sampling framework. The performance of our Bayesian semi-blind algorithm for sparse images is superior to previously proposed semi-blind algorithms such as the alternating minimization (AM) algorithm and blind algorithms developed for natural images. We illustrate our myopic algorithm on real MRFM tobacco virus data.

  2. Parenting Styles and the Depressive Syndrome in Congenitally Blind Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Robert; West, Malcolm

    1980-01-01

    The article discusses the effect on congenitally blind children of three types of parents: those who are overprotective, those who push the child toward independence too soon, and those who are "good enough." (Author)

  3. Superior Orthonasal but Not Retronasal Olfactory Skills in Congenital Blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gagnon, Lea; Ismaili, Abd Rahman Alaoui; Ptito, Maurice;

    2015-01-01

    using grocery-available food powders. Results showed that blind subjects were significantly faster and tended to be better at identifying odours presented orthonasally. This was not the case when odorants were presented retronasally. We also found a significant group x route interaction, showing......Sight is undoubtedly important for finding and appreciating food, and cooking. Blind individuals are strongly impaired in finding food, limiting the variety of flavours they are exposed to. We have shown before that compared to sighted controls, congenitally blind individuals have enhanced...... their sighted counterparts. These results confirm that orthonasal but not retronasal olfactory perception is enhanced in congenital blindness, a result that is concordant with the reduced food variety exposure in this group....

  4. [Enlightenment and thinking of blinding trachoma elimination in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ningli; Hu, Ailian

    2015-07-01

    Trachoma had been the leading infectious cause of blindness. After years of hard work and unremitting efforts, blinding trachoma would never been a public health problem in China by 2015. Discovery and research of Chlamydia trachoma provide a scientific way for the prevention and control of trachoma. The achievement of eliminating blinding trachoma in China pertained to the highly concerned about government and succeed spreading of SAFE strategies. It is still required to strengthen the diagnostic criteria and knowledge training of public health disease. Epidemiological investigation should follow the international criteria. Though blinding trachoma would never been a public health problem in China, comprehensive prevention and control of trachoma should be emphasized in case of being epidemic again. PMID:26310249

  5. 20 CFR 416.903 - Who makes disability and blindness determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who makes disability and blindness... INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Determinations § 416.903 Who makes disability and blindness determinations. (a) State agencies. State agencies make...

  6. Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) in Blind Children: Very High Prevalence, Potentially Better Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jure, Rubin; Pogonza, Ramón; Rapin, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders affected 19 of 38 unselected children at a school for the blind in Cordoba, Argentina. Autism was linked to total congenital blindness, not blindness' etiology, acquired or incomplete blindness, sex, overt brain damage, or socioeconomic status. Autism "recovery," had occurred in 4 verbal children. Congenital…

  7. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    OpenAIRE

    Zbyněk Janečka; Kateřina Chrobáková; Michal Mayer

    2011-01-01

    Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the...

  8. INCLUSIVE EDUCATION OF BLIND AND VISUALLY IMPAIRED PUPILS IN SLOVENIA

    OpenAIRE

    Cankar, Franc; Deutsch, Tomi; GLOBACNIK Bojana; PINTERIC Andreja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the last years, the demand to include children with special needs in the mainstream kindergartens and schools in Slovenia has grown. This brought with it the need for changing the role of the special schools and institutes for children with special needs and for their transformation into resource centres. Methodology: We pilot tested a resource centre for support of blind and visually impaired children. We included 15 educational institutes and one blind or visually impair...

  9. iShoes for blind and visually impaired people

    OpenAIRE

    Assairi, Bandar; Holmes, Violeta

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of an iShoes system for blind and visually impaired people. The iShoes system utilizes a microcontroller with sound output interfaced with ultrasonic sensors. The prototype system is designed to be specifically mounted on/in the shoes to aid navigation in urban routes. The ultrasonic transducers determine the range from an obstacle and then play an audio message to reflect the distance from the target. This system will assist blind and visually impaired peo...

  10. The SmartVision navigation prototype for the blind

    OpenAIRE

    du Buf, J. M. H.; Barroso, João; J.M.F. Rodrigues; Paredes, Hugo; Farrajota, Miguel; Fernandes, Hugo; José, João; Teixeira, Victor; Saleiro, Mário

    2010-01-01

    The goal of the project "SmartVision: active vision for the blind" is to develop a small and portable but intelligent and reliable system for assisting the blind and visually impaired while navigating autonomously, both outdoor and indoor. In this paper we present an overview of the prototype, design issues, and its different modules which integrate a GIS with GPS, Wi-Fi, RFID tags and computer vision. The prototype addresses global navigation by following known landmarks, local navigation wi...

  11. Simplified solar optical calculations for windows with venetian blinds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotey, N.A.; Wright, J.L. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-07-01

    Solar gain through a window represents the largest and most variable heat gain imposed on an indoor space. The potential for shading devices to optimize the energy efficiency of buildings was discussed with reference to the value of modeling complex fenestration system in annual energy simulation programs. Shading devices such as venetian blinds, roller blinds and drapes are commonly used to control solar gain through windows. In this paper, three sets of calculations were presented for a window with light and dark coloured venetian blinds using simplified models and computational procedures. Hourly transmitted, reflected and absorbed fluxes were calculated for both summer and winter conditions with a venetian blind placed on the indoor-side of the window; a venetian blind placed between the glazings; and, a venetian blind placed on the outdoor-side of the window. As the first step in energy analysis of the complex fenestration systems, short-wave radiation models determine the fraction of incident solar radiation directly transmitted through the complex fenestration system and the fraction that is absorbed in each layer. The absorbed solar energy in each layer serves as a source term for the heat transfer analysis. In this study, simplified models were used to calculate the transmitted, reflected and absorbed fluxes of solar radiation for windows with venetian blinds. The study showed that a particular configuration of a window with a venetian blind can significantly influence the amount of energy transmitted to the indoor space at different times of the year. In addition, the slat angle could reduce the building energy requirements during the summer and winter seasons. The simplified calculation procedures produced results that can serve as useful input to building load and annual energy calculation tools. 9 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  12. Retinopathy of prematurity blindness worldwide: phenotypes in the third epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Graham E Quinn Division of Ophthalmology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an increasing problem worldwide as improved levels of neonatal care are provided in countries with developing neonatal intensive care units. The occurrence of ROP blindness varies dramatically with the socioeconomic development of a country. In regions with high levels of neonatal care and adequate resou...

  13. Retinopathy of prematurity blindness worldwide: phenotypes in the third epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn GE

    2016-01-01

    Graham E Quinn Division of Ophthalmology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Wood Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Blindness due to retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is an increasing problem worldwide as improved levels of neonatal care are provided in countries with developing neonatal intensive care units. The occurrence of ROP blindness varies dramatically with the socioeconomic development of a country. In regions with high levels of neonatal care and adequate resources...

  14. A number-form area in the blind

    OpenAIRE

    Abboud, Sami; Maidenbaum, Shachar; Dehaene, Stanislas; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Distinct preference for visual number symbols was recently discovered in the human right inferior temporal gyrus (rITG). It remains unclear how this preference emerges, what is the contribution of shape biases to its formation and whether visual processing underlies it. Here we use congenital blindness as a model for brain development without visual experience. During fMRI, we present blind subjects with shapes encoded using a novel visual-to-music sensory-substitution device (The EyeMusic). ...

  15. Comparison of Knee Proprioception Between Blind and Healthy Sportsmen

    OpenAIRE

    Şilil, Mehtap Kaçmaz; Sargın, Serdar; Atik, Aziz; Meriç, Gökhan; Özer, Muhammet; Akseki, Devrim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Visual sense and proprioception have a big role in motion control. Visual communication ensures the data in proprioceptive period. The other senses of blind people are improved because of the lack of the visual ability but there are not enough data for the proprioceptive quality. The purpose of this study is to compare the knee joint proprioception of the blind and normal sportsmen and figure out the prorioceptive quality. Methods: 16 visually-challenged sportsmen (12 males and 4 ...

  16. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Melisa Vance; Telmo Llanga; Will Bennett; Kenton Woodard; Giridhar Murlidharan; Neil Chungfat; Aravind Asokan; Brian Gilger; Joanne Kurtzberg; Jude Samulski, R.; Hirsch, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse...

  17. Semi-Blind Cancellation of IQ-Imbalances

    OpenAIRE

    Hesse, Matthias; Mailand, Marko; Jentschel, Hans-Joachim; Deneire, Luc; Lebrun, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    The technical realization of modern wireless receivers yields significant interfering IQ-imbalances, which have to be compensated digitally. To cancel these IQ-imbalances, we propose an algorithm using iterative blind source separation (IBSS) as well as information about the modulation scheme used (hence the term semi-blind). The novelty of our approach lies in the fact that we match the nonlinearity involved in the IBSS algorithm to the probability density function of the source signals. Mor...

  18. Implicit binding of facial features during change blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Pessi Lyyra; Hanna Mäkelä; Hietanen, Jari K.; Piia Astikainen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Change blindness refers to the inability to detect visual changes if introduced together with an eye-movement, blink, flash of light, or with distracting stimuli. Evidence of implicit detection of changed visual features during change blindness has been reported in a number of studies using both behavioral and neurophysiological measurements. However, it is not known whether implicit detection occurs only at the level of single features or whether complex organizations of f...

  19. Crossmodal Recruitment of the Ventral Visual Stream in Congenital Blindness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ptito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used functional MRI (fMRI to test the hypothesis that blind subjects recruit the ventral visual stream during nonhaptic tactile-form recognition. Congenitally blind and blindfolded sighted control subjects were scanned after they had been trained during four consecutive days to perform a tactile-form recognition task with the tongue display unit (TDU. Both groups learned the task at the same rate. In line with our hypothesis, the fMRI data showed that during nonhaptic shape recognition, blind subjects activated large portions of the ventral visual stream, including the cuneus, precuneus, inferotemporal (IT, cortex, lateral occipital tactile vision area (LOtv, and fusiform gyrus. Control subjects activated area LOtv and precuneus but not cuneus, IT and fusiform gyrus. These results indicate that congenitally blind subjects recruit key regions in the ventral visual pathway during nonhaptic tactile shape discrimination. The activation of LOtv by nonhaptic tactile shape processing in blind and sighted subjects adds further support to the notion that this area subserves an abstract or supramodal representation of shape. Together with our previous findings, our data suggest that the segregation of the efferent projections of the primary visual cortex into a dorsal and ventral visual stream is preserved in individuals blind from birth.

  20. Use of personal computing technology by deaf-blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, D

    1984-10-01

    This paper describes a system that enables deaf-blind people to work with microcomputers. The system utilizes the International Morse Code as a general communication medium. The deaf-blind person "hears" Morse code via a vibrotactile device to "see" the computer's screen. This technique enables deaf-blind individuals to receive immediate feedback from their typing and to scan the screen. This makes it possible for them to use the keyboard and screen in the same way as do seeing persons. A side benefit is that it provides a means for deaf-blind people to communicate with the sighted through a common medium. The sighted person can see the screen while the deaf-blind person feels it. Hardware cost to equip a standard personal computer with this interface is negligible. Vibrotactile Morse code is particularly viable because it can be adapted for the individual's particular tactile sensitivities. Morse-encoded tactile communication fits well in a social facilitation context for learning. It is technologically simple and standard. This work can significantly improve the quality of life for deaf-blind individuals because it provides new opportunities for communication and vocation. PMID:6239896

  1. Implicit binding of facial features during change blindness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pessi Lyyra

    Full Text Available Change blindness refers to the inability to detect visual changes if introduced together with an eye-movement, blink, flash of light, or with distracting stimuli. Evidence of implicit detection of changed visual features during change blindness has been reported in a number of studies using both behavioral and neurophysiological measurements. However, it is not known whether implicit detection occurs only at the level of single features or whether complex organizations of features can be implicitly detected as well. We tested this in adult humans using intact and scrambled versions of schematic faces as stimuli in a change blindness paradigm while recording event-related potentials (ERPs. An enlargement of the face-sensitive N170 ERP component was observed at the right temporal electrode site to changes from scrambled to intact faces, even if the participants were not consciously able to report such changes (change blindness. Similarly, the disintegration of an intact face to scrambled features resulted in attenuated N170 responses during change blindness. Other ERP deflections were modulated by changes, but unlike the N170 component, they were indifferent to the direction of the change. The bidirectional modulation of the N170 component during change blindness suggests that implicit change detection can also occur at the level of complex features in the case of facial stimuli.

  2. Implicit binding of facial features during change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyyra, Pessi; Mäkelä, Hanna; Hietanen, Jari K; Astikainen, Piia

    2014-01-01

    Change blindness refers to the inability to detect visual changes if introduced together with an eye-movement, blink, flash of light, or with distracting stimuli. Evidence of implicit detection of changed visual features during change blindness has been reported in a number of studies using both behavioral and neurophysiological measurements. However, it is not known whether implicit detection occurs only at the level of single features or whether complex organizations of features can be implicitly detected as well. We tested this in adult humans using intact and scrambled versions of schematic faces as stimuli in a change blindness paradigm while recording event-related potentials (ERPs). An enlargement of the face-sensitive N170 ERP component was observed at the right temporal electrode site to changes from scrambled to intact faces, even if the participants were not consciously able to report such changes (change blindness). Similarly, the disintegration of an intact face to scrambled features resulted in attenuated N170 responses during change blindness. Other ERP deflections were modulated by changes, but unlike the N170 component, they were indifferent to the direction of the change. The bidirectional modulation of the N170 component during change blindness suggests that implicit change detection can also occur at the level of complex features in the case of facial stimuli. PMID:24498165

  3. Lexical references to sensory modalities in verbal descriptions of people and objects by congenitally blind, late blind and sighted adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Chauvey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Some previous studies have revealed that while congenitally blind people have a tendency to refer to visual attributes ('verbalism', references to auditory and tactile attributes are scarcer. However, this statement may be challenged by current theories claiming that cognition is linked to the perceptions and actions from which it derives. Verbal productions by the blind could therefore differ from those of the sighted because of their specific perceptual experience. The relative weight of each sense in oral descriptions was compared in three groups with different visual experience Congenitally blind (CB, late blind (LB and blindfolded sighted (BS adults. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants were asked to give an oral description of their mother and their father, and of four familiar manually-explored objects. The number of visual references obtained when describing people was relatively high, and was the same in the CB and BS groups ("verbalism" in the CB. While references to touch were scarce in all groups, the CB referred to audition more frequently than the LB and the BS groups. There were, by contrast, no differences between groups in descriptions of objects, and references to touch dominated the other modalities. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The relative weight of each modality varies according to the cognitive processes involved in each task. Long term memory, internal representations and information acquired through social communication, are at work in the People task, seem to favour visual references in both the blind and the sighted, whereas the congenitally blind also refer often to audition. By contrast, the perceptual encoding and working memory at work in the Objects task enhance sensory references to touch in a similar way in all groups. These results attenuate the impact of verbalism in blindness, and support (albeit moderately the idea that the perceptual experience of the congenitally blind is to some extent

  4. Attentional modulation of motion-induced blindness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GENG HaiYan; SONG QianLan; LI YunFeng; XU Shan; ZHU Ying

    2007-01-01

    When a global moving pattern is superimposed on high-contrast stationary or slowly moving stimuli,the stimuli can be perceived as disappearing and reappearing alternately for periods of several seconds. This visual illusory phenomenon was named "motion-induced blindness" (MIB) in recent literature. So far there is no consensus on the mechanism of MIB, especially on the role of attention in this phenomenon. To examine the effect of spatial attention on MIB, the present study manipulated the participants' spatial attention by asking them to respond to two targets simultaneously presented in bilateral visual fields (the divided-attention condition) or only respond to one of them (the focused-attention condition). A central arrow was presented as an endogenous cue to index the target visual field in the focused-attention condition, while a point was presented instead in the divided-attention condition. The results show that the percentage of accumulated invisibility period was larger for the targets in the focused-attention condition than for those in the divided-attention condition.This effect of attentionis significant in upper visual field (UVF) and left lower visual field (left LVF); that is, this effect shows a hemispheric asymmetry in LVF but not in UVF. Furthermore, the percentage of accumulated invisibility period was larger for targets in left LVF than for those in right LVF in the focused-attention condition, but no hemispheric asymmetry was found in the divided-attention condition.In addition, the increased percentage of accumulated invisibility period in the focused-attention condition originated merely in the enhancement of the mean phase duration of disappearance in LVF, while the disappearance occurred more frequently and lasted longer for each occurrence, which led to an increase in the total invisibility period, in the focused- than divided-attention condition in UVF. These results suggest that the modulation of spatial attention on MIB has different

  5. Three Blind Men and the Elephant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, J S

    2007-02-13

    Just like the blind men in the popular story of perceiving the elephant, the three major constituencies participating in the energy debate have greatly different perceptions of the problem. The constituency that is worried about climate change believes the energy problem is caused by profligate use of fossil fuel that has dramatically changed our atmosphere. The energy security group sees dangerous reliance on foreign sources of oil increasingly held by countries hostile to the US. The economic vitality group sees high energy prices and their effect on the economy and our life-style. Just like the blind men, each of the three constituencies perceives a different problem. And just as with the blind men, while each perspective is right as a piece of the elephant, it takes all the perspectives together to actually solve the problem. Environmentalists focus on solutions responding to the scientific consensus that greenhouse gases are creating rapid climate change. The tipping point has come: it is now a consensus position among scientists the global warming is being affected by anthropogenic activity to 90% certainty according to the last IPCC report. Although they still struggle with the prediction of how much global temperatures will rise if we do nothing--is it 5 deg or 10 under BAU? This group believes that we cannot afford to take a chance because we get only one chance. We can not afford to do this kind of experiment with the Earth. Any choice which decreases our CO{sub 2} footprint is favored, even if it means a decrease in standard of living. The energy security constituency sees the geo-politics of oil becoming increasingly dire. They look at oil money being used to fund anti-American activities of groups such as the Wahabis in Saudi Arabia, Hezbollah in Lebanon and the infamous Al Qaeda. They quip that the Iraq war is the first war where we are paying for both sides. They note Iran and the Shia throughout the Middle East seeing the possibility of controlling

  6. Causes of childhood blindness in the northeastern states of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharjee Harsha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The northeastern region (NER of India is geographically isolated and ethno-culturally different from the rest of the country. There is lacuna regarding the data on causes of blindness and severe visual impairment in children from this region. Aim: To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness amongst children from schools for the blind in the four states of NER of India. Design and Setting: Survey of children attending special education schools for the blind in the NER. Materials and Methods: Blind and severely visually impaired children (best corrected visual acuity < 20/200 in the better eye, aged up to 16 years underwent visual acuity estimation, external ocular examination, retinoscopy and fundoscopy. Refraction and low vision workup was done where indicated. World Health Organization′s reporting form was used to code anatomical and etiological causes of visual loss. Statistical Analysis: Microsoft Excel Windows software with SPSS. Results: A total of 376 students were examined of whom 258 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. The major anatomical causes of visual loss amongst the 258 were congenital anomalies (anophthalmos, microphthalmos 93 (36.1%; corneal conditions (scarring, vitamin A deficiency 94 (36.7%; cataract or aphakia 28 (10.9%, retinal disorders 15 (5.8% and optic atrophy 14 (5.3%. Nearly half of the children were blind from conditions which were either preventable or treatable (48.5%. Conclusion: Nearly half the childhood blindness in the NER states of India is avoidable and Vitamin A deficiency forms an important component unlike other Indian states. More research and multisectorial effort is needed to tackle congenital anomalies.

  7. Rubber hands feel touch, but not in blind individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria I Petkova

    Full Text Available Psychology and neuroscience have a long-standing tradition of studying blind individuals to investigate how visual experience shapes perception of the external world. Here, we study how blind people experience their own body by exposing them to a multisensory body illusion: the somatic rubber hand illusion. In this illusion, healthy blindfolded participants experience that they are touching their own right hand with their left index finger, when in fact they are touching a rubber hand with their left index finger while the experimenter touches their right hand in a synchronized manner (Ehrsson et al. 2005. We compared the strength of this illusion in a group of blind individuals (n = 10, all of whom had experienced severe visual impairment or complete blindness from birth, and a group of age-matched blindfolded sighted participants (n = 12. The illusion was quantified subjectively using questionnaires and behaviorally by asking participants to point to the felt location of the right hand. The results showed that the sighted participants experienced a strong illusion, whereas the blind participants experienced no illusion at all, a difference that was evident in both tests employed. A further experiment testing the participants' basic ability to localize the right hand in space without vision (proprioception revealed no difference between the two groups. Taken together, these results suggest that blind individuals with impaired visual development have a more veridical percept of self-touch and a less flexible and dynamic representation of their own body in space compared to sighted individuals. We speculate that the multisensory brain systems that re-map somatosensory signals onto external reference frames are less developed in blind individuals and therefore do not allow efficient fusion of tactile and proprioceptive signals from the two upper limbs into a single illusory experience of self-touch as in sighted individuals.

  8. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O . Oduntan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent review of the causes and prevalence of low vision and blindness world wide is lack-ing. Such review is important for highlighting the causes and prevalence of visual impairment in the different parts of the world. Also, it is important in providing information on the types and magnitude of eye care programs needed in different parts of the world. In this article, the causes and prevalence of low vision and blind-ness in different parts of the world are reviewed and  the  socio-economic  and  psychological implications are briefly discussed. The review is based on an extensive review of the litera-ture using computer data bases combined with review of available national, regional and inter-national journals. Low vision and blindness are more prevalent in the developing countries than in the developed ones. Generally, the causes and prevalence of the conditions vary widely in different parts of the world and even within the same country. World wide, cataract is the most common cause of blindness and low vision among adults and elderly. Infectious diseases such as trachoma and onchocerciasis result-ing in low vision and blindness are peculiar to Africa, Asia and South America. Hereditary and congenital conditions are the most common causes of low vision and blindness among chil-dren worldwide.

  9. Results from a blind and a non-blind randomised trial run in parallel: experience from the Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy (EPHT Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerus Piret

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Estonian Postmenopausal Hormone Therapy (EPHT Trial assigned 4170 potential participants prior to recruitment to blind or non-blind hormone therapy (HT, with placebo or non-treatment the respective alternatives. Before having to decide on participation, women were told whether they had been randomised to the blind or non-blind trial. Eligible women who were still willing to join the trial were recruited. After recruitment participants in the non-blind trial (N = 1001 received open-label HT or no treatment, participants in the blind trial (N = 777 remained blinded until the end of the trial. The aim of this paper is to analyse the effect of blinding on internal and external validity of trial outcomes. Methods Effect of blinding was calculated as the hazard ratio of selected chronic diseases, total mortality and all outcomes. For analysing the effect of blinding on external validity, the hazard ratios from women recruited to the placebo arm and to the non-treatment arm were compared with those not recruited; for analysing the effect of blinding on internal validity, the hazard ratios from the blind trial were compared with those from the non-blind trial. Results The women recruited to the placebo arm had less cerebrovascular disease events (HR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.26-0.71 and all outcomes combined (HR 0.76; 95% CI: 0.63-0.91 than those who were not recruited. Among women recruited or not recruited to the non-treatment arm, no differences were observed for any of the outcomes studied. Among women recruited to the trial, the risk for coronary heart disease events (HR 0.77; 95% CI: 0.64-0.93, cerebrovascular disease events (HR 0.66; 95%CI: 0.47-0.92, and all outcomes combined (HR 0.82; 95% CI: 0.72-0.94 was smaller among participants in the blind trial than in the non-blind trial. There was no difference between the blind and the non-blind trial for total cancer (HR 0.95; 95% CI: 0.64-1.42, bone fractures (0.93; 95% CI: 0

  10. The scene and the unseen: manipulating photographs for experiments on change blindness and scene memory: image manipulation for change blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Felix; Elzemann, Anne; Busch, Niko A

    2014-09-01

    The change blindness paradigm, in which participants often fail to notice substantial changes in a scene, is a popular tool for studying scene perception, visual memory, and the link between awareness and attention. Some of the most striking and popular examples of change blindness have been demonstrated with digital photographs of natural scenes; in most studies, however, much simpler displays, such as abstract stimuli or "free-floating" objects, are typically used. Although simple displays have undeniable advantages, natural scenes remain a very useful and attractive stimulus for change blindness research. To assist researchers interested in using natural-scene stimuli in change blindness experiments, we provide here a step-by-step tutorial on how to produce changes in natural-scene images with a freely available image-processing tool (GIMP). We explain how changes in a scene can be made by deleting objects or relocating them within the scene or by changing the color of an object, in just a few simple steps. We also explain how the physical properties of such changes can be analyzed using GIMP and MATLAB (a high-level scientific programming tool). Finally, we present an experiment confirming that scenes manipulated according to our guidelines are effective in inducing change blindness and demonstrating the relationship between change blindness and the physical properties of the change and inter-individual differences in performance measures. We expect that this tutorial will be useful for researchers interested in studying the mechanisms of change blindness, attention, or visual memory using natural scenes. PMID:24311058

  11. Blinding trachoma among refugees:complicating social disaster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeshigeta; Gelaw; Aemero; Abateneh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the prevalence of blinding trachoma among refugees in South Western Ethiopia.Methods:A cross-sectional outreach clinic based descriptive study was conducted on 1054 refugees in Southwest Ethiopia.A basic eyelid and cornea examination for signs of trachoma was done by using 2.5× binocular magnifying loupe.The findings were classified by using the World Health Digitization simplified trachoma grading system and data were analyzed by using SPSS version 16.0.Results:A total of 1054 refugee patients were examined for trachoma.179(16.98%) of them had clinical signs of trachoma.About 6(3.35%) patients had active trachoma with trachomatous trichiasis(TT),47(26.26%) patients had TT only and the rest 126(70.39%)patients had TT with trachomatous corneal opacity.All of the trachoma patients had blinding trachoma(TT with or without trachomatous corneal opacity),and about 60.89% of them had visual impairment.Blinding trachoma was significantly more common among females.patients in age group of 16-59 years,married patients,illiterates and Fugnido camp settlers(P<0.05).Conclusions:There is a very high burden of blinding trachoma among refugees.Urgent surgical intervention is needed to prevent blindness and low vision in the study subjects,and targeted regular outreach-based eye care service should be commenced.

  12. 盲者亦美丽%Blind Is Beautiful

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟厚全(译注)

    2012-01-01

    Do you know anyone who is Blind or Visually Impaired1? I do! ME! Hi, my name is Ashley. I am 15 years oldand I am visually impaired. I have a disorder called "Optic Nerve Hypoplasia". I attend a School for the Blind, so most of my friends are blind or visually impaired. People think a lot of different things about us Blind people. There are so many misconceptions3. I would like to clear a few of these up and hopefully help you to see that blind people are the same as the sighted.%虽然我们看不见,但是我们一样心思敏捷,一样自食其力。因此,请平等对待我们吧!你认识失明或视力有障碍的人吗?我认识!我就是?你好,我的名字叫阿什莉,我现年15岁,有视力障碍,我患上了一种名为“视神经发育不全”的眼疾,

  13. The global problem of blindness and visual dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2012-10-01

    According to World Health Organization statistics there are approximately 285 million people who are blind, have severe low vision, or are near-blind. Of these, 39 million are blind, and 246 million have low vision problems. About 90% of these live in developing countries. The major causes are uncorrected refractive errors (42%), and cataracts (38%). In the US, there are about 6 million people over the age of 65 who have age-related macular degeneration which is the leading cause of blindness. For each decade after age 40, it is found that there is a three-fold increase in the prevalence of blindness and low vision. This paper will address the question of what can we, as optical physicists and engineers, do? There is a need for efficient methods to detect problems, investigate function, provide solutions, and develop rehabilitation devices for the visually impaired. Here I will sketch out the magnitude and variety of the problem, examples and future research directions.

  14. Representation of haptic objects during mental rotation in congenital blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güçlü, Burak; Celik, Serkan; Ilci, Civan

    2014-04-01

    The representation of haptic objects by three groups of participants (sighted, blindfolded, and congenitally blind) was studied in a mental-rotation task. Three models were tested. The participants explored a standard object continuously with the left hand and tried to find the mirror object among two alternatives explored sequentially with the right hand. Sighted participants were tested in the visual version of the task. The accuracy of judgments was very high (> 95%) for all groups, and the blind group had the highest identification times. Correlation analyses were performed between (both single-trial and average) identification times and angular differences. The identification times of the sighted and blindfolded groups increased as linear functions of the angular difference between the mirror and the standard stimuli, supporting the classical model. The identification times of the blind group changed non-monotonically and were consistent with an antiparallel image (180 degrees rotation superimposed) in the mental representation. The dual code model did not fit the data well for any participant group. The performance differences between the blindfolded and blind groups may be attributed to a modified mapping function from the object-properties-processing sub-system to the visual buffer, which was conjectured to be available also to the blind group while processing haptic objects. PMID:24897889

  15. Countermeasures Against Blinding Attack on Superconducting Nanowire Detectors for QKD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elezov M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs are used in Quantum Key Distribution (QKD instead of single-photon avalanche photodiodes. Recently bright-light control of the SSPD has been demonstrated. This attack employed a “backdoor” in the detector biasing technique. We developed the autoreset system which returns the SSPD to superconducting state when it is latched. We investigate latched state of the SSPD and define limit conditions for effective blinding attack. Peculiarity of the blinding attack is a long nonsingle photon response of the SSPD. It is much longer than usual single photon response. Besides, we need follow up response duration of the SSPD. These countermeasures allow us to prevent blind attack on SSPDs for Quantum Key Distribution.

  16. An ID-based Blind Signature Scheme from Bilinear Pairings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Umaprasada Rao

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Blind signatures, introduced by Chaum, allow a user to obtain a signature on a message without revealing any thing about the message to the signer. Blind signatures play on important role in plenty of applications such as e-voting, e-cash system where anonymity is of great concern. Identity based(ID-based public key cryptography can be a good alternative for certified based public key setting, especially when efficient key management and moderate security are required. In this paper, we propose an ID-based blind signature scheme from bilinear pairings. The proposed scheme is based on the Hess ID- based digital signature scheme. Also we analyze security and efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  17. Specifics of psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbyněk Janečka

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ontogenesis of the psychomotor development in group of congenital blind children has its own specifics. Visual defect is influenced by many things. In the period from birth to two years of age occur in children, significant changes in cognitive, psychomotor and social development. Compared with the normal sighted population go the development of congenital blind children in all these areas slower. Visual deprivation also influenced on development of body posture. More important is whether the development proceeds in stages that correspond to the development of normal vision child. If development proceeds in the right direction is the temporal aspect criterion rather orientation. For blind children is also important to strengthen the ability to correctly identify their own body through somatognosy. Stereognosy in turn determines the degree of contact with the outer world and focus it in relation to the physical schema.

  18. Acquired night blindness due to bad eating patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parafita-Fernández, A; Escalona-Fermín, M M; Sampil, M; Moraña, N; Viso, E; Fernández-Vila, P C

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of acquired night blindness in a developed country (Spain) without risk factors for nutritional deficiency disease or family history of hereditary retinal disease. A 76-year-old woman presented with acquired night blindness of 6-month progression. After a thorough inquiry about eating patterns she becomes suspicious of vitamin A low dietary intake, which is analytically confirmed and successfully treated. Despite being very uncommon in our environment and even more in patients without digestive problems, in a patient reporting acquired night blindness vitamin A deficiency should not be discarded until eating patterns have been investigated. It might be especially relevant in certain socioeconomic situations and eating disorders such as bulimia or anorexia nervosa. PMID:25804276

  19. Color blindness among multiple sclerosis patients in Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Shaygannejad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a disease of young and middle aged individuals with a demyelinative axonal damage nature in central nervous system that causes various signs and symptoms. As color vision needs normal function of optic nerve and macula, it is proposed that MS can alter it via influencing optic nerve. In this survey, we evaluated color vision abnormalities and its relationship with history of optic neuritis and abnormal visual evoked potentials (VEPs among MS patients. Materials and Methods: The case group was included of clinically definitive MS patients and the same number of normal population was enrolled as the control group. Color vision of all the participants was evaluated by Ishihara test and then visual evoked potential (VEPs and history of optic neuritis (ON was assessed among them. Then, frequency of color blindness was compared between the case and the control group. Finally, color blinded patients were compared to those with the history of ON and abnormal VEPs. Results: 63 MS patients and the same number of normal populations were enrolled in this study. 12 patients had color blindness based on the Ishihara test; only 3 of them were among the control group, which showed a significant different between the two groups (P = 0.013. There was a significant relationship between the color blindness and abnormal VEP (R = 0.53, P = 0.023 but not for the color blindness and ON (P = 0.67. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a significant correlation between color blindness and multiple sclerosis including ones with abnormal prolonged VEP latencies. Therefore, in individuals with acquired color vision impairment, an evaluation for potentially serious underlying diseases like MS is essential.

  20. Evaluation of children in six blind schools of Andhra Pradesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornby Stella

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: 1.To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in special education in Andhra Pradesh, India. 2. To compare the causes of blindness in two different regions in the state. 3. To evaluate improvement with correction of refractive error and low-vision devices (LVDs Methods: Children in 6 schools for the blind and in 3 integrated education programmes were examined by one ophthalmologist, and were refracted and assessed for LVDs by an optometrist. The major anatomical site and underlying aetiology of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL; <6/60 in the better eye were recorded using the standardised WHO reporting form. Results: Two hundred and ninety one students under 16 years were examined, and after refraction, 267 (91.7% were classified as being severely visually impaired or blind. The most common anatomical sites of SVI/BL were retina in 31.1% children; cornea in 24.3%; and whole globe in 20.2%. The aetiology was unknown in 38.2%, hereditary in 34.8% and childhood causes in 24%. 114 children (39.2% had functional low vision (i.e. visual acuity <6/18 to light perception with navigational vision. In this group, 36 children improved with spectacles and 16 benefited by LVDs. 41 children (15.4% were able to read N10 point though they were studying Braille. Conclusion: Overall 37.4% of children had "avoidable" causes of blindness. The major avoidable causes were vitamin-A deficiency and cataract. Vitamin-A deficiency and congenital anomalies were more common in the dry plateau areas of the state. One in seven children could read normal print with optical support.

  1. Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind Biodiesel Project Green

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmiston, Jessica L

    2012-09-28

    Through extensive collaboration, Alabama Institute for Deaf and Blind (AIDB) is Alabama's first educational entity to initiate a biodiesel public education, student training and production program, Project Green. With state and national replication potential, Project Green benefits local businesses and city infrastructures within a 120-mile radius; provides alternative education to Alabama school systems and to schools for the deaf and blind in Appalachian States; trains students with sensory and/or multiple disabilities in the acquisition and production of biodiesel; and educates the external public on alternative fuels benefits.

  2. Sparsity in Bayesian Blind Source Separation and Deconvolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmídl, Václav; Tichý, Ondřej

    Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2013, s. 548-563. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. vol. 8189. part II). ISBN 978-3-642-40990-5. ISSN 0302-9743. [The European Conference on Machine Learning and Principles and Practice of Knowledge Discovery in Databases (ECMLPKDD 2013). Praha (CZ), 24.09.2013-26.09.2013] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S Keywords : Blind Source Separation * Deconvolution * Sparsity * Scintigraphy Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/AS/tichy-sparsity in bayesian blind source separation and deconvolution.pdf

  3. Neural correlates of virtual route recognition in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Ron; Chebat, Daniel R; Madsen, Kristoffer H;

    2010-01-01

    translates a visual image into electrotactile stimulation applied to the tongue. After training, participants repeated the navigation task during fMRI. Although both groups successfully learned to use the TDU in the virtual navigation task, the brain activation patterns showed substantial differences. Blind...... participants, the activation pattern strongly resembled the one obtained in the blind when using the TDU. This suggests that in the absence of vision, cross-modal plasticity permits the recruitment of the same cortical network used for spatial navigation tasks in sighted subjects....

  4. Novel blind source separation algorithm using Gaussian mixture density function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔薇; 杨杰; 周越

    2004-01-01

    The blind source separation (BSS) is an important task for numerous applications in signal processing, communications and array processing. But for many complex sources blind separation algorithms are not efficient because the probability distribution of the sources cannot be estimated accurately. So in this paper, to justify the ME(maximum enteropy) approach, the relation between the ME and the MMI(minimum mutual information) is elucidated first. Then a novel algorithm that uses Gaussian mixture density to approximate the probability distribution of the sources is presented based on the ME approach. The experiment of the BSS of ship-radiated noise demonstrates that the proposed algorithm is valid and efficient.

  5. Age is highly associated with stereo blindness among surgeons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fergo, Charlotte; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    affecting surgical outcome. 3D laparoscopy offers stereoscopic vision of the operative field to improve depth perception and is being introduced to several surgical specialties; however, a normal stereo vision is a prerequisite. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence of stereo blindness among...... surgeons in the field of general surgery, gynecology, and urology as these are potential users of 3D laparoscopy. METHODS: The study was conducted according to the STROBE guidelines for cross-sectional studies. Medical doctors from the department of general surgery, gynecology, and urology were recruited...... relevant since stereo blind surgeons will not benefit from the implementation of 3D laparoscopy....

  6. An ID-based Blind Signature Scheme from Bilinear Pairings

    OpenAIRE

    B. Umaprasada Rao; K.A.Ajmath

    2010-01-01

    Blind signatures, introduced by Chaum, allow a user to obtain a signature on a message without revealing any thing about the message to the signer. Blind signatures play on important role in plenty of applications such as e-voting, e-cash system where anonymity is of great concern. Identity based(ID-based) public key cryptography can be a good alternative for certified based public key setting, especially when efficient key management and moderate security are required. In this paper, we prop...

  7. A Blind Pilot: Who is a Super-Luminal Observer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabounski D.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the nature of a hypothetical super-luminal observer who, as well as a real (sub-light speed observer, perceives the world by light waves. This consideration is due to that fact that the theory of relativity permits different frames of reference, including light-like and super-luminal reference frames. In analogy with a blind pilot on board a supersonic jet aeroplane (or missile, perceived by blind people, it is concluded that the light barrier is observed in the framework of only the light signal exchange experiment.

  8. Blind Separation of Piecewise Stationary NonGaussian Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koldovský, Zbyněk; Málek, J.; Tichavský, Petr; Deville, Y.; Hosseini, S.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 12 (2009), s. 2570-2584. ISSN 0165-1684 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/09/1278 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/P384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Independent component analysis * blind source separation * Cramer-Rao lower bound Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 1.135, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/SI/tichavsky-blind separationofpiecewisestationarynon-gaussiansources.pdf

  9. Blind Recognition Algorithm of Turbo Codes for Communication Intelligence Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Naseri

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Turbo codes are widely used in land and space radio communication systems, and because of complexity of structure, are custom in military communication systems. In electronic warfare, COMINT systems make attempt to recognize codes by blind ways. In this Paper, the algorithm is proposed for blind recognition of turbo code parameters like code kind, code-word length, code rate, length of interleaver and delay blocks number of convolution code. The algorithm calculations volume is0.5L3+1.25L, therefore it is suitable for real time systems.

  10. Engaging blind and partially sighted stakeholders in transformational change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Victoria

    2016-09-01

    For non-profit organizations in the disability sector, engaging stakeholders with disabilities on matters of strategic planning is both a responsibility and an expectation. As part of our current strategic plan, which calls for organizational and systemic transformation, the Canadian National Institute for the Blind (CNIB) has engaged blind and partially sighted stakeholders alongside other interest groups to build and advocate for a more holistic model of vision healthcare and rehabilitation. This article describes the CNIB's multi-year process, including early-stage consultations, collaborative strategy development, and political advocacy and shares our organization's key success factors and learnings in creating meaningful, mutually beneficial engagement. PMID:27576855

  11. Effect of coffee (caffeine) against human cataract blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Shambhu D

    2016-01-01

    Previous biochemical and morphological studies with animal experiments have demonstrated that caffeine given topically or orally to certain experimental animal models has significant inhibitory effect on cataract formation. The present studies were undertaken to examine if there is a correlation between coffee drinking and incidence of cataract blindness in human beings. That has been found to be the case. Incidence of cataract blindness was found to be significantly lower in groups consuming higher amounts of coffee in comparison to the groups with lower coffee intake. Mechanistically, the caffeine effect could be multifactorial, involving its antioxidant as well as its bioenergetic effects on the lens. PMID:26869755

  12. Preventing diabetic blindness: a priority for South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Karen Joanne; Cook, Colin; Levitt, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of diabetes in South Africa is increasing rapidly, and diabetes is a significant cause of blindness. Diabetic complications can induce a cycle of poverty for affected families. Early detection of retinopathy and appropriate management can prevent blindness. Screening for retinopathy using a mobile retinal camera is highly cost-effective, with costs of screening and follow-up treatment being less than the expense of one year of a disability grant. Such a programme is a prime example of a 'best buy' that should be part of the national diabetes care package. PMID:25363046

  13. Simple, Accurate, and Robust Nonparametric Blind Super-Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Wen-Ze; Elad, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple, accurate, and robust approach to single image nonparametric blind Super-Resolution (SR). This task is formulated as a functional to be minimized with respect to both an intermediate super-resolved image and a nonparametric blur-kernel. The proposed approach includes a convolution consistency constraint which uses a non-blind learning-based SR result to better guide the estimation process. Another key component is the unnatural bi-l0-l2-norm regularization imposed...

  14. Bilateral blindness due to pterygium: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard I. Azonobi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although known to cause refractive visual disturbances at some stages, pterygium rarely leads to blindness especially where eye care services are available. This case report presents a 56 year old farmer with advanced pterygia. She reported to the eye clinic after several years of unsuccessful self-medication and refusal to accept an earlier offer of surgical treatment due to fear of surgery. The patient subsequently had surgical excision of both pterygia with visual restoration. The importance of meticulous counseling and health education on the incidence of needless blindness is emphasized. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(5.000: 1274-1276

  15. A Robust Algorithm for Blind Total Variation Restoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Xu; Qian-shun Chang

    2008-01-01

    Image restoration is a fundamental problem in image processing. Blind image restoration has a great value in its practical application. However, it is not an easy problem to solve due to its complexity and difficulty. In this paper, we combine our robust algorithm for known blur operator with an alternating minimization implicit iterative scheme to deal with blind deconvolution problem, recover the image and identify the point spread function(PSF). The only assumption needed is satisfy the practical physical sense. Numerical experiments demonstrate that this minimization algorithm is efficient and robust over a wide range of PSF and have almost the same results compared with known PSF algorithm.

  16. Double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skamstrup Hansen, K; Vestergaard, H; Stahl Skov, P;

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate different methods of double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) with apple. Three different DBPCFC models were evaluated: fresh apple juice, freshly grated apple, and freeze-dried apple powder. All challenges were performed outside the...... high frequency of reactions to placebo, probably due to the ingredients used for blinding. The sensitivity of the models with freshly grated apple and freeze-dried apple powder was 0.74/0.60. An increase in sensitivity is desirable. The freeze-dried apple powder proved to be useful for SPT, HR, and...

  17. Risk factors for progression to blindness in high tension primary open angle glaucoma: Comparison of blind and nonblind subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanjit S Kooner

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Karanjit S Kooner1, Mohannad AlBdoor1, Byung J Cho3, Beverley Adams-Huet21Department of Ophthalmology, 2Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA; 3Konkuk University Hospital, Seoul, KoreaAims: To determine which risk factors for blindness were most critical in patients diagnosed with high tension primary open angle glaucoma (POAG in a large ethnically diverse population managed with a uniform treatment strategy.Methods: A longitudinal observational study was designed to follow 487 patients (974 eyes with POAG for an average of 5.5 ± 3.6 years. Detailed ocular and systemic information was collected on each patient and updated every six months. For this study, blindness was defined as visual acuity of 20/200 or worse and/or visual field less than 20° in either eye. Known risk factors were compared between patients with blindness in at least one eye versus nonblind patients.Results: The patients with blindness had on average: higher intraocular pressure (IOP, mmHg: (24.2 ± 11.2 vs. 22.1 ± 7.7, p = 0.03, wide variation of IOP in the follow-up period (5.9 vs. 4.1 mmHg, p = 0.031, late detection (p = 0.006, poor control of IOP (p < 0.0001, and noncompliance (p < 0.0003. Other known risk factors such as race, age, myopia, family history of glaucoma, history of ocular trauma, hypertension, diabetes, vascular disease, smoking, alcohol abuse, dysthyoidism, and steroid use were not significant.Conclusions: The most critical factors associated with the development of blindness among our patients were: elevated initial IOP, wide variations and poor control of IOP, late detection of glaucoma, and noncompliance with therapy.Keywords: primary open angle glaucoma, blindness, intraocular pressure, risk factors, and noncompliance

  18. The 2007 National Federation of the Blind Youth Slam: Making Astronomy Accessible to Students Who are Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Noreen A.

    2008-05-01

    In the summer of 2007, nearly two hundred blind and visually impaired high school students participated in a weeklong enrichment program at Johns Hopkins University called the National Federation of the Blind Youth Slam. They spent four days participating in hands-on science and engineering classes and exploring careers previously thought inaccessible to those without sight. The students were separated into "tracks” with each group focusing on a different field. Want to know what happened in the astronomy track? Come by this paper and see examples of accessible astronomy activities, including accessible star parties, from the Youth Slam!

  19. Supporting the Social Lives of Adolescents Who Are Blind: Research to Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Katrina; Lieberman, Lauren; James, Alisa

    2014-01-01

    Seven adolescents who are blind and seven of their parents were interviewed about the adolescents' social lives. Adolescent and parent perspectives are reviewed, followed by implications for teachers to support the social connections of students who are blind.

  20. Causes and 3-year-incidence of blindness in Jing-An District, Shanghai, China 2001-2009

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Xingtao; Sun Xinghuai; Wu Liangcheng; Weng Chenghai

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Registered data can provide valuable information regarding blindness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the main causes and 3-year incidence of registered blindness in Jing-An district in Shanghai, China. Methods Data from the blindness registry (age, gender and cause of visual disability) were collected and analyzed. The prevalence of blindness for 2003, 2007, 2009 and the 3-year incidence of blindness were calculated. Results The reported blindness increased sign...

  1. 76 FR 58412 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... FR 26641, May 9, 2011, are effective September 21, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Rosaline...- Blind Individuals, CG Docket No. 10-210; FCC 11-56, published at 76 FR 26641, May 9, 2011. If you have... Federal Register on December 15, 2009 (74 FR 66356) which became effective on January 25, 2010. Also,...

  2. 76 FR 26641 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ..., Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, published at 76 FR 4838, January 27, 2011 (NDBEDP NPRM). In the NDBEDP... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Commission adopts rules to establish the National...

  3. 77 FR 20553 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals, Report and Order, document FCC 11-56, published at 76 FR... requirement in 47 CFR 64.610(f)(2), published at 76 FR 26641, May 9, 2011, has not been approved by the Office..., Notice, published at 77 FR 18813, March 28, 2012. In addition, the Commission notes that pursuant to...

  4. 76 FR 31261 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... final rule that appeared in the Federal Register of May 9, 2011, 76 FR 26641. The document adopts rules... INFORMATION: In FR Doc. 2011-10228 published in the Federal Register on Monday, May 9, 2011, 76 FR 26641, the... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 64 Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals AGENCY: Federal Communications...

  5. 77 FR 42187 - Relay Services for Deaf-Blind Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-18

    ...: 47 CFR 64.610(f)(2), published at 76 FR 26641, May 9, 2011, and modified at 77 FR 20553, April 5..., published at 77 FR 20553, April 5, 2012. The OMB Control Number is 3060-1146. The Commission publishes this...-Blind Equipment Distribution Program,'' in the Federal Register on January 19, 2012 (77 FR 2721)...

  6. Effectiveness of Blind & Ultrasound Guided Corticosteroid Injection in Impingement Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Shila; Taheri, Parisa; Banimehdi, Mohsen; Taghavi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Local steroid injections are common for treatment of impingement syndrome. Corticosteroid injections methods are basically in two formats, blind or with image guidance. The aim of this study is to compare the effect of ultrasound-guided in comparison with blind corticosteroid injections in patients with impingement syndrome. This study is a randomized clinical trial study undertaken in patients with diagnosis of impingement syndrome done in Isfahan University of Medical Science clinics from February 2014 to February 2015. The number of all patients registered in the study is 48; and then 40 patients were allocated to either control group randomly which received blind steroid injection or case group that underwent ultrasound-guided steroid injection. The clinical symptoms were assessed using Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI) questionnaire, Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and shoulder range of motion (ROM) using goniometer at baseline and six weeks after the injection. Data analysis revealed a significant difference in the mean of the VAS, SPADI and shoulder ROM in both groups 6 weeks after intervention (P guided corticosteroid injection had statistically significant improvements in function and shoulder ROM (abduction, flexion) compared to blind injection group after 6 weeks (P0.05). Our findings suggest that US image guided can improve the shoulder function of patients with impingement syndrome, and thus can be considered in comprehensive care programs of these patients for fast speed of rehabilitation.

  7. Homemade Wooden Vernier Scales for Use by Blind Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Mike; Bidleman, Cricket; Brown, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Because she had been blind since birth, we knew that our new student, Cricket, would be unable to make the necessary measurements needed to get any meaningful lab data while all of the other students would be able to use highly accurate commercial Vernier calipers. All we had on loan for Cricket was a Brailled plastic tactile meter stick with low…

  8. Single-Channel Blind Estimation of Reverberation Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doire, C.S.J.; Brookes, M. D.; Naylor, P. A.;

    2015-01-01

    The reverberation of an acoustic channel can be characterised by two frequency-dependent parameters: the reverberation time and the direct-to-reverberant energy ratio. This paper presents an algorithm for blindly determining these parameters from a single-channel speech signal. The algorithm uses...

  9. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R. Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L.

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness. PMID:26899286

  10. On the blind recovery of cardiac and respiratory sounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Ghafoor; Koch, Peter; Papadias, Constantinos B.

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for smart auscultation by proposing a novel blind recovery of the original cardiac and respiratory sounds from a single observation mixture, in the framework of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). The method learns the basis spectra of the mixing sources in unsupervised or...

  11. 78 FR 62339 - Blind Americans Equality Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-18

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty- eighth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013... powerful music and art, blind and visually impaired Americans imagine and pursue ideas and goals that move our country forward. As a Nation, it is our task to ensure they can always access the tools...

  12. 76 FR 65099 - Blind Americans Equality Day, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-20

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-27320 Filed 10-19-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F2-P ..., penning works of literature, lending their voice to music, and inspiring as champions of sport. On Blind... Americans across the country to observe this day with appropriate ceremonies, activities, and programs. ]...

  13. Central Inhibition Ability Modulates Attention-Induced Motion Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milders, Maarten; Hay, Julia; Sahraie, Arash; Niedeggen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Impaired motion perception can be induced in normal observers in a rapid serial visual presentation task. Essential for this effect is the presence of motion distractors prior to the motion target, and we proposed that this attention-induced motion blindness results from high-level inhibition produced by the distractors. To investigate this, we…

  14. Blind fluorescence structured illumination microscopy: A new reconstruction strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Labouesse, S; Idier, J; Bourguignon, S; Liu, P; Sentenac, A

    2016-01-01

    In this communication, a fast reconstruction algorithm is proposed for fluorescence \\textit{blind} structured illumination microscopy (SIM) under the sample positivity constraint. This new algorithm is by far simpler and faster than existing solutions, paving the way to 3D and/or real-time 2D reconstruction.

  15. Causes of childhood blindness at ECWA Eye Hospital, Kano, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, F O; Kirupananthan, S; Ayanniyi, A A; Abuh, S

    2009-03-01

    The study aimed at identifying the causes of childhood blindness at ECWA Eye Hospital, Kano. The causes of visual loss in 31 consecutive patients aged flashlight a loupe, and an ophthalmoscope. The intraocular pressure was taken with either a Schiotz or an applanation tonometer. There were 14 males (45.0%), the mean age was 6 years; range: 1 to 15 years. Corneal causes were responsible for blindness in 54.8%. Measles was responsible for 10 cases; neonatal infection was responsible in 2 cases. Four cases were due to lens lesions. By aetiologic category, childhood factors accounted for (32.3%). The causes in 51.7% were not known. Hereditary factors and perinatal factor accounted for 6.4% cases each. Intrauterine factors were responsible for 1 case. Eighteen (58.6%) of the cases were due to avoidable causes; 12(38.4%) being preventable and 6(19.2%) treatable. The causes of childhood blindness in this study are consistent with those of low economic region with high prevalence of avoidable blindness. PMID:19722425

  16. Literacy for Persons Who Are Deaf-Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    Each person who is deaf-blind--whatever her sensory, mental, and physical abilities--deserves the opportunity to become literate in all the ways of which she is capable. Reading and writing are especially crucial for one whose world is narrowed because of vision and hearing losses. Literacy can enable such a person to exchange information and…

  17. Can blind persons accurately assess body size from the voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisanski, Katarzyna; Oleszkiewicz, Anna; Sorokowska, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Vocal tract resonances provide reliable information about a speaker's body size that human listeners use for biosocial judgements as well as speech recognition. Although humans can accurately assess men's relative body size from the voice alone, how this ability is acquired remains unknown. In this study, we test the prediction that accurate voice-based size estimation is possible without prior audiovisual experience linking low frequencies to large bodies. Ninety-one healthy congenitally or early blind, late blind and sighted adults (aged 20-65) participated in the study. On the basis of vowel sounds alone, participants assessed the relative body sizes of male pairs of varying heights. Accuracy of voice-based body size assessments significantly exceeded chance and did not differ among participants who were sighted, or congenitally blind or who had lost their sight later in life. Accuracy increased significantly with relative differences in physical height between men, suggesting that both blind and sighted participants used reliable vocal cues to size (i.e. vocal tract resonances). Our findings demonstrate that prior visual experience is not necessary for accurate body size estimation. This capacity, integral to both nonverbal communication and speech perception, may be present at birth or may generalize from broader cross-modal correspondences. PMID:27095264

  18. Applied Computational Chemistry for the Blind and Visually Impaired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedler, Henry B.; Cohen, Sarah R.; Davis, Rebecca L.; Harrison, Jason G.; Siebert, Matthew R.; Willenbring, Dan; Hamann, Christian S.; Shaw, Jared T.; Tantillo, Dean J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe accommodations that we have made to our applied computational-theoretical chemistry laboratory to provide access for blind and visually impaired students interested in independent investigation of structure-function relationships. Our approach utilizes tactile drawings, molecular model kits, existing software, Bash and Perl scripts…

  19. BUDHIES: a Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaffé, Y. L.; Verheijen, M. A.; Poggianti, B. M.; van Gorkom, J. H.; Deshev, B. Z.

    2014-01-01

    We present recent results from the Blind Ultra Deep HI Environmental Survey (BUDHIES), that has detected over 150 galaxies at z˜ 0.2 with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). Our multi-wavelength study is the first where optical properties and HI content are combined at a redshift where

  20. Application of automated blind for daylighting in tropical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiwiwatworakul, Pipat; Chirarattananon, Surapong [Energy Division, Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment, King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-utit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Rakkwamsuk, Pattana [School of Energy, Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s Univ. of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-utit Road, Bangmod, Tungkru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2009-12-15

    This paper reports an experimental and simulation study on application of automated Venetian blind for daylighting in tropical climate. A horizontal blind system operating automatically under programmed control was constructed and integrated onto the glazed windows to form a window system with an automated blind in a room of a laboratory building. A dimming controller was also integrated to the lighting system of the room. Different operation schemes of the window system were devised and tested in the attempt to maximize energy savings while maintaining the quality of the visual environment in the room. Intensive measurement of illuminance of the interior space was undertaken during the experiments. A methodology for calculation of interior daylight illuminance and associated glare corresponding to the configurations of the experiments was adopted. The method was coded into a computer program. Results of calculation from the program agree well with those from experiments for all the schemes of operation conducted. The program was used to simulate the situation when each scheme of operation was implemented for a whole year. It was found that such window system with automated blind enabled energy savings of 80%, but a more sophisticated scheme also helped maintain the interior visual quality at high level. (author)

  1. Exploring Gender Norms through the "Colour Blind" Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niblett, Blair; Potvin, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the authors have been collecting data for a research project that explores secondary school boys' perceptions of masculinity. They spent a week in Leigh's grade 11 philosophy class discussing gender while observing and video recording students' perception for analysis. In their research, they used Colour Blind as a vehicle for unearthing…

  2. Early Interactions with Children Who Are Deaf-Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The senses of vision and hearing help the child organize information from the environment. The young child who is deaf-blind, however, ... to provide opportunities that not only encourage your child to interact with the environment and the people and objects in it, but ...

  3. A Handbook for Parents of Deaf-Blind Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esche, Jeanne; Griffin, Carol

    The handbook for parents of deaf blind children describes practical techniques of child care for such activities as sitting, standing, walking, sleeping, washing, eating, dressing, toilet training, disciplining, and playing. For instance, it is explained that some visually handicapped children acquire mannerisms in their early years because they…

  4. A Blind Eye to Industry-Level Corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the risk of favouring domestic industries in the current European Union Emission Trading System (EU ETS). As the EU forms a weak federal structure compared to the US, there is a risk that single countries may free ride on the others by choosing to take a blind eye to industry-level...

  5. Blind spots for neutralino dark matter in the NMSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Badziak, Marcin; Szczerbiak, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Spin-independent cross-section for neutralino dark matter scattering off nuclei is investigated in the NMSSM. Several classes of blind spots for direct detection of singlino-Higgsino dark matter are analytically identified, including such that have no analog in the MSSM. It is shown that mixing of the Higgs doublets with the scalar singlet has a big impact on the position of blind spots in the parameter space. In particular, this mixing allows for more freedom in the sign assignment for the parameters entering the neutralino mass matrix, required for a blind spot to occur, as compared to the MSSM or the NMSSM with decoupled singlet. Moreover, blind spots may occur for any composition of a singlino-Higgsino LSP. Particular attention is paid to cases with the singlet-dominated scalar lighter than the 125 GeV Higgs for which a vanishing tree-level spin-independent scattering cross-section may result from destructive interference between the Higgs and the singlet-dominated scalar exchange. Correlations of the spi...

  6. Blind source separation using second-order cyclostationary statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Abed-Meraim, Karim; Xiang, Yong; Manton, Jonathan H.; Hua, Yingbo

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the blind source separation (BSS) problem with the assumption that the source signals are cyclostationary. Identifiability and separability criteria based on second-order cyclostationary statistics (SOCS) alone are derived. The identifiability condition is used to define an appropriate contrast function. An iterative algorithm (ATH2) is derived to minimize this contrast function. This algorithm separates the sou...

  7. The opportunity for international ophthalmology in treating blindness.

    OpenAIRE

    Spivey, B

    2001-01-01

    As our worldview has become more pervasive, there has been a maturation of various international ophthalmological organizations. They have created several new initiatives that have the potential to dramatically affect preventable and treatable blindness, worldwide. The first international ophthalmological organization (the International Council of Ophthalmology, established in 1927) evolved from the longest continuously held medical meeting in the world (the International Congress of Ophthalm...

  8. Fluorescence blind structured illumination microscopy: a new reconstruction strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Labouesse, S.; Allain, Marc; Idier, J.; Bourguignon, S.; Negash, A.; Liu, P.; Sentenac, A.

    2016-01-01

    International audience In this communication, a fast reconstruction algorithm is proposed for fluorescence blind structured illumination mi-croscopy (SIM) under the sample positivity constraint. This new algorithm is by far simpler and faster than existing solutions , paving the way to 3D and real-time 2D reconstruction.

  9. Audiotactile temporal order judgments in sighted and blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, we examined the potential modulatory effect of relative spatial position on audiotactile temporal order judgments (TOJs) in sighted, early, and late blind adults. Pairs of auditory and tactile stimuli were presented from the left and/or right of participants at varying stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) using the method of constant stimuli. The participants had to make unspeeded TOJs regarding which sensory modality had been presented first on each trial. Systematic differences between the participants emerged: While the performance of the sighted participants was unaffected by whether the two stimuli were presented from the same or different positions (replicating the results of several recent studies), the blind participants (regardless of the age of onset of blindness) were significantly more accurate when the auditory and tactile stimuli were presented from different positions rather than from the same position. These results provide the first empirical evidence to suggest a spatial modulation of audiotactile interactions in a temporal task performed by visually impaired humans. The fact that the performance of the blind participants was modulated by the relative spatial position of the stimuli is consistent with data showing that visual deprivation results in an improved ability to process spatial cues within the residual tactile and auditory modalities. These results support the hypothesis that the absence of visual cues results in the emergence of more pronounced audiotactile spatial interactions. PMID:18603271

  10. Teaching Life Sciences to Blind and Visually Impaired Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, William John; Maguvhe, Mbulaheni Obert

    2008-01-01

    This study reports on the teaching of life sciences (biology) to blind and visually impaired learners in South Africa at 11 special schools with specific reference to the development of science process skills in outcomes-based classrooms. Individual structured interviews were conducted with nine science educators teaching at the different special…

  11. Economic Aspects of Blindness and Low Vision: A New Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, C.

    1995-01-01

    This discussion of theoretical perspectives on disability's economic aspects urges development of better measures of productive activity by persons with blindness in paid and unpaid work; considers other personal characteristics that may account for dependence, such as old age or illness; and suggests that some costs are created by social…

  12. AAV Gene Therapy for MPS1-associated Corneal Blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, Melisa; Llanga, Telmo; Bennett, Will; Woodard, Kenton; Murlidharan, Giridhar; Chungfat, Neil; Asokan, Aravind; Gilger, Brian; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Samulski, R Jude; Hirsch, Matthew L

    2016-01-01

    Although cord blood transplantation has significantly extended the lifespan of mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS1) patients, over 95% manifest cornea clouding with about 50% progressing to blindness. As corneal transplants are met with high rejection rates in MPS1 children, there remains no treatment to prevent blindness or restore vision in MPS1 children. Since MPS1 is caused by mutations in idua, which encodes alpha-L-iduronidase, a gene addition strategy to prevent, and potentially reverse, MPS1-associated corneal blindness was investigated. Initially, a codon optimized idua cDNA expression cassette (opt-IDUA) was validated for IDUA production and function following adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector transduction of MPS1 patient fibroblasts. Then, an AAV serotype evaluation in human cornea explants identified an AAV8 and 9 chimeric capsid (8G9) as most efficient for transduction. AAV8G9-opt-IDUA administered to human corneas via intrastromal injection demonstrated widespread transduction, which included cells that naturally produce IDUA, and resulted in a >10-fold supraphysiological increase in IDUA activity. No significant apoptosis related to AAV vectors or IDUA was observed under any conditions in both human corneas and MPS1 patient fibroblasts. The collective preclinical data demonstrate safe and efficient IDUA delivery to human corneas, which may prevent and potentially reverse MPS1-associated cornea blindness. PMID:26899286

  13. A case of spider phobia in a congenitally blind person.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, Frauke; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana; Sülzenbrück, Sandra; Miltner, Wolfgang H R

    2007-09-30

    Vision is the key sensory system in humans, leading to the implicit assumption that the acquisition of spider phobia is predominantly mediated through the visual pathway. We report on a congenitally blind person with spider phobia, showing that the acquisition of spider phobia does not necessarily depend on visual cues. PMID:17597227

  14. A Lattice-Based Identity-Based Proxy Blind Signature Scheme in the Standard Model

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A proxy blind signature scheme is a special form of blind signature which allowed a designated person called proxy signer to sign on behalf of original signers without knowing the content of the message. It combines the advantages of proxy signature and blind signature. Up to date, most proxy blind signature schemes rely on hard number theory problems, discrete logarithm, and bilinear pairings. Unfortunately, the above underlying number theory problems will be solvable in the postquantum era....

  15. Performance of Daylight Redirecting Venetian Blinds for Sidelighted Spaces at High Latitudes

    OpenAIRE

    Kolås, Tore

    2013-01-01

    The main topic of this thesis is daylight in buildings. More specifically, the thesis presents studies on the performance characteristics of venetian blinds used on the interior side of vertical windows. A particular emphasis is put on the daylighting properties of different blind types, and the performance of daylight redirecting blinds is compared to the performance of traditional white blinds.Three factors are highly important for daylight in buildings: the daylight source, the optical pro...

  16. A New Partially Blind Signature Based on Factoring and Discrete Logarithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M.F. Tahat

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Partially blind signatures played an important role in many electronic commerce applications. Many existing partially blind signature scheme based on a single hard problem but not secure. In this study, we propose a secure partially blind signature scheme based on factoring and discrete logarithms and show that the proposed scheme satisfies the partial blindness, randomization, unlinkability and unforgeability properties. We also analyse the computation cost of the proposed scheme.

  17. Change blindness in pigeons (Columba livia): the effects of change salience and timing

    OpenAIRE

    Herbranson, Walter T

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, with ...

  18. Change Blindness in Pigeons (Columba livia): the Effects of Change Salience and Timing

    OpenAIRE

    Walter Troy Herbranson

    2015-01-01

    Change blindness is a well-established phenomenon in humans, in which plainly visible changes in the environment go unnoticed. Recently a parallel change blindness phenomenon has been demonstrated in pigeons. The reported experiment follows up on this finding by investigating whether change salience affects change blindness in pigeons the same way it affects change blindness in humans. Birds viewed alternating displays of randomly generated lines back-projected onto three response keys, wi...

  19. 45 CFR 1308.13 - Eligibility criteria: Visual impairment including blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... blindness. 1308.13 Section 1308.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE... impairment including blindness. (a) A child is classified as visually impaired when visual impairment, with.... A child is visually impaired if: (1) The vision loss meets the definition of legal blindness in...

  20. Failure to Detect Deaf-Blindness in a Population of People with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellinger, J.; Holzinger, D.; Dirmhirn, A.; van Dijk, J.; Goldberg, D.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Early identification of deaf-blindness is essential to ensure appropriate management. Previous studies indicate that deaf-blindness is often missed. We aim to discover the extent to which deaf-blindness in people with intellectual disability (ID) is undiagnosed. Method: A survey was made of the 253 residents of an institute offering…

  1. 20 CFR 404.1503 - Who makes disability and blindness determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who makes disability and blindness..., SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Determinations § 404.1503 Who makes disability and blindness determinations. (a) State agencies. State agencies make...

  2. 20 CFR 416.1331 - Termination of your disability or blindness payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of your disability or blindness... your disability or blindness payments. (a) General. The last month for which we can pay you benefits based on disability or blindness is the second month after the month in which your disability...

  3. Prevalence of increases in functional connectivity in visual, somatosensory and language areas in congenital blindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heine, Lizette; Bahri, Mohamed A; Cavaliere, Carlo;

    2015-01-01

    There is ample evidence that congenitally blind individuals rely more strongly on non-visual information compared to sighted controls when interacting with the outside world. Although brain imaging studies indicate that congenitally blind individuals recruit occipital areas when performing various......-modal reorganization in the brain and the supra-modal function of the occipital cortex in congenitally blind individuals....

  4. Motion-Dependent Filling-In of Spatiotemporal Information at the Blind Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maus, Gerrit W.; Whitney, David

    2016-01-01

    We usually do not notice the blind spot, a receptor-free region on the retina. Stimuli extending through the blind spot appear filled in. However, if an object does not reach through but ends in the blind spot, it is perceived as “cut off” at the boundary. Here we show that even when there is no corresponding stimulation at opposing edges of the blind spot, well known motion-induced position shifts also extend into the blind spot and elicit a dynamic filling-in process that allows spatial structure to be extrapolated into the blind spot. We presented observers with sinusoidal gratings that drifted into or out of the blind spot, or flickered in counterphase. Gratings moving into the blind spot were perceived to be longer than those moving out of the blind spot or flickering, revealing motion-dependent filling-in. Further, observers could perceive more of a grating’s spatial structure inside the blind spot than would be predicted from simple filling-in of luminance information from the blind spot edge. This is evidence for a dynamic filling-in process that uses spatiotemporal information from the motion system to extrapolate visual percepts into the scotoma of the blind spot. Our findings also provide further support for the notion that an explicit spatial shift of topographic representations contributes to motion-induced position illusions. PMID:27100795

  5. Blindness incidence in Germany - A population-based study from Württemberg-Hohenzollern

    OpenAIRE

    Krumpaszky, H. G.; Lüdtke, R; Mickler, A.; Klauss, V.; Selbmann, H. K.

    1999-01-01

    Few data on the incidence of blindness in Germany are available. We analysed causes of legal blindness for the region Württemberg-Hohenzollern (population 5.5 million) in order to help fill in this gap. Material and Methods: Population-based investigation on the incidence of legal blindness (visual acuity

  6. Blindness and eye diseases in Tibet: findings from a randomised, population based survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dunzhu, S; Wang, F S; Courtright, P; Liu, L; Tenzing, C; Noertjojo, K; WILKIE, A; Santangelo, M.; Bassett, K L

    2003-01-01

    Background: Public health officials of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) of China requested a survey of blindness, eye diseases, and eye care service utilisation to assist the development of a 10 year blindness prevention and treatment plan. The objective of the survey was to determine the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment, as well as cataract surgical coverage and surgical outcome in the TAR.

  7. Blind and semi-blind ML detection for space-time block-coded OFDM wireless systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zaib, Alam

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the joint maximum likelihood (ML) data detection and channel estimation problem for Alamouti space-time block-coded (STBC) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) wireless systems. The joint ML estimation and data detection is generally considered a hard combinatorial optimization problem. We propose an efficient low-complexity algorithm based on branch-estimate-bound strategy that renders exact joint ML solution. However, the computational complexity of blind algorithm becomes critical at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as the number of OFDM carriers and constellation size are increased especially in multiple-antenna systems. To overcome this problem, a semi-blind algorithm based on a new framework for reducing the complexity is proposed by relying on subcarrier reordering and decoding the carriers with different levels of confidence using a suitable reliability criterion. In addition, it is shown that by utilizing the inherent structure of Alamouti coding, the estimation performance improvement or the complexity reduction can be achieved. The proposed algorithms can reliably track the wireless Rayleigh fading channel without requiring any channel statistics. Simulation results presented against the perfect coherent detection demonstrate the effectiveness of blind and semi-blind algorithms over frequency-selective channels with different fading characteristics.

  8. Nasa Unveils Cosmic Images Book in Braille for Blind Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    BALTIMORE - At a Tuesday ceremony at the National Federation of the Blind, NASA unveiled a new book that brings majestic images taken by its Great Observatories to the fingertips of the blind. "Touch the Invisible Sky" is a 60-page book with color images of nebulae, stars, galaxies and some of the telescopes that captured the original pictures. Each image is embossed with lines, bumps and other textures. These raised patterns translate colors, shapes and other intricate details of the cosmic objects, allowing visually impaired people to experience them. Braille and large-print descriptions accompany each of the book's 28 photographs, making the book's design accessible to readers of all visual abilities. Sample page Sample page The book contains spectacular images from the Hubble Space Telescope, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Spitzer Space Telescope and powerful ground-based telescopes. The celestial objects are presented as they appear through visible-light telescopes and different spectral regions invisible to the naked eye, from radio to infrared, visible, ultraviolet and X-ray light. The book introduces the concept of light and the spectrum and explains how the different observatories complement each others' findings. Readers take a cosmic journey beginning with images of the sun, and travel out into the galaxy to visit relics of exploding and dying stars, as well as the Whirlpool galaxy and colliding Antennae galaxies. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Action Replay of Powerful Stellar Explosion Black Holes Are The Rhythm at The Heart of Galaxies "Touch the Invisible Sky" was written by astronomy educator and accessibility specialist Noreen Grice of You Can Do Astronomy LLC and the Museum of Science, Boston, with authors Simon Steel, an astronomer with the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., and Doris Daou, an astronomer

  9. Causes of childhood blindness in the People's Republic of China: results from 1131 blind school students in 18 provinces

    OpenAIRE

    Hornby, S; Xiao, Y; Gilbert, C.; Foster, A.; Wang, X.; Liang, X; Jing, H.; Wang, L.; Min, W; Y. Shi; Li, Y.

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To determine the anatomical site and underlying causes of blindness and severe visual impairment in children under 16 years of age in special education in the People's Republic of China with a view to determining potentially preventable and treatable causes.
METHODS—A national study of children attending schools for the blind in China was conducted between April and June 1998 using the WHO Prevention of Blindness Programme (WHO/PBL) eye examination record for children with blindness and ...

  10. Semi-blind image restoration via Mumford-Shah regularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar, Leah; Sochen, Nir; Kiryati, Nahum

    2006-02-01

    Image restoration and segmentation are both classical problems, that are known to be difficult and have attracted major research efforts. This paper shows that the two problems are tightly coupled and can be successfully solved together. Mutual support of image restoration and segmentation processes within a joint variational framework is theoretically motivated, and validated by successful experimental results. The proposed variational method integrates semi-blind image deconvolution (parametric blur-kernel), and Mumford-Shah segmentation. The functional is formulated using the T-convergence approximation and is iteratively optimized via the alternate minimization method. While the major novelty of this work is in the unified treatment of the semi-blind restoration and segmentation problems, the important special case of known blur is also considered and promising results are obtained. PMID:16479818

  11. New framework for using image contents in blind steganalysis systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirkhani, Hossein; Rahmati, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Although current blind image steganalysis systems utilize a wide variety of features and classifiers, a common shortcoming in all of them is that they almost have similar processes for all images and they do not take advantage of the content diversity of different images. In this paper, a new framework is proposed that enables us to employ the content of images in these systems. All blind image steganalysis methods can be adapted to the proposed framework. In the training phase of our framework, the input images are first divided into classes according to an image content evaluation criterion and then the training process is specialized for each class. In the testing phase, a fuzzy approach is used to include different classes in the decision making process. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed framework significantly enhance the detection accuracy of these systems.

  12. Night blindness in a teenager with cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Roddy, Marie Frances

    2011-12-01

    This article describes the case of a 16-year-old boy with cystic fibrosis who presented with difficulty seeing in the dark. He had a history of bowel surgery at birth, and he developed cystic fibrosis liver disease and osteopenia during his teenage years. He always had good lung function. When his serum vitamin A level was checked, it was undetectable in sample. He was diagnosed with night blindness and commenced on high-dose vitamin A. His symptoms resolved within 3 days. However, it took over 1 year for his vitamin A level to return to normal. This case emphasizes the importance of monitoring vitamin levels in cystic fibrosis to detect deficiency and prevent long-term consequences, and it highlights the challenges encountered during the course of night blindness treatment.

  13. Visual imagery without visual perception: lessons from blind subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bértolo, Helder

    2014-08-01

    The question regarding visual imagery and visual perception remain an open issue. Many studies have tried to understand if the two processes share the same mechanisms or if they are independent, using different neural substrates. Most research has been directed towards the need of activation of primary visual areas during imagery. Here we review some of the works providing evidence for both claims. It seems that studying visual imagery in blind subjects can be used as a way of answering some of those questions, namely if it is possible to have visual imagery without visual perception. We present results from the work of our group using visual activation in dreams and its relation with EEG's spectral components, showing that congenitally blind have visual contents in their dreams and are able to draw them; furthermore their Visual Activation Index is negatively correlated with EEG alpha power. This study supports the hypothesis that it is possible to have visual imagery without visual experience.

  14. Deriving Accessible Science Books for the Blind Students of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouroupetroglou, Georgios; Kacorri, Hernisa

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel integrated methodology for the development and production of accessible physics and science books from the elementary up to tertiary educational levels. This language independent approach adopts the Design-for-All principles, the available international standards for alternative formats and the Universal Design for Learning (UDL) Guidelines. Moreover it supports both static (embossed and refreshable tactile) and dynamic (based on synthetic speech and other sounds) accessibility. It can produce Tactile Books (Embossed Braille and Tactile Graphics), Digital Talking Books (or Digital Audio Books), Large Print Books as well as Acoustic-Tactile Books for the blind and visually impaired students as well as but for the print-disabled. This methodology has been successfully applied in the case of blind students of the Physics, Mathematics and Informatics Departments in the University of Athens.

  15. Quantum blind dual-signature scheme without arbitrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Shi, Ronghua; Huang, Dazu; Shi, Jinjing; Guo, Ying

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the elegant features of a bind signature, we suggest the design of a quantum blind dual-signature scheme with three phases, i.e., initial phase, signing phase and verification phase. Different from conventional schemes, legal messages are signed not only by the blind signatory but also by the sender in the signing phase. It does not rely much on an arbitrator in the verification phase as the previous quantum signature schemes usually do. The security is guaranteed by entanglement in quantum information processing. Security analysis demonstrates that the signature can be neither forged nor disavowed by illegal participants or attacker. It provides a potential application for e-commerce or e-payment systems with the current technology.

  16. Blind Deconvolution of Seismic Data Using f-Divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new approach to the seismic blind deconvolution problem in the case of band-limited seismic data characterized by low dominant frequency and short data records, based on Csiszár’s f-divergence. In order to model the probability density function of the deconvolved data, and obtain the closed form formula of Csiszár’s f-divergence, mixture Jones’ family of distributions (MJ is introduced, by which a new criterion for blind deconvolution is constructed. By applying Neidell’s wavelet model to the inverse filter, we then make the optimization program for multivariate reduce to univariate case. Examples are provided showing the good performance of the method, even in low SNR situations.

  17. A Joint Optimization Criterion for Blind DS-CDMA Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A. Cruces-Alvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of the blind detection of a desired user in an asynchronous DS-CDMA communications system with multipath propagation channels. Starting from the inverse filter criterion introduced by Tugnait and Li in 2001, we propose to tackle the problem in the context of the blind signal extraction methods for ICA. In order to improve the performance of the detector, we present a criterion based on the joint optimization of several higher-order statistics of the outputs. An algorithm that optimizes the proposed criterion is described, and its improved performance and robustness with respect to the near-far problem are corroborated through simulations. Additionally, a simulation using measurements on a real software-radio platform at 5 GHz has also been performed.

  18. S-K Smartphone Barcode Reader for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Ender; Vásquez, David; Coughlan, James M.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a new smartphone app called BLaDE (Barcode Localization and Decoding Engine), designed to enable a blind or visually impaired user find and read product barcodes. Developed at The Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, the BLaDE Android app has been released as open source software, which can be used for free or modified for commercial or non-commercial use. Unlike popular commercial smartphone apps, BLaDE provides real-time audio feedback to help visually impaired users locate a barcode, which is a prerequisite to being able to read it. We describe experiments performed with five blind/visually impaired volunteer participants demonstrating that BLaDE is usable and that the audio feedback is key to its usability. PMID:25602592

  19. Adaptive Time-Domain Blind Separation of Speech Signals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Málek, J.; Koldovský, Zbyněk; Tichavský, Petr

    Vol. 6365. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, 2010 - (Gavrilova, M.; Kumar, V.; Mun, Y.; Tan, C.; Gervasi, O.), s. 9-16 ISBN 978-3-642-15994-7. [Latent Variable Analysis and Signal Separation. St. Malo (FR), 27.09.2010-30.09.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GA102/09/1278 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/0707 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : blind source separation * speech * convolutive mixture * adaptive algorithms Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/SI/tichavsky-adaptive time-domain blind separation of speech signals.pdf

  20. Blind source separation advances in theory, algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wenwu

    2014-01-01

    Blind Source Separation intends to report the new results of the efforts on the study of Blind Source Separation (BSS). The book collects novel research ideas and some training in BSS, independent component analysis (ICA), artificial intelligence and signal processing applications. Furthermore, the research results previously scattered in many journals and conferences worldwide are methodically edited and presented in a unified form. The book is likely to be of interest to university researchers, R&D engineers and graduate students in computer science and electronics who wish to learn the core principles, methods, algorithms, and applications of BSS. Dr. Ganesh R. Naik works at University of Technology, Sydney, Australia; Dr. Wenwu Wang works at University of Surrey, UK.

  1. An alternating minimization method for blind deconvolution from Poisson data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind deconvolution is a particularly challenging inverse problem since information on both the desired target and the acquisition system have to be inferred from the measured data. When the collected data are affected by Poisson noise, this problem is typically addressed by the minimization of the Kullback-Leibler divergence, in which the unknowns are sought in particular feasible sets depending on the a priori information provided by the specific application. If these sets are separated, then the resulting constrained minimization problem can be addressed with an inexact alternating strategy. In this paper we apply this optimization tool to the problem of reconstructing astronomical images from adaptive optics systems, and we show that the proposed approach succeeds in providing very good results in the blind deconvolution of nondense stellar clusters

  2. The blind spot: re-educating ourselves about visual images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, N.; Donnelly, K. M.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2004-05-01

    A simple blind spot activity has been devised to help students discard misconceptions about image formation by lenses. Our hands-on experiment, in which students determine the location and size of their blind spots, is suitable for various age groups at different educational levels. The activity provides an opportunity to teach students how to measure objects indirectly using triangles and encourages them to think about the number of measurements needed to gain confidence in a value. It also gives teachers another interesting experiment in which to discuss the nature of uncertainties and how to deal with them. Student responses to the activity, performed with pre-engineering students and non-science majors, are discussed.

  3. Robust Blind Adaptive Channel Equalization in Chaotic Communication Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-Shu

    2006-01-01

    Based on the bounded property and statistics of chaotic signal and the idea of set-membership identification,we propose a set-membership generalized least mean square (SM-GLMS) algorithm with variable step size for blind adaptive channel equalization in chaotic communication systems. The steady state performance of the proposed SM-GLMS algorithm is analysed, and comparison with an extended Kalman filter (EKF)-based adaptive algorithm and variable gain least mean square (VG-LMS) algorithm is performed for blind adaptive channel equalization. Simulations show that the proposed SM-GLMS algorithm can provide more significant steady state performance improvement than the EKF-based adaptive algorithm and VG-LMS algorithm.

  4. Robust and Blind Watermarking of Relational Database Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Al-Haj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Digital multimedia watermarking technology was suggested in the last decade to embed copyright information in digital objects such images, audio and video. However, the increasing use of relational database systems in many real-life applications created an ever increasing need for watermarking database systems. As a result, watermarking relational database systems is now merging as a research area that deals with the legal issue of copyright protection of database systems. Approach: In this study, we proposed an efficient database watermarking algorithm based on inserting binary image watermarks in non-numeric mutli-word attributes of selected database tuples. Results: The algorithm is robust as it resists attempts to remove or degrade the embedded watermark and it is blind as it does not require the original database in order to extract the embedded watermark. Conclusion: Experimental results demonstrated blindness and the robustness of the algorithm against common database attacks.

  5. Mobility and orientation aid for blind persons using artificial vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blind or vision-impaired persons are limited in their normal life activities. Mobility and orientation of blind persons is an ever-present research subject because no total solution has yet been reached for these activities that pose certain risks for the affected persons. The current work presents the design and development of a device conceived on capturing environment information through stereoscopic vision. The images captured by a couple of video cameras are transferred and processed by configurable and sequential FPGA and DSP devices that issue action signals to a tactile feedback system. Optimal processing algorithms are implemented to perform this feedback in real time. The components selected permit portability; that is, to readily get used to wearing the device

  6. SENSES OF DARKNESS: AN EXPLORATION OF BLIND NAVIGATION THROUGH ARCHITECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Wojno, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Based on the principle of sequential lessons for teaching orienteering, the program is a center that teaches navigation to people who are blind, located in the remains of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal in Harpers Ferry, West Virginia. Through the use of materials, light, and this program of sequential patterns, the architecture focuses on heightening the working senses of the occupants using the progression throughout the building. This connection of the body and mind to architecture creates a...

  7. Blind detection of duplicate regions in digital images

    OpenAIRE

    Čargo, Boštjan

    2009-01-01

    This work refers to the research area of digital image processing. Its main purpose is to elucidate the field of automatic digital forgery detection and, within its scope, describe a particular algorithm for blind detection of duplicated image regions: the so-called Duplicate Region Detector (DRD). The algorithm is based on principal component analysis, reduction of image blocks representations, and their lexicographical comparison. Our java implementation was tested on a population with posi...

  8. Blind Deconvolution with Non-local Sparsity Reweighting

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnan, Dilip; Bruna, Joan; Fergus, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Blind deconvolution has made significant progress in the past decade. Most successful algorithms are classified either as Variational or Maximum a-Posteriori ($MAP$). In spite of the superior theoretical justification of variational techniques, carefully constructed $MAP$ algorithms have proven equally effective in practice. In this paper, we show that all successful $MAP$ and variational algorithms share a common framework, relying on the following key principles: sparsity promotion in the g...

  9. The Role of Memory Processes in Repetition Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, James C.; Hochhaus, Larry; Null, Cynthia H. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    We investigated whether Repetition Blindness (RB) in processing RSVP strings depends critically on memory demands. When all items in the sequence had to be reported, strong RB was found. When only the 2 critical items (cued by color) had to be reported, no RB was found. Preliminary results show that imposing a separate memory load, while reporting only the critical items, also produces little RB. Implications for the processing locus of RB will be discussed.

  10. Attentional influences on the dynamics of motion-induced blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Scholvinck, M. L.; Rees, G.

    2009-01-01

    Motion-induced blindness (MIB) is a visual phenomenon in which a highly salient, peripheral, visual target spontaneously disappears from visual awareness (and subsequently reappears) when superimposed on a globally moving background of distracters. Here, we investigated the influence of attention on these fluctuations in perception in two experiments. In the first experiment, directing spatial attention to the MIB target (and thus away from the distracters) led to an increased probability of ...

  11. Blind Source Parameters for Performance Evaluation of Despeckling Filters

    OpenAIRE

    Nagashettappa Biradar; Dewal, M. L.; ManojKumar Rohit; Sanjaykumar Gowre; Yogesh Gundge

    2016-01-01

    The speckle noise is inherent to transthoracic echocardiographic images. A standard noise-free reference echocardiographic image does not exist. The evaluation of filters based on the traditional parameters such as peak signal-to-noise ratio, mean square error, and structural similarity index may not reflect the true filter performance on echocardiographic images. Therefore, the performance of despeckling can be evaluated using blind assessment metrics like the speckle suppression index, spec...

  12. A bibliography on blind methods for identifying image forgery

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saic, Stanislav; Mahdian, Babak

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 6 (2010), s. 389-399. ISSN 0923-5965 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/0470 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Image forensics * Digital forgery * Image tampering * Blind forgery detection * Multimedia security Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 1.186, year: 2010 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/ZOI/saic-0346813.pdf

  13. Blind bedside insertion of small bowel feeding tubes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duggan, SN

    2009-12-01

    The use of Naso-Jejunal (NJ) feeding is limited by difficulty in feeding tube placement. Patients have traditionally required transfer to Endoscopy or Radiology for insertion of small bowel feeding tubes, with clear resource implications. We hypothesised that the adoption of a simple bedside procedure would be effective and reduce cost. Clinical nutrition and nurse specialist personnel were trained in the 10\\/10\\/10 method of blind bedside NJ insertion.

  14. Robust Multichannel Blind Deconvolution via Fast Alternating Minimization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šroubek, Filip; Milanfar, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 4 (2012), s. 1687-1700. ISSN 1057-7149 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572; GA ČR GAP103/11/1552; GA MV VG20102013064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : blind deconvolution * augmented Lagrangian * sparse representation Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.199, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/sroubek-0376080.pdf

  15. Brain Plasticity in Blind Subjects Centralizes Beyond the Modal Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Terán, Laura; Ortiz, Tomás; Perez, David L.; Aragón, Jose Ignacio; Diez, Ibai; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Sepulcre, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the human brain reorganizes following sensory deprivations. In blind individuals, visual processing regions including the lateral occipital cortex (LOC) are activated by auditory and tactile stimuli as demonstrated by neurophysiological and neuroimaging investigations. The mechanisms for such plasticity remain unclear, but shifts in connectivity across existing neural networks appear to play a critical role. The majority of research efforts to date have focused on neuroplastic changes within visual unimodal regions, however we hypothesized that neuroplastic alterations may also occur in brain networks beyond the visual cortices including involvement of multimodal integration regions and heteromodal cortices. In this study, two recently developed graph-theory based functional connectivity analyses, interconnector analyses and local and distant connectivity, were applied to investigate functional reorganization in regional and distributed neural-systems in late-onset blind (LB) and congenitally blind (CB) cohorts each compared to their own group of sighted controls. While functional network alterations as measured by the degree of differential links (DDL) occurred in sensory cortices, neuroplastic changes were most prominent within multimodal and association cortices. Subjects with LB showed enhanced multimodal integration connections in the parieto-opercular, temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and ventral premotor (vPM) regions, while CB individuals exhibited increased superior parietal cortex (SPC) connections. This study reveals the critical role of recipient multi-sensory integration areas in network reorganization and cross-modal plasticity in blind individuals. These findings suggest that aspects of cross-modal neuroplasticity and adaptive sensory-motor and auditory functions may potentially occur through reorganization in multimodal integration regions. PMID:27458350

  16. An Ecopsychological Perspective on Sustainability: The BlindSpot

    OpenAIRE

    Lori Pye

    2014-01-01

    As the 2015 deadline for the United Nation’s Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) approaches many of the goals and objectives for education, the development agenda andsustainability have not and will not be met.This suggests something is not working – there is a blind spot.The inability to achieve sustainability is based upon much deeper humannarratives and behaviors that drive destructive practices: gender exclusion and violence toward women areamong these two core drivers. An ecopsychologica...

  17. Sparsity and Morphological Diversity in Blind Source Separation

    OpenAIRE

    Bobin, Jérome; Starck, Jean-Luc; Fadili, Jalal M.; Moudden, Yassir

    2007-01-01

    Over the last few years, the development of multichannel sensors motivated interest in methods for the coherent processing of multivariate data. Some specific issues have already been addressed as testified by the wide literature on the so-caIled blind source separation (BSS) problem. In this context, as clearly emphasized by previous work, it is fundamental that the sources to be retrieved present some quantitatively measurable diversity. Recently, sparsity and morphological diversity have e...

  18. Blind Verification of Digital Image Originality: A Statistical Approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahdian, Babak; Nedbal, R.; Saic, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 9 (2013), s. 1531-1540. ISSN 1556-6013 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102013064; GA ČR GA13-28462S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : blind verification * image extraction * camera fingerprints Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software Impact factor: 2.065, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/ZOI/mahdian-0398095.pdf

  19. Brain Plasticity in Blind Subjects Centralizes Beyond the Modal Cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Terán, Laura; Ortiz, Tomás; Perez, David L; Aragón, Jose Ignacio; Diez, Ibai; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Sepulcre, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that the human brain reorganizes following sensory deprivations. In blind individuals, visual processing regions including the lateral occipital cortex (LOC) are activated by auditory and tactile stimuli as demonstrated by neurophysiological and neuroimaging investigations. The mechanisms for such plasticity remain unclear, but shifts in connectivity across existing neural networks appear to play a critical role. The majority of research efforts to date have focused on neuroplastic changes within visual unimodal regions, however we hypothesized that neuroplastic alterations may also occur in brain networks beyond the visual cortices including involvement of multimodal integration regions and heteromodal cortices. In this study, two recently developed graph-theory based functional connectivity analyses, interconnector analyses and local and distant connectivity, were applied to investigate functional reorganization in regional and distributed neural-systems in late-onset blind (LB) and congenitally blind (CB) cohorts each compared to their own group of sighted controls. While functional network alterations as measured by the degree of differential links (DDL) occurred in sensory cortices, neuroplastic changes were most prominent within multimodal and association cortices. Subjects with LB showed enhanced multimodal integration connections in the parieto-opercular, temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and ventral premotor (vPM) regions, while CB individuals exhibited increased superior parietal cortex (SPC) connections. This study reveals the critical role of recipient multi-sensory integration areas in network reorganization and cross-modal plasticity in blind individuals. These findings suggest that aspects of cross-modal neuroplasticity and adaptive sensory-motor and auditory functions may potentially occur through reorganization in multimodal integration regions. PMID:27458350

  20. Visual navigation for the blind: path and obstacle detection

    OpenAIRE

    José, João; Rodrigues, J. M. F.; du Buf, J. M. H.

    2012-01-01

    We present a real-time vision system to assist blind and visually impaired persons. This system complements the white cane, and it can be used both indoor and outdoor. It detects borders of paths and corridors, obstacles within the borders, and it provides guidance for centering and obstacle avoidance. Typical obstacles are backpacks, trash cans, trees, light poles, holes, branches, stones and other objects at a distance of 2 to 5 meters from the camera position. Walkable paths ar...

  1. The Path of the Blind Watchmaker: A Model of Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Poggio, Andrew Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Evolution has been described by Richard Dawkins as a blind watchmaker due to its being unconscious and random but selective and able to produce complex forms. Evolution from an early, primitive organism (the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all life, LUCA) to Homo sapiens is the most dramatic biological process that has taken place on Earth and knowledge of it is important to understanding many aspects of biology including disease prevention and treatment.We claim that computational biology ...

  2. Rapid, Robust, and Reliable Blind Deconvolution via Nonconvex Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xiaodong; Ling, Shuyang; Strohmer, Thomas; Wei, Ke

    2016-01-01

    We study the question of reconstructing two signals $f$ and $g$ from their convolution $y = f\\ast g$. This problem, known as {\\em blind deconvolution}, pervades many areas of science and technology, including astronomy, medical imaging, optics, and wireless communications. A key challenge of this intricate non-convex optimization problem is that it might exhibit many local minima. We present an efficient numerical algorithm that is guaranteed to recover the exact solution, when the number of ...

  3. Broadband Venetian-Blind Polarizer With Dual Vanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Bruce L.; Hoppe, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Improved venetian-blind polarizer features optimized tandem, two-layer vane configuration reducing undesired reflections and deformation of radiation pattern below those of prior single-layer vane configuration. Consists of number of thin, parallel metal strips placed in path of propagating radio-frequency beam. Offers simple way to convert polarization from linear to circular or from circular to linear. Particularly useful for beam-wave-guide applications.

  4. Aspartame Sensitivity? A Double Blind Randomised Crossover Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Thatcher, Natalie J.; Hammersley, Richard; Rigby, Alan S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Gooderham, Nigel J; Holmes, Elaine; le Roux, Carel W.; Stephen L. Atkin; Courts, Fraser

    2015-01-01

    Background Aspartame is a commonly used intense artificial sweetener, being approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. There have been concerns over aspartame since approval in the 1980s including a large anecdotal database reporting severe symptoms. The objective of this study was to compare the acute symptom effects of aspartame to a control preparation. Methods This was a double-blind randomized cross over study conducted in a clinical research unit in United Kingdom. Forty-eight indivi...

  5. Blind Detection of Severely Blurred 1D Barcode

    OpenAIRE

    Dridi, Noura; Delignon, Yves; Sawaya, Wadih; Septier, François

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present a joint blind channel estimation and symbol detection for decoding a blurred and noisy 1D barcode captured image. From an information transmission point of view, we show that the channel impulse response, the noise power and the symbols can be efficiently estimated by taking into account the signal structure such as the cyclostationary property of the hidden Markov process to estimate. Based on the Expectation-Maximisation method, we show that the new algorithm offer...

  6. Malthus redux, and still blind in the same eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Don

    2016-01-01

    Gowdy & Krall (G&K) essentially recapitulate Malthus's classic argument for ecological pessimism in modern biological dress. Their reasoning also reproduces Malthus's blindness to the implications of technological innovation. Agriculture might have suppressed human individualism as G&K insist, but technology has tended to foster it. This complicates human ecological prospects in a non-Malthusian way, and it might additionally provide the resources for deliverance from disaster. PMID:27562123

  7. Blind Analysis of CT Image Noise Using Residual Denoised Images

    OpenAIRE

    Roychowdhury, Sohini; Hollraft, Nathan; Alessio, Adam

    2016-01-01

    CT protocol design and quality control would benefit from automated tools to estimate the quality of generated CT images. These tools could be used to identify erroneous CT acquisitions or refine protocols to achieve certain signal to noise characteristics. This paper investigates blind estimation methods to determine global signal strength and noise levels in chest CT images. Methods: We propose novel performance metrics corresponding to the accuracy of noise and signal estimation. We implem...

  8. Underdetermined Blind Audio Source Separation Using Modal Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Abdeldjalil Aïssa-El-Bey; Karim Abed-Meraim; Yves Grenier

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces new algorithms for the blind separation of audio sources using modal decomposition. Indeed, audio signals and, in particular, musical signals can be well approximated by a sum of damped sinusoidal (modal) components. Based on this representation, we propose a two-step approach consisting of a signal analysis (extraction of the modal components) followed by a signal synthesis (grouping of the components belonging to the same source) using vector clustering. For the signa...

  9. Adaptive blind source separation with HRTFs beamforming preprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Maazaoui, Mounira; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Grenier, Yves

    2012-01-01

    We propose an adaptive blind source separation algorithm in the context of robot audition using a microphone array. Our algorithm presents two steps: a fixed beamforming step to reduce the reverberation and the background noise and a source separation step. In the fixed beamforming preprocessing, we build the beamforming filters using the Head Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) which allows us to take into consideration the effect of the robot's head on the near acoustic field. In the source ...

  10. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Abed-Meraim Karim; Kacha Ibrahim; Belouchrani Adel

    2006-01-01

    We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR) systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance mat...

  11. Blind river dolphin: first side-swimming cetacean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, E S; Brownell, R L; Frye, F L; Morris, E J; Evans, W E; Scott, A B

    1969-12-12

    The blind river dolphin (Platanista gangetica), first written about by Pliny the Elder in A.D. 72, was found (10 November 1968) to be the first known side-swimming cetacean. The rudimentary eye lacks the lens, but anatomical evidence suggests that the eye may serve as a light sensor. The underwater sound emissions of this species, although similar to those of the Amazon River dolphin (Inia geoffrensis), appear to be produced constantly. PMID:5350341

  12. Encoding audio motion: spatial impairment in early blind individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Finocchietti, Sara; Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The consequence of blindness on auditory spatial localization has been an interesting issue of research in the last decade providing mixed results. Enhanced auditory spatial skills in individuals with visual impairment have been reported by multiple studies, while some aspects of spatial hearing seem to be impaired in the absence of vision. In this study, the ability to encode the trajectory of a 2-dimensional sound motion, reproducing the complete movement, and reaching the correct end-point...

  13. Blind image separation based on exponentiated transmuted Weibull distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, A. M.; Farouk, R. M.; El-aziz, M. E. Abd

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the processing of blind image separation has been investigated. As a result, a number of feature extraction algorithms for direct application of such image structures have been developed. For example, separation of mixed fingerprints found in any crime scene, in which a mixture of two or more fingerprints may be obtained, for identification, we have to separate them. In this paper, we have proposed a new technique for separating a multiple mixed images based on exponentiated t...

  14. Composable security of measuring-Alice blind quantum computation

    OpenAIRE

    Morimae, Tomoyuki; Koshiba, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Blind quantum computing [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposium on Foundations of Computer Science 517 (2009)] is a secure cloud quantum computing protocol which enables a client (who does not have enough quantum technology at her disposal) to delegate her quantum computation to a server (who has a universal quantum computer) without leaking any relevant information to the server. In [T. Morimae and K. Fujii, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf87}, 050301(R) ...

  15. Navigation for the Blind through Audio-Based Virtual Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, Jaime; Sáenz, Mauricio; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Merabet, Lotfi

    2010-01-01

    We present the design, development and an initial study changes and adaptations related to navigation that take place in the brain, by incorporating an Audio-Based Environments Simulator (AbES) within a neuroimaging environment. This virtual environment enables a blind user to navigate through a virtual representation of a real space in order to train his/her orientation and mobility skills. Our initial results suggest that this kind of virtual environment could be highly efficient as a testi...

  16. Double blind trial of bezafibrate in familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, K A; West, R J; Lloyd, J K; Barley, J.

    1985-01-01

    A six month, double blind, crossover controlled trial of bezafibrate was conducted in 14 children with familial hypercholesterolaemia all of whom had a strong family history of early coronary heart disease. The bezafibrate was given twice daily in a dose of 10 to 20 mg/kg/day. The mean plasma total cholesterol concentration on bezafibrate was 22% lower than during the period on placebo and there was a moderate rise in high density lipoprotein cholesterol. Bezafibrate may be a useful adjunct t...

  17. High-Fidelity Cataract Surgery Simulation and Third World Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Ajay; Strauss, Glenn H.

    2015-01-01

    The burden of global cataract blindness continues to rise, because the number of surgical ophthalmologists is insufficient, and they are unevenly distributed. There is an urgent need to train surgeons quickly and comprehensively in high-quality, low-cost cataract removal techniques. The authors suggest manual small-incision cataract surgery as a safe alternative to phacoemulsification cataract surgery in the developing world. They discuss the development of a novel, full-immersion, physics-ba...

  18. Bilateral blindness due to pterygium: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Richard I. Azonobi; Ezenwa Patrick Udoye; Alfred A. Onua

    2015-01-01

    Although known to cause refractive visual disturbances at some stages, pterygium rarely leads to blindness especially where eye care services are available. This case report presents a 56 year old farmer with advanced pterygia. She reported to the eye clinic after several years of unsuccessful self-medication and refusal to accept an earlier offer of surgical treatment due to fear of surgery. The patient subsequently had surgical excision of both pterygia with visual restoration. The importan...

  19. Gallium nitride nanoparticles for solar-blind detectors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dinesh Kabra; Kripasindhu Sardar; K S Narayan

    2003-10-01

    We investigate the properties of GaN semiconducting nanoparticles as a potential candidate for photodetection in the solar-blind region. The photocurrent spectral response is studied spanning the range 1.6-5.5 eV. A significant fraction of the response is in the range 4-5.5 eV. The results are compared to other optical properties and the origins of the features observed in the spectra are speculated upon.

  20. LWR surveillance dosimetry improvement program: PSF metallurgical blind test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metallurgical irradiation experiment at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor Poolside Facility (ORR-PSF) was designed as a benchmark to test the accuracy of radiation embrittlement predictions in the pressure vessel wall of light water reactors on the basis of results from surveillance capsules. The PSF metallurgical Blind Test is concerned with the simulated surveillance capsule (SSC) and the simulated pressure vessel capsule (SPVC). The data from the ORR-PSF benchmark experiment are the basis for comparison with the predictions made by participants of the metallurgical ''Blind Test''. The Blind Test required the participants to predict the embrittlement of the irradiated specimen based only on dosimetry and metallurgical data from the SSC1 capsule. This exercise included both the prediction of damage fluence and the prediction of embrittlement based on the predicted fluence. A variety of prediction methodologies was used by the participants. No glaring biases or other deficiencies were found, but neither were any of the methods clearly superior to the others. Closer analysis shows a rather complex and poorly understood relation between fluence and material damage. Many prediction formulas can give an adequate approximation, but further improvement of the prediction methodology is unlikely at this time given the many unknown factors. Instead, attention should be focused on determining realistic uncertainties for the predicted material changes. The Blind Test comparisons provide some clues for the size of these uncertainties. In particular, higher uncertainties must be assigned to materials whose chemical composition lies outside the data set for which the prediction formula was obtained. 16 references, 14 figures, 5 tables

  1. Blindness resulting from orbital complications of ophthalmic zoster

    OpenAIRE

    Moniuszko, Anna; Sosnowska, Magdalena; Zajkowska, Agata; Garkowski, Adam; Czupryna, Piotr; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Zajkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster ophthalmicus occurs when the latent varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivates in the trigeminal ganglion and ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. In the elderly, there is a sharp increase in the tendency of secondary skin bacterial infections occurrence due to the deterioration of capabilities of self-care and changed sanitation. We present a case of patient who developed phlegmon of the orbit, which resulted with complete unilateral blindness. Varicella zoster virus infect...

  2. Blind Deconvolution in Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI and Ultrasound

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřík, Radovan; Souček, Karel; Mézl, M.; Bartoš, M.; Dražanová, Eva; Dráfi, F.; Grossová, Lucie; Kratochvíla, J.; Macíček, O.; Nylund, K.; Hampl, A.; Gilja, O.H.; Taxt, T.; Starčuk jr., Zenon

    Piscataway : IEEE, 2014, s. 4276-4279. ISBN 978-1-4244-7929-0. [[Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society /36./ (EMBC). Chicago (US), 26.08.2014-30.08.2014] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 ; RVO:68081707 Keywords : blind deconvolution * MRI * ultrasound Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment

  3. Retinal image restoration by means of blind deconvolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marrugo, A.; Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip; Millan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 11 (2011), 116016-1-116016-11. ISSN 1083-3668 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : blind deconvolution * image restoration * retinal image * deblurring Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 3.157, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/ZOI/sorel-0366061.pdf

  4. 100 positive double-blind studies: enough or too little?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuner, Jan; Hode, Lars

    2000-06-01

    A major argument among the opponents of laser therapy has been the absence of scientific documentation. This was a valid position in the 80s and partly in the 90s. But today, is this still a sound argument. There are more than 2,000 published studies in the field, including meeting abstracts and anecdotal reports. The vast majority of these papers reports positive effects of LLLT in vitro and in vivo. It is fair to argue that negative results are less prone to be published, but certainly more than 80 percent of the published studies are positive. In the field of dentistry, for instance, the positive percentage is well above 90 percent. The present literature study will look at the heart of the positive documentation: the positive double blind studies. It may come as a surprise to many critics that there are more than 100 positive double blind studies in the field laser therapy. This is a god base for a further understanding of the effects of low level laser in the clinical setting. We must, however, be as critical as the sceptics themselves in order to obtain a constructive dialogue between 'attorneys' and sceptics. In this paper, a critical review of 100 positive double blind studies will be presented.

  5. The call of blind Bartimaeus (Mark 10:46-52

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten J.J. Menken

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The story of Blind Bartimaeus (Mk 10:46-52 displays some traits that are unusual in a synoptic healing miracle and it displays most of the features of a call story. The genesis of the narration may account for the combination of these two genres: the story about the calling of the blind beggar Bartimaeus has been expanded by that of the healing of the blind man, where Jesus focuses attention on his faith. Next, the crowd was introduced to highlight Bartimaeus’ faith. Finally, the pericope was adapted to fit into Mark’s Gospel. The main editorial contribution of the evangelist is his contextualizing of the scene at the end of the section 8:27-10:52, which deals with Jesus’ journey to Jerusalem, to suffering and death. In this episode Jesus calls Bartimaeus to follow him on his way. Mark added significance to the story by contrasting Bartimaeus with other characters, especially Peter, James and John, the foremost three disciples. This contrast may imply some criticism of leadership in the Markan community.

  6. Fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols against collective noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-Hui; Li, Hui-Fang

    2016-07-01

    This work proposes two fault-tolerant quantum blind signature protocols based on the entanglement swapping of logical Bell states, which are robust against two kinds of collective noises: the collective-dephasing noise and the collective-rotation noise, respectively. Both of the quantum blind signature protocols are constructed from four-qubit decoherence-free (DF) states, i.e., logical Bell qubits. The initial message is encoded on the logical Bell qubits with logical unitary operations, which will not destroy the anti-noise trait of the logical Bell qubits. Based on the fundamental property of quantum entanglement swapping, the receiver simply performs two Bell-state measurements (rather than four-qubit joint measurements) on the logical Bell qubits to verify the signature, which makes the protocols more convenient in a practical application. Different from the existing quantum signature protocols, our protocols can offer the high fidelity of quantum communication with the employment of logical qubits. Moreover, we hereinafter prove the security of the protocols against some individual eavesdropping attacks, and we show that our protocols have the characteristics of unforgeability, undeniability and blindness.

  7. Adapting smart phone applications about physics education to blind students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bülbül, M. Ş.; Yiğit, N.; Garip, B.

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of necessary equipment in a physics laboratory are available for smartphone users via applications. Physics teachers may measure from acceleration to sound volume with its internal sensors. These sensors collect data and smartphone applications make the raw data visible. Teachers who do not have well-equipped laboratories at their schools may have an opportunity to conduct experiments with the help of smart phones. In this study, we analyzed possible open source physics education applications in terms of blind users in inclusive learning environments. All apps are categorized as partially, full or non-supported. The roles of blind learner’s friend during the application are categorized as reader, describer or user. Mentioned apps in the study are compared with additional opportunities like size and downloading rates. Out of using apps we may also get information about whether via internet and some other extra information for different experiments in physics lab. Q-codes reading or augmented reality are two other opportunity provided by smart phones for users in physics labs. We also summarized blind learner’s smartphone experiences from literature and listed some suggestions for application designers about concepts in physics.

  8. The construction of tactile graphics for blind students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Zucherato

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available After 1990's access expansion to education for students with special needs has emerged as a very pertinent issue regarding educational policies. In this scenario, we emphasize the teaching of geography for the visually impaired, blind and low vision students, focusing more specifically on the graphics in teaching geography. The  objective of this paper is to report the experiences obtained from August 2008 to August 2009 by UNESP at Rio Claro extension group entitled "Tactile Cartography and MAPAVOX: An alternative way to construct tactile maps and games". During practices conducted for this paper histograms and pie charts were constructed with active participation of students in the whole process. The methodology used in this article was the qualitative research in education, creating an unparalleled analysis of the results and building reports from practices at special school. The final built tactile charts turned to be an important alternative method for teaching graphics for blind and low vision students, using simple features such as low cost materials and taking into account the concern and understanding of visually impaired students in the construction of tactile graphics. The survey results used as the basis for the article will also serve as the basis for the construction of a guide book for teachers who have students who are blind or have low vision in her classroom.

  9. Rigid Structure from Motion from a Blind Source Separation Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    We present an information theoretic approach to define the problem of structure from motion (SfM) as a blind source separation one. Given that for almost all practical joint densities of shape points, the marginal densities are non-Gaussian, we show how higher-order statistics can be used to provide improvements in shape estimates over the methods of factorization via Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), bundle adjustment and Bayesian approaches. Previous techniques have either explicitly or implicitly used only second-order statistics in models of shape or noise. A further advantage of viewing SfM as a blind source problem is that it easily allows for the inclusion of noise and shape models, resulting in Maximum Likelihood (ML) or Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) shape and motion estimates. A key result is that the blind source separation approach has the ability to recover the motion and shape matrices without the need to explicitly know the motion or shape pdf. We demonstrate that it suffices to know whether the pdf is sub-or super-Gaussian (i.e., semi-parametric estimation) and derive a simple formulation to determine this from the data. We provide extensive experimental results on synthetic and real tracked points in order to quantify the improvement obtained from this technique. PMID:23682206

  10. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed-Meraim Karim

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from to , where is the number of emitted signals, the data vector length, and the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  11. Fast Adaptive Blind MMSE Equalizer for Multichannel FIR Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacha, Ibrahim; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Belouchrani, Adel

    2006-12-01

    We propose a new blind minimum mean square error (MMSE) equalization algorithm of noisy multichannel finite impulse response (FIR) systems, that relies only on second-order statistics. The proposed algorithm offers two important advantages: a low computational complexity and a relative robustness against channel order overestimation errors. Exploiting the fact that the columns of the equalizer matrix filter belong both to the signal subspace and to the kernel of truncated data covariance matrix, the proposed algorithm achieves blindly a direct estimation of the zero-delay MMSE equalizer parameters. We develop a two-step procedure to further improve the performance gain and control the equalization delay. An efficient fast adaptive implementation of our equalizer, based on the projection approximation and the shift invariance property of temporal data covariance matrix, is proposed for reducing the computational complexity from[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] to[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.], where[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] is the number of emitted signals,[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] the data vector length, and[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] the dimension of the signal subspace. We then derive a statistical performance analysis to compare the equalization performance with that of the optimal MMSE equalizer. Finally, simulation results are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed blind equalization algorithm.

  12. Encoding audio motion: spatial impairment in early blind individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finocchietti, Sara; Cappagli, Giulia; Gori, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The consequence of blindness on auditory spatial localization has been an interesting issue of research in the last decade providing mixed results. Enhanced auditory spatial skills in individuals with visual impairment have been reported by multiple studies, while some aspects of spatial hearing seem to be impaired in the absence of vision. In this study, the ability to encode the trajectory of a 2-dimensional sound motion, reproducing the complete movement, and reaching the correct end-point sound position, is evaluated in 12 early blind (EB) individuals, 8 late blind (LB) individuals, and 20 age-matched sighted blindfolded controls. EB individuals correctly determine the direction of the sound motion on the horizontal axis, but show a clear deficit in encoding the sound motion in the lower side of the plane. On the contrary, LB individuals and blindfolded controls perform much better with no deficit in the lower side of the plane. In fact the mean localization error resulted 271 ± 10 mm for EB individuals, 65 ± 4 mm for LB individuals, and 68 ± 2 mm for sighted blindfolded controls. These results support the hypothesis that (i) it exists a trade-off between the development of enhanced perceptual abilities and role of vision in the sound localization abilities of EB individuals, and (ii) the visual information is fundamental in calibrating some aspects of the representation of auditory space in the brain. PMID:26441733

  13. 20 CFR 416.996 - Continued disability or blindness benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Continued disability or blindness benefits... Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.996 Continued disability or blindness benefits pending appeal of a medical cessation determination. (a) General. If we determine...

  14. 20 CFR 416.988 - Your responsibility to tell us of events that may change your disability or blindness status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... may change your disability or blindness status. 416.988 Section 416.988 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL... Disability and Blindness Continuing Or Stopping Disability Or Blindness § 416.988 Your responsibility to tell us of events that may change your disability or blindness status. If you are entitled to...

  15. A New Look at Theory of Mind in Children with Ocular and Ocular-Plus Congenital Blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeer, Sander; Dik, Marjolein; voor de Wind, Marieke J.; Asbrock, Doreen; Brambring, Michael; Kef, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Delays in theory of mind (ToM) of children who are congenitally blind have often been attributed to the absence of visual and social experiences. However, these delays could also be partly due to neural factors. In some children, the blindness itself has neural causes (ocular-plus blindness). Children whose blindness has an…

  16. 20 CFR 416.934 - Impairments which may warrant a finding of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... presumptive disability or presumptive blindness. 416.934 Section 416.934 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY... Blindness Presumptive Disability and Blindness § 416.934 Impairments which may warrant a finding of presumptive disability or presumptive blindness. We may make findings of presumptive disability...

  17. A Blind-Mixing Scheme for Bitcoin based on an Elliptic Curve Cryptography Blind Digital Signature Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    ShenTu, QingChun; Yu, JianPing

    2015-01-01

    To strengthen the anonymity of Bitcoin, several centralized coin-mixing providers (mixers) such as BitcoinFog.com, BitLaundry.com, and Blockchain.info assist users to mix Bitcoins through CoinJoin transactions with multiple inputs and multiple outputs to uncover the relationship between them. However, these mixers know the output address of each user, such that they cannot provide true anonymity. This paper proposes a centralized coin-mixing algorithm based on an elliptic curve blind signatur...

  18. Epidemiology of Major Eye Diseases Leading to Blindness in Europe: A Literature Review. : Epidemiology of Eye Diseases Leading to Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Prokofyeva, Elena; Zrenner, Eberhart

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the epidemiology of major eye diseases leading to blindness in Europe through a systematic literature review. The literature search was performed using the Medline database (PubMed), with MeSH and free text search terms. Inclusion criteria for the studies were: (a) performed on a healthy population of Caucasian origin aged between 50 and 75 years; (b) diagnosed by ophthalmological examination in accordance with the International Classification of Diseas...

  19. An experimental study on the environmental performance of the automated blind in summer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji-Hyun [Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology, Daewoo Engineering and Construction Co., Ltd., 60, Songjuk-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do 440-210 (Korea); Park, Young-Joon; Yeo, Myoung-Souk; Kim, Kwang-Woo [Department of Architecture, College of Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Shillim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea)

    2009-07-15

    Blinds are used widely in numerous buildings to conserve energy and provide for occupants' comfort in the perimeter zone. However, manual or motorized blinds are limited in their ability to reduce energy consumption and to provide comfort because occupants themselves must operate blinds to block direct solar radiation. Thus, the use of automated blinds would more fully exploit the full benefits of blinds. This study aims to find out whether the environmental performance of a building can be improved by the application of an automated Venetian blind in comparison to a manual or motorized Venetian blind and whether occupants may feel discomfort by the application of an automated Venetian blind in the summer season. This study also aims to find out the insufficiency of the automatic control algorithm of that automated Venetian blind for future study of the development of that algorithm. Through this study, the potential energy savings and the comfort enhancement when using the automated blind was confirmed and the insufficiency of the automatic control algorithm of that was also found out. (author)

  20. Assessment of blinding success among dental implant clinical trials: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Kolahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is widely believed that blinding is a cornerstone of randomized clinical trials and that significant bias may result from unsuccessful blinding. However, it is not enough to claim that a clinical trial is single- or double-blinded and that assessment of the success of blinding is ideal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of assessment of blinding success among dental implant clinical trials and to introduce methods of blinding assessment to the implant research community. Methods: In November 2014, PubMed was searched by blinded and experienced researchers with the query "implant AND (blindFNx01 OR maskFNx01" using the following filters: (1 Article type: clinical trial; (2 Journal categories: dental journals; (3 Field: title/abstract. Consequently, title/abstract was reviewed in all relevant articles to find any attempt to assess the success of blinding in dental implant clinical trials. Results: The PubMed search results yielded 86 clinical trials. The point of interest is that when "blindFNx01 OR maskFNx01" was deleted from the query, the number of results increased to 1688 clinical trials. This shows that only 5% of dental implant clinical trials tried to use blinding. Disappointingly, we could not find any dental implant clinical trial reporting any attempt to assess the success of blinding. Conclusion: The current status of turning a blind eye to unblinding in dental implant clinical trials is not tolerable and needs to be improved. Researchers, protocol reviewers, local ethical committees, journal reviewers, and editors should make a concerted effort to incorporate, report, and publish such information to understand its potential impact on study results.

  1. An Approach for Object and Scene Detection for Blind Peoples Using Vocal Vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha A. Kamble

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This system help the blind peoples for the navigation without the help of third person so blind person can perform its work independently. This system implemented on android device in which object detection and scene detection implemented, so after detection there will be text to speech conversion so user or blind person can get message from that android device with the help of headphone connected to that device. Our project will help blind people to understand the images which will be converted to sound with the help of webcam. We shall capture images in front of blind peoples .The captured image will be processed through our algorithms which will enhances the image data. The hardware component will have its own database. The processed image is compare with the database in the hardware component .The result after processing and comparing will be converted into speech signals. The headphones guide the blind peoples.

  2. Manipulation detection and preference alterations in a choice blindness paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Taya

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that individuals make choices based upon their preferences and have access to the reasons for their choices. Recent studies in several areas suggest that this is not always the case. In choice blindness paradigms, two-alternative forced-choice in which chosen-options are later replaced by the unselected option, individuals often fail to notice replacement of their chosen option, confabulate explanations for why they chose the unselected option, and even show increased preferences for the unselected-but-replaced options immediately after choice (seconds. Although choice blindness has been replicated across a variety of domains, there are numerous outstanding questions. Firstly, we sought to investigate how individual- or trial-factors modulated detection of the manipulations. Secondly, we examined the nature and temporal duration (minutes vs. days of the preference alterations induced by these manipulations.Participants performed a computerized choice blindness task, selecting the more attractive face between presented pairs of female faces, and providing a typewritten explanation for their choice on half of the trials. Chosen-face cue manipulations were produced on a subset of trials by presenting the unselected face during the choice explanation as if it had been selected. Following all choice trials, participants rated the attractiveness of each face individually, and rated the similarity of each face pair. After approximately two weeks, participants re-rated the attractiveness of each individual face online.Participants detected manipulations on only a small proportion of trials, with detections by fewer than half of participants. Detection rates increased with the number of prior detections, and detection rates subsequent to first detection were modulated by the choice certainty. We show clear short-term modulation of preferences in both manipulated and non-manipulated explanation trials compared to choice-only trials

  3. Neurological basis for eye movements of the blind.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalyn M Schneider

    Full Text Available When normal subjects fix their eyes upon a stationary target, their gaze is not perfectly still, due to small movements that prevent visual fading. Visual loss is known to cause greater instability of gaze, but reported comparisons with normal subjects using reliable measurement techniques are few. We measured binocular gaze using the magnetic search coil technique during attempted fixation (monocular or binocular viewing of 4 individuals with childhood-onset of monocular visual loss, 2 individuals with late-onset monocular visual loss due to age-related macular degeneration, 2 individuals with bilateral visual loss, and 20 healthy control subjects. We also measured saccades to visual or somatosensory cues. We tested the hypothesis that gaze instability following visual impairment is caused by loss of inputs that normally optimize the performance of the neural network (integrator, which ensures both monocular and conjugate gaze stability. During binocular viewing, patients with early-onset monocular loss of vision showed greater instability of vertical gaze in the eye with visual loss and, to a lesser extent, in the normal eye, compared with control subjects. These vertical eye drifts were much more disjunctive than upward saccades. In individuals with late monocular visual loss, gaze stability was more similar to control subjects. Bilateral visual loss caused eye drifts that were larger than following monocular visual loss or in control subjects. Accurate saccades could be made to somatosensory cues by an individual with acquired blindness, but voluntary saccades were absent in an individual with congenital blindness. We conclude that the neural gaze-stabilizing network, which contains neurons with both binocular and monocular discharge preferences, is under adaptive visual control. Whereas monocular visual loss causes disjunctive gaze instability, binocular blindness causes both disjunctive and conjugate gaze instability (drifts and nystagmus

  4. A Quantum Proxy Weak Blind Signature Scheme Based on Controlled Quantum Teleportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hai-Jing; Yu, Yao-Feng; Song, Qin; Gao, Lan-Xiang

    2015-04-01

    Proxy blind signature is applied to the electronic paying system, electronic voting system, mobile agent system, security of internet, etc. A quantum proxy weak blind signature scheme is proposed in this paper. It is based on controlled quantum teleportation. Five-qubit entangled state functions as quantum channel. The scheme uses the physical characteristics of quantum mechanics to implement message blinding, so it could guarantee not only the unconditional security of the scheme but also the anonymity of the messages owner.

  5. An Efficient Restrictive Blind Signature Scheme with Applications to Electronic Cash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a new restrictive blind signature scheme is proposed. Compared with Brands restrictive blind signature scheme, our scheme is even more restrictive and efficient. And our scheme is proved secure, too. A new withdrawal protocol of electronic cash system is designed by using our restrictive blind signature scheme, which is more efficient than the withdrawal protocol and is more appropriate for adopting pre-processing and post-processing.

  6. BLIND IDENTIFICATION OF A CLASS OF NONLINEAR SYSTEMS WITH CYCLOSTATIONARY INPUT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    This letter deals with blind identification of nonlinear discrete Hammerstein system under the input signal that is cyclostationary.The first-order moment of the specific input as well as the inverse nonlinear mapping of the Hammerstein model are combined to establish a relationship between the system output and the system parameters,which implies an approach to identifying the system blindly.Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach to blind identification of a class of nonUnear systems.

  7. Gene therapy for red-green colour blindness in adult primates

    OpenAIRE

    Mancuso, Katherine; Hauswirth, William W; Li, Qiuhong; Connor, Thomas B.; Kuchenbecker, James A.; Mauck, Matthew C.; Neitz, Jay; Neitz, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    Red-green colour blindness, which results from the absence of either the long- (L) or middle- (M) wavelength-sensitive visual photopigments, is the most common single locus genetic disorder. Here, the possibility of curing colour blindness using gene therapy was explored in experiments on adult monkeys that had been colour blind since birth. A third type of cone pigment was added to dichromatic retinas, providing the receptoral basis for trichromatic colour vision. This opened a new avenue to...

  8. Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in the Republic of Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Heijthuijsen, Astrid Anna Maria; Beunders, Victoria Apollonia Annemarie; Jiawan, Dinesh; de Mesquita-Voigt, Anne-Marie Bueno; Pawiroredjo, Jerrel; Mourits, Maarten; Tanck, Michael; Verhoeff, Joost; Saeed, Peerooz

    2013-01-01

    Aims To determine the causes of severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) in children in Suriname (Dutch Guyana) and to identify preventable and treatable causes. Methods 4643 children under 16 years of age were recruited from two locations: 33 children attending the only school for the blind were examined and 4610 medical records were analysed at an eye clinic. Data have been collected using the WHO Prevention of Blindness Programme eye examination record for children. Results 65 child...

  9. Echolocation may have real-life advantages for blind people: an analysis of survey data

    OpenAIRE

    Lore eThaler

    2013-01-01

    Some people can echolocate by making sonar emissions (e.g., mouth-clicks, finger snaps, feet shuffling, humming, cane tapping, etc.) and listening to the returning echoes. To date there are no statistics available about how many blind people use echolocation, but anecdotal reports in the literature suggest that perhaps between 20 and 30% of totally blind people may use it, suggesting that echolocation affords broad functional benefits. Consistent with the notion that blind individuals benefit...

  10. Leading causes of blindness and visual impairment in the region of Eastern Herzegovina

    OpenAIRE

    Ćeklić Lala; Latinović Slobodanka; Aleksić Petar

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. Visual impairment and blindness are serious social and health problems in the world. 1992 classification of visual disorders by World Health Organization has recently been implemented. The goal of this study was to determine common causes of visual impairment and blindness in the region of Eastern Herzegovina. Material and methods. In this population based study we have analyzed medical records stored in the regional Association of Visually Impaired and Blind Persons of the Repu...

  11. Blind signals separation with genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization based on mutual information

    OpenAIRE

    Mavaddaty, Samira; Ebrahimzadeh, Ata

    2011-01-01

    Blind source separation technique separates mixed signals blindly without any information on the mixing system. In this paper, we have used two evolutionary algorithms, genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimization for blind source separation. In these techniques a novel fitness function that is based on the mutual information and high order statistics is proposed. In order to evaluate and compare the performance of these methods, we have focused on separation of noisy and noiseless sourc...

  12. Studies on certain aspects of behaviour in the blind catfish Horaglanis krishnai Menon.

    OpenAIRE

    Mercy T.V. Anna; Pillai N. Krishna; Balasubramanian N. K.

    2001-01-01

    Horaglanis krishnai is a blind catfish inhabiting the dug-out wells at Kottayam, Kerala. This fish has great zoogeographical importance as a similar blind clariid, Uegitglanis zammaroni is found only in the artesian wells of the former Italian Somaliland. Studies on certain behavioural aspects of the fish in captive conditions showed that, this fish even though is blind, exhibited a high degree of thigmotactism. Locomotion, comfort behaviour, feeding and light sensitivity of the fish were stu...

  13. Efficient blind search: Optimal power of detection under computational cost constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Meinshausen, Nicolai; Bickel, Peter; Rice, John

    2009-01-01

    Some astronomy projects require a blind search through a vast number of hypotheses to detect objects of interest. The number of hypotheses to test can be in the billions. A naive blind search over every single hypothesis would be far too costly computationally. We propose a hierarchical scheme for blind search, using various "resolution" levels. At lower resolution levels, "regions" of interest in the search space are singled out with a low computational cost. These regions are refined at int...

  14. LiGluR Restores Visual Responses in Rodent Models of Inherited Blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Caporale, Natalia; Kolstad, Kathleen D.; Lee, Trevor; Tochitsky, Ivan; Dalkara, Deniz; Trauner, Dirk; Kramer, Richard; Dan, Yang; Isacoff, Ehud Y.; Flannery, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Inherited retinal degeneration results from many different mutations in either photoreceptor-specific or nonphotoreceptor-specific genes. However, nearly all mutations lead to a common blinding phenotype that initiates with rod cell death, followed by loss of cones. In most retinal degenerations, other retinal neuron cell types survive for long periods after blindness from photoreceptor loss. One strategy to restore light responsiveness to a retina rendered blind by photoreceptor degeneration...

  15. Color Blindness Defect and Medical Laboratory Technologists: Unnoticed Problems and the Care for Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Dargahi; Nahid Einollahi; Nasrin Dashti

    2010-01-01

    "nColor -blindness is the inability to perceive differences between some color that other people can distinguish. Using a literature search , the results indicate the prevalence of color vision deficiency in the medical profession and its on medical skills. Medical laboratory technicians and technologists employees should also screen for color blindness. This research aimed to study color blindness prevalence among Hospitals' Clinical Laboratories' Employees and Students in Teh...

  16. Acoustic diagnosis of mechanical fault feature based on reference signal frequency domain semi-blind extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Zeguang YI; Pan, Nan; Liu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at fault diagnosis problems caused by complex machinery parts, serious background noises and the application limitations of traditional blind signal processing algorithm to the mechanical acoustic signal processing, a failure acoustic diagnosis based on reference signal frequency domain semi-blind extraction is proposed. Key technologies are introduced: Based on frequency-domain blind deconvolution algorithm, the artificial fish swarm algorithm which is good for global optimization is ...

  17. Looking at a blinking quantum emitter through time slots: The effect of blind times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchukina, A. L.; Eremchev, I. Yu.; Naumov, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Most experimental observations of physical processes are naturally accompanied by "blind" ("dead") times, which in principle can distort the result of measurements. Here we analyze how the presence of blind times in measurements changes the measured statistics of blinking fluorescence of single quantum dots. We show that information can be extracted even for blinking processes with characteristic times longer than both blind times and time slots between them.

  18. Event-related potentials reveal rapid registration of features of infrequent changes during change blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Astikainen Piia; Wikgren Jan; Lyyra Pessi

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Change blindness refers to a failure to detect changes between consecutively presented images separated by, for example, a brief blank screen. As an explanation of change blindness, it has been suggested that our representations of the environment are sparse outside focal attention and even that changed features may not be represented at all. In order to find electrophysiological evidence of neural representations of changed features during change blindness, we recorded ev...

  19. Two Schemes of Blind MMSE Multiuser Receiver for Space-Time Coded CDMA Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Min; XU Chang-jiang; FENG Guang-zeng

    2004-01-01

    Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) multiuser detection yields the highest output SINR among all linear detectors. The blind MMSE linear detector can be implemented with batch processes or sequential processes. In this paper, according to the different implementations of blind detectors, the authors analyze two schemes of the blind MMSE multiuser receiver for space-time coded CDMA Systems and make a comparison between both schemes by the theoretical analysis and numerical simulations.

  20. Color-blind index in graphs of very low degree

    OpenAIRE

    Diemunsch, Jennifer; Graber, Nathan; Kramer, Lucas; Larsen, Victor; Nelsen, Lauren M.; Nelsen, Luke L.; Sigler, Devon; Stolee, Derrick; Suer, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Let $c:E(G)\\to [k]$ be an edge-coloring of a graph $G$, not necessarily proper. For each vertex $v$, let $\\bar{c}(v)=(a_1,\\ldots,a_k)$, where $a_i$ is the number of edges incident to $v$ with color $i$. Reorder $\\bar{c}(v)$ for every $v$ in $G$ in nonincreasing order to obtain $c^*(v)$, the color-blind partition of $v$. When $c^*$ induces a proper vertex coloring, that is, $c^*(u)\

  1. Blind Image Seperation Using Forward Difference Method (FDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothirmayi M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, blind image separation is performed, exploiting the property of sparseness to representimages. A new sparse representation called forward difference method is proposed. It is known that most ofthe independent component analysis (ICA basis functions, extracted from images are sparse and givesunreliable sparseness measure. In the proposed method, the image mixture is first transformed to sparseimages. These images are divided into blocks and for each block the sparseness measure 0 norm isapplied. The block having the most sparseness is considered to determine the separation matrix. Theefficiency of the proposed method is compared with other sparse representation functions.

  2. A blind algorithm for recovering articulator positions from acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogden, John E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    MIMICRI is a signal-processing algorithm that has been shown to blindly infer and invert memoryless nonlinear functions of unobservable bandlimited signals, such as the mapping from the unobservable positions of the speech articulators to observable speech sounds. We review results of using MIMICRI on toy problems and on human speech data. We note that MIMICRI requires that the user specify two parameters: the dimensionality and pass-band of the unobservable signals. We show how to use cross-validation to help estimate the passband. An unexpected consequence of this work is that it helps separate signals with overlapping frequency bands.

  3. Single channel blind source separation based on ICA feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new technique is proposed to solve the blind source separation (BSS) given only a single channel observation. The basis functions and the density of the coefficients of source signals learned by ICA are used as the prior knowledge. Based on the learned prior information the learning rules of single channel BSS are presented by maximizing the joint log likelihood of the mixed sources to obtain source signals from single observation,in which the posterior density of the given measurements is maximized. The experimental results exhibit a successful separation performance for mixtures of speech and music signals.

  4. Bayesian Blind Source Separation of Positive Non Stationary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichir, Mahieddine M.; Mohammad-Djafari, Ali

    2004-11-01

    In this contribution, we address the problem of blind non negative source separation. This problem finds its application in many fields of data analysis. We propose herein a novel approach based on Gamma mixture probability priors: Gamma densities to constraint the unobserved sources to lie on the positive half plane; a mixture density with a first order Markov model on the associated hidden variables to account for eventual non stationarity on the sources. Posterior mean estimates are obtained via appropriate Monte Carlo Markov Chain sampling.

  5. Ozone treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis: a double blinded study

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Omiri, Mahmoud K.; Mohannad Alhijawi; AlZarea, Bader K.; Abul Hassan, Ra’ed S.; Edward Lynch

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of ozone to treat recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS). Consecutive sixty-nine participants with RAS were recruited into this non-randomized double blind, controlled cohort observational study (test group). A control group of 69 RAS patients who matched test group with age and gender was recruited. RAS lesions in test group were exposed to ozone in air for 60 seconds while controls received only air. Ulcer size and pain were recorded for each participant at...

  6. PERCEPT: indoor navigation for the blind and visually impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Aura; Gandhi, Siddhesh Rajan; Schafer, James; Singh, Tushar; Puleo, Elaine; Mullett, Gary; Wilson, Carole

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance the perception of indoor and unfamiliar environments for the blind and visually-impaired, we introduce the PERCEPT system that supports a number of unique features such as: a) Low deployment and maintenance cost; b) Scalability, i.e. we can deploy the system in very large buildings; c) An on-demand system that does not overwhelm the user, as it offers small amounts of information on demand; and d) Portability and ease-of-use, i.e., the custom handheld device carried by the user is compact and instructions are received audibly. PMID:22254445

  7. Quantum broadcasting multiple blind signature with constant size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Min; Li, Zhenli

    2016-06-01

    Using quantum homomorphic signature in quantum network, we propose a quantum broadcasting multiple blind signature scheme. Different from classical signature and current quantum signature schemes, the multi-signature proposed in our scheme is not generated by simply putting the individual signatures together, but by aggregating the individual signatures based on homomorphic property. Therefore, the size of the multi-signature is constant. Furthermore, based on a wide range of investigation for the security of existing quantum signature protocols, our protocol is designed to resist possible forgery attacks against signature and message from the various attack sources and disavowal attacks from participants.

  8. Gauss-Newton based kurtosis blind deconvolution of spectroscopic data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinghe Yuan; Ziqiang Hu

    2006-01-01

    @@ The spectroscopic data recorded by dispersion spectrophotometer are usually degraded by the response function of the instrument. To improve the resolving power, double or triple cascade spectrophotometer and narrow slits have been employed, but the total flux of the radiation decreases accordingly, resulting in a lower signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and a longer measuring time. However, the spectral resolution can be improved by mathematically removing the effect of the instrument response function. Based on the ShalviWeinstein criterion, a Gauss-Newton based kurtosis blind deconvolution algorithm for spectroscopic data is proposed. Experiments with some real measured Raman spectroscopic data show that this algorithm has excellent deconvolution capability.

  9. Nuclear pulse signal processing technique based on blind deconvolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we present a method for measurement and analysis of nuclear pulse signal, with which pile-up signal is removed, the signal baseline is restored, and the original signal is obtained. The data acquisition system includes FPGA, ADC and USB. The FPGA controls the high-speed ADC to sample the signal of nuclear radiation, and the USB makes the ADC work on the Slave FIFO mode to implement high-speed transmission status. Using the LabVIEW, it accomplishes online data processing of the blind deconvolution algorithm and data display. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate advantages of the method. (authors)

  10. Blind adaptive identification of FIR channel in chaotic communication systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Bao-Yun; Tommy W.S.Chow; K.T.Ng

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we study the problem of blind channel identification in chaotic communications. An adaptive algorithm is proposed, which exploits the boundness property of chaotic signals. Compared with the EKF-based approach, the proposed algorithm achieves a great complexity gain but at the expense of a slight accuracy degradation.However, our approach enjoys the important advantage that it does not require the a priori information such as nonlinearity of chaotic dynamics and the variances of measurement noise and the coefficient model noise. In addition,our approach is applicable to the ARMA system.

  11. S-K Smartphone Barcode Reader for the Blind

    OpenAIRE

    Tekin, Ender; Vásquez, David; Coughlan, James M.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a new smartphone app called BLaDE (Barcode Localization and Decoding Engine), designed to enable a blind or visually impaired user find and read product barcodes. Developed at The Smith-Kettlewell Eye Research Institute, the BLaDE Android app has been released as open source software, which can be used for free or modified for commercial or non-commercial use. Unlike popular commercial smartphone apps, BLaDE provides real-time audio feedback to help visually impaired users locate ...

  12. Auditory browser for blind and visually impaired users

    OpenAIRE

    Roth, Patrick; Petrucci, Lori Stefano; Assimacopoulos, André; Pun, Thierry

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents our work on the development of a multimodal auditory interface which permits blind users to work more easily and efficiently with GUI browsers. A macro-analysis phase, which can be either passive or active, informs on the global layout of HTML documents. A subsequent active micro-analysis phase allows to explore particular elements of the document. The interface is based on: ( 1) a mapping of the graphical HTML document into a 3D virtual sound space environment, where non-...

  13. Blind Source Separation for Robot Audition using fixed HRTF beamforming

    OpenAIRE

    Maazaoui, Mounira; Abed-Meraim, Karim; Grenier, Yves

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a two-stage blind source separation (BSS) algorithm for robot audition. The first stage consists in a fixed beamforming preprocessing to reduce the reverberation and the environmental noise. Since we are in a robot audition context, the manifold of the sensor array in this case is hard to model due to the presence of the head of the robot, so we use pre-measured head related transfer functions (HRTFs) to estimate the beamforming filters. The use of the HRTF to esti...

  14. Self-Tuning Blind Identification and Equalization of IIR Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Tamal

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers self-tuning blind identification and equalization of fractionally spaced IIR channels. One recursive estimator is used to generate parameter estimates of the numerators of IIR systems, while the other estimates denominator of IIR channel. Equalizer parameters are calculated by solving Bezout type equation. It is shown that the numerator parameter estimates converge (a.s. toward a scalar multiple of the true coefficients, while the second algorithm provides consistent denominator estimates. It is proved that the equalizer output converges (a.s. to a scalar version of the actual symbol sequence.

  15. FREQUENCY OVERLAPPED SIGNAL IDENTIFICATION USING BLIND SOURCE SEPARATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Junfeng; SHI Tielin; HE Lingsong; YANG Shuzi

    2006-01-01

    The concepts, principles and usages of principal component analysis (PCA) and independent component analysis (ICA) are interpreted. Then the algorithm and methodology of ICA-based blind source separation (BSS), in which the pre-whitened based on PCA for observed signals is used, are researched. Aiming at the mixture signals, whose frequency components are overlapped by each other, a simulation of BSS to separate this type of mixture signals by using theory and approach of BSS has been done. The result shows that the BSS has some advantages what the traditional methodology of frequency analysis has not.

  16. Bayesian Blind Source Separation with Unknown Prior Covariance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, Ondřej; Šmídl, Václav

    Cham : Springer, 2015 - (Vincent, E.; Yeredor, A.; Koldovský, Z.; Tichavský, P.), s. 352-359 ISBN 978-3-319-22481-7. ISSN 0302-9743. - (Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 9237). [12th International Conference on Latent Variable Analysis and Signal Separation. Liberec (CZ), 25.08.2015-28.08.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29225S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Blind source separation * Covariance model * Variational Bayes approximation * Non-negative matrix factorization Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/AS/tichy-0447092.pdf

  17. Persistence of vision – Blind Spots after ten years’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Verstegen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Frederic Schwartz’s important book, Blind Spots, is revisited after ten years and an inadequate reception within art history. Its pioneering discussion is summarized and then, taking into account the passage of a decade and the emergence of new priorities in the intellectual landscape (and particularly the overall ‘return to Marx’, its major points are assessed. Arguing that its deconstruction of Frankfurt school figures risks conflating its project with a common sense view of history, the review urges a reconsideration of the category of “physiognomy” and the consequent oppositions that a caricature of it produces.

  18. High-fidelity cataract surgery simulation and third world blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ajay; Strauss, Glenn H

    2015-04-01

    The burden of global cataract blindness continues to rise, because the number of surgical ophthalmologists is insufficient, and they are unevenly distributed. There is an urgent need to train surgeons quickly and comprehensively in high-quality, low-cost cataract removal techniques. The authors suggest manual small-incision cataract surgery as a safe alternative to phacoemulsification cataract surgery in the developing world. They discuss the development of a novel, full-immersion, physics-based surgical training simulator as the centerpiece of a scalable, comprehensive training system for manual small-incision cataract surgery. PMID:24996918

  19. Voice Recognition Impairment in a Blind Capgras Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Reid

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a blind woman, M.N., who experienced the Capgras delusion. She thought that her pet cat had been replaced by a replica which was “ill-intentioned” towards her. M.N.'s case shows that the basis of the Capgras delusion cannot lie exclusively in damage to the visual system. However, testing of M.N.'s auditory recognition abilities revealed a deficit in the recognition of familiar voices. This impairment is consistent with the view that the Capgras delusion may arise in connection with damage to recognition mechanisms, and parallels findings of face processing impairments in sighted Capgras patients.

  20. Blind image deconvolution algorithm on NVIDIA CUDA platform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mazanec, Tomáš; Heřmánek, Antonín; Kamenický, Jan

    Vienna : Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, 2010, s. 125-126. ISBN 978-1-4244-6610-8. [The 13th IEEE Symposium on Design and Diagnostics of Electronic Circuits and Systems. Vienna (AT), 14.04.2010-16.04.2010] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7H09005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : convolution * CUDA * SIMD * HW implementation Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2010/ZS/mazanec-blind image deconvolution algorithm on nvidia cuda platform.pdf